Sample records for body temperature changes

  1. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature. (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young


    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  2. Body temperature changes induced by huddling in breeding male emperor penguins. (United States)

    Gilbert, Caroline; Maho, Yvon Le; Perret, Martine; Ancel, André


    Huddling is the key energy-saving mechanism for emperor penguins to endure their 4-mo incubation fast during the Antarctic winter, but the underlying physiological mechanisms of this energy saving have remained elusive. The question is whether their deep body (core) temperature may drop in association with energy sparing, taking into account that successful egg incubation requires a temperature of about 36 degrees C and that ambient temperatures of up to 37.5 degrees C may be reached within tight huddles. Using data loggers implanted into five unrestrained breeding males, we present here the first data on body temperature changes throughout the breeding cycle of emperor penguins, with particular emphasis on huddling bouts. During the pairing period, core temperature decreased progressively from 37.5 +/- 0.4 degrees C to 36.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C, associated with a significant temperature drop of 0.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C during huddling. In case of egg loss, body temperature continued to decrease to 35.5 +/- 0.4 degrees C, with a further 0.9 degrees C decrease during huddling. By contrast, a constant core temperature of 36.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C was maintained during successful incubation, even during huddling, suggesting a trade-off between the demands for successful egg incubation and energy saving. However, such a limited drop in body temperature cannot explain the observed energy savings of breeding emperor penguins. Furthermore, we never observed any signs of hyperthermia in huddling birds that were exposed to ambient temperatures as high as above 35 degrees C. We suggest that the energy savings of huddling birds is due to a metabolic depression, the extent of which depends on a reduction of body surface areas exposed to cold.

  3. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice. (United States)

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu


    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis.

  4. Body Temperature and Mood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Body temperature can affect how happy or unhappy we are when we wake up in the morning.During a day,our body temperature rises and falls at regular times.Although we don’t notice the change,it does affect our sleeping patterns.We grow tired and,in the end,we sleep.As a result,anyone who has a fast-rising temperature cycle is a"morning person"and can get out of bed quickly.And an"evening person", on the other hand,has a body temperature that rises slowly.It doesn’t reach its high point until mid-afternoon,when this person feels best.

  5. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源


    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  6. Biphasic changes in body temperature produced by intracerebroventricular injections of histamine in the cat. (United States)

    Clark, W G; Cumby, H R


    1. Intracerebroventricular administration of histamine to cats caused hypothermia followed by a rise in body temperature. 2-Methylhistamine caused a similar biphasic response, while 3-methylhistamine had no effect on body temperature and 4-methylhistamine produced a delayed hyperthermia. Some tolerance to the hypothermic activity developed when a series of closely spaced injections of histamine was given. 2. Doses of histamine and 2-methylhistamine which altered body temperature when given centrally were ineffective when infused or injected I.V. 3. Pyrilamine, an H1-receptor antagonist, prevented the hypothermic response to histamine. 4. Hypothermic responses to histamine at an environmental temperature of 22 degrees C were comparable to responses in a cold room at 4 degrees C in both resting animals and animals acting to depress a lever to escape an external heat load. A change in error signal from the thermostat could account for these results. However, lesser degrees of hypothermia developed when histamine was given to animals in a hot environment. In some, but not all animals, this smaller response could be attributed to inadequate heat loss in spite of maximal activation of heat-loss mechanisms. 5. The hyperthermic response to histamine was antagonized by central, but not peripheral, injection of metiamide, an H2-receptor antagonist. 6. The results indicate that histamine and related agents can act centrally to cause both hypothermia, mediated by H1-receptors, and hyperthermia, mediated by H2-receptors.

  7. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi


    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  8. Warming temperatures and smaller body sizes: synchronous changes in grwoth of North Sea fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudron, A.; Needle, C.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Marshall, C.T.


    Decreasing body size has been proposed as a universal response to increasing temperatures. The physiology behind the response is well established for ectotherms inhabiting aquatic environments: as higher temperatures decrease the aerobic capacity, individuals with smaller body sizes have a reduced r

  9. Intracellular pH in lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis in relation to changing body temperatures. (United States)

    Bickler, P E


    Mean whole-body and tissue-specific intracellular pH values (pHi) were measured in Dipsosaurus dorsalis by the dimethyloxazolidinedione technique. pHi was measured in lizards at constant body temperatures (Tb) (18, 25, 35, and 42 degrees C) and in lizards undergoing changes in Tb between 18 and 42 degrees C. Constant Tb between 18 and 42 degrees C maintained for 24 h or more produced a delta pH/delta Tb of -0.015 for the mean whole-body, -0.012 for venous blood, -0.0104 for cardiac muscle, and -0.0098 for skeletal muscle. Within the preferred range of Tb values (35-42 degrees C), the delta pH/delta Tb patterns were closer to that expected to achieve constant dissociation of protein imidazole (approximately -0.017): mean whole-body -0.020, cardiac muscle -0.016, and skeletal muscle -0.018. Tissue water contents were independent of Tb. Whole-body pHi during gradual warming and cooling (approximately 2 h elapsed time for each direction) closely corresponded to steady-state values. Upon cooling to 18 degrees C, tissue-specific and whole-body pHi often fell 0.1-0.2 unit below that expected; in each case this was correlated with an extracellular acidosis. A gradual recovery of pHi occurred with the recovery of the extracellular acidosis. Over the normally experienced Tb range, adjustments in pHi apparently rapidly achieve steady-state values and are in accord with the imidazole alphastat hypothesis. These patterns are discussed in terms of the thermal ecology of Dipsosaurus.

  10. Can we predict ectotherm responses to climate change using thermal performance curves and body temperatures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Brent J.; Marshall, Katie E.; Sewell, Mary A.;


    Thermal performance curves (TPCs), which quantify how an ectotherm's body temperature (T-b) affects its performance or fitness, are often used in an attempt to predict organismal responses to climate change. Here, we examine the key - but often biologically unreasonable - assumptions underlying...... this approach; for example, that physiology and thermal regimes are invariant over ontogeny, space and time, and also that TPCs are independent of previously experienced T-b. We show how a critical consideration of these assumptions can lead to biologically useful hypotheses and experimental designs....... For example, rather than assuming that TPCs are fixed during ontogeny, one can measure TPCs for each major life stage and incorporate these into stage-specific ecological models to reveal the life stage most likely to be vulnerable to climate change. Our overall goal is to explicitly examine the assumptions...

  11. The use of a radiotelemetric ruminal bolus to detect body temperature changes in lactating dairy cattle. (United States)

    Alzahal, O; Alzahal, H; Steele, M A; Van Schaik, M; Kyriazakis, I; Duffield, T F; McBride, B W


    The objective of this study was to validate the efficacy of a radiotelemetric bolus (RTB) to detect changes in ruminal temperature resulting from (1) systemic illnesses that are associated with febrile responses and (2) subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Eight rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein cows (586±37 kg of body weight, 106±18 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Each period consisted of 21 d. The factors were 2 diets, a moderate forage:concentrate [MFC; 52:48; % of dry matter (DM)] or a high forage:concentrate (HFC; 65:35, % of DM) total mixed ration, and a challenge with a single intramammary injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg derived from Escherichia coli 0111:B4) or no LPS (sterile saline). Thus, the 4 resulting treatments were (1) MFC with LPS challenge, (2) MFC with saline, (3) HFC with LPS challenge, and (4) HFC with saline. Cows were fed at 0800 and 1400 h daily. Cows received the intramammary injections at 0900 h of d 21. Ruminal pH and ruminal temperature were also measured on d 21 every minute via an indwelling logging system that resided in the ventral sac of the rumen and via a radiotelemetric bolus that resided in the reticulum. Vaginal temperature was also recorded every minute via temperature loggers. Prior to LPS injection, the duration of rumen pH below 5.6 (indicative of SARA) was higher in cows receiving MFC than cows receiving HFC (148±24 and 62±24 min/d, respectively). The temperature measured at the same time via RTB was higher for MFC than HFC cows (167±21 vs. 104 vs. 21 min/d above 38.8°C, respectively). The following day, cows challenged with LPS showed signs of mastitis within the injected quarters, depressed DM intake, decreased milk yield, and a peak vaginal temperature of 41.3±0.1°C 5.5h after the LPS injection. The RTB system successfully detected a fever response parallel to that measured by the vaginal loggers but temperature peak detected by

  12. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior. (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi


    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  13. Cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo eTakao


    Full Text Available Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal. Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  14. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌霞; 孙革; NEUBAUERHenning


    Objective:To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery.Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study.Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5℃ to 37℃ were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results:The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48℃) and section (36.59℃) (P<0.05).Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70℃ at 8 hours and 36.78℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05).Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients.On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05).Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors,such as birth weight, route of delivery,gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  15. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng-xia (李萌霞); SUN Ge (孙革); NEUBAUER Henning


    Objective: To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery. Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study. Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5 oC to 37 oC were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results: The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19 ℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54 ℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48 ℃) and section (36.59 ℃) (P<0.05). Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70 ℃ at 8 hours and 36.78 ℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05). Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients. On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05). Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors, such as birth weight, route of delivery, gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  16. Changes in daily rhythms of body temperature and activity after a single social defeat in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; DeBoer, SF; Koolhaas, JM; Daan, S; VandenHoofdakker, RH


    The long-term consequences of social stress on daily rhythms of body temperature and activity in rats were studied by means of radiotelemetry with intraperitoneally implanted transmitters. Rats were subjected to a single social defeat by placing them into the territory of a male conspecific for 1 h.

  17. Changes in body surface temperature during speed endurance work-out in highly-trained male sprinters (United States)

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Kusy, Krzysztof; Kantanista, Adam; Zieliński, Jacek


    The mechanism of thermoregulatory adaptation to exercise cannot yet be fully explained, however, infrared thermography (IRT) seems to have potential for monitoring physiological changes during exercise and training. It is a non-contact and easy to use technology to measure heat radiation from the body surface. The objective of the study was to examine the temperature changes over time on lower limbs in sprinters during speed endurance training session. Eight sprinters, specialized in distances 100 m and 200 m, aged 21-29 years, members of the Polish national team, were evaluated during an outdoor speed endurance work-out. Their track session comprised of warm-up, specific drills for sprinting technique, and speed endurance exercise. The surface temperature of lower limbs was measured and thermal images were taken using infrared camera after each part of the session. The speed endurance training session brought about specific time course of body surface (legs) temperature. The warm-up induced a significant decline in surface temperature by ∼2.5 °C, measured both on the front and back of lower limbs (p Body surface temperature may help identify an individual optimal time to terminate warm up and start the main part of the training session. It may also be useful for the assessment of muscle activity symmetry in cyclical activities, such as sprint running. This is of particular relevance when a training session is performed outdoors in changeable weather conditions.

  18. Dinosaur fossils predict body temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Gillooly


    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 degrees C at 12 kg to approximately 41 degrees C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy.

  19. Tomographic measurement of temperature change in phantoms of the human body by chirp radar-type microwave computed tomography. (United States)

    Miyakawa, M


    The chirp radar-type microwave computed tomograph (CT) measures the temperature change in a human body noninvasively. The paper examines its feasibility. A chirp pulse signal between 1 and 2 GHz is radiated from the transmitting antenna to the phantom. The transmitted waves are detected by the receiving antenna, which is placed on the opposite side of the object, and the beat signal between the incident wave and the transmitted wave is produced by the mixer. By spectral analysis of the beat signal, only those signals transmitted on the straight line between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna are discriminated from multipath signals. The microwave tomogram can therefore be reconstructed easily using the conventional algorithms for an X-ray CT image. The microwave CT can use the chirp signal to remove the influence of multipath signals caused by diffraction and reflection. The imaging of dielectric materials with complicated structures is thus possible. The experimental results using phantoms show that the spatial resolution of this microwave CT is about 10 mm and that a two-dimensional distribution of temperature change can be measured.

  20. Aging changes in body shape (United States)

    ... this page: // Aging changes in body shape To use the sharing ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ...

  1. Body Changes and Discomforts (United States)

    ... rich foods. Ask your doctor about calcium supplements. Morning sickness In the first trimester hormone changes can cause nausea and vomiting. This is called "morning sickness," although it can occur at any time of ...

  2. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso


    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  3. Impact of water temperature and stressor controllability on swim stress-induced changes in body temperature, serum corticosterone, and immobility in rats. (United States)

    Drugan, Robert C; Eren, Senem; Hazi, Agnes; Silva, Jennifer; Christianson, John P; Kent, Stephen


    The present study compared the effects of three different water temperatures (20, 25, and 30 degrees C) and stressor controllability on several physiological and behavioral endpoints in an intermittent swim stress paradigm. The escape latency of rats in the 20 and 25 degrees C water was less than that observed for the 30 degrees C group. Both escape and yoked groups at 20 and 25 degrees C exhibited moderate to severe hypothermia following the swim stress session that returned to prestress levels 30-40 min post-stress. At 30 degrees C core body temperature (Tb) only decreased by 1 degree C for either swim group. Following swim, serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were significantly elevated in both escape and yoked groups in comparison to confined and home cage controls. The confined control group showed a significant elevation that was approximately halfway between the home cage control and the swim stress groups. At 30 degrees C, there was still a significant elevation of serum CORT in both swim groups in comparison to confined and home cage controls. Therefore, 30 degrees C appears to be the optimal water temperature to evaluate stress controllability effects in the current paradigm. In a final experiment, swim stressor controllability effects were examined in a 5 min forced swim test (FST) 24 h following the initial stress exposure. Rats exposed to yoked-inescapable swim stress at 30 degrees C exhibited more immobility than their escapable swim stress and confined counterparts, while the escape and confined controls did not differ. These results demonstrate that the behavioral deficits observed in the FST are attributable to the stress of inescapable swim and not swim stress per se.

  4. Body temperature influence on time perception. (United States)

    Hancock, P A


    The chemical clock hypothesis implies a causal link between body temperature and the perception of duration. A strict interpretation of this construct requires a common slope value in an Arrhenius plot that relates time to temperature for every individual tested. Previous studies testing this proposition have confirmed a general relationship for data summed across multiple subjects. However, the same studies raise doubts as to whether this relationship holds for each and every individual tested. Unfortunately, these investigations have been limited by methodological constraints, thus, one could argue that the strong isomorphism intrinsic to the chemical clock hypothesis has yet to be fairly tested. In the present experiment, I sought to distinguish the effects of selective head temperature changes on the estimation of duration. Nonlinear decreases in estimated duration were observed with ascending deep auditory canal temperature. These findings support the contention of a thermally stable region of temporal perception bounded by conditions in which temporal estimates directly depend on body temperature. In contradicting physiological adequacy as an explanatory construct, the present results suggest a direct relationship between time perception and the homeothermic platform. I compare these results with earlier findings concerning the chemical clock concept and examine respective discrepancies as a basis for a fuller understanding of a temporal phenomenon that is frequently referred to as the internal clock.

  5. A thermosensory pathway that controls body temperature. (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Morrison, Shaun F


    Defending body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is one of the most fundamental homeostatic functions that are governed by the nervous system. Here we describe a somatosensory pathway that essentially constitutes the afferent arm of the thermoregulatory reflex that is triggered by cutaneous sensation of environmental temperature changes. Using in vivo electrophysiological and anatomical approaches in the rat, we found that lateral parabrachial neurons are pivotal in this pathway by glutamatergically transmitting cutaneous thermosensory signals received from spinal somatosensory neurons directly to the thermoregulatory command center, the preoptic area. This feedforward pathway mediates not only sympathetic and shivering thermogenic responses but also metabolic and cardiac responses to skin cooling challenges. Notably, this 'thermoregulatory afferent' pathway exists in parallel with the spinothalamocortical somatosensory pathway that mediates temperature perception. These findings make an important contribution to our understanding of both the somatosensory system and thermal homeostasis -- two mechanisms that are fundamental to the nervous system and to our survival.

  6. Postpartum changes in body composition. (United States)

    Cho, Geum Joon; Yoon, Hyo Jin; Kim, Eung-Ju; Oh, Min-Jeong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Kim, Hai-Joong


    Parity is associated with weight retention and has long-lasting and detrimental effects on the health of women. Previous studies have shown that increasing parity was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Postpartum weight is made up of several components including uterine and mammary tissues, body water (intracellular (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW)), and fat. These components change in variable amounts postpartum, thereby distinctly affecting the interpretation of individual weight retention; however, it is unclear which components contribute to weight retention. The aims of this longitudinal study were to evaluate changes in body composition during the postpartum period and to investigate their effects on weight retention. This prospective study examined 41 healthy, pregnant women who gave birth at Korea University Guro Hospital. We measured body composition at 2 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Weight decreased during this postpartum period (P < 0.001); the postpartum weight retention from prepregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum was 4.43 ± 4.0 kg. Among various body composition components, ECW, ICW, total body water, and fat-free mass (FFM) decreased postpartum. However, fat mass (FM) and visceral fat area, the components that experienced the greatest changes, increased postpartum. Our results demonstrate that the postpartum period is associated with a preferential accumulation of adipose tissue in the visceral compartment, even though overall body weight is decreased. Further studies are needed to evaluate the changes in body composition over longer time periods and their long-term effects on health.

  7. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven


    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  8. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture. (United States)

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R


    BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). METHODS: %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 +/- 11, weight (kg) 64 +/- 14, height (cm) 167 +/- 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. RESULTS: BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P BOD PODBH %fat (28.9%), body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6 degrees C; P BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH. Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified.

  9. Hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and central hypovolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Martin; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Overgaard, Flemming Anders;


    Coagulation abnormalities contribute to poor outcomes in critically ill patients. In trauma patients exposed to a hot environment, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elevated body temperature, and reduced central blood volume occur in parallel with changes in hemostasis and endothelial...... damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether experimentally elevated body temperature and reduced central blood volume (CBV) per se affects hemostasis and endothelial activation....

  10. Cardiovascular changes and hearing threshold shifts in men under complex exposures to noise, whole body vibrations, temperatures and competition-type psychic load. (United States)

    Manninen, O


    This study deals with changes in the temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP) and reaction time (RT) in subjects (n = 108) who, while working on a choice reaction apparatus, were exposed in an exposure chamber to combinations of noise and vibration at dry bulb temperatures of 20 degrees and 30 degrees C. The study was carried out as a type 2-3-3 factorial experiment, the number of the exposure combinations thus being 18. To find out the effects of competition-type psychic stress, some of the subjects were placed in a competitive group and some in a non-competitive group. The members of the competitive group were given financial encouragement and information on their progress during the test, whereas those in the non-competitive group worked at the rate they considered best without any monetary rewards or interim information. The noise classes were: no noise, a stable broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted noise of 90 dB not related to competition, and a stable broadband A-weighted noise of 90 dB related to competition about the fastest reaction time. The vibration classes were: no vibration, sinusoidal whole body vibration (Z-axis) at a frequency of 5 Hz, and stochastic broadband (bandwidth 2.8-11.2 Hz) whole body vibration (Z-axis). The acceleration (rms) of both vibrations was 2.12 m/s2. One experiment consisted of a control period of 30 min, three consecutive exposure periods of 16 min with an interval of 4 min, and a 15-min recovery period. The variance analysis model best explained the variation in TTS2 values at 4 kHz and second best the variation in TTS2 values at 6 kHz; it explained the variation in HR values third best, the variation in SBP values fourth best and the variation in PP values fifth best. On the other hand, the model explained least well the variation in DBP and RWA values. In general, the explanatory power of the model

  11. Mapping the body surface temperature of cattle by infrared thermography. (United States)

    Salles, Marcia Saladini Vieira; da Silva, Suelen Corrêa; Salles, Fernando André; Roma, Luiz Carlos; El Faro, Lenira; Bustos Mac Lean, Priscilla Ayleen; Lins de Oliveira, Celso Eduardo; Martello, Luciane Silva


    Infrared thermography (IRT) is an alternative non-invasive method that has been studied as a tool for identifying many physiological and pathological processes related to changes in body temperature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the body surface temperature of Jersey dairy cattle in a thermoneutral environment in order to contribute to the determination of a body surface temperature pattern for animals of this breed in a situation of thermal comfort. Twenty-four Jersey heifers were used over a period of 35 days at APTA Brazil. Measurements were performed on all animals, starting with the physiological parameters. Body surface temperature was measured by IRT collecting images in different body regions: left and right eye area, right and left eye, caudal left foreleg, cranial left foreleg, right and left flank, and forehead. High correlations were observed between temperature and humidity index (THI) and right flank, left flank and forehead temperatures (0.85, 0.81, and 0.81, respectively). The IRT variables that exhibited the five highest correlation coefficients in principal component 1 were, in decreasing order: forehead (0.90), right flank (0.87), left flank (0.84), marker 1 caudal left foreleg (0.83), marker 2 caudal left foreleg (0.74). The THI showed a high correlation coefficient (0.88) and moderate to low correlations were observed for the physiological variables rectal temperature (0.43), and respiratory frequency (0.42). The thermal profile obtained indicates a surface temperature pattern for each region studied in a situation of thermal comfort and may contribute to studies investigating body surface temperature. Among the body regions studied, IRT forehead temperature showed the highest association with rectal temperature, and forehead and right and left flank temperatures are strongly associated with THI and may be adopted in future studies on thermoregulation and body heat production.

  12. Non-invasive body temperature measurement of wild chimpanzees using fecal temperature decline. (United States)

    Jensen, Siv Aina; Mundry, Roger; Nunn, Charles L; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H


    New methods are required to increase our understanding of pathologic processes in wild mammals. We developed a noninvasive field method to estimate the body temperature of wild living chimpanzees habituated to humans, based on statistically fitting temperature decline of feces after defecation. The method was established with the use of control measures of human rectal temperature and subsequent changes in fecal temperature over time. The method was then applied to temperature data collected from wild chimpanzee feces. In humans, we found good correspondence between the temperature estimated by the method and the actual rectal temperature that was measured (maximum deviation 0.22 C). The method was successfully applied and the average estimated temperature of the chimpanzees was 37.2 C. This simple-to-use field method reliably estimates the body temperature of wild chimpanzees and probably also other large mammals.

  13. Body Shape Changes with HIV (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS Home Alternative Therapies Diet and Nutrition Discrimination Drugs and Alcohol Exercise Mental Health Sex and ... injections of dermal fillers that can lessen the appearance of these changes. Abdominal fat gain can be ...

  14. Basal body temperature recordings in spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Cohen, J; Iffy, L; Keyser, H H


    Basal body temperature (BBT) charts taken during the cycle of conception in cases that resulted in spontaneous abortion appear to provide the best available information concerning events associated with time of fertilization in doomed gestations. This study is based on a series of 227 patients who had early spontaneous abortion occurring between January 1967 and December 1974. A diagnosis of pregnancy initiated regular assays of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol excretion. Patients were instructed to report any bleeding episode which might occur, and to preserve all tissues that might be expelled. A total of 11 basal body temperature charts were obtained from patients who had subsequent early spontaneous abortion. Chromosome studies and histologic investigations were conducted. Another group of 11 consecutive BBT records were obtained from patients who had normal deliveries. The study shows that women with normal cycles experience a midcycle temperature rise requiring 1 to 3 days. In subsequent patients, this time limit was exceeded in 7 out of 11 cases of early abortion, and in 4 of 11 fertilization that resulted in an apparently normal gestation and infant. As temperature rise resulted from vigorous progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, subnormal levels indicate inadequate steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase, and falling estrogen and progesterone levels predicted fetal demise in all cases. These findings are useful in the management of early pregnancy that follows repeated spontaneous first trimester abortions or a prolonged period of infertility. They also confirm experimental and clinical evidence regarding the role of ovulation defects in the occurrence of various types of reproductive wastage, including early abortion, anatomic and chromosome defects of the embryo and others. Prospective studies of cycles of conception through BBT recordings/hormone assays may shed light in the understanding of defects of human reproduction.

  15. Body Composition Changes Associated With Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Methadone is associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in the first 2 years of treatment. Objectives To evaluate the changes of body composition (bone mass, % fat, % muscle mass, % water, and basal metabolic rate related to this increase. Patients and Methods Changes in body composition were monitored, via bioelectrical impedance, in 29 patients in methadone treatment for opiate dependency (age 18 to 44, mean = 29.3, SD = 7.0, 13 men, 16 women. Results Within one year from admission to treatment, a statistically significant (t-tests, P < 0.05 increase was noted in their body mass index (BMI, % of body fat, average body mass, and average basal metabolic rate, and relative decrease in their % of muscle mass and % of bone mass. Neither absolute bone mass nor muscle mass changed significantly. Conclusions Physicians involved in care of methadone patients should recommend dietary and lifestyle changes to improve their overall health.

  16. Energetic consequences of field body temperatures in the green iguana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, WDVM; Wesselingh, RA


    We investigated body temperatures of free-ranging green iguanas (Iguana iguana) on Curacao (Netherlands Antilles), and how metabolic costs and benefits of food processing affect body temperatures. Body temperatures of free-living iguanas were measured by radio telemetry. We also used a model, with a

  17. Men's attraction to women's bodies changes seasonally. (United States)

    Pawlowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr


    Humans exhibit seasonal variation in hormone levels, behaviour, and perception. Here we show that men's assessments of women's attractiveness change also seasonally. In five seasons (from winter 2004 to winter 2005) 114 heterosexual men were asked to assess the attractiveness of the same stimuli: photos of a female with three different waist-to-hip ratios; photos of female breasts, and photos of average-looking faces of young women. For each season, the scores given to the stimuli of the same category (body shape, breast, and face) were combined. Friedman's test revealed significant changes for body shape and breast attractiveness assessments across the seasons, but no changes for face ratings. The highest scores for attractiveness were given in winter and the lowest in summer. We suggest that the observed seasonality is related to the well-known 'contrast effect'. More frequent exposure to women's bodies in warmer seasons might increase men's attractiveness criteria for women's body shape and breasts.

  18. Temperature control of thermal radiation from composite bodies (United States)

    Jin, Weiliang; Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.


    We demonstrate that recent advances in nanoscale thermal transport and temperature manipulation can be brought to bear on the problem of tailoring thermal radiation from wavelength-scale composite bodies. We show that such objects—complicated arrangements of phase-change chalcogenide (Ge2Sb2Te5 ) glasses and metals or semiconductors—can be designed to exhibit strong resonances and large temperature gradients, which in turn lead to large and highly directional emission at midinfrared wavelengths. We find that partial directivity depends sensitively on a complicated interplay between shape, material dispersion, and temperature localization within the objects, requiring simultaneous design of the electromagnetic scattering and thermal properties of these structures. Our calculations exploit a recently developed fluctuating-volume current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations that rigorously captures radiation phenomena in structures with strong temperature and dielectric inhomogeneities, such as those studied here.

  19. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans. (United States)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C; Klaessens, John H G M; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J


    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature using different readout measurements. In two independent studies, male and female participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a non-stressful control task. Core temperature (intestinal and temporal artery) and peripheral temperature (facial and body skin temperature) were measured. Compared to the control condition, stress exposure decreased intestinal temperature but did not affect temporal artery temperature. Stress exposure resulted in changes in skin temperature that followed a gradient-like pattern, with decreases at distal skin locations such as the fingertip and finger base and unchanged skin temperature at proximal regions such as the infra-clavicular area. Stress-induced effects on facial temperature displayed a sex-specific pattern, with decreased nasal skin temperature in females and increased cheek temperature in males. In conclusion, the amplitude and direction of stress-induced temperature changes depend on the site of temperature measurement in humans. This precludes a direct translation of the preclinical stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, in which core temperature uniformly rises in response to stress to the human situation. Nevertheless, the effects of stress result in consistent temperature changes. Therefore, the present study supports the inclusion of body temperature as a physiological readout parameter of stress in future studies.

  20. Nocturnal body temperature in wintering blue tits is affected by roost-site temperature and body reserves. (United States)

    Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, J-Å


    Birds commonly use rest-phase hypothermia, a controlled reduction of body temperature (T(b)), to conserve energy during times of high metabolic demands. We assessed the flexibility of this heterothermic strategy by increasing roost-site temperature and recording the subsequent T(b) changes in wintering blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus L.), assuming that blue tits would respond to treatment by increasing T(b). We found that birds increased T(b) when roost-site temperature was increased, but only at low ambient temperatures. Moreover, birds with larger fat reserves regulated T(b) at higher levels than birds carrying less fat. This result implies that a roosting blue tit maintains its T(b) at the highest affordable level, as determined by the interacting effect of ecophysiological costs associated with rest-phase hypothermia and energy reserves, in order to minimize potential fitness costs associated with a low T(b).

  1. Diet and body temperature in mammals and birds


    Clarke, Andrew; O'Connor, Mary I.


    Aim We test the hypothesis that endotherm body temperature varies with diet. Location Global terrestrial ecosystems. Methods We compile data from the literature on diet and body temperature in mammals and birds. We analyse these and demonstrate global macrophysiological patterns. Results In mammals, carnivores overall have a lower mean body temperature (Tb) than either herbivores or omnivores. However, within carnivores, those taking vertebrate prey have a h...

  2. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  3. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  4. 豚鼠耳蜗电图变化与体温影响的关系%Association between the changes of electrocochleogram and the effects of body temperature in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何斯纯; 周丽丽; 姚平


    BACKGROUND: Body temperature has significant effects on brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). The wave latency of BAEP is the sensitive and objective index for reflecting the effects of body temperature on the synaptic transmission and nerve fiber conduction. The wave origin of electrocochleogram (ECochG) and the effects of body temperature on it need to be probed into to further define its wave origin so as to guide its clinical application.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of body temperature on ECochG and provide important basis for further defining its wave origin and guiding its clinical application.DESIGN: A randomized block design.MATERIALS: This study was performed in the Department of Physiology, Medical College of Jinan University between July and September 2002. Forty adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into hypothermia group (n=20) and hyperthermia group (n=20).INTERVENTIONS: The body temperature of the guinea pigs was decreased or increased step by step with their body contacted with physical method. and the changed rate of body temperature was kept as decreased or increased by 1 ℃ every 5-10 minutes. BAEP and ECochG were detected when the body temperature was changed by 1 ℃.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The PL and IPL of BAEP and ECochG were observed.RESULTS: Finally, 37 guinea pigs were involved in the analysis of relonged as the body temperature was decreased step by step from 36 ℃ to 25 ℃, and shortened as the body temperature was increased gradually from 36 ℃ to 42 ℃. The PL and Ⅰ-Ⅳ IPL prolonged or shortened more significantly with the temperature changed. The PL of wave N1, N2 and N3 and N1-N3 IPL of ECochG also prolonged or shortened as the body temperature perature,the total prolonged and shortened values of Ⅰ -Ⅳ IPL representing the central transmission time of brainstem were much greater than that of wave Ⅰ PL representing the peripheral conduction time, .and the total prolonged and shortened values of thePL of wave

  5. Body temperatures of selected amphibian and reptile species. (United States)

    Raske, Matthew; Lewbart, Gregory A; Dombrowski, Daniel S; Hale, Peyton; Correa, Maria; Christian, Larry S


    Ectothermic vertebrates are a diverse group of animals that rely on external sources to maintain a preferred body temperature. Amphibians and reptiles have a preferred optimal temperature zone that allows for optimal biological function. Physiologic processes in ectotherms are influenced by temperature; these animals have capabilities in which they make use of behavioral and physiologic mechanisms to thermoregulate. Core body, ambient air, body surface, and surface/water temperatures were obtained from six ectothermic species including one anuran, two snakes, two turtles, and one alligator. Clinically significant differences between core body temperature and ambient temperature were noted in the black rat snake, corn snake, and eastern box turtle. No significant differences were found between core body and ambient temperature for the American alligator, bullfrog, mata mata turtle, dead spotted turtle, or dead mole king snake. This study indicates some ectotherms are able to regulate their body temperatures independent of their environment. Body temperature of ectotherms is an important component that clinicians should consider when selecting and providing therapeutic care. Investigation of basic physiologic parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature) from a diverse population of healthy ectothermic vertebrates may provide baseline data for a systematic health care approach.

  6. The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I: The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomko Joanna


    Full Text Available The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

  7. Assessment of the use of temperature-sensitive microchips to determine core body temperature in goats. (United States)

    Torrao, N A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L C R; Fick, L G


    Body temperature was measured at five different body sites (retroperitoneum, groin, semimembranosus muscle, flank and shoulder) using temperature-sensitive microchips implanted in five female goats, and compared with the core body and rectal temperatures. Body temperature was measured while the goats were kept in different ambient temperatures, with and without radiant heat, as well as during a fever induced experimentally by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Bland-Altman limit of agreement analysis was used to compare the temperature measurements at the different body sites during the different interventions. Temperatures measured by the microchip implanted in the retroperitoneum showed the closest agreement (mean 0.2 °C lower) with core and rectal temperatures during all interventions, whereas temperatures measured by the microchips implanted in the groin, muscle, flank and shoulder differed from core body temperature by up to 3.5 °C during the various interventions.

  8. Seasonal patterns of body temperature and microhabitat selection in a lacertid lizard (United States)

    Ortega, Zaida; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín


    In temperate areas, seasonal changes entail a source of environmental variation potentially important for organisms. Temperate ectotherms may be adapted to the seasonal fluctuations in environmental traits. For lizards, behavioural adaptations regarding microhabitat selection could arise to improve thermoregulation during the different seasons. However, little is still known about which traits influence microhabitat selection of lizards and their adaptation to seasonality. Here we used Podarcis guadarramae to study the role of potential intrinsic (body size, sex, age) and environmental traits (air and substrate temperatures, wind speed, and sunlight) in the seasonal changes of body temperatures and microhabitat selection of lizards. We measured body temperatures of lizards in the same habitat during the four seasons and compared the climatic variables of the microhabitats selected by lizards with the mean climatic conditions available in their habitat. Body temperatures were similar for adult males, adult females, and juveniles within each season, being significantly higher in summer than in the other seasons, and in spring than in winter. The same pattern was found regarding substrate and air temperatures of the selected microhabitats. Wind speed and air temperature did not affect body temperatures, while body length was marginally significant and substrate temperatures and season did affect the body temperatures of lizards. Our results during the whole year support the idea that the seasonality could be the most important factor affecting body temperatures of these temperate species. Regarding microhabitat selection, environmental constraints, as environmental temperatures and wind speed, affected the seasonal changes on behavioural thermoregulation of lizards. This effect was similar between sexes and age classes, and was independent of body size. In addition, importance of sunlight exposure of the selected microhabitats (full sun, filtered sun, or shade) also

  9. Air temperature investigation in microenvironment around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra;


    The aim of this study is to investigate the temperature boundary layer around a human body in a quiescent indoor environment. The air temperature, mean in time and standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations around a breathing thermal manikin are examined in relation to the room temperature......, body posture and human respiratory flow. To determine to what extent the experiments represent the realistic scenario, the additional experiments were performed with a real human subject. The results show that at a lower room air temperature (20°C), the fluctuations of air temperature increased close...... to the surface of the body. The large standard deviation of air temperature fluctuations, up to 1.2°C, was recorded in the region of the chest, and up to 2.9°C when the exhalation was applied. The manikin leaned backwards increased the air temperature in the breathing zone, which was opposite from the forward...

  10. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles. (United States)

    Sato, Katsufumi


    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses.

  11. Influence of body temperature on the evoked activity in mouse visual cortex. (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Kalatsky, Valery A


    Optical imaging of intrinsic signals and conventional electrophysiological methods were used to investigate the correlation between the evoked activity in mouse visual cortex and core body temperature. The results show that hypothermia (25-36 °C) decreases the intensity of optical imaging in the visual cortex and the imaging signal reversibly disappears at 25 °C. Hyperthermia (39-41 °C) increases the intensity but decreases the quality of cortical imaging when body temperature is above 40 °C. The change of optical imaging was in line with that of neuronal activities and local field potentials (LFPs) directly recorded from the visual cortex at 25-39 °C. Hypothermia decreases neuron firing rate and LFPs amplitude. Most of the recorded neurons ceased firing to visual stimulation at 25 °C. Hyperthermia increases neuronal firing rate and LFPs amplitude. Both are reduced when body temperature is above 40 °C, though neither change was statistically significant. These results suggest: (1) Body temperature has an important impact on the visual cortical evoked activities and optical imaging generally reflects these effects when body temperature is between 25 and 39 °C; (2) Optical imaging may not properly reflect the neuronal activity when body temperature is over 40 °C. It is important to maintain core body temperature within 3 °C of the normal body temperature to obtain verifiable results.

  12. Dust Ejection from Planetary Bodies by Temperature Gradients: Laboratory Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelling, Thorben; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Klacka, Jozef; Reiss, Dennis


    Laboratory experiments show that dusty bodies in a gaseous environment eject dust particles if they are illuminated. We find that even more intense dust eruptions occur when the light source is turned off. We attribute this to a compression of gas by thermal creep in response to the changing temperature gradients in the top dust layers. The effect is studied at a light flux of 13 kW/(m*m) and 1 mbar ambient pressure. The effect is applicable to protoplanetary disks and Mars. In the inner part of protoplanetary disks, planetesimals can be eroded especially at the terminator of a rotating body. This leads to the production of dust which can then be transported towards the disk edges or the outer disk regions. The generated dust might constitute a significant fraction of the warm dust observed in extrasolar protoplanetary disks. We estimate erosion rates of about 1 kg/s for 100 m parent bodies. The dust might also contribute to subsequent planetary growth in different locations or on existing protoplanets which ...

  13. Body temperatures and behavior of American alligators during cold winter weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisbin, I.L., Jr.; Standora, E.A.; Vargo, M.J.


    Data from two large (188 and 135 kg) male alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) indicated that 4-5 C seemed to be the lowest body temperatures that they could endure with subsequent recovery. Although one animal in shallow water managed to keep a breathing hole open for several days, in ice that was 1.5 cm thick, it later died following a decrease of its body temperature to 4.0 C. The second alligator which was located in a deeper portion of the reservoir used both terrestrial and aquatic basking behavior to raise its body temperature and level of activity. Except in the case of basking events, there was not clear evidence of significant evaluations of the body temperatures of either the live or dead alligators above those of their adjacent water. When located side-by-side, diurnal cycles of deep body temperatures exceeding adjacent water temperatures to a maximum extent near dawn and usually falling below water temperatures during the afternoon and early evening hours. The physical properties and thermal inertia of the bodies of such large alligators, when placed in appropriate microclimates, may be sufficient in themselves to explain the general patterns and levels of body temperature changes observed at these low temperatures.

  14. Turtles (Chelodina longicollis) regulate muscle metabolic enzyme activity in response to seasonal variation in body temperature. (United States)

    Seebacher, F; Sparrow, J; Thompson, M B


    Fluctuations in the thermal environment may elicit different responses in animals: migration to climatically different areas, regulation of body temperature, modification of biochemical reaction rates, or assuming a state of dormancy. Many ectothermic reptiles are active over a range of body temperatures that vary seasonally. Here we test the hypothesis that metabolic enzyme activity acclimatises seasonally in freshwater turtles (Chelodina longicollis) in addition to, or instead of, behavioural regulation of body temperatures. We measured body temperatures in free-ranging turtles (n = 3) by radiotelemetry, and we assayed phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activities in early autumn (March, n = 10 turtles), late autumn (May, n = 7) and mid-winter (July, n = 7) over a range of assay temperatures (10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C). Body temperatures were either not different from, or higher than expected from a theoretical null-distribution of a randomly moving animal. Field body temperatures at any season were lower, however, than expected from animals that maximised their sun exposure. Turtles maintained constant PFK, LDH and CCO activities in different months, despite body temperature differences of nearly 13.0 degrees C between March (average daily body temperature = 24.4 degrees C) and July (average = 11.4 degrees C). CS activity did not vary between March and May (average daily body temperature = 20.2 degrees C), but it decreased in July. Thus C. longicollis use a combination of behavioural thermoregulation and biochemical acclimatisation in response to seasonally changing thermal conditions. Ectothermic reptiles were often thought not to acclimatise biochemically, and our results show that behavioural attainment of a preferred body temperature is not mandatory for activity or physiological performance in turtles.

  15. Central temperature changes are poorly perceived during epidural anesthesia. (United States)

    Glosten, B; Sessler, D I; Faure, E A; Karl, L; Thisted, R A


    Hypothermia and shivering are common during epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery but are not always accompanied by a sensation of coldness. To test the hypothesis that central temperature changes are not perceived during epidural anesthesia, we measured central and skin temperatures and thermal perception in 30 patients undergoing cesarean delivery with epidural anesthesia. Central temperature decreased 1.0 +/- 0.6 degrees C from control values during anesthesia and surgery, but thermal perception scores did not reflect central temperatures (P = 0.56) or changes in central temperature (P = 0.63). A feeling of warmth was significantly correlated with increased mean skin temperature (P = 0.02) and increased upper body skin temperature (P = 0.03). We conclude that central temperature is poorly perceived and is less important than skin temperature in determining thermal perception during high levels of epidural anesthesia.

  16. Thermal equilibrium and temperature differences among body regions in European plethodontid salamanders. (United States)

    Lunghi, Enrico; Manenti, Raoul; Canciani, Giancarlo; Scarì, Giorgio; Pennati, Roberta; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco


    Information on species thermal physiology is extremely important to understand species responses to environmental heterogeneity and changes. Thermography is an emerging technology that allows high resolution and accurate measurement of body temperature, but until now it has not been used to study thermal physiology of amphibians in the wild. Hydromantes terrestrial salamanders are strongly depending on ambient temperature for their activity and gas exchanges, but information on their body temperature is extremely limited. In this study we tested if Hydromantes salamanders are thermoconform, we assessed whether there are temperature differences among body regions, and evaluated the time required to reach the thermal equilibrium. During summers of 2014 and 2015 we analysed 56 salamanders (Hydromantes ambrosii and Hydromantes italicus) using infrared thermocamera. We photographed salamanders at the moment in which we found them and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 15min after having kept them in the hands. Body temperature was equal to air temperature; salamanders attained the equilibrium with air temperature in about 8min, the time required to reach equilibrium was longer in individuals with large body size. We detected small temperature differences between body parts, the head being slightly warmer than the body and the tail (mean difference: 0.05°C). These salamanders quickly reach the equilibrium with the environment, thus microhabitat measurement allows obtaining accurate information on their tolerance limits.

  17. Effect of methergoline on body temperature in mice. (United States)

    Cardano, C; Strocchi, P; Gonni, D; Walsh, M; Agnati, L F


    Serotonin (5-HT) involvement in body temperature regulation has been studied in mice by means of a 5-HT-selective blocking agent (methergoline). This drug causes an effect on body temperature which is dependent on environmental temperature. At environmental temperatures of 25 degrees C and 11 degrees C methergoline has a hypothermic effect, while at 36 degrees C environmental temperature, methergoline has a hyperthermic effect. At 25 degrees C environmental temperature, the hypothermic effect induced by 125 mug/kg i.p. of methergoline could be antagonized by low doses of LAE-32 (80 mug/kg s.c.), while there was not such an antagonism using higher doses of LAE-32 (100 and 300 mug/kg s.c.). This has been explained using Jalfre's hypothesis of the existence of 5-HT inhibitory and excitatory receptors.

  18. Body temperature variation of South African antelopes in two climatically contrasting environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, A.K.; Wieren, van S.E.; Langevelde, van F.; Fuller, A.; Hetem, R.S.; Meyer, L.C.R.; Bie, de S.; Prins, H.H.T.


    To understand the adaptive capacity of a species in response to rapid habitat destruction and climate change, we investigated variation in body temperature (Tb) of three species of antelope, namely eland, blue wildebeest and impala, using abdominally-implanted temperature data loggers. The study was

  19. 达乌尔黄鼠冬眠期间体温的变化和冬眠模式%Hibernation patterns and changes of body temperature in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) during hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 邢昕; 管淑君; 赵岩; 王子英; 王德华


    用植入式半导体温度记录元件iButton记录了达乌尔黄鼠冬眠季节及其前后的体温,分析了其冬眠模式和体温调节特点.结果显示:1)实验室条件下,达乌尔黄鼠冬眠季节长短的个体差异较大,可以分成深冬眠型、少冬眠型和不冬眠型三种类型;2)达乌尔黄鼠在冬季表现出深冬眠阵(最低体温Tbmin< 20℃,冬眠阵的持续时间BD>24 h)、短冬眠阵(Tbmin<20℃,BD≤24h)和日眠阵(Tbmin≥20℃,BD≤24 h)3种类型,最低体温分别为2.54℃ ±0.35℃、10.05℃±1.97℃和23.09℃±0.40℃,彼此之间差异显著.日眠阵阵间产热阶段的最高体温为38.09℃±0.17℃,高于深冬眠阵(37.31℃±0.15℃)和短冬眠阵(37.22℃±0.31℃);3)深冬眠阵和日眠阵中最低体温均与环境温度显著相关,冬眠过程中的最低体温为-2.43℃;4)深冬眠过程中,多数个体可以短时(≤3h)耐受-2℃~0℃的低温,激醒或继续维持深冬眠,无致死效应,但长时间(15 h)或过度低温(-5℃以下)的条件下,深冬眠的达乌尔黄鼠被激醒(70%)或死亡(30%),不能持续冬眠;5)入眠前10 d的体温日波动幅度显著增加,高于出眠后的日体温波动,且多数个体入眠前出现体温的“试降”.表明,冬眠前入眠的准备阶段,动物的体温调节已开始发生变化;冬季日眠的调节机制可能与冬眠不同;短时-2℃~0℃的低体温对深冬眠的达乌尔黄鼠无致死效应.%In order to understand the patterns of body temperature changes and hibernation, we used iButtons to monitor body temperatures (Tb) in a typical hibernator, the Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus) , before, during, and after their hibernation period. Hibernation patterns and thermoregulation characteristics were analyzed. In the laboratory, there were great individual differences in the length of the hibernation time. Three types of torpor were distinguished, deep hibernation, short hibernation, and no

  20. Selection does not favor larger body size at lower temperature in a seed-feeding beetle. (United States)

    Stillwell, R Craig; Moya-Laraño, Jordi; Fox, Charles W


    Body size of many animals increases with increasing latitude, a phenomenon known as Bergmann's rule (Bergmann clines). Latitudinal gradients in mean temperature are frequently assumed to be the underlying cause of this pattern because temperature covaries systematically with latitude, but whether and how temperature mediates selection on body size is unclear. To test the hypothesis that the "relative" advantage of being larger is greatest at cooler temperatures we compare the fitness of replicate lines of the seed beetle, Stator limbatus, for which body size was manipulated via artificial selection ("Large,"Control," and "Small" lines), when raised at low (22 degrees C) and high (34 degrees C) temperatures. Large-bodied beetles (Large lines) took the longest to develop but had the highest lifetime fecundity, and highest fitness (r(C)), at both low and high temperatures. However, the relative difference between the Large and Small lines did not change with temperature (replicate 2) or was greatest at high temperature (replicate 1), contrary to the prediction that the fitness advantage of being large relative to being small will decline with increasing temperature. Our results are consistent with two previous studies of this seed beetle, but inconsistent with prior studies that suggest that temperature-mediated selection on body size is a major contributor to the production of Bergmann clines. We conclude that other environmental and ecological variables that covary with latitude are more likely to produce the gradient in natural selection responsible for generating Bergmann clines.

