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Sample records for body temperature changes

  1. Body temperature change characteristics of Lake Michigan fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Thommes, M.M.; Beitinger, T.L.

    1974-01-01

    Body temperature change rate experiments were conducted on alewife, brown trout, rainbow trout, brook trout, and carp collected from the discharge flumes and inshore areas near the Point Beach Nuclear Plant. Test fish were exposed to immediate water temperature changes of up to 10.6 0 C by transfer between ambient and discharge water holding tanks. Results showed that the temperature change rate was related to fish size, species, and direction of change, suggesting that rapid temperature changes would have a more pronounced effect on smaller fish

  2. Nasal reaction to changes in whole body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, G R; Pedersen, O F; Hilberg, O; Nielsen, B

    1993-11-01

    The changes in nasal patency following a 1.5 degrees C decrease or increase in whole body temperature were measured in 8 healthy young males, during and after 30 min of immersion in a 15 degrees C cold or a 40 degrees C warm bath, breathing air at the same temperature, in a cross-over experimental design. The nasal reactions were traced by consecutive measurements of changes in nasal cavity volumes by acoustic rhinometry. Swelling of the mucosa during cooling and an almost maximal shrinkage of the mucosa during heating were indicated by respectively a decrease and an increase in nasal cavity volumes. The reactions were determined predominantly by the whole body thermal balance, but were also influenced by the temperature of the inhaled air, either enhanced, reduced or temporarily reversed. The greatest change occurred in the nasal cavity, left or right, which differed most from the final state at the beginning of exposure due to the actual state of nasal cycle.

  3. Estimation of temperature change in human body using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikawa, Yoshio; Nakamura, Suguru

    2016-01-01

    In the field of traditional oriental medicine, two types of treatment style, which are an acupuncture treatment and a moxibustion treatment have been performed. These treatments are used and effected by doctor or acupuncturist in their clinic or hospital and are widely spread. In spite of such a general treatment, it is not deeply discussed about mechanism of heat transfer modality and about temperature distribution in the treatment of moxibustion. Also, it is not discussed about temperature distribution deep inside human tissue during acupuncture treatment. It comes from the difficulty of noninvasive measurement of temperature deep inside human body. In this study, a temperature distribution for acupuncture and moxibustion treatment is measured and analyzed using thermograph and MRI by measuring the phase of longitudinal relaxation time of protons. The experimental results of measured temperature distribution under the human legs have been demonstrated. The result of temperature analysis in the human body is also reported. (author)

  4. Decreases in beetle body size linked to climate change and warming temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Michelle; Kaur, Katrina M; Soleimani Pari, Sina; Sarai, Karnjit; Chan, Denessa; Yao, Christine H; Porto, Paula; Toor, Anmol; Toor, Harpawantaj S; Fograscher, Katrina

    2018-05-01

    Body size is a fundamental ecological trait and is correlated with population dynamics, community structure and function, and ecosystem fluxes. Laboratory data from broad taxonomic groups suggest that a widespread response to a warming world may be an overall decrease in organism body size. However, given the myriad of biotic and abiotic factors that can also influence organism body size in the wild, it is unclear whether results from these laboratory assays hold in nature. Here we use datasets spanning 30 to 100 years to examine whether the body size of wild-caught beetles has changed over time, whether body size changes are correlated with increased temperatures, and we frame these results using predictions derived from a quantitative review of laboratory responses of 22 beetle species to temperature. We found that 95% of laboratory-reared beetles decreased in size with increased rearing temperature, with larger-bodied species shrinking disproportionately more than smaller-bodied beetles. In addition, the museum datasets revealed that larger-bodied beetle species have decreased in size over time, that mean beetle body size explains much of the interspecific variation in beetle responses to temperature, and that long-term beetle size changes are explained by increases in autumn temperature and decreases in spring temperature in this region. Our data demonstrate that the relationship between body size and temperature of wild-caught beetles matches relatively well with results from laboratory studies, and that variation in this relationship is largely explained by interspecific variation in mean beetle body size. This long-term beetle dataset is one of the most comprehensive arthropod body size datasets compiled to date, it improves predictions regarding the shrinking of organisms with global climate change, and together with the meta-analysis data, call for new hypotheses to explain why larger-bodied organisms may be more sensitive to temperature. © 2018 The

  5. Body temperature change and outcomes in patients undergoing long-distance air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mikio; Aso, Shotaro; Yasunaga, Hideo; Shirokawa, Masamitsu; Nakano, Tomotsugu; Miyakuni, Yasuhiko; Goto, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro

    2018-04-30

    Short-distance air medical transport for adult emergency patients does not significantly affect patients' body temperature and outcomes. This study aimed to examine the influence of long-distance air medical transport on patients' body temperatures and the relationship between body temperature change and mortality. We retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients transferred via helicopter or plane from isolated islands to an emergency medical center in Tokyo, Japan between April 2010 and December 2016. Patients' average body temperature was compared before and after air transport using a paired t-test, and corrections between body temperature change and flight duration were calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Multivariable logistic regression models were then used to examine the association between body temperature change and in-hospital mortality. Of 1253 patients, the median age was 72 years (interquartile range, 60-82 years) and median flight duration was 71 min (interquartile range, 54-93 min). In-hospital mortality was 8.5%, and average body temperature was significantly different before and after air transport (36.7 °C versus 36.3 °C; difference: -0.36 °C; 95% confidence interval, -0.30 to -0.42; p 38.0 °C) or normothermia (36.0-37.9 °C) before air transport and hypothermia after air transport (odds ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.63; p = 0.009), and (ii) winter season (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-4.27; p = 0.030). Physicians should consider body temperature change during long-distance air transport in patients with not only hypothermia but also normothermia or hyperthermia before air transport, especially in winter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deeply torpid bats can change position without elevation of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonička, Tomáš; Bandouchova, Hana; Berková, Hana; Blažek, Ján; Lučan, Radek; Horáček, Ivan; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Řehák, Zdeněk; Zukal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Because body temperature is tightly coupled to physiological function, hibernating animals entering deep torpor are typically immobile. We analysed thermal behaviour and locomotory activity of hibernating greater mouse-eared bats Myotis myotis and found two types of movement behaviour related to body temperature, i.e. movement at high fur temperature and at low fur temperatures (Tflow; body temperature. Distance travelled, flight duration and speed of locomotion during Tflow events was lower than in high fur temperature events. Such behaviour could allow bats to save energy long-term and prolong torpor bouts. Tflow movement in torpid bats significantly changes our understanding of basic hibernation principles and we strongly recommend further studies on the subject. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  8. Investigation of Factors Affecting Body Temperature Changes During Routine Clinical Head Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Seong

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulsed radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields, required to produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals from tissue during the MRI procedure have been shown to heat tissues. Objectives To investigate the relationship between body temperature rise and the RF power deposited during routine clinical MRI procedures, and to determine the correlation between this effect and the body’s physiological response. Patients and Methods We investigated 69 patients from the Korean national cancer center to identify the main factors that contribute to an increase in body temperature (external factors and the body’s response) during a clinical brain MRI. A routine protocol sequence of MRI scans (1.5 T and 3.0 T) was performed. The patient’s tympanic temperature was recorded before and immediately after the MRI procedure and compared with changes in variables related to the body’s physiological response to heat. Results Our investigation of the physiological response to RF heating indicated a link between increasing age and body temperature. A higher increase in body temperature was observed in older patients after a 3.0-T MRI (r = 0.07, P = 0.29 for 1.5-T MRI; r = 0.45, P = 0.002 for 3.0-T MRI). The relationship between age and body heat was related to the heart rate (HR) and changes in HR during the MRI procedure; a higher RF power combined with a reduction in HR resulted in an increase in body temperature. Conclusion A higher magnetic field strength and a decrease in the HR resulted in an increase in body temperature during the MRI procedure. PMID:27895872

  9. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis.

  10. Deep-body temperature changes in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, J.; Platt, W. T.; Holland, V. B.

    1971-01-01

    Deep-body temperature was monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry in unrestrained rats before, during, and after exposure to prolonged and almost continuous centrifugation. Rats subjected to centrifugation for the first time at various G loads ranging up to 2.5 G show a rapid and significant fall in temperature which is sustained below normal levels for periods as long as 3 days. The magnitude of the temperature fall and the recovery time were generally proportional to the G load imposed. The initial fall and recovery of body temperature closely parallels the decrease in food consumption and to a lesser degree the decrease in body mass experienced by centrifuged rats. After exposure to 2 weeks of centrifugation, rats show either no change or only a small transient increase in temperature when decelerated to a lower G level or when returned to normal gravity. Rats repeatedly exposed to centrifugation consistently showed a smaller temperature response compared to the initial exposure. Implant temperature biotelemetry has been found to be a sensitive, reliable, and extremely useful technique for assessing the initial stress of centrifugation and in monitoring the time course of recovery and acclimation of rats to increase as well as*decrease G.

  11. Body temperature norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal body temperature; Temperature - normal ... Morrison SF. Regulation of body temperature. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 59. Sajadi MM, Mackowiak ...

  12. Stress-induced changes in circadian rhythms of body temperature and activity in rats are not caused by pacemaker changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; vandenHoofdakker, RH; Koolhaas, JM; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has shown that social stress in rats (i.e., defeat by an aggressive male conspecific) causes a variety of behavioral and physiological changes including alterations in the daily rhythms of body temperature and activity. To study the role of the circadian pacemaker in these

  13. Body temperature change in live and dead gizzard shad, Dorosoma Cepedianum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitinger, T. L.; Thommes, M. M.; Spigarelli, S. A.; Rowland, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature change kinetics were determined for a sample of 22 gizzard shad, ranging in weight from 13.2 to 467.5 grams. Tests consisted of monitoring the intestinal temperatures of shad transferred between two well aerated water baths held at 9.2 +- 0.13 C (mean and standard error) and 18.7 +- 0.08 C. None of the 22 live shad subjected to the +- ..delta..T of 9.5 C died during exposure. The similarity of double logarithmic regressions of body weight and half-time (Table 1) indicate that neither the direction of exposure nor the state of the test fish greatly influenced temperature change kinetics.

  14. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  15. A study on changes in body surface temperature and thermal effect according to ultrasound mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Soo [Dept. of Radiology, University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Recently, as the number of high-risk pregnancies increases, the use of new techniques such as Doppler, which have higher acoustic power than in the past, has been increasingly used in prenatal diagnosis and guidelines have been set up by various organizations to prevent excessive exposure. Therefore, in this study, we tried to investigate the temperature change of the body surface for each test mode according to the long time ultrasound examination and to examine the exposure time which is not influenced by the thermal effect. B mode, C mode, and PD mode according to time, and the temperature difference between exposed and unexposed sites were compared. As a result, the B mode showed a significant difference in the temperature change from 10 minutes, 50 minutes after exposed, 20 minutes from the C mode, and 30 minutes from the PD mode (p<0.01). In all three modes, the temperature difference was different(p<0.000), and PD mode was the most sensitive to temperature change. Also, it was found that the temperature rise time was shortened with the increase of the ultrasonic exposure time. Therefore, it is recommended that ultrasonography to observe the embryo or fetus should be used only for diagnostic purposes, avoiding excessive test time.

  16. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  17. Various anti-motion sickness drugs and core body temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Bob; Nakashima, Ann M; Hofer, Kevin D

    2011-04-01

    Blood flow changes and inactivity associated with motion sickness appear to exacerbate the rate of core temperature decrease during subsequent body cooling. We investigated the effects of various classes of anti-motion sickness drugs on core temperature changes. There were 12 healthy male and female subjects (20-35 yr old) who were given selected classes of anti-motion sickness drugs prior to vestibular Coriolis cross coupling induced by graded yaw rotation and periodic pitch-forward head movements in the sagittal plane. All subjects were then immersed in water at 18 degrees C for a maximum of 90 min or until their core temperature reached 35 degrees C. Double-blind randomized trials were administered, including a placebo, a non-immersion control with no drug, and six anti-motion sickness drugs: meclizine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine, promethazine + dexamphetamine, promethazine + caffeine, and scopolamine + dexamphetamine. A 7-d washout period was observed between trials. Core temperature and the severity of sickness were monitored throughout each trial. A repeated measures design was performed on the severity of sickness and core temperature changes prior to motion provocation, immediately after the motion sickness end point, and throughout the period of cold-water immersion. The most effective anti-motion sickness drugs, promethazine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.65 +/- 0.17) and scopolamine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.79 +/- 0.17), significantly attenuated the decrease in core temperature. The effect of this attenuation was lower in less effective drugs. Our results suggest that the two most effective anti-motion sickness drugs are also the most effective in attenuating the rate of core temperature decrease.

  18. The effect of lower body cooling on the changes in three core temperature indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, F A; Cahill, F; Handrigan, G; DuCharme, M B; Cheung, S S

    2011-01-01

    Rectal (T re ), ear canal (T ear ) and esophageal (T es ) temperatures have been used in the literature as core temperature indices in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate if localized lower body cooling would have a different effect on each of these measurements. We hypothesized that prolonged lower body surface cooling will result in a localized cooling effect for the rectal temperature not reflected in the other core measurement sites. Twelve participants (mean ± SD; 26.8 ± 6.0 years; 82.6 ± 13.9 kg; 179 ± 10 cm, BSA = 2.00 ± 0.21 m 2 ) attended one experimental session consisting of sitting on a rubberized raft floor surface suspended in 5 °C water in a thermoneutral air environment (∼21.5 ± 0.5 °C). Experimental conditions were (a) a baseline phase during which participants were seated for 15 min in an upright position on an insulated pad (1.408 K . m 2 . W −1 ); (b) a cooling phase during which participants were exposed to the cooling surface for 2 h, and (c) an insulation phase during which the baseline condition was repeated for 1 h. Temperature data were collected at 1 Hz, reduced to 1 min averages, and transformed from absolute values to a change in temperature from baseline (15 min average). Metabolic data were collected breath-by-breath and integrated over the same temperature epoch. Within the baseline phase no significant change was found between the three indices of core temperature. By the end of the cooling phase, T re was significantly lower (Δ = −1.0 ± 0.4 °C) from baseline values than from T ear (Δ = −0.3 ± 0.3 °C) and T es (Δ = −0.1 ± 0.3 °C). T re continued to decrease during the insulation phase from Δ −1.0 ± 0.4 °C to as low as Δ −1.4 ± 0.5 °C. By the end of the insulation phase T re had slightly risen back to Δ −1.3 ± 0.4 °C but remained significantly different from baseline values and from the other two core measures. Metabolic data showed no variation throughout the experiment. In

  19. Diet-independent remodeling of cellular membranes precedes seasonally changing body temperature in a hibernator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Arnold

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have a multitude of health effects. Their incorporation into membrane phospholipids (PL is generally believed to depend directly on dietary influx. PL influence transmembrane protein activity and thus can compensate temperature effects; e.g. PL n-6 PUFA are thought to stabilize heart function at low body temperature (T(b, whereas long chain (>C18 n-3 PUFA may boost oxidative capacity. We found substantial remodeling of membranes in free-living alpine marmots which was largely independent of direct dietary supply. Organ PL n-6 PUFA and n-6 to n-3 ratios were highest at onset and end of hibernation after rapid increases during a brief transitional period prior to hibernation. In contrast, longer chain PL n-3 PUFA content was low at end of summer but maximal at end of hibernation. After termination of hibernation in spring, these changes in PL composition were rapidly reversed. Our results demonstrate selective trafficking of PUFA within the body, probably governed by a circannual endogenous rhythm, as hibernating marmots were in winter burrows isolated for seven months from food and external cues signaling the approaching spring. High concentrations of PL n-6 PUFA throughout hibernation are in line with their hypothesized function of boosting SERCA 2a activity at low T(b. Furthermore, we found increasing rate of rewarming from torpor during winter indicating increasing oxidative capacity that could be explained by the accumulation of long-chain PL n-3 PUFA. It may serve to minimize the time necessary for rewarming despite the increasing temperature range to be covered, because rewarming is a period of highest metabolic rate and hence production of reactive oxygen species. Considering the importance of PUFA for health our results may have important biomedical implications, as seasonal changes of T(b and associated remodeling of membranes are not restricted to hibernators but presumably common among endothermic

  20. Body temperature changes during simulated bacterial infection in a songbird: fever at night and hypothermia during the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld-Chiriac, Sandra; Nord, Andreas; Tobler, Michael; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2015-09-01

    Although fever (a closely regulated increase in body temperature in response to infection) typically is beneficial, it is energetically costly and may induce detrimentally high body temperatures. This can increase the susceptibility to energetic bottlenecks and risks of overheating in some organisms. Accordingly, it could be particularly interesting to study fever in small birds, which have comparatively high metabolic rates and high, variable body temperatures. We therefore investigated two aspects of fever and other sickness behaviours (circadian variation, dose dependence) in a small songbird, the zebra finch. We injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at the beginning of either the day or the night, and subsequently monitored body temperature, body mass change and food intake for the duration of the response. We found pronounced circadian variation in the body temperature response to LPS injection, manifested by (dose-dependent) hypothermia during the day but fever at night. This resulted in body temperature during the peak response being relatively similar during the day and night. Day-to-night differences might be explained in the context of circadian variation in body temperature: songbirds have a high daytime body temperature that is augmented by substantial heat production peaks during activity. This might require a trade-off between the benefit of fever and the risk of overheating. In contrast, at night, when body temperature is typically lower and less variable, fever can be used to mitigate infection. We suggest that the change in body temperature during infection in small songbirds is context dependent and regulated to promote survival according to individual demands at the time of infection. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Power Relative to Body Mass Best Predicts Change in Core Temperature During Exercise-Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Oliver R; Willmott, Ashley G B; James, Carl A; Hayes, Mark; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-02-01

    Gibson, OR, Willmott, AGB, James, CA, Hayes, M, and Maxwell, NS. Power relative to body mass best predicts change in core temperature during exercise-heat stress. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 403-414, 2017-Controlling internal temperature is crucial when prescribing exercise-heat stress, particularly during interventions designed to induce thermoregulatory adaptations. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the rate of rectal temperature (Trec) increase, and various methods for prescribing exercise-heat stress, to identify the most efficient method of prescribing isothermic heat acclimation (HA) training. Thirty-five men cycled in hot conditions (40° C, 39% R.H.) for 29 ± 2 minutes. Subjects exercised at 60 ± 9% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, with methods for prescribing exercise retrospectively observed for each participant. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated for each prescriptive variable against the rate of change in Trec (° C·h), with stepwise multiple regressions performed on statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05). Linear regression identified the predicted intensity required to increase Trec by 1.0-2.0° C between 20- and 45-minute periods and the duration taken to increase Trec by 1.5° C in response to incremental intensities to guide prescription. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) relationships with the rate of change in Trec were observed for prescriptions based on relative power (W·kg; r = 0.764), power (%Powermax; r = 0.679), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (r = 0.577), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (%V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak; r = 0.562), heart rate (HR) (%HRmax; r = 0.534), and thermal sensation (r = 0.311). Stepwise multiple regressions observed relative power and RPE as variables to improve the model (r = 0.791), with no improvement after inclusion of any anthropometric variable. Prescription of exercise under heat stress using power (W·kg or %Powermax) has the strongest relationship with the rate of change in

  2. Disorders of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Camilo R

    2014-01-01

    The human body generates heat capable of raising body temperature by approximately 1°C per hour. Normally, this heat is dissipated by means of a thermoregulatory system. Disorders resulting from abnormally high or low body temperature result in neurologic dysfunction and pose a threat to life. In response to thermal stress, maintenance of normal body temperature is primarily maintained by convection and evaporation. Hyperthermia results from abnormal temperature regulation, leading to extremely elevated body temperature while fever results from a normal thermoregulatory mechanism operating at a higher set point. The former leads to specific clinical syndromes with inability of the thermoregulatory mechanism to maintain a constant body temperature. Heat related illness encompasses heat rash, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke, in order of severity. In addition, drugs can induce hyperthermia and produce one of several specific clinical syndromes. Hypothermia is the reduction of body temperature to levels below 35°C from environmental exposure, metabolic disorders, or therapeutic intervention. Management of disorders of body temperature should be carried out decisively and expeditiously, in order to avoid secondary neurologic injury. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests. PMID:27375443

  4. Cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo eTakao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal. Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  5. Deeply torpid bats can change position without elevation of body temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartonička, T.; Banďouchová, H.; Berková, Hana; Blažek, J.; Lučan, R.; Horáček, I.; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, January (2017), s. 119-123 ISSN 0306-4565 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Body temperature * Hibernation * Locomotor performance * Chiroptera * Flight Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.157, year: 2016

  6. A new method to detect significant basal body temperature changes during a woman's menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundl, Günter; Frank-Herrmann, Petra; Brown, Simon; Blackwell, Leonard

    2014-10-01

    To compare the results of a computer programme based on the Trigg's tracking system (TTS) identification of the basal body temperature (BBT) shift day from daily records of BBT values (TTS transition day), with the BBT shift day identified from the same records using the Sensiplan(®) symptothermal method of natural family planning. A computer programme was written to display the daily BBT readings for 364 menstrual cycles from 51 women aged 24 to 35 years, obtained from the German Natural Family Planning (NFP) database. The TTS transition day so identified from each record was then compared with the BBT shift day estimated from the same record by the Sensiplan(®) method. Total agreement between the methods was obtained for 81% (294/364) of the cycles and 18% (67) cycles differed by ± 1 day. For the 364 pairs of values distributed among 51 women the medians of the differences between the TTS transition day and Sensiplan(®) initial day of the BBT rise (shift day) were not significantly different (χ(2) = 65.28, df = 50, p = 0.07205). The advantages of the tracking signal algorithm are that in many cases it was possible to identify the BBT shift day on that very day - rather than only some days later - and to estimate the probability that a transition had occurred from the different values of the tracking signal.

  7. Monitoring changes in body surface temperature associated with treadmill exercise in dogs by use of infrared methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Maria; Arfuso, Francesca; Alberghina, Daniela; Giudice, Elisabetta; Gianesella, Matteo; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of moderate treadmill exercise session on body surface and core temperature in dog measured by means of two infrared instruments. Ten Jack Russell Terrier/Miniature Pinscher mixed-breed dogs were subjected to 15min of walking, 10min of trotting and 10min of gallop. At every step, body surface temperature (T surface ) was measured on seven regions (neck, shoulder, ribs, flank, back, internal thigh and eye) using two different methods, a digital infrared camera (ThermaCam P25) and a non-contact infrared thermometer (Infrared Thermometer THM010-VT001). Rectal temperature (T rectal ) and blood samples were collected before (T0) and after exercise (T3). Blood samples were tested for red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct). A significant effect of exercise in all body surface regions was found, as measured by both infrared methods. The temperature obtained in the eye and the thigh area were higher with respect to the other studied regions throughout the experimental period (Ptemperature values measured by infrared thermometer was found in neck, shoulder, ribs, flank, back regions respect to the values obtained by digital infrared camera (Ptemperatures are influenced by physical exercise probably due to muscle activity and changes in blood flow in dogs. Both infrared instruments used in this study have proven to be useful in detecting surface temperature variations of specific body regions, however factors including type and color of animal hair coat must be taken into account in the interpretation of data obtained by thermography methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Body temperature change during anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy: implications for quality incentives in anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Jerome H; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Morey, Timothy E

    2008-11-01

    The American Society of Anesthesiologists has announced that perioperative normothermia is a "Quality Incentive in Anesthesiology." We examined whether we could meet this quality incentive in a simple population: patients undergoing anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We compared infrared-measured ear temperature before anesthesia to temperature upon delivery of patients to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) after 101 consecutive brief anesthetics to facilitate ECT. For 35 procedures, the patients had an infrared ear thermometer temperature of measures were substandard. Also, current methods of measuring temperature may be inadequate to ascertain if patients are hypothermic after surgery. As the avoidance of hypothermia is a meritorious goal, anesthesia departments need to ensure that their temperature monitoring equipment is adequate to ensure accurate measurement of postanesthetic temperature if this variable is to be used as a quality incentive.

  9. Dinosaur fossils predict body temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Gillooly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 degrees C at 12 kg to approximately 41 degrees C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy.

  10. Plasticity of preferred body temperatures as means of coping with climate change?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gvoždík, Lumír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2012), s. 262-265 ISSN 1744-9561 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2170; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : acclimation * climate change * ectotherms * thermoregulatory behaviour Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.348, year: 2012

  11. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  12. Short communication: Changes in body temperature of calves up to 2 months of age as affected by time of day, age, and ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Suarez-Mena, F X; Dennis, T S; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-11-01

    Extensive measurements of calf body temperature are limited in the literature. In this study, body temperatures were collected by taping a data logger to the skin over the tail vein opposing the rectum of Holstein calves between 4 and 60d of age during 3 different periods of the summer and fall. The summer period was separated into moderate (21-33°C average low to high) and hot (25-37°C) periods, whereas the fall exhibited cool (11-19°C) ambient temperatures. Tail temperatures were compared in a mixed model ANOVA using ambient temperature, age of calf, and time of day (10-min increments) as fixed effects and calf as a random effect. Measures within calf were modeled as repeated effects of type autoregressive 1. Calf temperature increased 0.0325°C (±0.00035) per 1°C increase in ambient temperature. Body temperature varied in a distinct, diurnal pattern with time of day, with body temperatures being lowest around 0800h and highest between 1700 and 2200h. During periods of hot weather, the highest calf temperature was later in the day (~2200h). Calf minimum, maximum, and average body temperatures were all higher in hot than in moderate periods and higher in moderate than in cool periods. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Core body temperature in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-05-01

    A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) temperature-sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18-25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature-regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500.

  14. Portable Body Temperature Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    temperature is 36.0o C. The patient complains of severe abdominal pain and intra- abdominal injury is suspected. In this scenario the patient is...hypothermia will shiver, experience pain , and on a whole be really uncomfortable. If they are sufficiently obtunded to require this therapy then they...Convective hyper- hypothermia water blankets/wraps Single-Use Blanket Maxi-Therm Adult Box 5 $127.00 Pediatric Box 5 $90.00 Infant Box 5 $72.00

  15. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature.

  16. Changes in body temperature in king penguins at sea: the result of fine adjustments in peripheral heat loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Alard, Frank; Handrich, Yves

    2006-09-01

    To investigate thermoregulatory adjustments at sea, body temperatures (the pectoral muscle and the brood patch) and diving behavior were monitored during a foraging trip of several days at sea in six breeding king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus. During inactive phases at sea (water temperature: 4-7 degrees C), all tissues measured were maintained at normothermic temperatures. The brood patch temperature was maintained at the same values as those measured when brooding on shore (38 degrees C). This high temperature difference causes a significant loss of heat. We hypothesize that high-energy expenditure associated with elevated peripheral temperature when resting at sea is the thermoregulatory cost that a postabsorptive penguin has to face for the restoration of its subcutaneous body fat. During diving, mean pectoral temperature was 37.6 +/- 1.6 degrees C. While being almost normothermic on average, the temperature of the pectoral muscle was still significantly lower than during inactivity in five out of the six birds and underwent temperature drops of up to 5.5 degrees C. Mean brood patch temperature was 29.6 +/- 2.5 degrees C during diving, and temperature decreases of up to 21.6 degrees C were recorded. Interestingly, we observed episodes of brood patch warming during the descent to depth, suggesting that, in some cases, king penguins may perform active thermolysis using the brood patch. It is hypothesized that functional pectoral temperature may be regulated through peripheral adjustments in blood perfusion. These two paradoxical features, i.e., lower temperature of deep tissues during activity and normothermic peripheral tissues while inactive, may highlight the key to the energetics of this diving endotherm while foraging at sea.

  17. The effect of changes in core body temperature on the QT interval in beagle dogs: a previously ignored phenomenon, with a method for correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, H J; Van Deuren, B; Teisman, A; Towart, R; Gallacher, D J

    2008-08-01

    Body core temperature (Tc) changes affect the QT interval, but correction for this has not been systematically investigated. It may be important to correct QT intervals for drug-induced changes in Tc. Anaesthetized beagle dogs were artificially cooled (34.2 degrees C) or warmed (42.1 degrees C). The relationship between corrected QT intervals (QTcV; QT interval corrected according to the Van de Water formula) and Tc was analysed. This relationship was also examined in conscious dogs where Tc was increased by exercise. When QTcV intervals were plotted against changes in Tc, linear correlations were observed in all individual dogs. The slopes did not significantly differ between cooling (-14.85+/-2.08) or heating (-13.12+/-3.46) protocols. We propose a correction formula to compensate for the influence of Tc changes and standardize the QTcV duration to 37.5 degrees C: QTcVcT (QTcV corrected for changes in core temperature)=QTcV-14 (37.5 - Tc). Furthermore, cooled dogs were re-warmed (from 34.2 to 40.0 degrees C) and marked QTcV shortening (-29%) was induced. After Tc correction, using the above formula, this decrease was abolished. In these re-warmed dogs, we observed significant increases in T-wave amplitude and in serum [K(+)] levels. No arrhythmias or increase in pro-arrhythmic biomarkers were observed. In exercising dogs, the above formula completely compensated QTcV for the temperature increase. This study shows the importance of correcting QTcV intervals for changes in Tc, to avoid misleading interpretations of apparent QTcV interval changes. We recommend that all ICH S7A, conscious animal safety studies should routinely measure core body temperature and correct QTcV appropriately, if body temperature and heart rate changes are observed.

  18. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTgAD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysse M. Knight

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD and non-transgenic (Non-Tg control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4–10 months, 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD.

  19. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTgAD) mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Elysse M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Gümüsgöz, Sarah; Smith, Jennifer C. M.; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Allan, Stuart M.; Lawrence, Catherine B.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD) and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4–10 months), 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD. PMID:22864021

  20. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTgAD) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Elysse M; Brown, Timothy M; Gümüsgöz, Sarah; Smith, Jennifer C M; Waters, Elizabeth J; Allan, Stuart M; Lawrence, Catherine B

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD) and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4-10 months), 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD.

  1. QT interval correction for drug-induced changes in body temperature during integrated cardiovascular safety assessment in regulatory toxicology studies in dogs: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amrani, Abdel-Ilah; El Amrani-Callens, Francine; Loriot, Stéphane; Singh, Pramila; Forster, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular safety assessment requires accurate evaluation of QT interval, which depends on the length of the cardiac cycle and also on core body temperature (BT). Increases in QT interval duration have been shown to be associated with decreases in BT in dogs. An example of altered QT interval duration associated with changes in body temperature observed during a 4-week regulatory toxicology study in dogs is presented. Four groups of Beagle dogs received the vehicle or test item once on Day 1, followed by a 4-week observation period. Electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters were continuously recorded on Days 1 and 26 by jacketed external telemetry (JET). Core body temperature (BT) was measured with a conventional rectal thermometer at appropriate time-points during the Day 1 recording period. Decreased BT was observed approximately 2h after treatment on Day 1, along with increased QT interval duration corrected according to the Van de Water formula (QTcV), but the effect was no longer observed after correction for changes in BT [QTcVcT=QTcV-14(37.5-BT)] according to the Van der Linde formula. No significant changes in QTcV were reported at the end of the observation period, on Day 26. The present study demonstrates that core body (rectal) temperature can easily be monitored at appropriate time-points during JET recording in regulatory toxicology studies in dogs, in order to correct QT interval duration values for treatment-related changes in BT. The successful application of the Van der Linde formula to correct QTc prolongation for changes in BT was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between body temperature and air temperature in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body temperatures of singing male Gryllus bimaculatus were measured for the first time. Body temperatures were strongly correlated with ambient temperature. This indicates that, unlike some other orthopterans, larger crickets are not dependent on an elevated body temperature for efficient calling. Our results confirm that it ...

  3. Effect of Propranolol on Thyroxine-Induced Changes in Body Temperature and Metabolism During Exercise in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Brzezinska, Zofia; Greenleaf, John E.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of thyroxine on temperature and metabolism during exercise were studied in dogs after beta-adrenergic blockade. Dogs performed 60 min treadmill exercise of moderate intensity 5 and 72 h following thyroxine injected s. c. in a single dose of 0.1 mg/kg b.w. Thyroxine increased significantly the lipolytic response to exercise as well as blood lactate (LA) concentrations and rectal temperature (T(sub re)) during exercise as early as 5 h following the hormone administration. The changes became more pronounced 72 h after the injection. At rest T(sub re), blood FFA (free fatty acid) and LA levels in the thyroxine-treated dogs did not differ from the control values, and blood glucose was slightly, but significantly higher. Propranolol given intravenously in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg at 30 min of the exercise performed 72 h following thyroxine injection abolished the plasma FFA rise, and inhibited to a certain extent increases in T(sub re) and blood LA concentrations during the next 30 min of exercise.

  4. The effect of a change in sleep-wakefulness timing, bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra-Golec, I; Fafrowicz, M; Marek, T; Costa, G; Folkard, S; Foret, J; Kundi, M; Smith, L

    2001-12-01

    Experiments consisting of baseline, bright light and physical exercise studies were carried out to compare the effect of a 9-hour delay in sleep-wakefulness timing, and the effects of bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature were examined. Each study comprised a 24-hour constant routine at the beginning followed by 3 night shifts and 24-hour constant routine at the end. Performance on tasks differing in cognitive load, mood and body temperature was measured during each constant routine and the interventions were applied during the night shifts. The 24-hour pattern of alertness and performance on the tasks with low cognitive load in post-treatment conditions followed the change in sleep-wakefulness timing while more cognitively loaded tasks tended to show a reverse trend when compared to pre-treatment conditions. There was a phase delay around 4 hours in circadian rhythms of body temperature in post-treatment conditions.

  5. Aging changes in body shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003998.htm Aging changes in body shape To use the sharing ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ...

  6. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  7. Predicting body temperature of endotherms during shuttling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents two models that can be used to predict the temporal dynamics of body temperature in endotherms. A first-order model is based on the assumption that body temperature is uniform at all times, while a second-order model is based on the assumption that animals can be divided in a

  8. Astronaut James Lovell checks body temperature with oral temperature probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 7 pilot Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. has temperature check with oral temperature probe attached to his space suit during final preflight preparations for the Gemini 7 space mission. The temperature probe allows doctors to monitor astronauts body temperature at any time during the mission.

  9. Early changes of cortical blood flow, brain temperature and electrical activity after whole-body irradiation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) (dose range: 3-20 Gy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, L.; Gourmelon, P.; Mestries, J.C.

    1987-02-01

    A polyparametric investigation was carried out on 31 monkeys chronically wearing bioinstrumentation allowing to get and process simultaneously local brain blood flow, cerebral temperature, and energies in various frequency bands of the brain electrical activity. This method, which supplied data during several consecutive days, made it possible to study both the biological rhythms at the level of the various parameters, and their fast variations. The effects of whole-body gamma or neutron-gamma irradiation were studied in the 3-20 Gy dose range. Immediate changes after exposure demonstrated different radiosensitivities at the level of the rhythms of the various parameters, and/or their recovery, as well as dose-effect relationships [fr

  10. Body Temperature Cycles Control Rhythmic Alternative Splicing in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preußner, Marco; Goldammer, Gesine; Neumann, Alexander; Haltenhof, Tom; Rautenstrauch, Pia; Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Heyd, Florian

    2017-08-03

    The core body temperature of all mammals oscillates with the time of the day. However, direct molecular consequences of small, physiological changes in body temperature remain largely elusive. Here we show that body temperature cycles drive rhythmic SR protein phosphorylation to control an alternative splicing (AS) program. A temperature change of 1°C is sufficient to induce a concerted splicing switch in a large group of functionally related genes, rendering this splicing-based thermometer much more sensitive than previously described temperature-sensing mechanisms. AS of two exons in the 5' UTR of the TATA-box binding protein (Tbp) highlights the general impact of this mechanism, as it results in rhythmic TBP protein levels with implications for global gene expression in vivo. Together our data establish body temperature-driven AS as a core clock-independent oscillator in mammalian peripheral clocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of body fat and gender on body temperature distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that body composition can influence peripheral heat loss and skin temperature. That the distribution of body fat is affected by gender is well known; however, there is little information on how body composition and gender influences the measure of skin temperature. This study evaluated skin temperature distribution according to body fat percentage (BF%) and gender. A sample of 94 apparently healthy volunteers (47 women and 47 men) was assessed with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and infrared thermography (mean, maximum and minimum temperatures - T Mean , T Max and T Min ). The sample was divided into groups, according to health risk classification, based on BF%, as proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine: Average (n = 58), Elevated (n = 16) or High (n = 20). Women had lower T Mean in most regions of interest (ROI). In both genders, group High had lower temperature values than Average and Elevated in the trunk, upper and lower limbs. In men, palms and posterior hands had a tendency (p temperature along with increased BF%. T Mean , T Max and T Min of trunk, upper and lower limbs were negatively correlated with BF% and the fat percentage of each segment (upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk). The highest correlations found in women were between posterior trunk and BF% (rho = -0.564, p temperature than men, which was related with higher BF%. Facial temperature seems not to be influenced by body fat. With the future collection of data on the relationship between BF% and skin temperature while taking into account factors such as body morphology, gender, and ethnicity, we conclude that measurement of BF may be reliably estimated with the use of thermal imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Core body temperature in obesity123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C

    2011-01-01

    Background: A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. Design: In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) <30] and obese (BMI ≥30) adults swallowed wireless core temperature–sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18–25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Results: Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Obesity is not generally associated with a reduced core body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature–regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500. PMID:21367952

  13. Hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and central hypovolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Martin; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Overgaard, Flemming Anders

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation abnormalities contribute to poor outcomes in critically ill patients. In trauma patients exposed to a hot environment, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elevated body temperature, and reduced central blood volume occur in parallel with changes in hemostasis and endothelial...... damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether experimentally elevated body temperature and reduced central blood volume (CBV) per se affects hemostasis and endothelial activation....

  14. Changes of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, internal body temperature, and blood acido-basic balance in the unanaesthetized rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation at a mean absorbed dose of 250 rads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, R.; Court, L.

    1973-09-01

    The general effects of whole-body gamma -irradiation at a mean absorbed dose of 250 rads were studied simultaneously in the unanaesthetized rabbit for 48 hours. They occurred early, with the following characteristics: arterial blood pressure decreased steadily as early as the 2nd hour and reached its minimum value on the 5th hour with a decrease of about 14%; it remained low during the following two days. Heart rate increased during the first hour, was the highest by the end of the second hour, and resumed normal value on the 24th hour. Internal body temperature increased during the 1st hour and was maximum by the end of the 2nd hour, with a mean increase of 1.2 deg C; hyperthermia steadily decreased between the 4th and the 6th hours and had completely disappeared by the 24th hour. Respiratory alkalosis is shown in the acido-basic balance by a raise of pH, a decrease of PCO/sub 2/ and arterial blood bicarbonates. These various changes seem to indicate a double origin, both central and peripheral. (FR)

  15. Environmental stressors during space flight: potential effects on body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    1. Organisms may be affected by many environmental factors during space flight, e.g., acceleration, weightlessness, decreased pressure, changes in oxygen tension, radiofrequency radiation and vibration. 2. Previous studies of change in body temperature--one response to these environmental factors--are reviewed. 3. Conditions leading to heat stress and hypothermia are discussed.

  16. Full body illusion is associated with widespread skin temperature reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eSalomon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A central feature of our consciousness is the experience of the self as a unified entity residing in a physical body, termed bodily self-consciousness. This phenomenon includes aspects such as the sense of owning a body (also known as body ownership and has been suggested to arise from the integration of sensory and motor signals from the body. Several studies have shown that temporally synchronous tactile stimulation of the real body and visual stimulation of a fake or virtual body can induce changes in bodily self-consciousness, typically resulting in a sense of illusory ownership over the fake body. The present study assessed the effect of anatomical congruency of visuo-tactile stimulation on bodily self-consciousness. A virtual body was presented and temporally synchronous visuo-tactile stroking was applied simultaneously the participants’ body and to the virtual body. We manipulated the anatomical locations of the visuo-tactile stroking (i.e. on the back, on the leg, resulting in congruent stroking (stroking was felt and seen on the back or the leg or incongruent stroking (i.e. stroking was felt on the leg and seen on the back. We measured self-identification with the virtual body and self-location as well as skin temperature. Illusory self-identification with the avatar as well as changes in self-localization were experienced in the congruent stroking conditions. Participants showed a decrease in skin temperature across several body locations during congruent stimulation. These data establish that the full-body illusion alters bodily self-consciousness and instigates widespread physiological changes in the participant’s body.

  17. The impact of morning light intensity and environmental temperature on body temperatures and alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc J M; Schellen, Lisje; Frijns, Arjan J H; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2017-06-01

    Indoor temperature and light exposure are known to affect body temperature, productivity and alertness of building occupants. However, not much is known about the interaction between light and temperature exposure and the relationship between morning light induced alertness and its effect on body temperature. Light intensity and room temperature during morning office hours were investigated under strictly controlled conditions. In a randomized crossover study, two white light conditions (4000K, either bright 1200lx or dim 5lx) under three different room temperatures (26, 29 and 32°C) were investigated. A lower room temperature increased the core body temperature (CBT) and lowered skin temperature and the distal-proximal temperature gradient (DPG). Moreover, a lower room temperature reduced the subjective sleepiness and reaction time on an auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), irrespective of the light condition. Interestingly, the morning bright light exposure did affect thermophysiological parameters, i.e. it decreased plasma cortisol, CBT and proximal skin temperature and increased the DPG, irrespective of the room temperature. During the bright light session, subjective sleepiness decreased irrespective of the room temperature. However, the change in sleepiness due to the light exposure was not related to these physiological changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Temperature fluctuations superimposed on background temperature change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, James; Roberts, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Proxy data allows the temperature of the Earth to be mapped over long periods of time. In this work the temperature fluctuations for over 200 proxy data sets were examined and from this set 50 sets were analyzed to test for periodic and quasi-periodic fluctuations in the data sets. Temperature reconstructions over 4 different time scales were analyzed to see if patterns emerged. Data were put into four time intervals; 4,000 years, 14,000 years, 1,000,000 years, and 3,000,000 years and analyzed with a goal to understanding periodic and quasi-periodic patterns in global temperature change superimposed on a “background” average temperature change. Quasi-periodic signatures were identified that predate the Industrial Revolution, during much of which direct data on temperature are not available. These data indicate that Earth temperatures have undergone a number of periodic and quasi-periodic intervals that contain both global warming and global cooling cycles. The fluctuations are superimposed on a background of temperature change that has a declining slope during the two periods, pre-ice age and post ice age with a transition about 12,000 BCE. The data are divided into “events” that span the time periods 3,000,000 BCE to “0” CE, 1,000,000 BCE to “0” CE, 12,000 BCE to 2,000 CE and 2,000 BCE to 2,000 CE. An equation using a quasi-periodic (frequency modulated sine waves) patterns was developed to analyze the date sets for quasi-periodic patterns. “Periodicities” which show reasonable agreement with the predictions of Milankovitch and other investigators were found in the data sets.

  19. Non-invasive body temperature measurement of wild chimpanzees using fecal temperature decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Siv Aina; Mundry, Roger; Nunn, Charles L; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2009-04-01

    New methods are required to increase our understanding of pathologic processes in wild mammals. We developed a noninvasive field method to estimate the body temperature of wild living chimpanzees habituated to humans, based on statistically fitting temperature decline of feces after defecation. The method was established with the use of control measures of human rectal temperature and subsequent changes in fecal temperature over time. The method was then applied to temperature data collected from wild chimpanzee feces. In humans, we found good correspondence between the temperature estimated by the method and the actual rectal temperature that was measured (maximum deviation 0.22 C). The method was successfully applied and the average estimated temperature of the chimpanzees was 37.2 C. This simple-to-use field method reliably estimates the body temperature of wild chimpanzees and probably also other large mammals.

  20. Rhythms of mammalian body temperature can sustain peripheral circadian clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven A; Zumbrunn, Gottlieb; Fleury-Olela, Fabienne; Preitner, Nicolas; Schibler, Ueli

    2002-09-17

    Low-amplitude temperature oscillations can entrain the phase of circadian rhythms in several unicellular and multicellular organisms, including Neurospora and Drosophila. Because mammalian body temperature is subject to circadian variations of 1 degrees C-4 degrees C, we wished to determine whether these temperature cycles could serve as a Zeitgeber for circadian gene expression in peripheral cell types. In RAT1 fibroblasts cultured in vitro, circadian gene expression could be established by a square wave temperature rhythm with a (Delta)T of 4 degrees C (12 hr 37 degrees C/12 hr 33 degrees C). To examine whether natural body temperature rhythms can also affect circadian gene expression, we first measured core body temperature cycles in the peritoneal cavities of mice by radiotelemetry. We then reproduced these rhythms with high precision in the liquid medium of cultured fibroblasts for several days by means of a homemade computer-driven incubator. While these "in vivo" temperature rhythms were incapable of establishing circadian gene expression de novo, they could maintain previously induced rhythms for multiple days; by contrast, the rhythms of control cells kept at constant temperature rapidly dampened. Moreover, circadian oscillations of environmental temperature could reentrain circadian clocks in the livers of mice, probably via the changes they imposed upon both body temperature and feeding behavior. Interestingly, these changes in ambient temperature did not affect the phase of the central circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. We postulate that both endogenous and environmental temperature cycles can participate in the synchronization of peripheral clocks in mammals.