  1. Regulation of body temperature by some Mesozoic marine reptiles. (United States)

    Bernard, Aurélien; Lécuyer, Christophe; Vincent, Peggy; Amiot, Romain; Bardet, Nathalie; Buffetaut, Eric; Cuny, Gilles; Fourel, François; Martineau, François; Mazin, Jean-Michel; Prieur, Abel


    What the body temperature and thermoregulation processes of extinct vertebrates were are central questions for understanding their ecology and evolution. The thermophysiologic status of the great marine reptiles is still unknown, even though some studies have suggested that thermoregulation may have contributed to their exceptional evolutionary success as apex predators of Mesozoic aquatic ecosystems. We tested the thermal status of ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, and mosasaurs by comparing the oxygen isotope compositions of their tooth phosphate to those of coexisting fish. Data distribution reveals that these large marine reptiles were able to maintain a constant and high body temperature in oceanic environments ranging from tropical to cold temperate. Their estimated body temperatures, in the range from 35 degrees +/- 2 degrees C to 39 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, suggest high metabolic rates required for predation and fast swimming over large distances offshore.

  2. Low Temperature Induced Conformation Changes of Aminoacylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢强; 孟凡国; 周海梦


    Control of aggregation, by lowering temperature and protein concentrations, can enhance the extent of successful refolding. The low temperature has been used in protein folding studies, as undesired aggregations often occur at higher temperatures. Therefore, it is very important to study the effects of low temperature on the native enzyme to help understand the factors that affect the structure of the proteins. In this paper, aminoacylase was studied at different temperatures by measuring enzyme activity, fluorescence emission spectra, and ultraviolet difference spectra. The results show that aminoacylase conformation changes as the temperature changes, becoming more compact at low temperatures, and having more secondary structural content. However, the activity is very low at low temperature, and totally diminishes at 4℃. Aminoacylase tends therefore to be more condense, with less residues exposed and low enzyme activities at low temperature. This observation might explain the self-protection of organisms under conditions of extreme temperature.

  3. Body temperature set-point and the conscious perception of skin temperature in obese women. (United States)

    Zahorska-Markiewicz, B; Staszkiewicz, M


    Obese and control women were immersed in a bath of water kept at 37 degrees C. Oral temperature was measured. The subjects left hand was placed outside the bath for the local application of thermal stimuli between 20 degrees and 45 degrees C, subjects reporting the most pleasant temperature. The lower oral temperatures and lower levels of skin temperature rated as pleasant by obese women as compared with women of normal body weight or less suggests that in obesity the set-point of body temperature is lowered.

  4. The effect of myostatin genotype on body temperature during extreme temperature events. (United States)

    Howard, J T; Kachman, S D; Nielsen, M K; Mader, T L; Spangler, M L


    Extreme heat and cold events can create deleterious physiological changes in cattle as they attempt to cope. The genetic background of animals can influence their response to these events. The objective of the current study was to determine the impact of myostatin genotype (MG) on body temperature during periods of heat and cold stress. Two groups of crossbred steers and heifers of unknown pedigree and breed fraction with varying percentages of Angus, Simmental, and Piedmontese were placed in a feedlot over 2 summers and 2 winters. Before arrival, animals were genotyped for the Piedmontese-derived myostatin mutation (C313Y) to determine their MG as either homozygous normal (0 copy; n = 84), heterozygous (1 copy; n = 96), or homozygous for inactive myostatin (2 copy; n = 59). Hourly tympanic and vaginal temperature measurements were collected for steers and heifers, respectively, for 5 d during times of anticipated heat and cold stress. Mean (±SD) ambient temperature for summer and winter stress events were 24.4 (±4.64) and -1.80 (±11.71), respectively. A trigonometric function (sine + cosine) with periods of 12 and 24 h was used to describe the diurnal cyclical pattern. Hourly body temperature was analyzed within a season, and fixed effects included MG, group, trigonometric functions nested within group, and interaction of MG with trigonometric functions nested within group; random effects were animal and residual (Model [I]). A combined analysis of season and group was also investigated with the inclusion of season as a main effect and the nesting of effects within both group and season (Model [C]). In both models, the residual was fitted using an autoregressive covariance structure. A 3-way interaction of MG, season, and trigonometric function periodicities of 24 h (P 0.05). The current study illustrated that a genotype × environment interaction exists for MG and 1-copy animals were more robust to environmental extremes in comparison with 0- or 2-copy animals.

  5. Influence of elevated body temperature on circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, M; Barington, T; Gyhrs, A;


    . On another occasion they served as their own controls, being immersed into thermoneutral water (water temperature 34.5 degrees C) for 2 h. Blood samples were drawn before immersion, at body temperatures of 38, 39 and 39.5 degrees C, as well as 2 h after WI when their body temperatures were normalized....... In the control experiments, blood samples were drawn at identical time points. A significant increase in the number of IgM-secreting cells per fixed number of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) occurred 2 h after WI, whereas the number of IgA-secreting cells per fixed number of BMNC did not change. When the possible...

  6. Optimal plane changes using third-body forces. (United States)

    Villac, B F; Scheeres, D J


    The fuel optimality of third-body driven plane changes (i.e., plane changes performed by using third-body forces) over one-impulse transfers is investigated numerically and analytically. In particular, the range of third-body driven plane changes that are realizable is shown to be restricted and one impulse must be used in the uncovered regions. However, when third-body driven plane changes are realizable, it is shown that they are always optimal above a certain critical value (about 40 degrees ) that depends on the initial condition. Contour plots of optimal DeltaV values to perform a desired plane changes are given.

  7. Influence of ambient temperature on whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Bausch, R.; Ismail, A. H.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Leonhardt, S.


    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements are easy to implement and could be used for continuous monitoring. However, several factors (e.g. environment temperature) influence the measurements limiting the accuracy of the technology. Changes in skin temperature produced by changes in ambient temperature are related with changes in skin blood flow and skin impedance. It is assumed that skin impedance change is responsible for the error observed in whole body and segmental measurements. Measurements including body parts more distant from the torso seem to be more affected. In the present article skin and segment impedance have been performed on healthy subjects under extreme changes in environment temperature (13-39 °C). A commercial BIS device with a range between 5 kHz and 1 MHz has been used for the measurements. The results indicate that not only skin impedance, but also impedance of deeper tissue (e.g. muscle) may be responsible for the influence of environment temperature on BIS measurements. Segmental (knee-to-knee) BIS measurements show a relative change of only 2 %, while forearm and whole body impedance changed 14 % and 8 % respectively.

  8. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi


    Full Text Available Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD of age was 31.06 (10.24 years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  9. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important? (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J


    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  10. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yu

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+, and outward K(+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.

  11. A Microwave Radiometer for Internal Body Temperature Measurement (United States)

    Scheeler, Robert Patterson

    This thesis presents the analysis and design of a microwave radiometer for internal body temperature measurements. There is currently no available method for non-invasive temperature measurement inside the human body. However, knowledge of both relative and absolute temperature variations over time is important to a number of medical applications. The research presented in this thesis details a proof-of-concept near-field microwave radiometer demonstrating relative thermometry of a multi-layer phantom. There are a number of technical challenges addressed in this thesis for radiometric determination of sub-degree temperature variations in the human body. A theoretical approach is developed for determining sensing depth from known complex layered tissues, which is defined as a figure of merit, and is shown to be dependent on frequency, electrical properties of the tissues, and the near-field probe. In order to obtain depth resolution, multiple frequency operation can be used, so multi-frequency probes are designed and demonstrated in this work. The choice of frequencies is determined not only by the tissue material properties, but also by the ever increasing radio interference in the environment. In this work, quiet bands allocated to radio astronomy are investigated. The radiometer and probe need to be compact to be wearable, and several advancements are made towards a fully wearable device: multi-frequency low-profile probes are designed and fabricated on a flexible substrate and the process of on-chip integration is demonstrated by a GaAs MMIC cold noise source for radiometer calibration. The implemented proof-of-concept device consists of two radiometers at 1.4 GHz and 2.7 GHz, designed with commercial inexpensive devices that can enable sufficient sensitivity. The device is tested on a phantom with two water layers whose temperatures are varied in a controlled manner, and focused on the human body temperature range. Measured results are discussed qualitatively

  12. Thermal insulation and body temperature wearing a thermal swimsuit during water immersion. (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Hanai, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Shintaro; Nomura, Takeo


    This study evaluated the effects of a thermal swimsuit on body temperatures, thermoregulatory responses and thermal insulation during 60 min water immersion at rest. Ten healthy male subjects wearing either thermal swimsuits or normal swimsuits were immersed in water (26 degrees C or 29 degrees C). Esophageal temperature, skin temperatures and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiments. Metabolic heat production was calculated from oxygen consumption. Heat loss from skin to the water was calculated from the metabolic heat production and the change in mean body temperature during water immersion. Total insulation and tissue insulation were estimated by dividing the temperature difference between the esophagus and the water or the esophagus and the skin with heat loss from the skin. Esophageal temperature with a thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit at the end of immersion in both water temperature conditions (pinsulation with the thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit due to insulation of the suit at both water temperatures (pinsulation was similar in all four conditions, but significantly higher with the thermal swimsuit in both water temperature conditions (pinsulation and reduce heat loss from the skin. Therefore, subjects with thermal swimsuits can maintain higher body temperatures than with a normal swimsuit and reduce shivering thermo-genesis.

  13. Perioperative core body temperatures effect on outcome after colorectal resections. (United States)

    Geiger, Timothy M; Horst, Sara; Muldoon, Roberta; Wise, Paul E; Enrenfeld, Jesse; Poulose, Ben; Herline, Alan J


    The World Health Organization has set a standard of maintaining a core body temperature above 36°C in the perioperative period. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between both intraoperative temperature (IOT) and immediate postop core body temperature as it relates to postop complications. A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of patients who underwent an elective segmental colectomy without a stoma, for 3 diagnoses was performed. Six postoperative outcomes were examined: length of stay (LOS), placement of a nasogastric tube, return to the operating room, placement of an interventional drain, diagnosed leak, and surgical site infection (SSI). Statistics were calculated using a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test. Seventy-nine patients met the inclusion criteria and there were no preoperative differences between the groups (those with a postop complication vs without). LOS > 9 days (36.64°C vs 35.98°C; P = 0.011) and clinical leak (37.06°C vs 35.99°C; P = 0.005) both had a statistically higher average IOT than those who did not. Patients with SSI trended to a higher IOT (36.44°C vs 35.99°C; P = 0.062). When the last IOT recorded was compared with the six outcomes, again length of stay and leak both were statistically significant (P = 0.018, P = 0.012) showing a higher temperature related to a higher complication rate. No other complications were related to IOT, nor did postop temperature relate to complication. In our data, relatively lower IOTs were protective for LOS and clinical leaks, with a trend of lower SSI rates. Further research is needed to fully endorse or refute the absolute recommendations for core body temperature.

  14. Validation of temperature-sensitive radio transmitters for measurement of body temperature in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. I.; Shobrak, Mohammed


    As part of a study on the core body temperature (T(b)) of desert birds, we purposed to use temperature-sensitive implantable radio transmitters. Because of the difficulty in recapturing these birds, we needed to know if these electronic devices held their calibration over the duration of normal batt

  15. Body temperatures in dinosaurs: what can growth curves tell us? (United States)

    Griebeler, Eva Maria


    To estimate the body temperature (BT) of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR) with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation). The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006). I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today's crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs), ornithischians (two), theropods (three), prosauropods (three), and sauropods (nine). For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal's core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed) and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda) studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately limited

  16. Body temperatures in dinosaurs: what can growth curves tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Griebeler

    Full Text Available To estimate the body temperature (BT of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation. The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006. I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today's crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs, ornithischians (two, theropods (three, prosauropods (three, and sauropods (nine. For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal's core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately

  17. Black-body anomaly: analysis of temperature offsets (United States)

    Szopa, M.; Hofmann, R.; Giacosa, F.; Schwarz, M.


    Based on the postulate that photon propagation is governed by a dynamically broken SU(2) gauge symmetry (scale ˜10-4 eV) we make predictions for temperature offsets due to a low-temperature (a few times the present CMB temperature) spectral anomaly at low frequencies. Temperature offsets are extracted from least-square fits of the anomalous black-body spectra to their conventional counterparts. We discuss statistical errors, compare our results with those obtained from calibration data of the FIRAS instrument, and point out that our predicted offsets are screened by experimental errors given the frequency range used by FIRAS to perform their spectral fits. We also make contact with the WMAP observation by blueshifting their frequency bands. Although our results hint towards a strong dynamical component in the CMB dipole and an explanation of low-l suppression, it is important in view of its particle-physics implications that the above postulate be verified/falsified by an independent low-temperature black-body precision experiment.

  18. Black Body Detector Temperature from Gall and Planck Perspectives (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.


    The laws of Gall ( and Planck are generally defined with zero intensity at 0 K. However actual measurements involve detectors above absolute zero. These detectors must also be treated as approximate black body radiators. The zero intensity reference point is thus defined by the radiated intensity at the detector temperature. Planck's law thus becomes ( IP=c1λ^51e^c2λT;-1-c1λ^51e^c2λTd;-1) where Td is the detector temperature. Provided that T>Td;;;IP;is;always>0. Thus from a Planck perspective, wavelength increase should not be a factor in defining detector temperature. The corresponding expression for Gall's law is ( IG=σT^6b^2λe^-λTb-σTd^6b^2λe^-λTdb) . Above the crossover wavelength (, even though T>Td;;;IG<0. From a Gall perspective, this sets a limit on the long wavelength range for a given detector temperature. Longer wavelength measurements require lower detector temperatures. For a 6000 K black body radiator, the long wavelength crossover limits for detectors at 300 K, 100 K and 4 K are 9.138, 12.066 and 21.206 microns respectively.

  19. Changes in the Body with Aging (United States)

    ... and in whole organs. These changes result in changes in function and in appearance. Aging cells As cells age, they function less well. Eventually, old cells must die, as a normal part of the body’s functioning. Old cells sometimes ...

  20. The effect of water temperature on the human body and the swimming effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Although many research papers have dealt with the influence of environmental temperature on the various Human body functions during exercise in land, a few only informations exist for the equivalent alterations in water temperatures during immersion and swimming. The present preview research paper is referred on this subject. During swimming in the normal water temperature 26° ± 1° C (63, the functions of the human body respond regularly and the performance of swimmers tends to be improved. However, during swimming in cold water critical differences appear in human functions, such as bradycardia, angiospasm, hyperventilation and adaptations of thermoregulatory mechanism which influence the swimming performance and the life itself. Especially in very cold water temperature the disturbances of the cardiovascular system may lead in critical arrhythmia or sudden death. The cold water temperature, however, influences the kinetic and energy behavior related to the reduction of swimmers performance because of its possible influence on the neuromuscular function. In the increased water temperature up to 28° C appears tachycardia, vasodilation and other alternations which aim to better thermoregulation. The swimmers records are possibly equivalent with a tendency to be improved, to the records in normal temperature of championships 26° C and the increased temperature mainly in the speed events (3. Therefore, there is a differentiation on swimmers performances due to water temperature declination from normal. Also, body functions change during water immersion.

  1. Assessing the reliability of thermography to infer internal body temperatures of lizards. (United States)

    Barroso, Frederico M; Carretero, Miguel A; Silva, Francisco; Sannolo, Marco


    For many years lizard thermal ecology studies have relied on the use of contact thermometry to obtain internal body temperature (Tb) of the animals. However, with progressing technology, an interest grew in using new, less invasive methods, such as InfraRed (IR) pyrometry and thermography, to infer Tb of reptiles. Nonetheless few studies have tested the reliability of these new tools. The present study tested the use of IR cameras as a non-invasive tool to infer Tb of lizards, using three differently body-sized lacertid species (Podarcis virescens, Lacerta schreiberi and Timon lepidus). Given the occurrence of regional heterothermy, we pairwise compared thermography readings of six body parts (snout, eye, head, dorsal, hind limb, tail base) to cloacal temperature (measured by a thermometer-associated thermocouple probe) commonly employed to measure Tb in field and lab studies. The results showed moderate to strong correlations (R(2)=0.84-0.99) between all body parts and cloacal temperature. However, despite the readings on the tail base showed the strongest correlation in all three species, it was the eye where the absolute values and pattern of temperature change most consistently followed the cloacal measurements. Hence, we concluded that the eye would be the body location whose IR camera readings more closely approximate that of the animal's internal environment. Alternatively, other body parts can be used, provided that a careful calibration is carried out. We provide guidelines for future research using thermography to infer Tb of lizards.

  2. Prediction of Core Body Temperature from Multiple Variables. (United States)

    Richmond, Victoria L; Davey, Sarah; Griggs, Katy; Havenith, George


    This paper aims to improve the prediction of rectal temperature (T re) from insulated skin temperature (T is) and micro-climate temperature (T mc) previously reported (Richmond et al., Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing. Physiol Meas 2013; 34:1531-43.) using additional physiological and/or environmental variables, under several clothing and climatic conditions. Twelve male (25.8±5.1 years; 73.6±11.5kg; 178±6cm) and nine female (24.2±5.1 years; 62.4±11.5kg; 169±3cm) volunteers completed six trials, each consisting of two 40-min periods of treadmill walking separated by a 20-min rest, wearing permeable or impermeable clothing, under neutral (25°C, 50%), moderate (35°C, 35%), and hot (40°C, 25%) conditions, with and without solar radiation (600W m(-2)). Participants were measured for heart rate (HR) (Polar, Finland), skin temperature (T s) at 11 sites, T is (Grant, Cambridge, UK), and breathing rate (f) (Hidalgo, Cambridge, UK). T mc and relative humidity were measured within the clothing. T re was monitored as the 'gold standard' measure of T c for industrial or military applications using a 10cm flexible probe (Grant, Cambridge, UK). A stepwise multiple regression analysis was run to determine which of 30 variables (T is, T s at 11 sites, HR, f, T mc, temperature, and humidity inside the clothing front and back, body mass, age, body fat, sex, clothing, Thermal comfort, sensation and perception, and sweat rate) were the strongest on which to base the model. Using a bootstrap methodology to develop the equation, the best model in terms of practicality and validity included T is, T mc, HR, and 'work' (0 = rest; 1 = exercise), predicting T re with a standard error of the estimate of 0.27°C and adjusted r (2) of 0.86. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting individuals who reached 39°C was 97 and 85%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature was the most important individual

  3. Metabolism of polychaete Neanthes japonica Izuka: relations to temperature, salinity and body weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; XIAN Weiwei; SUN Shichun


    Polychaete Neanthesjaponica is a species geographically specific in China and Japan with important scientific implication and commercial value. In this study, the relations of body weight, salinity and temperature to oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of N. japonica were determined. Threedifferent groups in body weight (large: 2.34±0.36 g, middle: 1.50±0.21 g and small: 0.62±0.12 g) were set for all experiments. Results show that the body weight is negatively related to the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion; and the relationship is significant. The oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion at 24℃ decreased at salinity from 5 to 30 and increased above 30, indicating that both lower and higher salinity are adverse and certain degree of salinity stress is necessary for enhancing the energy demand. At salinity 30, rising temperature from 18℃ to 30℃, the oxygen consumption increased before 27℃ and then decreased. However, the relation of ammonia excretion and temperature seems more complex. Two-way ANOVA shows that salinity, temperature and body weight all have a significant effect on the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the worm. Moreover, interaction between salinity/temperature and body weight is also significant. O:N (oxygen/nitrogen) ratio varies greatly in this case from 5.97 to 463.22, indicating that N. japonica can regulate the type of metabolic substrate against environment changes.

  4. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    thermometer. This work, however, can be quite time consuming and laborious, and further compromising the immediate well-fare of the pig, when restraining of the individual animal is necessary. Therefore, an electronic body monitoring system using implantable microchip transponders for measuring peripheral...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... microchip transponder was injected deep subcutaneously by the left ear base of each individual. The transponder was before insertion programmed with ID identical to the individual pig’s ear tag number. The pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups: one group placebo-infected and two groups virus...

  5. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose. (United States)

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P


    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations.

  6. Black-Body Anomaly: Analysis of Temperature Offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Szopa, Michal; Giacosa, Francesco; Schwarz, Markus


    Based on the postulate that photon propagation is governed by a dynamically broken SU(2) gauge symmetry (scale $\\sim 10^{-4} $eV) we make predictions for temperature offsets due to a low-temperature (a few times the present CMB temperature) spectral anomaly at low frequencies. Temperature offsets are extracted from least-square fits of the anomalous black-body spectra to their conventional counterparts. We discuss statistical errors, compare our results with those obtained from calibration data of the FIRAS instrument, and point out that our predicted offsets are screened by experimental errors given the frequency range used by FIRAS to perform their spectral fits. We also make contact with the WMAP observation by blueshifting their frequency bands. Although our results hint towards a strong dynamical component in the CMB dipole and an explanation of low-$l$ suppression it is important in view of its particle-physics implications that the above postulate be verified/falsified by an independent low-temperature...

  7. Body temperature null distributions in reptiles with nonzero heat capacity: seasonal thermoregulation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Elsey, Ruth M; Trosclair, Phillip L


    Regulation of body temperature may increase fitness of animals by ensuring that biochemical and physiological processes proceed at an optimal rate. The validity of current methods of testing whether or not thermoregulation in reptiles occurs is often limited to very small species that have near zero heat capacity. The aim of this study was to develop a method that allows estimation of body temperature null distributions of large reptiles and to investigate seasonal thermoregulation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Continuous body temperature records of wild alligators were obtained from implanted dataloggers in winter (n=7, mass range: 1.6-53.6 kg) and summer (n=7, mass range: 1.9-54.5 kg). Body temperature null distributions were calculated by randomising behavioural postures, thereby randomly altering relative animal surface areas exposed to different avenues of heat transfer. Core body temperatures were predicted by calculations of transient heat transfer by conduction and blood flow. Alligator body temperatures follow regular oscillations during the day. Occasionally, body temperature steadied during the day to fall within a relatively narrow range. Rather than indicating shuttling thermoregulation, however, this pattern could be predicted from random movements. Average daily body temperature increases with body mass in winter but not in summer. Daily amplitudes of body temperature decrease with increasing body mass in summer but not in winter. These patterns result from differential exposure to heat transfer mechanisms at different seasons. In summer, alligators are significantly cooler than predictions for a randomly moving animal, and the reverse is the case in winter. Theoretical predictions show, however, that alligators can be warmer in winter if they maximised their sun exposure. We concluded that alligators may not rely exclusively on regulation of body temperature but that they may also acclimatise biochemically to seasonally

  8. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.


    Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics, die

  9. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd


    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  10. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain. (United States)

    Granger, Jill I; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C; Raymond, Richard M; Opp, Mark R


    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24-48 h. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6h to 72 h post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are impaired for

  11. Changes in body weight and pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N


    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined the rela......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined...... included in this current subanalysis of the SCOUT trial. Subjects were required to have a history of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, to assess cardiovascular outcomes. The primary outcome event (POE) was a composite of nonfatal myocardial...... rate and changes in pulse rate may not be an important modifier nor a clinically useful predictor of outcome in an individual elderly cardiovascular obese subject exposed to weight management....

  12. Temperature Evaluation of Heat Transferring Body while Preparing Temperature Chart of Heating Technologies and Metal Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk


    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to temperature evaluation of a heat transferring body in the operational space of high temperature installations. A formula for evaluation of this temperature has been written down in the paper. Calculation of a heating transferring body (furnace makes it possible to realize temperature chart parameters in the plant heating technologies and steel thermal treatment.

  13. Little effect of climate change on body size of herbivorous beetles. (United States)

    Baar, Yuval; Friedman, Ariel Leib Leonid; Meiri, Shai; Scharf, Inon


    Ongoing climate change affects various aspects of an animal's life, with important effects on distribution range and phenology. The relationship between global warming and body size changes in mammals and birds has been widely studied, with most findings indicating a decline in body size over time. Nevertheless, little data exist on similar size change patterns of invertebrates in general and insects in particular, and it is unclear whether insects should decrease in size or not with climate warming. We measured over 4000 beetle specimens, belonging to 29 beetle species in 8 families, collected in Israel during the last 100 years. The sampled species are all herbivorous. We examined whether beetle body size had changed over the years, while also investigating the relationships between body size and annual temperature, precipitation, net primary productivity (NPP) at the collection site and collection month. None of the environmental variables, including the collection year, was correlated with the size of most of the studied beetle species, while there were strong interactions of all variables with species. Our results, though mostly negative, suggest that the effect of climate change on insect body size is species-specific and by no means a general macro-ecological rule. They also suggest that the intrapopulation variance in body size of insects collected as adults in the field is large enough to conceal intersite environmental effects on body size, such as the effect of temperature and NPP.

  14. Resistance to change of adulthood body mass index. (United States)

    Heo, M; Faith, M S; Pietrobelli, A


    Numerous weight loss trials show that maintenance of weight loss is extremely difficult to sustain over time in adulthood. Using general population sample of adults whose weights were longitudinally tracked across several decades, we quantified resistance of weight to change by means of body mass index autocorrelation across a series of paired time points. Equations for age-adjusted sex-specific body mass index autocorrelation were developed. We found that body weight is quite resistant to change over years and decades. This finding partially de-mystifies the weight regain observed following intervention that last weeks or months.

  15. Effective body water and body mass changes during summer ultra-endurance road cycling. (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; Ganio, Matthew S; Judelson, Daniel A; Vingren, Jakob L; Kupchak, Brian R; Kunces, Laura J; Muñoz, Colleen X; McKenzie, Amy L; Williamson, Keith H


    Because body mass change (ΔMb) does not represent all water losses and gains, the present field investigation determined if (a) ΔMb equalled the net effective body water change during ultra-endurance exercise and (b) ground speed and exercise duration influenced these variables. Thirty-two male cyclists (age range, 35-52 years) completed a 164-km event in a hot environment, were retrospectively triplet matched and placed into one of three groups based on exercise duration (4.8, 6.3, 9.6 h). Net effective body water loss was computed from measurements (body mass, total fluid intake and urine excreted) and calculations (water evolved and mass loss due to substrate oxidation, solid food mass and sweat loss), including (ΔEBWgly) and excluding (ΔEBW) water bound to glycogen. With all cyclists combined, the mean ΔMb (i.e. loss) was greater than that of ΔEBWgly by 1200 ± 200 g (P = 1.4 × 10(-18)), was similar to ΔEBW (difference, 0 ± 200 g; P = .21) and was strongly correlated with both (R(2) = .98). Analysis of equivalence indicated that ΔMb was not equivalent to ΔEBWgly, but was equivalent to ΔEBW. Due to measurement complexity, we concluded that (a) athletes will not calculate the effective body water calculations routinely and (b) body mass change remains a useful field-expedient estimate of net effective body water change.

  16. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  17. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception. (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu


    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (ppain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (pnegative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  18. Type I collagen is thermally unstable at body temperature. (United States)

    Leikina, E; Mertts, M V; Kuznetsova, N; Leikin, S


    Measured by ultra-slow scanning calorimetry and isothermal circular dichroism, human lung collagen monomers denature at 37 degrees C within a couple of days. Their unfolding rate decreases exponentially at lower temperature, but complete unfolding is observed even below 36 degrees C. Refolding of full-length, native collagen triple helices does occur, but only below 30 degrees C. Thus, contrary to the widely held belief, the energetically preferred conformation of the main protein of bone and skin in physiological solution is a random coil rather than a triple helix. These observations suggest that once secreted from cells collagen helices would begin to unfold. We argue that initial microunfolding of their least stable domains would trigger self-assembly of fibers where the helices are protected from complete unfolding. Our data support an earlier hypothesis that in fibers collagen helices may melt and refold locally when needed, giving fibers their strength and elasticity. Apparently, Nature adjusts collagen hydroxyproline content to ensure that the melting temperature of triple helical monomers is several degrees below rather than above body temperature.

  19. Widespread rapid reductions in body size of adult salamanders in response to climate change. (United States)

    Caruso, Nicholas M; Sears, Michael W; Adams, Dean C; Lips, Karen R


    Reduction in body size is a major response to climate change, yet evidence in globally imperiled amphibians is lacking. Shifts in average population body size could indicate either plasticity in the growth response to changing climates through changes in allocation and energetics, or through selection for decreased size where energy is limiting. We compared historic and contemporary size measurements in 15 Plethodon species from 102 populations (9450 individuals) and found that six species exhibited significant reductions in body size over 55 years. Biophysical models, accounting for actual changes in moisture and air temperature over that period, showed a 7.1-7.9% increase in metabolic expenditure at three latitudes but showed no change in annual duration of activity. Reduced size was greatest at southern latitudes in regions experiencing the greatest drying and warming. Our results are consistent with a plastic response of body size to climate change through reductions in body size as mediated through increased metabolism. These rapid reductions in body size over the past few decades have significance for the susceptibility of amphibians to environmental change, and relevance for whether adaptation can keep pace with climate change in the future.

  20. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C.; Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J.


    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature u

  1. An Investigation of Summertime Inland Water Body Temperatures in California and Nevada (USA): Recent Trends and Future Projections (United States)

    Healey, Nathan; Hook, Simon; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco; Radocinski, Robert


    Inland water body temperature has been identified as an ideal indicator of potential climate change. Understanding inland water body temperature trends is important for forecasting impacts to limnological, biological, and hydrological resources. Many inland water bodies are situated in remote locations with incomplete data records of in-situ monitoring or lack in-situ observations altogether. Thus, the utilization of satellite data is essential for understanding the behavior of global inland water body temperatures. Part of this research provides an analysis of summertime (July-September) temperature trends in the largest California/Nevada (USA) inland water bodies between 1991 and 2015. We examine satellite temperature retrievals from ATSR (ATSR-1, ATSR-2, AATSR), MODIS (Terra and Aqua), and VIIRS sensors. Our findings indicate that inland water body temperatures in the western United States were rapidly warming between 1991 and 2009, but since then trends have been decreasing. This research also includes implementation of a model called air2water to predict future inland water body surface temperature through the sole input of air temperature. Using projections from CMIP5-CCSM4 output, our model indicates that Lake Tahoe (USA) is expected to experience an increase of roughly 3 °C by 2100.

  2. Effects of temperature changes on groundwater ecosystems (United States)

    Griebler, Christian; Kellermann, Claudia; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Lueders, Tillmann; Brielmann, Heike; Schmidt, Susanne; Kuntz, David; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone


    The use of groundwater as a carrier of thermal energy is becoming more and more important as a sustainable source of heating and cooling. At the same time, the present understanding of the effects of aquifer thermal usage on geochemical and biological aquifer ecosystem functions is extremely limited. Recently we started to assess the effects of temperature changes in groundwater on the ecological integrity of aquifers. In a field study, we have monitored hydrogeochemical, microbial, and faunal parameters in groundwater of an oligotrophic aquifer in the vicinity of an active thermal discharge facility. The observed seasonal variability of abiotic and biotic parameters between wells was considerable. Yet, due to the energy-limited conditions no significant temperature impacts on bacterial or faunal abundances and on bacterial productivity were observed. In contrast, the diversity of aquifer bacterial communities and invertebrate fauna was either positively or negatively affected by temperature, respectively. In follow-up laboratory experiments temperature effects were systematically evaluated with respect to energy limitation (e.g. establishment of unlimited growth conditions), geochemistry (e.g. dynamics of DOC and nutrients), microbiology (e.g. survival of pathogens), and fauna (temperature preference and tolerance). First, with increased nutrient and organic carbon concentrations even small temperature changes revealed microbiological dynamics. Second, considerable amounts of adsorbed DOC were mobilized from sediments of different origin with an increase in temperatures. No evidence was obtained for growth of pathogenic bacteria and extended survival of viruses at elevated temperatures. Invertebrates clearly preferred natural thermal conditions (10-12°C), where their highest frequency of appearance was measured in a temperature gradient. Short-term incubations (48h) of invertebrates in temperature dose-response tests resulted in LT50 (lethal temperature) values

  3. Social stress at work and change in women's body weight. (United States)

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim


    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic.

  4. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni


    Full Text Available The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the geothermal one, which is deposited mainly in the epidermal parts of caves.

  5. The effect of temperature and body size on metabolic scope of activity in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Behrens, Jane; Steffensen, John Fleng


    Changes in ambient temperature affect the physiology and metabolism and thus the distribution of fish. In this study we used intermittent flow respirometry to determine the effect of temperature (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C) and wet body mass (BM) (~30–460 g) on standard metabolic rate (SMR, mg O2 h−1...

  6. Infrared thermoimages display of body surface temperature reaction in experimental cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zhang; Yuan-Gen Zhu; Shu-You Wang; Hui-Min Ma; Yan-Yan Ye; Wei-Xing Fu; Wei-Guo Hu


    AIM: To display the thermoirnages of the body surface inexperimental cholecystitis, to observe the body surfacetemperature reaction in visceral disorders, and to study if the theory of body surface-viscera correlation is true and the mechanism of temperature changes along the meridians. METHODS: By injecting bacteria ssuspension into the stricturebile duct and gallbladder, 21 rabbits were prepared as acutepyogenic cholangiocholecystitis models, with another 8rabbits prepared by the same process except withoutinjection of bacteria suspension as control. The body surfaceinfrared thermoimages were continuously observed on thehair shaven rabbit skin with AGA-782 thermovision 24 hbefore, 1-11 d after and (2,3 wk) 4 wk after the operation witha total of over 10 records of thermoimages.RESULTS: Twelve cases out of 21 rabbits with cholecystitisrevealed bi-lsteral longitudinal high temperature lines in itstrunk; with negative findings in the control group. The high-temperature line appeared on d l-d2, first in the right trunk,after the preparation of the model, about 7 d after the modelpreparation, the lines appeared at the left side too,persisting for 4 wk. The hyper-temperature line revealed 1.1-2.7 ℃ higher than before the model preparation, 0.7-2.5 ℃higher than the surrounding skin. The length of the hightemperature line might reach a half length of the body trunk,or as long as the whole body itself.CONCLUSION: The appearance of the longitudinal hightemperature lines st the lateral aspects of the trunk in theexperimental group is directly bound up with theexperimental animals pyogenic cholecystitis, with itsrunning course quite similar to that of the GallbladderChannel of Foot Shaoyang, but different to the zones ofhyperalgesia and site of referred pain in cholecystitis.

  7. Skin temperature and sleep-onset latency: Changes with age and insomnia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymann, R.J.; Swaab, D.F.; Someren, E.J. van


    Throughout the 24-hour day, the occurrence of sleep and wakefulness is closely related to changes in body temperatures. Changes in skin temperature may causally affect the ability to initiate and maintain sleep. First, we briefly summarize a previously proposed neurobiological mechanism that couples

  8. Skin temperature and sleep-onset latency: changes with age and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Swaab, D.F.; Someren, E.J. van


    Throughout the 24-hour day, the occurrence of sleep and wakefulness is closely related to changes in body temperatures. Changes in skin temperature may causally affect the ability to initiate and maintain sleep. First, we briefly summarize a previously proposed neurobiological mechanism that couples

  9. Deferoxamine prevents cerebral glutathione and vitamin E depletions in asphyxiated neonatal rats: role of body temperature. (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, Hanna; Nowakowska, Anna; Siejka, Agnieszka; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Woźniak, Alina; Caputa, Michał; Rogalska, Justyna


    Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury involves increased oxidative stress. In asphyxiated newborns iron deposited in the brain catalyses formation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E are key factors protecting cells against such agents. Our previous investigation has demonstrated that newborn rats, showing physiological low body temperature as well as their hyperthermic counterparts injected with deferoxamine (DF) are protected against iron-mediated, delayed neurotoxicity of perinatal asphyxia. Therefore, we decided to study the effects of body temperature and DF on the antioxidant status of the brain in rats exposed neonatally to critical anoxia. Two-day-old newborn rats were exposed to anoxia in 100% nitrogen atmosphere for 10 min. Rectal temperature was kept at 33 °C (physiological to rat neonates), or elevated to the level typical of healthy adult rats (37 °C), or of febrile adult rats (39 °C). Half of the rats exposed to anoxia under extremely hyperthermic conditions (39 °C) were injected with DF. Cerebral concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid peroxidation marker) and the levels of GSH and vitamin E were determined post-mortem, (1) immediately after anoxia, (2) 3 days, (3) 7 days, and (4) 2 weeks after anoxia. There were no post-anoxic changes in MDA, GSH and vitamin E concentrations in newborn rats kept at body temperature of 33 °C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at elevated body temperatures intensified oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool in a temperature-dependent manner. Both the depletion of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were prevented by post-anoxic DF injection. The data support the idea that hyperthermia may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions.

  10. The effects of sodium oxybate on core body and skin temperature regulation in narcolepsy. (United States)

    van der Heide, Astrid; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Pijl, Hanno; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Lammers, Gert J; Van Someren, Eus J W; Fronczek, Rolf


    Patients suffering from narcolepsy type 1 show altered skin temperatures, resembling the profile that is related to sleep onset in healthy controls. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sodium oxybate, a widely used drug to treat narcolepsy, on the 24-h profiles of temperature and sleep-wakefulness in patients with narcolepsy and controls. Eight hypocretin-deficient male narcolepsy type 1 patients and eight healthy matched controls underwent temperature measurement of core body and proximal and distal skin twice, and the sleep-wake state for 24 h. After the baseline assessment, 2 × 3 g of sodium oxybate was administered for 5 nights, immediately followed by the second assessment. At baseline, daytime core body temperature and proximal skin temperature were significantly lower in patients with narcolepsy (core: 36.8 ± 0.05 °C versus 37.0 ± 0.05 °C, F = 8.31, P = 0.01; proximal: 33.4 ± 0.26 °C versus 34.3 ± 0.26 °C, F = 5.66, P = 0.03). In patients, sodium oxybate administration increased proximal skin temperature during the day (F = 6.46, P = 0.04) to a level similar as in controls, but did not affect core body temperature, distal temperature or distal-proximal temperature gradient. Sodium oxybate administration normalised the predictive value of distal skin temperature and distal-proximal temperature gradient for the onset of daytime naps (P < 0.01). In conclusion, sodium oxybate administration resulted in a partial normalisation of the skin temperature profile, by increasing daytime proximal skin temperature, and by strengthening the known relationship between skin temperature and daytime sleep propensity. These changes seem to be related to the clinical improvement induced by sodium oxybate treatment. A causal relationship is not proven.

  11. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings. (United States)

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M


    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  12. Surviving breast cancer: women's experiences with their changed bodies. (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Burke, Shaunna


    In this study, we explored women's experiences with their bodies following treatment for breast cancer. Eleven women who had been treated for the disease (M(time since treatment)=4.45 years) were interviewed. Data were collected and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith et al., 2009). Four main themes emerged from the data: changing visibly and invisibly; experiencing intense thoughts and emotions; meaning of the body: a vehicle of health, well-being, and social expression; and managing and dealing with physical changes. Overall, the women experienced various physical changes that shaped, mostly in a negative way, their perceptions, thoughts, attitudes, feelings, and beliefs about their bodies. The women described attempts to make positive lifestyle behavior choices (e.g., diet, participate in physical activity), and used other strategies (e.g., wigs, make-up, clothes) to manage their appearances and restore positive body-related experiences. Based on these findings, it is important to be cognizant of women's body image concerns following breast cancer given the poignant and lasting effects they can have on their psychosocial and emotional well-being.

  13. Light masking of circadian rhythms of heat production, heat loss, and body temperature in squirrel monkeys (United States)

    Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.


    Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.

  14. The changes of holographic characteristics of photopolymer induced by temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingju Huang(黄明举); Huawen Yao(姚华文); Zhongyu Chen(陈仲裕); Lisong Hou(侯立松); Fuxi Gan(干福熹)


    The changes of holographic characteristics of photopolymer induced by temperature are studied experimentally. The results show that the exposure sensitivity increases with the increase of temperature. The maximum diffraction efficiency and the final maximum diffraction efficiency increase with the increase of temperature when the temperature is lower than Tg (glass transition temperature), while they decrease with the increase of temperature when the temperature is higher than Tg. The effect of the change of temperature on the saturation refractive index modulation is very weak.

  15. Climate change and shrinking salamanders: alternative mechanisms for changes in plethodontid salamander body size. (United States)

    Connette, Grant M; Crawford, John A; Peterman, William E


    An increasing number of studies have demonstrated relationships between climate trends and body size change of organisms. In many cases, climate might be expected to influence body size by altering thermoregulation, energetics or food availability. However, observed body size change can result from a variety of ecological processes (e.g. growth, selection, population dynamics) or imperfect observation of biological systems. We used two extensive datasets to evaluate alternative mechanisms for recently reported changes in the observed body size of plethodontid salamanders. We found that mean adult body size of salamanders can be highly sensitive to survey conditions, particularly rainfall. This systematic bias in the detection of larger or smaller individuals could result in a signature of body size change in relation to reported climate trends when it is simply observation error. We also identify considerable variability in body size distributions among years and find that individual growth rates can be strongly influenced by weather. Finally, our study demonstrates that measures of mean adult body size can be highly variable among surveys and that large sample sizes may be required to make reliable inferences. Identifying the effects of climate change is a critical area of research in ecology and conservation. Researchers should be aware that observed changes in certain organisms can result from multiple ecological processes or systematic bias due to nonrandom sampling of populations.

  16. Conservatism of lizard thermal tolerances and body temperatures across evolutionary history and geography. (United States)

    Grigg, Joseph W; Buckley, Lauren B


    Species may exhibit similar thermal tolerances via either common ancestry or environmental filtering and local adaptation, if the species inhabit similar environments. We ask whether upper and lower thermal limits (critical thermal maxima and minima) and body temperatures are more strongly conserved across evolutionary history or geography for lizard populations distributed globally. We find that critical thermal maxima are highly conserved with location accounting for a higher proportion of the variation than phylogeny. Notably, thermal tolerance breadth is conserved across the phylogeny despite critical thermal minima showing little niche conservatism. Body temperatures observed during activity in the field show the greatest degree of conservatism, with phylogeny accounting for most of the variation. This suggests that propensities for thermoregulatory behaviour, which can buffer body temperatures from environmental variation, are similar within lineages. Phylogeny and geography constrain thermal tolerances similarly within continents, but variably within clades. Conservatism of thermal tolerances across lineages suggests that the potential for local adaptation to alleviate the impacts of climate change on lizards may be limited.

  17. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  18. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie


    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  19. The change in body stressed to relaxed body through breathing, visualization and a protective environment together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn I. Rodríguez Morrill


    Full Text Available This work shows several ways to meet and relax the body through personal knowledge and techniques encounter with nature. Modern life and fast, the constant pressure from childhood to adulthood, in the modes of interaction between individuals and groups, they lead to construction of bodies that reflect emotional anatomy visible loss of balance, contractures, inflammation, multiple imbalances by lack of knowledge and awareness especially being in the world fully, the person has moved away from its ecological relationship with itself and the environment. Methods are shown to positively change a condition of constant stress and chronic discomfort, a learned condition of physical and psychological wellbeing, with a series of movements, recovering the body through exercise, to tend to personal balance, obtaining a positive relationship with the environment and the people attended. The proposal starts promoting new habits that can be saved in consciousness. Partly, mainly of breath, alignment with the music and the environment and personal and group work

  20. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight. (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P


    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight.

  1. Does gestation or feeding affect the body temperature of the golden lancehead, Bothrops insularis (Squamata: Viperidae under field conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael P. Bovo


    Full Text Available Temperature affects physiological performance in reptiles and, therefore, body temperature (Tb control is argued to have an important adaptive value. Alterations in Tb due to transient changes in physiological state, as during digestion or gestation, are often linked to the potential benefits of a more precise Tb regulation. However, such thermoregulatory responses in nature remain controversial, particularly for tropical snakes. Herein, we measured Tb of the golden lanceheads, Bothrops insularis (Amaral, 1921, at Queimada Grande Island, southeastern Brazil, to test for alteration in selected body temperatures associated with feeding or gestation. We found no evidence that postprandial or gravid snakes selected for higher Tb indicating that, under natural conditions, body temperature regulation in B. insularis apparently encompasses other ecological factors beyond physiological state per se.

  2. [Hyperthermia. Modification of body temperature as clinical therapeutics]. (United States)

    Vicuña Urtasun, Berta; Villalgordo Ortin, Paola; Montes García, Yolanda; Marín, Fernández Blanca


    The application of heat or cold therapy is called thermotherapy Thermotherapy has been used since ancient times, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans used solar radiation or submersion in springs to apply heat and ice and snow for cold application. The first scientific references related to thermotherapy appear in late eighteenth century but the twentieth century when the introduction of new forms of deep heat therapy have expanded their capabilities and their operation with media surface more comfortable and effective. Thermotherapy although they require more experimentation to obtain a solid scientific proof that their use is raising great expectations in various fields such as oncology treatment, surgery neurology etc. In the surgical field thermal ablation has been used successfully in the treatment of various diseases, benign prostatic hyperplasia, liver and gynecological tumors, among others. In the field of oncology has been shown to improve outcomes diathermy applied in conjunction with chemo and radiation therapy Based on the literature review describing the main uses of the change in temperature as a therapeutic, the main indications for these techniques, as applicable, evidence of its benefits and complications arising from their use.

  3. Nocturnal loss of body reserves reveals high survival risk for subordinate great tits wintering at extremely low ambient temperatures. (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Cīrule, Dina; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Nord, Andreas; Rantala, Markus J; Krama, Tatjana


    Winter acclimatization in birds is a complex of several strategies based on metabolic adjustment accompanied by long-term management of resources such as fattening. However, wintering birds often maintain fat reserves below their physiological capacity, suggesting a cost involved with excessive levels of reserves. We studied body reserves of roosting great tits in relation to their dominance status under two contrasting temperature regimes to see whether individuals are capable of optimizing their survival strategies under extreme environmental conditions. We predicted less pronounced loss of body mass and body condition and lower rates of overnight mortality in dominant great tits at both mild and extremely low ambient temperatures, when ambient temperature dropped down to -43 °C. The results showed that dominant great tits consistently maintained lower reserve levels than subordinates regardless of ambient temperature. However, dominants responded to the rising risk of starvation under low temperatures by increasing their body reserves, whereas subdominant birds decreased reserve levels in harsh conditions. Yet, their losses of body mass and body reserves were always lower than in subordinate birds. None of the dominant great tits were found dead, while five young females and one adult female were found dead in nest boxes during cold spells when ambient temperatures dropped down to -43 °C. The dead great tits lost up to 23.83 % of their evening body mass during cold nights while surviving individuals lost on average 12.78 % of their evening body mass. Our results show that fattening strategies of great tits reflect an adaptive role of winter fattening which is sensitive to changes in ambient temperatures and differs among individuals of different social ranks.

  4. Low-temperature softening in body-centered cubic alloys (United States)

    Pink, E.; Arsenault, R. J.


    In the low-temperature range, bcc alloys exhibit a lower stress-temperature dependence than the pure base metals. This effect often leads to a phenomenon that is called 'alloy softening': at low temperatures, the yield stress of an alloy may be lower than that of the base metal. Various theories are reviewed; the most promising are based either on extrinsic or intrinsic models of low-temperature deformation. Some other aspects of alloy softening are discussed, among them the effects on the ductile-brittle transition temperature.

  5. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia (United States)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.


    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  6. Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation. (United States)

    Collins, Christopher M; Smith, Michael B; Turner, Robert


    Experimental results for changes in brain temperature during functional activation show large variations. It is, therefore, desirable to develop a careful numerical model for such changes. Here, a three-dimensional model of temperature in the human head using the bioheat equation, which includes effects of metabolism, perfusion, and thermal conduction, is employed to examine potential temperature changes due to functional activation in brain. It is found that, depending on location in brain and corresponding baseline temperature relative to blood temperature, temperature may increase or decrease on activation and concomitant increases in perfusion and rate of metabolism. Changes in perfusion are generally seen to have a greater effect on temperature than are changes in metabolism, and hence active brain is predicted to approach blood temperature from its initial temperature. All calculated changes in temperature for reasonable physiological parameters have magnitudes <0.12 degrees C and are well within the range reported in recent experimental studies involving human subjects.

  7. 低温体外循环术后体温变化对血乳酸及氧代谢的影响%Effects of body temperature change on the level of lactic acid and oxygen metabolism after the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继芝; 彭玉兰; 秦卫华


    Objective To investigate the effects of body temperature change on the level of arterial blood lactic acid and oxygen metabolism after the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB),and to provide a basis for controlling body temperature of patients.Methods 60 patients performed the open cardiac operation under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass were monitored.The arterial and mixed venous blood gas,and the level of lactic acid were measured at four different rectal temperatures:37,37.5,38℃ and 38.5℃,by taking samples of arterial and venous bloods.Results The systemic arterial-venous oxygen content and oxygen extraction were increased during rewarming time.The level of arterial blood lactic acid at the rectal temperature of 37.5℃ mostly approachs the nornlal is at the rectal temperature of 37℃ and 38 ℃,respectively.And the level of arterial blood laetic acid at the rectal temperature of 38.5℃ is the hilghest (hyperlactacidemia).The difference shows a statistically significance.Conclusions During the rewarming process after the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB),the body temperature change is a key factor influencing oxygen extraction and blood lactic acid level.The nursing staff should control the body temperature of patients with the safe range of around 37.5℃.%目的 探讨低温体外循环心脏术后复温过程中体温变化对血乳酸水平及氧代谢的影响,为合理控制患者体温提供依据.方法 对60例低温体外循环心脏术后患者进行监测,分别在肛温37,37.5,38,38.5℃时采集动、静脉血标本,检测动静脉血氧代谢及血乳酸值.结果 复温时全身的氧耗量明显增加;动脉血乳酸值在肛温37.5℃时最接近正常,37,38℃时次之,肛温38.5℃时血乳酸值最高(高乳酸血症),差异有统计学意义.结论 在低温体外循环心脏术后复温过程中,体温变化是影响氧耗量和血乳酸水平的重要因素,护理人员应将患者体温控制在37.5℃左右的安全范围内.

  8. Non-invasive, transient determination of the core temperature of a heat-generating solid body. (United States)

    Anthony, Dean; Sarkar, Daipayan; Jain, Ankur


    While temperature on the surface of a heat-generating solid body can be easily measured using a variety of methods, very few techniques exist for non-invasively measuring the temperature inside the solid body as a function of time. Measurement of internal temperature is very desirable since measurement of just the surface temperature gives no indication of temperature inside the body, and system performance and safety is governed primarily by the highest temperature, encountered usually at the core of the body. This paper presents a technique to non-invasively determine the internal temperature based on the theoretical relationship between the core temperature and surface temperature distribution on the outside of a heat-generating solid body as functions of time. Experiments using infrared thermography of the outside surface of a thermal test cell in a variety of heating and cooling conditions demonstrate good agreement of the predicted core temperature as a function of time with actual core temperature measurement using an embedded thermocouple. This paper demonstrates a capability to thermally probe inside solid bodies in a non-invasive fashion. This directly benefits the accurate performance prediction and control of a variety of engineering systems where the time-varying core temperature plays a key role.

  9. Non-invasive, transient determination of the core temperature of a heat-generating solid body (United States)

    Anthony, Dean; Sarkar, Daipayan; Jain, Ankur


    While temperature on the surface of a heat-generating solid body can be easily measured using a variety of methods, very few techniques exist for non-invasively measuring the temperature inside the solid body as a function of time. Measurement of internal temperature is very desirable since measurement of just the surface temperature gives no indication of temperature inside the body, and system performance and safety is governed primarily by the highest temperature, encountered usually at the core of the body. This paper presents a technique to non-invasively determine the internal temperature based on the theoretical relationship between the core temperature and surface temperature distribution on the outside of a heat-generating solid body as functions of time. Experiments using infrared thermography of the outside surface of a thermal test cell in a variety of heating and cooling conditions demonstrate good agreement of the predicted core temperature as a function of time with actual core temperature measurement using an embedded thermocouple. This paper demonstrates a capability to thermally probe inside solid bodies in a non-invasive fashion. This directly benefits the accurate performance prediction and control of a variety of engineering systems where the time-varying core temperature plays a key role.

  10. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity. (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki


    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs.

  11. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A.; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J.; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Eiler, John M.


    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ~6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  12. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds. (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J


    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  13. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to infarct size and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); Scheijmans, F.E.V. (Féline E.V.); T. van Seeters (Tom); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Y. B W E M); L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); Greve, D. (Droogh-de); H.P. Bienfait; M.A. van Walderveen (M.); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (W.); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); Bot, J.; M.C. Visser (Marieke); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); van Seeters, T.; A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)


    textabstractBackground: High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute

  14. Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles. (United States)

    Janzen, F J


    Despite increasing concern over the possible impact of global temperature change, there is little empirical evidence of direct temperature effects on biotic interactions in natural systems. Clear assessment of the ecological and evolutionary impact of changing climatic temperature requires a natural system in which populations exhibit a direct unambiguous fitness response to thermal fluctuation. I monitored nests of a population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) with temperature-dependent sex determination to investigate the causal relationship between local climatic variation in temperature and offspring sex ratio. Consistent with theoretical predictions, annual offspring sex ratio was highly correlated with mean July air temperature, validating concerns about the effect of climate change on population demography. This correlation implies that even modest increases in mean temperature (evolve rapidly enough to counteract the negative fitness consequences of rapid global temperature change. Populations of species with temperature-dependent sex determination may serve as ideal indicators of the biological impact of global temperature change.

  15. Novel Analytic Methods Needed for Real-Time Continuous Core Body Temperature Data. (United States)

    Hertzberg, Vicki; Mac, Valerie; Elon, Lisa; Mutic, Nathan; Mutic, Abby; Peterman, Katherine; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Economos, Eugenia; Flocks, Joan; McCauley, Linda


    Affordable measurement of core body temperature (Tc) in a continuous, real-time fashion is now possible. With this advance comes a new data analysis paradigm for occupational epidemiology. We characterize issues arising after obtaining Tc data over 188 workdays for 83 participating farmworkers, a population vulnerable to effects of rising temperatures due to climate change. We describe a novel approach to these data using smoothing and functional data analysis. This approach highlights different data aspects compared with describing Tc at a single time point or summaries of the time course into an indicator function (e.g., did Tc ever exceed 38 °C, the threshold limit value for occupational heat exposure). Participants working in ferneries had significantly higher Tc at some point during the workday compared with those working in nurseries, despite a shorter workday for fernery participants. Our results typify the challenges and opportunities in analyzing big data streams from real-time physiologic monitoring.

  16. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pifferi


    Full Text Available In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly.

  17. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J. Littman, PhD


    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96 and 3,790 men without amputation frequency-matched (5:1 on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline up to 39 mo of follow-up in men with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%–9% increase than in men with a PFA (3%–6% increase. Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  18. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men. (United States)

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J


    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  19. Body temperature measurements in pigs during general anaesthesia. (United States)

    Musk, G C; Costa, R S; Tuke, J


    The aim was to compare rectal, pharyngeal and oesophageal temperature measurements in anaesthetized pigs. Data were compared using the Bland-Altman method, and correlation coefficients and error measures were calculated. Sixty-six sets of data were collected from 16 pigs weighing 16.2 ± 4.2 kg. The bias (and 95% limit of agreement) for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature were 0.69 (-1.18 to 2.57) ℃ and 0.22 (-0.84 to 1.28) ℃, respectively. The correlation coefficients for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature were 0.47 and 0.87, respectively. The absolute error for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature was 0.7 ± 0.9℃ and 0.2 ± 0.5℃, respectively. Pharyngeal temperature measurement may be more suitable than rectal temperature measurement for estimation of oesophageal temperature during general anaesthesia of pigs.

  20. Early changes in corticospinal excitability when seeing fearful body expressions. (United States)

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Vitale, Francesca; Avenanti, Alessio


    Quick inhibition of approach tendencies in response to signals of potential threats is thought to promote survival. However, little is known about the effect of viewing fearful expressions on the early dynamics of the human motor system. We used the high temporal resolution of single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex to assess corticospinal excitability (CSE) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) during observation of happy, fearful and neutral body postures. To test motor circuits involved in approach tendencies, CSE and ICF were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), a muscle involved in grasping, and the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), which served as a control. To test early motor dynamics, CSE and ICF were measured 70-90 ms after stimulus onset. We found a selective reduction in CSE in the FDI when participants observed fearful body expressions. No changes in ICF or in the excitability of APB were detected. Our study establishes an extremely rapid motor system reaction to observed fearful body expressions. This motor modulation involves corticospinal downstream projections but not cortical excitatory mechanisms, and appears to reflect an inhibition of hand grasping. Our results suggest a fast visuo-motor route that may rapidly inhibit inappropriate approaching actions.

  1. Change of MMP dependent on temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Akwansa, Eugene


    substantially depend on temperature, - at  temperature 50oC the distance between A and B is longer, - at temperature 70oC the A-B part of curve is smooth and scarcely seen.      The observations made are important for determination of MMP. If point A is taken as MMP instead of point B, it is a big...

  2. Effects of GABA agonists on body temperature regulation in GABA(B(1))-/- mice. (United States)

    Quéva, Christophe; Bremner-Danielsen, Marianne; Edlund, Anders; Ekstrand, A Jonas; Elg, Susanne; Erickson, Sven; Johansson, Thore; Lehmann, Anders; Mattsson, Jan P


    1. Activation of GABA(B) receptors evokes hypothermia in wildtype (GABA(B(1))+/+) but not in GABA(B) receptor knockout (GABA(B(1))-/-) mice. The aim of the present study was to determine the hypothermic and behavioural effects of the putative GABA(B) receptor agonist gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol. In addition, basal body temperature was determined in GABA(B(1))+/+, GABA(B(1))+/- and GABA(B(1))-/- mice. 2. GABA(B(1))-/- mice were generated by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Correct gene targeting was assessed by Southern blotting, PCR and Western blotting. GABA(B) receptor-binding sites were quantified with radioligand binding. Measurement of body temperature was done using subcutaneous temperature-sensitive chips, and behavioural changes after drug administration were scored according to a semiquantitative scale. 3. GABA(B(1))-/- mice had a short lifespan, probably caused by generalised seizure activity. No histopathological or blood chemistry changes were seen, but the expression of GABA(B(2)) receptor protein was below the detection limit in brains from GABA(B(1))-/- mice, in the absence of changes in mRNA levels. 4. GABA(B) receptor-binding sites were absent in brain membranes from GABA(B(1))-/- mice. 5. GABA(B(1))-/- mice were hypothermic by approximately 1 degrees C compared to GABA(B(1))+/+ and GABA(B(1))+/- mice. 6. Injection of baclofen (9.6 mg kg-1) produced a large reduction in body temperature and behavioural effects in GABA(B(1))+/+ and in GABA(B(1))+/- mice, but GABA(B(1))-/- mice were unaffected. The same pattern was seen after administration of GHB (400 mg kg-1). The GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (2 mg kg-1), on the other hand, produced a more pronounced hypothermia in GABA(B(1))-/-mice. In GABA(B(1))+/+ and GABA(B(1))+/- mice, muscimol induced sedation and reduced locomotor activity. However, when given to GABA(B(1))-/- mice, muscimol triggered periods of intense jumping and wild

  3. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Body Temperature and Rest Metabolic Rate in Apodemus chevrieri During Postnatal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature(5oC and 10oC, relatively and RMR significant increased when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature(35oC when 28 day; when day age was 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of A. chevrieri in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  4. Optimization of a pain model: effects of body temperature and anesthesia on bladder nociception in mice. (United States)

    Sadler, Katelyn E; Stratton, Jarred M; DeBerry, Jennifer J; Kolber, Benedict J


    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating urological condition that is resistant to treatment and poorly understood. To determine novel molecular treatment targets and to elucidate the contribution of the nervous system to IC/BPS, many rodent bladder pain models have been developed. In this study we evaluated the effects of anesthesia induction and temperature variation in a mouse model of bladder pain known as urinary bladder distension (UBD). In this model compressed air is used to distend the bladder to distinct pressures while electrodes record the reflexive visceromotor response (VMR) from the overlying abdominal muscle. Two isoflurane induction models are commonly used before UBD: a short method lasting approximately 30 minutes and a long method lasting approximately 90 minutes. Animals were anesthetized with one of the methods then put through three sets of graded bladder distensions. Distensions performed following the short anesthesia protocol were significantly different from one another despite identical testing parameters; this same effect was not observed when the long anesthesia protocol was used. In order to determine the effect of temperature on VMRs, animals were put through three graded distension sets at 37.5 (normal mouse body temperature), 35.5, and 33.5°C. Distensions performed at 33.5 and 35.5°C were significantly lower than those performed at 37.5°C. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed significantly smaller increases in spinal levels of phosphorylated extracellular-signal regulated kinase 2 (pERK2) following bladder distension in animals whose body temperature was maintained at 33.5°C as opposed to 37.5°C. These results highlight the significance of the dynamic effects of anesthesia on pain-like changes and the importance of close monitoring of temperature while performing UBD. For successful interpretation of VMRs and translation to human disease, body temperature should be maintained at 37.5

  5. Determinants and nature of intramuscular temperature changes during cold therapy. (United States)

    Lowdon, B J; Moore, R J


    The purpose of this study was to examine the intramuscular temperature response during an ice massage treatment. In addition, the effect of subcutaneous tissue thickness and limb circumference on temperature changes was investigated. Intramuscular temperature was measured by intramuscular thermocouples each minute during ice massage treatments of five, ten and fifteen minutes. It was shown that ice massage produces a significant drop in intramuscular temperature. However, there was no significant difference in temperature change after five minutes of treatment. In addition it was shown that there is a high multiple correlation between logarithmic time, subcutaneous tissue thickness, limb circumference, and intramuscular temperature change.

  6. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira Maria Karvinen


    Full Text Available The production of heat , i.e. thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect body temperature. Here we use rat models that differ for maximal running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten HCR and ten LCR female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after one year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001. Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a marked impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001 allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c and OXPHOS contents in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050. These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0.050, but not that of HCRs. In conclusion, rats born with high intrinsic aerobic capacity and better health have higher body temperature compared to rats born with low aerobic

  7. Constraints on the Adiabatic Temperature Change in Magnetocaloric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders


    The thermodynamics of the magnetocaloric effect implies constraints on the allowed variation in the adiabatic temperature change for a magnetocaloric material. An inequality for the derivative of the adiabatic temperature change with respect to temperature is derived for both first- and second...

  8. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia). (United States)

    Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José


    Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes.

  9. Temperature and body weight affect fouling of pig pens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Stefanowska, J.; Huynh, T.T.T.


    Fouling of the solid lying area in pig housing is undesirable for reasons of animal welfare, animal health, environmental pollution, and labor costs. In this study the influence of temperature on the excreting and lying behavior of growing-finishing pigs of different BW (25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 kg) w

  10. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel


    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  11. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows. (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W


    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  12. Serotonergic mediated body mass index changes in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Politis, Marios; Loane, Clare; Wu, Kit; Brooks, David J; Piccini, Paola


    More than 50% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are expected to show abnormalities with their weight in a process that starts several years before the diagnosis. The serotonergic (5-HT) system has been proposed to regulate appetite and the 5-HT transporter (SERT) is a key modulator of 5-HT metabolism. Here, we hypothesized that a dysfunctional 5-HT system could be responsible for alterations of weight in PD and we sought to investigate this in vivo. Thirty four PD patients had Body Mass Index (BMI) changes monitored over a 12-month period and one positron emission tomography (PET) brain scan with (11)C-DASB, a selective marker of SERT availability, during their second clinical assessment. Results were compared with those of a group of 10 normal controls. Half (17) of the PD patients showed abnormal BMI changes over the 12-month period; 12 lost while 5 gained weight. PD patients with abnormal BMI changes showed significantly raised (11)C-DASB binding in rostral raphe nuclei, hypothalamus, caudate nucleus and ventral striatum compared to cases with no significant BMI changes. (11)C-DASB binding in other regions was similarly decreased in the PD BMI subgroups compared to normal controls. BMI gainers showed significantly raised (11)C-DASB binding in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) compared to BMI losers. Our findings suggest that abnormal BMI changes over a 12-month period are linked with relatively raised SERT availability in PD on an overall background of decreased 5-HT function. The regions implicated are the rostral raphe nuclei and its connections to limbic and cognitive areas. It is conceivable that 5-HT agents could help alleviate abnormal changes in BMI in PD.

  13. Body temperatures and associated postures of the zebra-tailed lizard, Callisaurus draconoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, A.


    Body temperature and associated postures of the zebra-tailed lizard, Callisaurus draconoides, were examined in the field and laboratory. Three distinct postures are described: prostrate, tail-down and elevated. The mean body temperatures of the respective postures in the field were: 33.9, 40.5 and 42.7 C. In the laboratory, heating rates were greatest for the prostrate posture and least for the elevated posture. Body temperatures and heating rates are significantly correlated with posture. These correlations suggest that the postures are associated with behavioral thermoregulation in the field.

  14. Emperor penguin body surfaces cool below air temperature. (United States)

    McCafferty, D J; Gilbert, C; Thierry, A-M; Currie, J; Le Maho, Y; Ancel, A


    Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri are able to survive the harsh Antarctic climate because of specialized anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations for minimizing heat loss. Heat transfer theory predicts that metabolic heat loss in this species will mostly depend on radiative and convective cooling. To examine this, thermal imaging of emperor penguins was undertaken at the breeding colony of Pointe Géologie in Terre Adélie (66°40' S 140° 01' E), Antarctica in June 2008. During clear sky conditions, most outer surfaces of the body were colder than surrounding sub-zero air owing to radiative cooling. In these conditions, the feather surface will paradoxically gain heat by convection from surrounding air. However, owing to the low thermal conductivity of plumage any heat transfer to the skin surface will be negligible. Future thermal imaging studies are likely to yield further insights into the adaptations of this species to the Antarctic climate.

  15. Effects of Body Weight and Water Temperature on Maximum Food Consumption of Juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢松光; 杨红生; 周毅; 张福绥


    Maximum rate of food consumption (Cmax) was determined for juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn) at water temperature of 10, 15, 20 and 25℃. The relationships of Cmax to the body weight (W) at each temperature were described by a power equation: lnCmax = a + b lnW. Covariance analysis revealed significant interaction of the temperature and body weight. The relationship of adjusted Cmax to water temperature (T) was described by a quadratic equation: Cmax =-0.369 + 0.456T - 0.0117T2. The optimal feeding temperature calculated from this equation was 19.5℃. The coefficients of the multiple regression estimation relating Cmax to body weight (W) and water temperature (T) were given in the Table 2.

  16. Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles.


    Janzen, F. J.


    Despite increasing concern over the possible impact of global temperature change, there is little empirical evidence of direct temperature effects on biotic interactions in natural systems. Clear assessment of the ecological and evolutionary impact of changing climatic temperature requires a natural system in which populations exhibit a direct unambiguous fitness response to thermal fluctuation. I monitored nests of a population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) with temperature-dependent ...

  17. Global surface temperature change analysis based on MODIS data in recent twelve years (United States)

    Mao, K. B.; Ma, Y.; Tan, X. L.; Shen, X. Y.; Liu, G.; Li, Z. L.; Chen, J. M.; Xia, L.


    Global surface temperature change is one of the most important aspects in global climate change research. In this study, in order to overcome shortcomings of traditional observation methods in meteorology, a new method is proposed to calculate global mean surface temperature based on remote sensing data. We found that (1) the global mean surface temperature was close to 14.35 °C from 2001 to 2012, and the warmest and coldest surface temperatures of the global in the recent twelve years occurred in 2005 and 2008, respectively; (2) the warmest and coldest surface temperatures on the global land surface occurred in 2005 and 2001, respectively, and on the global ocean surface in 2010 and 2008, respectively; and (3) in recent twelve years, although most regions (especially the Southern Hemisphere) are warming, global warming is yet controversial because it is cooling in the central and eastern regions of Pacific Ocean, northern regions of the Atlantic Ocean, northern regions of China, Mongolia, southern regions of Russia, western regions of Canada and America, the eastern and northern regions of Australia, and the southern tip of Africa. The analysis of daily and seasonal temperature change indicates that the temperature change is mainly caused by the variation of orbit of celestial body. A big data model based on orbit position and gravitational-magmatic change of celestial body with the solar or the galactic system should be built and taken into account for climate and ecosystems change at a large spatial-temporal scale.

  18. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen


    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  19. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C


    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  20. Low-cost compact thermal imaging sensors for body temperature measurement (United States)

    Han, Myung-Soo; Han, Seok Man; Kim, Hyo Jin; Shin, Jae Chul; Ahn, Mi Sook; Kim, Hyung Won; Han, Yong Hee


    This paper presents a 32x32 microbolometer thermal imaging sensor for human body temperature measurement. Waferlevel vacuum packaging technology allows us to get a low cost and compact imaging sensor chip. The microbolometer uses V-W-O film as sensing material and ROIC has been designed 0.35-um CMOS process in UMC. A thermal image of a human face and a hand using f/1 lens convinces that it has a potential of human body temperature for commercial use.

  1. MRI Could Be Changed Vertebral Body Fracture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jalal Shokouki


    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Evaluation of spinal column fracture or trauma with MRI in more than two years among 500 patients can change classifications of frac-tures that is important because of intervention ther-apy methods like vertebroplasty and kyfoplasty. As there are changes at Salter harrie fractures, classifica-tion, treatments` way, and management of vertebral body fracture will change. Also MRI can show inter-nal parts ruptures, vessel punctures, and show the size of hematomas."nPatients and Methods: Fifty patients at two imaging centers have been tested with MRI 1.5 tesla machines from GE and Siemens with superficial coil, and all of them had vertebral column trauma. We used T1 and T2 sagital and in some cases STIR or FAT SAT sagital. "nResults: Among our cases, 147 had fractures, and two cases had spinal punctures. The most common from of fractures were anterior wedging with compression of upper endplate. "nThe maximum fractures were five in a single trauma and mostly there were 2-3 fractures in a single trau-ma. Most of the fractures did not appear at X-ray, but they revealed at MRI specially with STIR pulse."nConclusion: 1 MRI especially STIR pulse is definite and sensitive to compression even in slight among which can be hidden from X-ray and CT. 2 Findings number and form of fractures with MRI, comparing with clinical signs will change classification of verte-bral fractures that leads to the better treatment re-sults. 3 CT is better for vertebral appendix fractures. 4 MRI is better for seeing complications of soft tis-sue. 5 MRI is better for siagnosins of old complica-tions and old fractures.

  2. Tourette syndrome associated with body temperature dysregulation: possible involvement of an idiopathic hypothalamic disorder. (United States)

    Kessler, Abraham R


    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder that holds the potential to afflict the emotional, familial, social, or scholastic performances of patients with Tourette syndrome in day-to-day life functioning. The disorder is today characterized mainly and diagnosed by clinical observations, yet false-negative results obtained in the diagnosis of Tourette syndrome are numerous and well documented. There is still no laboratory or imaging technique available for the diagnosis of Tourette syndrome. This article reports on changes of the ambient thermal perception (38%) and a circadian dysregulation of the body-temperature profile present in Tourette syndrome probands, irrespective of their chronologic age, sex, or comorbid symptoms. An involvement of idiopathic hypothalamic dysfunctions associated with Tourette syndrome is proposed. Such a phenomenon, if substantiated, could lead to a better understanding of Tourette syndrome and the development of unbiased physical diagnostic criteria of Tourette syndrome and potentiate possible production of novel therapeutic possibilities.

  3. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity. (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole


    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  4. Zero-Heat-Flux Thermometry for Non-Invasive Measurement of Core Body Temperature in Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guschlbauer

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is a severe, unpleasant side effect during general anesthesia. Thus, temperature surveillance is a prerequisite in general anesthesia settings during experimental surgeries. The gold standard to measure the core body temperature (Tcore is placement of a Swan-Ganz catheter in the pulmonary artery, which is a highly invasive procedure. Therefore, Tcore is commonly examined in the urine bladder and rectum. However, these procedures are known for their inaccuracy and delayed record of temperatures. Zero-heat-flux (ZHF thermometry is an alternative, non-invasive method quantifying Tcore in human patients by applying a thermosensoric patch to the lateral forehead. Since the porcine cranial anatomy is different to the human's, the optimal location of the patch remains unclear to date. The aim was to compare three different patch locations of ZHF thermometry in a porcine hypothermia model. Hypothermia (33.0 °C Tcore was conducted in 11 anesthetized female pigs (26-30 kg. Tcore was measured continuously by an invasive Swan-Ganz catheter in the pulmonary artery (Tpulm. A ZHF thermometry device was mounted on three different defined locations. The smallest average difference between Tpulm and TZHF during stable temperatures was 0.21 ± 0.16 °C at location A, where the patch was placed directly behind the eye. Also during rapidly changing temperatures location A showed the smallest bias with 0.48 ± 0.29 °C. Location A provided the most reliable data for Tcore. Therefore, the ZHF thermometry patch should be placed directly behind the left temporal corner of the eye to provide a non-invasive method for accurate measurement of Tcore in pigs.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Development time and body weight of In(2L)t, R (a putative short inversion on the left arm of the second chromosome) and ST (standard) karyotypes of Drosophila melanogaster were measured at different temperatures. Frequency changes were followed in populations polymorphic for In(2L)t and ST and kept

  6. Contrasting effects of temperature and precipitation change on amphibian phenology, abundance and performance. (United States)

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Maiorano, Luigi


    Climate change is determining a generalized phenological advancement, and amphibians are among the taxa showing the strongest phenological responsiveness to warming temperatures. Amphibians are strongly influenced by climate change, but we do not have a clear picture of how climate influences important parameters of amphibian populations, such as abundance, survival, breeding success and morphology. Furthermore, the relative impact of temperature and precipitation change remains underappreciated. We used Bayesian meta-analysis and meta-regression to quantify the impact of temperature and precipitation change on amphibian phenology, abundance, individual features and performance. We obtained effect sizes from studies performed in five continents. Temperature increase was the major driver of phenological advancement, while the impact of precipitation on phenology was weak. Conversely, population dynamics was mostly determined by precipitation: negative trends were associated with drying regimes. The impact of precipitation on abundance was particularly strong in tropical areas, while the importance of temperature was feeble. Both temperature and precipitation influenced parameters representing breeding performance, morphology, developmental rate and survival, but the response was highly heterogeneous among species. For instance, warming temperature increased body size in some species, and decreased size in others. Similarly, rainy periods increased survival of some species and reduced the survival of others. Our study showed contrasting impacts of temperature and precipitation changes on amphibian populations. Both climatic parameters strongly influenced amphibian performance, but temperature was the major determinant of the phenological changes, while precipitation had the major role on population dynamics, with alarming declines associated with drying trends.

  7. Observational Evidence of Changes in Soil Temperatures across Eurasian Continent (United States)

    Zhang, T.


    Soil temperature is one of the key climate change indicators and plays an important role in plant growth, agriculture, carbon cycle and ecosystems as a whole. In this study, variability and changes in ground surface and soil temperatures up to 3.20 m were investigated based on data and information obtained from hydrometeorological stations across Eurasian continent since the early 1950s. Ground surface and soil temperatures were measured daily by using the same standard method and by the trained professionals across Eurasian continent, which makes the dataset unique and comparable over a large study region. Using the daily soil temperature profiles, soil seasonal freeze depth was also obtained through linear interpolation. Preliminary results show that soil temperatures at various depths have increased dramatically, almost twice as much as air temperature increase over the same period. Regionally, soil temperature increase was more dramatically in high northern latitudes than mid/lower latitude regions. Air temperature changes alone may not be able to fully explain the magnitude of changes in soil temperatures. Further study indicates that snow cover establishment started later in autumn and snow cover disappearance occurred earlier in spring, while winter snow depth became thicker with a decreasing trend of snow density. Changes in snow cover conditions may play an important role in changes of soil temperatures over the Eurasian continent.

  8. Climate Change Signal Analysis for Northeast Asian Surface Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Byungsoo KIM; Keon-Tae SOHN; Won-Tae KOWN; Seung-Ki MIN


    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO42-) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SOl- effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959-1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10%-21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO42- played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO24- scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1° by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  9. Core Temperature and Surface Heat Flux During Exercise in Heat While Wearing Body Armor (United States)



  10. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Gabriel A; Clissold, Fiona J; Mayntz, David


    Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design...

  11. Agreement between auricular and rectal measurements of body temperature in healthy cats. (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C


    Measurement of body temperature is a routine part of the clinical assessment of a patient. However, this procedure may be time-consuming and stressful to most animals because the standard site of temperature acquisition remains the rectal mucosa. Although an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature, evidence is still lacking regarding agreement between these two methods in cats. In this investigation, we evaluated the agreement between temperatures measured in the rectum and ear in 29 healthy cats over a 2-week period. Temperatures were measured in the rectum (using digital and mercury-in-glass thermometers) and ear once a day for 14 consecutive days, producing 406 temperature readings for each thermometer. Mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar between methods, and Bland-Altman plots showed small biases and narrow limits of agreement acceptable for clinical purposes. The interobserver variability was also checked, which indicated a strong correlation between two near-simultaneous temperature readings. Results are consistent with auricular thermometry being a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature in healthy cats.

  12. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors. (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L


    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model.

  13. Novel energy-saving strategies to multiple stressors in birds: the ultradian regulation of body temperature. (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Roussel, Damien; Voituron, Yann; Teulier, Loïc


    This study aimed to examine thermoregulatory responses in birds facing two commonly experienced stressors, cold and fasting. Logging devices allowing long-term and precise access to internal body temperature were placed within the gizzards of ducklings acclimated to cold (CA) (5°C) or thermoneutrality (TN) (25°C). The animals were then examined under three equal 4-day periods: ad libitum feeding, fasting and re-feeding. Through the analysis of daily as well as short-term, or ultradian, variations of body temperature, we showed that while ducklings at TN show only a modest decline in daily thermoregulatory parameters when fasted, they exhibit reduced surface temperatures from key sites of vascular heat exchange during fasting. The CA birds, on the other hand, significantly reduced their short-term variations of body temperature while increasing long-term variability when fasting. This phenomenon would allow the CA birds to reduce the energetic cost of body temperature maintenance under fasting. By analysing ultradian regulation of body temperature, we describe a means by which an endotherm appears to lower thermoregulatory costs in response to the combined stressors of cold and fasting.

  14. Perceived intensity of peripheral thermal stimuli is independent of internal body temperature. (United States)

    Mower, G D


    Four adult male human subjects were tested under three conditions of internal body temperature: hypothermia, normal, and hyperthermia. Under each of these conditions, they judged the intensity (degree of warmness or coolness) and the hedonic quality (degree of pleasantness or unpleasantness) of a series of stimuli ranging from hot to cold. The results showed that whereas hedonic quality is greatly influenced by the value of internal body temperature, the perception of warmness or coolness is independent of internal temperature and dependent only on peripheral stimulation.

  15. Thermogenic alterations in the woman. II. Basal body, afternoon, and bedtime temperatures. (United States)

    Zuspan, K J; Zuspan, F P


    19 female college students aged 17-20 years volunteered to participate in an experiment whereby they took their temperatures on 1st rising, at 5 p.m., and at bedtime for a minimum of 1 complete ovulation cycle. 3 parallel curves were found with the afternoon temperature being .7 degrees Farenheit higher than the basal and .3 degrees higher than the bedtime temperature. Several graphs illustrate the curve patterns. It is concluded that either the afternoon or the evening temperature can be used instead of the rising (or basal body) temperature, with an adjustment of the correct amount.

  16. Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves (United States)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Evans, Jason P.


    Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

  17. [Changes in body composition during an extreme endurance run]. (United States)

    Knechtle, B; Bircher, S


    We measured before, during and after a six-day-run in one athlete body weight, skinfold thickness, circumference of extremities, energy expenditure and nutritional intake. Despite an increased fat and protein intake during the race we found a significantly decrease in adipose subcutaneous tissue of the whole body and muscle mass in the active limbs whereas body weight remained stable. We presume that during running as eccentric exercise subcutaneous adipose tissue and muscle mass will be oxidised.

  18. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature (United States)

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy


    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  19. Method for changing brightness temperature into true temperature based on twice recognition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Song; Xiaogang Sun; Hong Tang


    The channel output of a multi-wavelength pyrometer is the brightness temperature rather than the true temperature. Twice recognition method is put forward to change the brightness temperatures of a multiwavelength pyrometer into the true temperatures of targets. Using the data offered by Dr. F. Righini,the experimental results show that the difference between the calculated true temperature based on twice recognition method and the real true temperature is within ±20 K. The method presented in this paper is feasible and effective for the true temperature measurement of targets.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉红; 郑祖光


    The temperature change trends in January and July are analyzed and the results show that the trends descend in July but ascend in January except in South China and Southwest China. The relation between the temperature in January and July are discussed by using the wavelet. The results show that the trend phase in July and January are nearly in-phase in Southwest and South China, but are out-of-phase in other regions. Reconstruction of original temperature series in each of the regions indicates that their change trends are consistent with the original temperature series.

  1. Locatable-body temperature monitoring based on semi-active UHF RFID tags. (United States)

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng


    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program.

  2. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.


    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  3. [Realization of an adaptive method of simulating the process of temperature change of a cadaver on a microcomputer]. (United States)

    Shved, E F; Novikov, P I; Vlasov, A Iu


    Programme based on mathematical model of the process of dead body temperature changing was developed for estimation of postmortem interval. Automatic retrieval of problem solution was performed on programmable microcalculators of "Electronica MK-61" type using adaptive approach. Diagnostical accuracy in case of dead body being preserved in permanent cooling conditions is +/- 3%.

  4. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications (United States)

    Ismail, A. H.; Leonhardt, S.


    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  5. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin


    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  6. Compensating temperature-induced ultrasonic phase and amplitude changes (United States)

    Gong, Peng; Hay, Thomas R.; Greve, David W.; Junker, Warren R.; Oppenheim, Irving J.


    In ultrasonic structural health monitoring (SHM), environmental and operational conditions, especially temperature, can significantly affect the propagation of ultrasonic waves and thus degrade damage detection. Typically, temperature effects are compensated using optimal baseline selection (OBS) or optimal signal stretch (OSS). The OSS method achieves compensation by adjusting phase shifts caused by temperature, but it does not fully compensate phase shifts and it does not compensate for accompanying signal amplitude changes. In this paper, we develop a new temperature compensation strategy to address both phase shifts and amplitude changes. In this strategy, OSS is first used to compensate some of the phase shifts and to quantify the temperature effects by stretching factors. Based on stretching factors, empirical adjusting factors for a damage indicator are then applied to compensate for the temperature induced remaining phase shifts and amplitude changes. The empirical adjusting factors can be trained from baseline data with temperature variations in the absence of incremental damage. We applied this temperature compensation approach to detect volume loss in a thick wall aluminum tube with multiple damage levels and temperature variations. Our specimen is a thick-walled short tube, with dimensions closely comparable to the outlet region of a frac iron elbow where flow-induced erosion produces the volume loss that governs the service life of that component, and our experimental sequence simulates the erosion process by removing material in small damage steps. Our results show that damage detection is greatly improved when this new temperature compensation strategy, termed modified-OSS, is implemented.

  7. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes


    Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable...... temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1º...

  8. Headset Bluetooth and cell phone based continuous central body temperature measurement system. (United States)

    Sanches, J Miguel; Pereira, Bruno; Paiva, Teresa


    The accurate measure of the central temperature is a very important physiologic indicator in several clinical applications, namely, in the characterization and diagnosis of sleep disorders. In this paper a simple system is described to continuously measure the body temperature at the ear. An electronic temperature sensor is coupled to the microphone of a common commercial auricular Bluetooth device that sends the temperature measurements to a mobile phone to which is paired. The measurements are stored at the mobile phone and periodically sent to a medical facility by email or SMS (short messaging service).

  9. Synthesis of Thermoresponsive Amphiphilic Polyurethane Gel as a New Cell Printing Material near Body Temperature. (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chun; Li, Suming; Hu, Shiaw-Guang; Chang, Wen-Chi; Jeng, U-Ser; Hsu, Shan-hui


    Waterborne polyurethane (PU) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol and a second oligodiol containing amphiphilic blocks was synthesized in this study. The microstructure was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological measurement of the PU dispersion. The surface hydrophilicity measurement, infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, mechanical and thermal analyses were conducted in solid state. It was observed that the presence of a small amount of amphiphilic blocks in the soft segment resulted in significant changes in microstructure. When 90 mol % PCL diol and 10 mol % amphiphilic blocks of poly(l-lactide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PLLA-PEO) diol were used as the soft segment, the synthesized PU had a water contact angle of ∼24° and degree of crystallinity of ∼14%. The dispersion had a low viscosity below room temperature. As the temperature was raised to body temperature (37 °C), the dispersion rapidly (∼170 s) underwent sol-gel transition with excellent gel modulus (G' ≈ 6.5 kPa) in 20 min. PU dispersions with a solid content of 25-30% could be easily mixed with cells in sol state, extruded by a 3D printer, and deposited layer by layer as a gel. Cells remained alive and proliferating in the printed hydrogel scaffold. We expect that the development of novel thermoresponsive PU system can be used as smart injectable hydrogel and applied as a new type of bio-3D printing ink.

  10. Nuclear bodies domain changes with microspore reprogramming to embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Seguí-Simarro


    Full Text Available We analysed the presence of nuclear bodies and particularly Cajal bodies during representative stages of gametophytic and haploid embryogenic development in isolated microspore and anther cultures of a model system (Brassica napus cv. Topas and a recalcitrant species (Capsicum annuum L. var. Yolo Wonder B. The nuclear bodies domain is involved on several important roles on nuclear metabolism, and Cajal bodies are specifically involved on the storage and maturation of both snRNPs and snoRNPs, as well as other splicing factors, necessary for mRNA and pre-rRNA processing, but not directly on the transcription. In this study, immunofluorescence and immunogold labelling with anti-trimethylguanosine antibodies against the specific cap of snRNAs, ultrastructural and cytochemical analysis were performed on cryoprocessed samples at confocal and electron microscopy respectively. Results showed that Cajal bodies increase during the early stages of microspore embryogenic development (young pro-embryos, compared to microspore and pollen development. Our results suggest that Cajal bodies may have a role in the transcriptionally active, proliferative stages that characterise early microspore embryogenic development.

  11. The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature. (United States)

    Bowman, A S; Nolting, J M; Workman, J D; Cooper, M; Fisher, A E; Marsh, B; Forshey, T


    Agricultural fairs create an unconventional animal-human interface that has been associated with swine-to-human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in recent years. Early detection of IAV-infected pigs at agricultural fairs would allow veterinarians to better protect swine and human health during these swine exhibitions. This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV-infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs immediately prior to the unloading of the animals at a single large swine exhibition. Concurrent to the snout wipe collection, owners took the rectal temperatures of his/her pigs. In this case, 47 (2.4%) pigs tested positive for IAV before they entered the swine barn. The mean rectal temperatures differed by only 0.19°C between IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs. The low prevalence of IAV among the pigs upon entry to the fair in the second objective provides evidence that limiting intraspecies spread of IAV during the fairs will likely have significant impacts on the zoonotic transmission. However, in both objectives, the high degree of similarity in the body temperature measurements between the IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs made it impossible to set a diagnostically meaningful cut point to differentiate IAV status of the individual animals. Unfortunately, body temperature measurement cannot be used to accurately screen exhibition swine for IAV.

  12. Dynamics of Weight Change and Temperature of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Wintering Building With Controlled Temperature. (United States)

    Stalidzans, E; Zacepins, A; Kviesis, A; Brusbardis, V; Meitalovs, J; Paura, L; Bulipopa, N; Liepniece, M


    Honey bee wintering in a wintering building (indoors) with controlled microclimate is used in some cold regions to minimize colony losses due to the hard weather conditions. The behavior and possible state of bee colonies in a dark room, isolated from natural environment during winter season, was studied by indirect temperature measurements to analyze the expression of their annual rhythm when it is not affected by ambient temperature, rain, snow, wind, and daylight. Thus, the observed behavior in the wintering building is initiated solely by bee colony internal processes. Experiments were carried out to determine the dynamics of temperature above the upper hive body and weight dynamics of indoors and outdoors wintered honey bee colonies and their brood-rearing performance in spring. We found significantly lower honey consumption-related weight loss of indoor wintered colonies compared with outdoor colonies, while no significant difference in the amount of open or sealed brood was found, suggesting that wintering building saves food and physiological resources without an impact on colony activity in spring. Indoor wintered colonies, with or without thermal insulation, did not have significant differences in food consumption and brood rearing in spring. The thermal behavior and weight dynamics of all experimental groups has changed in the middle of February possibly due to increased brood-rearing activity. Temperature measurement above the upper hive body is a convenient remote monitoring method of wintering process. Predictability of food consumption in a wintering building, with constant temperature, enables wintering without oversupply of wintering honey.

  13. Body temperature regulation during acclimation to cold and hypoxia in rats. (United States)

    Cadena, V; Tattersall, G J


    Extreme environmental conditions present challenges for thermoregulation in homoeothermic organisms such as mammals. Such challenges are exacerbated when two stressors are experienced simultaneously and each stimulus evokes opposing physiological responses. This is the case of cold, which induces an increase in thermogenesis, and hypoxia, which suppresses metabolism conserving oxygen and preventing hypoxaemia. As an initial approach to understanding the thermoregulatory responses to cold and hypoxia in a small mammal, we explored the effects of acclimation to these two stressors on the body temperature (Tb) and the daily and ultradian Tb variations of Sprague-Dawley rats. As Tb is influenced by sleep-wake cycles, these Tb variations reflect underlying adjustments in set-point and thermosensitivity. The Tb of rats decreased precipitously during initial hypoxic exposure which was more pronounced in cold (Tb=33.4 ± 0.13) than in room temperature (Tb=35.74 ± 0.17) conditions. This decline was followed by an increase in Tb stabilising at a new level ~0.5°C and ~1.4°C below normoxic values at room and cold temperatures, respectively. Daily Tb variations were blunted during hypoxia with a greater effect in the cold. Ultradian Tb variations exhibited daily rhythmicity that disappeared under hypoxia, independent of ambient temperature. The adjustments in Tb during hypoxia and/or cold are in agreement with the hypothesis that an initial decrease in the Tb set-point is followed by its partial re-establishment with chronic hypoxia. This rebound of the Tb set-point might reflect cellular adjustments that would allow animals to better deal with low oxygen conditions, diminishing the drive for a lower Tb set-point. Cold and hypoxia are characteristic of high altitude environments. Understanding how mammals cope with changes in oxygen and temperature will shed light into their ability to colonize new environments along altitudinal clines and increase our understanding of how

  14. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks (United States)

    Vogel, M. M.; Orth, R.; Cheruy, F.; Hagemann, S.; Lorenz, R.; Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.


    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.

  15. Influence of body temperature on bacterial growth rates in experimental pneumococcal meningitis in rabbits.


    Small, P M; Täuber, M G; Hackbarth, C J; Sande, M A


    We examined the role of fever as a host defense in experimental pneumococcal meningitis in rabbits. Twelve hours after intracisternal inoculation of an encapsulated type 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae strain, body temperature was manipulated by using two different anesthetic drugs: pentobarbital, which did not affect temperature, and urethane, which mitigated the febrile response to infection. Growth rates of pneumococci in cerebrospinal fluid were dramatically influenced by modification of the f...

  16. Human thermoregulation and measurement of body temperature in exercise and clinical settings. (United States)

    Lim, Chin Leong; Byrne, Chris; Lee, Jason Kw


    This review discusses human thermoregulation during exercise and the measurement of body temperature in clinical and exercise settings. The thermoregulatory mechanisms play important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis during rest and physical exercise. Physical exertion poses a challenge to thermoregulation by causing a substantial increase in metabolic heat production. However, within a non-thermolytic range, the thermoregulatory mechanisms are capable of adapting to sustain physiological functions under these conditions. The central nervous system may also rely on hyperthermia to protect the body from "overheating." Hyperthermia may serve as a self-limiting signal that triggers central inhibition of exercise performance when a temperature threshold is achieved. Exposure to sub-lethal heat stress may also confer tolerance against higher doses of heat stress by inducing the production of heat shock proteins, which protect cells against the thermolytic effects of heat. Advances in body temperature measurement also contribute to research in thermoregulation. Current evidence supports the use of oral temperature measurement in the clinical setting, although it may not be as convenient as tympanic temperature measurement using the infrared temperature scanner. Rectal and oesophagus temperatures are widely accepted surrogate measurements of core temperature (Tc), but they cause discomfort and are less likely to be accepted by users. Gastrointestinal temperature measurement using the ingestible temperature sensor provides an acceptable level of accuracy as a surrogate measure of Tc without causing discomfort to the user. This form of Tc measurement also allows Tc to be measured continuously in the field and has gained wider acceptance in the last decade.

  17. Historical Change of Equilibrium Water Temperature in Japan (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.


    Changes in freshwater ecosystems due to a climate change have been great concern for sustainable river basin management both for water resources utilization and ecological conservation. However, their impact seems to be difficult to evaluate because of wide variety of basin characteristics along a river network both in nature and social environment. This presentation uses equilibrium water temperature as a simple criterion index for evaluating the long-term changes of stream thermal environment due to the historical climate change in Japan. It examines, at first, the relationship between the equilibrium water temperature and the stream temperature observed for 7 years at a lower reach in the Ibo River, Japan. It analyzes, then, the seasonal and regional trends of the equilibrium water temperature change for the last 50 years at 133 meteorological station sites throughout Japan, discussing their rising or falling characteristics. The correlation analysis at the local reach of the Ibo River shows that the equilibrium water temperature has similar trend of change as the stream temperature. However, its value tends to be higher than the stream temperature in summer, while lower in winter. The onset of the higher equilibrium water temperature fluctuates annually from mid February to early April. This onset fluctuation at each spring could be influenced by the different amount of snow at the antecedent winter. The rising or falling trends of the equilibrium water temperature are analyzed both annually and seasonally through the regression analysis of the 133 sites in Japan. Consequently, the trends of the temperature change could be categorized by 12 patterns. As for the seasonal analysis, the results shows that there are many sites indicating the falling trend in spring and summer, and rising trends in autumn and winter. In particular, winter has the strong rising tendency throughout Japan. As for the regional analysis, the result illustrates the precise rationality; e

  18. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest (United States)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.


    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  19. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions. (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor


    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  20. Solar geoengineering to limit the rate of temperature change. (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G; Caldeira, Ken; Keith, David W


    Solar geoengineering has been suggested as a tool that might reduce damage from anthropogenic climate change. Analysis often assumes that geoengineering would be used to maintain a constant global mean temperature. Under this scenario, geoengineering would be required either indefinitely (on societal time scales) or until atmospheric CO2 concentrations were sufficiently reduced. Impacts of climate change, however, are related to the rate of change as well as its magnitude. We thus describe an alternative scenario in which solar geoengineering is used only to constrain the rate of change of global mean temperature; this leads to a finite deployment period for any emissions pathway that stabilizes global mean temperature. The length of deployment and amount of geoengineering required depends on the emissions pathway and allowable rate of change, e.g. in our simulations, reducing the maximum approximately 0.3°C per decade rate of change in an RCP 4.5 pathway to 0.1°C per decade would require geoengineering for 160 years; under RCP 6.0, the required time nearly doubles. We demonstrate that feedback control can limit rates of change in a climate model. Finally, we note that a decision to terminate use of solar geoengineering does not automatically imply rapid temperature increases: feedback could be used to limit rates of change in a gradual phase-out.