  1. The relationship between virtual body ownership and temperature sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobera, Joan; Sanchez-Vives, M. V.; Slater, Mel

    2013-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion, tactile stimulation seen on a rubber hand, that is synchronous with tactile stimulation felt on the hidden real hand, can lead to an illusion of ownership over the rubber hand. This illusion has been shown to produce a temperature decrease in the hidden hand, suggesting that such illusory ownership produces disownership of the real hand. Here, we apply immersive virtual reality (VR) to experimentally investigate this with respect to sensitivity to temperature change. Forty participants experienced immersion in a VR with a virtual body (VB) seen from a first-person perspective. For half the participants, the VB was consistent in posture and movement with their own body, and in the other half, there was inconsistency. Temperature sensitivity on the palm of the hand was measured before and during the virtual experience. The results show that temperature sensitivity decreased in the consistent compared with the inconsistent condition. Moreover, the change in sensitivity was significantly correlated with the subjective illusion of virtual arm ownership but modulated by the illusion of ownership over the full VB. This suggests that a full body ownership illusion results in a unification of the virtual and real bodies into one overall entity—with proprioception and tactile sensations on the real body integrated with the visual presence of the VB. The results are interpreted in the framework of a ‘body matrix’ recently introduced into the literature. PMID:23720537

  2. Body temperature and cardiac changes induced by peripherally administered oxytocin, vasopressin and the non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist WAY 267,464: a biotelemetry study in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C; Ramos, L; Reekie, T; Misagh, G H; Narlawar, R; Kassiou, M; McGregor, I S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is current interest in oxytocin (OT) as a possible therapeutic in psychiatric disorders. However, the usefulness of OT may be constrained by peripheral autonomic effects, which may involve an action at both OT and vasopressin V1A receptors. Here, we characterized the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory effects of OT, vasopressin (AVP) and the non-peptide OT receptor agonist WAY 267,464 in rats, and assessed the relative involvement of the OT and V1A receptors in these effects. Experimental Approach Biotelemetry in freely moving male Wistar rats was used to examine body temperature and heart rate after OT (0.01 – 1 mg kg−1; i.p.), AVP (0.001 – 0.1 mg kg−1; i.p.) or WAY 267,464 (10 and 100 mg kg−1; i.p.). The actions of the OT receptor antagonist Compound 25 (C25, 5 and 10 mg kg−1) and V1A receptor antagonist SR49059 (1 and 10 mg kg−1) were studied, as well as possible V1A receptor antagonist effects of WAY 267,464. Key Results OT and AVP dose-dependently reduced body temperature and heart rate. WAY 267,464 had similar, but more modest, effects. SR49059, but not C25, prevented the hypothermia and bradycardia induced by OT and AVP. WAY 267,464 (100 mg·kg−1) prevented the effects of OT, and to some extent AVP. Conclusions and Implications Peripherally administered OT and AVP have profound cardiovascular and thermoregulatory effects that appear to principally involve the V1A receptor rather than the OT receptor. Additionally, WAY 267,464 is not a simple OT receptor agonist, as it has functionally relevant V1A antagonist actions. PMID:24641248

  3. Body temperature and cardiac changes induced by peripherally administered oxytocin, vasopressin and the non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist WAY 267,464: a biotelemetry study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C; Ramos, L; Reekie, T; Misagh, G H; Narlawar, R; Kassiou, M; McGregor, I S

    2014-06-01

    There is current interest in oxytocin (OT) as a possible therapeutic in psychiatric disorders. However, the usefulness of OT may be constrained by peripheral autonomic effects, which may involve an action at both OT and vasopressin V1A receptors. Here, we characterized the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory effects of OT, vasopressin (AVP) and the non-peptide OT receptor agonist WAY 267,464 in rats, and assessed the relative involvement of the OT and V1A receptors in these effects. Biotelemetry in freely moving male Wistar rats was used to examine body temperature and heart rate after OT (0.01 - 1 mg kg(-1); i.p.), AVP (0.001 - 0.1 mg kg(-1); i.p.) or WAY 267,464 (10 and 100 mg kg(-1); i.p.). The actions of the OT receptor antagonist Compound 25 (C25, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) and V1A receptor antagonist SR49059 (1 and 10 mg kg(-1)) were studied, as well as possible V1A receptor antagonist effects of WAY 267,464. OT and AVP dose-dependently reduced body temperature and heart rate. WAY 267,464 had similar, but more modest, effects. SR49059, but not C25, prevented the hypothermia and bradycardia induced by OT and AVP. WAY 267,464 (100 mg·kg(-1)) prevented the effects of OT, and to some extent AVP. Peripherally administered OT and AVP have profound cardiovascular and thermoregulatory effects that appear to principally involve the V1A receptor rather than the OT receptor. Additionally, WAY 267,464 is not a simple OT receptor agonist, as it has functionally relevant V1A antagonist actions. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Whole-body cryostimulation increases parasympathetic outflow and decreases core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Pawel; Bitner, Anna; Słomko, Joanna; Szrajda, Justyna; Klawe, Jacek J; Tafil-Klawe, Malgorzata; Newton, Julia L

    2014-10-01

    The cardiovascular, autonomic and thermal response to whole-body cryostimulation exposure are not completely known. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate objectively and noninvasively autonomic and thermal reactions observed after short exposure to very low temperatures. We examined 25 healthy men with mean age 30.1 ± 3.7 years and comparable anthropomorphical characteristic. Each subject was exposed to cryotherapeutic temperatures in a cryogenic chamber for 3 min (approx. -120 °C). The cardiovascular and autonomic parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force Monitor. The changes in core body temperature were determined with the Vital Sense telemetric measurement system. Results show that 3 min to cryotherapeutic temperatures causes significant changes in autonomic balance which are induced by peripheral and central blood volume changes. Cryostimulation also induced changes in core body temperature, maximum drop of core temperature was observed 50-60 min after the stimulation. Autonomic and thermal reactions to cryostimulation were observed up to 6 h after the exposure and were not harmful for examined subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermometry, calorimetry, and mean body temperature during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Glen P; Jay, Ollie

    2013-10-01

    Heat balance in humans is maintained at near constant levels through the adjustment of physiological mechanisms that attain a balance between the heat produced within the body and the heat lost to the environment. Heat balance is easily disturbed during changes in metabolic heat production due to physical activity and/or exposure to a warmer environment. Under such conditions, elevations of skin blood flow and sweating occur via a hypothalamic negative feedback loop to maintain an enhanced rate of dry and evaporative heat loss. Body heat storage and changes in core temperature are a direct result of a thermal imbalance between the rate of heat production and the rate of total heat dissipation to the surrounding environment. The derivation of the change in body heat content is of fundamental importance to the physiologist assessing the exposure of the human body to environmental conditions that result in thermal imbalance. It is generally accepted that the concurrent measurement of the total heat generated by the body and the total heat dissipated to the ambient environment is the most accurate means whereby the change in body heat content can be attained. However, in the absence of calorimetric methods, thermometry is often used to estimate the change in body heat content. This review examines heat exchange during challenges to heat balance associated with progressive elevations in environmental heat load and metabolic rate during exercise. Further, we evaluate the physiological responses associated with heat stress and discuss the thermal and nonthermal influences on the body's ability to dissipate heat from a heat balance perspective.

  6. Is Oral Temperature an Accurate Measurement of Deep Body Temperature? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Casa, Douglas J.; Vingren, Jakob; Klau, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Context: Oral temperature might not be a valid method to assess core body temperature. However, many clinicians, including athletic trainers, use it rather than criterion standard methods, such as rectal thermometry. Objective: To critically evaluate original research addressing the validity of using oral temperature as a measurement of core body temperature during periods of rest and changing core temperature. Data Sources: In July 2010, we searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Premier, and the Cochrane Library for the following concepts: core body temperature, oral, and thermometers. Controlled vocabulary was used, when available, as well as key words and variations of those key words. The search was limited to articles focusing on temperature readings and studies involving human participants. Data Synthesis: Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria and subsequently were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers. All 16 were included in the review because they met the minimal PEDro score of 4 points (of 10 possible points), with all but 2 scoring 5 points. A critical review of these studies indicated a disparity between oral and criterion standard temperature methods (eg, rectal and esophageal) specifically as the temperature increased. The difference was −0.50°C ± 0.31°C at rest and −0.58°C ± 0.75°C during a nonsteady state. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that, regardless of whether the assessment is recorded at rest or during periods of changing core temperature, oral temperature is an unsuitable diagnostic tool for determining body temperature because many measures demonstrated differences greater than the predetermined validity threshold of 0.27°C (0.5°F). In addition, the differences were greatest at the highest rectal temperatures. Oral temperature cannot

  7. Energetic consequences of field body temperatures in the green iguana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, WDVM; Wesselingh, RA

    We investigated body temperatures of free-ranging green iguanas (Iguana iguana) on Curacao (Netherlands Antilles), and how metabolic costs and benefits of food processing affect body temperatures. Body temperatures of free-living iguanas were measured by radio telemetry. We also used a model, with

  8. Diurnal changes in core body temperature, day/night locomotor activity patterns, and actigraphy-generated behavioral sleep in aged canines with varying levels of cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Zanghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Core body temperature (CBT rhythm, locomotor activity, and actigraphy-sleep were evaluated in geriatric dogs with cognitive dysfunction. Dogs (n=33; 9–16 yrs performed a spatial working memory task and divided into three memory groups: Low, Moderate, and High, with subsequent evaluation of learning and attention. Rectal CBT was recorded 6 times over a 17.5 h period and Actiwatch® activity monitoring system for 5 days while housed indoors with 12 h light/dark schedule. Rhythm of daily activity data was evaluated using the traditional cosinor analysis and generation of non-parametric measures of interdaily stability, intradaily variability, and relative amplitude. CBT differed with time (F (5, 130=11.36, p<0.001, and was the highest at 19:00C. CBT at 19:00 was positively related (p<0.01 to memory (r(31=0.50 and 3-domain cognitive performance index (memory, learning, attention; r(31=0.39. Total daytime or night-time activity did not differ between memory groups, but hourly counts at 8:00 were positively related (p<0.05 to memory (r(31=0.52, learning (r(31=0.36, and 3-domain cognitive performance index (r(31=0.53. There were no significant differences between age or memory groups for any circadian rhythm measures. Daytime naps were inversely related to memory accuracy (r(31=−0.39; p<0.05 and BT at 15:00 (r(30=−0.51; p<0.01. Lower peak BT and increased napping may predict some aspects of cognitive performance of working memory, learning, and/or attention processes in these geriatric dogs, but minimal diurnal rhythm disruption of locomotor activity is observed when these cognitive processes decline.

  9. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C; Klaessens, John H G M; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J

    2013-09-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature using different readout measurements. In two independent studies, male and female participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a non-stressful control task. Core temperature (intestinal and temporal artery) and peripheral temperature (facial and body skin temperature) were measured. Compared to the control condition, stress exposure decreased intestinal temperature but did not affect temporal artery temperature. Stress exposure resulted in changes in skin temperature that followed a gradient-like pattern, with decreases at distal skin locations such as the fingertip and finger base and unchanged skin temperature at proximal regions such as the infra-clavicular area. Stress-induced effects on facial temperature displayed a sex-specific pattern, with decreased nasal skin temperature in females and increased cheek temperature in males. In conclusion, the amplitude and direction of stress-induced temperature changes depend on the site of temperature measurement in humans. This precludes a direct translation of the preclinical stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, in which core temperature uniformly rises in response to stress to the human situation. Nevertheless, the effects of stress result in consistent temperature changes. Therefore, the present study supports the inclusion of body temperature as a physiological readout parameter of stress in future studies.

  10. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  11. [The reaction of human surface and inside body temperature to extreme hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, O A; Onishchenko, V O; Liakh, Iu Ie

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of changes in the parameters of the surface and core body temperature under the systematic impact of ultra-low temperature is described in this article. As a source of ultra-low temperature was used (Cryo Therapy Chamber) Zimmer Medizin Systeme firm Zimmer Electromedizin (Germany) (-110 degrees C). Surface and internal body temperature was measured by infrared thermometer immediately before visiting cryochamber and immediately after exiting. In the study conducted 47,464 measurements of body temperature. It was established that the internal temperature of the human body under the influence of ultra-low temperatures in the proposed mode of exposure remains constant, and the surface temperature of the body reduces by an average of 11.57 degrees C. The time frame stabilization of adaptive processes of thermoregulation under the systematic impact of ultra-low temperature was defined in the study.

  12. Primate body temperature and sleep responses to lower body positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cephalic fluid shifts, induced by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) are known to influence various physiological systems (i.e., cardiovascular and renal). In earlier experiments, an apparent change in the arousal state of primates in such LBPP conditions was observed. This study was designed to examine the effects of LBPP on arousal state and body temperature level which is normally correlated with sleep. Chair-restrained male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 40 mmHg LBPP for 90-100 minutes between the daytime hours of 13:00-15:00. Each monkey was placed in a specially modified restraint chair to which they were highly trained. Deep body temperature (DBT) was collected from 10 animals. Sleep parameters were obtained from six animals chronically implanted for sleep recording. A video camera was used to observe each animal's apparent state of arousal. LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.9 C decrease in DBT. During video observation, some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP; however, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in the state of arousal. Thus, LBPP is capable of inducing a mild hyperthermia. Further, the mechanisms underlying the observed lowering of body temperature appear to be independent of arousal state.

  13. Influence of MR imaging on the central body temperature and peripheral temperature in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.; Krimmel, K.; Dopmeier, D.; Seiderer, M.; Lissner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal effects of in vitro and in vivo MR imaging were studied at different field strengths (0.35 T, 1.5 T) and radio frequency power, using a modified fluoroptical technique. A fiber optic probe that measures with an accuracy of up to 0.1 0 C was inserted via esophageal and rectal tubes in 20 test subjects to measure central body temperature. In another ten subjects the temperature was measured subcutaneously and by an intravenous catheter system. No significant temperature change was measurable in the central parts of the body (rectum, esophagus) within the static magnetic field and during MR imaging. Subcutaneous and intravenous measurements of the superficial temperature of the arm led to the same conclusions. Theoretical calculations of the absorbed energy confirm these findings

  14. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  15. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W.; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2017-01-01

    Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses. PMID:28824441

  16. Estimation of Circadian Body Temperature Rhythm Based on Heart Rate in Healthy, Ambulatory Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Kim, Han Byul; Jang, Seungjin; Kim, Beomoh; Hong, Seungbum; Kim, Sungwan; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-03-01

    Core body temperature is a reliable marker for circadian rhythm. As characteristics of the circadian body temperature rhythm change during diverse health problems, such as sleep disorder and depression, body temperature monitoring is often used in clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of current thermometers in circadian rhythm monitoring is impractical in daily life. As heart rate is a physiological signal relevant to thermoregulation, we investigated the feasibility of heart rate monitoring in estimating circadian body temperature rhythm. Various heart rate parameters and core body temperature were simultaneously acquired in 21 healthy, ambulatory subjects during their routine life. The performance of regression analysis and the extended Kalman filter on daily body temperature and circadian indicator (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) estimation were evaluated. For daily body temperature estimation, mean R-R interval (RRI), mean heart rate (MHR), or normalized MHR provided a mean root mean square error of approximately 0.40 °C in both techniques. The mesor estimation regression analysis showed better performance than the extended Kalman filter. However, the extended Kalman filter, combined with RRI or MHR, provided better accuracy in terms of amplitude and acrophase estimation. We suggest that this noninvasive and convenient method for estimating the circadian body temperature rhythm could reduce discomfort during body temperature monitoring in daily life. This, in turn, could facilitate more clinical studies based on circadian body temperature rhythm.

  17. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  18. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  19. Basal body temperature as a biomarker of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsick, Eleanor M; Meier, Helen C S; Shaffer, Nancy Chiles; Studenski, Stephanie A; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Scattered evidence indicates that a lower basal body temperature may be associated with prolonged health span, yet few studies have directly evaluated this relationship. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between early morning oral temperature (95.0-98.6 °F) and usual gait speed, endurance walk performance, fatigability, and grip strength in 762 non-frail men (52 %) and women aged 65-89 years participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Since excessive adiposity (body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 or waist-to-height ratio ≥0.62) may alter temperature set point, associations were also examined within adiposity strata. Overall, controlling for age, race, sex, height, exercise, and adiposity, lower temperature was associated with faster gait speed, less time to walk 400 m quickly, and lower perceived exertion following 5-min of walking at 0.67 m/s (all p ≤ 0.02). In the non-adipose (N = 662), these associations were more robust (all p ≤ 0.006). Direction of association was reversed in the adipose (N = 100), but none attained significance (all p > 0.22). Over 2.2 years, basal temperature was not associated with functional change in the overall population or non-adipose. Among the adipose, lower baseline temperature was associated with greater decline in endurance walking performance (p = 0.006). In longitudinal analyses predicting future functional performance, low temperature in the non-adipose was associated with faster gait speed (p = 0.021) and less time to walk 400 m quickly (p = 0.003), whereas in the adipose, lower temperature was associated with slower gait speed (p = 0.05) and more time to walk 400 m (p = 0.008). In older adults, lower basal body temperature appears to be associated with healthy aging in the absence of excessive adiposity.

  20. The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I: The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomko Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

  1. Central control of body temperature [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  2. Body/bone-marrow differential-temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Berdahl, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    Differential-temperature sensor developed to compare bone-marrow and body temperature in leukemia patients uses single stable amplifier to monitor temperature difference recorded by thermocouples. Errors are reduced by referencing temperatures to each other, not to separate calibration points.

  3. Vagus nerve is involved in the changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of 1,8-cineole via TRPM8 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Tomomi; Mori, Noriyuki; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2017-05-22

    Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a cold receptor activated by mild cold temperature (<28°C). TRPM8 expressed in cutaneous sensory nerves is involved in cold sensation and thermoregulation. TRPM8 mRNA is detected in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal mucosa, and in the vagal afferent nerve. The relationship between vagal afferent nerve-specific expression of TRPM8 and thermoregulation remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether TRPM8 expression in the vagal afferent nerve is involved in autonomic thermoregulation. We found that intragastric administration of 1,8-cineole, a TRPM8 agonist, increased intrascapular brown adipose tissue and colonic temperatures, and M8-B-treatment (TRPM8 antagonist) inhibited these responses. Intravenous administration of 1,8-cineole also showed similar effects. In vagotomized mice, the responses induced by intragastric administration of 1,8-cineole were attenuated. These results suggest that TRPM8 expressed in tissues apart from cutaneous sensory nerves are involved in autonomic thermoregulation response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  5. Air temperature investigation in microenvironment around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the temperature boundary layer around a human body in a quiescent indoor environment. The air temperature, mean in time and standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations around a breathing thermal manikin are examined in relation to the room temperature......, body posture and human respiratory flow. To determine to what extent the experiments represent the realistic scenario, the additional experiments were performed with a real human subject. The results show that at a lower room air temperature (20°C), the fluctuations of air temperature increased close...... to the surface of the body. The large standard deviation of air temperature fluctuations, up to 1.2°C, was recorded in the region of the chest, and up to 2.9°C when the exhalation was applied. The manikin leaned backwards increased the air temperature in the breathing zone, which was opposite from the forward...

  6. Effect of peritoneal lavage solution temperature on body temperature in anaesthetised cats and small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D C; Leece, E A; Trimble, T A; Demetriou, J L

    2017-05-20

    A prospective, randomised, non-blinded, clinical study to assess the effect of peritoneal lavage using warmed fluid on body temperature in anesthetised cats and dogs of less than 10 kg body mass undergoing coeliotomy. A standardised anaesthetic protocol was used. Oesophageal and rectal temperatures were measured at various time points. At the end of surgery, group 1 patients (n=10) were lavaged with 200 ml/kg sterile isotonic saline at 34±1°C and group 2 (n=10) at 40±1°C. Groups were similar with respect to age, mass, body condition and surgical incision length. Duration of anaesthesia, surgical procedures and peritoneal lavage was similar between groups. Linear regression showed no significant change in oesophageal temperature during the lavage period for group 1 (P=0.64), but a significant increase for group 2 patients (Ptemperature changes of -0.5°C (from (36.3°C to 35.9°C) and +0.9°C (from 35.4°C to 36.3°C), respectively. Similar results were found for rectal temperature, with mean changes of -0.5°C and +0.8°C (P=0.922 and 0.045), respectively. The use of isotonic crystalloid solution for peritoneal lavage at a temperature of 40±1°C significantly warms small animal patients, when applied in a clinical setting, compared with lavage solution at 34±1°C. British Veterinary Association.

  7. Changing world extreme temperature statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, J. M.; Katz, J. I.

    2018-04-01

    We use the Global Historical Climatology Network--daily database to calculate a nonparametric statistic that describes the rate at which all-time daily high and low temperature records have been set in nine geographic regions (continents or major portions of continents) during periods mostly from the mid-20th Century to the present. This statistic was defined in our earlier work on temperature records in the 48 contiguous United States. In contrast to this earlier work, we find that in every region except North America all-time high records were set at a rate significantly (at least $3\\sigma$) higher than in the null hypothesis of a stationary climate. Except in Antarctica, all-time low records were set at a rate significantly lower than in the null hypothesis. In Europe, North Africa and North Asia the rate of setting new all-time highs increased suddenly in the 1990's, suggesting a change in regional climate regime; in most other regions there was a steadier increase.

  8. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  9. Implanted telemeter for electrocardiogram and body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Measuring system requiring one blocking oscillator to generate modulated pulse repetition rate is implantable in the bodies of small animals. Device has life of two years and transmission range of about three feet. EKG sensing unit also is used to sense electromyogram or electrooculogram of laboratory animals.

  10. Changes of body mass and thermogenesis in Apodemus chevrieri during cold exposure and rewarming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental cues, such as temperature, play important roles in the regulation of physiology and behavior in small mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass and thermogenic capacity in Apodemus chevrieri. It showed that A. chevrieri increased resting metabolic rate (RMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST and energy intake and decreased body mass and body temperature when exposed to the cold while showed a significant increase in body mass and body temperature after rewarming. The decrease of body temperature can reduce the difference in temperature in environment, save energy consumption. The increase in body mass after rewarming was associated with the higher energy intake. Together, these data supported our hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce changes in body mass and metabolism in A. chevrieri.

  11. Whole body immersion and hydromineral homeostasis: effect of water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Chantal; Regnard, Jacques; Robinet, Claude; Mourot, Laurent; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir; Jammes, Yves; Dumoulin, Gilles; Desruelle, Anne-Virginie; Melin, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was designed to assess the effects of prolonged whole body immersion (WBI) in thermoneutral and cold conditions on plasma volume and hydromineral homeostasis.10 navy "combat swimmers" performed three static 6-h immersions at 34 degrees C (T34), 18 degrees C (T18) and 10 degrees C (T10). Rectal temperature, plasma volume (PV) changes, plasma proteins, plasma and urine ions, plasma osmolality, renin, aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured. Results show that compared to pre-immersion levels, PV decreased throughout WBI sessions, the changes being markedly accentuated in cold conditions. At the end of WBI, maximal PV variations were -6.9% at T34, -14.3% at T18, and -16.3% at T10. Plasma osmolality did not change during and after T34 immersion, while hyperosmolality was present at the end of T18 immersion and began after only 1 h of T10 immersion. In the three temperature conditions, significant losses of water (1.6-1.7 l) and salt (6-8 g) occurred and were associated with similar increases in osmolar and free water clearances. Furthermore, T18 and T10 immersions increased the glomerular filtration rate. There was little or no change in plasma renin and ADH, while the plasma level of aldosterone decreased equally in the three temperature conditions. In conclusion, our data indicate that cold water hastened PV changes induced by immersion, and increased the glomerular filtration rate, causing larger accumulated water losses. The iso-osmotic hypovolemia may impede the resumption of baseline fluid balance. Results are very similar to those repeatedly described by various authors during head-out water immersion.

  12. Altered energy intake and the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm are associated with changes in phase, but not amplitude, of clock gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Grace H; Mark, Peter J; Maloney, Shane K

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in mammals are driven by a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In vitro, temperature cycles within the physiological range can act as potent entraining cues for biological clocks. We altered the body temperature (Tc) rhythm in rats by manipulating energy intake (EI) to determine whether EI-induced changes in Tc oscillations are associated with changes in SCN clock gene rhythms in vivo. Male Wistar rats (n = 16 per diet) were maintained on either an ad libitum diet (CON), a high energy cafeteria diet (CAF), or a calorie restricted diet (CR), and Tc was recorded every 30 min for 6-7 weeks. SCN tissue was harvested from rats at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0, ZT6, ZT12, or ZT18. Expression of the clock genes Bmal1, Per2, Cry1, and Rev-erbα, the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1, and the heat shock protein Hsp90aa1, were determined using qPCR. The circadian profile of gene expression for each gene was characterized using cosinor analysis. Compared to the CON rats, the amplitude of Tc was decreased in CAF rats by 0.1 °C (p  0.25). Compared to CON, phase advances of the Tc, Bmal1, and Per2 rhythms were observed with CR feeding (p < 0.05), but CAF feeding elicited no significant changes in phase. The present results indicate that in vivo, the SCN is largely resistant to entrainment by EI-induced changes in the Tc rhythm, although some phase entrainment may occur.

  13. A nonintrusive temperature measuring system for estimating deep body temperature in bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S Y; Lee, W K; Baek, H J; Park, K S

    2012-01-01

    Deep body temperature is an important indicator that reflects human being's overall physiological states. Existing deep body temperature monitoring systems are too invasive to apply to awake patients for a long time. Therefore, we proposed a nonintrusive deep body temperature measuring system. To estimate deep body temperature nonintrusively, a dual-heat-flux probe and double-sensor probes were embedded in a neck pillow. When a patient uses the neck pillow to rest, the deep body temperature can be assessed using one of the thermometer probes embedded in the neck pillow. We could estimate deep body temperature in 3 different sleep positions. Also, to reduce the initial response time of dual-heat-flux thermometer which measures body temperature in supine position, we employed the curve-fitting method to one subject. And thereby, we could obtain the deep body temperature in a minute. This result shows the possibility that the system can be used as practical temperature monitoring system with appropriate curve-fitting model. In the next study, we would try to establish a general fitting model that can be applied to all of the subjects. In addition, we are planning to extract meaningful health information such as sleep structure analysis from deep body temperature data which are acquired from this system.

  14. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Amos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate.

  15. The Effects of the Heat and Moisture Exchanger on Humidity, Airway Temperature, and Core Body Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delventhal, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Findings from several studies have demonstrated that the use of a heat and moisture exchanger increases airway humidity, which in turn increases mean airway temperature and prevents decreases in core body temperature...

  16. Whole body cooling by immersion in water at moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, F; Booth, J

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the potential use of whole body cooling by water immersion for lowering body temperatures prior to endurance exercise. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), oxygen consumption (VO2), and ventilation (VE) were measured in 7 male and 3 female subjects who were immersed in a water bath for up to 60 min. Initial water temperature was 28.8+/-1.5 degrees C and decreased to 23.8+/-1.1 degrees C by the end of immersion. Pre-immersion Tre of 37.34+/-0.36 degrees C was not altered by 60 min water immersion but decreased to 36.64+/-0.34 degrees C at 3 min post immersion (p immersion. Reductions in Tre and Tsk resulted in reduced body heat content (Hc) of approximately 545 kJ (p immersion. VO2 and VE increased from pre-immersion values of 0.34+/-0.08 L x min(-1) and 6.2+/-1.4 L x min(-1) to 0.54+/-0.09 L x min(-) and 11.5+/-5.4 L x min(-1) at the end of immersion, respectively. Heart rate remained unchanged throughout immersion. These results indicate that whole body immersion in moderately cold water temperatures is an effective cooling maneuver for lowering body temperatures and body Hc in the absence of severe physiological responses generally associated with sudden cold stress.

  17. Elevated body temperature in ischemic stroke associated with neurological improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanevski, A N; Naess, H; Thomassen, L; Waje-Andreassen, U; Nacu, A; Kvistad, C E

    2017-11-01

    Some studies suggest that high body temperature within the first few hours of ischemic stroke onset is associated with improved outcome. We hypothesized an association between high body temperature on admission and detectable improvement within 6-9 hours of stroke onset. Consecutive ischemic stroke patients with NIHSS scores obtained within 3 hours and in the interval 6-9 hours after stroke onset were included. Body temperature was measured on admission. A total of 315 patients with ischemic stroke were included. Median NIHSS score on admission was 6. Linear regression showed that NIHSS score 6-9 hours after stroke onset was inversely associated with body temperature on admission after adjusting for confounders including NIHSS score body temperature and neurological improvement within few hours after admission. This finding may be limited to patients with documented proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion on admission and suggests a beneficial effect of higher body temperature on clot lysis within the first three hours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Association between obesity and reduced body temperature in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, G; Giudice, E; Fazio, F; Refinetti, R

    2011-08-01

    Industrialized nations are currently experiencing an obesity epidemic, the causes of which are not fully known. One possible mechanism of enhanced energy efficiency that has received almost no attention is a reduction in the metabolic cost of homeothermy, which could be achieved by a modest lowering of body core temperature. We evaluated the potential of this obesity-inducing mechanism in a canine model of the metabolic syndrome. We compared the rectal temperature of lean dogs and obese dogs by (a) conducting cross-sectional measurements in 287 dogs of many breeds varying greatly in body size, (b) conducting longitudinal measurements in individual dogs over 7-10 years and (c) tracking rectal temperature of lean and obese dogs at 3-h intervals for 48 consecutive hours in the laboratory. We found that larger dogs have lower rectal temperatures than smaller dogs and that, for the same body mass, obese dogs have lower rectal temperatures than lean dogs. The results were consistent in the cross-sectional, longitudinal and around-the-clock measurements. These findings document an association between obesity and reduced body temperature in dogs and support the hypothesis that obesity in this and other species of homeotherms may result from an increase in metabolic efficiency achieved by a regulated lowering of body temperature.

  19. The pupal body temperature and inner space temperature of cocoon under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    The temperature of pupal surface,body and inner space of cocoon on cocoon drying of microwave irradiation was investigated to make clear the effect of temperature with pupa and cocoon shell. After pupal surface temperature and body temperature were risen rapidly in early irradiation and slowly thereafter, these were done fast again. Then these rising degrees fell. The variation of inner space temperature consists three terms: as the first stage of rapidly rising on early irradiation, the second stage of slowly doing and the third stage of fast doing again in temperature. In the first stage and the second stage, the higher the temperature of sending air during irradiation was, the shorter the term was and the higher the reached temperature was. The surface, pupal body and inner space have reached higher temperature than the sending air before cocoon drying was over

  20. Metabolic rate and body temperature of an African sun bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxygen consumption (VO2) of the lesser double-collared sunbird, Nectarinia chalybea, was measured at ambient temperatures (Ta) from 7 to 35°C. The diel variation in body temperature (Tb) and wet thermal conductance (C) was also determined. The sunbirds (mean mass 8.36 g ± S.E. 0.21 g) showed a pronounced ...

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of routine postoperative body temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Hester; Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Goossens, Astrid; Speelman, Peter; Legemate, Dink A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On surgical wards, body temperature is routinely measured, but there is no proof that this is useful for detecting postoperative infection. The aim of this study was to compare temperature measurements (the test) with the confirmed absence or presence of a postoperative infection (the

  2. Dedicated tool to assess the impact of a rhetorical task on human body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Martowska, Katarzyna; Gołuch, Dominik; Wrocławska-Warchala, Emilia

    2017-10-01

    Functional infrared thermal imaging is a method widely used in medicine, including analysis of the mechanisms related to the effect of emotions on physiological processes. The article shows how the body temperature may change during stress associated with performing a rhetorical task and proposes new parameters useful for dynamic thermal imaging measurements MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 healthy male subjects were examined. They were given a rhetorical task that induced stress. Analysis and processing of collected body temperature data in a spatial resolution of 256×512pixels and a temperature resolution of 0.1°C enabled to show the dynamics of temperature changes. This analysis was preceded by dedicated image analysis and processing methods RESULTS: The presented dedicated algorithm for image analysis and processing allows for fully automated, reproducible and quantitative assessment of temperature changes and time constants in a sequence of thermal images of the patient. When performing the rhetorical task, the temperature rose by 0.47±0.19°C in 72.41% of the subjects, including 20.69% in whom the temperature decreased by 0.49±0.14°C after 237±141s. For 20.69% of the subjects only a drop in temperature was registered. For the remaining 6.89% of the cases, no temperature changes were registered CONCLUSIONS: The performance of the rhetorical task by the subjects causes body temperature changes. The ambiguous temperature response to the given stress factor indicates the complex mechanisms responsible for regulating stressful situations. Stress associated with the examination itself induces body temperature changes. These changes should always be taken into account in the analysis of infrared data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Daily rhythmicity of body temperature in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refinetti, R; Piccione, G

    2003-08-01

    Research over the past 50 years has demonstrated the existence of circadian or daily rhythmicity in the body core temperature of a large number of mammalian species. However, previous studies have failed to identify daily rhythmicity of body temperature in dogs. We report here the successful recording of daily rhythms of rectal temperature in female Beagle dogs. The low robustness of the rhythms (41% of maximal robustness) and the small range of excursion (0.5 degrees C) are probably responsible for previous failures in detecting rhythmicity in dogs.

  4. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation. PMID:27626046

  5. Wall temperature control of low-speed body drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of thermal means to control drag under turbulent boundary layer conditions is examined. Numerical calculations are presented for both skin friction and (unseparated) pressure drag for turbulent boundary-layer flows over a fuselage-like body with wall heat transfer. In addition, thermal control of separation on a bluff body is investigated. It is shown that a total drag reduction of up to 20 percent can be achieved for wall heating with a wall-to-total-freestream temperature ratio of 2. For streamlined slender bodies, partial wall heating of the forebody can produce almost the same order of total drag reduction as the full body heating case. For bluff bodies, the separation delay from partial wall cooling of the afterbody is approximately the same as for the fully cooled body.

  6. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores. PMID:23237274

  7. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Anne-Mari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb recordings, change-point analysis (CPA, home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS, the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  8. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Lempiäinen, Terttu; Aspelund, Mikko; Hellstedt, Paavo; Ikonen, Katri; Itämies, Juhani; Vähä, Ville; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Asikainen, Juha; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Niemelä, Pekka; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-12-13

    A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  9. Regulation of body temperature by some Mesozoic marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aurélien; Lécuyer, Christophe; Vincent, Peggy; Amiot, Romain; Bardet, Nathalie; Buffetaut, Eric; Cuny, Gilles; Fourel, François; Martineau, François; Mazin, Jean-Michel; Prieur, Abel

    2010-06-11

    What the body temperature and thermoregulation processes of extinct vertebrates were are central questions for understanding their ecology and evolution. The thermophysiologic status of the great marine reptiles is still unknown, even though some studies have suggested that thermoregulation may have contributed to their exceptional evolutionary success as apex predators of Mesozoic aquatic ecosystems. We tested the thermal status of ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, and mosasaurs by comparing the oxygen isotope compositions of their tooth phosphate to those of coexisting fish. Data distribution reveals that these large marine reptiles were able to maintain a constant and high body temperature in oceanic environments ranging from tropical to cold temperate. Their estimated body temperatures, in the range from 35 degrees +/- 2 degrees C to 39 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, suggest high metabolic rates required for predation and fast swimming over large distances offshore.

  10. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Body temperature measurement in mice during acute illness: implantable temperature transponder versus surface infrared thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Riedel, Nico; Grittner, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Banneke, Stefanie; Emmrich, Julius Valentin

    2018-02-23

    Body temperature is a valuable parameter in determining the wellbeing of laboratory animals. However, using body temperature to refine humane endpoints during acute illness generally lacks comprehensiveness and exposes to inter-observer bias. Here we compared two methods to assess body temperature in mice, namely implanted radio frequency identification (RFID) temperature transponders (method 1) to non-contact infrared thermometry (method 2) in 435 mice for up to 7 days during normothermia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin-induced hypothermia. There was excellent agreement between core and surface temperature as determined by method 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the intra- and inter-subject variation was higher for method 2. Nevertheless, using machine learning algorithms to determine temperature-based endpoints both methods had excellent accuracy in predicting death as an outcome event. Therefore, less expensive and cumbersome non-contact infrared thermometry can serve as a reliable alternative for implantable transponder-based systems for hypothermic responses, although requiring standardization between experimenters.

  12. Body temperature responses to handling stress in wintering Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Nord, Andreas; Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2017-10-01

    Body temperature variation in response to acute stress is typically characterized by peripheral vasoconstriction and a concomitant increase in core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia). It is poorly understood how this response differs between species and within individuals of the same species, and how it is affected by the environment. We therefore investigated stress-induced body temperature changes in a non-model species, the Black-capped Chickadee, in two environmental conditions: outdoors in low ambient temperature (mean: -6.6°C), and indoors, in milder ambient temperature close to thermoneutrality (mean: 18.7°C). Our results show that the change in body temperature in response to the same handling stressor differs in these conditions. In cold environments, we noted a significant decrease in core body temperature (-2.9°C), whereas the response in mild indoor conditions was weak and non-significant (-0.6°C). Heat loss in outdoor birds was exacerbated when birds were handled for longer time. This may highlight the role of behavioral thermoregulation and heat substitution from activity to body temperature maintenance in harsh condition. Importantly, our work also indicates that changes in the physical properties of the bird during handling (conductive cooling from cold hands, decreased insulation from compression of plumage and prevention of ptiloerection) may have large consequences for thermoregulation. This might explain why females, the smaller sex, lost more heat than males in the experiment. Because physiological and physical changes during handling may carry over to affect predation risk and maintenance of energy balance during short winter days, we advice caution when designing experimental protocols entailing prolonged handling of small birds in cold conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of body temperature on post-anoxic oxidative stress from the perspective of postnatal physiological adaptive processes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, H; Rogalska, J; Nowakowska, A; Wozniak, A; Mila-Kierzenkowska, C; Caputa, M

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that decrease in body temperature provides protection to newborns subjected to anoxia/ischemia. We hypothesized that the normal body temperature of 33°C in neonatal rats (4°C below normal body temperature in adults) is in fact a preadaptation to protect CNS from anoxia and further reductions as well as elevations in temperature may be counterproductive. Our experiments aimed to examine the effect of changes in body temperature on oxidative stress development in newborn rats exposed to anoxia. Two-day-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 temperature groups: i. hypothermic at body temperature of 31°C, ii. maintaining physiological neonatal body temperature of 33°C, iii. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 37°C, and i.v. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 39°C. The temperature was controlled starting 15 minutes before and afterword during 10 minutes of anoxia as well as for 2 hours post-anoxia. Cerebral concentrations of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes had been determined post mortem: immediately after anoxia was finished and 3, 7, and 14 days later. There were no post-anoxic changes in the concentration of MDA, CD and in antioxidant enzymes activity in newborn rats kept at their physiological body temperature of 33°C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at body temperature elevated to 37°C or 39°C as well as under hypothermic conditions (31°C) intensified post-anoxic oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool. Overall, these findings suggest that elevated body temperature (hyperthermia or fever), as well as exceeding cooling beyond the physiological level of body temperature of newborn rats, may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions. Our findings provide new insights into the role of body temperature in anoxic insult in vivo.

  14. Increase of body surface temperature and blood flow by theanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takeo; Noguchi, Kenichi; Ando, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Suntheanine (Taiyo Kagaku Co.: Theanine) is the trade name for L-theanine which is a unique amino acid found almost solely in tea plants, responsible for the exotictaste of green tea. We investigated the effects of relate to relaxation, improves the taste of processed foods, radiation sensitization, and increase of body surface temperature in vivo study. The results of the present study confirmed, (1) Suntheanine is incorporated into the brain and induces the emission of α -waves an induced of relaxation. (2) Body surface temperature and blood flow on skin were increased after administration of Suntheanine. (3) There was effects of radiation sensitization in whole body irradiation of X-rays after Suntheanine IP injection on C3H mice. (4) Acute toxicity, subacute toxicity and mutagen testconfirm the safety Suntheanine in this study

  15. Heart rates in hospitalized children by age and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daymont, Carrie; Bonafide, Christopher P; Brady, Patrick W

    2015-05-01

    Heart rate (HR) is frequently used by clinicians in the hospital to assess a patient's severity of illness and make treatment decisions. We sought to develop percentiles that characterize the relationship of expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children and to compare these percentiles with published references in both primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. Vital sign data were extracted from electronic health records of inpatients temperature measurement pairs from each admission. Measurements from 60% of patients were used to derive the percentile curves, with the remainder used for validation. We compared our upper percentiles with published references in primary care and ED settings. We used 60,863 observations to derive the percentiles. Overall, an increase in body temperature of 1°C was associated with an increase of ∼ 10 beats per minute in HR, although there were variations across age and temperature ranges. For infants and young children, our upper percentiles were lower than in primary care and ED settings. For school-age children, our upper percentiles were higher. We characterized expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children. These percentiles differed from references in primary care and ED settings. Additional research is needed to evaluate the performance of these percentiles for the identification of children who would benefit from further evaluation or intervention for tachycardia. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Regulation of Body Temperature by the Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chan Lek; Knight, Zachary A

    2018-04-04

    The regulation of body temperature is one of the most critical functions of the nervous system. Here we review our current understanding of thermoregulation in mammals. We outline the molecules and cells that measure body temperature in the periphery, the neural pathways that communicate this information to the brain, and the central circuits that coordinate the homeostatic response. We also discuss some of the key unresolved issues in this field, including the following: the role of temperature sensing in the brain, the molecular identity of the warm sensor, the central representation of the labeled line for cold, and the neural substrates of thermoregulatory behavior. We suggest that approaches for molecularly defined circuit analysis will provide new insight into these topics in the near future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Considerations for the measurement of core, skin and mean body temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Tipton, Michael J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-12-01

    Despite previous reviews and commentaries, significant misconceptions remain concerning deep-body (core) and skin temperature measurement in humans. Therefore, the authors have assembled the pertinent Laws of Thermodynamics and other first principles that govern physical and physiological heat exchanges. The resulting review is aimed at providing theoretical and empirical justifications for collecting and interpreting these data. The primary emphasis is upon deep-body temperatures, with discussions of intramuscular, subcutaneous, transcutaneous and skin temperatures included. These are all turnover indices resulting from variations in local metabolism, tissue conduction and blood flow. Consequently, inter-site differences and similarities may have no mechanistic relationship unless those sites have similar metabolic rates, are in close proximity and are perfused by the same blood vessels. Therefore, it is proposed that a gold standard deep-body temperature does not exist. Instead, the validity of each measurement must be evaluated relative to one's research objectives, whilst satisfying equilibration and positioning requirements. When using thermometric computations of heat storage, the establishment of steady-state conditions is essential, but for clinically relevant states, targeted temperature monitoring becomes paramount. However, when investigating temperature regulation, the response characteristics of each temperature measurement must match the forcing function applied during experimentation. Thus, during dynamic phases, deep-body temperatures must be measured from sites that track temperature changes in the central blood volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wearable sensors in intelligent clothing for measuring human body temperature based on optical fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Yang, Haijing; Li, Enbang; Liu, Zhihui; Wei, Kejia

    2012-05-21

    Measuring body temperature is considerably important to physiological studies as well as clinical investigations. In recent years, numerous observations have been reported and various methods of measurement have been employed. The present paper introduces a novel wearable sensor in intelligent clothing for human body temperature measurement. The objective is the integration of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors into functional textiles to extend the capabilities of wearable solutions for body temperature monitoring. In addition, the temperature sensitivity is 150 pm/°C, which is almost 15 times higher than that of a bare FBG. This study combines large and small pipes during fabrication to implant FBG sensors into the fabric. The law of energy conservation of the human body is considered in determining heat transfer between the body and its clothing. The mathematical model of heat transmission between the body and clothed FBG sensors is studied, and the steady-state thermal analysis is presented. The simulation results show the capability of the material to correct the actual body temperature. Based on the skin temperature obtained by the weighted average method, this paper presents the five points weighted coefficients model using both sides of the chest, armpits, and the upper back for the intelligent clothing. The weighted coefficients of 0.0826 for the left chest, 0.3706 for the left armpit, 0.3706 for the right armpit, 0.0936 for the upper back, and 0.0826 for the right chest were obtained using Cramer's Rule. Using the weighting coefficient, the deviation of the experimental result was ± 0.18 °C, which favors the use for clinical armpit temperature monitoring. Moreover, in special cases when several FBG sensors are broken, the weighted coefficients of the other sensors could be changed to obtain accurate body temperature.