  1. A body temperature model for lizards as estimated from the thermal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Venus, V.; Wang, T.; Schlerf, M.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Overjijk, van S.; Bian, B.M.; Liu, Y.


    A physically based model was built to predict the transient body temperature of lizards in a thermally heterogeneous environment. Six heat transfer terms were taken into account in this model: solar radiation, convective heat flow, longwave radiation, conductive heat flow, metabolic heat gain and re

  2. Differences in oral temperature and body shape in two populations with different propensities for obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Weyer, C; Bogardus, C;


    Body temperature is a function of heat production and heat dissipation. Substantial interindividual variability has been reported in healthy humans. We hypothesized that Pima Indians, a population with a high prevalence of abdominal obesity, may have a lower surface area relative to volume, that is...

  3. Software tools for data modelling and processing of human body temperature circadian dynamics. (United States)

    Petrova, Elena S; Afanasova, Anastasia I


    This paper is presenting a software development for simulating and processing thermometry data. The motivation of this research is the miniaturization of actuators attached to human body which allow frequent temperature measurements and improve the medical diagnosis procedures related to circadian dynamics.

  4. Intracerebral implantation of carbachol in the rat: Its effect on water intake and body temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.Th.


    Intracerebral carbachol produces a fall in body temperature as well as drinking in the rat when implanted in various subcortical structures, related to the emotion-motivation limbic circuit. These effects are due to a central cholinergic stimulation since they can be prevented by the systemic admini

  5. Postmortem time estimation using body temperature and a finite-element computer model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, E.A. den; Lotens, W.A.


    In the Netherlands most murder victims are found 2-24 h after the crime. During this period, body temperature decrease is the most reliable method to estimate the postmortem time (PMT). Recently, two murder cases were analysed in which currently available methods did not provide a su.ciently reliabl

  6. Forced desynchrony of circadian rhythms of body temperature and activity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Meerlo, P; Beersma, DGM


    The daily rhythm in body temperature is thought to be the result of the direct effects of activity and the effects of an endogenous circadian clock. Forced desynchrony (FD) is a tool used in human circadian rhythm research to disentangle endogenous and activity-related effects on daily rhythms. In t

  7. Reduction of body temperature governs neutrophil retention in hibernating and nonhibernating animals by margination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Dugbartey, George J.; Boerema, Ate S.; Talaei, Fatemeh; Herwig, Annika; Goris, Maaike; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Carey, Hannah V.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.


    Low body temperature leads to decrease of circulating neutrophils due to margination in hibernating and nonhibernating animals. Hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism, called torpor, interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. During deep and daily (shallow) torpor, the number of circulati

  8. Endogenous and exogenous components in the circadian variation of core body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, AE; Beersma, DGM; VandenHoofdakker, RH


    Core body temperature is predominantly modulated by endogenous and exogenous components. In the present study we tested whether these two components can be reliably assessed in a protocol which lasts for only 120 h. In this so-called forced desynchrony protocol, 12 healthy male subjects (age 23.7 +/

  9. Development of an Anti-Theft Device using Motion Detection and Body Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhowel Dellosa


    Full Text Available –The researcher aimed to design, assemble and determine the performance of the anti-theft device using motion detection and body temperature. The study utilized developmental design to observe the functionality of the device. Study showed that the anti-theft device can detect motion from a moving object for those with body temperature like human being, animals. A signal from the sensor circuits will trigger the receiver circuit to produce an audible sound that served as alarm. It was also found out that the output of the study is accurate in terms of detecting moving objects with body temperature during day and night times. The researchers formulated an evaluation instrument to determine its performance. Results showed that the device had a good performance and acceptable in terms of functionality. It is strongly recommended that further studies be conducted to enrich the anti-theft device using motion detection and body temperature in a controlled environment like museum and banks to determine the effectiveness of the integration of the anti-theft device.

  10. Simultaneous collection of body temperature and activity data in burrowing mammals : a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Ryan A.; Hut, Roelof A.; Barnes, Brian M.


    Integrating physiological and behavioral observations into ecological field studies of animals can provide novel insights into relationships among animal behavior, physiology, and ecology. We describe and evaluate a new technique for simultaneously collecting body temperature (T-b) and burrow use da

  11. Orexin-a regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Orexins, hypothalamic neuropeptieds, are involved in modulation of food intake and arousal state. To examine further physiological roles of orexin in brain function, the effects of centrally administered orexin- A on body temperature was investigated in rats. Assessed by a telemetry-sensor system implanted into the abdominal cavity, infusion of orexin-A into the third cerebroventricle increased body temperature in a dose-responsive manner. Cumulative ambulatory activity was concomitantly increased during 6 h but not 12 h after administration of orexin-A. Expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA in brown adipose tissue, as a marker for peripheal thermogenesis which affects body temperature, failed to increase after orexin-A administration. Expression of UCP3 mRNA in skeletal muscle but not UCP 2 in white adipose tissue was upregulated by infusion of orexin-A. The resulting information indicates that orexin neuron regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal system independently of peripheral thermogenesis through the BAT UCP1.

  12. Secular changes in body dimensions of Royal Australian Air Force aircrew (1971-2005). (United States)

    Tomkinson, Grant R; Clark, Adam J; Blanchonette, Peter


    The aim of this study was to quantify the secular changes in body dimensions of Royal Australian Air Force aircrew. Following corrections for methodological differences, two samples (matched for age and overall body size) of male aircrew measured in 1971 (n = 220) and 2005 (n = 220) were compared across 13 absolute and proportional body dimensions. Changes in means were expressed as standardised effect sizes and changes in distributional characteristics were expressed as the ratio of coefficients of variation and as changes in skew. Small secular increases (standardised effects sizes >0.2) in age-matched aircrew were observed for mass, height, BMI, sitting height, buttock-knee length, waist girth, hip girth and waist:hip ratio, with a small decline observed for head girth. Changes in body dimensions were not independent of changes in overall body size (except for head girth) and were not always uniform across the distribution. These changes in body size have implications for ensuring correct human-machine and human-equipment fit. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: There have been small secular changes in body dimensions of RAAF aircrew between 1971 and 2005, although these secular changes have not always been uniform across the distribution. These secular changes in body dimensions have implications for ensuring correct human-machine and human-equipment fit and underscore the need for regular anthropometric surveys.

  13. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L


    BACKGROUND: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body weight...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta...... observed in men, and no significant associations with GL were observed in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-GI diets may lead to increases in BW, body fat mass, and WC in women, especially in sedentary women, which suggests that physical activity may protect against diet-induced weight gain. No associations...

  14. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A


    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  15. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh


    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Hai-zhen; KONG Chun-yan; TANG Xu; KE Xiao-xin


    To understand how temperature varies in urban Shanghai under the background of global climate change and how it is affected by urbanization,the Shanghai temperature responses to global warming were analyzed,and then the temperature trends of urban and suburb stations under different climatic backgrounds were obtained. The urbanization effects on temperature were studied by comparing urban stations to suburb stations,the relationship between urbanization variables and temperature components were obtained,and observation data of surface and high level were combined to assess the contribution of urbanization effect. In the last part of the paper,the cause of urbanization effects on temperature was discussed. The results indicated: The long term change trend of Shanghai annual mean temperature is 1.31/100a from 1873 to 2004,the periods of 1921-1948 and 1979 - 2004 are warmer,and the 1979 - 2004 period is the warmest; compared to suburb stations,the representative urban station has slower decreases in the cool period and faster increases in the warm one; the urban and suburb temperatures have distinct differences resulting from urbanization and the differences are increasing by the year. with the difference of mean temperature and minimum temperature being the greatest in fall and that of maximum temperature being the largest in summer between the urban and suburban areas. The urbanization process accelerates the warming speed,with the minimum temperature being the most obvious; the urbanization effect contributes a 0.4~C increase in 1980s and I. l~C in 1990s to the annual mean temperature.

  17. Pharmacological properties of traditional medicines. XXV. Effects of ephedrine, amygdalin, glycyrrhizin, gypsum and their combinations on body temperature and body fluid. (United States)

    Yuan, D; Komatsu, K; Cui, Z; Kano, Y


    Effects of ephedrine, amygdalin, glycyrrhizin, gypsum and their combinations on body temperature and body fluid were studied in rats using the method developed in our previous reports. Ephedrine significantly increased respiratory evaporative water loss and heat loss in response to a marked elevation of body temperature. There was a small but significant increase in body temperature when amygdalin was orally given rats at a dose of 46.32 mg/kg. Glycyrrhizin and gypsum were unable to affect body temperature. However, gypsum was able to prevent the increased action of ephedrine on body temperature, amygdalin exhibited a preventive tendency to it, and glycyrrhizin did not affect it. The results are in good agreement with classical claims of Makyo-kanseki-to and the related crude drugs in traditional medicine. Moreover, a combination of the four components reproduced the effects of Makyo-kanseki-to on body temperature and body fluid. This report suggests that the co-administration of ephedrine and gypsum is physiologically more desirable than ephedrine alone for dry-type asthmatic patients with a fever. Also, it experimentally supports the clinical efficacy of Makyo-kanseki-to.

  18. Inhaled vasopressin increases sociability and reduces body temperature and heart rate in rats. (United States)

    Ramos, Linnet; Hicks, Callum; Caminer, Alex; McGregor, Iain S


    The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have therapeutic potential across a range of psychiatric disorders. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of the intranasal route of administration that is often used to deliver these neuropeptides. Recent preclinical studies, typically involving anesthetized or restrained animals, have assessed intranasal AVP or OT effects, and have obtained somewhat inconsistent results. Here we obtained intranasal administration of AVP in rats by nebulizing the peptide (1ml of 5 or 10mg/ml solution) into a small enclosed chamber over a 2min period in which well-habituated, unanesthetized, unrestrained, rats were placed. Rats were immediately removed from the chamber and tested in the social interaction test, or assessed for changes in heart rate and body temperature using biotelemetry. Results showed that rats exposed to nebulized AVP (5 or 10mg/ml) showed increased social proximity (adjacent lying) and decreased anogenital sniffing in the social interaction test. Biotelemetry showed substantial and long lasting (>1h) hypothermic and bradycardic effects of nebulized AVP. These behavioral and physiological effects of nebulized AVP mimic those observed in recent studies with peripherally injected AVP. Plasma AVP concentrations were substantially increased 10min after nebulized AVP, producing levels above those seen with a behaviorally effective injected dose of AVP (0.005mg/kg intraperitoneal). This study thus provides a novel and effective method for neuropeptide administration to rodents.

  19. Neonatal capsaicin treatment in rats affects TRPV1-related noxious heat sensation and circadian body temperature rhythm. (United States)

    Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Seong, Jinsil


    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation channel that serves as a polymodal detector of noxious stimuli such as capsaicin. Therefore, capsaicin treatment has been used to investigate the physiological function of TRPV1. Here, we report physiological changes induced by treating neonatal rats with capsaicin. Capsaicin (50mg/kg) (cap-treated) or vehicle (vehicle-treated) was systemically administered to newborn SD rat pups within 48 h after birth. TRPV1 expression, intake volume of capsaicin water, and noxious heat sensation were measured 6 weeks after capsaicin treatment. Circadian body temperature and locomotion were recorded by biotelemetry. Expression of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Hsf1 (clock genes) was also investigated. Neonatal capsaicin treatment not only decreased TRPV1 expression but also induced desensitization to noxious heat stimuli. Circadian body temperature of cap-treated rats increased significantly compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Additionally, the amplitude of the circadian body temperature was reversed in cap-treated rats. Expression of the hypothalamic Hsf1 and liver Per2 clock genes followed a similar trend. Therefore, we suggest that these findings will be useful in studying various physiological mechanisms related to TRPV1.

  20. Dynamical Temperature of a One- Dimensional Many-Body Systerm in the Lennard-Jones Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘觉平; 袁保仑


    A new way to derive the formula of the dynamical temperature by using the invariance of the Liouville measure and the ergodicity hypothesis is presented, based on the invariance of the functional under the transformation of the measure. The obtained dynamical temperature is intrinsic to the underlying dynamics of the system. A molecular dynamical simulation of a one-dimensional many-body system in the Lennard-Jones model has been performed. The temperature calculated from the Hamiltonian for the stationary state of the system coincides with that determined with the thermodynamical method.

  1. Microenvironment temperature prediction between body and seat interface using autoregressive data-driven model. (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Lin; Luo, Zhongming; Heusch, Andrew I; Cascioli, Vincenzo; McCarthy, Peter W


    There is a need to develop a greater understanding of temperature at the skin-seat interface during prolonged seating from the perspectives of both industrial design (comfort/discomfort) and medical care (skin ulcer formation). Here we test the concept of predicting temperature at the seat surface and skin interface during prolonged sitting (such as required from wheelchair users). As caregivers are usually busy, such a method would give them warning ahead of a problem. This paper describes a data-driven model capable of predicting thermal changes and thus having the potential to provide an early warning (15- to 25-min ahead prediction) of an impending temperature that may increase the risk for potential skin damages for those subject to enforced sitting and who have little or no sensory feedback from this area. Initially, the oscillations of the original signal are suppressed using the reconstruction strategy of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Consequentially, the autoregressive data-driven model can be used to predict future thermal trends based on a shorter period of acquisition, which reduces the possibility of introducing human errors and artefacts associated with longer duration "enforced" sitting by volunteers. In this study, the method had a maximum predictive error of <0.4 °C when used to predict the temperature at the seat and skin interface 15 min ahead, but required 45 min data prior to give this accuracy. Although the 45 min front loading of data appears large (in proportion to the 15 min prediction), a relative strength derives from the fact that the same algorithm could be used on the other 4 sitting datasets created by the same individual, suggesting that the period of 45 min required to train the algorithm is transferable to other data from the same individual. This approach might be developed (along with incorporation of other measures such as movement and humidity) into a system that can give caregivers prior warning to help avoid

  2. Circadian characteristics of spontaneous physical activity and body temperature in narcoleptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing XU


    Full Text Available Objective To assess circadian characteristics of spontaneous physical activity and deep body temperature in narcoleptic patients.  Methods Fourteen narcoleptic patients and 14 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled. Nocturnal polysomnography (PSG was recorded, followed by standard multiple sleep latency test (MSLT. Then all subjects were required to wear the actigraphy (actiwatch at home with continuous monitoring of spontaneous physical activity for 1-2 weeks and complete the daily sleep record. All subjects' deep body temperatures were measured at 20 time points.  Results In comparison with control subjects, PSG data suggested narcoleptic patients had significantly longer time in bed at night (P = 0.008, decreased sleep efficiency (P = 0.001, increased awakenings (P = 0.000, extended wake time after sleep onset (P = 0.000 and sleep onset rapid eye movement period (SOREMP, P = 0.002. MSLT data suggested decreased average sleep latency (P = 0.000 and increased SOREMPs (P = 0.000. Actigraphy data suggested increased nocturnal activity and nocturnal activity per hour (P = 0.000, for all, decreased daytime activity and daytime activity per hour (P = 0.000, for all and increased nocturnal activity per hour/daytime activity per hour (P = 0.000, for all. The deep body temperature in both groups showed significant circadian rhythms. The differences in mesor, amplitude and peak phase of deep body temperature between 2 groups had no statistical significance (P = 0.177, 0.730, 0.488.  Conclusions Narcoleptic patients are characterized by impaired circadian rhythm of sleep-wake and spontaneous physical activity. The limited effects on deep body temperature suggest the relative conservation of thermoregulation in narcolepsy. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.07.010

  3. Do fentanyl and morphine influence body temperature after severe burn injury? (United States)

    Kahn, Steven Alexander; Beers, Ryan J; Lentz, Christopher W


    Fentanyl lacks the antiinflammatory properties of morphine. Morphine attenuates the inflammatory response through differential stimulation of μ-receptor subtypes. Patients who receive morphine during coronary artery bypass graft have been shown to experience less postoperative fever than those who receive fentanyl. Patients who receive continuous fentanyl infusions in increased room temperatures after thermal injury may be at increased risk to experience higher body temperature than those who receive morphine. The records of 28 patients with >20%TBSA burn in 30 intensive care unit rooms (13 received fentanyl and 15 received morphine or hydromorphone) and 12 trauma patients who received fentanyl in 22°C intensive care unit rooms were reviewed. Mean maximum core temperature and percentage of temperature recordings > 39°C in the first 48 hours of admission were compared between burn patients who received fentanyl, those who did not, and with trauma patients. Burn patients exposed to fentanyl experienced significantly higher temperatures (40.1 ± 0.9°C) compared with those given morphine (38.7 ± 0.8°C) and compared with trauma patients (37.5 ± 2.4°C), P Burn patients on fentanyl had temperatures > 39°C for a higher percentage of time (33 ± 27%) than those without fentanyl (7.2 ± 13%) and trauma patients (1 ± 2.8%), P Burn patients who receive fentanyl in 30°C rooms experience higher body temperatures and are febrile for a higher percentage of time than those receiving morphine only. Morphine has well-established antiinflammatory properties and likely attenuates the postburn inflammatory response more than fentanyl, resulting in lower body temperatures. This phenomenon needs to be further investigated in additional studies.

  4. Stimulation of bioluminescence in Noctiluca sp. using controlled temperature changes. (United States)

    Han, Jing; Li, GuiJuan; Liu, HuanYing; Hu, HaoHao; Zhang, XueGang


    Bioluminescence induced by multifarious stimuli has long been observed and is remains under investigation because of its great complexity. In particular, the exact mechanism underlying bioluminescence is not yet fully understood. This work presents a new experimental method for studying Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation. It is a study of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence using controlled temperature changes in a tank. A characteristic of this experiment is the large volume of water used (1 m(3) in a tank of 2 × 1 × 1 m). Temperature changes were controlled by two methods. In the first, a flask filled with hot water was introduced into the tank and in the second, a water heater was used in the tank. Temperature changes were recorded using sensors. Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence was recorded using a Canon 5D Mark II and this allowed the characteristics of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation to be monitored.

  5. Time changes with the embodiment of another's body posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C Nather

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the perception of presentation durations of pictures of different body postures was distorted as function of the embodied movement that originally produced these postures. Participants were presented with two pictures, one with a low-arousal body posture judged to require no movement and the other with a high-arousal body posture judged to require considerable movement. In a temporal bisection task with two ranges of standard durations (0.4/1.6 s and 2/8 s, the participants had to judge whether the presentation duration of each of the pictures was more similar to the short or to the long standard duration. The results showed that the duration was judged longer for the posture requiring more movement than for the posture requiring less movement. However the magnitude of this overestimation was relatively greater for the range of short durations than for that of longer durations. Further analyses suggest that this lengthening effect was mediated by an arousal effect of limited duration on the speed of the internal clock system.

  6. [Body thermal status under low-temperature conditions in brewing production]. (United States)

    Vasileva-Todorova, L; Dimitrova-Toneva, I


    The purpose of the present study is to trace the thermal state of workers exposed to low temperatures in brewery production, establishing the heat loss and the stress of thermoregulation. The investigations are performed in the departments for fermentation, deposit, cask washing and filling of 3 brewery plants. In order to characterize the microclimate methods of thermometry, psychometry and catathermometry are used. The heat state is controlled by methods of subjective heat perception, skin temperature, average skin temperature, temperature gradients, oral, rectal and average body temperature and the thermal content. The results of the physiological examinations point out to significant loss, which affects not only the periphery but also the deep tissues. There is an expressed risk of supercooling of the organism. The data of the heat deficit impose a correction of the working clothes and limitation of the exposure.

  7. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  8. Preliminary study on the time-related changes of the infrared thermal images of the human body (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng; Lin, Gang; Chen, Zhigang


    It is of great importance to study the manifestations and the influencing factors of the time-related changes of infrared thermal images (ITI) of human body since the variable body surface temperature distribution seriously affected the application of ITI in medicine. In this paper, manifestations of time-related changes of the ITI of human body from three double-blind randomized trials and their correlation with meteorological factors (e.g. temperature, pressure, humidity, cold front passage and tropical cyclone landing) were studied. The trials were placebo or drug controlled studying the influences of Chinese medicine health food (including Shengsheng capsule with immunity adjustment function, Shengan capsule with sleep improvement function and Shengyi capsule with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid) on the ITI of human body. In the first thirty-six days of the trials images were scanned every six days and image data in the seven observation time spots (including the 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 day of the trial) were used for the time-related study. For every subject the scanned time was fixed in the day within two hours. The ITI features which could reflect the functions of the health foods were studied. The indexes of the features were relative magnitude (temperature difference between the viewing area and the reference area). Results showed that the variation tendencies of the trial group and control group were basically the same in placebo controlled trials and some of the long-term effects of Chinese medicine health food could be reflected significantly in certain time spots in the first thirty-six days. Time-related changes of the ITI of human body were closely related with meteorological factors but there were other influencing factors still need to be studied. As the ITI of human body could reflect the influences of Chinese medicine health foods and are closely related with meteorology, there are bright prospects for the application of ITI in

  9. Causes of Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric temperature change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kobashi


    Full Text Available A new Greenland temperature record reconstructed from argon and nitrogen isotopes from trapped air in a GISP2 ice core, provides high-resolution (<20 yr and precise annual average temperature estimates for the past 4000 yr. Due to tight age-controls and abundant paleoclimatic information from the ice core, the temperature record provides an exceptional opportunity to investigate the late Holocene climate in a multi-decadal to millennial time scale. To investigate causes of Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr, we calculated high latitude (70–80° N temperature change using a one-dimensional energy balance model with reconstructed climate forcings including orbital, solar, volcanic, and greenhouse gas forcings. Greenland temperature was calculated from the high latitude temperature, considering Greenland's negative temperature responses to solar variability due to associated changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulations. The calculated Greenland temperature was significantly correlated with the ice-core-derived Greenland temperatures with the 97% confidence level. Therefore, the past variability of climate forcings can explain at least 10% of the multi-decadal to millennial variability in Greenland temperature over the past 4000 yr. An average temperature trend for the Northern Hemisphere (NH over the past 4000 yr was also inferred from the ice-core derived Greenland temperatures. Lines of evidence indicate that the current decadal average temperature of NH is likely warmer than at any time over the past 4000 yr. Sequential cooling events starting around 800 B.C.E. (the 2.8 ka event, which were induced by several large volcanic eruptions as well as low solar activity, had similar magnitude with the Little Ice Age cooling.

  10. Three-body recombination in heteronuclear systems at finite temperature with a large positive scattering length (United States)

    Emmons, Samuel; Acharya, Bijaya; Platter, Lucas


    For an ultracold heteronuclear mixture with a large positive interspecies scattering length and negligible intraspecies scattering length, we determine the three-body recombination rate as a function of collision energy using universal functions of a single scaling variable. We use the zero-range approximation and the Skorniakov -Ter-Martirosian equation to calculate these scaling functions for a range of collision energies. Further, we explore the effects that a nonzero temperature has on three-body recombination, as well as the effects of the formation of deep dimers, for experimentally relevant heteronuclear gases such as the 6Li-133Cs mixture. NSF Grant Nos. PHY-1516077 and PHY-1555030.

  11. Laser-tissue photothermal interaction and tissue temperature change (United States)

    Ives, Andrea K.; Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, John A.; Nordquist, Robert E.


    Responses of tissue to laser stimulation are crucial in both disease diagnostics and treatment. In general, when tissue absorbs laser energy photothermal interaction occurs. The most important signature of the photothermal reaction is the tissue temperature change during and after the laser irradiation. Experimentally, the tissue reaction to laser irradiation can be measured by numerous methods including direct temperature measurement and measurement of perfusion change. In this study, a multiple-channel temperature probe was used to measure tissue temperature change during irradiation of lasers with different wavelengths at different power settings. Tissue temperature in chicken breast tissue as well as skin and breast tumor of rats was measured during irradiation of an 805-nm diode laser. The vertical profiles of temperature were obtained using simultaneous measurement at several different locations. The absorption of laser energy by tissue was enhanced by injecting laser-absorbing dye into the tissue. A Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength was also used to irradiate turkey breast tissue. Our results showed that both laser penetration ability and photothermal reaction depended on the wavelength of lasers. In the case of 805-nm laser, the temperature increased rapidly only in the region close to the laser source and the thermal equilibrium could be reached within a short time period. The laser absorbing dye drastically enhanced the thermal reaction, resulting in approximately 4-fold temperature increase. On the contrary, the laser beam with 1064-nm wavelength penetrated deeply into tissue and the tissue temperature continued increasing even after a 10-minute laser irradiation.

  12. Exploring Terrestrial Temperature Changes during the Early Eocene Hyperthermals (United States)

    Snell, K. E.; Clyde, W. C.; Fricke, H. C.; Eiler, J. M.


    The Early Eocene is marked by a number of rapid global warming events called hyperthermals. These hyperthermals are associated with negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE) in both marine and terrestrial records. Multiple theories exist to explain the connection of these hyperthermals with the CIEs and each theory predicts different responses by the climate system. Characterizing the timing, duration and magnitude of temperature change that is associated with these hyperthermals is important for determining whether the hyperthermals are all driven by the same underlying climate dynamics or perhaps differ from one another in cause and climatic consequences. In the simplest case, all share a common underlying mechanism; this predicts that the associated temperature changes scale in a predictable way with the magnitude of the CIE (and perhaps exhibit other similarities, such as the relative amplitudes of marine and terrestrial temperature change). To our knowledge, however, the only hyperthermal with paleotemperature data from land is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Here we present preliminary carbonate clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for Early Eocene hyperthermal ETM2/H2 from paleosol carbonates from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming, USA. We compare the results to existing clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for the PETM in the Bighorn Basin. Temperatures recorded by paleosol carbonates (which likely reflect near-peak summer ground temperatures) prior to each CIE are ~30°C and increase to ~40-43°C during the apex of each CIE. Following both CIEs, temperatures drop back to pre-CIE values. In the case of ETM2/H2, temperatures begin to rise again immediately, possibly in association with a later hyperthermal, though further work needs to be done to establish this with certainty. These preliminary data suggest that both the absolute values and the magnitudes of temperature changes associated with the PETM and ETM2/H2 are similar; the

  13. No relation between body temperature and arterial recanalization at three days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); H.B. Van Der Worp (H. Bart); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); K.E. Droogh-De Greve; H.P. Bienfait; M.A. van Walderveen (M.); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (W.); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); J. Bot (Joseph); M.C. Visser (Marieke); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); T. van Seeters (Tom); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle; J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)


    textabstractBackground: Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods: We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine

  14. Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.


    Weather is the most significant factor affecting aircraft operations, accounting for 70-80% of passenger delays and costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars per year in lost revenue. Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, we find that the number of weight restriction days between May and September will increase by 50-100% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-2070 under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a significant economic effect on the airline industry, leading to lower profits and higher passenger fares. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation.

  15. Effects of temperature and moisture on Mormon cricket reproduction with implications for responses to climate change. (United States)

    Srygley, Robert B


    During the last decade, populations of flightless Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) increased suddenly over vast areas of the Western United States, suggesting that climate is an important factor driving outbreaks. Moreover summer temperatures are predicted to increase and precipitation is expected to decrease in most areas of the U.S. Great Basin, but little is known of the response of Mormon crickets to changes in temperature and soil moisture. In a laboratory study, we varied ambient temperature and lighting and measured the propensity of mating pairs to mate, and the proportion of eggs that developed into embryos. We found that reproduction was optimal when ambient temperature reached 30°C and the insects were beneath broad-spectrum lights such that maternal body and soil temperatures reached 35°C. Fewer eggs that developed fully were laid when maternal body and soil temperatures reached 30°C or 37-39°C. We also varied initial soil moisture from 0% to 100% saturated and found that more eggs reached embryonic diapause when initial soil moisture was 25% or 50% of saturated volume. However more of the developed eggs hatched when treated in summer soils with 0-25% of saturated moisture. We conclude that small changes in temperature had large effects on reproduction, whereas large changes in moisture had very small effects on reproduction. This is the first report of Mormon crickets mating in a laboratory setting and laying eggs that hatched, facilitating further research on the role of maternal and embryonic environments in changes in population size.

  16. Do Changes in Tympanic Temperature Predict Changes in Affective Valence during High-Intensity Exercise? (United States)

    Legrand, Fabien D.; Joly, Philippe M.; Bertucci, William M.


    Purpose: Increased core (brain or body) temperature that accompanies exercise has been posited to play an influential role in affective responses to exercise. However, findings in support of this hypothesis have been equivocal, and most of the performed studies have been done in relation to anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate…

  17. Projected Changes in Temperature Extremes in China Using PRECIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Zhang


    Full Text Available Temperature extremes can cause disastrous impacts on ecological and social economic systems. China is very sensitive to climate change, as its warming rate exceeds that of the global mean level. This paper focused on the spatial and temporal changes of the temperature extremes characterized by the 95th percentile of maximum temperature (TX95, the 5th percentile of the minimum temperature (TN5, high-temperature days (HTD and low-temperature days (LTD. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures generated by PRECIS under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs are used in the research. The results show that: (1 Model simulation data can reproduce the spatial distribution features of the maximum temperature (Tmax and minimum temperature (Tmin as well as that of the extreme temperature indices; (2 By the end of the 21st century (2070–2099, both the Tmax and Tmin are warmer than the baseline level (1961–1990 in China and the eight sub-regions. However, there are regional differences in the asymmetrical warming features, as the Tmin warms more than the Tmax in the northern part of China and the Tibetan Plateau, while the Tmax warms more than the Tmin in the southern part of China; (3 The frequency of the warm extremes would become more usual, as the HTD characterized by the present-day threshold would increase by 106%, 196% and 346%, under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, while the cold extremes characterized by the LTD would become less frequent by the end of the 21st century, decreasing by 75%, 90% and 98% under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. The southern and eastern parts of the Tibetan Plateau respond sensitively to changes in both the hot and cold extremes, suggesting its higher likelihood to suffer from climate warming; (4 The intensity of the warm (cold extremes would increase (decrease significantly, characterized by the changes in the TX95 (TN5 by the end of the 21st century, and the magnitude of the

  18. Temperature Changes in the Brain of Patients Undergoing MRI Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Bebaaku Dery


    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanners have become important tools in modern day health care. During the imaging process, total radiofrequency power is transferred from the RF coil to the brain tissues resulting in increase in temperature in the subject being imaged. Currently, reliable and validated means to predict RF heating are not unavailable.This research was conducted to determine temperature changes in the human brain during MRI examination.This study was carried out at two MRI Units in Ghana. One hundred and twenty-six patients were investigated. Data collected include pre- and post-scan tympanic temperatures and specific absorption rates values. The average pre- and post-scan tympanic temperatures measured for Centre A were 36.5±0.1 °C and 37.0±0.1 °C respectively with an average change in temperature of 0.5±0.1 °C for 30.68 minutes scan and an average SAR value of 1.25 W/kg. Centre B measured average pre- and post-scan tympanic temperatures of 36.4±0.1 °C and 36.8±0.1 °C respectively with an average change in temperature of 0.4±0.1 °C for 41.58 minutes scan and an average SAR value of 0.1 W/kg.The rise in tympanic temperature and SAR values were within guidance level of 1 °C recommended by theUnited States Food and Administration and the International Electrotechnical Commission.

  19. Artificial quantum thermal bath: Engineering temperature for a many-body quantum system (United States)

    Shabani, Alireza; Neven, Hartmut


    Temperature determines the relative probability of observing a physical system in an energy state when that system is energetically in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we present a theory for engineering the temperature of a quantum system different from its ambient temperature. We define criteria for an engineered quantum bath that, when coupled to a quantum system with Hamiltonian H , drives the system to the equilibrium state e/-H/TTr (e-H /T) with a tunable parameter T . This is basically an analog counterpart of the digital quantum metropolis algorithm. For a system of superconducting qubits, we propose a circuit-QED approximate realization of such an engineered thermal bath consisting of driven lossy resonators. Our proposal opens the path to simulate thermodynamical properties of many-body quantum systems of size not accessible to classical simulations. Also we discuss how an artificial thermal bath can serve as a temperature knob for a hybrid quantum-thermal annealer.

  20. The changes of ADI structure during high temperature annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska


    Full Text Available The results of structure investigations of ADI during it was annealing at elevated temperature are presented. Ductile iron austempered at temperature 325oC was then isothermally annealed 360 minutes at temperature 400, 450, 500 and 550oC. The structure investigations showed that annealing at these temperatures caused substantial structure changes and thus essential hardness decrease, which is most useful property of ADI from point of view its practical application. Degradation advance of the structure depends mainly on annealing temperature, less on the time of the heat treatment. It was concluded that high temperature annealing caused precipitation of Fe3C type carbides, which morphology and distribution depend on temperature. In case of 400oC annealing the carbides precipitates inside bainitic ferrite lath in specific crystallographic planes and partly at the grain boundaries. The annealing at the temperature 550oC caused disappearing of characteristic for ADI needle or lath – like morphology, which is replaced with equiaxed grains. In this case Fe3C carbides take the form very fine precipitates with spheroidal geometry.

  1. Body Weight Can Change How Your Emotions Are Perceived (United States)


    Accurately interpreting other’s emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions. We hypothesized that the weight perceived in a face would bias the assessment of an emotional expression, with overweight faces generally more likely to be perceived as having more positive and less negative expressions than healthy weight faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants were asked to sort the emotional expressions of overweight and healthy weight facial stimuli that had been gradually morphed across six emotional intensity levels into one of two categories—“neutral vs. happy” (Experiment 1) and “neutral vs. sad” (Experiment 2). As predicted, our results demonstrated that overweight faces were more likely to be categorized as happy (i.e., lower happy decision threshold) and less likely to be categorized as sad (i.e., higher sad decision threshold) compared to healthy weight faces that had the same levels of emotional intensity. The neutral-sad decision threshold shift was negatively correlated with participant’s own fear of becoming fat, that is, those without a fear of becoming fat more strongly perceived overweight faces as sad relative to those with a higher fear. These findings demonstrate that the weight of the face systematically influences how its emotional expression is interpreted, suggesting that being overweight may make emotional expressions appear more happy and less sad than they really are. PMID:27870892

  2. Low body temperature affects associative processes in long-trace conditioned flavor aversion. (United States)

    Misanin, J R; Wilson, H A; Schwarz, P R; Tuschak, J B; Hinderliter, C F


    A series of experiments examined the effect of low body temperature on the associative process in long-trace conditioned flavor aversion. Experiment 1 demonstrated that maintaining a low body temperature between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) administration facilitates the associative process and allows a flavor aversion to be conditioned in young rats over an interval that would normally not support conditioning. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that this was due neither to lingering systemic saccharin serving as a CS nor to a cold induced enhancement of US intensity. Experiment 4 demonstrated that inducing hypothermia at various times during a 3-h CS-US interval results in an apparent delay of reinforcement gradient. We propose that a cold induced decrease in metabolic rate slows the internal clock that governs the perception of time and that the CS-US association depends upon perceived contiguity rather than upon an external clock-referenced contiguity.

  3. [Body temperature, Aldrete-Kroulik index, and patient discharge from the post-anesthetic recovery unit]. (United States)

    de Castro, Fernanda Salim Ferreira; Peniche, Aparecida de Cássia Giani; Mendoza, Isabel Yovana Quispe; Couto, Andréa Tamancoldi


    Patient discharge from post-anesthetic recovery (PAR) depends, among other factors, on normothermia and the patient's score on the Aldrete-Kroulik index. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between the Aldrete-Kroulik index and body temperature in patients. This study was performed at the University of São Paulo University Hospital. Convenience sampling was used, and the sample consisted of 60 patients of ages between 18 and 60 years who underwent general anesthesia. The patients' body temperature was obtained by tympanic measurement, and the Aldrete-Kroulik index was measured on admission and at discharge from post-anesthetic recovery. The data were processed using SPSS, considering a significance level of 5%, and the Spearman and Wilcoxon tests were applied. In conclusion, no significant correlation was found between the two parameters for discharge.

  4. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation theory revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Santra, Robin


    We present an algebraic, nondiagrammatic derivation of finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation theory [FT-MBPT(2)], using techniques and concepts accessible to theoretical chemical physicists. We give explicit expressions not just for the grand potential but particularly for the mean energy of an interacting many-electron system. The framework presented is suitable for computing the energy of a finite or infinite system in contact with a heat and particle bath at finite temperature and chemical potential. FT-MBPT(2) may be applied if the system, at zero temperature, may be described using standard (i.e., zero-temperature) second-order many-body perturbation theory [ZT-MBPT(2)] for the energy. We point out that in such a situation, FT-MBPT(2) reproduces, in the zero-temperature limit, the energy computed within ZT-MBPT(2). In other words, the difficulty that has been referred to as the Kohn--Luttinger conundrum, does not occur. We comment, in this context, on a "renormalization" scheme recently ...

  5. An overview of mainland China temperature change research (United States)

    Ren, Guoyu; Ding, Yihui; Tang, Guoli


    There has been significant effort devoted to investigating long-term trends in land surface air temperature over mainland China by Chinese scientists over the past 50 years, and much progress has been made in understanding dynamics of the changes. This review highlights research conducted by early Chinese climatologists, and particularly Professor Shaowu Wang from Peking University, with special focus on systematic work that has been conducted since the mid to late 1970s. We also discuss major issues that remain unresolved in past and current studies. The most recent analyses indicate that the country-average annual mean surface air temperature rose by 1.12°C over the past 115 years (1901-2015), with a rate of increase of about 0.10°C decade-1. Temperatures have risen more rapidly since the 1950s, with the rate of increase of more than 0.25°C decade-1. However, the recent increase in temperatures is in large part due to contamination by systematically biased data. These data are influenced by unprecedented urbanization in China, with a contribution of urbanization to the overall increase of annual mean temperatures in mainland China of about one third over the past half a century. If the bias is corrected, the rate of increase for the country-average annual mean surface air temperature is 0.17°C decade-1 over the last 50-60 years, which is approximately the same as global and Northern Hemispheric averages in recent decades. Future efforts should be focused towards the recovery and digitization of early-year observational records, the homogenization of observational data, the evaluation and adjustment of urbanization bias in temperature data series from urban stations, the analysis of extreme temperatures over longer periods including the first half of the 20th century, and the investigation of the observed surface air temperature change mechanisms in mainland China.

  6. Change point detection of the Persian Gulf sea surface temperature (United States)

    Shirvani, A.


    In this study, the Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric change point models (CPMs) were applied to detect change point in the annual Persian Gulf sea surface temperature anomalies (PGSSTA) time series for the period 1951-2013. The PGSSTA time series, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series. The pre-whitened PGSSTA time series were utilized as the input file of change point models. Both the applied parametric and nonparametric CPMs estimated the change point in the PGSSTA in 1992. The PGSSTA follow the normal distribution up to 1992 and thereafter, but with a different mean value after year 1992. The estimated slope of linear trend in PGSSTA time series for the period 1951-1992 was negative; however, that was positive after the detected change point. Unlike the PGSSTA, the applied CPMs suggested no change point in the Niño3.4SSTA time series.

  7. Thinking meta-theoretically about the role of internalization in the development of body dissatisfaction and body change behaviors. (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T; van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Wong, Kendal; Crowther, Janis H


    Internalization of societal standards of physical attractiveness (i.e., internalization of the thin ideal for women and internalization of the mesomorphic ideal for men) is a widely studied and robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and maladaptive body change behaviors. Substantial empirical research supports internalization as both a mediator and a moderator of the relation between societal influences and body dissatisfaction. In this paper, a primer on mediation and moderation is followed by a review of literature and discussion of the extent to which internalization can theoretically fulfill the roles of both mediation and moderation. The literature review revealed a stark contrast in research design (experimental versus non-experimental design) when alternate conceptualizations of internalization are adopted. A meta-theoretical, moderated mediation model is presented. This model integrates previous research and can inform future empirical and clinical endeavors.

  8. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland (United States)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.


    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  9. Effect of body size and temperature on respiration of Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) (United States)

    Milano, D.; Vigliano, P.H.; Beauchamp, David A.


    Body mass and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals. Oxygen consumption of post-larval Galaxias maculatus was measured in respirometry trials under different temperatures (5–21°C) and varying body masses (0.1–>1.5 g) spanning a relevant range of thermal conditions and sizes. Specific respiration rates (R in g O2 g−1 d−1) declined as a power function of body mass and increased exponentially with temperature and was expressed as: R = 0.0007 * W −0.31 * e 0.13 * T. The ability of this model to predict specific respiration rate was evaluated by comparing observed values with those predicted by the model. Our findings suggest that the respiration rate of G. maculatus is the result of multiple interactive processes (intrinsic and extrinsic factors) that modulate each other in ‘meta-mechanistic’ ways; this would help to explain the species’ ability to undergo the complex ontogenetic habitat shifts observed in the lakes of the Andean Patagonic range.

  10. Microhabitat and body size effects on heat tolerance: implications for responses to climate change (army ants: Formicidae, Ecitoninae). (United States)

    Baudier, Kaitlin M; Mudd, Abigail E; Erickson, Shayna C; O'Donnell, Sean


    1. Models that predict organismal and population responses to climate change may be improved by considering ecological factors that affect species thermal tolerance. Species differences in microhabitat use can expose animals to diverse thermal selective environments at a given site and may cause sympatric species to evolve different thermal tolerances. 2. We tested the hypothesis that species differences in body size and microhabitat use (above- vs. below-ground activity) would correspond to differences in thermal tolerance (maximum critical temperatures: CTmax ). Thermal buffering effects of soil can reduce exposure to extreme high temperatures for below-ground active species. We predicted larger-bodied individuals and species would have higher CTmax and that species mean CTmax would covary positively with degree of above-ground activity. We used Neotropical army ants (Formicidae: Ecitoninae) as models. Army ants vary in microhabitat use from largely subterranean to largely above-ground active species and are highly size polymorphic. 3. We collected data on above- and below-ground temperatures in habitats used by army ants to test for microhabitat temperature differences, and we conducted CTmax assays for army ant species with varying degrees of surface activity and with different body sizes within and between species. We then tested whether microhabitat use was associated with species differences in CTmax and whether microhabitat was a better predictor of CTmax than body size for species that overlapped in size. 4. Microhabitat use was a highly significant predictor of species' upper thermal tolerance limits, both for raw data and after accounting for the effects of phylogeny. Below-ground species were more thermally sensitive, with lower maximum critical temperatures (CTmax ). The smallest workers within each species were the least heat tolerant, but the magnitude of CTmax change with body size was greater in below-ground species. Species-typical microhabitat

  11. Central inhibitory effect of α-methyldopa on blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature of renal hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, F.P.; Ezer, Joseph; Jong, Wybren de


    The central inhibitory effect of α-methyldopa on blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature was studied in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Systemic administration of α-methyldopa decreased mean arterial blood pressure and body temperature and caused a short lasting increase in heart rate fol

  12. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine body composition changes in HIV-associated wasting. (United States)

    Klauke, Stephan; Fischer, Harald; Rieger, Armin; Frühauf, Lukas; Staszewski, Schlomo; Althoff, Peter-Henning; Helm, Eilke Brigitte


    AIDS wasting syndrome results in loss of lean body mass and body cell mass. This 12-week, open-label study used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition changes in 24 patients with AIDS wasting syndrome receiving recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH). The primary endpoint was percentage monthly change in body weight before/after r-hGH. Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), isometric strength and CD4+ count. Twenty patients completed the study: r-hGH resulted in mean weight gains (+2.7%, P = 0.146), and significant increases in mean body cell mass (+8.0%, P = 0.0211), lean body mass (+4.8%, P = 0.0373) and water (+5.5%, P r-hGH was generally well tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were fever (7.3%) and diarrhoea (6.3%). Thus, bioelectrical impedance analysis can detect improved body cell mass independent of changes in body weight resulting from r-hGH treatment in patients with AIDS wasting syndrome.

  13. Northern squawfish Ptychochelius oregonensis, O2 consumption rate: Effects of temperature and body size (United States)

    Cech, Joseph J.; Castleberry, Daniel T.; Hopkins, Todd E.; Petersen, James H.


    Northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis (live weight range 0.361–1.973 kg), O2consumption was measured with temperature-controlled, flow-through respirometers for >24 h. Mean standard O2 consumption rate of northern squawfish increased with acclimation temperature: 24.3, 49.1, 75.0, and 89.4 mg∙kg−0.67∙h−1 at 9, 15, 18, and 21 °C, respectively. Q10analysis showed that O2 consumption rate temperature sensitivity was greatest at the intermediate acclimation temperatures (15–18 °C, Q10 = 4.10), moderate at the lower acclimation temperatures (9–15 °C, Q10 = 3.23), and lowest at the higher acclimation temperatures (18–21 °C, Q10 = 1.80). Overall Q10 was 2.96 (9–21 °C). Body size (W, grams) and temperature (T, degrees Celcius) were related to O2 consumption (, grams per gram per day) by W−0.285∙e0.105T. Northern squawfish red to white muscle ratios significantly exceeded those of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in cross sections at 50 and 75% of standard length. High metabolic rates and red to white muscle ratios argue for comparability of northern squawfish with active predators such as sympatric rainbow trout.

  14. Does viviparity evolve in cold climate reptiles because pregnant females maintain stable (not high) body temperatures? (United States)

    Shine, Richard


    Viviparity (live bearing) has evolved from egg laying (oviparity) in many lineages of lizards and snakes, apparently in response to occupancy of cold climates. Explanations for this pattern have focused on the idea that behaviorally thermoregulating (sun-basking) pregnant female reptiles can maintain higher incubation temperatures for their embryos than would be available in nests under the soil surface. This is certainly true at very high elevations, where only viviparous species occur. However, comparisons of nest and lizard temperatures at sites close to the upper elevational limit for oviparous reptiles (presumably, the selective environment where the transition from oviparity to viviparity actually occurs) suggest that reproductive mode has less effect on mean incubation temperatures than on the diel distribution of those temperatures. Nests of the oviparous scincid lizard Bassiana duperreyi showed smooth diel cycles of heating and cooling. In contrast, body temperatures of the viviparous scincid Eulamprus heatwolei rose abruptly in the morning, were high and stable during daylight hours, and fell abruptly at night. Laboratory incubation experiments mimicking these patterns showed that developmental rates of eggs and phenotypic traits of hatchling B. duperreyi were sensitive to this type of thermal variance as well as to mean temperature. Hence, diel distributions as well as mean incubation temperatures may have played an important role in the selective forces for viviparity. More generally, variances as well as mean values of abiotic factors may constitute significant selective forces on life-history evolution.

  15. In utero heat stress increases postnatal core body temperature in pigs. (United States)

    Johnson, J S; Sanz Fernandez, M V; Seibert, J T; Ross, J W; Lucy, M C; Safranski, T J; Elsasser, T H; Kahl, S; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H


    In utero heat stress (IUHS) negatively impacts postnatal development, but how it alters future body temperature parameters and energetic metabolism is not well understood. Future body temperature indices and bioenergetic markers were characterized in pigs from differing in utero thermal environments during postnatal thermoneutral (TN) and cyclical heat stress (HS) exposure. First-parity pregnant gilts ( = 13) were exposed to 1 of 4 ambient temperature (T) treatments (HS [cyclic 28°C to 34°C] or TN [cyclic 18°C to 22°C]) applied for the entire gestation (HSHS, TNTN), HS for the first half of gestation (HSTN), or HS for the second half of gestation (TNHS). Twenty-four offspring (23.1 ± 1.2 kg BW; = 6 HSHS, = 6 TNTN, = 6 HSTN, = 6 TNHS) were housed in TN (21.7°C ± 0.7°C) conditions and then exposed to 2 separate but similar HS periods (HS1 = 6 d; HS2 = 6 d; cycling 28°C to 36°C). Core body temperature (T) was assessed every 15 min with implanted temperature recorders. Regardless of in utero treatment, T increased during both HS periods ( = 0.01; 0.58°C). During TN, HS1, and HS2, all IUHS pigs combined had increased T ( = 0.01; 0.36°C, 0.20°C, and 0.16°C, respectively) compared to TNTN controls. Although unaffected by in utero environment, the total plasma thyroxine to triiodothyronine ratio was reduced ( = 0.01) during HS1 and HS2 (39% and 29%, respectively) compared with TN. In summary, pigs from IUHS maintained an increased T compared with TNTN controls regardless of external T, and this thermal differential may have practical implications to developmental biology and animal bioenergetics.

  16. Body actions change the appearance of facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition, and emotion do not operate along segregated pathways; rather, their adaptive interaction is supported by various sources of evidence. For instance, the aesthetic appraisal of powerful mood inducers like music can bias the facial expression of emotions towards mood congruency. In four experiments we showed similar mood-congruency effects elicited by the comfort/discomfort of body actions. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, we let participants perform comfortable/uncomfortable visually-guided reaches and tested them in a facial emotion identification task. Through the alleged mediation of motor action induced mood, action comfort enhanced the quality of the participant's global experience (a neutral face appeared happy and a slightly angry face neutral, while action discomfort made a neutral face appear angry and a slightly happy face neutral. Furthermore, uncomfortable (but not comfortable reaching improved the sensitivity for the identification of emotional faces and reduced the identification time of facial expressions, as a possible effect of hyper-arousal from an unpleasant bodily experience.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Neutron Absorption Materials with Temperature Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Some of these facilities are operated at higher than room temperature, thus the neutron absorption material can be directly affected by the surrounding environment where the temperature is not maintained in a constant condition. Meanwhile, a nucleus in an atom is continuously vibrated with the thermal energy, after which there arises a range of relative speeds between a neutron and the nucleus, even for a fixed neutron speed. At higher temperature, the random motion of the nucleus reproduces new resonance with a lower and broader peak, i.e., Doppler broadening of a resonance, and the capture cross section of neutron is revised. Therefore, the performance of neutron absorption materials may vary with a change of temperature. In this study, the absorption abilities of three kinds of neutron absorbers generally used in the reactor core were analyzed at a range of temperatures from 293.6K to 584K. As a result, the neutron absorption abilities for B{sup 4}C and Ag-In-Cd do not vary with the change of temperature, while that for Gd{sup 2}O{sup 3} absorbers was shown to be decreased approximately 3% with reference to that at 293.6K in the temperature range between the 293.6K and 584K. This phenomenon of the Gd{sup 2}O{sup 3} absorber seems to be caused by the Doppler broadening of the neutron absorption cross-section. Therefore, it is expected that the effect of material temperature on the neutron absorption performance is needed to be considered in the design of nuclear reactor and the analysis of radiation shielding.

  18. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar S. Kolosovas-Machuca


    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p<0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p<0.001 and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim.

  19. Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Dent


    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7–40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia.

  20. The acute and subchronic effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on body temperature in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ivan


    Full Text Available Introduction. The consumption of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy is known to cause severe hyperthermia in humans. This is of extreme importance since ecstasy is often consumed at 'rave' parties, where dancing takes place in a warm environment, which may exacerbate the effect of MDMA on thermoregulation. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of single and repeated administration of MDMA on body temperature in Wistar rats. Material and methods. The study included 72 male Wistar rats, housed in groups of four in cages at a room temperature of 222oC. They were divided in two groups. The rats in the first group were treated with oral solution of MDMA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and their temperature was measured hourly until 8th hour. The rats in the second group were treated with oral solution of MDMA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg every day during 15 days and their temperature was measured daily at 0th, 1st, 3rd, 5th and 8th hour. Temperature was measured by inserting a thermocouple probe 2,5 cm into the rectum. Results. Both groups showed dose dependent increase of body temperature, determined by rectal temperature measurements. The magnitude of hyperthemic response caused by subchronic administration of MDMA was markedly diminished during the experiment. Conclusion. The hyperthermic effect of MDMA was dose-dependent. The magnitude of the hyperthermic response was markedly diminished in subchronic administration.

  1. Near-Term Acceleration In The Rate of Temperature Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Hartin, Corinne A.; Mundra, Anupriya; Calvin, Katherine V.


    Anthropogenically-driven climate changes, which are expected to impact human and natural systems, are often expressed in terms of global-mean temperature . The rate of climate change over multi-decadal scales is also important, with faster rates of change resulting in less time for human and natural systems to adapt . We find that current trends in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions are now moving the Earth system into a regime in terms of multi-decadal rates of change that are unprecedented for at least the last 1000 years. The rate of global-mean temperature increase in the CMIP5 archive over 40-year periods increases to 0.25±0.05 (1σ) °C per decade by 2020, an average greater than peak rates of change during the previous 1-2 millennia. Regional rates of change in Europe, North America and the Arctic are higher than the global average. Research on the impacts of such near-term rates of change is urgently needed.

  2. Temperature reduction due to the application of phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Conrad; Kornadt, Oliver [Department of Building Physics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Coudraystrasse 11a, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Ostry, Milan [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Department of Building Structures, Veveri 95, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)


    Overheating is a major problem in many modern buildings due to the utilization of lightweight constructions with low heat storing capacity. A possible answer to this problem is the emplacement of phase change materials (PCM), thereby increasing the thermal mass of a building. These materials change their state of aggregation within a defined temperature range. Useful PCM for buildings show a phase transition from solid to liquid and vice versa. The thermal mass of the materials is increased by the latent heat. A modified gypsum plaster and a salt mixture were chosen as two materials for the study of their impact on room temperature reduction. For realistic investigations, test rooms were erected where measurements were carried out under different conditions such as temporary air change, alternate internal heat gains or clouding. The experimental data was finally reproduced by dint of a mathematical model. (author)

  3. Does short-term fasting promote changes in state body image? (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Drew A


    Fasting, or going a significant amount of time without food, is a predictor of eating pathology in at-risk samples. The current study examined whether acute changes in body image occur after an episode of fasting in college students. Furthermore, it evaluated whether individual difference variables might inform the relationship between fasting and shifts in body image. Participants (N=186) included male (44.7%) and female college students who completed the Body Image States Scale (BISS) and other eating-related measures before a 24-h fast. Participants completed the BISS again after fasting. While no overall changes in BISS scores emerged during the study, some individuals evidenced body image improvement. Baseline levels of disinhibition and self-reported fasting at least once per week uniquely predicted improvement in body image. Individual difference variables may play a role in how fasting could be reinforced by shifts in body image.

  4. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann


    We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature...... (Tes) = 35.9 ± 0.2, 37.4 ± 0.1, or 38.2 ± 0.1 (SE) °C induced by 30 min of water immersion], seven cyclists (maximal O2 uptake = 5.1 ± 0.1 l/min) performed three randomly assigned bouts of cycle ergometer exercise (60% maximal O2 uptake) in the heat (40°C) until volitional exhaustion. To determine...... the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05°C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0°C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40.1-40.2°C, muscle...

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Epidermal Heat Flux Sensors for Measurements of Core Body Temperature. (United States)

    Zhang, Yihui; Webb, Richard Chad; Luo, Hongying; Xue, Yeguang; Kurniawan, Jonas; Cho, Nam Heon; Krishnan, Siddharth; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A


    Long-term, continuous measurement of core body temperature is of high interest, due to the widespread use of this parameter as a key biomedical signal for clinical judgment and patient management. Traditional approaches rely on devices or instruments in rigid and planar forms, not readily amenable to intimate or conformable integration with soft, curvilinear, time-dynamic, surfaces of the skin. Here, materials and mechanics designs for differential temperature sensors are presented which can attach softly and reversibly onto the skin surface, and also sustain high levels of deformation (e.g., bending, twisting, and stretching). A theoretical approach, together with a modeling algorithm, yields core body temperature from multiple differential measurements from temperature sensors separated by different effective distances from the skin. The sensitivity, accuracy, and response time are analyzed by finite element analyses (FEA) to provide guidelines for relationships between sensor design and performance. Four sets of experiments on multiple devices with different dimensions and under different convection conditions illustrate the key features of the technology and the analysis approach. Finally, results indicate that thermally insulating materials with cellular structures offer advantages in reducing the response time and increasing the accuracy, while improving the mechanics and breathability.

  6. Quasi-periodicity of temperature changes on the millennial scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Quansheng; FANG Xiuqi; ZHENG Jingyun


    Quasi-periodicity of temperature changes on the millennial scale is found according to the proxy data both from historical documents and natural evidence in China. The auto-correlation of the temperature changes series for the last 2000 years is most significant on the 1350 a time lag. The period of 1350 a includes 4 warm/cold stages: 200~250 a warm stage, 150~200 a cold stage, 300~350 a warm stage, and 550~600 a cold stage. In contrast to the 550~600 a cold stage, the other three stages can be united in one warm dominant stage. Inferred from the 1350 a period, the 20th century warm stage belongs to the 200~250 a warm stage, which is similar to the warm stage occurring during the 570's~770's. The process of temperature change in the 20th century warm stage is similar to that of the 570's~770's. But the warming rate in the 20th century is more rapid. The temperature anomaly in the 1980's~1990's shows a greater departure from the regression equation of that between 1500's~1900's and 150's~650's. Whether it can be regarded as the forcing of human activities is worth studying further.

  7. Effect of strain and temperature on the threshold displacement energy in body-centered cubic iron (United States)

    Beeler, Benjamin; Asta, Mark; Hosemann, Peter; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels


    The threshold displacement energy (TDE) is the minimum amount of kinetic energy required to displace an atom from its lattice site. The magnitude of the TDE displays significant variance as a function of the crystallographic direction, system temperature and applied strain, among a variety of other factors. It is critically important to determine an accurate value of the TDE in order to calculate the total number of displacements due to a given irradiation condition, and thus to understand the materials response to irradiation. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to calculate the threshold displacement energy in body-centered cubic iron as a function of strain and temperature. With applied strain, a decrease of the TDE of up to approximately 14 eV was observed. A temperature increase from 300 K to 500 K can result in an increase of the TDE of up to approximately 9 eV.

  8. Effects of wearing two different types of clothing on body temperatures during and after exercise (United States)

    Jeong, Woon Seon; Tokura, Hiromi


    The experiment was conducted to investigate the human thermoregulatory responses during rest, exercise and recovery at T a 20°C and 60% R.H. under the conditions of wearing two different types of clothing. Six healthy men wore two types of clothing: one covering the whole body area except the head (Type A, weight 1656 g), and the other covering only the trunk, upper arms and thighs (Type B, weight 996 g). The level of rectal temperature was kept significantly higher in Type B than in Type A during rest and recovery. The increased and decreased rates of rectal temperature during exercise and recovery were significantly greater in Type A than in Type B, respectively. These findings are discussed from the viewpoint of the differences of skin temperatures of the extremities between Type A and Type B.

  9. Sequential changes of body composition in patients with enterocutaneous fistula during the 10 days after admission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Bo Wang; Jian-An Ren; Jie-Shou Li


    AIM: To investigate the sequential changes of body composition in the metabolic response that occurred in a group of patients with enterocutaneous fistula after admission to the hospital.METHODS: Sixty-one patients with enterocutaneous fistula admitted to our hospital had measurements of body composition by multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis after admission and 5, 10 days later. Sequential measurements of plasma constitutive proteins were also made. RESULTS: The body weight, fat-free mass, body mass index, and body cell mass were initially well below the normal range, especially the body mass index and body cell mass. And all the data gradually moved up over the 10-day study period, only a highly significant difference was found in body cell mass. Once the patients Received nutrition supplement, ECW began to return to normal range slowly as well as ICW and TBW began to rise up, and ECW/TBW significantly declined to near normal level by day 10 in either male or female patients. There was a reprioritization of plasma constitutive protein synthesis that was obligatory and independent of changes in FFM.CONCLUSION: Serial measurements can quantify the disturbance of body composition in enterocutaneous fistula patients. The early nutritional intervention rapidly ameliorates the abnormal distribution of body water while the state-of-the-art surgical management prevents the further deterioration in cellular composition.

  10. Causes of Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kobashi


    Full Text Available Precise understanding of Greenland temperature variability is important in two ways. First, Greenland ice sheet melting associated with rising temperature is a major global sea level forcing, potentially affecting large populations in coming centuries. Second, Greenland temperatures are highly affected by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO. In our earlier study, we found that Greenland temperature deviated negatively (positively from northern hemispheric (NH temperature trend during stronger (weaker solar activity owing to changes in atmospheric/oceanic changes (e.g. NAO/AO over the past 800 yr (Kobashi et al., 2013. Therefore, a precise Greenland temperature record can provide important constraints on the past atmospheric/oceanic circulation in the region and beyond. Here, we investigated Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr reconstructed from argon and nitrogen isotopes from trapped air in a GISP2 ice core, using a one-dimensional energy balance model with orbital, solar, volcanic, greenhouse gas, and aerosol forcings. The modelled northern Northern Hemisphere (NH temperature exhibits a cooling trend over the past 4000 yr as observed for the reconstructed Greenland temperature through decreasing annual average insolation. With consideration of the negative influence of solar variability, the modelled and observed Greenland temperatures agree with correlation coefficients of r = 0.34–0.36 (p = 0.1–0.04 in 21 yr running means (RMs and r = 0.38–0.45 (p = 0.1–0.05 on a centennial timescale (101 yr RMs. Thus, the model can explain 14 to 20% of variance of the observed Greenland temperature in multidecadal to centennial timescales with a 90–96% confidence interval, suggesting that a weak but persistent negative solar influence on Greenland temperature continued over the past 4000 yr. Then, we estimated the distribution of multidecadal NH and northern high

  11. Impact of body composition changes on risk of all-cause mortality in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, Christophe E; Herrmann, François R; Spoerri, Adrian


    PURPOSE: This study evaluates the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) changes and mortality in persons ≥65 years. METHODS: Adults ≥65 years with at least two body composition measurements (BCM) between 1990 and 2011 were included. We......: FFMI loss is related to increased mortality in older persons....

  12. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppes, Lando L J; de Boer, Michiel R; Samoocha, David


    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in body...

  13. Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Q; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille;


    Total and regional body composition were measured in 373 early postmenopausal women aged 49-60 y by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate whether the changes in body composition in the early postmenopausal years are related to menopause itself or merely to age. Both fat mass and fat...

  14. Experimental evidence that changes in mood cause changes in body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A; Zalta, Alyson K; Forbush, Kelsie T; Keel, Pamela K


    Previous research has found concurrent and prospective associations between negative mood and body dissatisfaction; however, only experimental research can establish causal relationships. This study utilized an experimental design to examine the influence of negative mood on body dissatisfaction. Undergraduate women were randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition. Participants in the experimental condition (n=21) completed a negative mood induction procedure. Participants in the control condition (n=24) completed a neutral mood procedure. All participants completed visual analog scales regarding their mood and satisfaction with weight and shape before and after each manipulation. Body dissatisfaction increased following the procedure for experimental but not control participants, suggesting that negative mood caused increased body dissatisfaction. In cultures that idealize thinness, body dissatisfaction may arise from funneling general feelings of dysphoria into more concrete and culturally meaningful negative feelings about the body.

  15. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke


    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods

  16. Climate change and river temperature sensitivity to warmer nighttime vs. warmer daytime air temperatures (United States)

    Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.


    We investigated the July river temperature response to atmospheric warming over the diurnal cycle in a 36 km reach of the upper Middle Fork John Day River of Oregon, USA. The physical model Heat Source was calibrated and used to run 3 different cases of increased air temperature during July: 1) uniform increase over the whole day ("delta method"), 2) warmer daytime, and 3) warmer nighttime. All 3 cases had the same mean daily air temperatures - a 4 °C increase relative to 2002. Results show that the timing of air temperature increases has a significant effect on the magnitude, timing and duration of changes in water temperatures relative to current conditions. In all cases, river temperatures in the lower reach increased by at least 1.1 °C . For the delta case, water temperature increases never exceeded 2.3 °C. In contrast, under the warmer daytime case, water temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 6.6 hours/day on average, with the largest increases occurring during mid-day. In the warmer night case the river temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 4.3 hours/day on average with the largest increases occurring around midnight. In addition, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the delta case increased the water temperature by an average of 1.9 °C uniformly during daytime and nighttime. Still, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer daytime case increased water temperature by an average of at least 1.6 °C during the daytime and by an average of up to 2.5 °C during the nighttime, while an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer nighttime case increased the water temperature by an average of at least 1.4 °C during the nighttime and by an average of up to 2.4 °C during the daytime. The spatial response of temperature was different for each case. The lower 13 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the delta case, while only the lower 6 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the warmer daytime case

  17. Supraphysiological cyclic dosing of sustained release T3 in order to reset low basal body temperature. (United States)

    Friedman, Michael; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Gonzalez, Michael J


    The use of sustained release tri-iodothyronine (SR-T3) in clinical practice, has gained popularity in the complementary and alternative medical community in the treatment of chronic fatigue with a protocol (WT3) pioneered by Dr. Denis Wilson. The WT3 protocol involves the use of SR-T3 taken orally by the patient every 12 hours according to a cyclic dose schedule determined by patient response. The patient is then weaned once a body temperature of 98.6 degrees F has been maintained for 3 consecutive weeks. The symptoms associated with this protocol have been given the name Wilson's Temperature Syndrome (WTS). There have been clinical studies using T3 in patients who are euthyroid based on normal TSH values. However, this treatment has created a controversy in the conventional medical community, especially with the American Thyroid Association, because it is not based on a measured deficiency of thyroid hormone. However, just as estrogen and progesterone are prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles in patients who have normal serum hormone levels, the WT3 therapy can be used to regulate metabolism despite normal serum thyroid hormone levels. SR-T3 prescription is based exclusively on low body temperature and presentation of symptoms. Decreased T3 function exerts widespread effects throughout the body. It can decrease serotonin and growth hormone levels and increase the number of adrenal hormone receptor sites. These effects may explain some of the symptoms observed in WTS. The dysregulation of neuroendocrine function may begin to explain such symptoms as alpha intrusion into slow wave sleep, decrease in blood flow to the brain, alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, fatigue, myalgia and arthralgia, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Despite all thermoregulatory control mechanisms of the body and the complex metabolic processes involved, WT3 therapy seems a valuable tool to re-establish normal body functions. We report the results of 11 patients who underwent the

  18. Contribution of a Membrane Estrogen Receptor to the Estrogenic Regulation of Body Temperature and Energy Homeostasis (United States)

    Roepke, Troy A.; Bosch, Martha A.; Rick, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Benjamin; Wagner, Edward J.; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.


    The hypothalamus is a key region of the central nervous system involved in the control of homeostasis, including energy and core body temperature (Tc). 17β-Estradiol (E2) regulates Tc, in part, via actions in the basal hypothalamus and preoptic area. E2 primarily controls hypothalamic functions via the nuclear steroid receptors, estrogen receptor α/β. However, we have previously described an E2-responsive, Gq-coupled membrane receptor that reduces the postsynaptic inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic tone and attenuates postovariectomy body weight gain in female guinea pigs through the administration of a selective Gq-mER ligand, STX. To determine the role of Gq-mER in regulating Tc, energy and bone homeostasis, ovariectomized female guinea pigs, implanted ip with temperature probes, were treated with STX or E2 for 7–8 wk. Tc was recorded for 4 wk, whereas food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Bone density and fat accumulation were determined postmortem. Both E2 and STX significantly reduced Tc in the females compared with controls. STX, similar to E2, reduced food intake and fat accumulation and increased tibial bone density. Therefore, a Gq-mER-coupled signaling pathway appears to be involved in maintaining homeostatic functions and may constitute a novel therapeutic target for treatment of hypoestrogenic symptoms. PMID:20685867

  19. Global DNA Methylation Changes in Nile Tilapia Gonads during High Temperature-Induced Masculinization (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Ning


    In some fish species, high or low temperature can switch the sex determination mechanisms and induce fish sex reversal when the gonads are undifferentiated. During this high or low temperature-induced sex reversal, the expressions of many genes are altered. However, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in fish gonads after high or low temperature treatment are unclear. Herein, we compared the global DNA methylation changes in the gonads from control females (CF), control males (CM), high temperature-treated females (TF), and high temperature-induced males (IM) from the F8 family of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. The DNA methylation level in CF was higher than that in CM for various chromosomes. Both females and males showed an increase in methylation levels on various chromosomes after high-temperature induction. We identified 64,438 (CF/CM), 63,437 (TF/IM), 98,675 (TF/CF), 235,270 (IM/CM) and 119,958 (IM/CF) differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in Nile tilapia gonads, representing approximately 0.70% (CF/CM), 0.69% (TF/IM), 1.07% (TF/CF), 2.56% (IM/CM), and 1.30% (IM/CF)of the length of the genome. A total of 89 and 65 genes that exhibited DMRs in their gene bodies and promoters were mapped to the Nile tilapia genome. Furthermore, more than half of the genes with DMRs in the gene body in CF/CM were also included in the IM/CM, TF/CF, TF/IM, and IM/CF groups. Additionally, many important pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were identified. This study provided an important foundation to investigate the molecular mechanism of high temperature-induced sex reversal in fish species. PMID:27486872

  20. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit


    ABSTRACT Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. Results: Positive associations between GI and changes in bodyweight (¿BW), percentage body fat (%BF......), and waist circumference (¿WC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates.Significant GI X sex X physical activity interactions for ABSTRACTBackground: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemicload (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase therisk of weight gain...

  1. Giant Magnetic Entropy Change in Manganese Perovskites near Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟; 王锦辉; 都有为; 陈伟


    A large magnetic entropy change about twice as high as that of pure gadolinium metal near room temperature has been discovered in manganese perovskites La0.837Ca0.098Na0.03sMn0.987O3.00(8.3 J. kg-1.K-1, at 256 K) and La0.s22Ca0.096K0.043Mn0.974O3.00 (6.8 J. kg-1.K-1, at 265K) under a magnetic field of 1.5 T. This phenomenon indicates that manganese perovskites have potential applications for magnetic refrigerants in an extended temperature range even near room temperature.

  2. Reconciling anthropogenic climate change with observed temperature 1998-2008. (United States)

    Kaufmann, Robert K; Kauppi, Heikki; Mann, Michael L; Stock, James H


    Given the widely noted increase in the warming effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, it has been unclear why global surface temperatures did not rise between 1998 and 2008. We find that this hiatus in warming coincides with a period of little increase in the sum of anthropogenic and natural forcings. Declining solar insolation as part of a normal eleven-year cycle, and a cyclical change from an El Nino to a La Nina dominate our measure of anthropogenic effects because rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions partially offsets rising greenhouse gas concentrations. As such, we find that recent global temperature records are consistent with the existing understanding of the relationship among global surface temperature, internal variability, and radiative forcing, which includes anthropogenic factors with well known warming and cooling effects.

  3. Effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the specific dynamic action of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Faulkner, Angela C


    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the accumulated energy expended on all physiological processes associated with meal digestion, is strongly influenced by features of both the meal and the organism. We assessed the effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the postprandial metabolic response and calculated SDA of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Peak postprandial rates of O(2) consumption (.V(O2)) and CO(2) production (.V(CO2)) and SDA increased with meal size (5%-20% of body mass). Postprandial metabolism was impacted by meal type; the digestion of hard-bodied superworms (Zophobas larva) and crickets was more costly than the digestion of soft-bodied earthworms and juvenile rats. An increase in body temperature (from 20 degrees to 35 degrees C) altered the postprandial metabolic profile, decreasing its duration and increasing its magnitude, but did not effect SDA, with the cost of meal digestion remaining constant across body temperatures. Allometric mass exponents were 0.69 for standard metabolic rate, 0.85 for peak postprandial .V(O2), and 1.02 for SDA; therefore, the factorial scope of peak postprandial .V(O2) increased with body mass. The mass of nutritive organs (stomach, liver, intestines, and kidneys) accounted for 38% and 20% of the variation in peak postprandial .V(O2) and SDA, respectively. Toads forced to exercise experienced 25-fold increases in .V(O2) much greater than the 5.5-fold increase experience during digestion. Controlling for meal size, meal type, and body temperature, the specific dynamic responses of B. marinus are similar to those of the congeneric Bufo alvarius, Bufo boreas, Bufo terrestris, and Bufo woodhouseii.

  4. Measurement of bovine body and scrotal temperature using implanted temperature sensitive radio transmitters, data loggers and infrared thermography. (United States)

    Wallage, A L; Gaughan, J B; Lisle, A T; Beard, L; Collins, C W; Johnston, S D


    Synchronous and continuous measurement of body (BT) and scrotal temperature (ST) without adverse welfare or behavioural interference is essential for understanding thermoregulation of the bull testis. This study compared three technologies for their efficacy for long-term measurement of the relationship between BT and ST by means of (1) temperature sensitive radio transmitters (RT), (2) data loggers (DL) and (3) infrared imaging (IRI). After an initial pilot study on two bulls to establish a surgical protocol, RTs and DLs were implanted into the flank and mid-scrotum of six Wagyu bulls for between 29 and 49 days. RT frequencies were scanned every 15 min, whilst DLs logged every 30 min. Infrared imaging of the body (flank) and scrotum of each bull was recorded hourly for one 24-h period and compared to RT and DL data. After a series of subsequent heat stress studies, bulls were castrated and testicular tissue samples processed for evidence of histopathology. Radio transmitters were less reliable than DLs; RTs lost >11 % of data, whilst 11 of the 12 DLs had 0 % data loss. IRI was only interpretable in 35.8 % of images recorded. Pearson correlations between DL and RT were strong for both BT (r > 0.94, P  0.80, P < 0.001). Surgery produced temporary minor inflammation and scrotal hematoma in two animals post-surgery. Whilst scar tissue was observed at all surgical sutured sites when bulls were castrated, there was no evidence of testicular adhesion and normal active spermatogenesis was observed in six of the eight implanted testicles. There was no significant correlation of IRI with either DL or RT. We conclude that DLs provided to be a reliable continuous source of data for synchronous measurement of BT and ST.

  5. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, C.; Husak, G.


    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  6. Association between Body Temperature Patterns and Neurological Outcomes after Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (United States)

    Ryu, Jeong-Am; Park, Taek Kyu; Chung, Chi Ryang; Cho, Yang Hyun; Sung, Kiick; Suh, Gee Young; Lee, Tae Rim; Sim, Min Seob; Yang, Jeong Hoon


    We evaluated the association of body temperature patterns with neurological outcomes after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). Between December 2013 and December 2015, we enrolled 48 patients with cardiac arrest who survived for at least 24 hours after ECPR. Based on their body temperature patterns and the intention to control fever, we divided the patients into those in whom fever was actively controlled (N = 25), those with normothermia (N = 17), and those with unintended hypothermia (N = 6). The primary outcome was the Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) scale at discharge. Of the 48 ECPR patients, 23 patients (47.9%) had good neurological outcomes (CPC 1 and 2) and 27 patients (56.3%) survived to discharge. The normothermia group showed a pattern of higher temperatures compared with the other groups during 48 hours after ECPR. Not only poor neurological outcomes but also intensive care unit (ICU) mortality occurred more often in the unintended hypothermia group than in the other two groups, regardless of the fever control strategy (p = 0.023 and p = 0.002, respectively). There were no differences in neurological outcomes and ICU mortality between the actively controlled fever group and the normothermia group (p = 0.845 and p = 0.616, respectively). Unintentionally sustained hypothermia may be associated with poor neurological outcomes after ECPR. These findings suggest that patients who are unable to generate a fever following ECPR may incur severe hypoxic brain injury. PMID:28114337

  7. The Effect of Tub Bathing on Body Temperature in Preterm Infants: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeili


    Full Text Available Background: Bathing of a premature newborn is important in care giving, but due to inadequate evidences, infant caregivers are not sure about bathing being safe in terms of not causing hypothermia and are not systematically considered in the infants’ care giving programs. Aim: To determine the effect of tub bathing on body temperature of preterm infants”. Methods: This study is a randomized controlled clinical trial which was conducted in 1392 in neonatal unit of Al-zahra hospital. 118 preterm infants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The infants in the control group received routine skin care only. The intervention group was bathed three times every other day inside the bathtub. In both group, the infants’ body temperature was measured at the same times by the researcher. Data were analyzed with SPSS software version 14 using independent T-test, Chi-square and repeated measurements tests. Results: In both groups, boys outnumbered girls. At the time of inclusion, the infants' age was 5.8 ± 8.6 days and their weight was 320.6 ± 1660.0 grams. In both groups, the mean temperature of premature infants after bath was dropped in all three times. Which was statistically significant in the first and second baths (P

  8. Assessment of body mapping sportswear using a manikin operated in constant temperature mode and thermoregulatory model control mode. (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Del Ferraro, Simona; Molinaro, Vincenzo; Morrissey, Matthew; Rossi, René


    Regional sweating patterns and body surface temperature differences exist between genders. Traditional sportswear made from one material and/or one fabric structure has a limited ability to provide athletes sufficient local wear comfort. Body mapping sportswear consists of one piece of multiple knit structure fabric or of different fabric pieces that may provide athletes better wear comfort. In this study, the 'modular' body mapping sportswear was designed and subsequently assessed on a 'Newton' type sweating manikin that operated in both constant temperature mode and thermophysiological model control mode. The performance of the modular body mapping sportswear kit and commercial products were also compared. The results demonstrated that such a modular body mapping sportswear kit can meet multiple wear/thermal comfort requirements in various environmental conditions. All body mapping clothing (BMC) presented limited global thermophysiological benefits for the wearers. Nevertheless, BMC showed evident improvements in adjusting local body heat exchanges and local thermal sensations.

  9. Quantum three-body calculation of the nonresonant triple-\\alpha reaction rate at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Kazuyuki; Kamimura, Masayasu


    The triple-\\alpha reaction rate is re-evaluated by directly solving the three-body Schroedinger equation. The resonant and nonresonant processes are treated on the same footing using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method for three-body scattering. Accurate description of the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant states significantly quenches the Coulomb barrier between the two-\\alpha's and the third \\alpha particle. Consequently, the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant continuum states below the resonance at 92.04 keV, i.e., the ground state of 8Be, give markedly larger contribution at low temperatures than in foregoing studies. We find about 20 orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the triple-\\alpha reaction rate around 10^7 K compared to the rate of the NACRE compilation.

  10. Whole-Body Reaching Movements Formulated by Minimum Muscle-Tension Change Criterion. (United States)

    Kudo, Naoki; Choi, Kyuheong; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji


    It is well known that planar reaching movements of the human shoulder and elbow joints have invariant features: roughly straight hand paths and bell-shaped velocity profiles. The optimal control models with the criteria of smoothness or precision, which determine a unique movement pattern, predict such features of hand trajectories. In this letter on expanding the research on simple arm reaching movements, we examine whether the smoothness criteria can be applied to whole-body reaching movements with many degrees of freedom. Determining a suitable joint trajectory in the whole-body reaching movement corresponds to the optimization problem with constraints, since body balance must be maintained during a motion task. First, we measured human joint trajectories and ground reaction forces during whole-body reaching movements, and confirmed that subjects formed similar movements with common characteristics in the trajectories of the hand position and body center of mass. Second, we calculated the optimal trajectories according to the criteria of torque and muscle-tension smoothness. While the minimum torque change trajectories were not consistent with the experimental data, the minimum muscle-tension change model was able to predict the stereotyped features of the measured trajectories. To explore the dominant effects of the extension from the torque change to the muscle-tension change, we introduced a weighted torque change cost function. Considering the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the muscle as the weighting factor of each joint torque, we formulated the weighted torque change cost as a simplified version of the minimum muscle-tension change cost. The trajectories owing to the minimum weighted torque change criterion also showed qualitative agreement with the common features of the measured data. Proper estimation of the MVC forces in the body joints is essential to reproduce human whole-body movements according to the minimum muscle-tension change

  11. Dinosaur body temperatures determined from isotopic (¹³C-¹⁸O) ordering in fossil biominerals. (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Tütken, Thomas; Martin, Taylor S; Tripati, Aradhna K; Fricke, Henry C; Connely, Melissa; Cifelli, Richard L; Eiler, John M


    The nature of the physiology and thermal regulation of the nonavian dinosaurs is the subject of debate. Previously, arguments have been made for both endothermic and ectothermic metabolisms on the basis of differing methodologies. We used clumped isotope thermometry to determine body temperatures from the fossilized teeth of large Jurassic sauropods. Our data indicate body temperatures of 36° to 38°C, which are similar to those of most modern mammals. This temperature range is 4° to 7°C lower than predicted by a model that showed scaling of dinosaur body temperature with mass, which could indicate that sauropods had mechanisms to prevent excessively high body temperatures being reached because of their gigantic size.

  12. Neuropeptides and anticipatory changes in behaviour and physiology: seasonal body weight regulation in the Siberian hamster. (United States)

    Mercer, Julian G; Tups, Alexander


    The Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is a powerful model of physiological body weight regulation. This seasonal model offers the potential to distinguish between the compensatory neuroendocrine systems that defend body weight against imposed negative energy balance, and those that are involved in the programming of the level of body weight that will be defended-a seasonally appropriate body weight. Of the known, studied, components of the hypothalamic energy balance system, the anorexogenic peptide, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), is the only candidate where gene expression changes in a manner consistent with a role in initiating or sustaining photoperiod-induced differences in body weight trajectory. Siberian hamsters effect a reversible biannual switch in leptin sensitivity in which only short day (SD)-acclimated hamsters that have undergone a reduction in body weight, adiposity and plasma leptin are sensitive to peripheral exogenous leptin. The suppressor of cytokine signalling protein, SOCS3, appears to be the molecular correlate of this seasonal sensitivity.

  13. Cytoskeletal regulation dominates temperature-sensitive proteomic changes of hibernation in forebrain of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson G Hindle

    Full Text Available 13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy - wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins

  14. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Armellin


    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess thermal changes on tooth tissues during light exposure using two different LED curing units. The hypothesis was that no temperature increase could be detected within the dental pulp during polymerization irrespective of the use of a composite resin or a light-curing unit. Methods. Caries-free human first molars were selected, pulp residues were removed after root resection, and four calibrated type-J thermocouples were positioned. Two LED lamps were tested; temperature measurements were made on intact teeth and on the same tooth during curing of composite restorations. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson’s χ2. After ANOVA, the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed. Results. Polymerization data analysis showed that in the pulp chamber temperature increase was higher than that without resin. Starlight PRO, in the same condition of Valo lamp, showed a lower temperature increase in pre- and intrapolymerization. A control group (without composite resin was evaluated. Significance. Temperature increase during resin curing is a function of the rate of polymerization, due to the exothermic polymerization reaction, the energy from the light unit, and time of exposure.

  15. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page


    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  16. Elevational variation in body-temperature response to immune challenge in a lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho


    Full Text Available Immunocompetence benefits animal fitness by combating pathogens, but also entails some costs. One of its main components is fever, which in ectotherms involves two main types of costs: energy expenditure and predation risk. Whenever those costs of fever outweigh its benefits, ectotherms are expected not to develop fever, or even to show hypothermia, reducing costs of thermoregulation and diverting the energy saved to other components of the immune system. Environmental thermal quality, and therefore the thermoregulation cost/benefit balance, varies geographically. Hence, we hypothesize that, in alpine habitats, immune-challenged ectotherms should show no thermal response, given that (1 hypothermia would be very costly, as the temporal window for reproduction is extremely small, and (2 fever would have a prohibitive cost, as heat acquisition is limited in such habitat. However, in temperate habitats, immune-challenged ectotherms might show a febrile response, due to lower cost/benefit balance as a consequence of a more suitable thermal environment. We tested this hypothesis in Psammodromus algirus lizards from Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, by testing body temperature preferred by alpine and non-alpine lizards, before and after activating their immune system with a typical innocuous pyrogen. Surprisingly, non-alpine lizards responded to immune challenge by decreasing preferential body-temperature, presumably allowing them to save energy and reduce exposure to predators. On the contrary, as predicted, immune-challenged alpine lizards maintained their body-temperature preferences. These results match with increased costs of no thermoregulation with elevation, due to the reduced window of time for reproduction in alpine environment.

  17. What matters most: Are summer stream temperatures more sensitive to changing air temperature, changing discharge, or changing riparian vegetation under future climates? (United States)

    Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.


    We investigated stream temperature responses to changes in both air temperature and stream discharge projected for 2040-2060 from downscaled GCMs and changes in the height and canopy density of streamside vegetation. We used Heat Source© calibrated for a 37 km section of the Middle Fork John Day River located in Oregon, USA. The analysis used the multiple-variable-at-a-time (MVAT) approach to simulate various combinations of changes: 3 levels of air warming, 5 levels of stream flow (higher and lower discharges), and 6 types of streamside vegetation. Preliminary results show that, under current discharge and riparian vegetation conditions, projected 2 to 4 °C increase in air temperature will increase the 7-day Average Daily Maximum Temperature (7dADM) by 1 to 2 °C. Changing stream discharge by ±30% changes stream temperature by ±0.5 °C, and the influence of changing discharge is greatest when the stream is poorly shaded. In contrast, the 7dADM could change by as much as 11°C with changes in riparian vegetation from unshaded conditions to heavily shaded conditions along the study section. The most heavily shaded simulations used uniformly dense riparian vegetation over the full 37-km reach, and this vegetation was composed of the tallest trees and densest canopies that can currently occur within the study reach. While this simulation represents an extreme case, it does suggest that managing riparian vegetation to substantially increase stream shade could decrease 7dADM temperatures relative to current temperatures, even under future climates when mean air temperatures have increased from 2 to 4 °C.

  18. Skin temperature and sleep-onset latency: changes with age and insomnia. (United States)

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W


    Throughout the 24-hour day, the occurrence of sleep and wakefulness is closely related to changes in body temperatures. Changes in skin temperature may causally affect the ability to initiate and maintain sleep. First, we briefly summarize a previously proposed neurobiological mechanism that couples skin temperature to sleep propensity. Next we review previous findings on the relation between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency, indicating that sleep propensity can be enhanced by warming the skin to the level that normally occurs prior to--and during--sleep. Finally, we present new data indicating age- and insomnia-related changes in the sleep-onset latency response to foot warming, and evaluate whether different methods of foot warming could provide an applicable strategy to address sleep complaints. Foot temperature manipulations included footbaths before sleep onset (1), and heatable bed socks applied either before (2) or after lights-off (3). In adults, sleep-onset was accelerated by warm and neutral bed socks after lights-off and correlated to the increase in foot temperature. This increase was attenuated in elderly subjects. In elderly subjects without sleep difficulties, sleep onset could be accelerated with neutral bed socks after lights-off and a warm footbath prior to lights-off. In elderly insomniacs, none of the treatments accelerated sleep onset. We illustrate that elderly subjects show an attenuated increase in foot temperature after lights-off and lose the relationship between pre-sleep heat-loss activation and sleep latency. The sensitivity of sleep propensity to foot warming changes with age and is attenuated in age-related insomnia.

  19. Interactive influence of biotic and abiotic cues on the plasticity of preferred body temperatures in a predator-prey system. (United States)

    Smolinský, Radovan; Gvoždík, Lumír


    The ability to modify phenotypes in response to heterogeneity of the thermal environment represents an important component of an ectotherm's non-genetic adaptive capacity. Despite considerable attention being dedicated to the study of thermally-induced developmental plasticity, whether or not interspecific interactions shape the plastic response in both a predator and its prey remains unknown. We tested several predictions about the joint influence of predator/prey scents and thermal conditions on the plasticity of preferred body temperatures (T (p)) in both actors of this interaction, using a dragonfly nymphs-newt larvae system. Dragonfly nymphs (Aeshna cyanea) and newt eggs (Ichthyosaura alpestris) were subjected to fluctuating cold and warm thermal regimes (7-12 and 12-22°C, respectively) and the presence/absence of a predator or prey chemical cues. Preferred body temperatures were measured in an aquatic thermal gradient (5-33°C) over a 24-h period. Newt T (p) increased with developmental temperature irrespective of the presence/absence of predator cues. In dragonflies, thermal reaction norms for T (p) were affected by the interaction between temperature and prey cues. Specifically, the presence of newt scents in cold regime lowered dragonfly T (p). We concluded that predator-prey interactions influenced thermally-induced plasticity of T (p) but not in a reciprocal fashion. The occurrence of frequency-dependent thermal plasticity may have broad implications for predator-prey population dynamics, the evolution of thermal biology traits, and the consequences of sustaining climate change within ecological communities.

  20. Changes in Skin Surface Temperature during Muscular Endurance indicated Strain – An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fröhlich


    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-contact thermography enables the diagnosis of the distribution of skin surface temperature during athletic movement. Resistance exercise results in stress of required musculature, which is supposed to be measurable thermographically in terms of skin surface temperature change. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the application of thermography to analyze changes in skin temperature, representing specific muscle groups, during and after resistance exercise. Method: Thirteen male participants (age: 27.1 ± 4.9 years, height: 181.5 ± 5.7 cm, mass: 74.8 ± 7.4 kg completed the study. On 5 separate visits to the laboratory, participants performed one of 5 resistance exercise to target specific muscles (M. pectoralis major, M. rectus abdominis, M. trapezius, M. erector spinae, M. quadriceps femoris. The exercise protocol consisted of 3 sets of 20 repetitions, with 1 minute rest between exercise sets. The average skin surface temperature above the muscle groups used was thermographically determined using standard methods at 7 time points; pre-exercise, immediately following each exercise set, and post exercise (2, 3, and 6 minutes after the finale exercise set. The measurement areas were standardized using anatomic reference points. Results: From an inferential statistical point of view, no significant change in the average temperature caused by the applied resistance training was found for the individual muscle groups over time at the individual measurement times (all P>0.08. However, thermography showed a characteristic chronological temperature curve for the five body areas between measurement times, as well as a distinctive spatial temperature distribution over the measurement areas. Discussion: Based on the thermographic image data and the characteristic temperature curve, it is possible to identify the primarily used functional musculature after device-controlled resistance training. Therefore, thermography seems to be

  1. Prediction of thermal environment via revision of PMV index with body temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yan; Liu Jiaping; Kubota Hideki


    PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) is a widely used index for evaluating the thermal environment. However, few studies have been conducted to take physiological values directly as evaluating indices. This paper assumes a linear relation between body temperature and both sweating rate and heat produced by shivering, and introduces the linear relation into the human heat balance equation to revise the classic PMV. And the assumption of linear relation is subsequently proved. The revised PMV possesses the same characteristic of dependent heat load as that of the classic one, and moreover it is convenient to be calculated.

  2. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))


    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  3. Temperature changes across CO2-lased dentin during multiple exposures (United States)

    Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Barron, Joseph R.; Boran, Thomas L.


    The literature increasingly indicates that lasers will have a multitude of applications for dental hard tissue procedures, e.g. preventive therapy, caries removal, laser etching and endodontic therapy. However, it is critical that such laser therapies avoid the production of heat levels which will be damaging to the surrounding vital tissues, such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. Our preliminary research on temperature changes across C02 lased dentin indicated that for single preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot) the mean temperature rise across 350 of dentin was 0.57 0C while across 1000 .tm of dentin the mean rise was only 0.18 °C. Further research utilizing multiple preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot, 3 x 1.0 sec. intervals) showed mean temperature elevations of 1.56 0C across 350 m of dentin and 0.66 O across 1000 xm of dentin. While these temperature elevations, which would be associated with preventive therapy, are very low and would be biologically acceptable, it must be noted that exposures of higher intensities are required to fuse enamel and porcelain, or remove decay. This current research investigates temperature elevations which occuT during C02 lasing utilizing the following exposure parameters: 8.0 W., 1.0 mm focal spot, 0.1 sec. exposures, 2 or 4 exposures per site pulsed 1.0 sec. apart. Three dentin thicknesses were utilized, i.e. 1000 jim, 1500 and 2000 .tm. Four sections of each thickness were utilized with four exposure sites per specimen (2 with 2 exposures, 2 with 4 exposures). All dentin sections were prepared from non-carious third molars using a hard tissue microtome. A thermistor was placed on the dentin surface opposite each lased site and temperature changes were recorded for approximately 50 sec. following lasing. Mean temperature elevations ranged from a high of 3.07 C for the 1000 xm section utilizing four exposures to a low of 0.37 0C for the

  4. Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang


    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

  5. Temperature changes among organophosphate poisoned patients, Tehran- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaie Haleh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPs is a major global clinical problem in the developing countries. There have been many animal studies and few human surveys on the effects of organophosphorus pesticide (OP poisoning on thermoregulation. The aim of this prospective study was to document the pattern of tympanic temperature changes among OP poisoned patients throughout the length of their hospital stay. Methods 60 patients with diagnose of organophosphate poisoning were included in this study. Questioner was filled out by trained nurses including demographic, clinical and paraclinical data. Tympanic temperature and Pulse rate data of the cases were collected on five- occasions after admission. Results There were 41 (68.3% male and 19 (31.7% female, with a mean age of 34.4 ±19.4 years (range 13–89 years. Forty five patients had intentional poisoning for suicidal attempt. At the time of entry, the mean tympanic temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic of the OP poisoned patients were respectively 37.1+/−0.6°C (36.0- 39.5, 91+/−18 (55–145, 18+/−5.6 (8–44, 116+/−20 mm Hg (70–170 and 75+/−11.6 mm Hg (40–110. 41.7% of the cases had serum butyryl cholinesterase activities (BChE ≥ 50% normal (≥1600 mU/ml. Our patients had normal temperature at the time entry (mean = 37.1. Tympanic temperature decreasing below 36°C was not detected among the patients during the study period. A rise in mean tympanic temperature was found after atropine administration. Conclusion Our study showed hypothermia was not considerable factor among organophosphate poisoned patients, although more studies with similar situations in tropical countries are needed.

  6. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardinha Luís B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2 engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22. Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols.

  7. Effects of Re-heating Tissue Samples to Core Body Temperature on High-Velocity Ballistic Projectile-tissue Interactions. (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Henneberg, Maciej; Wachsberger, Christian; Maiden, Nicholas; Kumaratilake, Jaliya


    Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. This research investigates whether heating 50-mm-cube samples of porcine liver, kidney, and heart to 37°C for varying durations (maximum 7 h) can affect the penetration response of a high-speed, steel sphere projectile. Longer conditioning times for heart and liver resulted in a slight loss of velocity/energy of the projectile, but the reverse effect occurred for the kidney. Possible reasons for these trends include autolytic changes causing softening (heart and liver) and dehydration causing an increase in density (kidney).