  19. Temperature dependence of three-body ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, H.; Arnold, F.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the ion-molecule association reactions (i) N 2 + + N 2 + M → N 4 + + M (M=N 2 , He), (ii) O 2 + + O 2 + M → O 4 + + M (M=O 2 , He) and (iii) He + + 2He → He 2 + + He have been studied over an extended temperature range to temperatures as low as 30K with a recently constructed liquid helium-cooled ion drift tube. Over most of the temperature range the threebody reaction rate coefficients show an inverse temperature dependence proportional to Tsup(-n) with n in the range 0.6 to 2.9. This temperature dependence is quite consistent with current theories of ion molecule association. At low temperatures, however, a deviation from the Tsup(-n) dependence was observed for the association reactions (ii). For reactions (i) different temperature dependences were obtained for N 2 and He third bodies indicating an additional temperature dependence of the collisional stabilisation process. (Authors)

  20. Core body temperature, skin temperature, and interface pressure. Relationship to skin integrity in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, D M

    1999-06-01

    To ascertain the effects of 1-, 1 1/2-, and 2-hour turning intervals on nursing home residents' skin over the sacrum and trochanters. (1) the higher the core body temperature, the higher the skin surface temperature; (2) the 2-hour turning interval would have significantly higher skin surface temperature; (3) there would be no relationship between skin surface temperature and interface pressure; and (4) the sacrum would have the lowest skin surface temperature. Modified Latin-square. For-profit nursing home. Convenience sample of 26 residents who scored bedridden. First Temp measured core temperature; a disposable thermistor temperature probe, skin temperature; and a digital interface pressure evaluator, the interface pressure. Negative correlation (r = -.33, P = .003) occurred between core body temperature and skin surface temperature. Skin surface temperature rose at the end of the 2-hour turning interval but was not significant (F = (2.68) = .73, P = .49). Weak negative relationship (r = -12, P = .29) occurred between skin surface temperature and interface pressure, and sacral skin surface temperature was significantly lower for the left trochanter only (F = (8.68) = 7.05, P = .002). Although hypotheses were not supported, more research is needed to understand how time in position and multiple chronic illnesses interact to affect skin pressure tolerance.

  1. Changes in body weight and pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined the rela......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined...... the relationship between early changes (both increases and decreases) in pulse rate, and the impact of these changes on subsequent cardiovascular outcome events in both the placebo and sibutramine groups. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 9804 males and females, aged ⩾55 years, with a body mass index of 27-45 kg m(-)(2) were...... included in this current subanalysis of the SCOUT trial. Subjects were required to have a history of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, to assess cardiovascular outcomes. The primary outcome event (POE) was a composite of nonfatal myocardial...

  2. Warm Body Temperature Facilitates Energy Efficient Cortical Action Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na+, and outward K+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37–42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code. PMID:22511855

  3. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yu

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+, and outward K(+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.

  4. Validation of temperature-sensitive radio transmitters for measurement of body temperature in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. I.; Shobrak, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on the core body temperature (T(b)) of desert birds, we purposed to use temperature-sensitive implantable radio transmitters. Because of the difficulty in recapturing these birds, we needed to know if these electronic devices held their calibration over the duration of normal

  5. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K R; MacFarlane, P D

    2013-01-01

    This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT) while dogs in group W received warmed (W) irrigation fluid (36°C). A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1) pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2) arrival into theatre, (T3) end of surgery and (T4) arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1) and return to the recovery suite (T4) was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58°C (pdogs were hypothermic (temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses.

  6. Black-body anomaly: analysis of temperature offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, M.; Hofmann, R.; Schwarz, M.; Giacosa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the postulate that photon propagation is governed by a dynamically broken SU(2) gauge symmetry (scale ∝10 -4 eV) we make predictions for temperature offsets due to a low-temperature (a few times the present CMB temperature) spectral anomaly at low frequencies. Temperature offsets are extracted from least-square fits of the anomalous black-body spectra to their conventional counterparts. We discuss statistical errors, compare our results with those obtained from calibration data of the FIRAS instrument, and point out that our predicted offsets are screened by experimental errors given the frequency range used by FIRAS to perform their spectral fits. We also make contact with the WMAP observation by blueshifting their frequency bands. Although our results hint towards a strong dynamical component in the CMB dipole and an explanation of low-l suppression, it is important in view of its particle-physics implications that the above postulate be verified/falsified by an independent low-temperature black-body precision experiment. (orig.)

  7. Body temperatures in dinosaurs: what can growth curves tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Griebeler

    Full Text Available To estimate the body temperature (BT of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation. The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006. I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today's crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs, ornithischians (two, theropods (three, prosauropods (three, and sauropods (nine. For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal's core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately

  8. Body temperatures in dinosaurs: what can growth curves tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the body temperature (BT) of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR) with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation). The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006). I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today's crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs), ornithischians (two), theropods (three), prosauropods (three), and sauropods (nine). For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal's core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed) and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda) studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately limited

  9. Genetic variablilities of body temperature and resting behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that neither progeny nor generation had effect on body temperature. The Alpha strain exhibited more resting behaviour than did the exotic and the pure native types. Majority of the birds rested in the afternoon at 2.00 pm. This could be attributed to the fact that at 2.00 pm the weather is hot and birds search for a ...

  10. Impacts of exhalation flow on the microenvironment around the human body under different room temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Gharari, Noradin; Azari, Mansour Rezazade; Ashrafi, Khosro

    2018-04-01

    Exhalation flow and room temperature can have a considerable effect on the microenvironment in the vicinity of human body. In this study, impacts of exhalation flow and room temperature on the microenvironment around a human body were investigated using a numerical simulation. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamic program was applied to study thermal plume around a sitting human body at different room temperatures of a calm indoor room by considering the exhalation flow. The simulation was supported by some experimental measurements. Six different room temperatures (18 to 28 °C) with two nose exhalation modes (exhalation and non-exhalation) were investigated. Overhead and breathing zone velocities and temperatures were simulated in different scenarios. This study finds out that the exhalation through the nose has a significant impact on both quantitative and qualitative features of the human microenvironment in different room temperatures. At a given temperature, the exhalation through the nose can change the location and size of maximum velocity at the top of the head. In the breathing zone, the effect of exhalation through the nose on velocity and temperature distribution was pronounced for the point close to mouth. Also, the exhalation through the nose strongly influences the thermal boundary layer on the breathing zone while it only minimally influences the convective boundary layer on the breathing zone. Overall results demonstrate that it is important to take the exhalation flow into consideration in all areas, especially at a quiescent flow condition with low temperature.

  11. What do foraging wasps optimize in a variable environment, energy investment or body temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Brodschneider, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Vespine wasps (Vespula sp.) are endowed with a pronounced ability of endothermic heat production. To show how they balance energetics and thermoregulation under variable environmental conditions, we measured the body temperature and respiration of sucrose foragers (1.5 M, unlimited flow) under variable ambient temperature (T a = 20-35 °C) and solar radiation (20-570 W m(-2)). Results revealed a graduated balancing of metabolic efforts with thermoregulatory needs. The thoracic temperature in the shade depended on ambient temperature, increasing from ~37 to 39 °C. However, wasps used solar heat gain to regulate their thorax temperature at a rather high level at low T a (mean T thorax ~ 39 °C). Only at high T a they used solar heat to reduce their metabolic rate remarkably. A high body temperature accelerated the suction speed and shortened foraging time. As the costs of foraging strongly depended on duration, the efficiency could be significantly increased with a high body temperature. Heat gain from solar radiation enabled the wasps to enhance foraging efficiency at high ambient temperature (T a = 30 °C) by up to 63 %. The well-balanced change of economic strategies in response to environmental conditions minimized costs of foraging and optimized energetic efficiency.

  12. How cancer survivors experience their changed body encountering others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Dorte Malig; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Elverdam, Beth

    2010-04-01

    Psychosocial cancer research illustrates how women treated for breast cancer experience physical changes in their bodies and the way they perceive, that, others see their body. But how patients with other types of cancer have experienced changes in their bodies and how this affects their relationship with others is less researched. To explore how cancer survivors with different types of cancer and cancer treatment, experience and handle their changed body, especially when meeting others, and how this influences their everyday life of survivorship, i.e. long after treatment has been completed. Participant observation at a Cancer Rehabilitation Centre (CRC). Of the observed participants 23 were selected and interviewed twice. Many participants had a changed body due to the cancer and its treatment. When the cancer survivors meet others they experience that their changed body means that they are avoided, looked at in specific ways, or greeted with a specific compliment. The verbal and nonverbal language that the cancer survivors are met with indicates the existence of a specific discursive aesthetic in relation to the disease and the changed body. This discursive aesthetic represents a silence and secrecy about cancer, which makes it impossible for survivors to talk about their experiences with cancer and a changed body. The changed body not only represents the physical sign of cancer, it also represents the social presence and representation of cancer. The analysis gives an insight into general questions of meaning related to the changed body in late modernity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.J.; Haag, G.

    1979-07-01

    Design data for irradiated graphite are usually presented as families of isothermal curves showing the change in physical property as a function of fast neutron fluence. In this report, procedures for combining isothermal curves to predict behavior under changing irradiation temperatures are compared with experimental data on irradiation-induced changes in dimensions, Young's modulus, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansivity. The suggested procedure fits the data quite well and is physically realistic

  14. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2016-02-09

    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations.

  15. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    thermometer. This work, however, can be quite time consuming and laborious, and further compromising the immediate well-fare of the pig, when restraining of the individual animal is necessary. Therefore, an electronic body monitoring system using implantable microchip transponders for measuring peripheral...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... microchip transponder was injected deep subcutaneously by the left ear base of each individual. The transponder was before insertion programmed with ID identical to the individual pig’s ear tag number. The pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups: one group placebo-infected and two groups virus...

  16. Extracellular hyperosmolality and body temperature during physical exercise in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Turlejska, E.; Nazar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulation during exercise can be affected by extracellular fluid hyperosmolality without changing the plasma Na(+) concentration. The effects of preexercise venous infusions of hypertonic mannitol and NaCl solutions on rectal temperature responses were compared in dogs running at moderate intensity for 60 min on a treadmill. Plasma Na(+) concentration was increased by 12 meq after NaCl infusion, and decreased by 9 meq after mannitol infusion. Both infusions increased plasma by 15 mosmol/kg. After both infusions, rectal temperature was essentially constant during 60 min rest. However, compared with the noninfusion exercise increase in osmolality of 1.3 C, rectal temperature increased by 1.9 C after both postinfusion exercise experiments. It was concluded that inducing extracellular hyperosmolality, without elevating plasma, can induce excessive increases in rectal temperature during exericse but not at rest.

  17. Change of MMP dependent on temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Akwansa, Eugene

    2008-01-01

       The experiment was conducted with the purpose to investigate how Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP) changes at different temperatures. MMP was measured in a high pressure unit. An original oil saturated chalk core plug from the Danish oil field in North Sea was under investigation. The plug...... underestimation of MMP values which can lead to the loss of efficiency of oil extraction....

  18. Systems Modeling for Crew Core Body Temperature Prediction Postlanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Cynthia; Ochoa, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, NASA s latest crewed spacecraft project, presents many challenges to its designers including ensuring crew survivability during nominal and off nominal landing conditions. With a nominal water landing planned off the coast of San Clemente, California, off nominal water landings could range from the far North Atlantic Ocean to the middle of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. For all of these conditions, the vehicle must provide sufficient life support resources to ensure that the crew member s core body temperatures are maintained at a safe level prior to crew rescue. This paper will examine the natural environments, environments created inside the cabin and constraints associated with post landing operations that affect the temperature of the crew member. Models of the capsule and the crew members are examined and analysis results are compared to the requirement for safe human exposure. Further, recommendations for updated modeling techniques and operational limits are included.

  19. Body image and body change: predictive factors in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R

    2013-08-01

    Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  20. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD of age was 31.06 (10.24 years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  1. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  2. Effects of temperature changes on groundwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, Christian; Kellermann, Claudia; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Lueders, Tillmann; Brielmann, Heike; Schmidt, Susanne; Kuntz, David; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone

    2014-05-01

    The use of groundwater as a carrier of thermal energy is becoming more and more important as a sustainable source of heating and cooling. At the same time, the present understanding of the effects of aquifer thermal usage on geochemical and biological aquifer ecosystem functions is extremely limited. Recently we started to assess the effects of temperature changes in groundwater on the ecological integrity of aquifers. In a field study, we have monitored hydrogeochemical, microbial, and faunal parameters in groundwater of an oligotrophic aquifer in the vicinity of an active thermal discharge facility. The observed seasonal variability of abiotic and biotic parameters between wells was considerable. Yet, due to the energy-limited conditions no significant temperature impacts on bacterial or faunal abundances and on bacterial productivity were observed. In contrast, the diversity of aquifer bacterial communities and invertebrate fauna was either positively or negatively affected by temperature, respectively. In follow-up laboratory experiments temperature effects were systematically evaluated with respect to energy limitation (e.g. establishment of unlimited growth conditions), geochemistry (e.g. dynamics of DOC and nutrients), microbiology (e.g. survival of pathogens), and fauna (temperature preference and tolerance). First, with increased nutrient and organic carbon concentrations even small temperature changes revealed microbiological dynamics. Second, considerable amounts of adsorbed DOC were mobilized from sediments of different origin with an increase in temperatures. No evidence was obtained for growth of pathogenic bacteria and extended survival of viruses at elevated temperatures. Invertebrates clearly preferred natural thermal conditions (10-12°C), where their highest frequency of appearance was measured in a temperature gradient. Short-term incubations (48h) of invertebrates in temperature dose-response tests resulted in LT50 (lethal temperature) values

  3. Relation between Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature and Thermal Work Limit Indices with Body Core Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jalali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to heat stress in casting and smelting industries can cause adverse health effects on employees who working in such industries. The present study was set to assess the correlation and agreement of heat stress indices, including wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT, and thermal work limit (TWL, and the deep body temperature indices in workers of several casting and smelting industries located in the vicinity of Tehran, Iran. In This cross-sectional study 40 workers randomly selected and were examined. WBGT and TWL were the indices used for assessing heat stress, and the tympanic temperature and the oral temperature were measured as the heat strain indices. The correlation and agreement of indices were measured using SPSS vs.16. The results of the assessment of WBGT, TWL, the tympanic temperature, and oral temperature showed that 80, 17.5, 40, and 32.5 percent of workers exposed to heat stress higher than permissible limits proposed by standard bodies. Moreover, the present study showed that the significant correlation coefficient between heat stress and heat strain indices was in the range of 0.844- 0.869. Further, there was observed a good agreement between TWL and heat strain indices. The agreement between TWL and the oral temperature was 0.63 (P-value≤ 0.001 and between TWL and tympanic temperature was 0.612 (P-value≤ 0.001. However, the agreement between WBGT and heat strain indices was not satisfactory. These values were 0.154 (P-value ≥ 0.068 and 0.215 (P-value≥ 0.028 for the oral temperature and the tympanic temperature, respectively. The TWL index had a better agreement than WBGT with heat strain indices so TWL index is the better choice for assessing the heat stress in casting and metal smelting industries.

  4. Individualized estimation of human core body temperature using noninvasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Rakesh, Vineet; Oyama, Tatsuya; Kazman, Josh B; Yanovich, Ran; Ketko, Itay; Epstein, Yoram; Morrison, Shawnda; Reifman, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    A rising core body temperature (T c ) during strenuous physical activity is a leading indicator of heat-injury risk. Hence, a system that can estimate T c in real time and provide early warning of an impending temperature rise may enable proactive interventions to reduce the risk of heat injuries. However, real-time field assessment of T c requires impractical invasive technologies. To address this problem, we developed a mathematical model that describes the relationships between T c and noninvasive measurements of an individual's physical activity, heart rate, and skin temperature, and two environmental variables (ambient temperature and relative humidity). A Kalman filter adapts the model parameters to each individual and provides real-time personalized T c estimates. Using data from three distinct studies, comprising 166 subjects who performed treadmill and cycle ergometer tasks under different experimental conditions, we assessed model performance via the root mean squared error (RMSE). The individualized model yielded an overall average RMSE of 0.33 (SD = 0.18)°C, allowing us to reach the same conclusions in each study as those obtained using the T c measurements. Furthermore, for 22 unique subjects whose T c exceeded 38.5°C, a potential lower T c limit of clinical relevance, the average RMSE decreased to 0.25 (SD = 0.20)°C. Importantly, these results remained robust in the presence of simulated real-world operational conditions, yielding no more than 16% worse RMSEs when measurements were missing (40%) or laden with added noise. Hence, the individualized model provides a practical means to develop an early warning system for reducing heat-injury risk. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A model that uses an individual's noninvasive measurements and environmental variables can continually "learn" the individual's heat-stress response by automatically adapting the model parameters on the fly to provide real-time individualized core body temperature estimates. This

  5. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 μm in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L s = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L s = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of ∼0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of ΔL S ∼ 9 0 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 0 S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  6. Mapping climate change in European temperature distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainforth, David A; Chapman, Sandra C; Watkins, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses challenges for decision makers across society, not just in preparing for the climate of the future but even when planning for the climate of the present day. When making climate sensitive decisions, policy makers and adaptation planners would benefit from information on local scales and for user-specific quantiles (e.g. the hottest/coldest 5% of days) and thresholds (e.g. days above 28 ° C), not just mean changes. Here, we translate observations of weather into observations of climate change, providing maps of the changing shape of climatic temperature distributions across Europe since 1950. The provision of such information from observations is valuable to support decisions designed to be robust in today’s climate, while also providing data against which climate forecasting methods can be judged and interpreted. The general statement that the hottest summer days are warming faster than the coolest is made decision relevant by exposing how the regions of greatest warming are quantile and threshold dependent. In a band from Northern France to Denmark, where the response is greatest, the hottest days in the temperature distribution have seen changes of at least 2 ° C, over four times the global mean change over the same period. In winter the coldest nights are warming fastest, particularly in Scandinavia. (letter)

  7. Theoretical simulation of the dual-heat-flux method in deep body temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2010-01-01

    Deep body temperature reveals individual physiological states, and is important in patient monitoring and chronobiological studies. An innovative dual-heat-flux method has been shown experimentally to be competitive with the conventional zero-heat-flow method in its performance, in terms of measurement accuracy and step response to changes in the deep temperature. We have utilized a finite element method to model and simulate the dynamic process of a dual-heat-flux probe in deep body temperature measurements to validate the fundamental principles of the dual-heat-flux method theoretically, and to acquire a detailed quantitative description of the thermal profile of the dual-heat-flux probe. The simulation results show that the estimated deep body temperature is influenced by the ambient temperature (linearly, at a maximum rate of 0.03 °C/°C) and the blood perfusion rate. The corresponding depth of the estimated temperature in the skin and subcutaneous tissue layer is consistent when using the dual-heat-flux probe. Insights in improving the performance of the dual-heat-flux method were discussed for further studies of dual-heat-flux probes, taking into account structural and geometric considerations.

  8. Human body temperature and new approaches to constructing temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Matthew D; Bosio, Catharine M; Duplantis, Barry N; Nano, Francis E

    2011-09-01

    Many of the live human and animal vaccines that are currently in use are attenuated by virtue of their temperature-sensitive (TS) replication. These vaccines are able to function because they can take advantage of sites in mammalian bodies that are cooler than the core temperature, where TS vaccines fail to replicate. In this article, we discuss the distribution of temperature in the human body, and relate how the temperature differential can be exploited for designing and using TS vaccines. We also examine how one of the coolest organs of the body, the skin, contains antigen-processing cells that can be targeted to provoke the desired immune response from a TS vaccine. We describe traditional approaches to making TS vaccines, and highlight new information and technologies that are being used to create a new generation of engineered TS vaccines. We pay particular attention to the recently described technology of substituting essential genes from Arctic bacteria for their homologues in mammalian pathogens as a way of creating TS vaccines.

  9. Physical performance and peak aerobic power at different body temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, U; Ekblom, B

    1979-05-01

    In eight male subjects we studied the effect of different core (esophageal, (Tes 34.9--38.4 degrees C) and muscle (Tm 35.1--39.3 degrees C) temperature on 1) physical performance (time to exhaustion at a standard maximal rate of work, WT), 2) aerobic power (VO2), 3) heart rate (HR), and 4) blood lactate (LA) concentration during exhaustive combined arm and leg exercise. In three subjects the effects at different mean skin temperatures (Tsk 27 and 31 degrees C, respectively) were also studied. Peak VO2 was positively correlated to both Tes (r = 0.88) and Tm (r = 0.91). None of the subjects attained control VO2max at Tes and Tm lower than 37.5 and 38.0 degrees C, respectively. HR was correlated to both Tes (r = 0.97) and Tm (r = 0.95). Different Tsk did not affect peak VO2 and HR at subnormal body temperatures. Pulmonary ventilation was independent of Tes and Tm in all experimental situations. LA was significantly higher at Tes 37.5 degrees C compared to both Tes 34.9 and 38.5 degrees C, respectively. At Tes less than 37.5 degrees C and Tm less than 38.0 degrees C, there was a linear reduction in WT (20%.degrees C-1), peak VO2 (5--6%.degrees C-1), and HR (8 beats.min-1.degrees C-1) with lowered Tes and Tm.

  10. Effect of short-term decrease in water temperature on body temperature and involvement of testosterone in steelhead and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Go; Munakata, Arimune; Yada, Takashi; Schreck, Carl B; Noakes, David L G; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    The Pacific salmonid species Oncorhynchus mykiss is separated into a migratory form (steelhead trout) and a non-migratory form (rainbow trout). A decrease in water temperature is likely a cue triggering downstream behavior in the migratory form, and testosterone inhibits onset of this behavior. To elucidate differences in sensitivity to water temperature decreases between the migratory and non-migratory forms and effect of testosterone on the sensitivity, we examined two experiments. In experiment 1, we compared changes in body temperature during a short-term decrease in water temperature between both live and dead steelhead and rainbow trout. In experiment 2, we investigated effects of testosterone on body temperature decrease in steelhead trout. Water temperature was decreased by 3°C in 30min. The body temperature of the steelhead decreased faster than that of the rainbow trout. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the decrease in body temperature between dead steelhead and rainbow trout specimens. The body temperature of the testosterone-treated steelhead trout decreased more slowly than that of control fish. Our results suggest that the migratory form is more sensitive to decreases in water temperature than the non-migratory form. Moreover, testosterone might play an inhibitory role in sensitivity to such decreases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal Changes in Central England Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Hillebrand, Eric

    The aim of this paper is to assess how climate change is reflected in the variation of the seasonal patterns of the monthly Central England Temperature time series between 1772 and 2013. In particular, we model changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Starting from the seminal work...... by Thomson (“The Seasons, Global Temperature and Precession”, Science, 7 April 1995, vol 268, p. 59–68), a number of studies have documented a shift in the phase of the annual cycle implying an earlier onset of the spring season at various European locations. A significant reduction in the amplitude...... and stochastic trends, as well as seasonally varying autocorrelation and residual variances. The model can be summarized as containing a permanent and a transitory component, where global warming is captured in the permanent component, on which the seasons load differentially. The phase of the seasonal cycle...

  12. Sex, season, and time of day interact to affect body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, G.D.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, B.J.; Gregory, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    1.We examined multiple hypotheses regarding differences in body temperatures of the Giant Gartersnake using temperature-sensitive radio telemetry and an information-theoretic analytical approach.2.Giant Gartersnakes selected body temperatures near 30 ??C, and males and females had similar body temperatures most of the year, except during the midsummer gestation period.3.Seasonal differences in the body temperatures of males and females may relate to both the costs associated with thermoregulatory behavior, such as predation, and the benefits associated with maintaining optimal body temperatures, such as successful incubation.

  13. Correlated colour temperature of morning light influences alertness and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc; Schellen, Lisje; Souman, Jan L; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2018-03-01

    Though several studies have reported human alertness to be affected by the intensity and spectral composition of ambient light, the mechanism behind this effect is still largely unclear, especially for daytime exposure. Alerting effects of nocturnal light exposure are correlated with melatonin suppression, but melatonin levels are generally low during the day. The aim of this study was to explore the alerting effect of light in the morning for different correlated colour temperature (CCT) values, as well as its interaction with ambient temperature. Body temperature and perceived comfort were included in the study as possible mediating factors. In a randomized crossover design, 16 healthy females participated in two sessions, once under 2700K and once under 6500K light (both 55lx). Each session consisted of a baseline, a cool, a neutral and a warm thermal environment. Alertness as measured in a reaction time task was lower for the 6500K exposure, while subjective sleepiness was not affected by CCT. Also, core body temperature was higher under 6500K. Skin temperature parameters and perceived comfort were positively correlated with subjective sleepiness. Reaction time correlated with heat loss, but this association did not explain why the reaction time was improved for 2700K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Body temperature increases during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shan Chuang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Body temperature transiently increased during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery. The increase in body temperature was associated with operation duration. The etiology is uncertain. Continuous body temperature monitoring and the application of both heating and cooling devices during pediatric full mouth rehabilitation surgery should be mandatory.

  15. Seasonal migrations, body temperature fluctuations, and infection dynamics in adult amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Daversa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Risks of parasitism vary over time, with infection prevalence often fluctuating with seasonal changes in the annual cycle. Identifying the biological mechanisms underlying seasonality in infection can enable better prediction and prevention of future infection peaks. Obtaining longitudinal data on individual infections and traits across seasons throughout the annual cycle is perhaps the most effective means of achieving this aim, yet few studies have obtained such information for wildlife. Here, we tracked spiny common toads (Bufo spinosus within and across annual cycles to assess seasonal variation in movement, body temperatures and infection from the fungal parasite, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Across annual cycles, toads did not consistently sustain infections but instead gained and lost infections from year to year. Radio-tracking showed that infected toads lose infections during post-breeding migrations, and no toads contracted infection following migration, which may be one explanation for the inter-annual variability in Bd infections. We also found pronounced seasonal variation in toad body temperatures. Body temperatures approached 0 °C during winter hibernation but remained largely within the thermal tolerance range of Bd. These findings provide direct documentation of migratory recovery (i.e., loss of infection during migration and escape in a wild population. The body temperature reductions that we observed during hibernation warrant further consideration into the role that this period plays in seasonal Bd dynamics.

  16. Prediction of body lipid change in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friggens, N C; Ingvartsen, K L; Emmans, G C

    2004-04-01

    A simple method to predict the genetically driven pattern of body lipid change through pregnancy and lactation in dairy cattle is proposed. The rationale and evidence for genetically driven body lipid change have their basis in evolutionary considerations and in the homeorhetic changes in lipid metabolism through the reproductive cycle. The inputs required to predict body lipid change are body lipid mass at calving (kg) and the date of conception (days in milk). Body lipid mass can be derived from body condition score and live weight. A key assumption is that there is a linear rate of change of the rate of body lipid change (dL/dt) between calving and a genetically determined time in lactation (T') at which a particular level of body lipid (L') is sought. A second assumption is that there is a linear rate of change of the rate of body lipid change (dL/dt) between T' and the next calving. The resulting model was evaluated using 2 sets of data. The first was from Holstein cows with 3 different levels of body fatness at calving. The second was from Jersey cows in first, second, and third parity. The model was found to reproduce the observed patterns of change in body lipid reserves through lactation in both data sets. The average error of prediction was low, less than the variation normally associated with the recording of condition score, and was similar for the 2 data sets. When the model was applied using the initially suggested parameter values derived from the literature the average error of prediction was 0.185 units of condition score (+/- 0.086 SD). After minor adjustments to the parameter values, the average error of prediction was 0.118 units of condition score (+/- 0.070 SD). The assumptions on which the model is based were sufficient to predict the changes in body lipid of both Holstein and Jersey cows under different nutritional conditions and parities. Thus, the model presented here shows that it is possible to predict genetically driven curves of body

  17. The changing appearance of the body in working life

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin, Ebru

    2009-01-01

     Today the features of the workers and changes in newly founded working areas bring about new demands in the physical appearance of body and dressing. From this point of view, this article will focus on the changing appearances of body in working life. It will be attempted to relate consumption and fashion with the physical appearance of  body in working life and employment application period. The reasons why specifically the bodies who work for service sector are rendered as distintive and  ...

  18. The effect of temperature and body size on metabolic scope of activity in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Behrens, Jane; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ambient temperature affect the physiology and metabolism and thus the distribution of fish. In this study we used intermittent flow respirometry to determine the effect of temperature (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C) and wet body mass (BM) (~30–460 g) on standard metabolic rate (SMR, mg O2 h−1...

  19. Surgical implantation of temperature-sensitive transmitters and data-loggers to record body temperature in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D; Johnston, S D; Beard, L; Nicholson, V; Lisle, A; Gaughan, J; Larkin, R; Theilemann, P; Mckinnon, A; Ellis, W

    2016-01-01

    Under predicted climate change scenarios, koala distribution in Australia is expected to be adversely affected. Recent studies have attempted to identify suitable habitat, based on models of bioclimatic regions, but to more accurately reflect the thermal tolerance and behavioural adaptations of the various regional populations, the koala's response to periods of heat stress will need to be investigated at the individual animal level. To explore the safety and suitability of temperature-sensitive intra-abdominal implants for monitoring core body temperature in the koala. A temperature-sensitive radio transmitter and thermal iButton data-logger, waxed together as a package, were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of four captive koalas. In one animal the implant was tethered and in the other three, it was left free-floating. After 3 months, the implants were removed and all four koalas recovered without complications. The tethering of the package in the one koala resulted in minor inflammation and adhesion, so this practice was subsequently abandoned. The free-floating deployments were complication-free and revealed a diurnal body temperature rhythm, with daily ranges of 0.4-2.8°C. The minimum recorded body temperature was 34.2°C and the maximum was 37.7°C. The difference in the readings obtained from the transmitters and iButtons never exceeded 0.3°C. The suitability of the surgical approach was confirmed, from both the animal welfare and data collection points of view. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Motivational processes associated with unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussap, Alexander J

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between approach-avoidance motivational processes and unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviours was investigated. Self-reported sensitivity to rewards (SR) and sensitivity to punishments (SP) were measured for a convenience sample of 130 women, aged 18 to 40 years, along with measures of disordered eating symptomatology and exercise dependence. Together, SR and SP significantly predicted variance in drive for thinness (21%), bulimia (17%), and obligatory exercise (7%). These relationships were partly mediated by internalization of the thin ideal, body comparison, and subjective importance of achieving one's 'ideal' body and of avoiding one's 'worst possible' body. Interestingly, body dissatisfaction partly mediated the relationships involving SP but not SR. The results suggest that an underlying sensitivity to punishments, but not rewards, can manifest as a 'fear of fatness'. Both of these motivational traits can increase the salience of self evaluations, and thus indirectly contribute to unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviours.

  1. Relationship between body temperature, weight, and hematological parameters of black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas Cardoso; Barros, Marilia

    2016-06-01

    Basal thermal values of captive adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) in a thermoneutral environment were measured via different methods, along with body weight and hematological parameters. Body temperatures were recorded with rectal (RC), subcutaneous (SC) microchip transponder and infrared (left and right) tympanic membrane (TM) thermometries. Thermal values were correlated with body mass and some hematological data. Similar RC and SC temperatures were observed, these being significantly higher than the left and right TM values. SC temperature was positively correlated and in close agreement with RC measurements. Although body temperatures were not influenced by gender, capture time, or body weight, they were correlated with hematological parameters. Thus, body temperatures in this species seem to reflect some of the characteristics of the assessments' location, with SC microchip transponders being a less invasive method to assess body temperature in these small-bodied non-human primates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of season, temperature, and body mass on the standard metabolic rate of tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Luís F; Brito, Simone P; Milsom, William K; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study examined how the standard metabolic rate of tegu lizards, a species that undergoes large ontogenetic changes in body weight with associated changes in life-history traits, is affected by changes in body mass, body temperature, season, and life-history traits. We measured rates of oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) in 90 individuals ranging in body mass from 10.4 g to 3.75 kg at three experimental temperatures (17 degrees , 25 degrees , and 30 degrees C) over the four seasons. We found that standard metabolic rate scaled to the power of 0.84 of body mass at all experimental temperatures in all seasons and that thermal sensitivity of metabolism was relatively low (Q(10) approximately 2.0-2.5) over the range from 17 degrees to 30 degrees C regardless of body size or season. Metabolic rates did vary seasonally, being higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter at the same temperatures, and this was true regardless of animal size. Finally, in this study, the changes in life-history traits that occurred ontogenetically were not accompanied by significant changes in metabolic rate.

  3. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  4. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics,

  5. Sexual body ideal among Zulu women: Continuity and change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This gender-based article interrogates changes in how Zulu women in particular view their sexuality in terms of their body weight, size and shape, against the backdrop of an individual's image and identity. These concepts are juxtaposed against the western 'thin ideal' of a sexually alluring female body. The article is based ...

  6. changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and other anthropometric .... showing a good fit between the values obtained from the equation ..... ideally at 6-monthly intervals, in order to provide useful information to ... training on quality of life in HAART-treated HIV-positive Rwandan subjects with body fat ...

  7. Changes of the skull in general body diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval', G.Yu.; Perepust, L.A.; Novikova, Eh.Z.

    1984-01-01

    Changes of the skull in the following body disease are considered. Diseases: endocrine diseases, fibrous osteodystrophy, reticulohistocytoses and noninfectious granulomas, the blood system diseases, disturbance of vitamin balance. Skull roentgenograms in some above-mentioned diseases are presented and analysed

  8. Effect of a single 3-hour exposure to bright light on core body temperature and sleep in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D J; Cajochen, C; Borbély, A A

    1991-01-02

    Seven human subjects were exposed to bright light (BL, approx. 2500 lux) and dim light (DL, approx. 6 lux) during 3 h prior to nocturnal sleep, in a cross-over design. At the end of the BL exposure period core body temperature was significantly higher than at the end of the DL exposure period. The difference in core body temperature persisted during the first 4 h of sleep. The latency to sleep onset was increased after BL exposure. Rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) and slow-wave sleep (SWS; stage 3 + 4 of non-REMS) were not significantly changed. Eight subjects were exposed to BL from 20.30 to 23.30 h while their eyes were covered or uncovered. During BL exposure with uncovered eyes, core body temperature decreased significantly less than during exposure with covered eyes. We conclude that bright light immediately affects core body temperature and that this effect is mediated via the eyes.

  9. Colour change on different body regions provides thermal and signalling advantages in bearded dragon lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Viviana; Porter, Warren P.; Kearney, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Many terrestrial ectotherms are capable of rapid colour change, yet it is unclear how these animals accommodate the multiple functions of colour, particularly camouflage, communication and thermoregulation, especially when functions require very different colours. Thermal benefits of colour change depend on an animal's absorptance of solar energy in both UV–visible (300–700 nm) and near-infrared (NIR; 700–2600 nm) wavelengths, yet colour research has focused almost exclusively on the former. Here, we show that wild-caught bearded dragon lizards (Pogona vitticeps) exhibit substantial UV–visible and NIR skin reflectance change in response to temperature for dorsal but not ventral (throat and upper chest) body regions. By contrast, lizards showed the greatest temperature-independent colour change on the beard and upper chest during social interactions and as a result of circadian colour change. Biophysical simulations of heat transfer predicted that the maximum temperature-dependent change in dorsal reflectivity could reduce the time taken to reach active body temperature by an average of 22 min per active day, saving 85 h of basking time throughout the activity season. Our results confirm that colour change may serve a thermoregulatory function, and competing thermoregulation and signalling requirements may be met by partitioning colour change to different body regions in different circumstances.

  10. Body temperatures of fish feeding in the Point Beach thermal discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Thommes, M.M.

    1974-01-01

    Between April and November, 1973, measurements of internal body temperature were made on 1310 fish caught by fishermen at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant. Records were also made of fish weight, length, and sex and intake and discharge temperatures. A table is presented to show mean monthly body temperatures and numbers of each species. Approximately 76 percent of the measurements were made on rainbow and brown trout, since these species accounted for 74 percent of the catch. Body temperatures of most fish were intermediate between intake and discharge temperatures. Results suggested that each species has rather specific seasonal temperature requirements and that the maximum discharge temperature was normally avoided by feeding fish

  11. Exoskeleton may influence the internal body temperatures of Neotropical dung beetles (Col. Scarabaeinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Amore

    2017-05-01

    control of body temperature without implying energetic costs and metabolic changes.

  12. Exoskeleton may influence the internal body temperatures of Neotropical dung beetles (Col. Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Valentina; Hernández, Malva I M; Carrascal, Luis M; Lobo, Jorge M

    2017-01-01

    The insect exoskeleton is a multifunctional coat with a continuum of mechanical and structural properties constituting the barrier between electromagnetic waves and the internal body parts. This paper examines the ability of beetle exoskeleton to regulate internal body temperature considering its thermal permeability or isolation to simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation. Seven Neotropical species of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) differing in colour, surface sculptures, size, sexual dimorphism, period of activity, guild category and altitudinal distribution were studied. Specimens were repeatedly subjected to heating trials under simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation using a halogen neodymium bulb light with a balanced daylight spectrum and a ceramic infrared heat emitter. The volume of exoskeleton and its weight per volume unit were significantly more important for the heating rate at the beginning of the heating process than for the asymptotic maximum temperature reached at the end of the trials: larger beetles with relatively thicker exoskeletons heated more slowly. The source of radiation greatly influences the asymptotic temperature reached, but has a negligible effect in determining the rate of heat gain by beetles: they reached higher temperatures under artificial sunlight than under infrared radiation. Interspecific differences were negligible in the heating rate but had a large magnitude effect on the asymptotic temperature, only detectable under simulated sun irradiance. The fact that sun irradiance is differentially absorbed dorsally and transformed into heat among species opens the possibility that differences in dorsal exoskeleton would facilitate the heat gain under restrictive environmental temperatures below the preferred ones. The findings provided by this study support the important role played by the exoskeleton in the heating process of beetles, a cuticle able to act passively in the thermal control of body

  13. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  14. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Anikieiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  16. The influence of body temperature on image contrast in post mortem MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruder, Thomas D.; Hatch, Gary M.; Siegenthaler, Lea; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Mathier, Sandra; Thali, Michael J.; Weber, Oliver M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the temperature dependency of tissue contrast on post mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) images both objectively and subjectively; and to visually demonstrate the changes of image contrast at various temperatures. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the responsible justice department and the ethics committee. The contrast of water, fat, and muscle was measured using regions of interest (ROI) in the orbit of 41 human corpses to assess how body temperature (range 2.1–39.8 °C) relates to image contrast of T1-weighted (T1W) and T2-weighted (T2W) sequences on PMMR. Regressions were calculated using the method of least squares. Three readers judged visible changes of image contrast subjectively by consensus. Results: There was a positive relationship between temperature and contrast on T1-weighted (T1W) images and between temperature and the contrast of fat/muscle on T2-weighted (T2W) images. There was a negative relationship between temperature and the contrast of water/fat and water/muscle on T2W images. Subjectively, the influence of temperature became visible below 20 °C on T2W images, and below 10 °C on T1W images. Conclusion: Image contrast on PMMR depends on the temperature of a corpse. Radiologists involved in post mortem imaging must be aware of temperature-related changes in MR image contrast. To preserve technical quality, scanning corpses below 10 °C should be avoided.

  17. Menstrual Changes in Body Composition of Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachoń, Aleksandra Jadwiga

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the tendencies and scope of changes in body mass, body composition and body girths across the menstrual cycle were similar or different in women of different body build. Anthropometric examinations were carried out in a group of 40 naturally regularly menstruated females practicing team sports (aged 19-21, B-v 169.3+/-6.4 cm, body mass 59.6+/-7.0 kg), in the follicular, periovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The phases were determined on the basis of data from two consecutive menstrual cycles taking into account the cycle’s length. To establish the type of body build, Body Mass Index, hydration status and skinfold thickness were measured. For a statistical analysis, a multiple comparisons with multiple confidence intervals were applied. The increase in body mass between the follicular and the luteal phases was observed in all groups of women, the biggest gain was recorded in slim women, who in the luteal phase weighted 0.8 kg more. The amount of fat mass increased significantly across the menstrual cycle only in more hydrated (by about 0.66 kg) and slim women (by about 0.54 kg). Significant changes between consecutive phases of the menstrual cycle in waist and hip girths, and suprailiac skinfold thickness in some groups of women also indicate influence of fatness and hydration status and slenderness. In view of the presented results, the body build seems important for an analysis of the pattern of each component’s changes across the menstrual cycle, especially for female athletes. Certain changes can be seen only in some groups of women, therefore somatic features can be considered as a predictor of the intensity of changes.

  18. Asymetric change of daily temperature range: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukla, G. [ed.] [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Karl, T.R. [ed.] [National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States); Riches, M.R. [ed.] [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers presented at the MINIMAX workshop. Topics include; temperature fluxes, influence of clouds on temperature, anthropogenic influences on temperature flux, and carbon dioxide and aerosol induced greenhouse effect.

  19. Asymetric change of daily temperature range: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, G.; Riches, M.R.

    1994-04-01

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers presented at the MINIMAX workshop. Topics include; temperature fluxes, influence of clouds on temperature, anthropogenic influences on temperature flux, and carbon dioxide and aerosol induced greenhouse effect

  20. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  2. Effects of alpha-glucosylhesperidin on the peripheral body temperature and autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumi, Hiroko; Fujishima, Noboru; Shiraishi, Koso; Mori, Yuka; Ariyama, Ai; Kometani, Takashi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Nadamoto, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effects of alpha-glucosylhesperidin (G-Hsp) on the peripheral body temperature and autonomic nervous system in humans. We first conducted a survey of 97 female university students about excessive sensitivity to the cold; 74% of them replied that they were susceptible or somewhat susceptible to the cold. We subsequently conducted a three-step experiment. In the first experiment, G-Hsp (500 mg) was proven to prevent a decrease in the peripheral body temperature under an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C. In the second experiment, a warm beverage containing G-Hsp promoted blood circulation and kept the finger temperature higher for a longer time. We finally used a heart-rate variability analysis to study whether G-Hsp changed the autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component tended to be higher, while the ratio of the low-frequency (LF)/HF components tended to be lower after the G-Hsp administration. These results suggest that the mechanism for temperature control by G-Hsp might involve an effect on the autonomic nervous system.

  3. Validity of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Outdoor Exercise in the Heat

    OpenAIRE

    Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Yeargin, Susan W; Roti, Melissa W; Siegler, Jason; Blowers, Julie A; Glaviano, Neal R; Huggins, Robert A; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rectal temperature is recommended by the National Athletic Trainers' Association as the criterion standard for recognizing exertional heat stroke, but other body sites commonly are used to measure temperature. Few authors have assessed the validity of the thermometers that measure body temperature at these sites in athletic settings.

  4. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperatur...

  5. Future changes over the Himalayas: Mean temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A. P.; Kumar, D.; Choudhary, A.; Maharana, P.

    2018-03-01

    An assessment of the projection of near surface air temperature over the Himalayan region from the COordinated Regional Climate Downscaling EXperiment- South Asia (hereafter, CORDEX-SA) regional climate model (RCM) experiments have been carried out for different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. The purpose of this study is to assess the probable future changes in the mean temperature climatology and its long term trend for different seasons under greenhouse gas forcing scenarios for different seasons till the end of 21st century. A number of statistical measures such as changes in mean climatology, long term trend and probability distribution function have been used in order to detect the signals of changes in climate. Moreover, the associated uncertainties among different model experiments and their ensemble in space, time and different seasons in particular have been quantified. Despite of strong cold bias in the model experiments over Himalayan region (Nengker et al., 2017), statistically significant strong rate of warming (0.03-0.09 °C/year) across all the seasons and RCPs have been projected by all the models and their ensemble. Season specific response towards the warming is indicated by ensemble under future climate while ON season shows comparable magnitude of warming than DJF. Such warming intensifies with the increase in the radiative forcing under a range of greenhouse gas scenarios from RCP2.6 to RCP8.5. In addition to this, a wide range of spatial variability and disagreements in the trend magnitude between different models describes the uncertainty associated with the model projections and scenarios. A substantial seasonal response to warming with respect to elevation was also found, as DJF season followed by ON portrays highest rate of warming, specifically at higher elevation sites such as western Himalayas and northern part of central Himalayas. The different elevation classes respond differently to the projected future

  6. Comparison between auricular and standard rectal thermometers for the measurement of body temperature in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2011-04-01

    Although the rectal mucosa remains the traditional site for measuring body temperature in dogs, an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature. In this study, 88 mature healthy dogs had body temperatures measured with auricular and rectal thermometers. The mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar for each method, but Bland-Altman plots showed high biases and limits of agreement unacceptable for clinical purposes. The results indicate that auricular and rectal temperatures should not be interpreted interchangeably.