  8. Body temperature and oxygen uptake in the kinkajou (Potos flavus, Schreber), a nocturnal tropical carnivore. (United States)

    Müller, E; Kulzer, E


    Two kinkajous (Potos flavus, Procyonidae) showed marked nycthemeral variations in their rectal temperature. The mean Tr at night was 38.1 +/- 0.4 degrees C SD and 36.0 +/- 0.6 degrees C SD while resting during the day. Body temperature and O2-consumption were measured at ambient temperatures from 5-35 degrees C. With one exception at 35 degrees C, hypo- or hyperthermia was never observed. At air temperatures above 30 degrees C the bears reacted with behavioural responses. O2-consumption was minimal at Ta's from 23-30 degrees C. The mean basal metabolic rate was 0.316 ml O2 g-1 h-1 which is only 65% of the expected value according to the Kleiber formula. Below 23 degrees C heat production followed the equation : y (ml O2 g-1 h-1) = 0.727--0.018 Ta. The minimal thermal conductance was 90% of the predicted value according to the formula : C (ml O2 g-1 h-1 degrees C-1) = 1.02 W-0.505 (HERREID & KESSEL, 1967). Kinkajous are another distinct exception to the mouse to elephant curve.

  9. A simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using MRI and the effect of body temperature on the hepatic kinetics of Gd-EOB-DTPA. (United States)

    Murase, Kenya; Assanai, Purapan; Takata, Hiroshige; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Nishiura, Motoko


    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate the effect of body temperature on the kinetic behavior of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in the liver. In our temperature-control system, body temperature was controlled using a feedback-regulated heated or cooled air flow generated by two Futon dryers. The switches of the two Futon dryers were controlled using a digital temperature controller, in which the rectal temperature of a mouse measured by an optical fiber thermometer was used as the input. In experimental studies, male ICR mice aged 8weeks old were used and allocated into 5 groups (39-, 36-, 33-, 30-, and 27-degree groups, n=10), in which the body temperature was maintained at 39 °C, 36 °C, 33 °C, 30 °C, and 27 °C, respectively, using our system. The dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data were acquired with an MRI system for animal experiments equipped with a 1.5-Tesla permanent magnet, for approximately 43min, after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA into the tail vein. After correction of the image shift due to the temperature-dependent drift of the Larmor frequency using the gradient-based image registration method with robust estimation of displacement parameters, the kinetic behavior of Gd-EOB-DTPA was analyzed using an empirical mathematical model. With the use of this approach, the upper limit of the relative enhancement (A), the rates of contrast uptake (α) and washout (β), the parameter related to the slope of early uptake (q), the area under the curve (AUC), the maximum relative enhancement (REmax), the time to REmax (Tmax), and the elimination half-life of the contrast agent (T1/2) were calculated. The body temperature of mice could be controlled well by use of our system. Although there were no significant differences in α, AUC, and q among groups, there

  10. Kv4.2 mediates histamine modulation of preoptic neuron activity and body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sethi

    Full Text Available Histamine regulates arousal, circadian rhythms, and thermoregulation. Activation of H3 histamine receptors expressed by preoptic GABAergic neurons results in a decrease of their firing rate and hyperthermia. Here we report that an increase in the A-type K⁺ current in preoptic GABAergic neurons in response to activation of H3 histamine receptors results in decreased firing rate and hyperthermia in mice. The Kv4.2 subunit is required for these actions in spite of the fact that Kv4.2⁻/⁻ preoptic GABAergic neurons display A-type currents and firing characteristics similar to those of wild-type neurons. This electrical remodeling is achieved by robust upregulation of the expression of the Kv4.1 subunit and of a delayed rectifier current. Dynamic clamp experiments indicate that enhancement of the A-type current by a similar amount to that induced by histamine is sufficient to mimic its robust effect on firing rates. These data indicate a central role played by the Kv4.2 subunit in histamine regulation of body temperature and its interaction with pERK1/2 downstream of the H3 receptor. We also reveal that this pathway provides a mechanism for selective modulation of body temperature at the beginning of the active phase of the circadian cycle.

  11. Body weight changes during the menstrual cycle among university students in Ahvaz, Iran. (United States)

    Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Karandish, Majid; Ghoreishi, Mahdiye; Soroor, Farshad; Shirani, Fatemeh


    Weight changes during menstrual cycle may be a cause of concern about body weight among most women. Limited data are available linking menstrual cycle and body weight changes. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between menstrual cycles and body weight changes among university students in Ahvaz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 Iranian female students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric indices were measured according to standard protocols. During a complete menstrual cycle, weights of participants were measured each morning. Seventy eight percent of participants had normal weight (Body Mass Index: 18.5-24.9 kg m(-2)). Body weight increased only slightly during the three days before beginning of the menstruation. By using repeated-measures ANOVA, no statistically significant differences were found in weigh during menstrual cycle (p-value = 0.301). No statistically significant changes were found in body weight during women's menstrual cycle in a group of healthy non-obese Iranian young women. Further studies on overweight and obese women are suggested.

  12. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer


    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  13. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK. (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca


    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight.

  14. Changes of the Temperature and Precipitation Extremes on Homogenized Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKATOS, Mónika


    Full Text Available Climate indices to detect changes have been defined in several international projects onclimate change. Climate index calculations require at least daily resolution of time series withoutinhomogeneities, such as transfer of stations, changes in observation practice. In many cases thecharacteristics of the estimated linear trends, calculated from the original and from the homogenizedtime series are significantly different. The ECA&D (European Climate Assessment & Dataset indicesand some other special temperature and precipitation indices of own development were applied to theClimate Database of the Hungarian Meteorological Service. Long term daily maximum, minimum anddaily mean temperature data series and daily precipitation sums were examined. The climate indexcalculation processes were tested on original observations and on homogenized daily data fortemperature; in the case of precipitation a complementation process was performed to fill in the gapsof missing data. Experiences of comparing the climate index calculation results, based on original andcomplemented-homogenized data, are reported in this paper. We present the preliminary result ofclimate index calculations also on gridded (interpolated daily data.

  15. The response of human thermal sensation and its prediction to temperature step-change (cool-neutral-cool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan Du

    Full Text Available This paper reports on studies of the effect of temperature step-change (between a cool and a neutral environment on human thermal sensation and skin temperature. Experiments with three temperature conditions were carried out in a climate chamber during the period in winter. Twelve subjects participated in the experiments simulating moving inside and outside of rooms or cabins with air conditioning. Skin temperatures and thermal sensation were recorded. Results showed overshoot and asymmetry of TSV due to the step-change. Skin temperature changed immediately when subjects entered a new environment. When moving into a neutral environment from cool, dynamic thermal sensation was in the thermal comfort zone and overshoot was not obvious. Air-conditioning in a transitional area should be considered to limit temperature difference to not more than 5°C to decrease the unacceptability of temperature step-change. The linear relationship between thermal sensation and skin temperature or gradient of skin temperature does not apply in a step-change environment. There is a significant linear correlation between TSV and Qloss in the transient environment. Heat loss from the human skin surface can be used to predict dynamic thermal sensation instead of the heat transfer of the whole human body.

  16. Seasonal changes in body composition of Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae): an herbivore subterranean rodent. (United States)

    del Valle, Juana C; López Mañanes, Alejandra A; Busch, Cristina


    Ctenomys talarum is a subterranean herbivorous rodent whose burrow systems exhibit particular characteristics, distinct from other subterranean environments. We studied seasonal variation in body composition of C. talarum in relation to energetic requirements. Body lipid content seasonally changed in C. talarum, related to reproductive cycle and thermorregulatory mechanisms. A decrease in protein body content was found only in spring. Ash content of females was lowest when most of them are in post partum estro. Observed variations in water body content could be associated with plant water content and/or metabolic regulation. Our results show the occurrence of seasonal variations in body composition in C. talarum, which could be related to the high cost of reproduction and the subterranean life style of this species.

  17. Changes in Mammalian Body Length over 175 Years - Adaptations to a Fragmented Landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Martin Schmidt


    Full Text Available The potential consequences of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on species diversity and extinction have drawn considerable attention in recent decades. In many cases, traditional island biogeography theory has been applied to explain the observed patterns. Here, we propose that habitat fragmentation as a selective force can be traced in mammalian body length changes. By exploring historical sources, we are able to show that the body length of Danish mammals has altered over a period of 175 years, possibly in response to increasing habitat fragmentation. The rate of body length change was generally lowest in medium-sized mammals, and increased with both smaller and larger body mass. Small mammals have generally increased, whereas large mammals have decreased in length. In addition to habitat fragmentation, some species may experience other selective forces, such as traffic, and may be trapped in an evolutionary tug-of-war, where the selective forces pull in opposite directions.

  18. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling. (United States)

    Lindström, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, M W


    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting and fuelling. Four knots flew repeatedly for 10 h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight was indistinguishable from that during periods of natural and experimental fasting and fuelling. The body-mass-related variation in pectoral muscle thickness between and within individuals was not related to the amount of flight, indicating that changes in avian muscle do not require power-training as in mammals. Our study suggests that it is possible for birds to consume and replace their flight muscles on a time scale short enough to allow these muscles to be used as part of the energy supply for migratory flight. The adaptive significance of the changes in pectoral muscle mass cannot be explained by reproductive needs since our knots were in the early winter phase of their annual cycle. Instead, pectoral muscle mass changes may reflect (i) the breakdown of protein during heavy exercise and its subsequent restoration, (ii) the regulation of flight capacity to maintain optimal flight performance when body mass varies, or (iii) the need for a particular protein:fat ratio in winter survival stores.

  19. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review


    Janet Jull; Dawn Stacey; Sarah Beach; Alex Dumas; Irene Strychar; Lee-Anne Ufholz; Stephanie Prince; Joseph Abdulnour; Denis Prud’homme


    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausa...

  20. Changing guards: time to move beyond Body Mass Index for population monitoring of excess adiposity


    Tanamas, Stephanie K.; Lean, Michael E. J.; Combet, Emilie; Vlassopoulos, Antonios; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Peeters, Anna


    With the obesity epidemic, and the effects of aging populations, human phenotypes have changed over two generations, possibly more dramatically than in other species previously. As obesity is an important and growing hazard for population health, we recommend a systematic evaluation of the optimal measure(s) for population-level excess body fat. Ideal measure(s) for monitoring body composition and obesity should be simple, as accurate and sensitive as possible, and provide good categorisation...

  1. Body Temperature Monitoring Using Subcutaneously Implanted Thermo-loggers from Holstein Steers. (United States)

    Lee, Y; Bok, J D; Lee, H J; Lee, H G; Kim, D; Lee, I; Kang, S K; Choi, Y J


    Body temperature (BT) monitoring in cattle could be used to early detect fever from infectious disease or physiological events. Various ways to measure BT have been applied at different locations on cattle including rectum, reticulum, milk, subcutis and ear canal. In other to evaluate the temperature stability and reliability of subcutaneous temperature (ST) in highly fluctuating field conditions for continuous BT monitoring, long term ST profiles were collected and analyzed from cattle in autumn/winter and summer season by surgically implanted thermo-logger devices. Purposes of this study were to assess ST in the field condition as a reference BT and to determine any location effect of implantation on ST profile. In results, ST profile in cattle showed a clear circadian rhythm with daily lowest at 05:00 to 07:00 AM and highest around midnight and rather stable temperature readings (mean±standard deviation [SD], 37.1°C to 37.36°C±0.91°C to 1.02°C). STs are 1.39°C to 1.65°C lower than the rectal temperature and sometimes showed an irregular temperature drop below the normal physiologic one: 19.4% or 36.4% of 54,192 readings were below 36.5°C or 37°C, respectively. Thus, for BT monitoring purposes in a fever-alarming-system, a correction algorithm is necessary to remove the influences of ambient temperature and animal resting behavior especially in winter time. One way to do this is simply discard outlier readings below 36.5°C or 37°C resulting in a much improved mean±SD of 37.6°C±0.64°C or 37.8°C±0.55°C, respectively. For location the upper scapula region seems the most reliable and convenient site for implantation of a thermo-sensor tag in terms of relatively low influence by ambient temperature and easy insertion compared to lower scapula or lateral neck.

  2. Constraining the redshift evolution of the Cosmic Microwave Background black-body temperature with PLANCK data

    CERN Document Server

    de Martino, I; Atrio-Barandela, F; Ebeling, H; Kashlinsky, A; Kocevski, D; Martins, C J A P


    We constrain the deviation of adiabatic evolution of the Universe using the data on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies measured by the {\\it Planck} satellite and a sample of 481 X-ray selected clusters with spectroscopically measured redshifts. To avoid antenna beam effects, we bring all the maps to the same resolution. We use a CMB template to subtract the cosmological signal while preserving the Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (TSZ) anisotropies; next, we remove galactic foreground emissions around each cluster and we mask out all known point sources. If the CMB black-body temperature scales with redshift as $T(z)=T_0(1+z)^{1-\\alpha}$, we constrain deviations of adiabatic evolution to be $\\alpha=-0.007\\pm 0.013$, consistent with the temperature-redshift relation of the standard cosmological model. This result could suffer from a potential bias associated with the CMB template, that we quantify it to be less than $-0.02$, but is free from those biases associated with using TSZ selected ...

  3. Visual diet versus associative learning as mechanisms of change in body size preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda G Boothroyd

    Full Text Available Systematic differences between populations in their preferences for body size may arise as a result of an adaptive 'prepared learning' mechanism, whereby cues to health or status in the local population are internalized and affect body preferences. Alternatively, differences between populations may reflect their 'visual diet' as a cognitive byproduct of mere exposure. Here we test the relative importance of these two explanations for variation in body preferences. Two studies were conducted where female observers were exposed to pictures of high or low BMI women which were either aspirational (healthy, attractive models in high status clothes or non-aspirational (eating disordered patients in grey leotards, or to combinations thereof, in order to manipulate their body-weight preferences which were tested at baseline and at post-test. Overall, results showed good support for visual diet effects (seeing a string of small or large bodies resulted in a change from pre- to post-test whether the bodies were aspirational or not and also some support for the associative learning explanation (exposure to aspirational images of overweight women induced a towards preferring larger bodies, even when accompanied by equal exposure to lower weight bodies in the non-aspirational category. Thus, both influences may act in parallel.

  4. The evolution of mammal body sizes: responses to Cenozoic climate change in North American mammals. (United States)

    Lovegrove, B G; Mowoe, M O


    Explanations for the evolution of body size in mammals have remained surprisingly elusive despite the central importance of body size in evolutionary biology. Here, we present a model which argues that the body sizes of Nearctic mammals were moulded by Cenozoic climate and vegetation changes. Following the early Eocene Climate Optimum, forests retreated and gave way to open woodland and savannah landscapes, followed later by grasslands. Many herbivores that radiated in these new landscapes underwent a switch from browsing to grazing associated with increased unguligrade cursoriality and body size, the latter driven by the energetics and constraints of cellulose digestion (fermentation). Carnivores also increased in size and digitigrade, cursorial capacity to occupy a size distribution allowing the capture of prey of the widest range of body sizes. With the emergence of larger, faster carnivores, plantigrade mammals were constrained from evolving to large body sizes and most remained smaller than 1 kg throughout the middle Cenozoic. We find no consistent support for either Cope's Rule or Bergmann's Rule in plantigrade mammals, the largest locomotor guild (n = 1186, 59% of species in the database). Some cold-specialist plantigrade mammals, such as beavers and marmots, showed dramatic increases in body mass following the Miocene Climate Optimum which may, however, be partially explained by Bergmann's rule. This study reemphasizes the necessity of considering the evolutionary history and resultant form and function of mammalian morphotypes when attempting to understand contemporary mammalian body size distributions.

  5. An All-Elastomeric Transparent and Stretchable Temperature Sensor for Body-Attachable Wearable Electronics. (United States)

    Trung, Tran Quang; Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Lee, Nae-Eung


    A transparent stretchable (TS) gated sensor array with high optical transparency, conformality, and high stretchability of up to 70% is demonstrated. The TS-gated sensor array has high responsivity to temperature changes in objects and human skin. This unprecedented TS-gated sensor array, as well as the integrated platform of the TS-gated sensor with a transparent and stretchable strain sensor, show great potential for application to wearable skin electronics for recognition of human activity.

  6. MR imaging of degenerative lumbar disc disease emphasizing on signal intensity changes in vertebral body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Keiko; Ida, Masahiro; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Harada, Junta; Tada, Shimpei (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 400 patients with degenerative disc disease. Signal changes and their sites in the vertebral body were classified and referred to narrowing of the intervertebral disc space. MR findings were compared with those of plain roentgenograms of the lumbar spine. Signal changes in the vertebral body were noted in 83 cases (102 vertebral bodies). Low-intensity abnormality on both T1- and T2-weighted images (WI) was the most common finding, and was most frequently seen at the end plate and/or the angle. These changes were correlated with narrowing of the disc space and osteosclerosis on the plain roentgenogram of the lumbar spine. Signal changes occasionally occurred in the inner region of the vertebral body, and these lesions tended to show a high-intensity abnormality on T1-WI. We conclude that signal changes in degenerative disc disease are not specific, but are sometimes difficult to distinguish from the signal changes in other conditions such as spinal tumor or bone marrow disorder. (author).

  7. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Jull


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study. Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity.

  8. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin


    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000) and DXA (Lunar...

  9. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simiao Tian


    Full Text Available This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses, with consideration of body mass index (BMI at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”, ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women. For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan. A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF increased gradually; body fat (BF remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL and body lean (BL declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In laboratory experiments, the effect of food composition and body temperature on digestive efficiency was investigated in the lizard Iguana iguana on Curacao (Netherlands Antilles). In a series of experiments the animals were kept in cages with a temperature gradient and different foods were offere

  11. The effect of body temperature on the dynamic respiratory system compliance-breathing frequency relationship in the rat. (United States)

    Rubini, Alessandro; Bosco, Gerardo


    The mechanical inhomogeneity of the respiratory system is frequently investigated by measuring the frequency dependence of dynamic compliance, but no data are currently available describing the effects of body temperature variations. The aim of the present report was to study those effects in vivo. Peak airway pressure was measured during positive pressure ventilation in eight anesthetized rats while breathing frequency (but not tidal volume) was altered. Dynamic compliance was calculated as the tidal volume/peak airway pressure, and measurements were taken in basal conditions (mean rectal temperature 37.3 °C) as well as after total body warming (mean rectal temperature 39.7 °C). Due to parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation-linked effects, the normal rat respiratory system exhibited frequency dependence of dynamic lung compliance. Even moderate body temperature increments significantly reduced the decrements in dynamic compliance linked to breathing rate increments. The results were analyzed using Student's and Wilcoxon's tests, which yielded the same results (p temperature variations are known to influence respiratory mechanics. The frequency dependence of dynamic compliance was found, in the experiments described, to be temperature-dependent as temperature variations affected parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation. These results suggest that body temperature variations should be taken into consideration when the dynamic compliance-breathing frequency relationship is being examined during clinical assessment of inhomogeneity of lung parenchyma in patients.

  12. Comparison of different measuring methods for body temperature in lactating cows under different climatic conditions. (United States)

    Ammer, Stefanie; Lambertz, Christian; Gauly, Matthias


    The aim of the research described here was to compare different methods of body temperature (BT) measurements in dairy cows. It was hypothesised that reticular temperature (RET) values reflect the physiological status of the animals in an equivalent way to rectal (RT) and vaginal (VT) measurements. RT, VT and RET temperatures of twelve lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were measured over five consecutive days in June and October 2013. While RT and VT were manually measured three times a day, RET was automatically recorded at 10 min intervals using a bolus in the reticulum. For comparison with RT and VT, different RET values were used: single values at the respective recording times (RET-SIN), and mean (RET-MEAN) and median (RET-MED) values of 2 h prior to RT and VT measurements. Overall, body temperatures averaged 38·1 ± 0·6, 38·2 ± 0·4, 38·7 ± 0·9, 38·5 ± 0·7 and 38·7 ± 0·5 °C for RT, VT, RET-SIN, RET-MEAN and RET-MED, respectively. RT and VT were lower than all RET measurements, while RET-SIN and RET-MED were higher than RET-MEAN (P < 0·001). RET-MEAN and RET-MED values were higher in the morning, whereas RT and VT were greatest in the evening (P < 0·001). Overall, records of RT and VT were strongly correlated (r = 0·75; P < 0·001). In contrast to RET-SIN and RET-MEAN, RET-MED was higher correlated to RT and VT. In June, coefficients were higher between all methods than in October. Relation of barn T to RT and VT was stronger when compared to RET measurements. RET-SIN was higher correlated to barn T than RET-MEAN or RET-MED. Correlation between VT and barn T was strongest (r = 0·48; P < 0·001). In summary, RET-MED showed highest correlation with VT and RT. However, single RET measurements (influenced by water or feed intake) can lead to extreme variations and differences to single VT and RT values.

  13. Methylphenidate alters flash-evoked potentials, body temperature, and behavior in Long-Evans rats. (United States)

    Hetzler, Bruce E; Meckel, Katherine R; Stickle, Bruce A


    This experiment examined the effects of methylphenidate hydrochloride on flash-evoked potentials (FEPs) recorded from the visual cortex (VC) and superior colliculus (SC) of chronically implanted male Long-Evans rats, as well as on body temperature and open field behavior. FEPs were recorded at 10, 20 and 40 min following intraperitoneal injections of saline, and of doses of 0.7, 2.9, and 11.6 mg/kg methylphenidate on separate days. The 0.7 mg/kg dose did not produce significant effects. In the VC, following administration of the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate the amplitude of components P83, N146, and P232 decreased, the amplitude of component N64 briefly increased and components P23, N30, N40, and P48 were unchanged in amplitude. In the SC, component P29 was unaffected, while components P38 and N51 were reduced in amplitude by the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate. Peak latencies of components N40, P48, P83, and N146 in the VC and component P38 in the SC were increased by the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate. When body temperature was recorded 45 min after drug administration, a mild dose-dependent hypothermia was found with the 2.9 and 11.6 mg/kg methylphenidate doses, suggesting that this may have contributed to the increased latencies. In subsequent open field observations, both line crossings and rearings were significantly increased by the 11.6 mg/kg dose. Increased movement into the center of the testing area was also observed, which could be a sign of increased exploration and reduced anxiety following methylphenidate.

  14. To use or not to use torpor? Activity and body temperature as predictors (United States)

    Christian, Nereda; Geiser, Fritz


    When food is limited and/or environmental conditions are unfavourable, many mammals reduce activity and use torpor to save energy. Nevertheless, reliable predictors for torpor occurrence, especially in the wild, are currently not available. Interrelations between torpor use and other energy conserving strategies are also poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that reductions in normothermic body temperature ( T b) and the period of activity before torpor events could be used as predictors for torpor occurrence in sugar gliders, Petaurus breviceps (body mass, ˜125 g), known to display daily torpor in the wild. Occurrence of torpor was preceded by significant (˜10-25%) reductions of the duration of the activity phase. Moreover, the normothermic resting T b fell by an average of 1.2°C over 3 days before a torpor event, relative to individuals that did not display torpor. Our new findings suggest that before entering torpor, sugar gliders, which appear to use torpor as an emergency measure rather than a routine energy saving strategy, systematically reduce activity times and normothermic resting T bs to lower energy expenditure and perhaps to avoid employing torpor. Thus, reduced activity and normothermic T b may provide a predictive tool for the occurrence of daily torpor in the wild.

  15. Tactic changes in dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus sneaker males: effects of body size and nest availability. (United States)

    Takegaki, T; Kaneko, T; Matsumoto, Y


    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine the effects of nest availability and body size on changes in male mating tactics from sneaking to nest-holding in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus. In the field, the body size of nest-holding males decreased from early to mid-breeding season, suggesting the possibility of a change in the tactics of sneaker males to nest-holding. Many sneaker males did not use vacant spawning nests even when size-matched nests were available, but they continued to reproduce as sneakers. Similarly, in aquarium experiments with available vacant nests, some sneaker males became nest-holders irrespective of their body size, but some did not. These results showed that nest availability is not a limiting factor for changes in tactics by sneaker males in this species. Because tactic-unchanged sneaker males were co-housed with larger nest-holding males in the tanks, the body size of nearby nest-holding males may have affected the decision to change tactics for sneaker males. Moreover, smaller individuals among tactic-changed males tended to spend more time until spawning, probably because they had relatively larger costs and smaller benefits of reproduction as nest-holding males compared to larger males.

  16. Development of a novel scheme for long-term body temperature monitoring: a review of benefits and applications. (United States)

    Cuesta-Frau, David; Varela-Entrecanales, Manuel; Valor-Perez, Raul; Vargas, Borja


    Body temperature is a health or disease marker that has been in clinical use for centuries. The threshold currently applied to define fever, with small variations, is 38 °C. However, current approaches do not provide a full picture of the thermoregulation process and its correlation with disease. This paper describes a new non-invasive body temperature device that improves the understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases by integrating a variety of temperature data from different body locations. This device enables to gain a deeper insight into fever, endogenous rhythms, subject activity and ambient temperature to provide anticipatory and more efficient treatments. Its clinical use would be a big step in the overcoming of the anachronistic febrile/afebrile dichotomy and walking towards a system medicine approach to certain diseases. This device has already been used in some clinical applications successfully. Other possible applications based on the device features and clinical requirements are also described in this paper.

  17. Changing guards: time to move beyond body mass index for population monitoring of excess adiposity. (United States)

    Tanamas, S K; Lean, M E J; Combet, E; Vlassopoulos, A; Zimmet, P Z; Peeters, A


    With the obesity epidemic, and the effects of aging populations, human phenotypes have changed over two generations, possibly more dramatically than in other species previously. As obesity is an important and growing hazard for population health, we recommend a systematic evaluation of the optimal measure(s) for population-level excess body fat. Ideal measure(s) for monitoring body composition and obesity should be simple, as accurate and sensitive as possible, and provide good categorization of related health risks. Combinations of anthropometric markers or predictive equations may facilitate better use of anthropometric data than single measures to estimate body composition for populations. Here, we provide new evidence that increasing proportions of aging populations are at high health-risk according to waist circumference, but not body mass index (BMI), so continued use of BMI as the principal population-level measure substantially underestimates the health-burden from excess adiposity.

  18. Changes in chemical components and cytotoxicity at different maturity stages of Pleurotus eryngii fruiting body. (United States)

    Cui, Fengjie; Li, Yunhong; Yang, Yan; Sun, Wenjing; Wu, Di; Ping, Lifeng


    The present study investigated the changes of the chemical components and cytotoxicity potency at 5 developmental stages of Pleurotus eryngii fruiting body. The carbohydrate and protein contents increased along the maturity of fruiting body while fat content decreased. By comparison, the polysaccharide-protein fractions had the highest antiproliferative effect on SGC-7901 and HepG-2 cells in vitro and increasing activity with growing maturity of P. eryngii fruiting body.The maturation process increased the protein content and acid property through the enhanced relative abundance of Asp, Thr, and Glu in polysaccharide-protein fractions. Further purification and electrophoresis identified that the polysaccharide-protein PEG-1with three subunits possibly was the target cytotoxical component. Our findings proved that mature fruiting body of P. eryngii containing these polysaccharide-proteins possessed highly nutritional values and therapeutical benefits.

  19. Temperature and magnetization-dependent band-gap renormalization and optical many-body effects in diluted magnetic semiconductors



    We calculate the Coulomb interaction induced density, temperature and magnetization dependent many-body band-gap renormalization in a typical diluted magnetic semiconductor GaMnAs in the optimally-doped metallic regime as a function of carrier density and temperature. We find a large (about 0.1 eV) band gap renormalization which is enhanced by the ferromagnetic transition. We also calculate the impurity scattering effect on the gap narrowing. We suggest that the temperature, magnetization, an...

  20. Forced and Unforced Changes of Indian Ocean Temperature and Land-Sea Temperature Gradient (United States)

    Achutarao, K. M.; Thanigachalam, A.


    Sea surface temperature (SST) over the Indian Ocean is directly connected with circulation, winds, precipitation, humidity, etc. over India. Increased SSTs are a major consequence of climate change driven largely by anthropogenic factors. Recent literature points to weakening of the Indian Summer Monsoon possibly because of decreased land-sea temperature gradient due to faster rate of warming of the oceans compared to land regions. We examine changes in the SST over the Indian Ocean using two observational datasets; HadISST (v1.1) and ERSST (v3b). Based on trend differences between two time periods (1979-2009 and 1948-1978) we identify four regions in the Indian Ocean with different signatures of change - Bay of Bengal (BOB), Arabian Sea (AS), Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO), and Southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO). We first quantify the extent to which the SST trends over multiple time-scales (20, 30, 50 and 100-years) are outside of the range expected from internal variability of the climate system. We make use of output data from long control run simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) database in order to estimate the contribution of external forcings to the observed trends. Using optimal fingerprint Detection and Attribution methods we quantify the contributions of various natural and anthropogenic forcings by making use of the suite of experiments (piControl, historical, historicalNat, historicalAnt, historicalGHG, and historicalAA) from CMIP5 are used in this study. We will also address the question of what drives the observed weakening of land-ocean temperature gradients.

  1. Body mass change and ultraendurance performance: a decrease in body mass is associated with an increased running speed in male 100-km ultramarathoners. (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Rosemann, Thomas


    We investigated, in 50 recreational male ultrarunners, the changes in body mass, selected hematological and urine parameters, and fluid intake during a 100-km ultramarathon. The athletes lost (mean and SD) 2.6 (1.8) % in body mass (p Running speed was significantly and negatively related to the change in body mass (p running speed (r = 0.33, p = 0.0182) and the change in body mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.0014) and significantly and negatively to both postrace serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.42, p = 0.0022) and the change in serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.38, p = 0.0072). This field study showed that recreational, male, 100-km ultramarathoners dehydrated as evidenced by the decrease in >2 % body mass and the increase in urine-specific gravity. Race performance, however, was not impaired because of the loss in body mass. In contrast, faster athletes lost more body mass compared with slower athletes while also drinking more. The concept that a loss of >2% in body mass leads to dehydration and consequently impairs endurance performance must be questioned for ultraendurance athletes competing in the field. For practical applications, a loss in body mass during a 100-km ultramarathon was associated with a faster running speed.

  2. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate. (United States)

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark


    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries.

  3. Variational principle of carbon nanotubes with temperature changes (United States)

    Fan, Tao


    In this paper, the CNS are considered as the Euler-Bernoulli beams which have been used in many references about the CNS. Taken the thermal-mechanical coupling into account, the variational principle for the CNS is presented by the variational integral method. With the derivation of the varitional principle, the stationary value conditions are obtained. At last, the vibration governing equation is illustrated, which will be benefit for the numerical simulation with finite element method in further investigations. From the stationary value conditions deduced by the variational principle, it can be observed that the vibration characteristics of the CNS can be influenced by the temperature changes. It is expected to be useful for the design and application of the nano scale devices.

  4. Evolution of microstructure in flyash-containing porcelain body on heating at different temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kausik Dana; Swapan Kumar Das


    15 wt% flyash (a calcined byproduct of thermal power plant) was incorporated in a normal triaxial kaolin–quartz–feldspar system by replacing equivalent amount of quartz. The differences in microstructural evolution on heating the compact mass of both normal and flyash-containing porcelain at different temperatures (1150–1300°C) were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) operating in secondary electron image (SEI) mode. Microstructure of normal porcelain did not show the presence of mullite and quartz grains at 1200°C and the viscosity of silica-rich glass restricted the growth of mullite crystals at 1250°C. Flyash porcelain, on the other hand, shows the presence of primary mullite aggregates in the clay relict and a significant growth of mullite crystals in a low viscosity glassy matrix at 1200°C itself. At 1300°C, both the bodies show a larger region of more elongated (> 1 m) secondary mullite along with clusters of smaller sized primary mullite (< 1 m). Small primary mullite crystals in the clay relict can be distinguished from elongated secondary mullite crystals in the feldspar relict in their size. Primary mullite aggregates remain stable also at higher temperatures. XRD studies were carried out for quantitative estimation of quartz, mullite and glass, which supported the SEM observations. An attempt was also made to correlate their mechanical strength with the constituent phases.

  5. Body temperature daily rhythm adaptations in African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana). (United States)

    Kinahan, A A; Inge-moller, R; Bateman, P W; Kotze, A; Scantlebury, M


    The savanna elephant is the largest extant mammal and often inhabits hot and arid environments. Due to their large size, it might be expected that elephants have particular physiological adaptations, such as adjustments to the rhythms of their core body temperature (T(b)) to deal with environmental challenges. This study describes for the first time the T(b) daily rhythms in savanna elephants. Our results showed that elephants had lower mean T(b) values (36.2 +/- 0.49 degrees C) than smaller ungulates inhabiting similar environments but did not have larger or smaller amplitudes of T(b) variation (0.40 +/- 0.12 degrees C), as would be predicted by their exposure to large fluctuations in ambient temperature or their large size. No difference was found between the daily T(b) rhythms measured under different conditions of water stress. Peak T(b)'s occurred late in the evening (22:10) which is generally later than in other large mammals ranging in similar environmental conditions.

  6. Improving image quality by accounting for changes in water temperature during a photoacoustic tomography scan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Van de Sompel

    Full Text Available The emerging field of photoacoustic tomography is rapidly evolving with many new system designs and reconstruction algorithms being published. Many systems use water as a coupling medium between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Prior to a scan, the water is heated to body temperature to enable small animal imaging. During the scan, the water heating system of some systems is switched off to minimize the risk of bubble formation, which leads to a gradual decrease in water temperature and hence the speed of sound. In this work, we use a commercially available scanner that follows this procedure, and show that a failure to model intra-scan temperature decreases as small as 1.5°C leads to image artifacts that may be difficult to distinguish from true structures, particularly in complex scenes. We then improve image quality by continuously monitoring the water temperature during the scan and applying variable speed of sound corrections in the image reconstruction algorithm. While upgrading to an air bubble-free heating pump and keeping it running during the scan could also solve the changing temperature problem, we show that a software correction for the temperature changes provides a cost-effective alternative to a hardware upgrade. The efficacy of the software corrections was shown to be consistent across objects of widely varying appearances, namely physical phantoms, ex vivo tissue, and in vivo mouse imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of modeling temporal variations in the speed of sound during photoacoustic scans, as opposed to spatial variations as focused on by previous studies. Since air bubbles pose a common problem in ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging systems, our results will be useful to future small animal imaging studies that use scanners with similarly limited heating units.

  7. Changes in body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Calverley, Peter M A; Casaburi, Richard


    The follow-up of the ECLIPSE study, a prospective longitudinal study to identify and define parameters that predict disease progression over 3 years in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allows the examination of the effect of body composition changes on COPD-related outcomes....

  8. Perinatal changes in myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in lambs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, B; Gratama, JWC; Knoester, H; Takens, J; Smid, GB; Aarnoudse, JG; Heymans, HSA; Kuipers, JRG


    No information is available on perinatal changes in myocardial metabolism in vivo. We measured myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in chronically instrumented fetal, newborn (1-4 days), and juvenile (7 wk) lambs, by measuring aorta-coronary sinus concentration

  9. Bioassay of body fluids, experiment M073. [biochemical changes caused by space flight conditions (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.


    Body fluids were assayed in this experiment to demonstrate changes which might have occurred during the 56-day chamber study in fluid and electrolyte balance, in regulation of calcium metabolism, in overall physiological and emotional adaptation to the environment, and in regulation of metabolic processes.

  10. The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.


    The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation. Pasman WJ, Westerterp MS, Saris WH. Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, The Netherlands. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient comp

  11. Changes in body composition after childhood cancer treatment : Impact on future health status - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, C. A. J.; Gietema, J. A.; Kamps, W. A.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Postma, A.


    Purpose: To describe data on changes in body composition in childhood cancer survivors. Underlying mechanisms in development of obesity are addressed, in order to discuss intervention strategies. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken with a number of search terms. Results: Female su

  12. Plasma Phospholipid Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Body Weight Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M


    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  13. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M


    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. Th

  14. Obesity and Minority--Changing Meanings of Big Bodies among Young Pakistani Obesity Patients in Norway (United States)

    Wathne, Kjetil; Mburu, Christina Brux; Middelthon, Anne-Lise


    Globally, paediatric obesity causes widespread concern, and the role of ethnicity is an important focus. Investigating how culture can mediate health-related behaviour through ideas about bodies, food and physical activity, while addressing a notion that the Pakistani community in Norway is particularly conservative and slow to change, this…

  15. Accuracy of parents in measuring body temperature with a tympanic thermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now common for parents to measure tympanic temperatures in children. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these measurements. Methods Parents and then nurses measured the temperature of 60 children with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use (home thermometer. The reference standard was a temperature measured by a nurse with a model of tympanic thermometer commonly used in hospitals (hospital thermometer. A difference of ≥ 0.5 °C was considered clinically significant. A fever was defined as a temperature ≥ 38.5 °C. Results The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent and the nurse with the home thermometer was 0.44 ± 0.61 °C, and 33% of the readings differed by ≥ 0.5 °C. The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent with the home thermometer and the nurse with the hospital thermometer was 0.51 ± 0.63 °C, and 72 % of the readings differed by ≥ 0.5 °C. Using the home thermometer, parents detected fever with a sensitivity of 76% (95% CI 50–93%, a specificity of 95% (95% CI 84–99%, a positive predictive value of 87% (95% CI 60–98%, and a negative predictive value of 91% (95% CI 79–98 %. In comparing the readings the nurse obtained from the two different tympanic thermometers, the mean absolute difference was 0.24 ± 0.22 °C. Nurses detected fever with a sensitivity of 94% (95 % CI 71–100 %, a specificity of 88% (95% CI 75–96 %, a positive predictive value of 76% (95% CI 53–92%, and a negative predictive value of 97% (95%CI 87–100 % using the home thermometer. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the three sets of readings was 0.80, and the consistency of readings was not affected by the body temperature. Conclusions The readings done by parents with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use differed a clinically significant amount from the reference standard (readings done by nurses with a model of

  16. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men. (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M; May, Anne M; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Teucher, Birgit; Kühn, Tilman; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der A, Daphne L; Engeset, Dagrun; Hjartåker, Anette; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Chajès, Veronique; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H M; Overvad, Kim


    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344,757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95 % CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95 % CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95 % CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95 % CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.

  17. Body temperature control in patients with refractory septic shock:too much may be harmful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan-li; LIU Da-wei; WANG Xiao-ting; LONG Yun; ZHOU Xiang; CHAI Wen-zao


    Background The lowering of body temperature is a common,almost reflexive step in the daily care of septic shock patient.However,the effect of different magnitudes of fever control on the outcome of refractory septic patients with a very poor outcome is controversial and has yet to be explored.Methods This prospective trial examined sixty-five refractory septic shock patients with a core temperature higher than 38.5℃.Patients were randomly assigned to a group achieving a "low temperature" range (LT group:36.0-37.5 ℃) or to a group achieving a "high temperature" range (HT group:37.5-38.3 ℃C) by physical methods including a water-flow cooling blanket and ice packs.A target core temperature was achieved in 1-2 hours post-treatment,and maintained for 72 hours.Averaged values of core temperature as well as hemodynamic,respiratory,and laboratory variables were analyzed at baseline and during the first 72 hours after fever control.Results Thirty-four (52.31%) patients were assigned to the LT group and thirty-one (47.69%) patients were assigned to the HT group.The mean core temperature was significantly lower in the LT group than in the HT group (36.61 vs.37.85 ℃,respectively; P < 0.0001).The average heart rate (HR) (75.5 vs.91.9 beats/min,respectively; P < 0.0001) and the mean cardiac output (CO) (5.35 vs.6.45 L/min,respectively; P =0.002) were also statistically significant lower in the LT group than in the HT group.The averaged serum lactate level was significantly higher in the LT group compared to the HT group (5.59 vs.2.82 mmol/L,respectively; P=-0.008).Fibrinogen and activated partial thromboplatin time were also different between the two groups.The 28 days mortality was significantly higher in the LT group than in the HT group (61.8vs.25.8%,respectively; P=0.003).A Cox-regression model analysis showed that mean core temperature during the 72 h period was an independent predictor of 28 days mortality (odds ratio (OR) =0.42,95%Cl 0

  18. Changes in physiological and behavioral parameters of preterm infants undergoing body hygiene: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Freitas


    Full Text Available Objective To verify the effect of bathing on the body temperature of preterm infants (PTI. Method Systematic review conducted in the following bibliographic electronic sources: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde/Lilacs (BVS, Cumulated Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science, using a combination of search terms, keywords and free terms. The review question was adjusted to the PICO acronym (Patient/population, Intervention, Control/comparative intervention, Outcome. The selected publications were evaluated according to levels of evidence and grades of recommendation for efficacy/effectiveness studies, as established by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results Eight hundred and twenty four (824 publications were identified and four studies met the inclusion criteria, of which three analyzed the effect of sponge baths and the effect of immersion baths. Conclusion Sponge baths showed a statistically significant drop in body temperature, while in immersion baths the body temperature remained stable, although they studied late preterm infants.

  19. Changes in physiological and behavioral parameters of preterm infants undergoing body hygiene: a systematic review. (United States)

    Freitas, Patrícia de; Marques, Silvia Rezende; Alves, Taisy Bezerra; Takahashi, Juliana; Kimura, Amélia Fumiko


    Objective To verify the effect of bathing on the body temperature of preterm infants (PTI). Method Systematic review conducted in the following bibliographic electronic sources: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde/Lilacs (BVS), Cumulated Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science, using a combination of search terms, keywords and free terms. The review question was adjusted to the PICO acronym (Patient/population, Intervention, Control/comparative intervention, Outcome). The selected publications were evaluated according to levels of evidence and grades of recommendation for efficacy/effectiveness studies, as established by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results Eight hundred and twenty four (824) publications were identified and four studies met the inclusion criteria, of which three analyzed the effect of sponge baths and the effect of immersion baths. Conclusion Sponge baths showed a statistically significant drop in body temperature, while in immersion baths the body temperature remained stable, although they studied late preterm infants.

  20. [Age-related changes of somatotype and body mass components in girls]. (United States)

    Tambovtseva, R V; Zhukova, S G


    The longitudinal and transverse studies of girls aged 7 to 17 years living in Moscow and the town of Yelabuga were performed to monitor the dynamics of their growth processes, parameters of ectomorphism, mesomorphism and endomorphism depending on the type of body build. Anthropometric, anthroposcopic metods and cluster analysis were used to evaluate the type of body build according to V.G. Shtefko and A.G. Ostrovskiy (1928). Quantitative assessment of parameters of endo-, meso- and ectomorphism was performed using Heath-Carter method (1980). It was shown that the age-related variability of the types of body build appeared in association with the developmental heterochronism, which resulted from the uneven growth rate of different body components. The least variable parameters were found in the girls of digestive and asthenoid types of body build, while in girls of muscular and thoracic types these parameters changed more frequently. The critical periods during which the significant changes of somatotype were increased in number, were defined as 9 to 10 years and puberty period--11 to 14 years. Most sensitive time points in the time-course of somatotype establishment in girls are the ages of 12 and 14 years.

  1. Use of a novel pediatric body composition technique for assessing body fatness and its changes during the first 6 month of life (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of infant growth and nutritional status is enhanced by accurate measurement of body composition and its changes over time. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of an air-displacement plethysmograph, the PEA POD (Registered Trademark) Infant Body Composition System (Lif...

  2. Global Changes in the Sea Ice Cover and Associated Surface Temperature Changes (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.


    The trends in the sea ice cover in the two hemispheres have been observed to be asymmetric with the rate of change in the Arctic being negative at -3.8 % per decade while that of the Antarctic is positive at 1.7 % per decade. These observations are confirmed in this study through analyses of a more robust data set that has been enhanced for better consistency and updated for improved statistics. With reports of anthropogenic global warming such phenomenon appears physically counter intuitive but trend studies of surface temperature over the same time period show the occurrence of a similar asymmetry. Satellite surface temperature data show that while global warming is strong and dominant in the Arctic, it is relatively minor in the Antarctic with the trends in sea ice covered areas and surrounding ice free regions observed to be even negative. A strong correlation of ice extent with surface temperature is observed, especially during the growth season, and the observed trends in the sea ice cover are coherent with the trends in surface temperature. The trend of global averages of the ice cover is negative but modest and is consistent and compatible with the positive but modest trend in global surface temperature. A continuation of the trend would mean the disappearance of summer ice by the end of the century but modelling projections indicate that the summer ice could be salvaged if anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are kept constant at the current level.

  3. Viewing pain and happy faces elicited similar changes in postural body sway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gea

    Full Text Available Affective facial expressions are potent social cues that can induce relevant physiological changes, as well as behavioral dispositions in the observer. Previous studies have revealed that angry faces induced significant reductions in body sway as compared with neutral and happy faces, reflecting an avoidance behavioral tendency as freezing. The expression of pain is usually considered an unpleasant stimulus, but also a relevant cue for delivering effective care and social support. Nevertheless, there are few data about behavioral dispositions elicited by the observation of pain expressions in others. The aim of the present research was to evaluate approach-avoidance tendencies by using video recordings of postural body sway when participants were standing and observing facial expressions of pain, happy and neutral. We hypothesized that although pain faces would be rated as more unpleasant than the other faces, they would provoke significant changes in postural body sway as compared to neutral facial expressions. Forty healthy female volunteers (mean age 25 participated in the study. Amplitude of forward movements and backward movements in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes were obtained. Statistical analyses revealed that pain faces were the most unpleasant stimuli, and that both happy and pain faces were more arousing than neutral ones. Happy and pain faces also elicited greater amplitude of body sway in the anterior-posterior axes as compared with neutral faces. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between body sway elicited by pain faces and pleasantness and empathic ratings, suggesting that changes in postural body sway elicited by pain faces might be associated with approach and cooperative behavioral responses.

  4. Life-history responses of the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis to temperature change: Breaking the temperature-size rule. (United States)

    Fu, Dao-Meng; He, Hai-Min; Zou, Chao; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Xue, Fang-Sen


    Temperature is a key environmental factor for ectotherms and affects a large number of life history traits. In the present study, development time from hatching to pupation and adult eclosion, pupal and adult weights of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis were examined at 22, 25, 28 and 31°C under L18:D 6. Larval and pupal times were significantly decreased with increasing rearing temperature and growth rate was positively correlated with temperature. Larval and pupal developmental times were not significantly different between females and males. The relationship between body weight and rearing temperature in C. suppressalis did not follow the temperature-size rule (TSR), both males and females gained the highest body weight at 31°C. Females were significantly larger than males at all temperatures, showing a female biased sex size dimorphism (SSD). Contrary to Rensch's rule, SSD and body weight in C. suppressalis tended to increase with rising temperature. Male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis compared to females. We discuss the adaptive significance of the reverse-TSR in the moth's life history.

  5. Psychoneuroendocrine immunology: perception of stress can alter body temperature and natural killer cell activity. (United States)

    Hiramoto, R N; Solvason, H B; Hsueh, C M; Rogers, C F; Demissie, S; Hiramoto, N S; Gauthier, D K; Lorden, J F; Ghanta, V K


    Psychoimmunology has been credited with using the mind as a way to alter immunity. The problem with this concept is that many of the current psychoimmunology techniques in use are aimed at alleviating stress effects on the immune system rather than at direct augmentation of immunity by the brain. Studies in animals provide a model that permits us to approach the difficulties associated with gaining an understanding of the CNS-immune system connection. A particular advantage of using animals over humans is that psychological and social contributions play a less prominent role for animals than for human subjects, since the animals are all inbred and reared under identical controlled conditions. If the insightful information provided by animal studies is correct, then psychotherapy for the treatment of diseases might be made more effective if some aspect of this knowledge is included in the design of the treatment. We emphasize conditioning as a regimen and an acceptable way to train the brain to remember an output pathway to raise immunity. We propose that a specific drug or perception (mild stress, represented by rotation, total body heating or handling) could substitute and kindle the same output pathway without the need for conditioning. If this view is correct, then instead of using conditioning, it may be possible to use an antigen to activate desired immune cells, and substitute a drug or an external environmental sensory stimulus (perception) to energize the output pathway to these cells. Alternatively, monitoring alterations of body temperature in response to a drug or perception might allow us to follow how effectively the brain is performing in altering immunity. Studies with animals suggest that there are alternative ways to use the mind to raise natural or acquired immunity in man.

  6. Changes in Body Composition in the Two Years after Initiation of Haemodialysis: A Retrospective Cohort Study (United States)

    Keane, David; Gardiner, Claire; Lindley, Elizabeth; Lines, Simon; Woodrow, Graham; Wright, Mark


    Malnutrition is common in haemodialysis (HD) and is linked to poor outcomes. This study aimed to describe changes in body composition after the initiation of HD and investigate whether any routinely collected parameters were associated with these changes. The study cohort came from the HD population of a single centre between 2009 and 2014. Body composition measurements were obtained from a database of bioimpedance results using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM), while demographics and laboratory values came from the renal unit database. Primary outcomes were changes in normohydration weight, lean tissue mass and adipose tissue mass over the two years after HD initiation. A total of 299 patients were included in the primary analyses, showing an increase in adipose tissue, loss of lean tissue and no significant change in normohydration weight. None of the routinely collected parameters were associated with the lean tissue changes. Loss of lean tissue over the first year of dialysis was associated with increased mortality. The results showing loss of lean tissue that is not limited to those traditionally assumed to be at high risk supports interventions to maintain or improve lean tissue as soon as possible after the initiation of HD. It highlights the importance of monitoring nutrition and the potential for routine use of bioimpedance. PMID:27827911

  7. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change. (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M


    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  8. Decreases in body temperature and body mass constitute pre-hibernation remodelling in the Syrian golden hamster, a facultative mammalian hibernator. (United States)

    Chayama, Yuichi; Ando, Lisa; Tamura, Yutaka; Miura, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi


    Hibernation is an adaptive strategy for surviving during periods with little or no food availability, by profoundly reducing the metabolic rate and the core body temperature (T b). Obligate hibernators (e.g. bears, ground squirrels, etc.) hibernate every winter under the strict regulation of endogenous circannual rhythms, and they are assumed to undergo adaptive remodelling in autumn, the pre-hibernation period, prior to hibernation. However, little is known about the nature of pre-hibernation remodelling. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are facultative hibernators that can hibernate irrespective of seasons when exposed to prolonged short photoperiod and cold ambient temperature (SD-Cold) conditions. Their T b set point reduced by the first deep torpor (DT) and then increased gradually after repeated cycles of DT and periodic arousal (PA), and finally recovered to the level observed before the prolonged SD-Cold in the post-hibernation period. We also found that, before the initiation of hibernation, the body mass of animals decreased below a threshold, indicating that hibernation in this species depends on body condition. These observations suggest that Syrian hamsters undergo pre-hibernation remodelling and that T b and body mass can be useful physiological markers to monitor the remodelling process during the pre-hibernation period.

  9. Effect of Protein Intake on Strength, Body Composition and Endocrine Changes in Strength/Power Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jie


    Full Text Available Abstract Comparison of protein intakes on strength, body composition and hormonal changes were examined in 23 experienced collegiate strength/power athletes participating in a 12-week resistance training program. Subjects were stratified into three groups depending upon their daily consumption of protein; below recommended levels (BL; 1.0 – 1.4 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 8, recommended levels (RL; 1.6 – 1.8 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 7 and above recommended levels (AL; > 2.0 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 8. Subjects were assessed for strength [one-repetition maximum (1-RM bench press and squat] and body composition. Resting blood samples were analyzed for total testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor. No differences were seen in energy intake (3,171 ± 577 kcal between the groups, and the energy intake for all groups were also below the recommended levels for strength/power athletes. No significant changes were seen in body mass, lean body mass or fat mass in any group. Significant improvements in 1-RM bench press and 1-RM squat were seen in all three groups, however no differences between the groups were observed. Subjects in AL experienced a 22% and 42% greater change in Δ 1-RM squat and Δ 1-RM bench press than subjects in RL, however these differences were not significant. No significant changes were seen in any of the resting hormonal concentrations. The results of this study do not provide support for protein intakes greater than recommended levels in collegiate strength/power athletes for body composition improvements, or alterations in resting hormonal concentrations.

  10. Multiband fiber optic radiometry for measuring the temperature and emissivity of gray bodies of low or high emissivity. (United States)

    Sade, Sharon; Katzir, Abraham


    Infrared fiber optic radiometry was used for noncontact thermometry of gray bodies whose temperature was close to room temperature (40-70 degrees C). We selected three gray bodies, one with high emissivity (epsilon = 0.97), one with medium emissivity (epsilon = 0.71), and one with low emissivity (epsilon = 0.025). We carried out optimization calculations and measurements for a multiband fiber optic radiometer that consisted of a silver halide (AgClBr) infrared-transmitting fiber, a dual-band cooled infrared detector, and a set of 18 narrowband infrared filters that covered the 2-14-microm spectral range. We determined the optimal spectral range, the optimal number of filters to be used, and the optimal chopping scheme. Using these optimal conditions, we performed measurements of the three gray bodies and obtained an accuracy of better than 1 degrees C for body temperature and for room temperature. An accuracy of 0.03 was obtained for body emissivity.

  11. Seasonal shifts in body temperature and use of microhabitats by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.; Tracy, C.R.; Porter, W.P.


    Seasonal differences in the body temperatures (T/sub b/) of free-ranging Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) were detected by temperature sensitive telemetry transmitters. Midday T/sub b/'s of iguanas average 4.4/sup 0/C lower in the Garua (cool) season than in the Hot season. Measured T/sub b/'s and those predicted from biophysical models permitted the following conclusions: (1) lower T/sub b/'s during the Garua season represent an active shift in thermoregulation by the iguanas rather than a passive result of a cooler season; (2) the average midday T/sub b/ selected by the iguanas in either season is the T/sub b/ that allows maintenance of a constant T/sub b/ for the longest possible portion of the day; (3) by exploiting the warmer microclimate created by a cliff face, the iguanas are able to maintain a constant T/sub b/ for a full hour longer than they could elsewhere in their home range. Census data demonstrated that the iguanas exploited the warmer microclimate created by the cliff extensively during the Garua season, and the cliff face was visited by the iguanas relatively infrequently during the Hot season. Thus, the exploitation of the microclimate created by the cliff results in seasonal differences in the pattern of space utilization within the home ranges of the iguanas. Within the Garua season the iguanas moved away from the cliff more often on sunny days than during cloudy days. It is concluded that the physical environment is an important determinant of patterns of space utilization both within and between seasons.

  12. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael


    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. METHODS: The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent...... examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. RESULTS: Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA......). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: LTPA and OPA were associated...

  13. Is older colder or colder older? The association of age with body temperature in 18,630 individuals. (United States)

    Waalen, Jill; Buxbaum, Joel N


    In animal studies, caloric restriction resulting in increased longevity is associated with a reduction in body temperature, which is strain specific and likely under genetic control. Small studies in humans have suggested that temperatures may be lower among elderly populations, usually attributed to loss of thermoregulation. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 18,630 white adults aged 20-98 years (mean 58.3 years) who underwent oral temperature measurement as part of a standardized health appraisal at a large U.S. health maintenance organization. Overall, women had higher mean temperatures (97.5 ± 1.2°F) than men (97.2 ± 1.1°F; p temperature decreased with age, with a difference of 0.3°F between oldest and youngest groups after controlling for sex, body mass index, and white blood cell count. The results are consistent with low body temperature as a biomarker for longevity. Prospective studies are needed to confirm whether this represents a survival advantage associated with lifetime low steady state temperature.

  14. Family scents: developmental changes in the perception of kin body odor? (United States)

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Schaal, Benoist; Roberts, S Craig


    There is increasing evidence that human body odors are involved in adaptive behaviors, such as parental attachment in infants or partner choice in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in body-odor perception around puberty, a period largely ignored for odor-mediated behavioral changes, despite major changes in social needs and in odor emission and perception. Nine families with two children (8 pre-pubertal, aged 7-10, and 10 pubertal, aged 11-18) evaluated body odors of family members and unfamiliar individuals for pleasantness, intensity, and masculinity, and performed a recognition task. The hypothesized emergence of a parent-child mutual aversion for the odor of opposite-sex family members at puberty was not found, contradicting one of the few studies on the topic (Weisfeld et al., J. Exp. Child Psychol. 85:279-295, 2003). However, some developmental changes were observed, including reduced aversion for odor of the same-sex parent, and increased ability of adults, compared to children, to recognize odor of family members. Sex and personality (depressive and aggressive traits) also significantly influenced odor judgments. Further research with larger samples is needed to investigate the poorly explored issue of how olfactory perception of self and family members develops, and how it could correlate with normal reorganizations in social interactions at adolescence.

  15. Metabolic and body composition changes in first year following traumatic amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly S. Eckard, MS, RD


    Full Text Available Body composition and metabolism may change considerably after traumatic amputation because of muscle atrophy and an increase in adiposity. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in weight, body composition, and metabolic rate during the first year following traumatic amputation in military servicemembers. Servicemembers without amputation were included for comparison. Participants were measured within the first 12 wk after amputation (baseline and at 6, 9, and 12 mo after amputation. Muscle mass, fat mass, weight, and metabolic rate were measured at each time point. There was a significant increase in weight and body mass index in the unilateral group between baseline and all follow-up visits (p < 0.01. Over the 12 mo period, total fat mass and trunk fat mass increased in both unilateral and bilateral groups; however, these changes were not statistically significant over time. Muscle mass increased in both the unilateral and bilateral groups despite percent of lean mass decreasing. No changes in resting metabolism or walking energy expenditure were observed in any group. The results of this study conclude that weight significantly increased because of an increase in both fat mass and muscle mass in the first year following unilateral and bilateral amputation.

  16. The dynamic relationship between mu and kappa opioid receptors in body temperature regulation. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; McClatchy, Daniel B; Geller, Ellen B; Tallarida, Ronald J; Adler, Martin W


    Previous studies demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a kappa opioid receptor agonist decreased, and a mu agonist increased, body temperature (Tb) in rats. A dose-response study with the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) showed that a low dose (1.25 nmol, icv) alone had no effect, although a high dose (25 nmol, icv) increased Tb. It was hypothesized that the hyperthermia induced by nor-BNI was the result of the antagonist blocking the kappa opioid receptor and releasing its inhibition of mu opioid receptor activity. To determine whether the Tb increase caused by nor-BNI was a mu receptor-mediated effect, we administered the selective mu antagonist CTAP (1.25 nmol, icv) 15 min after nor-BNI (25 nmol, icv) and measured rectal Tb in unrestrained rats. CTAP significantly antagonized the Tb increase induced by icv injection of nor-BNI. Injection of 5 or 10 nmol of CTAP alone significantly decreased the Tb, and 1.25 nmol of nor-BNI blocked that effect, indicating that the CTAP-induced hypothermia was kappa-mediated. The findings strongly suggest that mu antagonists, in blocking the basal hyperthermia mediated by mu receptors, can unmask the endogenous kappa receptor-mediated hypothermia, and that there is a tonic balance between mu and kappa opioid receptors that serves as a homeostatic mechanism for maintaining Tb.

  17. Biphasic effect of melanocortin agonists on metabolic rate and body temperature. (United States)

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Miller, Nicole R; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L


    The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia that is preserved in mice lacking any one of Mc1r, Mc3r, Mc4r, or Mc5r. Three other melanocortin agonists also caused hypothermia, which is actively achieved via seeking a cool environment, vasodilation, and inhibition of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. These results suggest that the hypometabolic/hypothermic effect of MTII is not due to a failure of thermoregulation. The hypometabolism/hypothermia was prevented by dopamine antagonists, and MTII selectively activated arcuate nucleus dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that these neurons may contribute to the hypometabolism/hypothermia. We propose that the hypometabolism/hypothermia is a regulated response, potentially beneficial during extreme physiologic stress.

  18. Post-warmup strategies to maintain body temperature and physical performance in professional rugby union players. (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Russell, Mark; Bracken, Richard M; Cook, Christian J; Giroud, Tibault; Kilduff, Liam P


    We compared the effects of using passive-heat maintenance, explosive activity or a combination of both strategies during the post-warmup recovery time on physical performance. After a standardised warmup, 16 professional rugby union players, in a randomised design, completed a counter-movement jump (peak power output) before resting for 20 min and wearing normal-training attire (CON), wearing a passive heat maintenance (PHM) jacket, wearing normal attire and performing 3 × 5 CMJ (with a 20% body mass load) after 12 min of recovery (neuromuscular function, NMF), or combining PHM and NMF (COMB). After 20 min, participants completed further counter-movement jump and a repeated sprint protocol. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured at baseline, post-warmup and post-20 min. After 20 min of recovery, Tcore was significantly lower under CON and NMF, when compared with both PHM and COMB (P union players.

  19. Change in body size and mortality: results from the Melbourne collaborative cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Karahalios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between change in weight or body mass index, and mortality is widely reported, however, both measures fail to account for fat distribution. Change in waist circumference, a measure of central adiposity, in relation to mortality has not been studied extensively. METHODS: We investigated the association between mortality and changes in directly measured waist circumference, hips circumference and weight from baseline (1990-1994 to wave 2 (2003-2007 in a prospective cohort study of people aged 40-69 years at baseline. Cox regression, with age as the time metric and follow-up starting at wave 2, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for change in body size in relation to mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. RESULTS: There were 1465 deaths (109 cancer, 242 cardiovascular disease identified during an average 7.7 years of follow-up from 21 298 participants. Compared to minimal increase in body size, loss of waist circumference (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09-1.47, weight (1.80; 1.54-2.11, or hips circumference (1.35; 1.15-1.57 were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, particularly for older adults. Weight loss was associated with cardiovascular disease mortality (2.40; 1.57-3.65 but change in body size was not associated with obesity-related cancer mortality. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the association between weight loss and increased mortality from all-causes for older adults. Based on evidence from observational cohort studies, weight stability may be the recommended option for most adults, especially older adults.

  20. How $\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ changes with temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Pisarski, R D; Pisarski, Robert D.; Tytgat, Michel


    At zero temperature, in the chiral limit the amplitude for \\pi^0 to decay into two photons is directly related to the coefficient of the axial anomaly. At any nonzero temperature, this direct relationship is lost: while the coefficient of the axial anomaly is independent of temperature, in a thermal bath the anomalous Ward identities do not uniquely constrain the amplitude for zero temperature, this amplitude decreases.

  1. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D


    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  2. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria. (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Becker, Christie L; Seymour, Roger S


    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m) scales with body mass (M; g) according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI)), jump take-off angle (A; degrees) scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06), and jump energy (E; mJ per jump) scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09). Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm) of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02). The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12%) legs and a relatively larger (11%) femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  3. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P Snelling

    Full Text Available Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m scales with body mass (M; g according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI, jump take-off angle (A; degrees scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06, and jump energy (E; mJ per jump scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09. Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02. The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12% legs and a relatively larger (11% femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  4. Dietary n-6 PUFA, carbohydrate:protein ratio and change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Madsen, Lise; Dethlefsen, Claus


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the intake of n-6 PUFA and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference at different levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. DESIGN: Follow-up study with anthropometric measurements at recruitment and on average 5·3 years later....... Dietary intake was determined at recruitment by using an FFQ that was designed for the study and validated. We applied linear regression models with 5-year change in weight or waist circumference as outcome and including a two-way interaction term between n-6 PUFA and carbohydrate intakes, lower......:protein ratio; the differences in 5-year waist circumference change were 0·26 cm (95 % CI -0·47, 0·98 cm) and -0·52 cm (95 % CI -1·19, 0·15 cm), respectively. Inclusion of the dietary glycaemic index did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: No consistent associations between the intake of n-6 PUFA and change...

  5. Sequential changes of lamellar body hydrolases during ozone-induced alveolar injury and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glew, R.H.; Basu, A.; Shelley, S.A.; Paterson, J.F.; Diven, W.F.; Montgomery, M.R.; Balis, J.U.


    Lamellar body hydrolases in acutely damaged and regenerating type II cells were determined using an established rat model with well-defined stages of bronchiolo-alveolar injury and repair. Lamellar bodies were isolated from control and ozone-exposed (3.0 ppm for 8 hours) adult male rats by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and analyzed for their content of six different lysosomal hydrolases. Immediately after 3 ppm ozone exposure (zero-time) there was a significant decrease in specific enzyme activity (units/mg protein) of five lamellar body hydrolases and these activities remained depressed for at least 24 hours after exposure. In addition, total enzyme activity (units/lung) was reduced at zero-time for beta-hexosaminidase and at 24 hours postexposure for alpha-mannosidase and alpha-L-fucosidase. During the reparative and recovery stages (48 to 96 hours) the hydrolases demonstrated variable elevations in both specific activity and total activity (units/lung). Characteristically, beta-hexosaminidase and beta-galactosidase reached supranormal values at 96 hours, whereas alpha-mannosidase remained below normal levels through the recovery stage. Moreover, at 24 to 48 hours the lamellar body fraction demonstrated prominent enzyme depletion relative to the expanding pool of stored surfactant. It is concluded that acute ozone stress initiates the development of hydrolase deficiency within the lamellar bodies of injured and regenerating type II cells. This deficiency state is followed by asynchronous lamellar body hydrolase elevations that reflect distinct patterns of response rather than uniform return to normal condition. The lysosomal enzyme changes of lamellar bodies may be pathogenetically linked to the development of associated alterations in the storage and secretion of surfactant.

  6. Microstructure and Temperature Distribution in ZnAl2O4 Sintered Body by Pulse Electric Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongming ZHANG; Zhengyi FU; Jingkun GUO


    Microstructure of reaction sintering of ZnAl2O4 at 1500℃ by hot-pressing(HP) and pulse electric current was investigated. The results indicated that the existed cracks in sintered body were caused by structure mismatch. lt is the evidence that periodical temperature field existed during pulse electric current sintering of nonconductive materials.The distance between high temperature areas was related to die diameter.

  7. Changes in body water distribution during treatment with inhaled steroid in pre-school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Anhøj, Jacob; Bisgaard, A M;


    .i.d. delivered via Babyhaler, budesonide pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) 200 microg b.i.d. delivered via Nebuchamber and placebo. Spacers were primed before use. In total, 40 children aged 1-3 years, with mild intermittent asthma were included. Twenty-five of the children completed all three treatments....... At the end of each treatment period body impedance and skin ultrasonography were measured. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We measured changes in water content of the soft tissues by two methods. Skin ultrasonography was used to detect small changes in dermal water content, and bioelectrical impedance was used...... to assess body water content and distribution. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: We found an increase in skin density of the shin from fluticasone as measured by ultrasonography (p = 0.01). There was a tendency for a consistent elevation of impedance parameters from active treatments compared to placebo although...

  8. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may prov...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  9. Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise


    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Wilborn, Colin D; Krieger, James W.; Sonmez, Gul T


    It has been hypothesized that performing aerobic exercise after an overnight fast accelerates the loss of body fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fat mass and fat-free mass following four weeks of volume-equated fasted versus fed aerobic exercise in young women adhering to a hypocaloric diet. Twenty healthy young female volunteers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a fasted training (FASTED) group that performed exercise after an overnight fast (n ...

  10. Analysis of the energetic metabolism in cyclic Bedouin goats (Capra hircus): Nychthemeral and seasonal variations of some haematochemical parameters in relation with body and ambient temperatures. (United States)

    Malek, Mouna; Amirat, Zaina; Khammar, Farida; Khaldoun, Mounira


    Several studies have examined changes in some haematochemical parameters as a function of the different physiological status (cyclic, pregnant and lactating) of goats, but no relevant literature has exhaustively investigated these variations from anestrous to estrous stages in cyclic goats. In this paper, we report nychthemeral and seasonal variations in ambient and body temperatures, and in some haematochemical parameters (glycemia, cholesterolemia, triglyceridemia, creatininemia and uremia) measured during summer, winter and spring, in seven (7) experimental cyclic female Bedouin goats (Capra hircus) living in the Béni-Abbès region (Algerian Sahara desert). Cosinor rhythmometry procedure was used to determine the rhythmic parameters of ambient temperature and haematochemical parameters. To determine the effect of time of day on the rhythmicity of the studied parameters, as well as their seasonality, repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. The results showed that in spite of the nychthemeral profile presented by the ambient temperature for each season, the body temperature remained in a narrow range, thus indicating a successful thermoregulation. The rhythmometry analysis showed a circadian rhythmicity of ambient temperature and haematochemical parameters with diurnal acrophases. A statistically significant effect of the time of day was shown on all studied haematochemical parameters, except on creatininemia. It was also found that only uremia, cholesterolemia and triglyceridemia followed the seasonal sexual activity of the studied ruminant. This study demonstrated the good physiological adaptation developed by this breed in response to the harsh climatic conditions of its natural environment.

  11. The Relation of Standard Metabolic Rate to Water Temperature and Body Weight of Schlegels Black Rockfish (Sebastodes Fuscescens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志敏; 孙耀; 张波; 唐启升


    Standard metabolic rates of Schlegels black rockfish with different body weights are determined in laboratory by using the flow-through respirometer at 11.2 ℃, 14.7 ℃, 18.0℃ and 23.6 ℃. The results indicate that the standard metabolic rates increase with the increase of body weight at different temperatures. Relationship between them could be described as Rs = a InW b. The mean of standard metabolic rate is significantly different among groups, but the b values are not. The standard metabolic rates of amended standard body weights decrease with the increase of temperature, and the mean of standard metabolic rate is also significantly different among groups when the standard body weights are 48.6 g, 147.9 g, and 243.1 g.Relationship between them could be described as Rsw = me-bT . The relations of standard metabolic rate ( Rs ) or relative metabolic rate ( Rs ) to body weight and temperature yield the following equations: Rs = 1.160 W0.752 e-9.494/7 and Rs1= 1.160 W0.254e-9.494/7.

  12. Seasonal change in tropical habitat quality and body condition for a declining migratory songbird. (United States)

    McKinnon, Emily A; Rotenberg, James A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M


    Many migratory songbirds spend their non-breeding season in tropical humid forests, where climate change is predicted to increase the severity and frequency of droughts and decrease rainfall. For conservation of these songbirds, it is critical to understand how resources during the non-breeding season are affected by seasonal patterns of drying, and thereby predict potential long-term effects of climate change. We studied habitat quality for a declining tropical forest-dwelling songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and tested the hypothesis that habitat moisture and arthropod abundance are drivers of body condition during the overwintering period. We examined habitat moisture, abundance of arthropods and fruit, and condition of individual birds (n = 418) in three habitat types--mature forest, mature forest with increased presence of human activity, and riparian scrub--from October to April. We found a strong pattern of habitat drying from October (wet season) to March (prior to spring migration) in all habitats, with concurrent declines in arthropod and fruit abundance. Body condition of birds also declined (estimated ~5 % decline over the wintering period), with no significant difference by habitat. Relatively poor condition (low body condition index, low fat and pectoral muscles scores) was equally apparent in all habitat types in March. Climate change is predicted to increase the severity of dry seasons in Central America, and our results suggest that this could negatively affect the condition of individual wood thrushes.

  13. Body weight changes in female patients with prolactinoma treated with bromocriptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Velija-Ašimi;


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the body weight changes in female patients with bromocriptin treated prolactinoma. Seventeen hyperprolactinemic pre-menopausal female with prolactinoma, aged 18-45 years, with body mass index (BMI 30+/-2,1kg/m2 were included. Basal insulin level was measured in all patients as well as concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estrogens, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and prolactin (PRL. All patients were treated with bromocriptine. PRL levels significantly decreased after six months of the treatment (3543+/-1211 vs.1130+/-588 μIU/ml, p<0.05. After a year of the treatment PRL level was normalized (560+/-297 μIU/ml. Mean body weight did not significantly change during the first 6 months but after a two-year period it significantly decreased (27.6+/-1,4kg/m2. Waist/hip ratio did not significantly change. Normalization of menstrual cycle and libido was obtained in all patients. The results of this study suggest that hyperprolactinemia may be regarded as a reversible cause of obesity in female patients with prolactinoma, and bromocriptin has an important role in the weight loss and insulin decreasing and normalization of gonadotropin secretion as well.

  14. Comparing the effects of rapid and gradual cooling on body temperature and inflammatory response following acute hyperthermia (United States)

    Hyperthermia negatively impacts human and animal health, and extreme cases can result in mortality if recovery is not appropriately managed. The study objective was to determine the effects of rapid versus gradual cooling on body temperature and the inflammatory response following exposure to acute ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To make and study computed system for external cardiac massage, monitor of heart and body temperature and observe its clinical effect. Method: The system was made and applied. Result: The effect of system was obvious. Conclusion: The system was an effective clinical equipment in treatment of patient with cardiac arrest.

  16. Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout. (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; García-Lafuente, Francisca; García-Royo, Carmen; Tomás-Rojas, Inmaculada


    Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment comprising three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki aims to help replenish and rebalance the body's energetic system, thus stimulating the healing process. The objective of this placebo-controlled, repeated measures, crossover, single-blind, randomized trial was to analyze the immediate effects of Reiki on heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature, and salivary flow rate and cortisol level in health care professionals with burnout syndrome (BS). Participants included 21 health care professionals with BS, who were asked to complete two visits to the laboratory with a 1-week interval between sessions. They were randomly assigned the order in which they would receive a Reiki session applied by an experienced therapist and a placebo treatment applied by a therapist with no knowledge of Reiki, who mimicked the Reiki treatment. Temperature, Holter ECG recordings (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval [SDNN], square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals [RMSSD], HRV index, low frequency component [LF], and high frequency component [HF]), salivary flow rate and cortisol levels were measured at baseline and postintervention by an assessor blinded to allocation group. SDNN and body temperature were significantly higher after the Reiki treatment than after the placebo. LF was significantly lower after the Reiki treatment. The decrease in the LF domain was associated with the increase in body temperature. These results suggest that Reiki has an effect on the parasympathetic nervous system when applied to health care professionals with BS.

  17. Temperature and Precipitation Changes in China During the Holocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We review here proxy records of temperatare and precipitation in China during the Holocene,especially the last two millennia.The quality of proxy data,methodology of reconstruction,and uncertainties in reconstruction were emphasized in comparing different temperatare and precipitation reconstruction and clarilying temporal and spatial patterns of temperature and precipitation during the Holocene.The Holocene climate was generally warm and wet.The warmest period occurred in 9.6-6.2 cal ka BP,whereas a period of maximum monsoon precipitation started at about 11.0 cal ka BP and lasted until about 8.O-5.0 cal ka BP.There were a series of millennial-scale cold or dry events superimposed on the general trend of climate changes.During past two millennia,a warming trend in the 20th century was clearly detected,but the warming magnitude was smaller than the maximum level of the Medieval Warm Period and the Middle Holocene.Cold conditions occurred over the whole of China during the Little Ice Age (AD 1400-AD 1900),but the warming of the Medieval Warm Period(AD 900-AD 1300)was not distinct in China,especially west China.The spatial pattern of precipitation showed significant regional differences in China,especially east China.The modern warm period has lasted 20、years from 1987 to 2006.Bi-decadal oscillation in precipitation variability was apparent over China during the 20th century. Solar activity and volcanic eruptions both were major forcings governing the climate variability during the last millennium.

  18. Soil erosion under climate change: simulatingthe response of temperature and rainfall changes in three UK catchments (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Walker-Springett, Kate J.; Constantine, José Antonio; Hales, Tristram C.


    Soil erosion by water cost in environmental damages across the Great Britain is estimated in over £200m (2014 GBP) each year and could increase for the effect of climate change. Assessing the potential for increased climate-driven soil erosion, due to the several water processes involved (e.g., infiltration excess, return flow, direct precipitation onto saturated soil),is recognizedas a complex task. Climate change can have a positive and direct effect on soil erosionsuch the case of increasing rainfall in amount and intensity, or an indirect effect through the variation of the atmospheric CO2 level, which can improve plant productivityandwater infiltration capacity of soil reducing the likelihood of soil erosion. Changes in vegetation patterns and typologies with a different protection effect can lead also the soil system to dramatic changes in soil erosion rates, potentially amplifying or ameliorating the direct effects of climate change.Climate, vegetation and soil erosion are thus connected and several feedback effects could be accounted in the study of global change. Understanding these interactions may be a primary goal for clarifying the impact of global change on soil erosion and its consequences on related soil functions such as water and organic carbon storage support to vegetation and agricultural production. In this research, focused on three UK catchments (i.e. Conwy, 627 km2, Wales; Ehen, 225 km2, England; and Dee, 2100 km2, Scotland), we simulated soil erosionapplying SRES climatic scenarios(IPCC, 2000) for different CO2 emission levels. We modelled using Pesera "The Pan European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment" (Kirkby et al., 2004), a model for vegetation growing and soil erosion evaluation at regional scale. For each catchment,we realised a sensitivity - analysis - like test investigating different increments in temperature and rainfall, then, we compared the results of the SRES scenarios with the issues of the parametric sensitivity analysis. The

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs. (United States)

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia


    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs.

  20. Rearing temperature induces changes in muscle growth and gene expression in juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). (United States)

    Gutierrez de Paula, Tassiana; de Almeida, Fernanda Losi Alves; Carani, Fernanda Regina; Vechetti-Júnior, Ivan José; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Salomão, Rondinelle Arthur Simões; Mareco, Edson Assunção; Dos Santos, Vander Bruno; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli


    Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is a fast-growing fish that is extensively used in Brazilian aquaculture programs and shows a wide range of thermal tolerance. Because temperature is an environmental factor that influences the growth rate of fish and is directly related to muscle plasticity and growth, we hypothesized that different rearing temperatures in juvenile pacu, which exhibits intense muscle growth by hyperplasia, can potentially alter the muscle growth patterns of this species. The aim of this study was to analyze the muscle growth characteristics together with the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and myogenin and the growth factor myostatin in juvenile pacu that were submitted to different rearing temperatures. Juvenile fish (1.5 g weight) were distributed in tanks containing water and maintained at 24°C (G24), 28 °C (G28) and 32 °C (G32) (three replicates for each group) for 60 days. At days 30 and 60, the fish were anesthetized and euthanized, and muscle samples (n=12) were collected for morphological, morphometric and gene expression analyses. At day 30, the body weight and standard length were lower for G24 than for G28 and G32. Muscle fiber frequency in the 50 μm class was lower in G24. MyoD gene expression was higher in G24 compared with that in G28 and G32, and myogenin and myostatin mRNA levels were higher in G24 than G28. At day 60, the body weight and the standard length were higher in G32 but lower in G24. The frequency distribution of the muscle fibers was higher in G24, and that of the >50 μm class was lower in G24. MyoD mRNA levels were higher in G24 and G32, and myogenin mRNA levels were similar between G24 and G28 and between G24 and G32 but were higher in G28 compared to G32. The myostatin mRNA levels were similar between the studied temperatures. In light of our results, we conclude that low rearing temperature altered the expression of muscle growth-related genes and induced a delay in muscle growth in juvenile

  1. Age-related changes of serum mitochondrial uncoupling 1, rumen and rectal temperature in goats. (United States)

    Arfuso, Francesca; Rizzo, Maria; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe


    Thermoregulatory processes are induced not only by exposure to cold or heat but also by a variety of physiological situations including age, fasting and food intake that result in changes in body temperature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), rumen temperature (TRUMEN) and rectal temperature (TRECTAL) values between adult and kids goats. Ten adult male Maltese goats aged 3-5 years old (Group A) and 30 male kids, raised for meat, were enrolled in this study. The kids were equally divided into 3 groups according to their age: Group B included kids aged 3 months, Group C included kids aged 4 months and Group D included kids aged 5 months. Blood samples and measurements of TRUMEN and TRECTAL were obtained from each animal. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to evaluate the effect of age on the studied parameters. Statistically significant higher serum UCP1 levels (Ptemperature suggesting that further details about the thermogenic capacity and the function of UCP1 in kids and adult goats are worth exploring.

  2. [A new method for the transcutaneous measurement of deep body temperature during anaesthesia and intensive care (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Jost, U; Hanf, K; Köhler, C O; Just, O H


    A new method for monitoring deep body temperature is described. It is based on the establishment, by means of electronic appliances, of a zone without heatflow from the deep tissues. The method is simple and the results compare favourably with those obtained by other procedures for measuring core temperature. The uses of this transcutaneous mehtod are discussed and its advantages and reliability in the operating theatre and intensive care unit are emphasized. It becomes less reliable if it is employed during and after extracorporeal circulation in hypothermia on account of the temperature gradient.

  3. Data logging of body temperatures provides precise information on phenology of reproductive events in a free-living arctic hibernator (United States)

    Williams, C.T.; Sheriff, M.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Kohl, F.; Toien, O.; Buck, C.L.; Barnes, B.M.


    Precise measures of phenology are critical to understanding how animals organize their annual cycles and how individuals and populations respond to climate-induced changes in physical and ecological stressors. We show that patterns of core body temperature (T b) can be used to precisely determine the timing of key seasonal events including hibernation, mating and parturition, and immergence and emergence from the hibernacula in free-living arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). Using temperature loggers that recorded T b every 20 min for up to 18 months, we monitored core T b from three females that subsequently gave birth in captivity and from 66 female and 57 male ground squirrels free-living in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range Alaska. In addition, dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed for four free-living male squirrels. Average T b in captive females decreased by 0.5–1.0°C during gestation and abruptly increased by 1–1.5°C on the day of parturition. In free-living females, similar shifts in T b were observed in 78% (n = 9) of yearlings and 94% (n = 31) of adults; females without the shift are assumed not to have given birth. Three of four ground squirrels for which dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed did not exhibit obvious diurnal rhythms in T b until they first emerged onto the surface when T b patterns became diurnal. In free-living males undergoing reproductive maturation, this pre-emergence euthermic interval averaged 20.4 days (n = 56). T b-loggers represent a cost-effective and logistically feasible method to precisely investigate the phenology of reproduction and hibernation in ground squirrels.

  4. Effect of a phase I Coxiella burnetii inactivated vaccine on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. (United States)

    Schulze, L S-Ch; Borchardt, S; Ouellet, V; Heuwieser, W


    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The pathogen is prevalent in ruminants (goats, sheep, cows), which are the main sources of human infection. In the cattle industry around the world, animal (15 to 20%) and herd (38 to 72%) level prevalences of C. burnetii are high. Vaccination of ruminants against Q fever is considered important to prevent spreading of the disease and risk of infection in humans. However, published information on side effects of the Q fever vaccination under field conditions is limited for cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the phase I C. burnetii inactivated vaccine Coxevac on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. In 2 experiments, a total of 508 cows were randomly divided into 2 groups to determine the effect of first vaccination on body temperature and milk yield. The C. burnetii serostatus of all cows was tested before vaccination with an indirect ELISA. The first experiment took place in the teaching and research barn of the Clinic of Animal Reproduction at the Freie Universität Berlin. Temperature was measured vaginally in 10 cows in a crossover design. The second experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm. Milk yield of 498 cows was measured 1 wk before and 1 wk after vaccination. In a subset of 41 cows, temperature was measured rectally. In both experiments, body temperature increased significantly after vaccination (1.0 ± 0.9°C and 0.7 ± 0.8°C). A significant difference was also found in body temperature between vaccinated and control cows. Thirty percent of the vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed reversible swelling at the injection site as a reaction to the vaccination. The results indicate that vaccination against Q fever causes a transient increase of body temperature that peaks in the first 12 to 24h and declines after that. In experiment 2, vaccinated cows (26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d) produced significantly less milk than did control cows (28.2 ± 0.44 kg

  5. Perceived stress and freshman weight change: the moderating role of baseline body mass index. (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G


    The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year.

  6. Changes in body size, abundance, and energy allocation in rockfish assemblages of the northeast Pacific. (United States)

    Harvey, Chris J; Tolimieri, Nick; Levin, Phillip S


    Fish body size, a key driver of many aspects of fish population biology and ecology, is affected by fisheries that deplete the largest individuals. Rockfish (genus Sebastes) are a diverse group that has been heavily fished on the U.S. West Coast in recent decades. We examined trawl survey data from 1980 to 2001 to determine spatial and temporal trends in body size and density of 16 shelf rockfish species, including six that are considered overfished. Mean individual mass and maximum observed mass declined in the majority of species in one or more zoogeographic regions between central California and Washington. Density changes were far more variable in time and space, but in all regions, density declines were most often associated with large-bodied rockfish. We next estimated the impact of size and density changes on energy consumption and fecundity in a five-species rockfish assemblage that includes bocaccio (S. paucispinis), a large-bodied, overfished species. Indexes of both consumption and fecundity by the assemblage increased in the southern portion of the study area between 1980 and 2001 but decreased in the northern portion. Allocation of energy and reproductive potential within the assemblage shifted dramatically: relative to bocaccio, total energy consumption and fecundity indexes for the other four species increased by orders of magnitude from 1980 to 2001. These changes in community structure may affect the ability of bocaccio and other large rockfish species to recover from overfishing, especially in light of long-term declines in zooplankton production that may also be affecting rockfish size and production. Addressing these issues may require a regional, multispecies management approach.

  7. A possible means of monitoring the progress of demyelination in multiple sclerosis: effect of body temperature on visual perception of double light flashes. (United States)

    Galvin, R J; Regan, D; Heron, J R


    The ability to discriminate closely separated pairs of light flashes as being double is impaired in multiple sclerosis. The effects of altering body temperature on double flash resolution and on visual acuity were studied in four multiple sclerosis patients and in control subjects. At demyelinated sites heating impaired and cooling improved double flash resolution. Visual acuity behaved similarly. The double flash test was very sensitive, changing up to 75 ms in response to simple heating and cooling procedures that produced small variations in acuity. Apart from its diagnostic value, the double flash test furnishes a simple in vivo model to study the effect of temperature change (and potential symptomatic therapy) on conduction in partially demyelinated axons in the visual system.

  8. A Proposed Methodology to Control Body Temperature in Patients at Risk of Hypothermia by means of Active Rewarming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Costanzo


    Full Text Available Hypothermia is a common complication in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. It has been noted that, during the first hour of surgery, the patient’s internal temperature (Tcore decreases by 0.5–1.5°C due to the vasodilatory effect of anesthetic gases, which affect the body’s thermoregulatory system by inhibiting vasoconstriction. Thus a continuous check on patient temperature must be carried out. The currently most used methods to avoid hypothermia are based on passive systems (such as blankets reducing body heat loss and on active ones (thermal blankets, electric or hot-water mattresses, forced hot air, warming lamps, etc.. Within a broader research upon the environmental conditions, pollution, heat stress, and hypothermia risk in operating theatres, the authors set up an experimental investigation by using a warming blanket chosen from several types on sale. Their aim was to identify times and ways the human body reacts to the heat flowing from the blanket and the blanket’s effect on the average temperature Tskin and, as a consequence, on Tcore temperature of the patient. The here proposed methodology could allow surgeons to fix in advance the thermal power to supply through a warming blanket for reaching, in a prescribed time, the desired body temperature starting from a given state of hypothermia.

  9. Equilibrium energy intake estimated by dietary energy intake and body weight changes in young Japanese females. (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kayoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Kodama, Naoko; Yoshitake, Yutaka


    To determine the energy intake (EI) required to maintain body weight (equilibrium energy intake: EEI), we investigated the relationship between calculated energy intake and body weight changes in female subjects participating in 14 human balance studies (n=149) conducted at the National Institute of Health and Nutrition (Tokyo). In four and a half studies (n=43), sweat was collected from the arm to estimate loss of minerals through sweating during exercise on a bicycle ergometer; these subjects were classified in the exercise group (Ex G). In nine and a half experiments (n=106) subjects did not exercise, and were classified in the sedentary group (Sed G). The relationship between dietary energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW) changes (ΔBW) was analyzed and divided by four variables: body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM), standard body weight (SBW), and body surface area (BSA). Equilibrium energy intake (EEI) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for EEI in Ex G were 34.3 and 32.8-35.9 kcal/kg BW/d, 32.0 and 30.8-33.1 kcal/kg SBW/d, 46.3 and 44.2-48.5 kcal/kg LBW/d, and 1,200 and 1,170-1,240 kcal/m(2) BSA/d, respectively. EEI and 95% CI for EEI in Sed G were 34.5 and 33.9-35.1 kcal/kg BW/d, 31.4 and 30.9-32.0 kcal/kg SBW/d, 44.9 and 44.1-45.8 kcal/kg LBM/d, and 1,200 and 1,180-1,210 kcal/m2 BSA/d, respectively. EEIs obtained in this study are 3 to 5% higher than estimated energy requirement (EER) for Japanese. In five out of six analyses, EER in a population (female, 18-29 y, physical activity level: 1.50) was under 95% CI of EEI obtained in this study.

  10. Assessing the Influence of Precipitation on Diurnal Temperature Range Changes: Implications for Climate Change Projection (United States)

    Van den Hoof, C.; Garreaud, R.


    . Braganza, D.J. Karoly, and J.M. Arblaster. Diurnal temperature range as an index of global climate change during the twentieth century. Geophysical Research Letters, 31:1-4, 2004. [2] A. Dai, A.D. Del Genio, and I.Y. Fung. Clouds, precipitation and temperature range. Nature, 386:665-666, 1997.

  11. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  12. Evaluation of body composition changes, epicardial adipose tissue, and serum omentin-1 levels in overt hypothyroidism. (United States)

    Cerit, Ethem Turgay; Akturk, Mujde; Altinova, Alev E; Tavil, Yusuf; Ozkan, Cigdem; Yayla, Cagri; Altay, Mustafa; Demirtas, Canan; Cakir, Nuri


    Our aim was to investigate body composition changes, epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT), serum omentin-1 levels, and the relationship among them along with some atherosclerosis markers in overt hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight newly diagnosed overt hypothyroid patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) and compared to the healthy subjects in this prospective longitudinal study. Body compositions were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and EATT was measured by echocardiography. Carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), thyroid hormone levels, lipid parameters, high sensitive c-reactive protein, homocysteine, and omentin-1 levels were measured in all subjects. Body weight and lean body mass were higher in patients with hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid state after THRT (p = 0.012, 0.034, respectively). EATT was higher in patients with hypothyroidism than the control group (p hypothyroid state, omentin-1 levels were lower than controls (p = 0.037) but increased in 6 months with THRT (p = 0.001). The c-IMT was higher, and FMD was lower in hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid state and control group (p hypothyroidism. The increased amount of EATT and decreased omentin-1 levels can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in addition to other factors in hypothyroidism.

  13. l-Leucine acts as a potential agent in reducing body temperature at hatching and affords thermotolerance in broiler chicks. (United States)

    Han, Guofeng; Yang, Hui; Bahry, Mohammad A; Tran, Phuong V; Do, Phong H; Ikeda, Hiromi; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S


    Thermal manipulation (TM) of incubation temperature causes metabolic alterations and contributes to improving thermotolerance in chicks post hatching. However, there has been no report on amino acid metabolism during TM and the part it plays in thermotolerance. In this study, we therefore first analyzed free amino acid concentrations in the embryonic brain and liver during TM (38.6°C, 6h/d during embryonic day (ED) 10 to ED 18). It was found that leucine (Leu), phenylalanine and lysine were significantly decreased in the embryonic brain and liver. We then chose l-Leu and other branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine (L-Ile) and l-valine (l-Val)) for in ovo injection on ED 7 to reveal their roles in thermoregulation, growth, food intake and thermotolerance in chicks. It was found that in ovo injection of l-Leu, but not of l-Ileu or l-Val, caused a significant decline in body temperature at hatching and increased food intake and body weight gain in broiler chicks. Interestingly, in ovo injection of l-Leu resulted in the acquisition of thermotolerance under high ambient temperature (35±1°C for 180min) in comparison with the control thermoneutral temperature (28±1°C for 180min). These results indicate that the free amino acid concentrations during embryogenesis were altered by TM. l-Leu administration in eggs caused a reduction in body temperature at hatching, and afforded thermotolerance in heat-exposed young chicks, further suggesting that l-Leu may be one of the key metabolic factors involved in controlling body temperature in embryos, as well as in producing thermotolerance after hatching.

  14. Circadian variation of EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep in humans: dissociation from body temperature (United States)

    Dijk, D. J.


    In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.

  15. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fei; XU Qiang; YANG Hongsheng


    Seasonal variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons (P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid contents both varied clearly with seasons (P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:1n7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA)and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6)and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations (P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly.The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein,MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  16. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Haan, A. de; Koning, J.J. de; Daanen, H.A.M.


    Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The p

  17. The effect of firing temperature on the irreversible expansion, water absorption and pore structure of a brick body during freeze-thaw cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš ŠVEDA


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the monitoring of brick body in the process of volumetric freezing and thawing. The samples were fired at temperatures of 900, 1000 and 1060 °C. Attention is focused on monitoring of the irreversible expansion, water absorption and pore structure of a brick body. We found that in all cases the endpoints take place continuously, where the amount firing temperature plays a crucial role. The greatest influence of freeze/thaw cycles on the change of the pore structure was also observed at the lowest temperature. The change of the pore system during the freeze-thaw cycles occurs in such a way, that the pore volume of small pores further decreases and conversely, the pore volume of large pores increases. The knowledge gained can be used not only in the production of new but also in predicting the remaining durability of older clay roofing tiles. DOI:

  18. Quantification of ln-Flight Physical Changes: Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Amick, R.; Rajulu, S.


    Currently, NASA does not have sufficient in-flight anthropometric data to assess the impact of changes in body shape and size. For developing future planetary and reduced-gravity suits, NASA needs to quantify the impacts of microgravity on anthropometry and body posture to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort. To obtain data on these changes, circumference, length, height, breadth, and depth for body segments (chest, waist, bicep, thigh, calf) from astronauts for preflight, in-flight, and post-flight conditions needs to be collected. Once these data have been collected, pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight anthropometric values will be compared, yielding microgravity factors. The neutral body posture (NBP) will also be measured, to determine body posture (joint angle) changes between subjects throughout the duration of a mission. Data collection, starting with Increments 37/38, is still in progress but has been completed for 6 out of 9 subjects. NASA suit engineers and NASA's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Project Office have identified that suit fit in microgravity could become an issue. It has been noted that crewmembers often need to adjust their suit sizing once they are in orbit. This adjustment could be due to microgravity effects on anthropometry and postural changes, and is necessary to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort in space. To date, the only data collected to determine the effects of microgravity on physical human changes were collected during Skylab 4, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle mission STS-57, and a recent HRP study on seated height changes due to spinal elongation (Spinal Elongation, Master Task List [MTL] #221). The Skylab 4, ASTP, and the STS-57 studies found that, according to photographs, a distinct NBP exists. The still photographs showed a distinguishable posture with the arms raised and the shoulders abducted; in addition, the knees are flexed, with noticeable hip flexion, and the foot

  19. Plasma norepinephrine, blood pressure and heart rate response to graded change in body position. (United States)

    Fiorica, V; Kem, D C


    In this study, 44 human subjects underwent either an orthostatic postural change (supine to stand, n = 17) or a graded change in body position (head-up) on a tilt-table (n = 27). No significant changes in systolic blood pressure or mean blood pressure were observed during either maneuver; significant increases, under both conditions, were observed in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations after orthostatic position change increased significantly (supine 181 +/- 14 (S.E.M.) pg X ml-1; stand, 472 +/- 35 pg X ml-1, p less than 0.01). Plasma norepinephrine concentrations during graded postural change increased proportionately with increasing degrees of tilt (r = 0.76, p less than 0.01). A significant correlation between plasma norepinephrine and heart rate was observed during both positional change maneuvers (graded tilt-table, r = 0.80, p less than 0.01; orthostatic, r = 0.50, p less than 0.01). These results suggest that the degree of sympathetic nervous system activity for blood pressure regulation during graded postural change is appropriately reflected by plasma norepinephrine concentrations.