  7. Assessment of axillary temperature for the evaluation of normal body temperature of healthy young adults at rest in a thermoneutral environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Shuri; Misawa, Ayaka; Tanaka, Yuki; Nagashima, Kei

    2017-02-22

    The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate whether recently introduced methods of measuring axillary temperature are reliable, (2) examine if individuals know their baseline body temperature based on an actual measurement, and (3) assess the factors affecting axillary temperature and reevaluate the meaning of the axillary temperature. Subjects were healthy young men and women (n = 76 and n = 65, respectively). Three measurements were obtained: (1) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a predictive mode requiring 10 s (T ax-10 s ), (2) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a standard mode requiring 10 min (T ax-10 min ), and (3) tympanic membrane temperature continuously measured by infrared thermometry (T ty ). The subjects answered questions about eating and exercise habits, sleep and menstrual cycles, and thermoregulation and reported what they believed their regular body temperature to be (T reg ). T reg , T ax-10 s , T ax-10 min , and T ty were 36.2 ± 0.4, 36.4 ± 0.5, 36.5 ± 0.4, and 36.8 ± 0.3 °C (mean ± SD), respectively. There were correlations between T ty and T ax-10 min , T ty and T ax-10 s , and T ax-10 min and T ax-10 s (r = .62, r = .46, and r = .59, respectively, P body mass indices and irregular menstrual cycles. Modern devices for measuring axillary temperature may have changed the range of body temperature that is recognized as normal. Core body temperature variations estimated by tympanic measurements were smaller than those estimated by axillary measurements. This variation of axillary temperature may be due to changes in the measurement methods introduced by modern devices and techniques. However, axillary temperature values correlated well with those of tympanic measurements, suggesting that the technique may reliably report an individual's state of health. It is important for individuals to know their baseline axillary temperature to evaluate subsequent

  8. Cross-sectional area of the murine aorta linearly increases with increasing core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, A Colleen; Manders, Adam B; Cao, Amos A; Scheven, Ulrich M; Greve, Joan M

    2017-11-06

    The cardiovascular (CV) system plays a vital role in thermoregulation. To date, the response of core vasculature to increasing core temperature has not been adequately studied in vivo. Our objective was to non-invasively quantify the arterial response in murine models due to increases in body temperature, with a focus on core vessels of the torso and investigate whether responses were dependent on sex or age. Male and female, adult and aged mice were anaesthetised and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were acquired from the circle of Willis (CoW), heart, infrarenal aorta and peripheral arteries at core temperatures of 35, 36, 37 and 38 °C (±0.2 °C). Vessels in the CoW did not change. Ejection fraction decreased and cardiac output (CO) increased with increasing temperature in adult female mice. Cross-sectional area of the aorta increased significantly and linearly with temperature for all groups, but at a diminished rate for aged animals (p temperature are biologically important because they may affect conductive and convective heat transfer. Leveraging non-invasive methodology to quantify sex and age dependent vascular responses due to increasing core temperature could be combined with bioheat modelling in order to improve understanding of thermoregulation.

  9. Clinical review: Brain-body temperature differences in adults with severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Surrogate or 'proxy' measures of brain temperature are used in the routine management of patients with brain damage. The prevailing view is that the brain is 'hotter' than the body. The polarity and magnitude of temperature differences between brain and body, however, remains unclear after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The focus of this systematic review is on the adult patient admitted to intensive/neurocritical care with a diagnosis of severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 8). The review considered studies that measured brain temperature and core body temperature. Articles published in English from the years 1980 to 2012 were searched in databases, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid SP, Mednar and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database. For the review, publications of randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, before and after studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and descriptive studies were considered for inclusion. Of 2,391 records identified via the search strategies, 37 were retrieved for detailed examination (including two via hand searching). Fifteen were reviewed and assessed for methodological quality. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review providing 15 brain-core body temperature comparisons. The direction of mean brain-body temperature differences was positive (brain higher than body temperature) and negative (brain lower than body temperature). Hypothermia is associated with large brain-body temperature differences. Brain temperature cannot be predicted reliably from core body temperature. Concurrent monitoring of brain and body temperature is recommended in patients where risk of temperature-related neuronal damage is a cause for clinical concern and when deliberate induction of below-normal body temperature is instituted. PMID:23680353

  10. Conservatism of lizard thermal tolerances and body temperatures across evolutionary history and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Joseph W; Buckley, Lauren B

    2013-04-23

    Species may exhibit similar thermal tolerances via either common ancestry or environmental filtering and local adaptation, if the species inhabit similar environments. We ask whether upper and lower thermal limits (critical thermal maxima and minima) and body temperatures are more strongly conserved across evolutionary history or geography for lizard populations distributed globally. We find that critical thermal maxima are highly conserved with location accounting for a higher proportion of the variation than phylogeny. Notably, thermal tolerance breadth is conserved across the phylogeny despite critical thermal minima showing little niche conservatism. Body temperatures observed during activity in the field show the greatest degree of conservatism, with phylogeny accounting for most of the variation. This suggests that propensities for thermoregulatory behaviour, which can buffer body temperatures from environmental variation, are similar within lineages. Phylogeny and geography constrain thermal tolerances similarly within continents, but variably within clades. Conservatism of thermal tolerances across lineages suggests that the potential for local adaptation to alleviate the impacts of climate change on lizards may be limited.

  11. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  12. Autonomic control of body temperature and blood pressure: influences of female sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Hart, Emma C J; Barnes, Jill N; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Female reproductive hormones exert important non-reproductive influences on autonomic regulation of body temperature and blood pressure. Estradiol and progesterone influence thermoregulation both centrally and peripherally, where estradiol tends to promote heat dissipation, and progesterone tends to promote heat conservation and higher body temperatures. Changes in thermoregulation over the course of the menstrual cycle and with hot flashes at menopause are mediated by hormonal influences on neural control of skin blood flow and sweating. The influence of estradiol is to promote vasodilation, which, in the skin, results in greater heat dissipation. In the context of blood pressure regulation, both central and peripheral hormonal influences are important as well. Peripherally, the vasodilator influence of estradiol contributes to the lower blood pressures and smaller risk of hypertension seen in young women compared to young men. This is in part due to a mechanism by which estradiol augments beta-adrenergic receptor mediated vasodilation, offsetting alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction, and resulting in a weak relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and total peripheral resistance, and between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. After menopause, with the loss of reproductive hormones, sympathetic nerve activity, peripheral resistance and blood pressure become more strongly related, and sympathetic nerve activity (which increases with age) becomes a more important contributor to the prevailing level of blood pressure. Continuing to increase our understanding of sex hormone influences on body temperature and blood pressure regulation will provide important insight for optimization of individualized health care for future generations of women.

  13. Article comprising a garment or other textile structure for use in controlling body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    There is disclosed an article for use in cooling body temperature which comprises a garment having a coat and pant, with each having a body section adapted to receive a portion of the torso of the wearer and extensions from the body section to receive the wearer's limbs. The garment includes a system for circulating temperature controlling fluid from a suitable source through patches removably received in pockets in each of body section and extensions.

  14. Macroscale patterns in body size of intertidal crustaceans provide insights on climate change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Contreras, Heraldo; Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Emilio; Schoeman, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting responses of coastal ecosystems to altered sea surface temperatures (SST) associated with global climate change, requires knowledge of demographic responses of individual species. Body size is an excellent metric because it scales strongly with growth and fecundity for many ectotherms. These attributes can underpin demographic as well as community and ecosystem level processes, providing valuable insights for responses of vulnerable coastal ecosystems to changing climate. We investigated contemporary macroscale patterns in body size among widely distributed crustaceans that comprise the majority of intertidal abundance and biomass of sandy beach ecosystems of the eastern Pacific coasts of Chile and California, USA. We focused on ecologically important species representing different tidal zones, trophic guilds and developmental modes, including a high-shore macroalga-consuming talitrid amphipod (Orchestoidea tuberculata), two mid-shore scavenging cirolanid isopods (Excirolana braziliensis and E. hirsuticauda), and a low-shore suspension-feeding hippid crab (Emerita analoga) with an amphitropical distribution. Significant latitudinal patterns in body sizes were observed for all species in Chile (21° - 42°S), with similar but steeper patterns in Emerita analoga, in California (32°- 41°N). Sea surface temperature was a strong predictor of body size (-4% to -35% °C-1) in all species. Beach characteristics were subsidiary predictors of body size. Alterations in ocean temperatures of even a few degrees associated with global climate change are likely to affect body sizes of important intertidal ectotherms, with consequences for population demography, life history, community structure, trophic interactions, food-webs, and indirect effects such as ecosystem function. The consistency of results for body size and temperature across species with different life histories, feeding modes, ecological roles, and microhabitats inhabiting a single widespread coastal

  15. The impact of high temperatures on foraging behaviour and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High temperatures can pose significant thermoregulation challenges for endotherms, and determining how individual species respond to high temperatures will be important for predicting the impact of global warming on wild populations. Animals can adjust their behaviour or physiology to cope with higher temperatures, ...

  16. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)], E-mail: ahirata@nitech.ac.jp

    2008-09-21

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 deg. C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg{sup -1}, which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  17. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-09-21

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 degrees C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg(-1), which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  18. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 deg. C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg -1 , which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio

  19. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (dim light would gain more body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  20. Deviation from goal pace, body temperature and body mass loss as predictors of road race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Hosokawa, Yuri; Belval, Luke N; Huggins, Robert A; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (T GI ), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. Participants ingested a T GI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race. Percent off predicted pace (% OFF ) was calculated for seven segments of the race. Separate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between pace, T ​GI , and %BML on relative race performance. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse post race T GI (≥40°C vs 0.05). There was a trend in a slower pace (p=0.055) and greater % OFF (p=0.056) in runners finishing the race with a T GI >40°C. Overall, finish time was influenced by greater variations in pace during the first two miles of the race. In addition, runners who minimized fluid losses and had lower T GI were associated with meeting self-predicted goals. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of elevated body temperature on circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, M; Barington, T; Gyhrs, A

    1995-01-01

    This work was designed to investigate the effect of in vivo hyperthermia in man on circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells. Eight healthy male volunteers were immersed into a hot waterbath (WI) (water temperature 39.5 degrees C) for 2 h, whereby their body temperature rose to 39.5 degrees C....... On another occasion they served as their own controls, being immersed into thermoneutral water (water temperature 34.5 degrees C) for 2 h. Blood samples were drawn before immersion, at body temperatures of 38, 39 and 39.5 degrees C, as well as 2 h after WI when their body temperatures were normalized...

  2. Evaluation of the relationship between motion sickness symptomatology and blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of symptoms of motion sickness and changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature. Twelve subjects were each evaluated four times using the vestibular-visual interaction test (Graybiel and Lackner, 1980). The results were analyzed both within and across individual subjects. Neither a systematic group nor consistent individual relationship was found between the physiological parameters and the appearance of symptoms of motion sickness. These findings suggest that biofeedback control of the physiological variables studied is not likely to prevent the expression of motion sickness symptomatology.

  3. Tympanic ear thermometer assessment of body temperature among patients with cognitive disturbances. An acceptable and ethically desirable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadal, Lena; Fog, Lisbet; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of a possible relation between body temperature measurements by the current generation of tympanic ear and rectal thermometers. In Denmark, a national guideline recommends the rectal measurement. Subsequently, the rectal thermometers and tympanic ear devices are the most frequently used and first choice in Danish hospital wards. Cognitive changes constitute challenges with cooperating in rectal temperature assessments. With regard to diagnosing, ethics, safety and the patients' dignity, the tympanic ear thermometer might comprise a desirable alternative to rectal noninvasive measurement of body temperature during in-hospital-based neurorehabilitation. A prospective, descriptive cohort study. Consecutive inclusion of 27 patients. Linear regression models were used to analyse 284 simultaneous temperature measurements. Ethical approval for this study was granted by the Danish Data Protection Agency, and the study was completed in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration 2008. About 284 simultaneous rectal and ear temperature measurements on 27 patients were analysed. The patient-wise variability of measured temperatures was significantly higher for the ear measurements. Patient-wise linear regressions for the 25 patients with at least three pairs of simultaneous ear and rectal temperature measurements showed large interpatient variability of the association. A linear relationship between the rectal body temperature assessment and the temperature assessment employing the tympanic thermometer is weak. Both measuring methods reflect variance in temperature, but ear measurements showed larger variation. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  5. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A.; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J.; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Eiler, John M.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ~6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  6. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs. PMID:27504097

  7. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teunissen, L P J; Daanen, H A M; De Haan, A; De Koning, J J

    2012-01-01

    Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The pill temperature (T pill ) was compared with the rectal temperature (T re ) and esophageal temperature (T es ). T pill corresponded well to T re during the entire trial, but deviated considerably from T es during the exercise and recovery periods. During maximal exercise, the average ΔT pill −T re and ΔT pill −T es were 0.13 ± 0.26 and −0.57 ± 0.53 °C, respectively. The response time from the start of exercise, the rate of change during exercise and the peak temperature were similar for T pill and T re. T es responded 5 min earlier, increased more than twice as fast and its peak value was 0.42 ± 0.46 °C higher than T pill . In conclusion, also during considerable temperature changes at a very high rate, T pill is still a representative of T re . The extent of the deviation in the pattern and peak values between T pill and T es (up to >1 °C) strengthens the assumption that T pill is unsuited to evaluate central blood temperature when body temperatures change rapidly. (paper)

  8. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  9. Effect of Body Temperature on the Radionuclide Evaluation of Cerebral Blood Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, S. . E- mail: seham@hsc.edu.kw; Elgazzar, A.H.; Gopinath, S.; Mathew, M.; Khalil, M.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may reflect physiological correlates of the disease state. In neuro-imaging studies, some diseases have frequently been reported to be associated with reduced or increased rCBF. In a previous study we had shown evidence of heat induced vasoconstriction of the carotid artery, which is the main vessel supplying blood to the brain. This vasoconstriction may lead to a decrease in cerebral blood flow in hyperthermic patients. Most radionuclide studies used to assess cerebral blood flow are routinely performed without taking into consideration patients' body temperature. In this regard it may be noted that results of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies may be affected by hyperthermia, which could lead to false positive studies or misinterpretation of results when they are performed on patients suffering from various cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the importance of body temperature and its effect on the results of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies. Cerebral blood flow was assessed using Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) imaging. Baseline scintigraphic images of the brain were obtained in 10 rabbits using a gamma camera equipped with a low energy parallel hole and high resolution collimator interfaced with a computer. Repeat brain studies were performed on the same rabbits at 3 and 6 days after raising the body temperature by 2 deg. C and 4 deg. C respectively using the same imaging protocol. The counts per pixel were determined on control and hyperthermia images. The uptake of Tc-99m HMPAO in the brain was found to be significantly reduced following hyperthermia implying reduction in blood flow. This decrease in cerebral perfusion appears to be variable from region to region, being more in the cerebral hemispheres, frontal areas (olfactory lobes) than in the cerebellum. Based on the results, the authors conclude that a rise in body temperature might

  10. Is there an association between body temperature and serum lactate levels in hip fracture patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtuza, F; Farrier, A J; Venkatesan, M; Smith, R; Khan, A; Uzoigwe, C E; Chami, G

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Hyperlactataemia is associated with adverse outcomes in trauma cases. It is thought to be the result of anaerobic respiration during hypoperfusion. This produces much less energy than complete aerobic glycolysis. Low body temperature in the injured patient carries an equally poor prognosis. Significant amounts of energy are expended in maintaining euthermia. Consequently, there may be a link between lactate levels and dysthermia. Hyperlactataemia may be indicative of inefficient energy production and therefore insufficient energy to maintain euthermia. Alternatively, significant amounts of available oxygen may be sequestered in thermoregulation, resulting in anaerobic respiration and lactate production. Our study investigated whether there is an association between lactate levels and admission body temperature in hip fracture patients. Furthermore, it looked at whether there is a difference in the mean lactate levels between hip fracture patients with low (37.5°C) body temperature on admission, and for patients who have low body temperature, whether there is a progressive rise in serum lactate levels as body temperature falls. Methods The admission temperature and serum lactate of 1,162 patients presenting with hip fracture were recorded. Patients were divided into the euthermic (body temperature 36.5-37.5°C), the pyrexial (>37.5°C) and those with low body temperature (body temperature were compared. Results There was a significant difference in age between the three body temperature groups (p=0.007). The pyrexial cohort was younger than the low body temperature group (mean: 78 vs 82 years). Those with low body temperature had a higher mean lactate level than the euthermic (2.2mmol/l vs 2.0mmol/l, p=0.03). However, there was no progressive rise in serum lactate level as admission temperature fell. Conclusions The findings suggest that in hip fracture patients, the body attempts initially to maintain euthermia, incurring an oxygen debt. This would

  11. Temperature and body weight affect fouling of pig pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnink, A J A; Schrama, J W; Heetkamp, M J W; Stefanowska, J; Huynh, T T T

    2006-08-01

    Fouling of the solid lying area in pig housing is undesirable for reasons of animal welfare, animal health, environmental pollution, and labor costs. In this study the influence of temperature on the excreting and lying behavior of growing-finishing pigs of different BW (25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 kg) was studied. Ten groups of 5 pigs were placed in partially slatted pens (60% solid concrete, 40% metal-slatted) in climate respiration chambers. After an adaptation period, temperatures were raised daily for 9 d. Results showed that above certain inflection temperatures (IT; mean 22.6 degrees C, SE = 0.78) the number of excretions (relative to the total number of excretions) on the solid floor increased with temperature (mean increase 9.7%/ degrees C, SE = 1.41). Below the IT, the number of excretions on the solid floor was low and not influenced by temperature (mean 13.2%, SE = 3.5). On average, the IT for excretion on the solid floor decreased with increasing BW, from approximately 25 degrees C at 25 kg to 20 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P temperature also affected the pattern and postural lying. The temperature at which a maximum number of pigs lay on the slatted floor (i.e., the IT for lying) decreased from approximately 27 degrees C at 25 kg to 23 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P temperatures, pigs lay more on their sides and less against other pigs (P Temperature affects lying and excreting behavior of growing-finishing pigs in partially slatted pens. Above certain IT, pen fouling increases linearly with temperature. Inflection temperatures decrease at increasing BW.

  12. Reconception and body-mass changes of energy supplemented frrst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loss by an average of only 0,02 kg per day and no consistent effect on the reconception .... partum body-mass change of cows, reconception and also growth of calves. ..... No reason could be found for the five Sussex type cows which did not ...

  13. Changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. An understanding of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on various aspects of health, including nutritional status, is needed to ensure that population-specific guidelines can be developed for South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and ...

  14. The effects of a tranquilizer on body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-10-01

    Four young adult mongrel dogs were exposed twice untranquilized to each of three environmental temperatures: 4.4C, 23.9C, and 37.8C and exposed twice tranquilized with 2.2 mg/Kg propiopromazine hydrochloride. Rectal temperatures were monitored ...

  15. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to infarct size and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); Scheijmans, F.E.V. (Féline E.V.); T. van Seeters (Tom); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Yvo); L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); Greve, D. (Droogh-de); H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); Bot, J.; M.C. Visser (Marieke); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); van Seeters, T.; A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute

  16. Admission body temperature predicts long-term mortality after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Rungby, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature is considered crucial in the management of acute stroke patients. Recently hypothermia applied as a therapy for stroke has been demonstrated to be feasible and safe in acute stroke patients. In the present study, we investigated the predictive role of admission body temperature...

  17. Motor excitability measurements: the influence of gender, body mass index, age and temperature in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M

    2014-04-01

    The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. New standards for devices used for the measurement of human body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, E F J; McEvoy, H; Jung, A; Zuber, J; Machin, G

    2010-05-01

    Significant changes in recording of human body temperature have been taking place worldwide in recent years. The clinical thermometer introduced in the mid-19th century by Wunderlich has been replaced by digital thermometers or radiometer devices for recording tympanic membrane temperature. More recently the use of infrared thermal imaging for fever screening has become more widespread following the SARS infection, and particularly during the pandemic H1N1 outbreak. Important new standards that have now reached international acceptance will affect clinical and fever screening applications. This paper draws attention to these new standard documents. They are designed to improve the standardization of both performance and practical use of these key techniques in clinical medicine, especially necessary in a pandemic influenza situation.

  19. Internal and external cooling methods and their effect on body temperature, thermal perception and dexterity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Maley

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare a range of cooling methods possibly utilised by occupational workers, focusing on their effect on body temperature, perception and manual dexterity.Ten male participants completed eight trials involving 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of cooling or control of no cooling (CON (34°C, 58% relative humidity. The cooling methods utilised were: ice cooling vest (CV0, phase change cooling vest melting at 14°C (CV14, evaporative cooling vest (CVEV, arm immersion in 10°C water (AI, portable water-perfused suit (WPS, heliox inhalation (HE and ice slushy ingestion (SL. Immediately before and after cooling, participants were assessed for fine (Purdue pegboard task and gross (grip and pinch strength manual dexterity. Rectal and skin temperature, as well as thermal sensation and comfort, were monitored throughout.Compared with CON, SL was the only method to reduce rectal temperature (P = 0.012. All externally applied cooling methods reduced skin temperature (P0.05.The present study observed that ice ingestion or ice applied to the skin produced the greatest effect on rectal and skin temperature, respectively. AI should not be utilised if workers require subsequent fine manual dexterity. These results will help inform future studies investigating appropriate pre-cooling methods for the occupational worker.

  20. Internal and external cooling methods and their effect on body temperature, thermal perception and dexterity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minett, Geoffrey M.; Bach, Aaron J. E.; Zietek, Stephanie A.; Stewart, Kelly L.; Stewart, Ian B.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to compare a range of cooling methods possibly utilised by occupational workers, focusing on their effect on body temperature, perception and manual dexterity. Methods Ten male participants completed eight trials involving 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of cooling or control of no cooling (CON) (34°C, 58% relative humidity). The cooling methods utilised were: ice cooling vest (CV0), phase change cooling vest melting at 14°C (CV14), evaporative cooling vest (CVEV), arm immersion in 10°C water (AI), portable water-perfused suit (WPS), heliox inhalation (HE) and ice slushy ingestion (SL). Immediately before and after cooling, participants were assessed for fine (Purdue pegboard task) and gross (grip and pinch strength) manual dexterity. Rectal and skin temperature, as well as thermal sensation and comfort, were monitored throughout. Results Compared with CON, SL was the only method to reduce rectal temperature (P = 0.012). All externally applied cooling methods reduced skin temperature (Ptemperature versus other cooling methods. Participants felt cooler with CV0, CV14, WPS, AI and SL (P0.05). Conclusion The present study observed that ice ingestion or ice applied to the skin produced the greatest effect on rectal and skin temperature, respectively. AI should not be utilised if workers require subsequent fine manual dexterity. These results will help inform future studies investigating appropriate pre-cooling methods for the occupational worker. PMID:29357373

  1. Aminophylline partially prevents the decrease of body temperature during laparoscopic abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Jung Ah; Jung, Hong Soo; Joo, Jin Deok; In, Jang Hyeok; Jeon, Yeon Soo; Chun, Ga Young; Choi, Jin Woo

    2014-08-01

    Aminophylline can elicit thermogenesis in rats or increase metabolic rate during cold stress in lambs. We tested the hypothesis that aminophylline would reduce the change in core body temperature during laparoscopic abdominal surgery requiring pneumoperitoneum. Fifty patients were randomly divided into an aminophylline group (n=25) and a saline control group (n=25). Esophageal temperature, index finger temperature, and hemodynamic variables, such as mean blood pressure and heart rate, were measured every 15 min during sevoflurane anesthesia. In the aminophylline group, esophageal temperatures at T45 (36.1±0.38 vs. 35.7±0.29, P=0.024), T60 (36.0±0.39 vs. 35.6±0.28, P=0.053), T75 (35.9±0.34 vs. 35.5±0.28, P=0.025), T90 (35.8±0.35 vs. 35.3±0.33, P=0.011), and T105 (35.8±0.36 vs. 35.1±0.53, P=0.017) and index finger temperatures at T15 (35.8±0.46 vs. 34.9±0.33, Ptemperature through a thermogenic effect, despite reduced peripheral thermoregulatory vasoconstriction.

  2. Constraints on the Adiabatic Temperature Change in Magnetocaloric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the magnetocaloric effect implies constraints on the allowed variation in the adiabatic temperature change for a magnetocaloric material. An inequality for the derivative of the adiabatic temperature change with respect to temperature is derived for both first- and second...

  3. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pifferi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly.

  4. [Changes in body weight of the university students at university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Ruiz, María Nelia; Aguinaga Ontonso, Inés; Canga Armayor, Navidad; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Hermoso de Mendoza, Juana; Serrano Monzo, Inmaculada; Marín Fernández, Blanca

    2015-06-01

    One of the strategies for the prevention of the obesity is the identification of critical periods of gain weight. Some studies confirm gain weight during the university period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in the body weight of the university students in Navarre. Prospective cohort study. Public University of Navarre and the University of Navarre, in Pamplona. Study examined weight change among 452 students attending at university in Pamplona, during first and third course. Four hundred and fifty two students completed the questionnaire. Weight and height were measures and body mass index was calculated. The mean body weight increased 0,600 kg, 1,8 kg for males and no change in body weight was observed in female. 44,7 % of students gained weight (60,8 % of men and 36,8 % of women), and the gain weight was of 3,4 kg. University years are a critical factor for the gain weight, particularly males. Consideration of this, is necessary the development of effective weight gain prevention strategies during the university. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows, with medium lean tissue growth potential after AA intake restriction between 15 and 35 kg of BW. It is suggested that the upper limit to body protein deposition was the main factor that limited the extent of compensatory body protein deposition in this population of pigs. The concept of an upper limit to body protein deposition may be used to explain why compensatory growth is observed in some studies and not in others.

  6. Regulation of the peripheral body temperature by foods: a temperature decrease induced by the Japanese persimmon (kaki, Diospyros kaki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Gaku; Nadamoto, Tomonori; Fujisawa, Fumiko; Fushiki, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether the ingestion of the Japanese persimmon (kaki, Diospyros kaki) could lower the human peripheral body temperature. It was found that the temperatures recorded at the foot and wrist were depressed after kaki consumption compared to after the same amount of water consumption. The effects of ingesting freeze-dried kaki and eating a cookie (as its nutritional counterpart) containing the same amount of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and water were compared. A similar temperature-reducing effect of kaki was observed. The recovery of finger temperature after soaking the finger in ice-cooled water was also studied. The temperature recovery was delayed after kaki consumption. It was thus quantitatively demonstrated that ingesting kaki indeed had the effect of lowering (or repressing the rise) of the peripheral human body temperature, as has been traditionally believed in China for many hundreds of years.

  7. Reduced one-body density matrix of Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiao-Chen; Hao Ya-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    With thermal Bose–Fermi mapping method, we investigate the Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature. It is shown that at low temperature, the Tonks gas displays the Fermi-like density profiles, and with the increase in temperature, the Tonks gas distributes in wider region. The reduced one-body density matrix is diagonal dominant in the whole temperature region, and the off-diagonal elements shall vanish rapidly with the deviation from the diagonal part at high temperature. (paper)

  8. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Xiao, Cuiying; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2015-06-01

    We quantified the effect of environmental temperature on mouse energy homeostasis and body temperature. The effect of environmental temperature (4-33 °C) on body temperature, energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake in various mice (chow diet, high-fat diet, Brs3 (-/y) , lipodystrophic) was measured using continuous monitoring. Body temperature depended most on circadian phase and physical activity, but also on environmental temperature. The amounts of energy expenditure due to basal metabolic rate (calculated via a novel method), thermic effect of food, physical activity, and cold-induced thermogenesis were determined as a function of environmental temperature. The measured resting defended body temperature matched that calculated from the energy expenditure using Fourier's law of heat conduction. Mice defended a higher body temperature during physical activity. The cost of the warmer body temperature during the active phase is 4-16% of total daily energy expenditure. Parameters measured in diet-induced obese and Brs3 (-/y) mice were similar to controls. The high post-mortem heat conductance demonstrates that most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms. At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  9. Ranges of diurnal variation and the pattern of body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate in laboratory beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hiroyasu; Yoshida, Mutsumi; Samura, Keiji; Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi; Ikemoto, Fumihiko; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    Ranges in diurnal variation and the patterns of body temperature (T), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and locomotor activity (LA) in 61 laboratory beagle dogs were analyzed using a telemetry system. Body temperature, BP, HR and LA increased remarkably at feeding time. Locomotor activity increased sporadically during the other periods. Body temperature was maintained at the higher value after feeding but had decreased by 0.2 C by early the next morning. Blood pressure fell to a lower value after feeding but had increased by 2.8% by early the next morning. Heart rate decreased progressively after feeding and was 14.5% lower the next morning. This study determined that in laboratory beagles the ranges of diurnal variation and patterns of T, BP and HR are significantly different from those reported in humans and rodents, and that over 24 hr these physiological changes were associated with their sporadic wake-sleep cycles of the dogs.

  10. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-02-01

    Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  12. The change in body stressed to relaxed body through breathing, visualization and a protective environment together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn I. Rodríguez Morrill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows several ways to meet and relax the body through personal knowledge and techniques encounter with nature. Modern life and fast, the constant pressure from childhood to adulthood, in the modes of interaction between individuals and groups, they lead to construction of bodies that reflect emotional anatomy visible loss of balance, contractures, inflammation, multiple imbalances by lack of knowledge and awareness especially being in the world fully, the person has moved away from its ecological relationship with itself and the environment. Methods are shown to positively change a condition of constant stress and chronic discomfort, a learned condition of physical and psychological wellbeing, with a series of movements, recovering the body through exercise, to tend to personal balance, obtaining a positive relationship with the environment and the people attended. The proposal starts promoting new habits that can be saved in consciousness. Partly, mainly of breath, alignment with the music and the environment and personal and group work

  13. Optimization of a Pain Model: Effects of Body Temperature and Anesthesia on Bladder Nociception in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Katelyn E.; Stratton, Jarred M.; DeBerry, Jennifer J.; Kolber, Benedict J.

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating urological condition that is resistant to treatment and poorly understood. To determine novel molecular treatment targets and to elucidate the contribution of the nervous system to IC/BPS, many rodent bladder pain models have been developed. In this study we evaluated the effects of anesthesia induction and temperature variation in a mouse model of bladder pain known as urinary bladder distension (UBD). In this model compressed air is used to distend the bladder to distinct pressures while electrodes record the reflexive visceromotor response (VMR) from the overlying abdominal muscle. Two isoflurane induction models are commonly used before UBD: a short method lasting approximately 30 minutes and a long method lasting approximately 90 minutes. Animals were anesthetized with one of the methods then put through three sets of graded bladder distensions. Distensions performed following the short anesthesia protocol were significantly different from one another despite identical testing parameters; this same effect was not observed when the long anesthesia protocol was used. In order to determine the effect of temperature on VMRs, animals were put through three graded distension sets at 37.5 (normal mouse body temperature), 35.5, and 33.5°C. Distensions performed at 33.5 and 35.5°C were significantly lower than those performed at 37.5°C. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed significantly smaller increases in spinal levels of phosphorylated extracellular-signal regulated kinase 2 (pERK2) following bladder distension in animals whose body temperature was maintained at 33.5°C as opposed to 37.5°C. These results highlight the significance of the dynamic effects of anesthesia on pain-like changes and the importance of close monitoring of temperature while performing UBD. For successful interpretation of VMRs and translation to human disease, body temperature should be maintained at 37.5

  14. Temperature and body weight affect fouling of pig pens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Stefanowska, J.; Huynh, T.T.T.

    2006-01-01

    Fouling of the solid lying area in pig housing is undesirable for reasons of animal welfare, animal health, environmental pollution, and labor costs. In this study the influence of temperature on the excreting and lying behavior of growing-finishing pigs of different BW (25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 kg)

  15. P2X(3) receptor gating near normal body temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmyhz, V.; Maximyuk, O.; Teslenko, V.; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Krishtal, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 456, č. 12 (2008), s. 339-347 ISSN 0031-6768 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : P2X3 receptors * Temperature-sensitivity * Gating Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.526, year: 2008

  16. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  17. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  18. Female upper body and breast skin temperature and thermal comfort following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, B; White, J; Hedger, W; Scurr, J

    2013-01-01

    Breast support reduces breast pain and movement during exercise, however, an extra layer of clothing may affect thermoregulation. This preliminary study investigated female upper body and breast skin temperature and thermal comfort following short-duration exercise. Eight female participants with C-cup breasts had thermal images (infra-red camera, FLIR systems) of the bare breasts, the breasts in two sports bras (composite and polyester) and the abdomen, taken before and after 20 min of exercise at 28(o)C. Following exercise, bare-breast, bra and abdomen temperatures reduced by 0.61(o)C, 0.92(o)C and 2.06(o)C, respectively. The polyester sports bra demonstrated greater thermal comfort and enabled a greater change in skin temperature than the composite sports bra. It is concluded that following short-duration exercise, sports bras reduced the cooling ability of the breast. Material properties of the bras affect thermal comfort and post-exercise skin temperature; this should be an important consideration for sports bra manufacturers. This study investigates the effect of sports bras on thermal regulation of the breast following exercise. Sports bras negatively affected the cooling ability of the skin on the breast, with the material properties of the bra affecting thermal comfort following exercise. These results present important considerations for sports bra manufacturers.

  19. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Arismendi; Mohammad Safeeq; Jason B Dunham; Sherri L Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To...

  20. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Heart rate reveals torpor at high body temperatures in lowland tropical free-tailed bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, M Teague; Rikker, Sebastian; Wikelski, Martin; Ter Maat, Andries; Pollock, Henry S; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2017-12-01

    Reduction in metabolic rate and body temperature is a common strategy for small endotherms to save energy. The daily reduction in metabolic rate and heterothermy, or torpor, is particularly pronounced in regions with a large variation in daily ambient temperature. This applies most strongly in temperate bat species (order Chiroptera), but it is less clear how tropical bats save energy if ambient temperatures remain high. However, many subtropical and tropical species use some daily heterothermy on cool days. We recorded the heart rate and the body temperature of free-ranging Pallas' mastiff bats ( Molossus molossus ) in Gamboa, Panamá, and showed that these individuals have low field metabolic rates across a wide range of body temperatures that conform to high ambient temperature. Importantly, low metabolic rates in controlled respirometry trials were best predicted by heart rate, and not body temperature . Molossus molossus enter torpor-like states characterized by low metabolic rate and heart rates at body temperatures of 32°C, and thermoconform across a range of temperatures. Flexible metabolic strategies may be far more common in tropical endotherms than currently known.

  2. Body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, G E; Brooks, A G; Withers, R T; Dollman, J; Leaney, F; Chatterton, B E

    2001-04-01

    To determine anthropometric and body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition. There was an attempt to match subjects in the control and experimental groups for height and percentage body fat (%BF) for the initial test of this longitudinal study. Five competitive bodybuilders (-X +/- s.d.: 35.3 +/- 5.7 y; 167.3 +/- 3.7 cm; 66.38 +/- 6.30 kg; 18.3 +/- 3.5 %BF) and five athletic females (-X +/- s.d.: 30.9 +/- 13.0 y; 166.9 +/- 3.9 cm; 55.94 +/- 3.59 kg; 19.1 +/- 3.3 %BF) were recruited from advertisements in a bodybuilding newsletter and placed on sports centre noticeboards. The following measurements were conducted 12 weeks, 6 weeks and 3-5 d before the bodybuilders' competitions: anthropometric profile, body density by underwater weighing, total body water via deuterium dilution and bone mineral mass from a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. A combination of the last three measurements enabled the %BF to the determined by a four compartment model. A significant (P bodybuilders as they prepared for competition was primarily due to a reduction in fat mass (FM; -4.42 kg; 76.2%) as opposed to fat-free mass (FFM; -1.38 kg; 23.8%). The decreases in body mass and FM over the final 6 weeks were greater than those over the first 6 weeks. Their %BF decreased (P bodybuilders were accompanied by a significant decline (P bodybuilders presented with low %BFs at the start of the experiment, they still significantly decreased their body mass during the 12 week preparation for competition and most of this loss was due to a reduction in FM as opposed to FFM.

  3. Profound and Rapid Reduction in Body Temperature Induced by the Melanocortin Receptor Agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Kim, Eun Ran; Fan, Shengjie; Xia, Yan; Xu, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Qingchun

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid reduction in both body temperature and energy expenditure, which was independent of its effect on feeding and followed by a prolonged increase in energy expenditure. The rapid reduction was at least partly mediated by brain neurons since intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an endogenous melanocortin receptor agonist, produced a similar response. In addition, the body temperature-lowering effect of MTII was independent of the presence of MC4Rs, but in a similar fashion to the previously shown effect on body temperature by 5′AMP. Moreover, β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) were required for the recovery from low body temperature induced by MTII and further pharmacological studies showed that the MTII’s effect on body temperature may be partially mediated by the vasopressin V1a receptors. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unappreciated role for the melanocortin pathway in rapidly lowering body temperature. PMID:25065745

  4. Profound and rapid reduction in body temperature induced by the melanocortin receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Kim, Eun Ran; Fan, Shengjie; Xia, Yan; Xu, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Qingchun

    2014-08-22

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid reduction in both body temperature and energy expenditure, which was independent of its effect on feeding and followed by a prolonged increase in energy expenditure. The rapid reduction was at least partly mediated by brain neurons since intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an endogenous melanocortin receptor agonist, produced a similar response. In addition, the body temperature-lowering effect of MTII was independent of the presence of MC4Rs, but in a similar fashion to the previously shown effect on body temperature by 5'AMP. Moreover, β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) were required for the recovery from low body temperature induced by MTII and further pharmacological studies showed that the MTII's effect on body temperature may be partially mediated by the vasopressin V1a receptors. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unappreciated role for the melanocortin pathway in rapidly lowering body temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: relation to infarct size and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Marjolein; Scheijmans, Féline E V; van Seeters, Tom; Biessels, Geert J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; van der Worp, H Bart

    2016-11-21

    High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In 419 patients with acute ischemic stroke we assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and during the first 3 days with both infarct size and functional outcome. Infarct size was measured in milliliters on CT or MRI after 3 days. Poor functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 at 3 months. Body temperature on admission was not associated with infarct size or poor outcome in adjusted analyses. By contrast, each additional 1.0 °C in body temperature on day 1 was associated with 0.31 ml larger infarct size (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.59), on day 2 with 1.13 ml larger infarct size(95% CI, 0.83-1.43), and on day 3 with 0.80 ml larger infarct size (95% CI, 0.48-1.12), in adjusted linear regression analyses. Higher peak body temperatures on days two and three were also associated with poor outcome (adjusted relative risks per additional 1.0 °C in body temperature, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.17-1.99) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.22-1.77), respectively). Higher peak body temperatures during the first days after ischemic stroke, rather than on admission, are associated with larger infarct size and poor functional outcome. This suggests that prevention of high temperatures may improve outcome if continued for at least 3 days.

  6. Intraoperative body temperature control: esophageal thermometer versus infrared tympanic thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Vanessa de Brito; Nascimento, Ariane de Souza

    2016-01-01

    To verify the correlation between temperature measurements performed using an infrared tympanic thermometer and an esophageal thermometer during the intraoperative period. A longitudinal study of repeated measures was performed including subjects aged 18 years or older undergoing elective oncologic surgery of the digestive system, with anesthesia duration of at least 1 hour. Temperature measurements were performed simultaneously by a calibrated esophageal thermometer and by a calibrated infrared tympanic thermometer, with laboratory reading precision of ±0.2ºC. The operating room temperature remained between 19 and 21ºC. The study included 51 patients, mostly men (51%), white (80.4%). All patients were kept warm by a forced-air heating system, for an average of 264.14 minutes (SD = 87.7). The two temperature measurements showed no different behavior over time (p = 0.2205), however, tympanic measurements were consistently 1.24°C lower (ptemperatura realizadas por meio de um termômetro timpânico por infravermelho e por um termômetro esofágico, durante o período intraoperatório. Realizou-se um estudo longitudinal, de medidas repetidas, incluindo sujeitos com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, submetidos à cirurgia oncológica eletiva do sistema digestório, com duração da anestesia de, no mínimo, 1 hora. As medidas de temperatura eram realizadas, ao mesmo tempo, por meio de um termômetro esofágico calibrado e por termômetro timpânico por infravermelho calibrado, com precisão de leitura em laboratório de ±0,2ºC. A temperatura da sala operatória permaneceu entre 19 e 21ºC. Foram incluídos 51 pacientes, em sua maioria homens (51%), brancos (80,4%). Todos os pacientes foram aquecidos com o sistema de ar forçado aquecido, em média por 264,14 minutos (DP = 87,7). As duas medidas de temperatura não tiveram comportamento diferente ao longo do tempo (p = 0,2205), mas a medida timpânica foi consistentemente menor em 1,24°C (p temperaturas mais

  7. Global Warming and Changing Temperature Patterns over Mauritius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the changing temperature pattern over Mauritius. We observe an increase of the annual mean temperature at Pamplemousses since 1876 with an average rate of 0.009oC per year with a significant correlation coefficient of 0.67. Compared to the mean temperature for the period of 1951 to 1960, we ...

  8. Using Three-Body Recombination to Extract Electron Temperatures of Ultracold Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R. S.; Zhang, X. L.; Rolston, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    Three-body recombination, an important collisional process in plasmas, increases dramatically at low electron temperatures, with an accepted scaling of T e -9/2 . We measure three-body recombination in an ultracold neutral xenon plasma by detecting recombination-created Rydberg atoms using a microwave-ionization technique. With the accepted theory (expected to be applicable for weakly coupled plasmas) and our measured rates, we extract the plasma temperatures, which are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements early in the plasma lifetime. The resulting electron temperatures indicate that the plasma continues to cool to temperatures below 1 K

  9. Relationships between brain and body temperature, clinical and imaging outcomes after ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaszewski, Bartosz; Carpenter, Trevor K; Thomas, Ralph G R; Armitage, Paul A; Lymer, Georgina Katherine S; Marshall, Ian; Dennis, Martin S; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-01-01

    Pyrexia soon after stroke is associated with severe stroke and poor functional outcome. Few studies have assessed brain temperature after stroke in patients, so little is known of its associations with body temperature, stroke severity, or outcome. We measured temperatures in ischemic and normal-appearing brain using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and its correlations with body (tympanic) temperature measured four-hourly, infarct growth by 5 days, early neurologic (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS) and late functional outcome (death or dependency). Among 40 patients (mean age 73 years, median NIHSS 7, imaged at median 17 hours), temperature in ischemic brain was higher than in normal-appearing brain on admission (38.6°C-core, 37.9°C-contralateral hemisphere, P=0.03) but both were equally elevated by 5 days; both were higher than tympanic temperature. Ischemic lesion temperature was not associated with NIHSS or 3-month functional outcome; in contrast, higher contralateral normal-appearing brain temperature was associated with worse NIHSS, infarct expansion and poor functional outcome, similar to associations for tympanic temperature. We conclude that brain temperature is higher than body temperature; that elevated temperature in ischemic brain reflects a local tissue response to ischemia, whereas pyrexia reflects the systemic response to stroke, occurs later, and is associated with adverse outcomes. PMID:23571281

  10. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enøe Claes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable transponders were compared with rectal temperatures, recorded by a conventional digital thermometer. Methods In a preliminary study, transponders were inserted subcutaneously at 6 different positions of the body of 5 pigs. The transponders positioned by the ear base provided the best correlation to rectal temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1°C lower than the rectal temperature. However, a simple linear relationship between the measures of the two methods was found. Conclusions Our study showed that the tested body monitoring system may represent a promising tool to obtain an approximate correlate of body temperatures in groups of pigs. In contrast, however, the tested system did not constitute a suitable tool to measure body temperatures of individual animals in the present pig infection experiment.

  11. Hibernation in black bears: independence of metabolic suppression from body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøien, Øivind; Blake, John; Edgar, Dale M; Grahn, Dennis A; Heller, H Craig; Barnes, Brian M

    2011-02-18

    Black bears hibernate for 5 to 7 months a year and, during this time, do not eat, drink, urinate, or defecate. We measured metabolic rate and body temperature in hibernating black bears and found that they suppress metabolism to 25% of basal rates while regulating body temperature from 30° to 36°C, in multiday cycles. Heart rates were reduced from 55 to as few as 9 beats per minute, with profound sinus arrhythmia. After returning to normal body temperature and emerging from dens, bears maintained a reduced metabolic rate for up to 3 weeks. The pronounced reduction and delayed recovery of metabolic rate in hibernating bears suggest that the majority of metabolic suppression during hibernation is independent of lowered body temperature.

  12. Dogs with macroadenomas have lower body temperature and heart rate than dogs with microadenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchekroun, Ghita; Desquilbet, Loic; Herrtage, Michael E; Jeffery, Nick D; Rosenberg, Dan; Granger, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Pituitary macroadenomas compress the hypothalamus, which partly regulates heart rate and body temperature. The aim of this study was to investigate whether heart rate and/or body temperature could aid in clinically differentiating dogs with macroadenomas from dogs with microadenomas (i.e. small non-compressive pituitary mass). Two groups of dogs diagnosed with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (i.e. Cushing's disease) were included. Heart rate and body temperature were collected on initial presentation before any procedure. Dogs with macroadenoma had a significantly lower heart rate and body temperature (Pdogs with microadenoma. We suggest that the combined cut-off values of 84 beats per minutes and 38.3°C in dogs with Cushing's disease, especially with vague neurological signs (nine of 12 dogs=75%), might help to suspect the presence of a macroadenoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping climate change in European temperature distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Stainforth, David A.; Chapman, Sandra C.; Watkins, Nicholas W.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change poses challenges for decision makers across society, not just in preparing for the climate of the future but even when planning for the climate of the present day. When making climate sensitive decisions, policy makers and adaptation planners would benefit from information on local scales and for user-specific quantiles (e.g. the hottest/coldest 5% of days) and thresholds (e.g. days above 28 ° C), not just mean changes. Here, we translate observations of weather into observatio...

  14. Mapping climate change in European temperature distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Stainforth, David A; Chapman, Sandra C; Watkins, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses challenges for decision makers across society, not just in preparing for the climate of the future but even when planning for the climate of the present day. When making climate sensitive decisions, policy makers and adaptation planners would benefit from information on local scales and for user-specific quantiles (e.g. the hottest/coldest 5% of days) and thresholds (e.g. days above 28 ° C), not just mean changes. Here, we translate observations of weather into observatio...

  15. Changes in Indices of Daily Temperature and Precipitation Extremes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It's a known fact that climate change will bring about increases in the occurrence of weather extreme events such as elevated temperature, drought, and floods; most especially in areas classified as hotspots to climate change – such as northwest Nigeria. This study investigates trends in extreme temperature and ...

  16. Climate change and body size shift in Mediterranean bivalve assemblages: unexpected role of biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Rafał; Albano, Paolo G; Chattopadhyay, Devapriya; Zuschin, Martin

    2017-08-16

    Body size is a synthetic functional trait determining many key ecosystem properties. Reduction in average body size has been suggested as one of the universal responses to global warming in aquatic ecosystems. Climate change, however, coincides with human-enhanced dispersal of alien species and can facilitate their establishment. We address effects of species introductions on the size structure of recipient communities using data on Red Sea bivalves entering the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal. We show that the invasion leads to increase in median body size of the Mediterranean assemblage. Alien species are significantly larger than native Mediterranean bivalves, even though they represent a random subset of the Red Sea species with respect to body size. The observed patterns result primarily from the differences in the taxonomic composition and body-size distributions of the source and recipient species pools. In contrast to the expectations based on the general temperature-size relationships in marine ectotherms, continued warming of the Mediterranean Sea indirectly leads to an increase in the proportion of large-bodied species in bivalve assemblages by accelerating the entry and spread of tropical aliens. These results underscore complex interactions between changing climate and species invasions in driving functional shifts in marine ecosystems. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Leptin actions on food intake and body temperature are mediated by IL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Luheshi, Giamal N.; Gardner, Jason D.; Rushforth, David A.; Loudon, Andrew S.; Rothwell, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    Leptin regulates energy balance through its actions in the brain on appetite and energy expenditure and also shares properties with cytokines such as IL-1. We report here that leptin, injected into rats intracerebroventricularly or peripherally, induces significant dose-dependent increases in core body temperature as well as suppression of appetite. Leptin failed to affect food intake or body temperature in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, which posses a defective leptin receptor. Furthermore, inje...

  18. The changes of ADI structure during high temperature annealing

    OpenAIRE

    A. Krzyńska; M. Kaczorowski

    2010-01-01

    The results of structure investigations of ADI during it was annealing at elevated temperature are presented. Ductile iron austempered at temperature 325oC was then isothermally annealed 360 minutes at temperature 400, 450, 500 and 550oC. The structure investigations showed that annealing at these temperatures caused substantial structure changes and thus essential hardness decrease, which is most useful property of ADI from point of view its practical application. Degradation advance of the ...

  19. Microenvironment temperature prediction between body and seat interface using autoregressive data-driven model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Lin; Luo, Zhongming; Heusch, Andrew I; Cascioli, Vincenzo; McCarthy, Peter W

    2015-11-01

    There is a need to develop a greater understanding of temperature at the skin-seat interface during prolonged seating from the perspectives of both industrial design (comfort/discomfort) and medical care (skin ulcer formation). Here we test the concept of predicting temperature at the seat surface and skin interface during prolonged sitting (such as required from wheelchair users). As caregivers are usually busy, such a method would give them warning ahead of a problem. This paper describes a data-driven model capable of predicting thermal changes and thus having the potential to provide an early warning (15- to 25-min ahead prediction) of an impending temperature that may increase the risk for potential skin damages for those subject to enforced sitting and who have little or no sensory feedback from this area. Initially, the oscillations of the original signal are suppressed using the reconstruction strategy of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Consequentially, the autoregressive data-driven model can be used to predict future thermal trends based on a shorter period of acquisition, which reduces the possibility of introducing human errors and artefacts associated with longer duration "enforced" sitting by volunteers. In this study, the method had a maximum predictive error of body insensitivity and disability requiring them to be immobile in seats for prolonged periods. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Junjie; Chen, Chensong; Cheng, Hongsen; Wang, Ren; Ma, Linhao

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched electronically. Relevant journals and references of studies included were hand-searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) regarding the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction and quality assessment. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software by the Cochrane Collaboration. Five studies were included. To compare the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in acute stroke, the pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI of body temperature reduction at 24h from the start of treatment were -0.3 (95% CI: -0.52 to -0.08), with statistical significance (P=0.007). Consistently, the pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI of body temperature at 24h from the start of treatment were -0.22 (-0.29, -0.15), with statistical significance (PParacetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used antipyretic drugs and has some capability to reduce body temperature through acting on central nervous system. Acetaminophen showed some capability to decrease body temperature for acute stroke. Acetaminophen could not improve functional outcome and reduce adverse events of patients with acute stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of prewarming on the body temperature of small dogs undergoing inhalation anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, Clara F; Jolliffe, Colette T; Leece, Elizabeth A

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether prewarming affects body temperature of small dogs (weighing dogs weighing temperature was recorded. Before IM administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate, dogs were randomly assigned to be placed in a pediatric incubator at 33°C (91.4°F) for approximately 30 to 60 minutes (prewarming group) or to receive no prewarming (control group); subsequently, dogs underwent inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen. Rectal, esophageal, and ambient temperatures were measured every 5 minutes from induction of anesthesia (IOA) for > 1 hour by an observer who was unaware of treatment. If a dog became hypothermic (esophageal temperature dogs, anesthesia, temperatures, hypothermia, and study withdrawal were compared between groups. 1 dog was excluded from the prewarming group after becoming excessively excited in the incubator. Between groups, age, weight, body condition score, degree of preanesthesia sedation, interval from sedation to IOA, duration of anesthesia, baseline rectal temperature, rectal temperatures immediately prior to IOA, esophageal temperature following IOA, ambient temperature during the first 70 minutes of anesthesia, esophageal or rectal temperature during the first 90 minutes of anesthesia, and incidence of hypothermia and study withdrawal (5 dogs/group) did not differ significantly. Prewarming in an incubator prior to IOA failed to improve or maintain body temperature of dogs weighing < 10 kg during inhalation anesthesia.

  2. 3D Printed "Earable" Smart Devices for Real-Time Detection of Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hiroki; Chao, Minghan; Gao, Yuji; Wu, Eric; Tai, Li-Chia; Chen, Kevin; Matsuoka, Yasutomo; Iwai, Kosuke; Fahad, Hossain M; Gao, Wei; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Lin, Liwei; Javey, Ali

    2017-07-28

    Real-time detection of basic physiological parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate is an important target in wearable smart devices for healthcare. Among these, the core body temperature is one of the most important basic medical indicators of fever, insomnia, fatigue, metabolic functionality, and depression. However, traditional wearable temperature sensors are based upon the measurement of skin temperature, which can vary dramatically from the true core body temperature. Here, we demonstrate a three-dimensional (3D) printed wearable "earable" smart device that is designed to be worn on the ear to track core body temperature from the tympanic membrane (i.e., ear drum) based on an infrared sensor. The device is fully integrated with data processing circuits and a wireless module for standalone functionality. Using this smart earable device, we demonstrate that the core body temperature can be accurately monitored regardless of the environment and activity of the user. In addition, a microphone and actuator are also integrated so that the device can also function as a bone conduction hearing aid. Using 3D printing as the fabrication method enables the device to be customized for the wearer for more personalized healthcare. This smart device provides an important advance in realizing personalized health care by enabling real-time monitoring of one of the most important medical parameters, core body temperature, employed in preliminary medical screening tests.

  3. Use of extremity insulation during whole body hyperthermia to reduce temperature nonuniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, D.E.; Page, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The author previously documented during whole body hyperthermia in dogs using a radiant heating device that temperature at superficial sites, including tibial bone marrow, falls below systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase of heating. This may be due to direct heat loss to the environment. Sites where temperature is lower than systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase may become sanctuary sites where tumor deposits are spared because they do not receive the prescribed thermal dose. In an attempt to decrease temperature nonuniformity and increase thermal dose delivered to such superficial sites, extremity insulation has been employed during whole body hyperthermia in dogs. The author measured temperature at cutaneous and subcutaneous sites and within tibial bone marrow in insulated and noninsulated extremities of dogs undergoing whole body hyperthermia in the radiant heating device. The author found that extremity insulation is effective in reducing extremity temperature nonuniformity. Specific results are presented. Extremity insulation may be necessary during whole body hyperthermia to assure that extremity tumor deposits receive a thermal dose similar to that prescribed for the entire body

  4. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N…

  5. Agreement between auricular and rectal measurements of body temperature in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of body temperature is a routine part of the clinical assessment of a patient. However, this procedure may be time-consuming and stressful to most animals because the standard site of temperature acquisition remains the rectal mucosa. Although an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature, evidence is still lacking regarding agreement between these two methods in cats. In this investigation, we evaluated the agreement between temperatures measured in the rectum and ear in 29 healthy cats over a 2-week period. Temperatures were measured in the rectum (using digital and mercury-in-glass thermometers) and ear once a day for 14 consecutive days, producing 406 temperature readings for each thermometer. Mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar between methods, and Bland-Altman plots showed small biases and narrow limits of agreement acceptable for clinical purposes. The interobserver variability was also checked, which indicated a strong correlation between two near-simultaneous temperature readings. Results are consistent with auricular thermometry being a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature in healthy cats.

  6. Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, J. T.; Donnelly, A. E.; Karki, A.; Selfe, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of −110°C whole body cryotherapy and 8°C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (

  7. No effects of huddling on core body temperature in rock hyrax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huddling is a behavioural energy conservation mechanism that is widely used by many small endotherms at low ambient temperatures. Huddling has many benefits, including decreasing the metabolic cost of maintaining body temperature (Tb), reducing the amount of heat lost to the environment, and increasing the local ...

  8. Improvements in X-band transmitter phase stability through Klystron body temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the techniques used and experimental results obtained in improving transmitter stability by control of the klystron body temperature. Related work in the measurement of klystron phase control parameters (pushing factors) is also discussed. The contribution of wave guide temperature excursions to uplink phase stability is presented. Suggestions are made as to the direction of future work in this area.

  9. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  10. Dietary patterns and changes in body weight in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Matthias B; Fung, Teresa T; Manson, Joann E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2006-08-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women. Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses' Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, and potatoes, and a prudent pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and salad dressing, were identified with principal component analysis, and associations between patterns and change in body weight were estimated. Women who increased their Western pattern score had greater weight gain (multivariate adjusted means, 4.55 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 2.86 kg for 1995 to 1999) than women who decreased their Western pattern score (2.70 and 1.37 kg for the two time periods), adjusting for baseline lifestyle and dietary confounders and changes in confounders over time (p < 0.001 for both time periods). Furthermore, among women who increased their prudent pattern score, weight gain was smaller (multivariate-adjusted means, 1.93 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 0.66 kg for 1995 to 1999) than among women who decreased their prudent pattern score (4.83 and 3.35 kg for the two time periods) (p < 0.001). The largest weight gain between 1991 and 1995 and between 1995 and 1999 was observed among women who decreased their prudent pattern score while increasing their Western pattern score (multivariate adjusted means, 6.80 and 4.99 kg), whereas it was smallest for the opposite change in patterns (0.87 and -0.64 kg) (p < 0.001). Adoption of a Western dietary pattern is associated with larger weight gain in women, whereas a prudent dietary pattern may facilitate weight maintenance.

  11. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Gabriel A; Clissold, Fiona J; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    to investigate relationships between growth/development and macronutrient utilization (conversion of ingesta to body mass) as a function of temperature. A range of macronutrient intake values for insects at 26, 32 and 38°C was achieved by offering individuals high-protein diets, high-carbohydrate diets......, but once digested both macronutrients were converted to growth most efficiently at the intermediate temperature (32°C). Body temperature preference thus yielded maximal growth rates at the expense of efficient nutrient utilization...

  12. Novel energy-saving strategies to multiple stressors in birds: the ultradian regulation of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Roussel, Damien; Voituron, Yann; Teulier, Loïc

    2016-09-28

    This study aimed to examine thermoregulatory responses in birds facing two commonly experienced stressors, cold and fasting. Logging devices allowing long-term and precise access to internal body temperature were placed within the gizzards of ducklings acclimated to cold (CA) (5°C) or thermoneutrality (TN) (25°C). The animals were then examined under three equal 4-day periods: ad libitum feeding, fasting and re-feeding. Through the analysis of daily as well as short-term, or ultradian, variations of body temperature, we showed that while ducklings at TN show only a modest decline in daily thermoregulatory parameters when fasted, they exhibit reduced surface temperatures from key sites of vascular heat exchange during fasting. The CA birds, on the other hand, significantly reduced their short-term variations of body temperature while increasing long-term variability when fasting. This phenomenon would allow the CA birds to reduce the energetic cost of body temperature maintenance under fasting. By analysing ultradian regulation of body temperature, we describe a means by which an endotherm appears to lower thermoregulatory costs in response to the combined stressors of cold and fasting. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Temperature-induced changes in neuromuscular function: central and peripheral mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, D; Hancock, P A; Runnings, D W; Brown, S L

    1984-10-01

    Three series of experimental tests were conducted on subjects under both elevated and depressed thermal conditions. Tripartite series consisted of whole-body immersion excepting the head, whole-body immersion excepting the head and response limb, and immersion of the discrete-response limb. Measures of physiological and behavioural responses were made at sequential .4 degrees C changes during whole-body immersions and approximately 5 degrees C changes of water temperature during the immersion of a limb only. Results suggested that velocity of nerve conduction decreased with thermal depression. Premotor, motor, simple, and choice reaction times varied differentially as a function of the hot and cold conditions. Implications of these differential effects on neuromuscular function are examined with respect to person-machine performance in artificially induced or naturally occurring extremes of ambient temperature.

  14. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling for the analysis of longitudinal body core temperature data in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Ming Chai, Adam Kian; Yuen Fun, David Chiok; Teo, Ya Shi; Sze Tan, Pearl Min; Ang, Wee Hon; Wei Lee, Jason Kai

    2016-04-01

    Many longitudinal studies have collected serial body core temperature (T c) data to understand thermal work strain of workers under various environmental and operational heat stress environments. This provides the opportunity for the development of mathematical models to analyse and forecast temporal T c changes across populations of subjects. Such models can reduce the need for invasive methods that continuously measure T c. This current work sought to develop a nonlinear mixed effects modelling framework to delineate the dynamic changes of T c and its association with a set of covariates of interest (e.g. heart rate, chest skin temperature), and the structure of the variability of T c in various longitudinal studies. Data to train and evaluate the model were derived from two laboratory investigations involving male soldiers who participated in either a 12 (N  =  18) or 15 km (N  =  16) foot march with varied clothing, load and heat acclimatisation status. Model qualification was conducted using nonparametric bootstrap and cross validation procedures. For cross validation, the trajectory of a new subject's T c was simulated via Bayesian maximum a posteriori estimation when using only the baseline T c or using the baseline T c as well as measured T c at the end of every work (march) phase. The final model described T c versus time profiles using a parametric function with its main parameters modelled as a sigmoid hyperbolic function of the load and/or chest skin temperature. Overall, T c predictions corresponded well with the measured data (root mean square deviation: 0.16 °C), and compared favourably with those provided by two recently published Kalman filter models.

  15. Simulated body temperature rhythms reveal the phase-shifting behavior and plasticity of mammalian circadian oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Camille; Morf, Jörg; Stratmann, Markus; Gos, Pascal; Schibler, Ueli

    2012-01-01

    The circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus maintains phase coherence in peripheral cells through metabolic, neuronal, and humoral signaling pathways. Here, we investigated the role of daily body temperature fluctuations as possible systemic cues in the resetting of peripheral oscillators. Using precise temperature devices in conjunction with real-time monitoring of the bioluminescence produced by circadian luciferase reporter genes, we showed that simulated body temperature cycles of mice and even humans, with daily temperature differences of only 3°C and 1°C, respectively, could gradually synchronize circadian gene expression in cultured fibroblasts. The time required for establishing the new steady-state phase depended on the reporter gene, but after a few days, the expression of each gene oscillated with a precise phase relative to that of the temperature cycles. Smooth temperature oscillations with a very small amplitude could synchronize fibroblast clocks over a wide temperature range, and such temperature rhythms were also capable of entraining gene expression cycles to periods significantly longer or shorter than 24 h. As revealed by genetic loss-of-function experiments, heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), but not HSF2, was required for the efficient synchronization of fibroblast oscillators to simulated body temperature cycles. PMID:22379191

  16. Simulated body temperature rhythms reveal the phase-shifting behavior and plasticity of mammalian circadian oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Camille; Morf, Jörg; Stratmann, Markus; Gos, Pascal; Schibler, Ueli

    2012-03-15

    The circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus maintains phase coherence in peripheral cells through metabolic, neuronal, and humoral signaling pathways. Here, we investigated the role of daily body temperature fluctuations as possible systemic cues in the resetting of peripheral oscillators. Using precise temperature devices in conjunction with real-time monitoring of the bioluminescence produced by circadian luciferase reporter genes, we showed that simulated body temperature cycles of mice and even humans, with daily temperature differences of only 3°C and 1°C, respectively, could gradually synchronize circadian gene expression in cultured fibroblasts. The time required for establishing the new steady-state phase depended on the reporter gene, but after a few days, the expression of each gene oscillated with a precise phase relative to that of the temperature cycles. Smooth temperature oscillations with a very small amplitude could synchronize fibroblast clocks over a wide temperature range, and such temperature rhythms were also capable of entraining gene expression cycles to periods significantly longer or shorter than 24 h. As revealed by genetic loss-of-function experiments, heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), but not HSF2, was required for the efficient synchronization of fibroblast oscillators to simulated body temperature cycles.

  17. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K; Kohn, Matthew J; Cerling, Thure E; Chiappe, Luis M; Eiler, John M

    2015-10-13

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ∼ 6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  18. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation. (paper)

  19. Heater rod temperature change at boiling transition under flow oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeru; Toba, Akio; Takigawa, Yukio; Ebata, Shigeo; Morooka, Shin-ichi; Shirakawa, Ken-etsu; Utsuno, Hideaki.

    1986-01-01

    The experiments were performed to investigate the boiling transition phenomenon under flow oscillation (OSBT) during thermal hydraulic instability. It was found, from the experimental results, that the thermal hydraulic instability did not immediately lead to the boiling transition (BT) and, even when the BT occurred due to a power increase, the change in the heater rod temperature was periodically up and down with a saw-toothed shape and no excursion occurred. To investigate the temperature change characteristics, an analysis was also performed using the transient thermal hydraulics code. The analytical results showed that the shape of the heater rod temperature change was well simulated by presuming a repeat of alternate BT and rewetting. Based on these results, further analysis has been performed with the lumped parameter model to investigate the temperature profile characteristics as well as the effects of the post-BT heat transfer coefficient and the flow oscillation period on the maximum temperature. (author)

  20. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M. M.; Orth, R.; Cheruy, F.; Hagemann, S.; Lorenz, R.; Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.

  1. Parental motivation to change body weight in young overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A

    2015-07-01

    To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P < 0.001), those who were less physically active (P = 0.002) and more sedentary (P < 0.001), and in parents who were more concerned about their child's weight (P < 0.001) or who used greater food restriction (P < 0.001). Low levels of parental motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.

  2. Climate change and health: temperature and health impacts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available /heat waves are anticipated to increase in frequency and magnitude in the 21st century. excessive temperatures lead to excess morbidity and mortality (all cause, respiratory, cardiovascular system mortality). Figure 1 depicts the impact of summer 2003... mortality temperature threshold below or above which every 1?C change increases mortality by ~4% and ~0.5%, respectively (mcmichael, et al., 2008). temperature-related mortality rates (all cause, cardiovascular and respiratory) are modified by many...

  3. Emotional reactions following exposure to idealized bodies predict unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviors in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sara; Mussap, Alexander J

    2007-06-01

    We explored the extent to which changes in emotional states following exposure to images of idealized bodies predict unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviors in women and men, and whether particular psychological traits mediate these effects. One hundred thirty-three women and 93 men were assessed for unhealthy attitudes and behaviors related to body weight and muscles using the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire, and the strategies to increase muscles subscale of the Body Change Inventory. Psychological traits assessed included body dissatisfaction (EDI-2), internalization of the thin/athletic ideal (Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3), body comparison (Body Comparison Scale), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), and identity confusion (Self-Concept Clarity Scale). Participants were then exposed to photographs of thin female models and muscular male models, and visual analogue scales were used to measure changes in postexposure state body dissatisfaction, anger, anxiety, and depression. Postexposure increases in state anger, anxiety, depression, and body dissatisfaction correlated with drive for thinness and disordered eating symptomatology in women, while postexposure increases in state body dissatisfaction correlated with muscle development in men. Analyses revealed that internalization and body comparison mediated these relationships, with trait body dissatisfaction, trait depression, self-esteem, and self-concept/identity confusion serving as mediators for women only. These results are indicative of gender differences in: (a) reactions to idealized bodies; (b) psychological traits that predispose individuals to experience these reactions; and (c) types of body change behavior that are associated with these reactions.

  4. Laboratory Study of the Effect of Temperature Changes on Mixing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is an investigation of the eect of temperature changes on the mixing and performance of ponds. The parameters tested for were: biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, coliform, suspended solid, temperature and pH. Three metallic tanks were fed simultaneously by a plastic container under gravity.

  5. Temperature variations as evidence of climate change in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper seeks to investigate whether evolving temperature patterns over northern Nigeria agree with the projections made by global warming and climate change models. The data used are screen air temperature on a monthly time scale. These data were obtained from the database of the Nigerian Meteorological ...

  6. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (plocomotor physical activity have an important inherent component (r=0.864 and r=0.784, respectively, plocomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Achieving temperature-size changes in a unicellular organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Esteban, Genoveva F

    2013-01-01

    The temperature-size rule (TSR) is an intraspecific phenomenon describing the phenotypic plastic response of an organism size to the temperature: individuals reared at cooler temperatures mature to be larger adults than those reared at warmer temperatures. The TSR is ubiquitous, affecting >80% species including uni- and multicellular groups. How the TSR is established has received attention in multicellular organisms, but not in unicells. Further, conceptual models suggest the mechanism of size change to be different in these two groups. Here, we test these theories using the protist Cyclidium glaucoma. We measure cell sizes, along with population growth during temperature acclimation, to determine how and when the temperature-size changes are achieved. We show that mother and daughter sizes become temporarily decoupled from the ratio 2:1 during acclimation, but these return to their coupled state (where daughter cells are half the size of the mother cell) once acclimated. Thermal acclimation is rapid, being completed within approximately a single generation. Further, we examine the impact of increased temperatures on carrying capacity and total biomass, to investigate potential adaptive strategies of size change. We demonstrate no temperature effect on carrying capacity, but maximum supported biomass to decrease with increasing temperature. PMID:22832346

  8. Body Temperatures in the Elderly: A National Study of Physiological, Social, and Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. H.; Woodward, Patricia M.; Exton-Smith, A. N.; Green, M. F.; Donnison, D. V.; Wicks, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Two large-scale surveys of body temperatures in elderly people living at home were carried out in the winter of 1972. Most of the homes visited were cold with room temperatures below the minimum recommended by the Department of Health. Deep body temperatures below 35·5°C were found in 10% of those studied, and the difference between the skin temperature and the core temperature was also reduced in this group. Such individuals are at risk of developing hypothermia since they show evidence of some degree of thermoregulatory failure. Further research is needed, but meanwhile there are practical measures that could be taken to reduce the risk of hypothermia in the elderly. PMID:4686555

  9. Locatable-body temperature monitoring based on semi-active UHF RFID tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-03-26

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program.

  10. Locatable-Body Temperature Monitoring Based on Semi-Active UHF RFID Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip’s internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program.

  11. Attributing Changing Rates of Temperature Record Breaking to Anthropogenic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew D.

    2017-11-01

    Record-breaking temperatures attract attention from the media, so understanding how and why the rate of record breaking is changing may be useful in communicating the effects of climate change. A simple methodology designed for estimating the anthropogenic influence on rates of record breaking in a given time series is proposed here. The frequency of hot and cold record-breaking temperature occurrences is shown to be changing due to the anthropogenic influence on the climate. Using ensembles of model simulations with and without human-induced forcings, it is demonstrated that the effect of climate change on global record-breaking temperatures can be detected as far back as the 1930s. On local scales, a climate change signal is detected more recently at most locations. The anthropogenic influence on the increased occurrence of hot record-breaking temperatures is clearer than it is for the decreased occurrence of cold records. The approach proposed here could be applied in rapid attribution studies of record extremes to quantify the influence of climate change on the rate of record breaking in addition to the climate anomaly being studied. This application is demonstrated for the global temperature record of 2016 and the Central England temperature record in 2014.

  12. Predictors of Change in Body Image in Female Participants of an Outdoor Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kate; Foland, Jody; Foley, John T.; Kniffin, Mike; Bailey, JoEllen

    2016-01-01

    Body image is an ever-changing phenomenon that has a profound effect on women's quality of life. Research related to body image is expansive, but few researchers have focused on how outdoor education may influence body image. This study examines predictors of change in body image of female participants of an outdoor education program. Twenty-eight…

  13. Dynamics and complexity of body temperature in preterm infants nursed in incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Kerstin; Pramana, Isabelle; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Kumar, Nitin; Datta, Alexandre N; Frey, Urs; Schulzke, Sven M

    2017-01-01

    Poor control of body temperature is associated with mortality and major morbidity in preterm infants. We aimed to quantify its dynamics and complexity to evaluate whether indices from fluctuation analyses of temperature time series obtained within the first five days of life are associated with gestational age (GA) and body size at birth, and presence and severity of typical comorbidities of preterm birth. We recorded 3h-time series of body temperature using a skin electrode in incubator-nursed preterm infants. We calculated mean and coefficient of variation of body temperature, scaling exponent alpha (Talpha) derived from detrended fluctuation analysis, and sample entropy (TSampEn) of temperature fluctuations. Data were analysed by multilevel multivariable linear regression. Data of satisfactory technical quality were obtained from 285/357 measurements (80%) in 73/90 infants (81%) with a mean (range) GA of 30.1 (24.0-34.0) weeks. We found a positive association of Talpha with increasing levels of respiratory support after adjusting for GA and birth weight z-score (pbody temperature in incubator-nursed preterm infants show considerable associations with GA and respiratory morbidity. Talpha may be a useful marker of autonomic maturity and severity of disease in preterm infants.

  14. Future changes of temperature and heat waves in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Huang, Wendy; Lin, Qianguo; Liao, Renfei; Fan, Yurui

    2018-05-01

    Apparent changes in the temperature patterns in recent years brought many challenges to the province of Ontario, Canada. As the need for adapting to climate change challenges increases, the development of reliable climate projections becomes a crucial task. In this study, a regional climate modeling system, Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS), is used to simulate the temperature patterns in Ontario. Three PRECIS runs with a resolution of 25 km × 25 km are carried out to simulate the present (1961-1990) temperature variations. There is a good match between the simulated and observed data, which validates the performance of PRECIS in reproducing temperature changes in Ontario. Future changes of daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures during the period 2071-2100 are then projected under the IPCC SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios using PRECIS. Spatial variations of annual mean temperature, mean diurnal range, and temperature seasonality are generated. Furthermore, heat waves defined based on the exceedance of local climatology and their temporal and spatial characteristics are analyzed. The results indicate that the highest temperature and the most intensive heat waves are most likely to occur at the Toronto-Windsor corridor in Southern Ontario. The Northern Ontario, in spite of the relatively low projected temperature, would be under the risk of long-lasting heat waves, and thus needs effective measures to enhance its climate resilience in the future. This study can assist the decision makers in better understanding the future temperature changes in Ontario and provide decision support for mitigating heat-related loss.

  15. Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, V L; Wilkinson, D M; Blacker, S D; Horner, F E; Carter, J; Rayson, M P; Havenith, G

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of insulated skin temperature (T is ) to predict rectal temperature (T re ) for use as a non-invasive measurement of thermal strain to reduce the risk of heat illness for emergency service personnel. Volunteers from the Police, Fire and Rescue, and Ambulance Services performed role-related tasks in hot (30 °C) and neutral (18 °C) conditions, wearing service specific personal protective equipment. Insulated skin temperature and micro climate temperature (T mc ) predicted T re with an adjusted r 2 = 0.87 and standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 0.19 °C. A bootstrap validation of the equation resulted in an adjusted r 2 = 0.85 and SEE = 0.20 °C. Taking into account the 0.20 °C error, the prediction of T re resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 91%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature and T mc can be used in a model to predict T re in emergency service personnel wearing CBRN protective clothing with an SEE of 0.2 °C. However, the model is only valid for T is over 36.5 °C, above which thermal stability is reached between the core and the skin. (paper)

  16. Hematological changes after single large dose half-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Friedrich, S.; Jochem, I.; Eberhardt, H.J.; Koch, R.; Knorr, A.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of different peripheral blood parameters aimed at the study of side effects on the hematological cellular system following a 5 - 8 Gy single large dose half-body irradiation in 20 patients. Compared to the initial values the leukocytes between the 6. and 14., the thrombocytes between the 14. and 21. postirradiation day as well as the lymphocytes between 3 hours and 4 weeks postirradiation were significantly decreased without exhibiting complications such as hemorrhages or infections. The hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocyte values revealed but a slight decrease normalized within a 28 days postirradiation period. Transfusions were necessary when a tumor-caused anemia was present prior to irradiation. Changes in serum activity of aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase occured during the first hours after irradiation and were due to enzyme release from destroyed tumor cells

  17. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  18. Telemetric measurement of body core temperature in exercising unconditioned Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, T Craig; Gillette, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    This project evaluated the use of an ingestible temperature sensor to measure body core temperature (Tc) in exercising dogs. Twenty-five healthy, unconditioned Labrador retrievers participated in an outdoor 3.5-km run, completed in 20 min on a level, 400-m grass track. Core temperature was measured continuously with a telemetric monitoring system before, during, and after the run. Data were successfully collected with no missing data points during the exercise. Core temperature elevated in the dogs from 38.7 ± 0.3°C at pre-exercise to 40.4 ± 0.6°C post-exercise. While rectal temperatures are still the standard of measurement, telemetric core temperature monitors may offer an easier and more comfortable means of sampling core temperature with minimal human and mechanical interference with the exercising dog.

  19. Historical Change of Equilibrium Water Temperature in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in freshwater ecosystems due to a climate change have been great concern for sustainable river basin management both for water resources utilization and ecological conservation. However, their impact seems to be difficult to evaluate because of wide variety of basin characteristics along a river network both in nature and social environment. This presentation uses equilibrium water temperature as a simple criterion index for evaluating the long-term changes of stream thermal environment due to the historical climate change in Japan. It examines, at first, the relationship between the equilibrium water temperature and the stream temperature observed for 7 years at a lower reach in the Ibo River, Japan. It analyzes, then, the seasonal and regional trends of the equilibrium water temperature change for the last 50 years at 133 meteorological station sites throughout Japan, discussing their rising or falling characteristics. The correlation analysis at the local reach of the Ibo River shows that the equilibrium water temperature has similar trend of change as the stream temperature. However, its value tends to be higher than the stream temperature in summer, while lower in winter. The onset of the higher equilibrium water temperature fluctuates annually from mid February to early April. This onset fluctuation at each spring could be influenced by the different amount of snow at the antecedent winter. The rising or falling trends of the equilibrium water temperature are analyzed both annually and seasonally through the regression analysis of the 133 sites in Japan. Consequently, the trends of the temperature change could be categorized by 12 patterns. As for the seasonal analysis, the results shows that there are many sites indicating the falling trend in spring and summer, and rising trends in autumn and winter. In particular, winter has the strong rising tendency throughout Japan. As for the regional analysis, the result illustrates the precise rationality; e

  20. Validity of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Outdoor Exercise in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Yeargin, Susan W; Roti, Melissa W; Siegler, Jason; Blowers, Julie A; Glaviano, Neal R; Huggins, Robert A; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rectal temperature is recommended by the National Athletic Trainers' Association as the criterion standard for recognizing exertional heat stroke, but other body sites commonly are used to measure temperature. Few authors have assessed the validity of the thermometers that measure body temperature at these sites in athletic settings. Objective: To assess the validity of commonly used temperature devices at various body sites during outdoor exercise in the heat. Design: Observational field study. Setting: Outdoor athletic facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen men and 10 women (age = 26.5 ± 5.3 years, height = 174.3 ± 11.1 cm, mass = 72.73 ± 15.95 kg, body fat = 16.2 ± 5.5%). Intervention(s): We simultaneously tested inexpensive and expensive devices orally and in the axillary region, along with measures of aural, gastrointestinal, forehead, temporal, and rectal temperatures. Temporal temperature was measured according to the instruction manual and a modified method observed in medical tents at local road races. We also measured forehead temperatures directly on the athletic field (other measures occurred in a covered pavilion) where solar radiation was greater. Rectal temperature was the criterion standard used to assess the validity of all other devices. Subjects' temperatures were measured before exercise, every 60 minutes during 180 minutes of exercise, and every 20 minutes for 60 minutes of postexercise recovery. Temperature devices were considered invalid if the mean bias (average difference between rectal temperature and device temperature) was greater than ±0.27°C (±0.5°F). Main Outcome Measure(s): Temperature from each device at each site and time point. Results: Mean bias for the following temperatures was greater than the allowed limit of ±0.27°C (±0.5°F): temperature obtained via expensive oral device (−1.20°C [−2.17°F]), inexpensive oral device (−1.67°C [−3.00°F]), expensive axillary device (−2.58°C [−4

  1. Headset Bluetooth and cell phone based continuous central body temperature measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, J Miguel; Pereira, Bruno; Paiva, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measure of the central temperature is a very important physiologic indicator in several clinical applications, namely, in the characterization and diagnosis of sleep disorders. In this paper a simple system is described to continuously measure the body temperature at the ear. An electronic temperature sensor is coupled to the microphone of a common commercial auricular Bluetooth device that sends the temperature measurements to a mobile phone to which is paired. The measurements are stored at the mobile phone and periodically sent to a medical facility by email or SMS (short messaging service).

  2. Effect of the temperature-humidity index on body temperature and conception rate of lactating dairy cows in southwestern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabenishi, Hisashi; Ohta, Hiroshi; Nishimoto, Toshihumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Ashizawa, Koji; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the temperature-humidity index (THI) and the conception rate of lactating dairy cows in southwestern Japan, one of the hottest areas of the country. We also investigated the relationship between measurement of the vaginal temperature of lactating dairy cows as their core body temperature at one-hour intervals for 25 consecutive days in hot (August-September, n=6) and cool (January-February, n=5) periods and their THI. Furthermore, we discussed the above relationship using these vaginal temperatures, the conception rates and the THI. As a result, when the conception rates from day 2 to 0 before AI were classified into day 2, 1 and 0 groups by the six maximum THI values in each group (mTHI; 80), only the conception rate for the mTHI over 80 at 1 day before AI group was significantly lower (P80) was significantly lower (P80. There was a significant positive correlation (Ptemperature, but not during the cool period. When the mTHI reached 69, the vaginal temperature started to increase. As for the relationship between the conception rates and vaginal temperatures for all mTHI classes, in the mTHI>80 at 1 day before AI group, the vaginal temperature increased by 0.6 C from 38.7 C, resulting in a reduction of 11.6% in the conception rate from 40.5%. In conclusion, these results suggest that one of the causes of the fall in conception rate of lactating dairy cows during the summer season in southwestern Japan may be an increase in their core body temperature with a higher mTHI than the critical mTHI of 69 at 1 day before AI.

  3. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. Participants 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Main outcome measures Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. Results In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (–0.021°C for every decade, Ptemperature (eg, hypothyroidism: –0.013°C, P=0.01) or higher temperature (eg, cancer: 0.020, Pbody mass index: 0.002 per m/kg2, Ptemperature variation. Despite this, unexplained temperature variation was a significant predictor of subsequent mortality: controlling for all measured factors, an increase of 0.149°C (1 SD of individual temperature in the data) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Conclusions Individuals’ baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. PMID:29237616

  4. Changes in the seasonality of Arctic sea ice and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintanja, R.

    2012-04-01

    Observations show that the Arctic sea ice cover is currently declining as a result of climate warming. According to climate models, this retreat will continue and possibly accelerate in the near-future. However, the magnitude of this decline is not the same throughout the year. With temperatures near or above the freezing point, summertime Arctic sea ice will quickly diminish. However, at temperatures well below freezing, the sea ice cover during winter will exhibit a much weaker decline. In the future, the sea ice seasonal cycle will be no ice in summer, and thin one-year ice in winter. Hence, the seasonal cycle in sea ice cover will increase with ongoing climate warming. This in itself leads to an increased summer-winter contrast in surface air temperature, because changes in sea ice have a dominant influence on Arctic temperature and its seasonality. Currently, the annual amplitude in air temperature is decreasing, however, because winters warm faster than summer. With ongoing summer sea ice reductions there will come a time when the annual temperature amplitude will increase again because of the large seasonal changes in sea ice. This suggests that changes in the seasonal cycle in Arctic sea ice and temperature are closely, and intricately, connected. Future changes in Arctic seasonality (will) have an profound effect on flora, fauna, humans and economic activities.

  5. The Analysis of Three-Body Contact Temperature under the Different Third Particle Size, Density, and Value of Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Wen Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many studies have investigated the friction, wear, and temperature characteristics of the interface between two relative movements. Such analyses often set the coefficient of friction as a fixed value and are analyzed in cases of two-body contact; however, the interface is often a three-body contact and the coefficient of friction varies depending on the operating conditions. This is a significant error in the analysis of contact characteristics, therefore, in this study, the actual interface and the change of the coefficient of friction were analyzed based on three-body micro-contact theory where the contact temperature was also analyzed and the difference between the generally assumed values were compared. The results showed that under three-body contact, the coefficient of total friction increased with an increase in particle size; and at a different particle size and area density of particles, the surface contact temperature increased with the plasticity index and load increases, and the particle contact temperature increased with the increasing particle size. The surface temperature rise was mainly affected by the ratio of the average temperature between surface 1 and surface 2 to the multiplication between the 100th root of the area density of particles and the square root of the equivalent surface roughness (Ts1s2_ave*/ηa0.01σ0.5 and the ratio of the 10th root of the mean particle diameter to the 100th root of the equivalent surface roughness (xa0.1/σ0.001. Particle temperature was mainly affected by the ratio of the 10th root of the mean particle diameter to the 100th root of the equivalent surface roughness (xa0.1/σ0.001 and the area density of particles ηa. Our study indicated that when the contact of surface with surface and the contact of the particles with the surface, the resulting heat balance was assigned to the particles and the surface in a three-body contact situation. Under this contact behavior, it could avoid

  6. Spatial and body-size dependent response of marine pelagic communities to projected global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Stelly; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Arsouze, Thomas; Gehlen, Marion; Maury, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, oxygen, and food availability directly affect marine life. Climate models project a global warming of the ocean's surface (~+3 °C), a de-oxygenation of the ocean's interior (~-3%) and a decrease in total marine net primary production (~-8%) under the 'business as usual' climate change scenario (RCP8.5). We estimated the effects of these changes on biological communities using a coupled biogeochemical (PISCES)--ecosystems (APECOSM) model forced by the physical outputs of the last generation of the IPSL-CM Earth System Model. The APECOSM model is a size-structured bio-energetic model that simulates the 3D dynamical distributions of three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, mesopelagic, and migratory) under the effects of multiple environmental factors. The PISCES-APECOSM model ran from 1850 to 2100 under historical forcing followed by RCP8.5. Our RCP8.5 simulation highlights significant changes in the spatial distribution, biomass, and maximum body-size of the simulated pelagic communities. Biomass and maximum body-size increase at high latitude over the course of the century, reflecting the capacity of marine organisms to respond to new suitable environment. At low- and midlatitude, biomass and maximum body-size strongly decrease. In those regions, large organisms cannot maintain their high metabolic needs because of limited and declining food availability. This resource reduction enhances the competition and modifies the biomass distribution among and within the three communities: the proportion of small organisms increases in the three communities and the migrant community that initially comprised a higher proportion of small organisms is favored. The greater resilience of small body-size organisms resides in their capacity to fulfill their metabolic needs under reduced energy supply and is further favored by the release of predation pressure due to the decline of large organisms. These results suggest that small body-size organisms might be

  7. Temperature and ontogenetic effects on color change in the larval salamander species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T S; Straus, R; Sih, A [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Temperature has been shown to affect body color in several species of amphibians. The interaction between color and temperature may also change over larval ontogeny, perhaps because of age-related or seasonal changes in selection pressures on color. We quantified the effects of temperature on the color of the salamander sister species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum over larval ontogeny. We found that early-stage larvae responded to cold temperatures with a dark color relative to that of the warm temperature response. Both species then exhibited an ontogenetic shift in larval color, with larvae becoming lighter with age. Interestingly, older larvae showed decreased plasticity in color change to temperature when compared with younger stages. Older A. texanum larvae exhibited a reversal in the direction of color change, with cold temperatures inducing a lighter color relative to warm temperatures. We suggest that the overall pattern of color change (a plastic color response to temperature for young larvae, a progressive lightening of larvae over development, and an apparent loss of color plasticity to temperature over ontogeny) can be plausibly explained by seasonal changes in environmental factors (temperature, ultraviolet radiation) selecting for body color. (author)

  8. Temperature and ontogenetic effects on color change in the larval salamander species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.S.; Straus, R.; Sih, A.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature has been shown to affect body color in several species of amphibians. The interaction between color and temperature may also change over larval ontogeny, perhaps because of age-related or seasonal changes in selection pressures on color. We quantified the effects of temperature on the color of the salamander sister species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum over larval ontogeny. We found that early-stage larvae responded to cold temperatures with a dark color relative to that of the warm temperature response. Both species then exhibited an ontogenetic shift in larval color, with larvae becoming lighter with age. Interestingly, older larvae showed decreased plasticity in color change to temperature when compared with younger stages. Older A. texanum larvae exhibited a reversal in the direction of color change, with cold temperatures inducing a lighter color relative to warm temperatures. We suggest that the overall pattern of color change (a plastic color response to temperature for young larvae, a progressive lightening of larvae over development, and an apparent loss of color plasticity to temperature over ontogeny) can be plausibly explained by seasonal changes in environmental factors (temperature, ultraviolet radiation) selecting for body color. (author)

  9. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  10. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. D.; Souza, A. H.; Amundson, M. C.; Hackbart, K. S.; Fuenzalida, M. J.; Herlihy, M. M.; Ayres, H.; Dresch, A. R.; Vieira, L. M.; Guenther, J. N.; Grummer, R. R.; Fricke, P. M.; Shaver, R. D.; Wiltbank, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤2.50) versus higher (≥2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2, and

  11. Disruption of the circadian period of body temperature by the anesthetic propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan; Mauvieux, Benoit; Reinberg, Alain; Dispersyn, Garance

    2016-01-01

    The circadian time structure of an organism can be desynchronized in a large number of instances, including the intake of specific drugs. We have previously found that propofol, which is a general anesthetic, induces a desynchronization of the circadian time structure in rats, with a 60-80 min significant phase advance of body temperature circadian rhythm. We thus deemed it worthwhile to examine whether this phase shift of body temperature was related to a modification of the circadian period Tau. Propofol was administered at three different Zeitgeber Times (ZTs): ZT6 (middle of the rest period), ZT10 (2 h prior to the beginning of activity period), ZT16 (4 h after the beginning of the activity period), with ZT0 being the beginning of the rest period (light onset) and ZT12 being the beginning of the activity period (light offset). Control rats (n = 20) were injected at the same ZTs with 10% intralipid, which is a control lipidic solution. Whereas no modification of the circadian period of body temperature was observed in the control rats, propofol administration resulted in a significant shortening of the period by 96 and 180 min at ZT6 and ZT10, respectively. By contrast, the period was significantly lengthened by 90 min at ZT16. We also found differences in the time it took for the rats to readjust their body temperature to the original 24-h rhythm. At ZT16, the speed of readjustment was more rapid than at the two other ZTs that we investigated. This study hence shows (i) the disruptive effects of the anesthetic propofol on the body temperature circadian rhythm, and it points out that (ii) the period Tau for body temperature responds to this anesthetic drug according to a Tau-response curve. By sustaining postoperative sleep-wake disorders, the disruptive effects of propofol on circadian time structure might have important implications for the use of this drug in humans.