  20. A note on hemispheric and global temperature changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiin-Nielsen, A. [Department of Geophysics, Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, Copenhagen, (Denmark)


    The paper discusses a lower to middle tropospheric temperature record obtained from a satellite micro-wave sounder (MSU) using channel 2R. The temperature record, giving monthly mean temperatures for the 18 years from 1979 to 1996, inclusive, and for the two hemispheres and the Globe, are analysed with the purpose of finding long term trends. A comparison is made with temperature records using standard data. [Spanish] El presente trabajo discute un registro de baja a media temperatura troposferica, obtenida de un satelite micro-wave sounder (MSU) usando el canal 2R. El registro que da temperaturas medias mensuales para los 18 anos desde 1979 a 1996, inclusive, y para los dos hemisferios y el Globo, son analizados con el proposito de encontrar tendencias a largo plazo. Se hizo una comparacion con los registros de temperatura usando datos estandares.

  1. Global mean temperature changes during the last millennium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A synthetic study is made on the global or hemispheric mean temperature series for the last millennium worked out by Mann et al., Jones et al., Crowley and Lowery, and Briffa. The global mean temperature series reconstructed by using proxy data at 30 sites by Wang et al. and simulations from AD 1000 to 2000 by energy balance model are described and compared with the series of others. Wang's series gives greater variability and shows the highest correlation coefficient (0.83) with the simulation results. Uncertainties in the reconstructions and simulations are discussed. The errors in reconstructing a global mean temperature series according to 30 sites as used in the research are estimated. Wang's series indicate that temperature average for the 11th century is higher than the mean of the last millennium. It infers that the Medieval Warm Period predominated to some extent over the globe. However, the 20th century is no doubt the warmest century during the last millennium.

  2. Quantification of In-flight Physical Changes: Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Reid, C. R.; Rajulu, S.


    Currently, NASA does not have sufficient in-flight anthropometric data gathered to assess the impact of physical body shape and size changes on suit sizing. For developing future planetary and reduced gravity suits, NASA needs to quantify the impacts of microgravity on anthropometry, body posture, and neutral body postures (NBP) to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort. To obtain these impacts, anthropometric data, circumference, length, height, breadth, and depth for body segments (i.e. chest, waist, bicep, thigh, calf) from astronauts for pre, in-, and postflight conditions needs to be collected. Once this data has been collected, a comparison between pre, in-, and postflight anthropometric values will be analyzed, yielding microgravity factors. The NBP will be used to determined body posture (joint angle) changes between subjects throughout the duration of a mission. Data collection, starting with Increments 37/38, is still in progress with the completion of 3 out of 12 subjects. NASA suit engineers and NASA's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Project Office have identified that suit fit in microgravity could become an issue. It has been noted that crewmembers often need to adjust their suit sizing once they are in orbit. This adjustment could be due to microgravity effects on anthropometry and postural changes, and is necessary to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort in space. To date, the only data collected to determine the effects of microgravity on physical human changes have been during Skylab, STS-57, and a recent HRP study on seated height changes due to spinal elongation (Spinal Elongation, Master Task List [MTL] #221). The Skylab and the STS-57 studies found that there is a distinct neutral body posture (NBP) based on photographs. The still photographs showed that there is a distinguishable posture with the arms raised and the shoulder abducted; and, in addition, the knees were flexed with noticeable hip flexion and the foot

  3. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cappello


    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  4. Research on the changes of the tidal force and the air temperature in the atmosphere of Lushan (China Ms7.0 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Weiyu


    Full Text Available The cycle process of the tidal force of celestial body for Lushan M7.0 earthquake, occurred in Lushan county of Sichuan, China on April 20, 2013 was calculated. The earthquake occurred at the lowest point phase. It indicated that the type of seismogenic fault that the tide force acted on belonged to the thrust fault. According to the tidal cycle, the abnormal air temperature change was analyzed based on NCEP satellite data around the whole China before and after the earthquake. The result showed that the air temperature changed evidently with the tide force changing. In temporal, the change went through: initial air temperature rise → strength→ reaching abnormal peak→ gradually decline; in spatial, the abnormal area winded its way along the margin of the southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and went through: scattered→ conversion→ scattered procession. The procession was similar to the change procession of a rock breaking under the stress loading. This shows that the stress change of rock may cause the air temperature change in the atmosphere before and after earthquake. It indicated that the tidal force of celestial body could trigger the earthquake, when the tectonic stress reaches its critical broken point and the air temperature anomaly was proportional to the seismic tectonic stress change. It was useful to combine air temperature and tidal force in earthquake precursory.

  5. Differences in body temperature, cell viability, and HSP-70 concentrations between Pelibuey and Suffolk sheep under heat stress. (United States)

    Romero, Rosita Denny; Montero Pardo, Arnulfo; Montaldo, Hugo Horacio; Rodríguez, Ana Delia; Hernández Cerón, Joel


    Pelibuey and Suffolk sheep were compared as to their capacity to regulate body temperature under environmental hyperthermia by measuring their differences in cellular response to heat stress (HS). In a first experiment, seven Pelibuey and seven Suffolk ewes were kept in a climatic chamber for 6 h daily during 10 days (temperatures within the 18 to 39.5 °C range). As chamber temperature rose, sheep rectal temperature increased in both groups, but to a lesser extent in Pelibuey (0.3 °C) than in Suffolk sheep (0.7 °C) (P  0.05]. HS significantly increased HSP-70 average concentrations for both breeds at 43 °C. A significant effect was observed for the breed by temperature interaction (P  0.05). In conclusion, Pelibuey sheep show more effective body temperature regulation under conditions of environmental hyperthermia. Also, cell viability after HS was higher in Pelibuey than in Suffolk, an effect that could be mediated by an HSP-70-related mechanism.

  6. Effect of climate change on water temperature and attainment of water temperature criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA) (United States)

    Brown, Cheryl A.; Sharp, Darrin; Mochon Collura, T. Chris


    There is increasing evidence that our planet is warming and this warming is also resulting in rising sea levels. Estuaries which are located at the interface between land and ocean are impacted by these changes. We used CE-QUAL-W2 water quality model to predict changes in water temperature as a function of increasing air temperatures and rising sea level for the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Annual average air temperature in the Yaquina watershed is expected to increase about 0.3 °C per decade by 2040-2069. An air temperature increase of 3 °C in the Yaquina watershed is likely to result in estuarine water temperature increasing by 0.7-1.6 °C. Largest water temperature increases are expected in the upper portion of the estuary, while sea level rise may mitigate some of the warming in the lower portion of the estuary. Smallest changes in water temperature are predicted to occur in the summer, and maximum changes during the winter and spring. Increases in air temperature may result in an increase in the number of days per year that the 7-day maximum average temperature exceeds 18 °C (criterion for protection of rearing and migration of salmonids and trout) as well as other water quality concerns. In the upstream portion of the estuary, a 4 °C increase in air temperature is predicted to cause an increase of 40 days not meeting the temperature criterion, while in the lower estuary the increase will depend upon rate of sea level rise (ranging from 31 to 19 days).

  7. Diving behaviour of a reptile (Crocodylus johnstoni) in the wild: interactions with heart rate and body temperature. (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E; Read, Mark


    The differences in physical properties of air and water pose unique behavioural and physiological demands on semiaquatic animals. The aim of this study was to describe the diving behaviour of the freshwater crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni in the wild and to assess the relationships between diving, body temperature, and heart rate. Time-depth recorders, temperature-sensitive radio transmitters, and heart rate transmitters were deployed on each of six C. johnstoni (4.0-26.5 kg), and data were obtained from five animals. Crocodiles showed the greatest diving activity in the morning (0600-1200 hours) and were least active at night, remaining at the water surface. Surprisingly, activity pattern was asynchronous with thermoregulation, and activity was correlated to light rather than to body temperature. Nonetheless, crocodiles thermoregulated and showed a typical heart rate hysteresis pattern (heart rate during heating greater than heart rate during cooling) in response to heating and cooling. Additionally, dive length decreased with increasing body temperature. Maximum diving length was 119.6 min, but the greatest proportion of diving time was spent on relatively short (<45 min) and shallow (<0.4 m) dives. A bradycardia was observed during diving, although heart rate during submergence was only 12% lower than when animals were at the surface.

  8. The predicting value of postoperative body temperature on long-term survival in patients with rectal cancer. (United States)

    Yu, Huichuan; Luo, Yanxin; Peng, Hui; Kang, Liang; Huang, Meijin; Luo, Shuangling; Chen, Wenhao; Yang, Zihuan; Wang, Jianping


    This study aimed to assess the association between postoperative body temperature and prognosis in patients with rectal cancer. Five hundred and seven patients with stage I to III rectal cancers were enrolled in the current study. Basal body temperature (BBT, measured at 6 am) and maximal body temperature (MBT) on each day after surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two equal groups according to the median of BBT and MBT at each day. The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with low D0-MBT (37.4 °C). In the subset of 318 patients with T3 stage tumor and the subgroup of 458 patients without blood transfusion as well, low D0-MBT continues to be an independent predictor of DFS/OS with an adjusted HR equal to 1.48 (95 % CI 1.02-2.24, P = 0.046)/1.68 (95 % CI 1.04-2.99, P = 0.048) and 1.45 (95 % CI 1.02-2.13, P = 0.048)/1.59 (95 % CI 1.01-2.74, P = 0.049), respectively. In addition, we found that patients have higher risk of 1-year recurrence if those were exhibiting low preoperative BBT (temperature (D0-MBT rectal cancer.

  9. Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Temperatures using Record Data (United States)

    Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.


    Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of extreme climate events including record high temperatures. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) temperature observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of extreme high (low) temperatures. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying temperature distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average temperatures across the global landmass we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean temperature. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both extreme high and extreme low temperatures during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean temperature. Using daily extreme temperature observations, we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the daily minimum temperature time-series compared to the daily maximum temperature time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of extreme low temperatures between the daily minimum and daily maximum.

  10. Association between dietary protein and change in body composition among children (EYHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Heitmann, Berit L; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G;


    mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI), based on skinfold measurements. Dietary intake was estimated via 24h recall. Associations between intakes of protein as well as arginine, lysine and change in FFMI and FMI were analysed by multiple linear regressions, adjusted for social economic status...... of protein, arginine, lysine and subsequent 6-year change in body composition among 8-10-year-old children. METHODS: Data of 364 children were collected from Odense, Denmark, during 1997-1998 and 6-year later as part of the European Youth Heart Study. Body mass index among children was subdivided by fat free......, puberty stage and physical activity level. RESULTS: Among lean girls inverse associations were found between protein as well as arginine and lysine intake and change in fat mass index (beta=-1.12+/-0.56, p=0.03, beta=-1.10+/-0.53, p=0.04, beta=-1.13+/-0.51, p=0.03 respectively). Furthermore among girls...

  11. Trends and Patterns of Change in Temperature and Evaporation (United States)

    Ragno, E.; AghaKouchak, A.


    Global mean monthly temperature has increased substantially in the past decades. On the other hand, there are contradictory reports on the response of the potential evaporation to a warming climate. In this study, ground based observations of temperature, and direct measurements of pan potential evaporation are evaluated across the United States. Furthermore, empirical simulations of the potential evaporation have been evaluated against observations. The results show that empirical (e.g., Thornthwaite method) estimates of the potential evapotranspiration show trends inconsistent with the ground-based observations. In fact, while temperature data show a significant upward trend across most of the United States, ground-based evaporation data in most locations do not exhibit a statistically significant trend. Empirical methods of potential evaporation estimation, including the Thornthwaite method, show trends similar to temperature. The primary reason is that many of the empirical approaches are dominated by temperature. Currently, empirical estimates of potential evaporation are widely used for numerous applications including water stress analysis. This indicates that using empirical estimates of potential estimation for irrigation water demand estimation and also drought assessment could lead to unrealistic results.

  12. Chameleons communicate with complex colour changes during contests: different body regions convey different information (United States)

    Ligon, Russell A.; McGraw, Kevin J.


    Many animals display static coloration (e.g. of feathers or fur) that can serve as a reliable sexual or social signal, but the communication function of rapidly changing colours (as in chameleons and cephalopods) is poorly understood. We used recently developed photographic and mathematical modelling tools to examine how rapid colour changes of veiled chameleons Chamaeleo calyptratus predict aggressive behaviour during male–male competitions. Males that achieved brighter stripe coloration were more likely to approach their opponent, and those that attained brighter head coloration were more likely to win fights; speed of head colour change was also an important predictor of contest outcome. This correlative study represents the first quantification of rapid colour change using organism-specific visual models and provides evidence that the rate of colour change, in addition to maximum display coloration, can be an important component of communication. Interestingly, the body and head locations of the relevant colour signals map onto the behavioural displays given during specific contest stages, with lateral displays from a distance followed by directed, head-on approaches prior to combat, suggesting that different colour change signals may evolve to communicate different information (motivation and fighting ability, respectively). PMID:24335271

  13. Relative contributions of temperature and salinity to seasonal mixed layer density changes and horizontal density gradients


    Johnson, Gregory C.; Schmidtko, Sunke; Lyman, John M.


    Temperature and salinity both contribute to ocean density, including its seasonal cycle and spatial patterns in the mixed layer. Temperature and salinity profiles from the Argo Program allow construction and analysis of a global, monthly, mixed layer climatology. Temperature changes dominate the seasonal cycle of mixed layer density in most regions, but salinity changes are dominant in the tropical warm pools, Arctic, and Antarctic. Under the Intertropical Convergence Zone, temperature and sa...

  14. Body and Testicular Weight Changes in Adult Wistar Rats Following Oral Administration of Artesunate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-hassan m. izunya


    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects on the body and testicular weights of adult wistar rats that recieved an oral administration of normal and double normal doses of artesunate. The rats were divided into three groups (A, B and C of five rats each. A and B served as the treatment groups, while C served as the control group. Group A rats were given b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by b.w daily for next for 4 days. Group B rats were given b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by b.w daily for next 4 days, while group C rats were given only distilled water. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo state and were given w ater ad libitum. On day eight of the experiment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed. The testes w ere carefully dissected out, freed from adherent tissues and weighed to the nearest 0.001 g. The results showed no changes in body weight of rats in groups A, B and C. There was also no significant change in testicular weight of rats in group A. However a significant increase in testicular weight was observed in group C. Our results suggest that artesunate at normal and double normal doses, has no effect on body weight of rats but may be toxic to the testes at higher doses. It is uncertain however if these changes are reversible. It is recommended therefore, that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  15. Preseason changes in markers of lower body fatigue and performance in young professional rugby union players. (United States)

    Roe, Gregory A B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben


    This study investigated the changes in measures of neuromuscular fatigue and physical performance in young professional rugby union players during a preseason training period. Fourteen young (age: 19.1 ± 1.2 years) professional rugby union players participated in the study. Changes in measures of lower body neuromuscular fatigue (countermovement jump (CMJ) mean power, mean force, flight-time) and physical performance (lower body strength, 40 m sprint velocity) were assessed during an 11-week preseason period using magnitude-based inferences. CMJ mean power was likely to very likely decreased during week 2 (-8.1 ± 5.5% to -12.5 ± 6.8%), and likely to almost certainly decreased from weeks 5 to 11 (-10 ± 4.3% to -14.7 ± 6.9%), while CMJ flight-time demonstrated likely to very likely decreases during weeks 2, and weeks 4-6 (-2.41 ± 1% to -3.3 ± 1.3%), and weeks 9-10 (-1.9 ± 0.9% to -2.2 ± 1.5%). Despite this, possible improvements in lower body strength (5.8 ± 2.7%) and very likely improvements in 40 m velocity (5.5 ± 3.6%) were made. Relationships between changes in CMJ metrics and lower body strength or 40 m sprint velocity were trivial or small (neuromuscular fatigue (as measured by CMJ). The findings of this study question the usefulness of CMJ for monitoring fatigue in the context of strength and sprint velocity development. Future research is needed to ascertain the consequences of negative changes in CMJ in the context of rugby-specific activities to determine the usefulness of this test as a measure of fatigue in this population.

  16. On the change of density of states in two-body interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Bo


    We derive a general relation in two-body scattering theory that more directly relates the change of density of states (DDOS) due to interaction to the shape of the potential. The relation allows us to infer certain global properties of the DDOS from the global properties of the potential. In particular, we show that DDOS is negative at all energies and for all partial waves, for potentials that are more repulsive than $+1/r^2$ everywhere. This behavior represents a different class of global properties of DDOS from that described by the Levinson's theorem.

  17. Comparison of Apical Sealing Ability of Lateral Condensation Technique in Room and Body- Simulated Temperatures (An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhnamayan F.


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Studies reported that nearly 60% of endodontic failures have been attributed to inadequate obturation of the root canal system. Thus, complete obturation of the root canal system and proper apical seal are essential elements in the long-term success of root canal treatment.Purpose: This study aimed to compare the apical seal of lateral condensation tech-nique in the room and in body- simulated temperature.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 70 extracted, single- rooted, human premolar teeth were instrumented and divided up into four groups. All tooth’s canals were obturated by lateral condensation technique except the teeth in the positive control group. Group 1and 2, each with 30 teeth, were obturated in the room and intracanal temperature respectively. The other two groups were positive and negative control group each with 5 teeth. All groups except negative control were covered by two layers of nail polish. Then linear dye penetration was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Data was analyzed with student-t test and also Kolmogorov- Smirnov Goodness- of- Fit test to make sure of data. Results: Results showed that dye penetration in group one (obturation in room temperature was 0.6mm more than group 2 (obturation in simulated-body temperature although this was not statistically significant (p> 0.05.Conclusion: Under the condition of this invitro study, apical sealing ability was better in the body-simulated temperature than the room temperature, although it was not statistically significant.

  18. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stelmach-Mardas


    Full Text Available Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19. In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  19. Changes in body fluid compartments on re-induction to high altitude and effect of diuretics (United States)

    Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Tyagi, A. K.; Bhagat, Maj J. K.; Parshad, R.; Divekar, H. M.


    Studies were carried out in 29 healthy young adults in the Indian Army stationed in the plains and posted at an elevation of 3500 m for more than 6 months. After exposure to a low elevation in Delhi (260 m) for 3 weeks they were reinduced to a height of 3500 m. The subjects were divided into three groups, each of which was treated with either placebo or acetazolamide or spironolactone. The drug treatment was started immediately after their landing at high altitude and continued for 2 days only. Total body water, extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid, plasma volume, blood pH, PaO2, PaCO2 and blood viscosity were determined on exposure at Delhi and on re-induction to high altitude. Plasma volume was increased after the descent from high altitude and remained high for up to 21 day's study. This increased plasma volume may have some significance in the pathogenesis of pulmonary oedema. Total body water and intracellular fluid content were increased at 260 m elevation, while extracellular fluid decreased. On re-induction there was a decrease in total body water with no change in the extracellular fluid content.

  20. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults. (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner


    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  1. Distribution of temperature changes and neurovascular coupling in rat brain following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") exposure. (United States)

    Coman, Daniel; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Jiang, Lihong; Hyder, Fahmeed; Behar, Kevin L


    (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is an abused psychostimulant that produces strong monoaminergic stimulation and whole-body hyperthermia. MDMA-induced thermogenesis involves activation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs), primarily a type specific to skeletal muscle (UCP-3) and absent from the brain, although other UCP types are expressed in the brain (e.g. thalamus) and might contribute to thermogenesis. Since neuroimaging of brain temperature could provide insights into MDMA action, we measured spatial distributions of systemically administered MDMA-induced temperature changes and dynamics in rat cortex and subcortex using a novel magnetic resonance method, Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS), with an exogenous temperature-sensitive probe (thulium ion and macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (DOTMA(4-))). The MDMA-induced temperature rise was greater in the cortex than in the subcortex (1.6 ± 0.4 °C versus 1.3 ± 0.4 °C) and occurred more rapidly (2.0 ± 0.2 °C/h versus 1.5 ± 0.2 °C/h). MDMA-induced temperature changes and dynamics in the cortex and body were correlated, although the body temperature exceeded the cortex temperature before and after MDMA. Temperature, neuronal activity, and blood flow (CBF) were measured simultaneously in the cortex and subcortex (i.e. thalamus) to investigate possible differences of MDMA-induced warming across brain regions. MDMA-induced warming correlated with increases in neuronal activity and blood flow in the cortex, suggesting that the normal neurovascular response to increased neural activity was maintained. In contrast to the cortex, a biphasic relationship was seen in the subcortex (i.e. thalamus), with a decline in CBF as temperature and neural activity rose, transitioning to a rise in CBF for temperature above 37 °C, suggesting that MDMA affected CBF and neurovascular coupling differently in subcortical regions

  2. Temperature induced changes in the heterocyst glycolipid composition of N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauersachs, T.; Stal, L.J.; Grego, M.; Schwark, L.; Schwark, L.


    We investigated the effect of temperature on the heterocyst glycolipid (HG) composition of the diazotrophic heterocystous cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. strain CCY9613 and Nostoc sp. strain CCY9926 grown at 9, 12, 16, 20 and 24 degrees C. Both strains contained an overall similar composition of heterocy

  3. A prevalent polymorphism in the promoter of the UCP3 gene and its relationship to body mass index and long term body weight change in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, L T; Sørensen, Thomas; Drivsholm, T;


    Variability of the uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) promoter has been associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and altered lipid profiles. Here we tested the hypothesis that variation of the UCP3 promoter is associated with either juvenile or maturity-onset obesity or body weight change over a 26...... of 744 obese Danish men who at the draft board examinations had a body mass index (BMI) of at least 31 kg/m(2), 2) a randomly selected control group consisting of 857 draftees, 3) 258 middle-aged subjects, and 4) 409 60-yr-old subjects. The frequency of the T allele was 26.0% (95% confidence interval, 23......-old subjects. The polymorphism was not associated with increased BMI or percent body fat in these 2 groups. It is concluded that this variant does not play a major role in the development of common obesity among Danish subjects....

  4. "Ultrasound Monitoring of Temperature Change during Interstitial Laser Thermotherapy of Liver: An In Vitro Study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gorji-Ara


    Full Text Available Background/objective: In thermal tissue ablation, it is very important to control the increase in the temperature for having an efficient ablation therapy. We conducted this study to determine the efficacy of measuring pixel shift of ultrasound B-mode images as a function of change in tissue temperature. Materials and Methods: By fixing some microthermocouples in liver tissues, temperature at different points was monitored invasively in vitro during laser-induced thermotherapy. According to our results, optimum power and exposure time were determined for ultrasound temperature monitoring. Simultaneously, noninvasive temperature monitoring was performed with ultrasound B-mode images. These images were saved on computer from 25ºC to 95ºC with 10 ºC steps. The speed of sound changes with each 10°C temperature change that produce virtual shifts in the scatter positions. Using an image processing method, the pixel shift due to 10 °C temperature change was extracted by motion detection. Results: The cubic regression function between the mean pixel shifts on ultrasound B-mode images caused by the change in speed of sound, which in turn was a function of the mean change in temperature, was evaluated. When temperature increased, pixel shift occurs in ultrasound images. The maximum pixel shift was observed between 60 to 70 ºC (temperature changes (ΔT of 35–45 ºC. After 70ºC, the local pixel shift due to change in the speed of sound in liver tissue had an irregular decreasing. Pearson correlation coefficient between invasive and non-invasive measurements for 10°C temperature changes was 0.93 and the non-linear function was suitable for monitoring of temperature. Conclusion: Monitoring of changes in temperature based on pixel shifts observed in ultrasound B-mode images in interstitial laser thermotherapy of liver seems a good modality.

  5. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan


    ) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity......Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD...... within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared...

  6. Disturbances in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance after passive body overheating and after exercise in elevated ambient temperatures in athletes and untrained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Pilch

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in two series of examinations with two types of stressors (exogenous heat and the combined exogenous and endogenous heat in trained and untrained men. The exogenous stressor was provided by Finnish sauna session, whereas the combined stressor was represented by the exercise in elevated ambient temperature. The men from the two groups performed the physical exercise on a cycle ergometer with the load of 53 ± 2% maximal oxygen uptake at the temperature of 33 ± 1 °C and relative humidity of 70% until their rectal temperature rose by 1.2 °C. After a month from completion of the exercise test the subjects participated in a sauna bathing session with the temperature of 96 ± 2 °C, and relative humidity of 16 ± 5%. 15-minutes heating and 2-minute cool-down in a shower with the temperature of 20 °C was repeated until rectal temperature rose by 1.2 °C compared to the initial value. During both series of tests rectal temperature was measured at 5-minute intervals. Before both series of tests and after them body mass was measured and blood samples were taken for biochemical tests. Serum total protein, serum concentration of lipid peroxidation products and serum antioxidants were determined. The athletes were characterized by higher level of antioxidant status and lower concentration of lipid peroxidation products. Physical exercise at elevated ambient temperature caused lower changes in oxidative stress indices compared to sauna bathing. Sauna induced a shift in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance towards oxidation, which was observed less intensively in the athletes compared to the untrained men. This leads to the conclusion that physical exercise increases tolerance to elevated ambient temperature and oxidative stress.

  7. Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhaes E.N.G.


    Full Text Available Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia. The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the histology of carotid bodies collected from patients who died of ARDS. A morphometric study of carotid bodies collected during routine autopsies was carried out on three groups: patients that died of non-respiratory diseases (controls, N = 8, patients that presented COPD and died of its complications or associated diseases (N = 7, and patients that died of ARDS (N = 7. Morphometric measurements of the volume fraction of clusters of chief cells were performed in five fields on each slide at 40X magnification. The numerical proportion of the four main histological cell types (light, dark, progenitor and sustentacular cells was determined analyzing 10 fields on each slide at 400X magnification. The proportion of dark cells was 0.22 in ARDS patients, 0.12 in controls (P<0.001, and 0.08 in the COPD group. The proportion of light cells was 0.33 (ARDS, 0.44 (controls (P<0.001, and 0.36 (COPD. These findings suggest that chronic and acute hypoxia have different effects on the histology of glomic tissue.

  8. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh


    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes...... (∆BW) and waist circumference (∆WC). METHODS: A total of 7,569 participants' from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score...... in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight...

  9. Effect of shortened sleep on energy expenditure, core body temperature, and appetite: a human randomised crossover trial


    Masanobu Hibi; Chie Kubota; Tomohito Mizuno; Sayaka Aritake; Yuki Mitsui; Mitsuhiro Katashima; Sunao Uchida


    The effects of sleep restriction on energy metabolism and appetite remain controversial. We examined the effects of shortened sleep duration on energy metabolism, core body temperature (CBT), and appetite profiles. Nine healthy men were evaluated in a randomised crossover study under two conditions: a 3.5-h sleep duration and a 7-h sleep duration for three consecutive nights followed by one 7-h recovery sleep night. The subjects’ energy expenditure (EE), substrate utilisation, and CBT were co...

  10. Mathematical model of non-stationary temperature distribution in the metal body produced by induction heating process (United States)

    Rak, Josef


    An induction heating problem can be described by a parabolic differential equation. For this equation, specific Joule looses must be computed. It can be done by solving the Fredholm Integral Equation of the second kind for the eddy current of density. When we use the Nyström method with the singularity subtraction, the computation time is rapidly reduced. This paper shows the method for finding non-stationary temperature distribution in the metal body with illustrative examples.

  11. Ontogenetic change of body color patterns in laboratory-raised juveniles of six terrestrial hermit crab species. (United States)

    Hamasaki, Katsuyuki; Tsuru, Takuma; Sanda, Tetsuya; Fujikawa, Shunsuke; Dan, Shigeki; Kitada, Shuichi


    We examined the ontogenetic change of body color patterns in the laboratory-raised juveniles of six terrestrial hermit crab species, including Birgus latro, Coenobita brevimanus, C. cavipes, C. purpureus, C. rugosus, and C. violascens, which commonly occur in the southern islands, Japan. The body color patterns of coenobitid juveniles were species-specific. The diagnostic features of body color patterns enable identification of juveniles of coenobitid crab species in the wild, thereby helping to understand the precise habitats of each coenobitid species.

  12. Body posture changes in women with migraine with or without temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. Ferreira


    Full Text Available Background: Migraine and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs are reported to be associated. However, there are no reports on the association among migraines, TMDs and changes in body posture. Objectives : To assess changes in body posture in women suffering migraines with or without TMD compared with a control group. Method: Sixty-six women with a mean age of 18 to 45 years participated in this study. The groups were composed of 22 volunteers with migraine and TMD (MTMD, 22 volunteers with migraines without TMD (MG and 22 women in the control group (CG. Static posture was assessed by photogrammetry, and 19 angles were measured. Results: Postural asymmetry was observed in the face for 4 angles measured on the frontal plane in the MG group and for 4 angles of the trunk in the MG and MTMD groups with respect to CG. However, for comparisons between MTMD and CG, clinical relevance was identified for two angles of the sagittal plane (Cervical and Lumbar Lordosis, Effect Size - ES - moderate: 0.53 and 0.60. For comparisons between the MG and CG, the clinical relevance/potential was verified for three angles with moderate ES (ES>0.42. The clinical relevance when comparing MTMD and CG was identified for four angles of facial symmetry head inclination (ES>0.54 and for two angles between MG and CG (ES>0.48. Conclusion : The results demonstrated the presence of postural changes compared with a control group in women with migraines with or without TMD, and there were similar clinically relevant postural changes among the patients with migraines with and without TMD.

  13. Design, Development and Implementation of the IR Signalling Techniques for Monitoring Ambient and Body Temperature in WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiya Baqai


    Full Text Available Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks. This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes, TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags

  14. Theoretical modeling of time-dependent skin temperature and heat losses during whole-body cryotherapy: A pilot study. (United States)

    Polidori, G; Marreiro, A; Pron, H; Lestriez, P; Boyer, F C; Quinart, H; Tourbah, A; Taïar, R


    This article establishes the basics of a theoretical model for the constitutive law that describes the skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses undergone by a subject during a session of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). This study focuses on the few minutes during which the human body is subjected to a thermal shock. The relationship between skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses during this period is still unknown and have not yet been studied in the context of the whole human body. The analytical approach here is based on the hypothesis that the skin thermal shock during a WBC session can be thermally modelled by the sum of both radiative and free convective heat transfer functions. The validation of this scientific approach and the derivation of temporal evolution thermal laws, both on skin temperature and dissipated thermal power during the thermal shock open many avenues of large scale studies with the aim of proposing individualized cryotherapy protocols as well as protocols intended for target populations. Furthermore, this study shows quantitatively the substantial imbalance between human metabolism and thermolysis during WBC, the explanation of which remains an open question.

  15. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming. (United States)

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa


    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  16. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Sierra


    Full Text Available Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feedbacks related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature variability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature. Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long-term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen the release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. These effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  17. Teaching adolescents about changing bodies: Randomized controlled trial of an Internet puberty education and body dissatisfaction prevention program. (United States)

    Cousineau, Tara M; Franko, Debra L; Trant, Meredith; Rancourt, Diana; Ainscough, Jessica; Chaudhuri, Anamika; Brevard, Julie


    This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based prevention program, Trouble on the Tightrope: In Search of Skateboard Sam, on pubertal knowledge, body esteem, and self-esteem. One hundred and ninety participants (mean age 11.6 years) were randomized to either an intervention or attention placebo control condition and were assessed at baseline, after three Internet-based sessions, and at 3-month follow-up. Although the primary hypotheses were not supported, exploratory moderator analyses indicated that the intervention was beneficial for select students. Specifically, pubertal status moderated the effects on weight-related body esteem and several domains of self-esteem, resulting in positive effects for participants in the intervention group who had begun puberty. Gender differences were found on self-esteem subscales, indicating more robust effects for girls than boys. Tailored Internet programs based on personal characteristics such as gender and pubertal status may be a fruitful area for future research with adolescents.

  18. Optical glass: refractive index change with wavelength and temperature (United States)

    Englert, Marion; Hartmann, Peter; Reichel, Steffen


    With the catalog of 1992 SCHOTT introduced two formulae each with six parameters for a better representation of the refractive index of optical glasses. The Sellmeier-equation improved the characterization of dispersion at room temperature and the Hoffmann equation that of its temperature dependence. Better representation had been expected because both formulae were derived from general dispersion theory. The original publication of Hoffmann et al. from 1992 contains first results on the accuracy of the fits. The extended use of the formulae has led to a collection of data allowing reviewing the adequacy of the Sellmeier-equation approach on a much broader basis. We compare fitted refractive index values with measured values for all wavelengths used at our precision refractive index goniometer. Data sets are available for specific melts of the four representative glass types N-BK7, N-FK5, LF5 and IRG2. For some materials, the optical glass N-LAF21, the IR glass IRG2 and the crystal CaF2, several sets of data for the temperature dependence of the refractive index are available thus giving evidence for the variation of these properties among melts of the same material.

  19. Impact of Environmental Changes and Global Warming on Temperature in Pakistan


    Ishtiaq Hassan; Abdul Razzaq Ghumman; Hashim Nisar Hashmi


    Environmental changes and global warming have direct impact on human life. Estimation of these changes in various parameters of hydrologic cycle is necessary for future planning and development of a country. In this paper the impact of environmental changes and global warming on temperatures of Pakistan has been studied. The temperature changes in Pakistan have been extracted from simulations made using EdGCM model developed at Columbia University. Simulation study to the end o...

  20. Measurement of Temperature Change in Nonlinear Optical Materials by Using the Z-Scan Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Shu-Guang; YANG Jun-Yi; SHUI Min; YI Chuan-Xiang; LI Zhong-Guo; SONG Ying-Lin


    @@ Spatial and temporal changes of temperature in a novel polymer are investigated by using the Z-scan technique under ns laser pulse excitation.According to the open aperture Z-scan experimental results, the nonlinear absorption coefficient of the polymer is determined.By solving the diffusion equation of heat conduction induced by optical absorption, the spatial and temporal changes in temperature are obtained.This change in temperature drives the photo-acoustic and electromagnetic wave propagating in the polymer and induces the change in refractive index, which serves as a negative lens, and the closed aperture Z-scan shows a peak and valley profile.Based on the numerical calculation, we achieve a good fit to the closed-aperture Z-scan curve with an optimized nonlinear refractive index.This consistency attests the existence of temperature change in the solution, and the Z-scan technique is suitable to investigate this change in temperature.

  1. The body-size structure of macrobenthos changes predictably along gradients of hydrodynamic stress and organic enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donadi, Serena; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Lettmann, Karsten Alexander; Hodapp, Dorothee; Wolff, Joerg-Olaf; Hillebrand, Helmut


    Body size is related to an extensive number of species traits and ecological processes and has therefore been suggested as an effective metric to assess community changes and ecosystem's state. However, the applicability of body size as an ecological indicator in benthic environments has been hinder

  2. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz


    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  3. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band. (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Lung; Zheng, Gou-Tsun


    This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm². The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) core is less than 40 µW, and the output is -3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C.

  4. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Lung Yang


    Full Text Available This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm2. The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO core is less than 40 µW, and the output is −3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C.

  5. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice. (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan


    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three parameters when placed under constant conditions (of either light or darkness). Furthermore, although 24-h rhythms for three parameters are retained in VPAC2-deficient mice during the LD cycle, the temperature rhythm displays markedly altered time course and profile, rising earlier and peaking ∼4-6 h prior to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral parameters, especially when animals have altered circadian phenotype.

  6. Hot Rolled Strip Re-reddening Temperature Changing Law during Ultra-fast Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-yun JIANG; Chun-jiang ZHAO; Jian-hui SHI; Guo YUAN; Xue-qiang WANG; Qing-xue HUANG


    Temperature deviation between surface and the center of hot rolled strip is formed during ultra-fast cooling (UFC). Surface temperature would rise when temperature deviation goes up to an extent, and strip re-reddening phenomenon will appear. Strip re-reddening affects the stability of strip microstructure, property and temperature control precision. Thus, it is necessary to conduct research on re-reddening temperature changing law to improve strip property and temperature control precision. Strip temperature trends for various strip thicknesses and ultra-fast cooling rates were obtained by numerical calculation method. Re-reddening temperature, temperature deviation between surface and center, and boundary layer position changing law were obtained. By comparison, some conclusions were obtained: UFC re-reddening temperature and laminar cooling (LC) re-reddening temperature were linear to ultra-fast cooling rate respectively. Ultra-fast cooling rate affected UFC re-reddening temperature greatly, but it had little effect on LC re-reddening temperature. Equations which were used to calculate UFC re-reddening temperature, LC re-reddening temperature and maximum temperature deviation were obtained. The position of boundary layer stayed in 1/4 strip thickness.

  7. Analysis of land use changes near large water bodies in Ukraine using GIS. (United States)

    Bogdanets, Vyacheslav; Vlaev, Anatoliy


    Analysis of land use and land cover changes in Ukraine were evaluated with special attention given to the interaction of land and water resources. The rational fresh water management in agriculture under future climate change conditions is of great importance. The hydrological regime of a river has huge impact on the environment of the surrounding area. Creating reservoirs, changes the landscape of river valleys and lake basins. Changes in the hydrological regime of the river and the process taking place in the coastal zone are reflected in land cover, wildlife and micro-climatic conditions. In the area closer to the shore line of the reservoir, there is greater amplitude of fluctuations in the level of ground water due to low rate of filtration behind fluctuations in the level of the reservoir. The interaction of water reservoirs with the environment, especially with the nature of the catchment area is substantially different from the natural water bodies. Analysis was done using GIS and remotely sensed data of land use near large water reservoirs and processed statistically. The ratio of arable lands and forested territories and future analysis of land use has been discussed.

  8. Mind-body response and neurophysiological changes during stress and meditation: central role of homeostasis. (United States)

    Jerath, R; Barnes, V A; Crawford, M W


    Stress profoundly impacts quality of life and may lead to various diseases and conditions. Understanding the underlying physiological and neurological processes that take place during stress and meditation techniques may be critical for effectively treating stress-related diseases. The article examines a hypothetical physiological homeostatic response that compares and contrasts changes in central and peripheral oscillations during stress and meditation, and relates these to changes in the autonomic system and neurological activity. The authors discuss how cardiorespiratory synchronization, which occurs during the parasympathetic response and meditation, influences and modulates activity and oscillations of the brain and autonomic nervous system. Evidence is presented on how synchronization of cardiac and respiratory rates during meditation may lead to a homeostatic increase in cellular membrane potentials in neurons and other cells throughout the body. These potential membrane changes may underlie the reduced activity in the amygdala, and other cortical areas during meditation, and research examining these changes may foster better understanding of the restorative properties and health benefits of meditation.

  9. Shifts in the climate space of temperate cyprinid fishes due to climate change are coupled with altered body sizes and growth rates. (United States)

    Ruiz-Navarro, Ana; Gillingham, Phillipa K; Britton, J Robert


    Predictions of species responses to climate change often focus on distribution shifts, although responses can also include shifts in body sizes and population demographics. Here, shifts in the distributional ranges ('climate space'), body sizes (as maximum theoretical body sizes, L∞) and growth rates (as rate at which L∞ is reached, K) were predicted for five fishes of the Cyprinidae family in a temperate region over eight climate change projections. Great Britain was the model area, and the model species were Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus leuciscus, Squalius cephalus, Gobio gobio and Abramis brama. Ensemble models predicted that the species' climate spaces would shift in all modelled projections, with the most drastic changes occurring under high emissions; all range centroids shifted in a north-westerly direction. Predicted climate space expanded for R. rutilus and A. brama, contracted for S. cephalus, and for L. leuciscus and G. gobio, expanded under low-emission scenarios but contracted under high emissions, suggesting the presence of some climate-distribution thresholds. For R. rutilus, A. brama, S. cephalus and G. gobio, shifts in their climate space were coupled with predicted shifts to significantly smaller maximum body sizes and/or faster growth rates, aligning strongly to aspects of temperature-body size theory. These predicted shifts in L∞ and K had considerable consequences for size-at-age per species, suggesting substantial alterations in population age structures and abundances. Thus, when predicting climate change outcomes for species, outputs that couple shifts in climate space with altered body sizes and growth rates provide considerable insights into the population and community consequences, especially for species that cannot easily track their thermal niches.

  10. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon


    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days),

  11. Observed Abrupt Changes in Minimum and Maximum Temperatures in Jordan in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M.  samdi


    Full Text Available This study examines changes in annual and seasonal mean (minimum and maximum temperatures variations in Jordan during the 20th century. The analyses focus on the time series records at the Amman Airport Meteorological (AAM station. The occurrence of abrupt changes and trends were examined using cumulative sum charts (CUSUM and bootstrapping and the Mann-Kendall rank test. Statistically significant abrupt changes and trends have been detected. Major change points in the mean minimum (night-time and mean maximum (day-time temperatures occurred in 1957 and 1967, respectively. A minor change point in the annual mean maximum temperature also occurred in 1954, which is essential agreement with the detected change in minimum temperature. The analysis showed a significant warming trend after the years 1957 and 1967 for the minimum and maximum temperatures, respectively. The analysis of maximum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1967 for the summer season with a rate of temperature increase of 0.038°C/year. The analysis of minimum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1957 for all seasons. Temperature and rainfall data from other stations in the country have been considered and showed similar changes.

  12. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh


    Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity.......Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity....

  13. Interferometer for Measuring Fast Changes of Refractive Index and Temperature in Transparent Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Hussmann, E. K.; McLaughlin, W. L.


    , and refractive index changes of the order of 10−7 can be measured, corresponding to a temperature change of ∼10−3  °C and an absorbed dose in water of ∼350 rad. The interferometer can be used as either a real‐time or integrating radiation dosimeter, if the temperature coefficient of the refractive index (dn...

  14. Climate change, global warming and coral reefs: modelling the effects of temperature. (United States)

    Crabbe, M James C


    Climate change and global warming have severe consequences for the survival of scleractinian (reef-building) corals and their associated ecosystems. This review summarizes recent literature on the influence of temperature on coral growth, coral bleaching, and modelling the effects of high temperature on corals. Satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) and coral bleaching information available on the internet is an important tool in monitoring and modelling coral responses to temperature. Within the narrow temperature range for coral growth, corals can respond to rate of temperature change as well as to temperature per se. We need to continue to develop models of how non-steady-state processes such as global warming and climate change will affect coral reefs.

  15. Human perception of short and long time intervals: its correlation with body temperature and the duration of wake time. (United States)

    Aschoff, J


    Time estimation was studied in seven human subjects during prolonged sojourn is isolation from time cues. They wore rectal temperature probes throughout the experiments, and during wakefulness recorded each time they thought one hour had passed. At the end of each of these subjective hours they produced a subjective 5 or 10 sec interval. The produced intervals on the 1-h task were not related to body temperature but were correlated with and proportional to the duration of waketime in all subjects. The produced 5 and 10 sec intervals were in all subjects negatively correlated with rectal temperature, but were not associated with wake time. Brief and long time intervals are subjectively experienced via different mechanisms.

  16. Fluid Shifts: Otoacoustical Emission Changes in Response to Posture and Lower Body Negative Pressure (United States)

    Melgoza, R.; Kemp, D.; Ebert, D.; Danielson, R.; Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.


    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the NASA Fluid Shifts Study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Due to the invasive nature of direct measures of ICP, a noninvasive technique of monitoring ICP is desired for use during spaceflight. The phase angle and amplitude of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been shown to be sensitive to posture change and ICP (1, 2), therefore use of OAEs is an attractive option. OAEs are low-level sounds produced by the sensory cells of the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation. These sounds travel peripherally from the cochlea, through the oval window, to the ear canal where they can be recorded. OAE transmission is sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the oval window, occurring as a result of changes in cochlear pressure. Increased stiffness of the oval window largely affects the transmission of sound from the cochlea at frequencies between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. OAEs can be self-recorded in the laboratory or on the ISS using a handheld device. Our primary objectives regarding OAE measures in this experiment were to 1) validate this method during preflight testing of each crewmember (while sitting, supine and in head-down tilt position), and 2) determine if OAE measures (and presumably ICP) are responsive to lower body negative pressure and to spaceflight. METHODS: Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded preflight using the Otoport Advance OAE system (Otodynamics Ltd., Hatfield, UK). Data were collected in four conditions (seated

  17. Effect of Temperature Change on Geometric Structure of Isolated Mixing Regions in Stirred Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hanizah Shahirudin


    Full Text Available The present work experimentally investigated the effect of temperature change on the geometric structure of isolated mixing regions (IMRs in a stirred vessel by the decolorization of fluorescent green dye by acid-base neutralization. A four-bladed Rushton turbine was installed in an unbaffled stirred vessel filled with glycerin as a working fluid. The temperature of working fluid was changed in a stepwise manner from 30°C to a certain fixed value by changing the temperature of the water jacket that the vessel was equipped with. The step temperature change can dramatically reduce the elimination time of IMRs, as compared with a steady temperature operation. During the transient process from an initial state to disappearance of IMR, the IMR showed interesting three-dimensional geometrical changes, that are, simple torus with single filament, simple torus without filaments, a combination of crescent shape and circular tori, and doubly entangled torus.

  18. High temperature acclimation of C4 photosynthesis is linked to changes in photosynthetic biochemistry. (United States)

    Dwyer, Simon A; Ghannoum, Oula; Nicotra, Adrienne; von Caemmerer, Susanne


    With average global temperatures predicted to increase over the next century, it is important to understand the extent and mechanisms of C4 photosynthetic acclimation to modest increases in growth temperature. To this end, we compared the photosynthetic responses of two C4 grasses (Panicum coloratum and Cenchrus ciliaris) and one C4 dicot (Flaveria bidentis) to growth at moderate (25/20 degrees C, day/night) or high (35/30 degrees C, day/night) temperatures. In all three C4 species, CO2 assimilation rates (A) underwent significant thermal acclimation, such that when compared at growth temperatures, A increased less than what would be expected given the strong response of A to short-term changes in leaf temperature. Thermal photosynthetic acclimation was further manifested by an increase in the temperature optima of A, and a decrease in leaf nitrogen content and leaf mass per area in the high- relative to the moderate-temperature-grown plants. Reduced photosynthetic capacity at the higher growth temperature was underpinned by selective changes in photosynthetic components. Plants grown at the higher temperature had lower amounts of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and cytochrome f and activity of carbonic anhydrase. The activities of photosystem II (PSII) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase were not affected by growth temperature. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of F. bidentis showed a corresponding decrease in the quantum yield of PSII (phi(PSII)) and an increase in non-photochemical quenching (phi(NPQ)). It is concluded that through these biochemical changes, C4 plants maintain the balance between the various photosynthetic components at each growth temperature, despite the differing temperature dependence of each process. As such, at higher temperatures photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency increases more than A. Our results suggest C4 plants will show only modest changes in photosynthetic rates in response to changes in growth temperature

  19. Temperature change and its effect factors in the Yangtze Delta, China (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Tang, Xu; Cui, Linli; Gao, Zhiqiang


    Based on the meteorological data, land use date from TM images and social statistical data, the evidences of regional temperature change with the elements of mean annual temperature, mean annual maximum and minimum temperature, and extreme high and low <