  12. Novel Zero-Heat-Flux Deep Body Temperature Measurement in Lower Extremity Vascular and Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Marja-Tellervo; Pesonen, Anne; Jousela, Irma; Päivärinta, Janne; Poikajärvi, Satu; Albäck, Anders; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Pesonen, Eero

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare deep body temperature obtained using a novel noninvasive continuous zero-heat-flux temperature measurement system with core temperatures obtained using conventional methods. A prospective, observational study. Operating room of a university hospital. The study comprised 15 patients undergoing vascular surgery of the lower extremities and 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Zero-heat-flux thermometry on the forehead and standard core temperature measurements. Body temperature was measured using a new thermometry system (SpotOn; 3M, St. Paul, MN) on the forehead and with conventional methods in the esophagus during vascular surgery (n = 15), and in the nasopharynx and pulmonary artery during cardiac surgery (n = 15). The agreement between SpotOn and the conventional methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman random-effects approach for repeated measures. The mean difference between SpotOn and the esophageal temperature during vascular surgery was+0.08°C (95% limit of agreement -0.25 to+0.40°C). During cardiac surgery, during off CPB, the mean difference between SpotOn and the pulmonary arterial temperature was -0.05°C (95% limits of agreement -0.56 to+0.47°C). Throughout cardiac surgery (on and off CPB), the mean difference between SpotOn and the nasopharyngeal temperature was -0.12°C (95% limits of agreement -0.94 to+0.71°C). Poor agreement between the SpotOn and nasopharyngeal temperatures was detected in hypothermia below approximately 32°C. According to this preliminary study, the deep body temperature measured using the zero-heat-flux system was in good agreement with standard core temperatures during lower extremity vascular and cardiac surgery. However, agreement was questionable during hypothermia below 32°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term calorie restriction, but not endurance exercise, lowers core body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Andreea; Cangemi, Roberto; Omodei, Daniela; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased lifespan in calorie restricted animals and mice overexpressing the uncoupling protein-2 in hypocretin neurons. However, nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of calorie restriction (CR) with adequate nutrition on body temperature in humans. In this study, 24-hour core body temperature was measured every minute by using ingested telemetric capsules in 24 men and women (mean age 53.7±9.4 yrs) consuming a CR diet for an average of 6 years, 24 age- and sex-matched sedentary (WD) and 24 body fat-matched exercise-trained (EX) volunteers, who were eating Western diets. The CR and EX groups were significantly leaner than the WD group. Energy intake was lower in the CR group (1769±348 kcal/d) than in the WD (2302±668 kcal/d) and EX (2798±760 kcal/d) groups (Ptemperatures were all significantly lower in the CR group than in the WD and EX groups (P≤0.01). Long-term CR with adequate nutrition in lean and weight-stable healthy humans is associated with a sustained reduction in core body temperature, similar to that found in CR rodents and monkeys. This adaptation is likely due to CR itself, rather than to leanness, and may be involved in slowing the rate of aging. PMID:21483032

  14. Design of Monitoring Tool Heartbeat Rate and Human Body Temperature Based on WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalinas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The heart is one of the most important organs in the human body. One way to know heart health is to measure the number of heart beats per minute and body temperature also shows health, many heart rate and body temperature devices but can only be accessed offline. This research aims to design a heart rate detector and human body temperature that the measurement results can be accessed via web pages anywhere and anytime. This device can be used by many users by entering different ID numbers. The design consists of input blocks: pulse sensor, DS18B20 sensor and 3x4 keypad button. Process blocks: Arduino Mega 2560 Microcontroller, Ethernet Shield, router and USB modem. And output block: 16x2 LCD and mobile phone or PC to access web page. Based on the test results, this tool successfully measures the heart rate with an average error percentage of 2.702 % when compared with the oxymeter tool. On the measurement of body temperature get the result of the average error percentage of 2.18 %.

  15. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Abreu-Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  16. Global River Discharge and Water Temperature under Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Franssen, W.H.P.; Yearsley, J.R.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will affect hydrologic and thermal regimes of rivers, having a direct impact on freshwater ecosystems and human water use. Here we assess the impact of climate change on global river flows and river water temperatures, and identify regions that might become more critical for

  17. [Wireless Passive Body Sensor for Temperature Monitoring Using Near Field Communication Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bo; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Genxuan; Tsau, Young; Zhang, Sai; Li, Lei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we designed a wireless body temperature sensor (WBTS) based on near field communication (NFC) technology. Just attaching the WBTS to a mobile phone with NFC function, the real-time body temperature of human subjects can be acquired by an application program without seperate power supply. The WBTS is mainly composed of a digital body temperature probe (d-BTP), a NFC unit and an antenna. The d-BTP acquires and processes body temperature data through a micro control er, and the NFC unit and antenna are used for wireless energy transmission and data communication between the mobile phone and WBTS. UART communication protocol is used in the communication between the d-BTP and NFC unit, and data compression technique is adopted for improving transmission efficiency and decreasing power loss. In tests, the error of WBTS is ±0.1 oC, in range of 32 oC to 42 oC. The WBTS has advantages of high accuracy, low power loss, strong anti-interference ability, dispensation with independent power supply etc., and it can be integrated into wearable apparatuses for temperature monitoring and health management.

  18. A pilot study to examine maturation of body temperature control in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, Robin B; Levy, Janet; Katz, Laurence; Guenther, Bob; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2013-01-01

    To test instrumentation and develop analytic models to use in a larger study to examine developmental trajectories of body temperature and peripheral perfusion from birth in extremely low-birth-weight (EBLW) infants. A case study design. The study took place in a Level 4 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in North Carolina. Four ELBW infants, fewer than 29 weeks gestational age at birth. Physiologic data were measured every minute for the first 5 days of life: peripheral perfusion using perfusion index by Masimo and body temperature using thermistors. Body temperature was also measured using infrared thermal imaging. Stimulation and care events were recorded over the first 5 days using video which was coded with Noldus Observer software. Novel analytical models using the state space approach to time-series analysis were developed to explore maturation of neural control over central and peripheral body temperature. Results from this pilot study confirmed the feasibility of using multiple instruments to measure temperature and perfusion in ELBW infants. This approach added rich data to our case study design and set a clinical context with which to interpret longitudinal physiological data. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  19. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Martha Marie; Orth, René; Cheruy, Frederique; Hagemann, Stefan; Lorenz, Ruth; van den Hurk, Bart; Seneviratne, Sonia Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate here the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multi-model experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate physical processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America and between 42%-52% in Amazonia, Northern Australia and Southern Africa. Soil moisture trends (multi-decadal soil moisture variability) are more important for this response than short-term (e.g. seasonal, interannual) soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections. Vogel, M.M. et al.,2017. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, accepted.

  20. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  1. Method for solving the problem of nonlinear heating a cylindrical body with unknown initial temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaparova, N.

    2017-10-01

    We consider the problem of heating a cylindrical body with an internal thermal source when the main characteristics of the material such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and material density depend on the temperature at each point of the body. We can control the surface temperature and the heat flow from the surface inside the cylinder, but it is impossible to measure the temperature on axis and the initial temperature in the entire body. This problem is associated with the temperature measurement challenge and appears in non-destructive testing, in thermal monitoring of heat treatment and technical diagnostics of operating equipment. The mathematical model of heating is represented as nonlinear parabolic PDE with the unknown initial condition. In this problem, both the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are given and it is required to calculate the temperature values at the internal points of the body. To solve this problem, we propose the numerical method based on using of finite-difference equations and a regularization technique. The computational scheme involves solving the problem at each spatial step. As a result, we obtain the temperature function at each internal point of the cylinder beginning from the surface down to the axis. The application of the regularization technique ensures the stability of the scheme and allows us to significantly simplify the computational procedure. We investigate the stability of the computational scheme and prove the dependence of the stability on the discretization steps and error level of the measurement results. To obtain the experimental temperature error estimates, computational experiments were carried out. The computational results are consistent with the theoretical error estimates and confirm the efficiency and reliability of the proposed computational scheme.

  2. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  3. Temperature-induced structural changes in fluorozirconate glasses and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Youngman, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The atomic structure and its temperature dependence in fluorozirconate glasses and supercooled liquids have been studied with high-resolution and high-temperature 19 F and 23 Na nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The 19 F NMR spectra in these glasses show the presence of multiple F environments. Temperature dependence of the 19 F magic-angle-spinning NMR spectra indicates a progressive change in the average F coordination environment in the glass structure, besides motional narrowing due to substantial mobility of F - ions. The observed change in the average 19 F NMR chemical shift is consistent with progressive breaking of the Zr-F-Zr linkages in the glass structure with increasing temperature. The onset of such a change in F speciation is observed at temperatures well below T g . This result is evidence of changes in the average equilibrium structure in an inorganic glass-forming liquid at T g , albeit on a local scale. The 23 Na NMR spectra indicate that the cations in these glasses become significantly mobile only at temperatures T≥T g , which allows for the onset of global structural relaxation and viscous flow

  4. The effect of warmed inspired gases on body temperature during arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youn Yi; Kim, Hong Soon; Chang, Young Jin; Yun, Soon Young; Kwak, Hyun Jeong

    2013-07-01

    Perioperative hypothermia can develop easily during shoulder arthroscopy, because cold irrigation can directly influence core body temperature. The authors investigated whether active warming and humidification of inspired gases reduces falls in core body temperature and allows redistribution of body heat in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. Patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomly assigned to receive either room temperature inspired gases using a conventional respiratory circuit (the control group, n = 20) or inspired gases humidified and heated using a humidified and electrically heated circuit (HHC) (the heated group, n = 20). Core temperatures were significantly lower in both groups from 30 min after anesthesia induction, but were significantly higher in the heated group than in the control group from 75 to 120 min after anesthesia induction. In this study the use of a humidified and electrically heated circuit did not prevent core temperature falling during arthroscopic shoulder surgery, but it was found to decrease reductions in core temperature from 75 min after anesthesia induction.

  5. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sheean, Patricia M.; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971–2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography (CAT)...

  6. Temperature response to future urbanization and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Evans, Jason P.; Fita, Lluís; Bormann, Kathryn J.

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the impact of future urban expansion on local near-surface temperature for Sydney (Australia) using a future climate scenario (A2). The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the present (1990-2009) and future (2040-2059) climates of the region at 2-km spatial resolution. The standard land use of the model was replaced with a more accurate dataset that covers the Sydney area. The future simulation incorporates the projected changes in the urban area of Sydney to account for the expected urban expansion. A comparison between areas with projected land use changes and their surroundings was conducted to evaluate how urbanization and global warming will act together and to ascertain their combined effect on the local climate. The analysis of the temperature changes revealed that future urbanization will strongly affect minimum temperature, whereas little impact was detected for maximum temperature. The minimum temperature changes will be noticeable throughout the year. However, during winter and spring these differences will be particularly large and the increases could be double the increase due to global warming alone at 2050. Results indicated that the changes were mostly due to increased heat capacity of urban structures and reduced evaporation in the city environment.

  7. The environmental plasticity of diverse body color caused by extremely long photoperiods and high temperature in Saccharosydne procerus (Homoptera: Delphacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichen Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanization reflects not only body color variation but also environmental plasticity. It is a strategy that helps insects adapt to environmental change. Different color morphs may have distinct life history traits, e.g., development time, growth rate, and body weight. The green slender planthopper Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura is the main pest of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia. This insect has two color morphs. The present study explored the influence of photoperiod and its interaction with temperature in nymph stage on adult melanism. Additionally, the longevity, fecundity, mating rate, and hatching rate of S. procerus were examined to determine whether the fitness of the insect was influenced by melanism under different temperature and photoperiod. The results showed that a greater number of melanic morphs occurred if the photoperiod was extremely long. A two-factor ANOVA showed that temperature and photoperiod both have a significant influence on melanism. The percentages of variation explained by these factors were 45.53% and 48.71%, respectively. Moreover, melanic morphs had greater advantages than non-melanic morphs under an environmental regime of high temperatures and a long photoperiod, whereas non-melanic morphs were better adapted to cold temperatures and a short photoperiod. These results cannot be explained by the thermal melanism hypothesis. Thus, it may be unavailable to seek to explain melanism in terms of only one hypothesis.

  8. The influence of environment, sex, and innate timing mechanisms on body temperature patterns of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Erin M; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M; Van Horne, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms that influence body temperature patterns in black-tailed prairie dogs are not well understood. Previous research on both free-ranging and laboratory populations of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) has suggested that reductions in ambient temperature and food and water deprivation are the primary factors that stimulate torpor in this species. In other species, however, torpor has been shown to be influenced by a multitude of factors, including innate circadian and circannual timing mechanisms, energy status, and reproductive behaviors. Our objective was to clarify the influence of weather, sex, and intrinsic timing mechanisms on the body temperature patterns of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs. We monitored body temperatures of eight adult (>1 yr) prairie dogs from November 1999 to June 2000. Prairie dogs showed distinct daily and seasonal body temperature patterns, which reflected changes in ambient temperatures that occurred during these periods. These patterns of daily and seasonal heterothermy suggest that body temperature patterns of black-tailed prairie dogs may be driven by an innate timing mechanism. All prairie dogs entered torpor intermittently throughout winter and spring. Torpor bouts appeared to be influenced by precipitation and reductions in ambient temperature. Our results also suggest that reproductive behaviors and circadian timing may influence torpor in this species.

  9. Alterations in MAST suit pressure with changes in ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A B; Meislin, H W; Daub, E

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that change in ambient air temperature has an effect on MAST suit pressure according to the ideal gas law. Two different MAST suits were tested on Resusci-Annie dummies. The MAST suits were applied in a cold room at 4.4 degrees C and warmed to 44 degrees C. Positive linear correlations were found in nine trials, but the two suits differed in their rate of increase in pressure. Three trials using humans were conducted showing increased pressure with temperature but at a lesser rate than with dummies. A correlation of 0.5 to 1.0 mm Hg increase in MAST suit pressure for each 1.0 degrees C increase in ambient temperature was found. Implications are discussed for the use of the MAST suit in environmental conditions where the temperature changes.

  10. Kangen-karyu raises surface body temperature through oxidative stress modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Aki; Okamoto, Takuya; Kimura, Satomi; Nagano, Yumiko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Tomita, Tsutomu; Oowada, Shigeru; Aoyagi, Kazumasa

    2016-05-01

    Kangen-karyu, a prescription containing six herbs, has been shown to achieve its pharmacological effect through oxidative stress-dependent pathways in animal models. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the antioxidative effect and pharmacological mechanisms of Kangen-karyu, specifically its body temperature elevating effect in humans. Healthy human volunteers, age 35 ± 15 years old, were enrolled in this study. Surface body temperature, serum nitrite, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities, and inflammatory cytokines were investigated before and 120 min after Kangen-karyu oral intake. Kangen-karyu significantly increased the surface-body temperature of the entire body; this effect was more remarkable in the upper body and continued for more than 120 min. Accompanying this therapeutic effect, serum nitrite levels were increased 120 min after oral administration. Serum ROS scavenging activities were enhanced against singlet oxygen and were concomitantly decreased against the alkoxyl radical. Serum nitrite levels and superoxide scavenging activities were positively correlated, suggesting that Kangen-karyu affects the O2 (•-)-NO balance in vivo. Kangen-karyu had no effect on IL-6, TNF-α and adiponectin levels. These results indicate that the therapeutic effect of Kangen-karyu is achieved through NO- and ROS-dependent mechanisms. Further, this mechanism is not limited to ROS production, but includes ROS-ROS or ROS-NO interactions.

  11. Effects of immersion water temperature on whole-body fluid distribution in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J M; Patterson, M J; Hyde, D E; Jenkins, A B; Mittleman, K D; Taylor, N A S

    2004-09-01

    In this study, we quantified acute changes in the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments during upright neutral- and cold-water immersion. We hypothesized that, during short-term cold immersion, fluid shifts would be wholly restricted to the extracellular space. Seven males were immersed 30 days apart: control (33.3 degrees SD 0.6 degrees C); and cold (18.1 degrees SD 0.3 degrees C). Posture was controlled for 4 h prior to a 60-min seated immersion. Significant reductions in terminal oesophageal (36.9 degrees +/- 0.1 degrees -36.3 degrees +/- 0.1 degrees C) and mean skin temperatures (30.3 degrees +/- 0.3 degrees -23.0 degrees +/- 0.3 degrees C) were observed during the cold, but not the control immersion. Both immersions elicited a reduction in intracellular fluid [20.17 +/- 6.02 mL kg(-1) (control) vs. 22.72 +/- 9.90 mL kg(-1)], while total body water (TBW) remained stable. However, significant plasma volume (PV) divergence was apparent between the trials at 60 min [12.5 +/- 1.0% (control) vs. 6.1 +/- 3.1%; P cold immersion, consistent with its role in PV regulation. We observed that, regardless of the direction of the PV change, both upright immersions elicited reductions in intracellular fluid. These observations have two implications. First, one cannot assume that PV changes reflect those of the entire extracellular compartment. Second, since immersion also increases interstitial fluid pressure, fluid leaving the interstitium must have been rapidly replaced by intracellular water.

  12. Long-term adherence to a local guideline on postoperative body temperature measurement: mixed methods analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Knops, Anouk M.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Goossens, Astrid; Legemate, Dink A.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2012-01-01

    Aim To find out whether a successful multifaceted implementation approach of a local evidence-based guideline on postoperative body temperature measurements (BTM) was persistent over time, and which factors influenced long-term adherence. Methods Mixed methods analysis. Patient records were

  13. Differences in oral temperature and body shape in two populations with different propensities for obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Weyer, C; Bogardus, C

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature is a function of heat production and heat dissipation. Substantial interindividual variability has been reported in healthy humans. We hypothesized that Pima Indians, a population with a high prevalence of abdominal obesity, may have a lower surface area relative to volume, that is...

  14. Software tools for data modelling and processing of human body temperature circadian dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena S; Afanasova, Anastasia I

    2015-01-01

    This paper is presenting a software development for simulating and processing thermometry data. The motivation of this research is the miniaturization of actuators attached to human body which allow frequent temperature measurements and improve the medical diagnosis procedures related to circadian dynamics.

  15. A body temperature model for lizards as estimated from the thermal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Venus, V.; Wang, T.; Schlerf, M.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Overjijk, van S.; Bian, B.M.; Liu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A physically based model was built to predict the transient body temperature of lizards in a thermally heterogeneous environment. Six heat transfer terms were taken into account in this model: solar radiation, convective heat flow, longwave radiation, conductive heat flow, metabolic heat gain and

  16. Postmortem time estimation using body temperature and a finite-element computer model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, E.A. den; Lotens, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands most murder victims are found 2-24 h after the crime. During this period, body temperature decrease is the most reliable method to estimate the postmortem time (PMT). Recently, two murder cases were analysed in which currently available methods did not provide a su.ciently

  17. Increased core body temperature in astronauts during long-duration space missions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahn, A. C.; Werner, A.; Opatz, O.; Maggioni, M. A.; Steinach, M.; von Ahlefeld, V. W.; Moore, A.; Crucian, B. E.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Schlabs, T.; Mendt, S.; Trippel, T.; Koralewski, E.; Koch, J.; Chouker, A.; Reitz, Guenther; Shang, P.; Rocker, L.; Kirsch, K. A.; Gunga, H-C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 16180. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : core body temperature * astonauts' CBT * spaceflights Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  18. Endogenous and exogenous components in the circadian variation of core body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, AE; Beersma, DGM; VandenHoofdakker, RH

    Core body temperature is predominantly modulated by endogenous and exogenous components. In the present study we tested whether these two components can be reliably assessed in a protocol which lasts for only 120 h. In this so-called forced desynchrony protocol, 12 healthy male subjects (age 23.7

  19. Selective SWS suppression does not affect the time course of core body temperature in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    1992-01-01

    In eight healthy middle-aged men, sleep and core body temperature were recorded under baseline conditions, during all-night SWS suppression by acoustic stimulation, and during undisturbed recovery sleep. SWS suppression resulted in a marked reduction of sleep stages 3 and 4 but did not affect the

  20. Environmental light and suprachiasmatic nucleus interact in the regulation of body temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, F.A.J.L.; Pirovano, C.; Someren, E.J.W. van; Buijs, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian biological clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is crucial for circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior. However, equivocal findings have been reported on its role in the circadian regulation of body temperature. The goal of the present studies was to investigate

  1. An IR Sensor Based Smart System to Approximate Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Partha Pratim

    2017-08-01

    Herein demonstrated experiment studies two methods, namely convection and body resistance, to approximate human core body temperature. The proposed system is highly energy efficient that consumes only 165 mW power and runs on 5 VDC source. The implemented solution employs an IR thermographic sensor of industry grade along with AT Mega 328 breakout board. Ordinarily, the IR sensor is placed 1.5-30 cm away from human forehead (i.e., non-invasive) and measured the raw data in terms of skin and ambient temperature which is then converted using appropriate approximation formula to find out core body temperature. The raw data is plotted, visualized, and stored instantaneously in a local machine by means of two tools such as Makerplot, and JAVA-JAR. The test is performed when human object is in complete rest and after 10 min of walk. Achieved results are compared with the CoreTemp CM-210 sensor (by Terumo, Japan) which is calculated to be 0.7 °F different from the average value of BCT, obtained by the proposed IR sensor system. Upon a slight modification, the presented model can be connected with a remotely placed Internet of Things cloud service, which may be useful to inform and predict the user's core body temperature through a probabilistic view. It is also comprehended that such system can be useful as wearable device to be worn on at the hat attachable way.

  2. Effects of pregnancy on body temperature and locomotor performance of velvet geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, Buddhi; Ibargüengoytía, Nora; Whiting, Martin J; Webb, Jonathan K

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy is a challenging period for egg laying squamates. Carrying eggs can encumber females and decrease their locomotor performance, potentially increasing their risk of predation. Pregnant females can potentially reduce this handicap by selecting higher temperatures to increase their sprint speed and ability to escape from predators, or to speed up embryonic development and reduce the period during which they are burdened with eggs ('selfish mother' hypothesis). Alternatively, females might select more stable body temperatures during pregnancy to enhance offspring fitness ('maternal manipulation hypothesis'), even if the maintenance of such temperatures compromises a female's locomotor performance. We investigated whether pregnancy affects the preferred body temperatures and locomotor performance of female velvet geckos Amalosia lesueurii. We measured running speed of females during late pregnancy, and one week after they laid eggs at four temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C). Preferred body temperatures of females were measured in a cost-free thermal gradient during late pregnancy and one week after egg-laying. Females selected higher and more stable set-point temperatures when they were pregnant (mean =29.0°C, T set =27.8-30.5°C) than when they were non-pregnant (mean =26.2°C, T set =23.7-28.7°C). Pregnancy was also associated with impaired performance; females sprinted more slowly at all four test temperatures when burdened with eggs. Although females selected higher body temperatures during late pregnancy, this increase in temperature did not compensate for their impaired running performance. Hence, our results suggest that females select higher temperatures during pregnancy to speed up embryogenesis and reduce the period during which they have reduced performance. This strategy may decrease a female's probability of encountering predatory snakes that use the same microhabitats for thermoregulation. Selection of stable temperatures by pregnant

  3. Using pairs of physiological models to estimate temporal variation in amphibian body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Alford, Ross A

    2014-10-01

    Physical models are often used to estimate ectotherm body temperatures, but designing accurate models for amphibians is difficult because they can vary in cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss. To account for this variability, a recently published technique requires a pair of agar models that mimic amphibians with 0% and 100% resistance to evaporative water loss; the temperatures of these models define the lower and upper boundaries of possible amphibian body temperatures for the location in which they are placed. The goal of our study was to develop a method for using these pairs of models to estimate parameters describing the distributions of body temperatures of frogs under field conditions. We radiotracked green-eyed treefrogs (Litoria serrata) and collected semi-continuous thermal data using both temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters with an automated datalogging receiver, and pairs of agar models placed in frog locations, and we collected discrete thermal data using a non-contact infrared thermometer when frogs were located. We first examined the accuracy of temperature-sensitive transmitters in estimating frog body temperatures by comparing transmitter data with direct temperature measurements taken simultaneously for the same individuals. We then compared parameters (mean, minimum, maximum, standard deviation) characterizing the distributions of temperatures of individual frogs estimated from data collected using each of the three methods. We found strong relationships between thermal parameters estimated from data collected using automated radiotelemetry and both types of thermal models. These relationships were stronger for data collected using automated radiotelemetry and impermeable thermal models, suggesting that in the field, L. serrata has a relatively high resistance to evaporative water loss. Our results demonstrate that placing pairs of thermal models in frog locations can provide accurate estimates of the distributions of temperatures

  4. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-12-13

    To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Observational cohort study. Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (-0.021°C for every decade, Pdata) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Individuals' baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  6. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  7. Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.

    2014-12-01

    Weather is the most significant factor affecting aircraft operations, accounting for 70-80% of passenger delays and costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars per year in lost revenue. Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, we find that the number of weight restriction days between May and September will increase by 50-100% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-2070 under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a significant economic effect on the airline industry, leading to lower profits and higher passenger fares. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation.

  8. Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Fredy A A; Cruz, Thaline M P DA; Mourão, Gerson B; Cyrino, José Eurico P

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf) of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR) of pacu (17 - 1,050 g) at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10) for pacu (2.06) shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1) from body mass (W, kg) and water temperature (T, °C), and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.

  9. Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDY A.A. AGUILAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR of pacu (17 - 1,050 g at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10 for pacu (2.06 shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1 from body mass (W, kg and water temperature (T, °C, and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.

  10. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses.

  11. Measurement of body temperature in normothermic and febrile rats: Limitations of using rectal thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangarembizi, Rachael; Erlwanger, Kennedy H; Mitchell, Duncan; Hetem, Robyn S; Madziva, Michael T; Harden, Lois M

    2017-10-01

    Stress-induced hyperthermia following rectal thermometry is reported in normothermic rats, but appears to be muted or even absent in febrile rats. We therefore investigated whether the use of rectal thermometry affects the accuracy of temperature responses recorded in normothermic and febrile rats. Using intra-abdominally implanted temperature-sensitive radiotelemeters we measured the temperature response to rectal temperature measurement in male Sprague Dawley rats (~200g) injected subcutaneously with Brewer's yeast (20ml/kg of a 20% Brewer's yeast solution=4000mg/kg) or saline (20ml/kg of 0.9% saline). Rats had been pre-exposed to, or were naive to rectal temperature measurement before the injection. The first rectal temperature measurement was taken in the plateau phase of the fever (18h after injection) and at hourly intervals thereafter. In normothermic rats, rectal temperature measurement was associated with an increase in abdominal temperature (0.66±0.27°C) that had a rapid onset (5-10min), peaked at 15-20min and lasted for 35-50min. The hyperthermic response to rectal temperature measurement was absent in febrile rats. Exposure to rectal temperature measurement on two previous occasions did not reduce the hyperthermia. There was a significant positive linear association between temperatures recorded using the two methods, but the agreement interval identified that rectal temperature measured with a thermocouple probe could either be 0.7°C greater or 0.5°C lower than abdominal temperature measured with radiotelemeter. Thus, due to stress-induced hyperthermia, rectal thermometry does not ensure accurate recording of body temperature in short-spaced, intermittent intervals in normothermic and febrile rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  13. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Sawitsky, A.; Rai, K.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting

  14. Temporal changes and variability in temperature series over Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin

    2015-02-01

    With the current concern over climate change, the descriptions on how temperature series changed over time are very useful. Annual mean temperature has been analyzed for several stations over Peninsular Malaysia. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for assessing the significance and detection of trends, while a nonparametric Pettitt's test and sequential Mann-Kendall test are adopted to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significance increasing trends for annual mean temperature are detected for almost all studied stations with the magnitude of significant trend varied from 0.02°C to 0.05°C per year. The results shows that climate over Peninsular Malaysia is getting warmer than before. In addition, the results of the abrupt changes in temperature using Pettitt's and sequential Mann-Kendall test reveal the beginning of trends which can be related to El Nino episodes that occur in Malaysia. In general, the analysis results can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean events in the region.

  15. Projected Changes in Temperature Extremes in China Using PRECIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature extremes can cause disastrous impacts on ecological and social economic systems. China is very sensitive to climate change, as its warming rate exceeds that of the global mean level. This paper focused on the spatial and temporal changes of the temperature extremes characterized by the 95th percentile of maximum temperature (TX95, the 5th percentile of the minimum temperature (TN5, high-temperature days (HTD and low-temperature days (LTD. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures generated by PRECIS under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs are used in the research. The results show that: (1 Model simulation data can reproduce the spatial distribution features of the maximum temperature (Tmax and minimum temperature (Tmin as well as that of the extreme temperature indices; (2 By the end of the 21st century (2070–2099, both the Tmax and Tmin are warmer than the baseline level (1961–1990 in China and the eight sub-regions. However, there are regional differences in the asymmetrical warming features, as the Tmin warms more than the Tmax in the northern part of China and the Tibetan Plateau, while the Tmax warms more than the Tmin in the southern part of China; (3 The frequency of the warm extremes would become more usual, as the HTD characterized by the present-day threshold would increase by 106%, 196% and 346%, under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, while the cold extremes characterized by the LTD would become less frequent by the end of the 21st century, decreasing by 75%, 90% and 98% under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. The southern and eastern parts of the Tibetan Plateau respond sensitively to changes in both the hot and cold extremes, suggesting its higher likelihood to suffer from climate warming; (4 The intensity of the warm (cold extremes would increase (decrease significantly, characterized by the changes in the TX95 (TN5 by the end of the 21st century, and the magnitude of the

  16. Telemetric Evaluation of Body Temperature and Physical Activity as Predictors of Mortality in a Murine Model of Staphylococcal Enterotoxic Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vlach, Kim

    2000-01-01

    .... This study determined whether body temperature and physical activity, monitored telemetrically, could predict impending death and provide an earlier, more humane experimental endpoint. Methods...

  17. Prolonged whole body immersion in cold water: hormonal and metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Deuster, P A; Ryan, C J; Doubt, T J

    1990-03-01

    To characterize metabolic and hormonal responses during prolonged whole body immersion, 16 divers wearing dry suits completed four immersions in 5 degrees C water during each of two 5-day air saturation dives at 6.1 meters of sea water. One immersion began in the AM (1000 h) and one began in the PM (2200 h) to evaluate diurnal variations. Venous blood samples were obtained before and after completion of each immersion. Cortisol and ACTH levels demonstrated diurnal variation, with larger increases occurring after PM immersions. A greater than three-fold postimmersion increase occurred in norepinephrine (NE). There were significant increases in triiodothyronine (T3) uptake and epinephrine, but no change in T3, thyroxine, thyrotrophic hormone, and dopamine. Postimmersion free fatty acid levels increased 409% from preimmersion levels; glucose levels declined, and lactate increased significantly. Only changes in NE correlated significantly with changes in rectal temperature. In summary, when subjects are immersed in cold water for prolonged periods, with a slow rate of body cooling afforded by thermal protection and intermittent exercise, hormonal and metabolic changes occur that are similar in direction and magnitude to short-duration unprotected exposures. Except for cortisol and ACTH, none of the other measured variables exhibited diurnal alterations.

  18. Changes in body composition as a result of chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Maaike M.G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the improved survival rate, both short term and long term adverse effects of breast cancer treatment have become increasingly important. Body weight and body composition before, during, and after chemotherapy may influence side effects during treatment and survival. The aims of this

  19. Characterization and prediction of rate-dependent flexibility in lumbar spine biomechanics at room and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolworthy, Dean K; Zirbel, Shannon A; Howell, Larry L; Samuels, Marina; Bowden, Anton E

    2014-05-01

    The soft tissues of the spine exhibit sensitivity to strain-rate and temperature, yet current knowledge of spine biomechanics is derived from cadaveric testing conducted at room temperature at very slow, quasi-static rates. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the change in segmental flexibility of cadaveric lumbar spine segments with respect to multiple loading rates within the range of physiologic motion by using specimens at body or room temperature. The secondary objective was to develop a predictive model of spine flexibility across the voluntary range of loading rates. This in vitro study examines rate- and temperature-dependent viscoelasticity of the human lumbar cadaveric spine. Repeated flexibility tests were performed on 21 lumbar function spinal units (FSUs) in flexion-extension with the use of 11 distinct voluntary loading rates at body or room temperature. Furthermore, six lumbar FSUs were loaded in axial rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral bending at both body and room temperature via a stepwise, quasi-static loading protocol. All FSUs were also loaded using a control loading test with a continuous-speed loading-rate of 1-deg/sec. The viscoelastic torque-rotation response for each spinal segment was recorded. A predictive model was developed to accurately estimate spine segment flexibility at any voluntary loading rate based on measured flexibility at a single loading rate. Stepwise loading exhibited the greatest segmental range of motion (ROM) in all loading directions. As loading rate increased, segmental ROM decreased, whereas segmental stiffness and hysteresis both increased; however, the neutral zone remained constant. Continuous-speed tests showed that segmental stiffness and hysteresis are dependent variables to ROM at voluntary loading rates in flexion-extension. To predict the torque-rotation response at different loading rates, the model requires knowledge of the segmental flexibility at a single rate and specified

  20. Long-term changes in sea surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Historical observations of sea surface temperature since 1856 have been improved by applying corrections to compensate for the predominant use of uninsulated or partly insulated buckets until the Second World War. There are large gaps in coverage in the late nineteenth century and around the two world wars, but a range of statistical techniques suggest that these gaps do not severely prejudice estimates of global and regional climatic change. Nonetheless, to improve the analysis on smaller scales, many unused historical data are to be digitized and incorporated. For recent years, satellite-based sea surface temperatures have improved the coverage, after adjustments for their biases relative to in situ data. An initial version of a nominally globally complete sea ice and interpolated sea surface temperature data set, beginning in 1871, has been created for use in numerical simulations of recent climate. Long time series of corrected regional, hemispheric, and global sea surface temperatures are mostly consistent with corresponding night marine air temperature series, and confirm the regionally specific climatic changes portrayed in the Scientific Assessments of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The observations also show an El Nino-like oscillation on bidecadal and longer time scales

  1. Volcanic influence on centennial to millennial Holocene Greenland temperature change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Takuro; Menviel, Laurie; Jeltsch-Thömmes, Aurich; Vinther, Bo M; Box, Jason E; Muscheler, Raimund; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Pfister, Patrik L; Döring, Michael; Leuenberger, Markus; Wanner, Heinz; Ohmura, Atsumu

    2017-05-03

    Solar variability has been hypothesized to be a major driver of North Atlantic millennial-scale climate variations through the Holocene along with orbitally induced insolation change. However, another important climate driver, volcanic forcing has generally been underestimated prior to the past 2,500 years partly owing to the lack of proper proxy temperature records. Here, we reconstruct seasonally unbiased and physically constrained Greenland Summit temperatures over the Holocene using argon and nitrogen isotopes within trapped air in a Greenland ice core (GISP2). We show that a series of volcanic eruptions through the Holocene played an important role in driving centennial to millennial-scale temperature changes in Greenland. The reconstructed Greenland temperature exhibits significant millennial correlations with K + and Na + ions in the GISP2 ice core (proxies for atmospheric circulation patterns), and δ 18 O of Oman and Chinese Dongge cave stalagmites (proxies for monsoon activity), indicating that the reconstructed temperature contains hemispheric signals. Climate model simulations forced with the volcanic forcing further suggest that a series of large volcanic eruptions induced hemispheric-wide centennial to millennial-scale variability through ocean/sea-ice feedbacks. Therefore, we conclude that volcanic activity played a critical role in driving centennial to millennial-scale Holocene temperature variability in Greenland and likely beyond.

  2. Leptin actions on food intake and body temperature are mediated by IL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luheshi, G N; Gardner, J D; Rushforth, D A; Loudon, A S; Rothwell, N J

    1999-06-08

    Leptin regulates energy balance through its actions in the brain on appetite and energy expenditure and also shares properties with cytokines such as IL-1. We report here that leptin, injected into rats intracerebroventricularly or peripherally, induces significant dose-dependent increases in core body temperature as well as suppression of appetite. Leptin failed to affect food intake or body temperature in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, which posses a defective leptin receptor. Furthermore, injection of leptin increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in the hypothalamus of normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) inhibited the suppression of food intake caused by central or peripheral injection of leptin (60 and 84%, respectively) and abolished the leptin-induced increase in body temperature in both cases. Mice lacking (gene knockout) the main IL-1 receptor (80 kDa, R1) responsible for IL-1 actions showed no reduction in food intake in response to leptin. These data indicate that leptin actions in the brain depend on IL-1, and we show further that the effect of leptin on fever, but not food intake, is abolished by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Thus, we propose that in addition to its role in body weight regulation, leptin may mediate neuroimmune responses via actions in the brain dependent on release of IL-1 and prostaglandins.

  3. No relation between body temperature and arterial recanalization at three days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); H.B. Van Der Worp (H. Bart); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); K.E. Droogh-De Greve; H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); J. Bot (Joseph); M.C. Visser (Marieke); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); T. van Seeters (Tom); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle; J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods: We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine

  4. Adiabatic temperature change from non-adiabatic measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carvalho, A.M.G.; Mejía, C.S.; Ponte, C.A.; Silva, L.E.L.; Kaštil, Jiří; Kamarád, Jiří; Gomes, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-5, č. článku 246. ISSN 0947-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetocaloric effect * adiabatic temperature change * calorimetric device * gadolinium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2016

  5. Protein restriction does not affect body temperature pattern in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Goro A; Shichijo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Shinohara, Akio; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2017-10-30

    Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in mammals and birds characterized by a controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature during the resting phase of circadian rhythms. In laboratory mice, daily torpor is induced by dietary caloric restriction. However, it is not known which nutrients are related to daily torpor expression. To determine whether dietary protein is a key factor in inducing daily torpor in mice, we fed mice a protein-restricted (PR) diet that included only one-quarter of the amount of protein but the same caloric level as a control (C) diet. We assigned six non-pregnant female ICR mice to each group and recorded their body weights and core body temperatures for 4 weeks. Body weights in the C group increased, but those in the PR group remained steady or decreased. Mice in both groups did not show daily torpor, but most mice in a food-restricted group (n=6) supplied with 80% of the calories given to the C group exhibited decreased body weights and frequently displayed daily torpor. This suggests that protein restriction is not a trigger of daily torpor; torpid animals can conserve their internal energy, but torpor may not play a significant role in conserving internal protein. Thus, opportunistic daily torpor in mice may function in energy conservation rather than protein saving.

  6. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  7. Heat balance model for a human body in the form of wet bulb globe temperature indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Mochida, Tohru; Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kuwabara, Kohei; Horiba, Yosuke; Sawada, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the empirically derived wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index to a rational thermal index based on the heat balance for a human body. We derive the heat balance model in the same form as the WBGT for a human engaged in moderate intensity work with a metabolic heat production of 174W/m 2 while wearing typical vapor-permeable clothing under shady and sunny conditions. Two important relationships are revealed based on this derivation: (1) the natural wet bulb and black globe temperature coefficients in the WBGT coincide with the heat balance equation for a human body with a fixed skin wettedness of approximately 0.45 at a fixed skin temperature; and (2) the WBGT can be interpreted as the environmental potential to increase skin temperature rather than the heat storage rate of a human body. We propose an adjustment factor calculation method that supports the application of WBGT for humans dressed in various clothing types and working under various air velocity conditions. Concurrently, we note difficulties in adjusting the WBGT by using a single factor for humans wearing vapor-impermeable protective clothing. The WBGT for shady conditions does not need adjustment depending on the positive radiant field (i.e., when a radiant heat source exists), whereas that for the sunny condition requires adjustments because it underestimates heat stress, which may result in insufficient human protection measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic modeling of temperature change in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androga, Dominic Deo; Uyar, Basar; Koku, Harun; Eroglu, Inci

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional transient model was developed to analyze the temperature variation of tubular photobioreactors operated outdoors and the validity of the model was tested by comparing the predictions of the model with the experimental data. The model included the effects of convection and radiative heat exchange on the reactor temperature throughout the day. The temperatures in the reactors increased with increasing solar radiation and air temperatures, and the predicted reactor temperatures corresponded well to the measured experimental values. The heat transferred to the reactor was mainly through radiation: the radiative heat absorbed by the reactor medium, ground radiation, air radiation, and solar (direct and diffuse) radiation, while heat loss was mainly through the heat transfer to the cooling water and forced convection. The amount of heat transferred by reflected radiation and metabolic activities of the bacteria and pump work was negligible. Counter-current cooling was more effective in controlling reactor temperature than co-current cooling. The model developed identifies major heat transfer mechanisms in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors, and accurately predicts temperature changes in these systems. This is useful in determining cooling duty under transient conditions and scaling up photobioreactors. The photobioreactor design and the thermal modeling were carried out and experimental results obtained for the case study of photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus, but the approach is applicable to photobiological systems that are to be operated under outdoor conditions with significant cooling demands.

  9. Can Antarctic lichens acclimatize to changes in temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard; Hurry, Vaughan; Green, Thomas George Allan

    2018-03-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula, a tundra biome dominated by lichens and bryophytes, is an ecozone undergoing rapid temperature shifts. Such changes may demand a high physiological plasticity of the local lichen species to maintain their role as key drivers in this pristine habitat. This study examines the response of net photosynthesis and respiration to increasing temperatures for three Antarctic lichen species with different ecological response amplitudes. We hypothesize that negative effects caused by increased temperatures can be mitigated by thermal acclimation of respiration and/or photosynthesis. The fully controlled growth chamber experiment simulated intermediate and extreme temperature increases over the time course of 6 weeks. Results showed that, in contrast to our hypothesis, none of the species was able to down-regulate temperature-driven respiratory losses through thermal acclimation of respiration. Instead, severe effects on photobiont vitality demonstrated that temperatures around 15°C mark the upper limit for the two species restricted to the Antarctic, and when mycobiont demands exceeded the photobiont capacity they could not survive within the lichen thallus. In contrast, the widespread lichen species was able to recover its homoeostasis by rapidly increasing net photosynthesis. We conclude that to understand the complete lichen response, acclimation processes of both symbionts, the photo- and the mycobiont, have to be evaluated separately. As a result, we postulate that any acclimation processes in lichen are species-specific. This, together with the high degree of response variability and sensitivity to temperature in different species that co-occur spatially close, complicates any predictions regarding future community composition in the Antarctic. Nevertheless, our results suggest that species with a broad ecological amplitude may be favoured with on-going changes in temperature. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Does gastric bypass surgery change body weight set point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z; Mumphrey, M B; Morrison, C D; Münzberg, H; Ye, J; Berthoud, H R

    2016-12-01

    The relatively stable body weight during adulthood is attributed to a homeostatic regulatory mechanism residing in the brain which uses feedback from the body to control energy intake and expenditure. This mechanism guarantees that if perturbed up or down by design, body weight will return to pre-perturbation levels, defined as the defended level or set point. The fact that weight re-gain is common after dieting suggests that obese subjects defend a higher level of body weight. Thus, the set point for body weight is flexible and likely determined by the complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Unlike dieting, bariatric surgery does a much better job in producing sustained suppression of food intake and body weight, and an intensive search for the underlying mechanisms has started. Although one explanation for this lasting effect of particularly Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is simple physical restriction due to the invasive surgery, a more exciting explanation is that the surgery physiologically reprograms the body weight defense mechanism. In this non-systematic review, we present behavioral evidence from our own and other studies that defended body weight is lowered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy. After these surgeries, rodents return to their preferred lower body weight if over- or underfed for a period of time, and the ability to drastically increase food intake during the anabolic phase strongly argues against the physical restriction hypothesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Although the mechanism involves central leptin and melanocortin signaling pathways, other peripheral signals such as gut hormones and their neural effector pathways likely contribute. Future research using both targeted and non-targeted 'omics' techniques in both humans and rodents as well as modern, genetically targeted, neuronal manipulation techniques in rodents will be necessary.

  11. Causes of Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kobashi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Precise understanding of Greenland temperature variability is important in two ways. First, Greenland ice sheet melting associated with rising temperature is a major global sea level forcing, potentially affecting large populations in coming centuries. Second, Greenland temperatures are highly affected by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO. In our earlier study, we found that Greenland temperature deviated negatively (positively from northern hemispheric (NH temperature trend during stronger (weaker solar activity owing to changes in atmospheric/oceanic changes (e.g. NAO/AO over the past 800 yr (Kobashi et al., 2013. Therefore, a precise Greenland temperature record can provide important constraints on the past atmospheric/oceanic circulation in the region and beyond. Here, we investigated Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr reconstructed from argon and nitrogen isotopes from trapped air in a GISP2 ice core, using a one-dimensional energy balance model with orbital, solar, volcanic, greenhouse gas, and aerosol forcings. The modelled northern Northern Hemisphere (NH temperature exhibits a cooling trend over the past 4000 yr as observed for the reconstructed Greenland temperature through decreasing annual average insolation. With consideration of the negative influence of solar variability, the modelled and observed Greenland temperatures agree with correlation coefficients of r = 0.34–0.36 (p = 0.1–0.04 in 21 yr running means (RMs and r = 0.38–0.45 (p = 0.1–0.05 on a centennial timescale (101 yr RMs. Thus, the model can explain 14 to 20% of variance of the observed Greenland temperature in multidecadal to centennial timescales with a 90–96% confidence interval, suggesting that a weak but persistent negative solar influence on Greenland temperature continued over the past 4000 yr. Then, we estimated the distribution of multidecadal NH and northern high

  12. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  13. Afferent thermosensory function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis following exercise-induced increases in body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Chaseling, Georgia; Hoang, Phu; Barnett, Michael; Davis, Scott L; Jay, Ollie

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Between 60 and 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience transient worsening of symptoms with increased body temperature (heat sensitivity). As sensory abnormalities are common in MS, we asked whether afferent thermosensory function is altered in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? Increases in body temperature of as little as ∼0.4°C were sufficient to decrease cold, but not warm, skin thermosensitivity (∼10%) in MS, across a wider temperature range than in age-matched healthy individuals. These findings provide new evidence on the impact of heat sensitivity on afferent function in MS, which could be useful for clinical evaluation of this neurological disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), increases in body temperature result in transient worsening of clinical symptoms (heat sensitivity or Uhthoff's phenomenon). Although the impact of heat sensitivity on efferent physiological function has been investigated, the effects of heat stress on afferent sensory function in MS are unknown. Hence, we quantified afferent thermosensory function in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature with a new quantitative sensory test. Eight relapsing-remitting MS patients (three men and five women; 51.4 ± 9.1 years of age; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.8 ± 1.1) and eight age-matched control (CTR) subjects (five men and three women; 47.4 ± 9.1 years of age) rated the perceived magnitude of two cold (26 and 22°C) and two warm stimuli (34 and 38°C) applied to the dorsum of the hand before and after 30 min cycling in the heat (30°C air; 30% relative humidity). Exercise produced similar increases in mean body temperature in MS [+0.39°C (95% CI: +0.21, +0.53) P = 0.001] and CTR subjects [+0.41°C (95% CI: +0.25, +0.58) P = 0.001]. These changes were sufficient to decrease thermosensitivity significantly to all cold [26

  14. The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A S; Nolting, J M; Workman, J D; Cooper, M; Fisher, A E; Marsh, B; Forshey, T

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural fairs create an unconventional animal-human interface that has been associated with swine-to-human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in recent years. Early detection of IAV-infected pigs at agricultural fairs would allow veterinarians to better protect swine and human health during these swine exhibitions. This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV-infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs immediately prior to the unloading of the animals at a single large swine exhibition. Concurrent to the snout wipe collection, owners took the rectal temperatures of his/her pigs. In this case, 47 (2.4%) pigs tested positive for IAV before they entered the swine barn. The mean rectal temperatures differed by only 0.19°C between IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs. The low prevalence of IAV among the pigs upon entry to the fair in the second objective provides evidence that limiting intraspecies spread of IAV during the fairs will likely have significant impacts on the zoonotic transmission. However, in both objectives, the high degree of similarity in the body temperature measurements between the IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs made it impossible to set a diagnostically meaningful cut point to differentiate IAV status of the individual animals. Unfortunately, body temperature measurement cannot be used to accurately screen exhibition swine for IAV. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, J T; Donnelly, A E; Karki, A; Selfe, J

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to (a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of -110 °C whole body cryotherapy and 8 °C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and (b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (cryotherapy (19.0±0.9 °C) compared to cold water immersion (20.5±0.6 °C). However, from 10 to 60 min post, the average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were lower (p<0.05) following the cold water treatment. Finally, neither protocol achieved a skin temperature believed to be required to elicit an analgesic effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The river temperature changes follows the climate variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergov, G.; Karagiozova, Tz.

    2004-01-01

    The temperature of the river water is a dynamical characteristic affected by the geophysical processes- and climate characteristics of the catchment area, as well as the hydrological processes of the runoff formation and movement. The knowledge about the river water is very important when the water losses for transpiration are concerned. One should add that the river pollution problems, the self purification, the potable water supply require this information also. We consider the temperature of the river water as a very important parameter for diversity of ecological studies and research. It is a general practice to accept that the river water temperature is rather homogeneous across any profile because of the turbulent mass exchange. The temperature stratification is a matter of concern in limnology and oceanology studies mainly. We have shown several basic regularities about the cyclic feature of the daily and seasonal changes or about the river water temperature and both the altitude of the catchment area (gradient 1 o C per a 100 m) and so on. After the mean water temperatures on any hydro metric gauge stations are being determined the area patterns with equal temperatures are identified, thus drawing a map. It is a presumption that the river water temperatures inside a specific area are equal on any place, meaning that the temperature field is rather homogeneous. The mapping allowed to distinguish the river reaches, subjected to the anthropogenic impact. The study and the map have been developed on the basis of the new hydro metric information data bank, composed recently by the authors.(Author)

  17. Climate change impact of livestock CH4 emission in India: Global temperature change potential (GTP) and surface temperature response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shilpi; Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Kumari, Nisha; Naik, S N; Dahiya, R P

    2018-01-01

    Two climate metrics, Global surface Temperature Change Potential (GTP) and the Absolute GTP (AGTP) are used for studying the global surface temperature impact of CH 4 emission from livestock in India. The impact on global surface temperature is estimated for 20 and 100 year time frames due to CH 4 emission. The results show that the CH 4 emission from livestock, worked out to 15.3 Tg in 2012. In terms of climate metrics GTP of livestock-related CH 4 emission in India in 2012 were 1030 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 20 ) and 62 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 100 ) at the 20 and 100 year time horizon, respectively. The study also illustrates that livestock-related CH 4 emissions in India can cause a surface temperature increase of up to 0.7mK and 0.036mK over the 20 and 100 year time periods, respectively. The surface temperature response to a year of Indian livestock emission peaks at 0.9mK in the year 2021 (9 years after the time of emission). The AGTP gives important information in terms of temperature change due to annual CH 4 emissions, which is useful when comparing policies that address multiple gases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Temporal and spatial dispersion of human body temperature during deep hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatz, O; Trippel, T; Lochner, A; Werner, A; Stahn, A; Steinach, M; Lenk, J; Kuppe, H; Gunga, H C

    2013-11-01

    Clinical temperature management remains challenging. Choosing the right sensor location to determine the core body temperature is a particular matter of academic and clinical debate. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of measured temperatures at different sites during surgery in deep hypothermic patients. In this prospective single-centre study, we studied 24 patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery: 12 in normothermia, 3 in mild, and 9 in deep hypothermia. Temperature recordings of a non-invasive heat flux sensor at the forehead were compared with the arterial outlet temperature of a heart-lung machine, with the temperature on a conventional vesical bladder thermistor and, for patients undergoing deep hypothermia, with oesophageal temperature. Using a linear model for sensor comparison, the arterial outlet sensor showed a difference among the other sensor positions between -0.54 and -1.12°C. The 95% confidence interval ranged between 7.06 and 8.82°C for the upper limit and -8.14 and -10.62°C for the lower limit. Because of the hysteretic shape, the curves were divided into phases and fitted into a non-linear model according to time and placement of the sensors. During cooling and warming phases, a quadratic relationship could be observed among arterial, oesophageal, vesical, and cranial temperature recordings, with coefficients of determination ranging between 0.95 and 0.98 (standard errors of the estimate 0.69-1.12°C). We suggest that measured surrogate temperatures as indices of the cerebral temperature (e.g. vesical bladder temperature) should be interpreted with respect to the temporal and spatial dispersion during cooling and rewarming phases.

  19. Analysis of Long-Term Temperature Variations in the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakappa, Pradeepa Hoskeri; Mahabala, Chakrapani

    2015-01-01

    Body temperature is a continuous physiological variable. In normal healthy adults, oral temperature is estimated to vary between 36.1°C and 37.2°C. Fever is a complex host response to many external and internal agents and is a potential contributor to many clinical conditions. Despite being one of the foremost vital signs, temperature and its analysis and variations during many pathological conditions has yet to be examined in detail using mathematical techniques. Classical fever patterns based on recordings obtained every 8-12 h have been developed. However, such patterns do not provide meaningful information in diagnosing diseases. Because fever is a host response, it is likely that there could be a unique response to specific etiologies. Continuous long-term temperature monitoring and pattern analysis using specific analytical methods developed in engineering and physics could aid in revealing unique fever responses of hosts and in different clinical conditions. Furthermore, such analysis can potentially be used as a novel diagnostic tool and to study the effect of pharmaceutical agents and other therapeutic protocols. Thus, the goal of our article is to present a comprehensive review of the recent relevant literature and analyze the current state of research regarding temperature variations in the human body.

  20. Changing the narratives of marginalised bodies - a study about body positivism

    OpenAIRE

    Alentola, Anni Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain and analyse the body positivity movement in the social media platform Instagram, as well as its empowering effects on women active in this movement. The phenomenon based on visuality, body positivism, has more than three million pictures on Instagram, hashtagged under two popular hashtags examined in this thesis: #bodypositivity and #bodypositive. The goal of this movement is to show diversity in the portrayal of women, as well as to encourage acceptanc...

  1. Physiological and behavioral reactions of fishes to temperature change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, L I

    1977-05-01

    Teleost fishes possess a central nervous system thermoregulatory mechanism remarkably similar to that of other vertebrates. Inputs from peripheral and anterior brainstem thermosensitive elements are integrated to effect appropriate thermoregulatory responses. The integrated output signal from the thermoregulatory center also appears to provide an input to the respiratory system. Short-term deviations from a given temperature alter respiratory requirements, produce acid-base imbalance, and cause disturbances in fluid-electrolyte regulation. Acclimation to a given temperature involves changes that counteract these disturbances.

  2. Intra-articular knee temperature changes: ice versus cryotherapy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Todd A; McCarty, Eric C; Richardson, Airron L; Michener, Todd; Spindler, Kurt P

    2004-03-01

    Cryotherapy is commonly applied without research documenting the intra-articular (IA) temperature changes or subject discomfort between ice and a cryotherapy device. The null hypothesis is that no difference would be observed in IA temperature decline or subject tolerance between ice and the cryotherapy device in normal knees. Prospective, within-subject controlled clinical trial. Twelve subjects had IA temperature in suprapatellar pouch and skin recorded bilaterally after application of cryotherapy versus ice. Subject tolerance was recorded by 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical evaluation was by Spearman's correlation analysis and paired, nonparametric Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Both significantly lowered (P cryotherapy) at 30 (3.3 degrees C/2.2 degrees C), 60 (12.8 degrees C/7.1 degrees C), and 90 (15.2 degrees C/9.7 degrees C) minutes. However, ice lowered the IA temperature significantly more than the cryotherapy device (P < 0.001) and was more painful by VAS at 30 and 60 minutes (P < 0.01). Both methods produced large declines in skin and IA temperatures. However, ice was more effective yet resulted in higher pain scores. The authors hypothesize that IA temperatures below a threshold are associated with increased perceived pain.

  3. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold-sensitive young trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki-Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise-induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold-sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty-eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold-sensitive (Cold-sensitive, n  = 7) and non-cold-sensitive (Control, n  = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then performed 30-min of moderate intensity cycling (50% peak oxygen uptake) followed by a 60-min recovery. Core and mean skin temperatures and cold sensation over the whole-body and extremities (fingers and toes) were assessed throughout. Resting core temperature was lower in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group (36.4 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.2°C). Core temperature increased to similar levels at end-exercise (~37.2°C) and gradually returned to near preexercise rest levels at the end of recovery (>36.6°C). Whole-body cold sensation was greater in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group during resting at a room temperature of 23.5°C only without a difference in mean skin temperature between groups. In contrast, cold sensation of the extremities was greater in the Cold-sensitive group prior to, during and following exercise albeit this was not paralleled by differences in mean extremity skin temperature. We show that young trained females who are sensitive to cold exhibit augmented whole-body cold sensation during rest under temperate ambient conditions. However, this response is diminished during and following exercise. In contrast, cold sensation of extremities is augmented during resting that persists during and following exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effects of peripheral cold application on core body temperature and haemodynamic parameters in febrile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgar Pour, Hossein; Yavuz, Meryem

    2014-04-01

    This study designed to assess the effects of peripheral cold application (PCA) on core body temperature and haemodynamic parameters in febrile patients. This study was an experimental, repeated-measures performed in the neurosurgical intensive-care unit. The research sample included all patients with fever in postoperative period. PCA was performed for 20 min. During fever, systolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation (O2 Sat) decreased by 5.07 ± 7.89 mm Hg, 0.191 ± 6.00 mm Hg and 0.742% ± 0.97%, respectively, whereas the pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure increased by 8.528 ± 4.42 beats/ min and 1.842 ± 6.9 mmHg, respectively. Immediately after PCA, core body temperature and pulse rate decreased by 0.3°C, 3.3 beats/min, respectively, whereas systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and O2 Sat increased by, 1.40 mm Hg, 1.87 mm Hg, 0.98 mmHg and 0.27%, respectively. Thirty minutes after the end of PCA, core body temperature, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate decreased by 0.57°C, 0.34 mm Hg, 0.60 mm Hg and 4.5 beats/min, respectively, whereas systolic blood pressure and O2 Sat increased by 0.98 mm Hg and 0.04%, respectively. The present results showed that PCA increases systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and O2 Sat, and decreases core body temperature and pulse rate. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Central inhibitory effect of α-methyldopa on blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature of renal hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, F.P.; Ezer, Joseph; Jong, Wybren de

    The central inhibitory effect of α-methyldopa on blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature was studied in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Systemic administration of α-methyldopa decreased mean arterial blood pressure and body temperature and caused a short lasting increase in heart rate

  6. [Comparison of body temperatures in children measured using 3 different thermometers: tympanic, skin and digital axillary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Ruiz-Paloalto, M Laura; Díaz-Guerrero, Rosalina; Olvera-Villanueva, Georgina; Maldonado, Angélica; Raygoza-Mendoza, María Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To compare body temperature measurements using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. Hospitalized or outpatient children from the General Hospital Celaya, ISSSTE Hospital Clinic and General Hospital No. 4 IMSS, and the pediatric private service in Celaya, Guanajuato, from 1 day of life until 16 years old, were recruited over a one month period, after their parents signed the consent form. The order of each institution was selected by simple randomization. Body temperatures were measured in triplicate using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. The sample consisted of 554 children. The Pearson r between the tympanic and digital axillary thermometers was 0.57 to 0.65, with a positive linear relationship (P<.05); between the skin and the digital axillary thermometers, it was between 0.47 and 0.52 with a positive linearrelationship (P<.05). The intra-observer Kappa for the tympanic thermometer was 0.86, and for the inter-observer was 0.77; for the skin thermometer it was 0.82 and 0.67, respectively, and for the digital axillary thermometer it was 0.86 for intra-observer reliability and 0.78 for inter -observer reliability. Tympanic and axillary thermometers showed better precision in measuring the body temperature in children than skin thermometers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Design, development and implementation of the IR signaling techniques for monitoring ambient and body temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baqai, A.

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks). This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red) communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes), TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags. (author)

  8. Design, development and implementation of the IR signaling techniques for monitoring ambient and body temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baqai, A. [Mehran Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro (Pakistan). Dept. of Information and Communication Technology

    2014-07-15

    Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks). This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red) communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes), TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags. (author)

  9. Effect of body size and temperature on respiration of Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, D.; Vigliano, P.H.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Body mass and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals. Oxygen consumption of post-larval Galaxias maculatus was measured in respirometry trials under different temperatures (5–21°C) and varying body masses (0.1–>1.5 g) spanning a relevant range of thermal conditions and sizes. Specific respiration rates (R in g O2 g−1 d−1) declined as a power function of body mass and increased exponentially with temperature and was expressed as: R = 0.0007 * W −0.31 * e 0.13 * T. The ability of this model to predict specific respiration rate was evaluated by comparing observed values with those predicted by the model. Our findings suggest that the respiration rate of G. maculatus is the result of multiple interactive processes (intrinsic and extrinsic factors) that modulate each other in ‘meta-mechanistic’ ways; this would help to explain the species’ ability to undergo the complex ontogenetic habitat shifts observed in the lakes of the Andean Patagonic range.

  10. Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Dent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7–40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia.

  11. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields

  12. Reconciling anthropogenic climate change with observed temperature 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Robert K; Kauppi, Heikki; Mann, Michael L; Stock, James H

    2011-07-19

    Given the widely noted increase in the warming effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, it has been unclear why global surface temperatures did not rise between 1998 and 2008. We find that this hiatus in warming coincides with a period of little increase in the sum of anthropogenic and natural forcings. Declining solar insolation as part of a normal eleven-year cycle, and a cyclical change from an El Nino to a La Nina dominate our measure of anthropogenic effects because rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions partially offsets rising greenhouse gas concentrations. As such, we find that recent global temperature records are consistent with the existing understanding of the relationship among global surface temperature, internal variability, and radiative forcing, which includes anthropogenic factors with well known warming and cooling effects.

  13. Early changes in socioeconomic status do not predict changes in body mass in the first decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Leighann; Revenson, Tracey A

    2015-04-01

    Many studies link childhood socioeconomic status (SES) to body mass index (BMI), but few account for the impact of socioeconomic mobility throughout the lifespan. This study aims to investigate the impact of socioeconomic mobility on changes in BMI in childhood. Analyses tested whether [1] socioeconomic status influences BMI, [2] changes in socioeconomic status impact changes in BMI, and [3] timing of socioeconomic status mobility impacts BMI. Secondary data spanning birth to age 9 were analyzed. SES and BMI were investigated with gender, birth weight, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal nativity as covariates. Autoregressive structural equation modeling and latent growth modeling were used. Socioeconomic status in the first year of life predicted body mass index. Child covariates were consistently associated with body mass index. Rate of change in socioeconomic status did not predict change in body mass index. The findings suggest that early socioeconomic status may most influence body mass in later childhood.

  14. Temperature extremes in Europe: mechanisms and responses to climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattiaux, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Europe witnessed a spate of record-breaking warm seasons during the 2000's. As illustrated by the devastating heat-wave of the summer 2003, these episodes induced strong societal and environmental impacts. Such occurrence of exceptional events over a relatively short time period raised up many questionings in the present context of climate change. In particular, can recent temperature extremes be considered as 'previews' of future climate conditions? Do they result from an increasing temperature variability? These questions constitute the main motivations of this thesis. Thus, our work aims to contribute to the understanding of physical mechanisms responsible for seasonal temperature extremes in Europe, in order to anticipate their future statistical characteristics. Involved processes are assessed by both statistical data-analysis of observations and climate projections and regional modeling experiments. First we show that while the inter-annual European temperature variability appears driven by disturbances in the North-Atlantic dynamics, the recent warming is likely to be dissociated with potential circulation changes. This inconsistency climaxes during the exceptionally mild autumn of 2006, whose temperature anomaly is only half explained by the atmospheric flow. Recent warm surface conditions in the North-Atlantic ocean seem to substantially contribute to the European warming in autumn-winter, through the establishment of advective and radiative processes. In spring-summer, since both advection by the westerlies and Atlantic warming are reduced, more local processes appear predominant (e.g. soil moisture, clouds, aerosols). Then the issue of future evolution of the relationship between North-Atlantic dynamics and European temperatures is addressed, based on climate projections of the International Panel on Climate Change. Multi-model analysis, using both flow-analogues and weather regimes methods, show that the inconsistency noticed over recent decades is

  15. Structural changes of manganese spinel at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guohua; Iijima, Yukiko; Azuma, Hideto [Nishi Battery Laboratories, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Kanagawa 243-0021 Atsugi (Japan); Kudo, Yoshihiro [Technical Support Center, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Kanagawa 243-0021 Atsugi (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    A chemical synthesis route to Cr-doped and undoped Mn spinel was developed for the purpose of detailed structural analysis for elucidating the relationship between storage performance and structural changes at elevated temperatures. We identified a two-phase segregation in the lithium compositional range of 0.6temperatures was observed for electrochemical cells. These two phases also coexist in Cr-doped spinel in the lithium compositional range of 0.4temperatures. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis revealed that the Cr-doped samples showed less change in the local structure after storage than the undoped spinel samples. These results suggest that the Cr-doped spinel has higher structural stability at elevated temperatures than the undoped spinel.

  16. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, Chris; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  17. Estimation of core body temperature from skin temperature, heat flux, and heart rate using a Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welles, Alexander P; Xu, Xiaojiang; Santee, William R; Looney, David P; Buller, Mark J; Potter, Adam W; Hoyt, Reed W

    2018-05-18

    Core body temperature (T C ) is a key physiological metric of thermal heat-strain yet it remains difficult to measure non-invasively in the field. This work used combinations of observations of skin temperature (T S ), heat flux (HF), and heart rate (HR) to accurately estimate T C using a Kalman Filter (KF). Data were collected from eight volunteers (age 22 ± 4 yr, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m, body mass 76.4 ± 10.7 kg, and body fat 23.4 ± 5.8%, mean ± standard deviation) while walking at two different metabolic rates (∼350 and ∼550 W) under three conditions (warm: 25 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH); hot-humid: 35 °C, 70% RH; and hot-dry: 40 °C, 20% RH). Skin temperature and HF data were collected from six locations: pectoralis, inner thigh, scapula, sternum, rib cage, and forehead. Kalman filter variables were learned via linear regression and covariance calculations between T C and T S , HF, and HR. Root mean square error (RMSE) and bias were calculated to identify the best performing models. The pectoralis (RMSE 0.18 ± 0.04 °C; bias -0.01 ± 0.09 °C), rib (RMSE 0.18 ± 0.09 °C; bias -0.03 ± 0.09 °C), and sternum (RMSE 0.20 ± 0.10 °C; bias -0.04 ± 0.13 °C) were found to have the lowest error values when using T S , HF, and HR but, using only two of these measures provided similar accuracy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Color of hot soup modulates postprandial satiety, thermal sensation, and body temperature in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Maki; Kimura, Rie; Kido, Yasue; Inoue, Tomoko; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2017-07-01

    The color of food is known to modulate not only consumers' motivation to eat, but also thermal perception. Here we investigated whether the colors of hot soup can influence thermal sensations and body temperature, in addition to the food acceptability and appetite. Twelve young female participants consumed commercial white potage soup, modified to yellow or blue by adding food dyes, at 9 a.m. on 3 separated days. During the test, visual impression (willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, warmth, and anxiety) and thermal sensations were self-reported using visual analog scales. Core (intra-aural) and peripheral (toe) temperatures were continuously recorded 10 min before and 60 min after ingestion. Blue soup significantly decreased willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, and warmth ratings, and significantly increased anxiety feelings compared to the white and yellow soups. After ingestion, the blue soup showed significantly smaller satiety ratings and the tendency of lower thermal sensation scores of the whole body compared to the white and yellow soups. Moreover, a significantly greater increase in toe temperature was found with the yellow soup than the white or blue soup. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence that the colors of hot food may modulate postprandial satiety, thermal sensations and peripheral temperature. Such effects of color may be useful for dietary strategies for individuals who need to control their appetite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of temperature and body size on radiocaesium retention in brown trout, Salmo trutta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugedal, O.; Jonsson, B.; Njastad, O.; Naeumann, R.

    1992-01-01

    The elimination rate of radiocaesium in brown trout Salmo trutta L. was determined in the laboratory at four water temperatures (range 4.4 -15.6 0 C). In the experiments three or four homogeneous size-groups of fish (mean weights 23-496g) were studied at each temperature. The brown trout received acute oral doses of 134 Cs and were killed at intervals for radioactivity counting. The retention versus time curves were composed of two distinct exponential components. The long-lived component was quantitatively the most important for retention of radiocaesium. Elimination rate increased with increasing water temperature and decreased with increasing body weight. The biological half-life of 134 Cs (T b , days) was related to fresh body weight (W, g) and water temperature (t, 0 C) by the equation: T b = 290 x W 0.176 x e -0.106 x t . The elimination rate of Cs could be predicted from weight-specific metabolic rate as given by Elliott's equations for brown trout. (author)

  20. Polysaccharide peptide induces a tumor necrosis factor-α-dependent drop of body temperature in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejewski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Jakub; Wrotek, Sylwia; Kozak, Wieslaw

    2014-08-01

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) extracted from the Coriolus versicolor mushroom is frequently suggested as an adjunct to the chemo- or radiotherapy in cancer patients. It improves quality of the patients' life by decreasing pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. However, the effect of PSP on body temperature has not thus far been studied, although it is well known that treatment with other polysaccharide adjuvants, such as lipopolysaccharides, may induce fever. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the influence of PSP on temperature regulation in rats. We report that intraperitoneal injection of PSP provoked a dose-dependent decrease of temperature in male Wistar rats equipped with biotelemetry devices to monitor deep body temperature (Tb). The response was rapid (i.e., with latency of 15-20min), transient (lasting up to 5h post-injection), and accompanied by a significant elevation of the blood tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level. Pretreatment of the rats with anti-TNF-α antibody prevented the PSP-induced drop in Tb. Based on these data, we conclude that rats may develop an anapyrexia-like response to the injection of peptidopolysaccharide rather than fever, and the response was TNF-α-dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Epidermal Heat Flux Sensors for Measurements of Core Body Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihui; Webb, Richard Chad; Luo, Hongying; Xue, Yeguang; Kurniawan, Jonas; Cho, Nam Heon; Krishnan, Siddharth; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Long-term, continuous measurement of core body temperature is of high interest, due to the widespread use of this parameter as a key biomedical signal for clinical judgment and patient management. Traditional approaches rely on devices or instruments in rigid and planar forms, not readily amenable to intimate or conformable integration with soft, curvilinear, time-dynamic, surfaces of the skin. Here, materials and mechanics designs for differential temperature sensors are presented which can attach softly and reversibly onto the skin surface, and also sustain high levels of deformation (e.g., bending, twisting, and stretching). A theoretical approach, together with a modeling algorithm, yields core body temperature from multiple differential measurements from temperature sensors separated by different effective distances from the skin. The sensitivity, accuracy, and response time are analyzed by finite element analyses (FEA) to provide guidelines for relationships between sensor design and performance. Four sets of experiments on multiple devices with different dimensions and under different convection conditions illustrate the key features of the technology and the analysis approach. Finally, results indicate that thermally insulating materials with cellular structures offer advantages in reducing the response time and increasing the accuracy, while improving the mechanics and breathability. PMID:25953120

  2. Central and peripheral des-acyl ghrelin regulates body temperature in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keiko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Hayashi, Yujiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2013-01-04

    In the present study using rats, we demonstrated that central and peripheral administration of des-acyl ghrelin induced a decrease in the surface temperature of the back, and an increase in the surface temperature of the tail, although the effect of peripheral administration was less marked than that of central administration. Furthermore, these effects of centrally administered des-acyl ghrelin could not be prevented by pretreatment with [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 GH secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) antagonists. Moreover, these actions of des-acyl ghrelin on body temperature were inhibited by the parasympathetic nerve blocker methylscopolamine but not by the sympathetic nerve blocker timolol. Using immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that des-acyl ghrelin induced an increase of cFos expression in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Additionally, we found that des-acyl ghrelin dilated the aorta and tail artery in vitro. These results indicate that centrally administered des-acyl ghrelin regulates body temperature via the parasympathetic nervous system by activating neurons in the MnPO through interactions with a specific receptor distinct from the GHS-R1a, and that peripherally administered des-acyl ghrelin acts on the central nervous system by passing through the blood-brain barrier, whereas it exerts a direct action on the peripheral vascular system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M.; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)–dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level. PMID:25082895

  4. Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI, Ken'ichi; OHYA, Shunji

    2009-01-01

    p. 224-231 Strain change in the members of full-scale tensegrity skeletons has been monitored for eight years. The one-day data of one of the tensegrity frame on the hottest and the coldest day in the record are reported and discussed. Kawaguchi, K.; Ohya, S. (2009). Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change. Symposium of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10...

  5. Beam-induced temperature changes in HVEM irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Gelles, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    The peak value of the temperature distribution induced by energy loss of 1.0 MeV electrons in traversing a typical HVEM irradiation specimen can be very substantial. The origin and various features of this distribution were analyzed for a variety of specimen geometries. The major parametric dependencies are shown to be relatively independent of specimen geometry, however, and allow the definition of a scaling relationship that can be employed to predict temperature rises in materials that cannot be measured directly. The use of this scaling relationship requires that the experimenter minimize perturbations of the heat flow due to proximity of the central hole in the specimen. An experimental method of determining directly the magnitude and distribution of beam-induced temperature profiles was developed which utilizes the order-disorder transformation in Fe 3 Al and Cu 3 Au. Scaling of experimentally determined temperature changes leads to more realistic estimates of the total temperature rise than are currently available in various literature tabulations. The factors which determine the optimum selection of irradiation parameters for a given experiment are also discussed

  6. Effect of 7-nitroindazole on body temperature and methamphetamine-induced dopamine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, B T; Ricaurte, G A

    1998-08-24

    The present study was undertaken to examine the role of temperature on the ability of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) to prevent methamphetamine-induced dopamine (DA) neurotoxicity. Male Swiss-Webster mice received methamphetamine alone or in combination with 7-NI at either room temperature (20+/-1 degrees C) or at 28+/-1 degrees C. At 20+/-1 degrees C, 7-NI produced hypothermic effects and afforded total protection against methamphetamine-induced DA depletions in the striatum. At 28+/-1 degrees C, 7-NI produced minimal effects on body temperature and failed to prevent methamphetamine-induced DA reductions. These findings indicate that the neuroprotection afforded by 7-NI is likely related to its ability to produce hypothermia because agents that produce hypothermia and/or prevent hyperthermia are known to attenuate methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

  7. Short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gail A; Hudson, Danae L; Whisenhunt, Brooke L; Stone, Megan; Heinberg, Leslie J; Crowther, Janis H

    2018-04-01

    Many bariatric surgery candidates report body image concerns before surgery. Research has reported post-surgical improvements in body satisfaction, which may be associated with weight loss. However, research has failed to comprehensively examine changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive body image. This research examined (1) short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image from pre-surgery to 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, and (2) the association between percent weight loss and these changes. Participants were recruited from a private hospital in the midwestern United States. Eighty-eight females (original N = 123; lost to follow-up: n = 15 at 1-month and n = 20 at 6-months post-surgery) completed a questionnaire battery, including the Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Checking Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, and Body Shape Questionnaire, and weights were obtained from patients' medical records before and at 1- and 6-months post-surgery. Results indicated significant decreases in body dissatisfaction, feelings of fatness, and body image avoidance at 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, with the greatest magnitude of change occurring for body image avoidance. Change in feelings of fatness was significantly correlated with percent weight loss at 6-months, but not 1-month, post-surgery. These findings highlight the importance of examining short-term changes in body image from a multidimensional perspective in the effort to improve postsurgical outcomes. Unique contributions include the findings regarding the behavioral component of body image, as body image avoidance emerges as a particularly salient concern that changes over time among bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Too Hot to Sleep? Sleep Behaviour and Surface Body Temperature of Wahlberg’s Epauletted Fruit Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Colleen T.; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg’s epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:25775371

  9. Preliminary study on the time-related changes of the infrared thermal images of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng; Lin, Gang; Chen, Zhigang

    2009-08-01

    It is of great importance to study the manifestations and the influencing factors of the time-related changes of infrared thermal images (ITI) of human body since the variable body surface temperature distribution seriously affected the application of ITI in medicine. In this paper, manifestations of time-related changes of the ITI of human body from three double-blind randomized trials and their correlation with meteorological factors (e.g. temperature, pressure, humidity, cold front passage and tropical cyclone landing) were studied. The trials were placebo or drug controlled studying the influences of Chinese medicine health food (including Shengsheng capsule with immunity adjustment function, Shengan capsule with sleep improvement function and Shengyi capsule with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid) on the ITI of human body. In the first thirty-six days of the trials images were scanned every six days and image data in the seven observation time spots (including the 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 day of the trial) were used for the time-related study. For every subject the scanned time was fixed in the day within two hours. The ITI features which could reflect the functions of the health foods were studied. The indexes of the features were relative magnitude (temperature difference between the viewing area and the reference area). Results showed that the variation tendencies of the trial group and control group were basically the same in placebo controlled trials and some of the long-term effects of Chinese medicine health food could be reflected significantly in certain time spots in the first thirty-six days. Time-related changes of the ITI of human body were closely related with meteorological factors but there were other influencing factors still need to be studied. As the ITI of human body could reflect the influences of Chinese medicine health foods and are closely related with meteorology, there are bright prospects for the application of ITI in

  10. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent changes in regional body fat distributions was examined. In total, 1,236 men and 1,201 women were included at baseline and participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study. A questionnaire was used to assess PA at 5 and 11 years after baseline examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). LTPA and OPA were associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men. For women, no associations were observed in relation to WC; however, OPA seemed to increase HC among women. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total-body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.; Roginsky, M.S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13

  12. Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants Lack Vasomotor Response in Relationship to Cold Body Temperatures at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Knobel, Robin B.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Schwartz, Todd A.; Wimmer, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated peripheral vasoconstriction in ELBW infants when body temperature decreased during the first 12-hours of life. Design An exploratory, within-subjects design with 10 ELBW infants. Abdominal and foot temperatures were measured every minute. Peripheral vasoconstriction (abdominal > peripheral temperature by 2? C) and abdominal-peripheral temperature difference were also evaluated. Results Abdominal and peripheral temperatures were significantly correlated within ea...

  13. Illusory changes in body size modulate body satisfaction in a way that is related to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Preston

    Full Text Available Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology.

  14. Illusory Changes in Body Size Modulate Body Satisfaction in a Way That Is Related to Non-Clinical Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Catherine; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical) eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology. PMID:24465698

  15. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  16. Measurement of bovine body and scrotal temperature using implanted temperature sensitive radio transmitters, data loggers and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallage, A. L.; Gaughan, J. B.; Lisle, A. T.; Beard, L.; Collins, C. W.; Johnston, S. D.

    2017-07-01

    Synchronous and continuous measurement of body (BT) and scrotal temperature (ST) without adverse welfare or behavioural interference is essential for understanding thermoregulation of the bull testis. This study compared three technologies for their efficacy for long-term measurement of the relationship between BT and ST by means of (1) temperature sensitive radio transmitters (RT), (2) data loggers (DL) and (3) infrared imaging (IRI). After an initial pilot study on two bulls to establish a surgical protocol, RTs and DLs were implanted into the flank and mid-scrotum of six Wagyu bulls for between 29 and 49 days. RT frequencies were scanned every 15 min, whilst DLs logged every 30 min. Infrared imaging of the body (flank) and scrotum of each bull was recorded hourly for one 24-h period and compared to RT and DL data. After a series of subsequent heat stress studies, bulls were castrated and testicular tissue samples processed for evidence of histopathology. Radio transmitters were less reliable than DLs; RTs lost >11 % of data, whilst 11 of the 12 DLs had 0 % data loss. IRI was only interpretable in 35.8 % of images recorded. Pearson correlations between DL and RT were strong for both BT ( r > 0.94, P 0.80, P animals post-surgery. Whilst scar tissue was observed at all surgical sutured sites when bulls were castrated, there was no evidence of testicular adhesion and normal active spermatogenesis was observed in six of the eight implanted testicles. There was no significant correlation of IRI with either DL or RT. We conclude that DLs provided to be a reliable continuous source of data for synchronous measurement of BT and ST.

  17. Temperature changes across CO2-lased dentin during multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Barron, Joseph R.; Boran, Thomas L.

    1990-06-01

    The literature increasingly indicates that lasers will have a multitude of applications for dental hard tissue procedures, e.g. preventive therapy, caries removal, laser etching and endodontic therapy. However, it is critical that such laser therapies avoid the production of heat levels which will be damaging to the surrounding vital tissues, such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. Our preliminary research on temperature changes across C02 lased dentin indicated that for single preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot) the mean temperature rise across 350 j.tm of dentin was 0.57 0C while across 1000 .tm of dentin the mean rise was only 0.18 °C. Further research utilizing multiple preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot, 3 x 1.0 sec. intervals) showed mean temperature elevations of 1.56 0C across 350 m of dentin and 0.66 O across 1000 xm of dentin. While these temperature elevations, which would be associated with preventive therapy, are very low and would be biologically acceptable, it must be noted that exposures of higher intensities are required to fuse enamel and porcelain, or remove decay. This current research investigates temperature elevations which occuT during C02 lasing utilizing the following exposure parameters: 8.0 W., 1.0 mm focal spot, 0.1 sec. exposures, 2 or 4 exposures per site pulsed 1.0 sec. apart. Three dentin thicknesses were utilized, i.e. 1000 jim, 1500 p.tm and 2000 .tm. Four sections of each thickness were utilized with four exposure sites per specimen (2 with 2 exposures, 2 with 4 exposures). All dentin sections were prepared from non-carious third molars using a hard tissue microtome. A thermistor was placed on the dentin surface opposite each lased site and temperature changes were recorded for approximately 50 sec. following lasing. Mean temperature elevations ranged from a high of 3.07 C for the 1000 xm section utilizing four exposures to a low of 0.37 0C for the

  18. Changes in Skin Surface Temperature during Muscular Endurance indicated Strain – An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fröhlich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-contact thermography enables the diagnosis of the distribution of skin surface temperature during athletic movement. Resistance exercise results in stress of required musculature, which is supposed to be measurable thermographically in terms of skin surface temperature change. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the application of thermography to analyze changes in skin temperature, representing specific muscle groups, during and after resistance exercise. Method: Thirteen male participants (age: 27.1 ± 4.9 years, height: 181.5 ± 5.7 cm, mass: 74.8 ± 7.4 kg completed the study. On 5 separate visits to the laboratory, participants performed one of 5 resistance exercise to target specific muscles (M. pectoralis major, M. rectus abdominis, M. trapezius, M. erector spinae, M. quadriceps femoris. The exercise protocol consisted of 3 sets of 20 repetitions, with 1 minute rest between exercise sets. The average skin surface temperature above the muscle groups used was thermographically determined using standard methods at 7 time points; pre-exercise, immediately following each exercise set, and post exercise (2, 3, and 6 minutes after the finale exercise set. The measurement areas were standardized using anatomic reference points. Results: From an inferential statistical point of view, no significant change in the average temperature caused by the applied resistance training was found for the individual muscle groups over time at the individual measurement times (all P>0.08. However, thermography showed a characteristic chronological temperature curve for the five body areas between measurement times, as well as a distinctive spatial temperature distribution over the measurement areas. Discussion: Based on the thermographic image data and the characteristic temperature curve, it is possible to identify the primarily used functional musculature after device-controlled resistance training. Therefore, thermography seems to be

  19. Human-experienced temperature changes exceed global average climate changes for all income groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, S. M.; Parshall, L.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change alters local climates everywhere. Many climate change impacts, such as those affecting health, agriculture and labor productivity, depend on these local climatic changes, not global mean change. Traditional, spatially averaged climate change estimates are strongly influenced by the response of icecaps and oceans, providing limited information on human-experienced climatic changes. If used improperly by decision-makers, these estimates distort estimated costs of climate change. We overlay the IPCC’s 20 GCM simulations on the global population distribution to estimate local climatic changes experienced by the world population in the 21st century. The A1B scenario leads to a well-known rise in global average surface temperature of +2.0°C between the periods 2011-2030 and 2080-2099. Projected on the global population distribution in 2000, the median human will experience an annual average rise of +2.3°C (4.1°F) and the average human will experience a rise of +2.4°C (4.3°F). Less than 1% of the population will experience changes smaller than +1.0°C (1.8°F), while 25% and 10% of the population will experience changes greater than +2.9°C (5.2°F) and +3.5°C (6.2°F) respectively. 67% of the world population experiences temperature changes greater than the area-weighted average change of +2.0°C (3.6°F). Using two approaches to characterize the spatial distribution of income, we show that the wealthiest, middle and poorest thirds of the global population experience similar changes, with no group dominating the global average. Calculations for precipitation indicate that there is little change in average precipitation, but redistributions of precipitation occur in all income groups. These results suggest that economists and policy-makers using spatially averaged estimates of climate change to approximate local changes will systematically and significantly underestimate the impacts of climate change on the 21st century population. Top: The

  20. Body composition changes in essential hypertension before and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T. Jr.; Worum, I.; Csongor, J.; Ujhelyi, L.; Foeris, G.

    1986-01-01

    The body composition of 30 elderly (22 females: 78,2+7,6; 8 males: 80,4+5,4 yrs) and 38 middle-aged (27 females: 45,5+10.3; 11 males: 42,3+8,7 yrs) people suffering of essential hypertension determined by complex clinical and biological examinations (BP: 160-180/100-200 Hgmm), was determined before and after treatment. Most of them (78%) could be reassessed after 3 month of treatment (beta-blocking drugs or diuretics). The authors also investigated a few numbers (n=10) of patients presenting a hypertensive crisis treated with vasodilatant drugs and diuretics during 1 week of period. The hormonal status of all of them was assessed at the same time. The body composition was determined by multiple-isotope method

  1. The changing features of the body-mind problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agassi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The body-mind problem invites scientific study, since mental events are repeated and repeatable and invite testable explanations. They seemed troublesome because of the classical theory of substance that failed to solve its own central problems. These are soluble with the aid of the theory of the laws of nature, particularly in its emergentist version [Bunge, M., 1980. The Body-mind Problem, Pergamon, Oxford] that invites refutable explanations [Popper, K.R., 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Hutchinson, London]. The view of mental properties as emergent is a modification of the two chief classical views, materialism and dualism. As this view invites testable explanations of events of the inner world, it is better than the quasi-behaviorist view of self-awareness as computer-style self-monitoring [Minsky, M., Laske, O., 1992. A conversation with Marvin Minsky. AI Magazine 13 (3), 31-45].

  2. Cytoskeletal Regulation Dominates Temperature-Sensitive Proteomic Changes of Hibernation in Forebrain of 13-Lined Ground Squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy – wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins dihydropyrimidinase

  3. Cytoskeletal regulation dominates temperature-sensitive proteomic changes of hibernation in forebrain of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson G Hindle

    Full Text Available 13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy - wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins

  4. Association of childhood body mass index and change in body mass index with first adult ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjærde, Line K.; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemi...

  5. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  6. Self-Healing Phase Change Salogels with Tunable Gelation Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimineghlani, Parvin; Palanisamy, Anbazhagan; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A

    2018-04-19

    Chemically cross-linked polymer matrices have demonstrated strong potential for shape stabilization of molten phase change materials (PCM). However, they are not designed to be fillable and removable from a heat exchange module for an easy replacement with new PCM matrices and lack self-healing capability. Here, a new category of shapeable, self-healing gels, "salogels", is introduced. The salogels reversibly disassemble in a high-salinity environment of a fluid inorganic PCM [lithium nitrate trihydrate (LNH)], at a preprogrammed temperature. LNH was employed as a high latent heat PCM and simultaneously as a solvent, which supported the formation of a network of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) chains via physical cross-linking through poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of various generations. The existence of hydrogen bonding and the importance of low-hydration state of PVA for the efficient gelation were experimentally confirmed. The thermal behavior of PCM salogels was highly reversible and repeatable during multiple heating/cooling cycles. Importantly, the gel-sol transition temperature could be precisely controlled within a range of temperature above LNH's melting point by the choice of dendrimer generation and their concentration. Shape stabilization and self-healing properties of the salogels, taken together with tunability of their temperature-induced fluidization make these materials attractive for thermal energy storage applications that require on-demand removal and replacement of used inorganic PCM salt hydrates.

  7. Posttranscriptional mechanisms controlling diurnal gene expression cycles by body temperature rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotic, Ivana; Schibler, Ueli

    2017-10-03

    In mammals, body temperature oscillates in a daily fashion around a set point of 36°C-37°C. These fluctuations are controlled by the circadian master clock residing in the brain's suprachiasmatic nucleus and, despite their small amplitudes, contribute to the diurnal expression of genes throughout the organism. By focusing on the mechanisms underlying the temperature-dependent accumulation of the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein CIRBP - a factor involved in the tuning of amplitude and phase in circadian clocks of peripheral tissues - we have recently identified a novel mechanism governing temperature-dependent gene expression. This mechanism involves the differential spicing efficiency of primary RNA transcripts under different temperature conditions and thereby determines the fraction of Cirbp pre-mRNA processed into mature mRNA. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that this mechanism affects the output of hundreds of genes. Here we discuss our findings and future directions toward the identification of specific factors and parameters governing temperature-sensitive splicing efficacy.

  8. Simple and effective method to lower body core temperatures of hyperthermic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, John P

    2017-06-01

    Hyperthermia is a potentially life threatening scenario that may occur in patients due to accompanying morbidities, exertion, or exposure to dry and arid environmental conditions. In particular, heat stroke may result from environmental exposure combined with a lack of thermoregulation. Key clinical findings in the diagnosis of heatstroke are (1) a history of heat stress or exposure, (2) a rectal temperature greater than 40 °C, and (3) central nervous system dysfunction (altered mental state, disorientation, stupor, seizures, or coma) (Prendergast and Erickson, 2014 [1]). In these patients, it is important to bring the body's core temperature down to acceptable levels in a short period of time to avoid tissue/organ injury or death (Yoder, 2001; Casa et al., 2007 [2,3]). A number of potential approaches, both non-invasive and invasive, may be used to lower the temperature of these individuals. Non-invasive techniques generally include: evaporative cooling, ice water immersion, whole-body ice packing, strategic ice packing, and convective cooling. Invasive approaches may include gastric lavage or peritoneal lavage (Schraga and Kates [4]). The efficacy of these methods vary and select treatment approaches may be unsuitable for specific individuals (Schraga and Kates [4]). In this work, the effectiveness of radiation cooling of individuals as a stand-alone treatment and comparisons with existing noninvasive techniques are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti, the tuco-tuco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tachinardi

    Full Text Available The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents.

  10. High temperatures and nephrology: The climate change problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that climate change greatly affects human health, even though there are few studies on renal outcomes. Heat waves have been found to increase cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, as well as the risk of acute renal failure and hospitalisation due to renal diseases, with related mortality. Recurrent dehydration in people regularly exposed to high temperatures seems to be resulting in an unrecognised cause of proteinuric chronic kidney disease, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of which is becoming better understood. However, beyond heat waves and extreme temperatures, there is a seasonal variation in glomerular filtration rate that may contribute to the onset of renal failure and electrolyte disorders during extremely hot periods. Although there are few references in the literature, serum sodium disorders seem to increase. The most vulnerable population to heat-related disease are the elderly, children, chronic patients, bedridden people, disabled people, people living alone or with little social contact, and socioeconomically disadvantaged people.

  11. Temperature-dependent chemical changes of metallic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Young Sang; Lee, Jeong Mook; KimJong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong Yun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We observed the temperature-dependent variations of UZr alloy using surface analysis techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive Xray spectroscope (EDS). In this work, we exhibited the results of XPS, Raman, XRD, and SEM-EDS for U-10wt%Zr alloy at room temperature, 610 and 1130 .deg. C. In SEM-EDS data, we observed that uranium and zirconium elements uniformly exist. After the annealing of U-10Zr sample at 1130 .deg. C, the formation of zirconium carbide is verified through Raman spectroscopy and XRD results. Additionally, the change of valence state for uranium element is also confirmed by XPS analysis.

  12. Mitochondrial Impairment in Cerebrovascular Endothelial Cells is Involved in the Correlation between Body Temperature and Stroke Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Heng; Doll, Danielle N.; Sun, Jiahong; Lewis, Sara E.; Wimsatt, Jeffrey H.; Kessler, Matthew J.; Simpkins, James W.; Ren, Xuefang

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The prognostic influence of body temperature on acute stroke in patients has been recently reported; however, hypothermia has confounded experimental results in animal stroke models. This work aimed to investigate how body temperature could prognose stroke severity as well as reveal a possible mitochondrial mechanism in the association of body temperature and stroke severity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compromises mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CVECs) and worsens murine experimental stroke. In this study, we report that LPS (0.1 mg/kg) exacerbates stroke infarction and neurological deficits, in the mean time LPS causes temporary hypothermia in the hyperacute stage during 6 hours post-stroke. Lower body temperature is associated with worse infarction and higher neurological deficit score in the LPS-stroke study. However, warming of the LPS-stroke mice compromises animal survival. Furthermore, a high dose of LPS (2 mg/kg) worsens neurological deficits, but causes persistent severe hypothermia that conceals the LPS exacerbation of stroke infarction. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I inhibitor, rotenone, replicates the data profile of the LPS-stroke study. Moreover, we have confirmed that rotenone compromises mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in CVECs. Lastly, the pooled data analyses of a large sample size (n=353) demonstrate that stroke mice have lower body temperature compared to sham mice within 6 hours post-surgery; the body temperature is significantly correlated with stroke outcomes; linear regression shows that lower body temperature is significantly associated with higher neurological scores and larger infarct volume. We conclude that post-stroke body temperature predicts stroke severity and mitochondrial impairment in CVECs plays a pivotal role in this hypothermic response. These novel findings suggest that body temperature is prognostic for

  13. The validity, reliability, and utility of the iButton® for measurement of body temperature circadian rhythms in sleep/wake research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselberg, Michael J; McMahon, James; Parker, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Changes in core body temperature due to heat transfer through the skin have a major influence on sleep regulation. Traditional measures of skin temperature are often complicated by extensive wiring and are not practical for use in normal living conditions. This review describes studies examining the reliability, validity and utility of the iButton®, a wireless peripheral thermometry device, in sleep/wake research. A review was conducted of English language literature on the iButton as a measure of circadian body temperature rhythms associated with the sleep/wake cycle. Seven studies of the iButtton as a measure of human body temperature were included. The iButton was found to be a reliable and valid measure of body temperature. Its application to human skin was shown to be comfortable and tolerable with no significant adverse reactions. Distal skin temperatures were negatively correlated with sleep/wake activity, and the temperature gradient between the distal and proximal skin (DPG) was identified as an accurate physiological correlate of sleep propensity. Methodological issues included site of data logger placement, temperature masking factors, and temperature data analysis. The iButton is an inexpensive, wireless data logger that can be used to obtain a valid measurement of human skin temperature. It is a practical alternative to traditional measures of circadian rhythms in sleep/wake research. Further research is needed to determine the utility of the iButton in vulnerable populations, including those with neurodegenerative disorders and memory impairment and pediatric populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes of the Temperature and Precipitation Extremes on Homogenized Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKATOS, Mónika

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate indices to detect changes have been defined in several international projects onclimate change. Climate index calculations require at least daily resolution of time series withoutinhomogeneities, such as transfer of stations, changes in observation practice. In many cases thecharacteristics of the estimated linear trends, calculated from the original and from the homogenizedtime series are significantly different. The ECA&D (European Climate Assessment & Dataset indicesand some other special temperature and precipitation indices of own development were applied to theClimate Database of the Hungarian Meteorological Service. Long term daily maximum, minimum anddaily mean temperature data series and daily precipitation sums were examined. The climate indexcalculation processes were tested on original observations and on homogenized daily data fortemperature; in the case of precipitation a complementation process was performed to fill in the gapsof missing data. Experiences of comparing the climate index calculation results, based on original andcomplemented-homogenized data, are reported in this paper. We present the preliminary result ofclimate index calculations also on gridded (interpolated daily data.

  15. Assessment of body mapping sportswear using a manikin operated in constant temperature mode and thermoregulatory model control mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Del Ferraro, Simona; Molinaro, Vincenzo; Morrissey, Matthew; Rossi, René

    2014-09-01

    Regional sweating patterns and body surface temperature differences exist between genders. Traditional sportswear made from one material and/or one fabric structure has a limited ability to provide athletes sufficient local wear comfort. Body mapping sportswear consists of one piece of multiple knit structure fabric or of different fabric pieces that may provide athletes better wear comfort. In this study, the `modular' body mapping sportswear was designed and subsequently assessed on a `Newton' type sweating manikin that operated in both constant temperature mode and thermophysiological model control mode. The performance of the modular body mapping sportswear kit and commercial products were also compared. The results demonstrated that such a modular body mapping sportswear kit can meet multiple wear/thermal comfort requirements in various environmental conditions. All body mapping clothing (BMC) presented limited global thermophysiological benefits for the wearers. Nevertheless, BMC showed evident improvements in adjusting local body heat exchanges and local thermal sensations.

  16. Heat production and body temperature during cooling and rewarming in overweight and lean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens-van Ooijen, Anne M J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Wouters, Loek; Schoffelen, Paul F M; van Steenhoven, Anton A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2006-11-01

    To compare overweight and lean subjects with respect to thermogenesis and physiological insulation in response to mild cold and rewarming. Ten overweight men (mean BMI, 29.2 +/- 2.8 kg/m(2)) and 10 lean men (mean BMI, 21.1 +/- 2.0 kg/m(2)) were exposed to cold air for 1 hour, followed by 1 hour of rewarming. Body composition was determined by hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution. Heat production and body temperatures were measured continuously by indirect calorimetry and thermistors, respectively. Muscle activity was recorded using electromyography. In both groups, heat production increased significantly during cooling (lean, p = 0.004; overweight, p = 0.006). The increase was larger in the lean group compared with the overweight group (p = 0.04). During rewarming, heat production returned to baseline in the overweight group and stayed higher compared with baseline in the lean group (p = 0.003). The difference in heat production between rewarming and baseline was larger in the lean (p = 0.01) than in the overweight subjects. Weighted body temperature of both groups decreased during cold exposure (lean, p = 0.002; overweight, p < 0.001) and did not return to baseline during rewarming. Overweight subjects showed a blunted mild cold-induced thermogenesis. The insulative cold response was not different among the groups. The energy-efficient response of the overweight subjects can have consequences for energy balance in the long term. The results support the concept of a dynamic heat regulation model instead of temperature regulation around a fixed set point.

  17. Synthetic cannabinoids found in "spice" products alter body temperature and cardiovascular parameters in conscious male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Charles W; Gramling, Benjamin R; Justinova, Zuzana; Thorndike, Eric B; Baumann, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The misuse of synthetic cannabinoids is a persistent public health concern. Because these drugs target the same cannabinoid receptors as the active ingredient of marijuana, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), we compared the effects of synthetic cannabinoids and THC on body temperature and cardiovascular parameters. Biotelemetry transmitters for the measurement of body temperature or blood pressure (BP) were surgically implanted into separate groups of male rats. THC and the synthetic cannabinoids CP55,940, JWH-018, AM2201 and XLR-11 were injected s.c., and rats were placed into isolation cubicles for 3h. THC and synthetic cannabinoids produced dose-related decreases in body temperature that were most prominent in the final 2h of the session. The rank order of potency was CP55,940>AM2201=JWH-018>THC=XLR-11. The cannabinoid inverse agonist rimonabant antagonized the hypothermic effect of all compounds. Synthetic cannabinoids elevated BP in comparison to vehicle treatment during the first h of the session, while heart rate was unaffected. The rank order of potency for BP increases was similar to that seen for hypothermia. Hypertensive effects of CP55,940 and JWH-018 were not antagonized by rimonabant or the neutral antagonist AM4113. However, the BP responses to both drugs were antagonized by pretreatment with either the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium or the α 1 adrenergic antagonist prazosin. Our results show that synthetic cannabinoids produce hypothermia in rats by a mechanism involving cannabinoid receptors, while they increase BP by a mechanism independent of these sites. The hypertensive effect appears to involve central sympathetic outflow. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Elevational variation in body-temperature response to immune challenge in a lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunocompetence benefits animal fitness by combating pathogens, but also entails some costs. One of its main components is fever, which in ectotherms involves two main types of costs: energy expenditure and predation risk. Whenever those costs of fever outweigh its benefits, ectotherms are expected not to develop fever, or even to show hypothermia, reducing costs of thermoregulation and diverting the energy saved to other components of the immune system. Environmental thermal quality, and therefore the thermoregulation cost/benefit balance, varies geographically. Hence, we hypothesize that, in alpine habitats, immune-challenged ectotherms should show no thermal response, given that (1 hypothermia would be very costly, as the temporal window for reproduction is extremely small, and (2 fever would have a prohibitive cost, as heat acquisition is limited in such habitat. However, in temperate habitats, immune-challenged ectotherms might show a febrile response, due to lower cost/benefit balance as a consequence of a more suitable thermal environment. We tested this hypothesis in Psammodromus algirus lizards from Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, by testing body temperature preferred by alpine and non-alpine lizards, before and after activating their immune system with a typical innocuous pyrogen. Surprisingly, non-alpine lizards responded to immune challenge by decreasing preferential body-temperature, presumably allowing them to save energy and reduce exposure to predators. On the contrary, as predicted, immune-challenged alpine lizards maintained their body-temperature preferences. These results match with increased costs of no thermoregulation with elevation, due to the reduced window of time for reproduction in alpine environment.

  19. Effects of acute temperature change, confinement and housing on plasma corticosterone in water snakes, Nerodia sipedon (Colubridae: Natricinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Kyle Lea; Klukowski, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    Body temperature affects many aspects of reptilian behavior and physiology, but its effect on hormonal secretion has been little studied, especially in snakes. Major objectives of this study were to determine if acute changes in body temperature during confinement influenced plasma corticosterone levels and if initial body temperatures upon capture in the field were related to baseline corticosterone levels in water snakes (Nerodia sipedon). Water snakes were bled upon capture in the field and after one hour of confinement in a cooled, control, or heated incubator. Since little is known about the potential metabolic changes in response to stress in reptiles, plasma triglyceride levels were also measured. Upon completion of the field study, snakes were housed for 5-8 days without food to determine the effect of chronic stress on both corticosterone and triglyceride levels. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and plasma triglycerides were determined enzymatically. In the field, experimental alterations of body temperature during confinement had no effect on corticosterone levels. Similarly, there was no correlation between initial body temperature and baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations. However, post-confinement corticosterone levels were approximately three-times greater in females than males. Plasma triglyceride levels were not affected by temperature treatment, confinement, or sex. Compared to field values, both baseline and post-confinement corticosterone levels were elevated after the chronic stress of short-term laboratory housing but triglyceride levels decreased. Overall, these results indicate that sex but not body temperature has a major influence on the adrenocortical stress response in Nerodia sipedon.

  20. THE EFFECT OF KANGAROO METHOD APPLICATION TO BODY TEMPERATURE OF BABY WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Ayu Erika, Kadek Ayu Erika

    2012-01-01

    - Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW) care in Indonesia is still prioritizing the use of incubators but its presence is still very limited. Kangaroo method is now starting to be used as an alternative to incubator that is economically efficient and effective. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of the application of the kangaroo method to body temperature of baby with LBW. Method: This research was conducted at the Hospital Prof. DR. W.Z. Johannes Kupang with a sample of 25 lo...

  1. The effect of direct heating and cooling of heat regulation centers on body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were done on 28 rabbits in which puncture instruments were left in the brain for 1-2 days until the calori-puncture hyperthermia had passed and the body temperature was again normal. The instrument remaining in the brain was then used as a galvanic electrode and a second fever was produced, this time due to the electrical stimulus. It was concluded that heat is a centrally acting antipyretic and that cold is a centrally acting stimulus which produces hyperpyrexia cold-induced fever.

  2. The response of human thermal sensation and its prediction to temperature step-change (cool-neutral-cool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan Du

    Full Text Available This paper reports on studies of the effect of temperature step-change (between a cool and a neutral environment on human thermal sensation and skin temperature. Experiments with three temperature conditions were carried out in a climate chamber during the period in winter. Twelve subjects participated in the experiments simulating moving inside and outside of rooms or cabins with air conditioning. Skin temperatures and thermal sensation were recorded. Results showed overshoot and asymmetry of TSV due to the step-change. Skin temperature changed immediately when subjects entered a new environment. When moving into a neutral environment from cool, dynamic thermal sensation was in the thermal comfort zone and overshoot was not obvious. Air-conditioning in a transitional area should be considered to limit temperature difference to not more than 5°C to decrease the unacceptability of temperature step-change. The linear relationship between thermal sensation and skin temperature or gradient of skin temperature does not apply in a step-change environment. There is a significant linear correlation between TSV and Qloss in the transient environment. Heat loss from the human skin surface can be used to predict dynamic thermal sensation instead of the heat transfer of the whole human body.

  3. The Response of Human Thermal Sensation and Its Prediction to Temperature Step-Change (Cool-Neutral-Cool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiuyuan; Li, Baizhan; Liu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Yu, Wei; Liao, Jianke; Huang, Zhichao; Xia, Kechao

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on studies of the effect of temperature step-change (between a cool and a neutral environment) on human thermal sensation and skin temperature. Experiments with three temperature conditions were carried out in a climate chamber during the period in winter. Twelve subjects participated in the experiments simulating moving inside and outside of rooms or cabins with air conditioning. Skin temperatures and thermal sensation were recorded. Results showed overshoot and asymmetry of TSV due to the step-change. Skin temperature changed immediately when subjects entered a new environment. When moving into a neutral environment from cool, dynamic thermal sensation was in the thermal comfort zone and overshoot was not obvious. Air-conditioning in a transitional area should be considered to limit temperature difference to not more than 5°C to decrease the unacceptability of temperature step-change. The linear relationship between thermal sensation and skin temperature or gradient of skin temperature does not apply in a step-change environment. There is a significant linear correlation between TSV and Qloss in the transient environment. Heat loss from the human skin surface can be used to predict dynamic thermal sensation instead of the heat transfer of the whole human body. PMID:25136808

  4. Influence of heating rate and temperature firing on the properties of bodies of red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, B.J. da; Goncalves, W.P.; Cartaxo, J.M.; Macedo, R.S.; Neves, G.A.; Santana, L.N.L.; Menezes, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the red ceramic industry, the firing is one of the main stages of the production process. There are two heating rates prevailing at this stage: the slow (traditional ceramics) and fast. The slow rate more used in Brazil, is considered delayed. This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size and chemical composition of three mixture of clay, used in the manufacture of red ceramic products and to study the influence of the firing temperature on their technological properties. When subjected to heating rates slow and fast. Initially, the mixtures were characterized subsequently were extruded, dried and subjected to firing at temperatures of 900 and 1000 ° C with heating rates of 5, 20 and 30 °C/min. The results indicated that the chemical composition and particle size influenced significantly the technological properties and that the bodies obtained with the paste that had lower levels of flux showed better stability. (author)

  5. A microcomputer-based data acquisition system for ECG, body and ambient temperatures measurement during bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uokawa, Y; Yonezawa, Y; Caldwell, W M; Hahn, A W

    2000-01-01

    A data acquisition system employing a low power 8 bit microcomputer has been developed for heart rate variability monitoring before, during and after bathing. The system consists of three integral chest electrodes, two temperature sensors, an instrumentation amplifier, a low power 8-bit single chip microcomputer (SMC) and a 4 MB compact flash memory (CFM). The ECG from the electrodes is converted to an 8-bit digital format at a 1 ms rate by an A/D converter in the SMC. Both signals from the body and ambient temperature sensors are converted to an 8-bit digital format every 1 second. These data are stored by the CFM. The system is powered by a rechargeable 3.6 V lithium battery. The 4 x 11 x 1 cm system is encapsulated in epoxy and silicone, yielding a total volume of 44 cc. The weight is 100 g.

  6. Description of a portable wireless device for high-frequency body temperature acquisition and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Frau, David; Varela, Manuel; Aboy, Mateo; Miró-Martínez, Pau

    2009-01-01

    We describe a device for dual channel body temperature monitoring. The device can operate as a real time monitor or as a data logger, and has Bluetooth capabilities to enable for wireless data download to the computer used for data analysis. The proposed device is capable of sampling temperature at a rate of 1 sample per minute with a resolution of 0.01 °C . The internal memory allows for stand-alone data logging of up to 10 days. The device has a battery life of 50 hours in continuous real-time mode. In addition to describing the proposed device in detail, we report the results of a statistical analysis conducted to assess its accuracy and reproducibility.

  7. Kinetic analysis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the liver of body-temperature-controlled mice using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging and an empirical mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kenya; Assanai, Purapan; Takata, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Nozomi; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Nishiura, Motoko

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for analyzing the kinetic behavior of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in the murine liver under control of body temperature using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and an empirical mathematical model (EMM). First, we investigated the influence of body temperature on the kinetic behavior of SPIONs in the liver by controlling body temperature using our temperature-control system. Second, we investigated the kinetic behavior of SPIONs in the liver when mice were injected with various doses of GdCl3, while keeping the body temperature at 36°C. Finally, we investigated it when mice were injected with various doses of zymosan, while keeping the body temperature at 36°C. We also investigated the effect of these substances on the number of Kupffer cells by immunohistochemical analysis using the specific surface antigen of Kupffer cells (CD68). To quantify the kinetic behavior of SPIONs in the liver, we calculated the upper limit of the relative enhancement (A), the rates of early contrast uptake (α) and washout or late contrast uptake (β), the parameter related to the slope of early uptake (q), the area under the curve (AUC), the maximum change of transverse relaxation rate (ΔR2) (ΔR2(max)), the time to ΔR2(max) (Tmax), and ΔR2 at the last time point (ΔR2(last)) from the time courses of ΔR2 using the EMM. The β and Tmax values significantly decreased and increased, respectively, with decreasing body temperature, suggesting that the phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells is significantly affected by body temperature. The AUC, ΔR2(max), and ΔR2(last) values decreased significantly with increasing dose of GdCl3, which was consistent with the change in the number of CD68-positive cells. They increased with increasing dose of zymosan, which was also consistent with the change in the number of CD68-positive cells. These results suggest that AUC, ΔR2(max), and ΔR2

  8. Measurement of body temperature by use of auricular thermometers versus rectal thermometers in dogs with otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A Michelle; Mann, F A; Preziosi, Diane E; Meadows, Richard L; Wagner-Mann, Colette C

    2002-08-01

    To compare measurements of body temperature obtained with auricular thermometers versus rectal thermometers in dogs with otitis externa. Prospective study. 100 client-owned dogs: 50 with and 50 without clinical evidence of otitis externa. Dogs were evaluated for the presence of otitis externa on the basis of clinical signs, otoscopic examination, and cytologic evaluation of ear exudate. Auricular and rectal temperatures were obtained simultaneously in all dogs prior to and following ear examination. There was a high correlation between auricular and rectal temperatures in dogs with otitis externa both prior to and after ear manipulation. Significant differences were not detected in temperature measurements among dogs with different degrees of otitis externa. Auricular temperature readings obtained by use of an auricular thermometer in dogs with otitis externa are accurate measurements of body temperature, compared with rectal temperature measurements. Temperature measurements are reliable before and after examination of the ear canal.

  9. Critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition for hot nuclear matter and three-body force effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Wei; Lu Guangcheng; Li Zenghua; Luo Peiyan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    The finite temperature Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (FTBHF) approach is extended by introducing a microscopic three-body force. Within the extended approach, the three-body force effects on the equation of state of hot nuclear matter and its temperature dependence have been investigated. The critical properties of the liquid-gas phase transition of hot nuclear matter have been calculated. It is shown that the three-body force provides a repulsive contribution to the equation of state of hot nuclear matter. The repulsive effect of the three-body force becomes more pronounced as the density and temperature increase and consequently inclusion of the three-body force contribution in the calculation reduces the predicted critical temperature from about 16 MeV to about 13 MeV. By separating the contribution originated from the 2σ-exchange process coupled to the virtual excitation of a nucleon-antinucleon pair from the full three-body force, the connection between the three-body force effect and the relativistic correction from the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock has been explored. It turns out that the contribution of the 2σ-N(N-bar) part is more repulsive than that of the full three-body force and the calculated critical temperature is about 11 MeV if only the 2σ-N(N-bar) component of the three-body force is included which is lower than the value obtained in the case of including the full three-body force and is close to the value predicted by the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach. Our result provides a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between the values of critical temperature predicted from the FTBHF approach including the three-body force and the DBHF approach. (authors)

  10. Body Weight Can Change How Your Emotions Are Perceived.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujung Oh

    Full Text Available Accurately interpreting other's emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions. We hypothesized that the weight perceived in a face would bias the assessment of an emotional expression, with overweight faces generally more likely to be perceived as having more positive and less negative expressions than healthy weight faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants were asked to sort the emotional expressions of overweight and healthy weight facial stimuli that had been gradually morphed across six emotional intensity levels into one of two categories-"neutral vs. happy" (Experiment 1 and "neutral vs. sad" (Experiment 2. As predicted, our results demonstrated that overweight faces were more likely to be categorized as happy (i.e., lower happy decision threshold and less likely to be categorized as sad (i.e., higher sad decision threshold compared to healthy weight faces that had the same levels of emotional intensity. The neutral-sad decision threshold shift was negatively correlated with participant's own fear of becoming fat, that is, those without a fear of becoming fat more strongly perceived overweight faces as sad relative to those with a higher fear. These findings demonstrate that the weight of the face systematically influences how its emotional expression is interpreted, suggesting that being overweight may make emotional expressions appear more happy and less sad than they really are.

  11. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  12. Antipyretic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis: An Interaction with Body Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Chen, Lin; Ni, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The effect of antipyretic therapy on mortality in patients with sepsis remains undetermined. The present study aimed to investigate the role of antipyretic therapy in ICU patients with sepsis by using a large clinical database. Methods The multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care II (MIMIC- II) database was employed for the study. Adult patients with sepsis were included for analysis. Antipyretic therapy included antipyretic medication and external cooling. Multivariable model with interaction terms were employed to explore the association of antipyretic therapy and mortality risk. Main Results A total of 15,268 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria and were included in the study. In multivariable model by treating temperature as a continuous variable, there was significant interaction between antipyretic therapy and the maximum temperature (Tmax). While antipyretic therapy had no significant effect on mortality in low temperature quintiles, antipyretic therapy was associated with increased risk of death in the quintile with body temperature >39°C (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.61). Conclusion Our study shows that there is no beneficial effect on reducing mortality risk with the use of antipyretic therapy in ICU patients with sepsis. External cooling may even be harmful in patients with sepsis. PMID:25822614

  13. Elevated body temperature is linked to fatigue in an Italian sample of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, V M; De Meo, E; Riccitelli, G; Rocca, M A; Comi, G; Filippi, M; Sumowski, J F

    2015-11-01

    Elevated body temperature was recently reported for the first time in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) relative to healthy controls. In addition, warmer body temperature was associated with worse fatigue. These findings are highly novel, may indicate a novel pathophysiology for MS fatigue, and therefore warrant replication in a geographically separate sample. Here, we investigated body temperature and its association to fatigue in an Italian sample of 44 RRMS patients and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Consistent with our original report, we found elevated body temperature in the RRMS sample compared to healthy controls. Warmer body temperature was associated with worse fatigue, thereby supporting the notion of endogenous temperature elevations in patients with RRMS as a novel pathophysiological factor underlying fatigue. Our findings highlight a paradigm shift in our understanding of the effect of heat in RRMS, from exogenous (i.e., Uhthoff's phenomenon) to endogenous. Although randomized controlled trials of cooling treatments (i.e., aspirin, cooling garments) to reduce fatigue in RRMS have been successful, consideration of endogenously elevated body temperature as the underlying target will enhance our development of novel treatments.

  14. Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes observed in Modena, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolari, M.; Malmusi, S.

    2013-03-01

    Climate changes has become one of the most analysed subjects from researchers community, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that hit the globe. To have a better view of climate changes and trends, long observations time series are needed. During last decade a lot of Italian time series, concerning several surface meteorological variables, have been analysed and published. No one of them includes one of the longest record in Italy, the time series of the Geophysical Observatory of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Measurements, collected since early 19th century, always in the same position, except for some months during the second world war, embrace daily temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, pressure, cloudiness and other variables. In this work we concentrated on the analysis of yearly and seasonal trends and climate extremes of temperature, both minimum and maximum, and precipitation time series, for the periods 1861-2010 and 1831-2010 respectively, in which continuous measurements are available. In general, our results confirm quite well those reported by IPCC and in many other studies over Mediterranean area. In particular, we found that minimum temperature has a non significant positive trend of + 0.1 °C per decade considering all the period, the value increases to 0.9 °C per decade for 1981-2010. For maximum temperature we observed a non significant + 0.1 °C trend for all the period, while + 0.8 °C for the last thirty years. On the other hand precipitation is decreasing, -6.3 mm per decade, considering all the analysed period, while the last thirty years are characterised by a great increment of 74.8 mm per decade. For both variables several climate indices have been analysed and they confirm what has been found for minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation. In particular, during last 30 years frost days and ice days are decreasing, whereas summer days are increasing. During the last 30-year tropical nights

  15. Acute cytologic changes of adenocarcinoma of uterine body by radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kahori; Katoh, Tomoyasu; Teshima, Hideo; Arai, Yuji; Satoh, Hisashi; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuzuku, Masafumi; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Hasumi, Katsuhiko [Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Initial radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer with complications is rare. The purpose of this study was to identify the acute cytologic changes in endometrial cancer induced by irradiation. From 1985 to 1997, 21 patients with endometrial cancer received initial radiotherapy. We reviewed ten cases of them cytologically from which we were able to estimate the acute changes in cancer cells. As the dose of irradiation increased, wrinkled edge of nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and coarse granular chromatin were diffusely observed. Nuclear swelling and giant cell formation appeared in a scattered manner. Compared with histologic specimens, we could observe intra-nuclear changes more clearly on the endometrial smear. We could also observe a decrease in large clusters and a significant increase in small clusters with degeneration when cancer nests collapse in histologic specimens. We found that the cellular changes of endometrial cancer by irradiation generally resemble that of squamous cell cancer. We recommend complete full dose irradiation before assessing the prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer because radiosensitivity can be very variable. (author)

  16. Acute cytologic changes of adenocarcinoma of uterine body by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kahori; Katoh, Tomoyasu; Teshima, Hideo; Arai, Yuji; Satoh, Hisashi; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuzuku, Masafumi; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Hasumi, Katsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    Initial radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer with complications is rare. The purpose of this study was to identify the acute cytologic changes in endometrial cancer induced by irradiation. From 1985 to 1997, 21 patients with endometrial cancer received initial radiotherapy. We reviewed ten cases of them cytologically from which we were able to estimate the acute changes in cancer cells. As the dose of irradiation increased, wrinkled edge of nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and coarse granular chromatin were diffusely observed. Nuclear swelling and giant cell formation appeared in a scattered manner. Compared with histologic specimens, we could observe intra-nuclear changes more clearly on the endometrial smear. We could also observe a decrease in large clusters and a significant increase in small clusters with degeneration when cancer nests collapse in histologic specimens. We found that the cellular changes of endometrial cancer by irradiation generally resemble that of squamous cell cancer. We recommend complete full dose irradiation before assessing the prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer because radiosensitivity can be very variable. (author)

  17. Effects of a whole-body spandex garment on rectal temperature and oxygen consumption in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, S Brent; Schulz, Kurt S; Mason, David R; Jones, James H

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether a full-body spandex garment would alter rectal temperatures of healthy dogs at rest in cool and warm environments. Prospective study. 10 healthy dogs. Each dog was evaluated at a low (20 degrees to 25 degrees C [68 degrees to 77 degrees F]) or high (30 degrees to 35 degrees C [86 degrees to 95 degrees F]) ambient temperature while wearing or not wearing a commercially available whole-body spandex garment designed for dogs. Oxygen consumption was measured by placing dogs in a flow-through indirect calorimeter for 90 to 120 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured before dogs were placed in the calorimeter and after they were removed. Rectal temperature increased significantly more at the higher ambient temperature than at the lower temperature and when dogs were not wearing the garment than when they were wearing it. The specific rate of oxygen consumption was significantly higher at the lower ambient temperature than at the higher temperature. Results suggest that wearing a snug spandex body garment does not increase the possibility that dogs will overheat while in moderate ambient temperatures. Instead, wearing such a garment may enable dogs to better maintain body temperature during moderate heat loading. These results suggest that such garments might be used for purposes such as wound or suture protection without causing dogs to overheat.

  18. Thinking meta-theoretically about the role of internalization in the development of body dissatisfaction and body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T; van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Wong, Kendal; Crowther, Janis H

    2013-09-01

    Internalization of societal standards of physical attractiveness (i.e., internalization of the thin ideal for women and internalization of the mesomorphic ideal for men) is a widely studied and robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and maladaptive body change behaviors. Substantial empirical research supports internalization as both a mediator and a moderator of the relation between societal influences and body dissatisfaction. In this paper, a primer on mediation and moderation is followed by a review of literature and discussion of the extent to which internalization can theoretically fulfill the roles of both mediation and moderation. The literature review revealed a stark contrast in research design (experimental versus non-experimental design) when alternate conceptualizations of internalization are adopted. A meta-theoretical, moderated mediation model is presented. This model integrates previous research and can inform future empirical and clinical endeavors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health Impacts of Climate Change-Induced Subzero Temperature Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Maria-Monika; Log, Torgrim

    2017-07-20

    General fire risk and the special risk related to cold climate cellulosic drying processes are outlined. Four recent subzero temperatures fires are studied with respect to health impacts: a wooden village fire, a single wood structure fire, a wildland urban interface (WUI) fire and a huge wildland fire. The health impacts range from stress related to loss of jobs, psychological effects of lost possessions, exposure to smoke and heat as well as immediate, or delayed, loss of lives. These four fires resulted in 32 fatalities, 385 persons hospitalized for shorter or longer periods, 104 structures lost and 1015 km² of wildland burned north of, and just south of, the Arctic Circle. It is shown that the combination of subzero temperature dry weather, strong winds, changing agricultural activities and declining snowpack may lead to previously anticipated threats to people and the environment. There are reasons to believe that these fires are a result of the ongoing climate changes. Risk impacts are discussed. Rural districts and/or vulnerable populations seem to be most affected. Training methods to identify and better monitor critical fire risk parameters are suggested to mitigate the health impacts of a possibly increasing number of such fires.

  20. An energy-based body temperature threshold between torpor and normothermia for small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R

    2007-01-01

    Field studies of use of torpor by heterothermic endotherms suffer from the lack of a standardized threshold differentiating torpid body temperatures (T(b)) from normothermic T(b)'s. This threshold can be more readily observed if metabolic rate (MR) is measured in the laboratory. I digitized figures from the literature that depicted simultaneous traces of MR and T(b) from 32 respirometry runs for 14 mammal species. For each graph, I quantified the T(b) measured when MR first began to drop at the onset of torpor (T(b-onset)). I used a general linear model to quantify the effect of ambient temperature (T(a)) and body mass (BM) on T(b-onset). For species lighter than 70 g, the model was highly significant and was described by the equation Tb-onset=(0.055+/-0.014)BM+(0.071+/-0.031)Ta+(31.823+/-0.740). To be conservative, I recommend use of these model parameters minus 1 standard error, which modifies the equation to Tb-onset-1 SE=(0.041)BM+(0.040)Ta+31.083. This approach provides a standardized threshold for differentiating torpor from normothermia that is based on use of energy, the actual currency of interest for studies of torpor in the wild. Few laboratory studies have presented the time-course data required to quantify T(b-onset), so more data are needed to validate this relationship.

  1. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Patricia M; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-10-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971 and 2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography , dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or magnetic resonance imaging were employed for body composition assessment. Of the initial 440 studies, 106 papers were evaluated and 36 papers met all eligibility criteria (15 observational and 21 intervention trials). Results of these studies revealed that body weight did not consistently increase. Importantly, studies also showed that body weight did not accurately depict changes in lean or adipose tissues. Further findings included that sarcopenic obesity as a consequence of breast cancer treatment was not definitive, as menopausal status may be a substantial moderator of body composition. Overall, the behavioral interventions did not exhibit consistent or profound effects on body composition outcomes; approximately half showed favorable influence on adiposity while the effects on LBM were not apparent. The use of tamoxifen had a clear negative impact on body composition. The majority of studies were conducted in predominantly white survivors, highlighting the need for trials in minority populations. Collectively, these studies were limited by age, race, and/or menopause status matched control groups, overall size, and statistical power. Very few studies simultaneously collected diet and exercise data-two potential factors that impact body composition. Future breast cancer trials should prioritize precise body composition methodologies to elucidate how these changes impact recurrence, prognosis, and mortality, and to provide clinicians

  2. Changing motor perception by sensorimotor conflicts and body ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, R.; Fernandez, N. B.; van Elk, M.; Vachicouras, N.; Sabatier, F.; Tychinskaya, A.; Llobera, J.; Blanke, O.

    2016-01-01

    Experimentally induced sensorimotor conflicts can result in a loss of the feeling of control over a movement (sense of agency). These findings are typically interpreted in terms of a forward model in which the predicted sensory consequences of the movement are compared with the observed sensory consequences. In the present study we investigated whether a mismatch between movements and their observed sensory consequences does not only result in a reduced feeling of agency, but may affect motor perception as well. Visual feedback of participants’ finger movements was manipulated using virtual reality to be anatomically congruent or incongruent to the performed movement. Participants made a motor perception judgment (i.e. which finger did you move?) or a visual perceptual judgment (i.e. which finger did you see moving?). Subjective measures of agency and body ownership were also collected. Seeing movements that were visually incongruent to the performed movement resulted in a lower accuracy for motor perception judgments, but not visual perceptual judgments. This effect was modified by rotating the virtual hand (Exp.2), but not by passively induced movements (Exp.3). Hence, sensorimotor conflicts can modulate the perception of one’s motor actions, causing viewed “alien actions” to be felt as one’s own. PMID:27225834

  3. Body actions change the appearance of facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition, and emotion do not operate along segregated pathways; rather, their adaptive interaction is supported by various sources of evidence. For instance, the aesthetic appraisal of powerful mood inducers like music can bias the facial expression of emotions towards mood congruency. In four experiments we showed similar mood-congruency effects elicited by the comfort/discomfort of body actions. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, we let participants perform comfortable/uncomfortable visually-guided reaches and tested them in a facial emotion identification task. Through the alleged mediation of motor action induced mood, action comfort enhanced the quality of the participant's global experience (a neutral face appeared happy and a slightly angry face neutral, while action discomfort made a neutral face appear angry and a slightly happy face neutral. Furthermore, uncomfortable (but not comfortable reaching improved the sensitivity for the identification of emotional faces and reduced the identification time of facial expressions, as a possible effect of hyper-arousal from an unpleasant bodily experience.

  4. Effects of Re-heating Tissue Samples to Core Body Temperature on High-Velocity Ballistic Projectile-tissue Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Henneberg, Maciej; Wachsberger, Christian; Maiden, Nicholas; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2017-11-01

    Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. This research investigates whether heating 50-mm-cube samples of porcine liver, kidney, and heart to 37°C for varying durations (maximum 7 h) can affect the penetration response of a high-speed, steel sphere projectile. Longer conditioning times for heart and liver resulted in a slight loss of velocity/energy of the projectile, but the reverse effect occurred for the kidney. Possible reasons for these trends include autolytic changes causing softening (heart and liver) and dehydration causing an increase in density (kidney). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Discordance Between Body Mass Index (BMI) and a Novel Body Composition Change Index (BCCI) as Outcome Measures in Weight Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Stephen D; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2018-01-01

    A general assumption is that the body mass index (BMI) reflects changes in fat mass (FM). However, it fails to distinguish the type of weight that is lost or gained-fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM). The BMI treats both changes the same although they have opposite health consequences. The objective of this study was to propose a more precise measure, a body composition change index (BCCI), which distinguishes between changes in FM and FFM, and this study compares it with using the BMI as an outcome measure. Data were obtained from 3,870 subjects who had completed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans at baseline and end-of-study when participating in a variety of weight-loss interventions. Since height remained constant in this adult cohort, changes in the BMI corresponded with scale weight changes (r = 0.994), allowing BMI changes to be converted to "lbs." to match the statistic used for calculation of the BCCI. The BCCI is calculated by scoring increases in FFM (lbs.) and decreases in FM (lbs.) as positive outcomes and scoring decreases in FFM and increases in FM as negative outcomes. The BCCI is the net sum of these calculations. Differences between scale weight changes and BCCI values were subsequently compared to obtain "discordance scores." Discordance scores ranged from 0.0 lbs. to >30.0 lbs. with a mean absolute value of between the two measures of 7.79 lbs. (99% confidence interval: 7.49-8.10, p BCCI and the BMI to evaluate the efficacy of weight loss interventions. If assessing changes in body composition is a treatment goal, use of the BMI could result in significantly erroneous conclusions.

  6. Temperature extremes in a changing climate: Drivers and feedbacks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Davin, E. L.; Hirschi, M.; Mueller, B.; Orlowsky, B.; Orth, R.; Wilhelm, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming increases the occurrence probability of hot extremes, and improving the predictability of such events is thus becoming of critical importance (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2012). This presentation provides an overview of past and projected changes in hot extremes on the global and regional scale, and of the respective drivers and feedbacks responsible for their occurrence. In particular, soil moisture-temperature feedbacks have been identified as major drivers for hot extremes (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2006, 2010; Hirschi et al. 2011). Recently, a global study (Mueller and Seneviratne 2012) has shown that wide areas of the world display a strong relationship between the number of hot days in the regions' hottest month and preceding precipitation deficits. These findings suggest that effects of soil moisture-temperature coupling are geographically more widespread than commonly assumed, with for instance large hot spots of soil moisture-temperature coupling in the Southern Hemisphere. Further results indicate that this relationship could be better used in the context of seasonal forecasting, allowing an early warning of impending hot summers (Mueller and Seneviratne 2012, Orth and Seneviratne 2013). In addition, the role of soil moisture-climate feedbacks for climate projections will also be discussed (e.g. Orlowsky and Seneviratne 2012; Seneviratne et al., 2013). Finally, we will address the relevance of the identified feedbacks in the context of urban climate, as well as potential relevant impacts of other land-climate interactions (e.g. from modifications in surface albedo). References: Hirschi, M., et al., 2011: Observational evidence for soil-moisture impact on hot extremes in southeastern Europe. Nature Geosci., 4, 17-21, doi:10.1038/ngeo1032. Mueller, B., and S.I. Seneviratne, 2012: Hot days induced by precipitation deficits at the global scale. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 109 (31), 12398-12403, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1204330109. Orth, R. and S.I. Seneviratne

  7. Short communication: calf body temperature following chemical disbudding with sedation: effects of milk allowance and supplemental heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, E; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2014-01-01

    The use of caustic paste combined with a sedative is one of the least painful methods for disbudding. It is recommended to disbud at as early as 5d of age. However, the sedative xylazine reportedly causes a decrease in core temperature. Furthermore, young calves do not thermoregulate efficiently. We investigated the effects of disbudding calves at 5d of age using caustic paste and xylazine sedation on body temperature, activity, and milk intake of 46 individually housed 5-d-old calves in a 2×2 factorial design, with milk fed at 4.5L/d (low-fed calves) versus 9L/d (high-fed calves), with or without a heat lamp. Body temperature, calf activity (standing time), and barn temperature were monitored continuously using automatic data loggers on the day of, before the day of, and the day after disbudding. All calves were injected intramuscularly with 0.25mL of 2mg/mL xylazine 20min before disbudding (dose: 0.12±0.003mL/kg of BW). We found that the body temperature of 5-d-old calves decreased immediately after the injection of the sedative xylazine. The body temperature of calves decreased 0.9±0.09°C and it took 3.8±0.32h to climb back to the preinjection body temperature. Calves that were fed the lower amount of milk, received a higher dose of xylazine (mL/kg BW), or were di