WorldWideScience

Sample records for body temperature changes

  1. A study on the measurement of the core body temperature change after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) through MR temperature mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Bok; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Yu, Young; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Joo, Kyu-Ji

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the change in the heat generated during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a self-manufactured phantom and used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the change in the temperature of the core body and the tissues surrounding the phantom. In this experiment, the image and the phase image were obtained simultaneously from a gradient echo-based sequence using 1.5-Tesla MRI equipment and a 12-channel head coil. The temperature mapping technique was used to calculate the change in temperature. The regions of interest (ROIs) (ROI 1 - ROI 6) were set with a focus on the area where the RFA was performed, according to the temperature distribution, before monitoring the temperature change for one hour in time intervals of five minutes. The results showed that the temperature change in the ROI with time was largest in the ROI 1 and smallest in the ROI 5. In addition, after the RFA procedure, the temperature decreased from the initial value to 0 °C in one hour. The temperature changes in the core body and the surrounding tissues were confirmed by MRI temperature mapping, which is a noninvasive method.

  2. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  3. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  4. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  5. The effect of lower body cooling on the changes in three core temperature indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectal (Tre), ear canal (Tear) and esophageal (Tes) temperatures have been used in the literature as core temperature indices in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate if localized lower body cooling would have a different effect on each of these measurements. We hypothesized that prolonged lower body surface cooling will result in a localized cooling effect for the rectal temperature not reflected in the other core measurement sites. Twelve participants (mean ± SD; 26.8 ± 6.0 years; 82.6 ± 13.9 kg; 179 ± 10 cm, BSA = 2.00 ± 0.21 m2) attended one experimental session consisting of sitting on a rubberized raft floor surface suspended in 5 °C water in a thermoneutral air environment (∼21.5 ± 0.5 °C). Experimental conditions were (a) a baseline phase during which participants were seated for 15 min in an upright position on an insulated pad (1.408 K . m2 . W−1); (b) a cooling phase during which participants were exposed to the cooling surface for 2 h, and (c) an insulation phase during which the baseline condition was repeated for 1 h. Temperature data were collected at 1 Hz, reduced to 1 min averages, and transformed from absolute values to a change in temperature from baseline (15 min average). Metabolic data were collected breath-by-breath and integrated over the same temperature epoch. Within the baseline phase no significant change was found between the three indices of core temperature. By the end of the cooling phase, Tre was significantly lower (Δ = −1.0 ± 0.4 °C) from baseline values than from Tear (Δ = −0.3 ± 0.3 °C) and Tes (Δ = −0.1 ± 0.3 °C). Tre continued to decrease during the insulation phase from Δ −1.0 ± 0.4 °C to as low as Δ −1.4 ± 0.5 °C. By the end of the insulation phase Tre had slightly risen back to Δ −1.3 ± 0.4 °C but remained significantly different from baseline values and from the other two core measures. Metabolic data showed no variation throughout the experiment. In conclusion, the local

  6. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa. PMID:23321111

  7. Climate change effects on macrofaunal litter decomposition: the interplay of temperature, body masses and stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, David; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Macrofauna invertebrates of forest floors provide important functions in the decomposition process of soil organic matter, which is affected by the nutrient stoichiometry of the leaf litter. Climate change effects on forest ecosystems include warming and decreasing litter quality (e.g. higher C : nutrient ratios) induced by higher atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. While litter-bag experiments unravelled separate effects, a mechanistic understanding of how interactions between temperature and litter stoichiometry are driving decomposition rates is lacking. In a laboratory experiment, we filled this void by quantifying decomposer consumption rates analogous to predator-prey functional responses that include the mechanistic parameters handling time and attack rate. Systematically, we varied the body masses of isopods, the environmental temperature and the resource between poor (hornbeam) and good quality (ash). We found that attack rates increased and handling times decreased (i) with body masses and (ii) temperature. Interestingly, these relationships interacted with litter quality: small isopods possibly avoided the poorer resource, whereas large isopods exhibited increased, compensatory feeding of the poorer resource, which may be explained by their higher metabolic demands. The combination of metabolic theory and ecological stoichiometry provided critically important mechanistic insights into how warming and varying litter quality may modify macrofaunal decomposition rates. PMID:23007091

  8. Diet-independent remodeling of cellular membranes precedes seasonally changing body temperature in a hibernator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Arnold

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have a multitude of health effects. Their incorporation into membrane phospholipids (PL is generally believed to depend directly on dietary influx. PL influence transmembrane protein activity and thus can compensate temperature effects; e.g. PL n-6 PUFA are thought to stabilize heart function at low body temperature (T(b, whereas long chain (>C18 n-3 PUFA may boost oxidative capacity. We found substantial remodeling of membranes in free-living alpine marmots which was largely independent of direct dietary supply. Organ PL n-6 PUFA and n-6 to n-3 ratios were highest at onset and end of hibernation after rapid increases during a brief transitional period prior to hibernation. In contrast, longer chain PL n-3 PUFA content was low at end of summer but maximal at end of hibernation. After termination of hibernation in spring, these changes in PL composition were rapidly reversed. Our results demonstrate selective trafficking of PUFA within the body, probably governed by a circannual endogenous rhythm, as hibernating marmots were in winter burrows isolated for seven months from food and external cues signaling the approaching spring. High concentrations of PL n-6 PUFA throughout hibernation are in line with their hypothesized function of boosting SERCA 2a activity at low T(b. Furthermore, we found increasing rate of rewarming from torpor during winter indicating increasing oxidative capacity that could be explained by the accumulation of long-chain PL n-3 PUFA. It may serve to minimize the time necessary for rewarming despite the increasing temperature range to be covered, because rewarming is a period of highest metabolic rate and hence production of reactive oxygen species. Considering the importance of PUFA for health our results may have important biomedical implications, as seasonal changes of T(b and associated remodeling of membranes are not restricted to hibernators but presumably common among endothermic

  9. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests. PMID:27375443

  10. Cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo eTakao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal. Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  11. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  12. Body & Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Pregnancy > Body & lifestyle changes Body & lifestyle changes E-mail to a friend Please fill ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care ...

  13. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌霞; 孙革; NEUBAUERHenning

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery.Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study.Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5℃ to 37℃ were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results:The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48℃) and section (36.59℃) (P<0.05).Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70℃ at 8 hours and 36.78℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05).Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients.On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05).Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors,such as birth weight, route of delivery,gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  14. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng-xia (李萌霞); SUN Ge (孙革); NEUBAUER Henning

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery. Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study. Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5 oC to 37 oC were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results: The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19 ℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54 ℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48 ℃) and section (36.59 ℃) (P<0.05). Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70 ℃ at 8 hours and 36.78 ℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05). Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients. On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05). Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors, such as birth weight, route of delivery, gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  15. Changes in body surface temperature during speed endurance work-out in highly-trained male sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Kusy, Krzysztof; Kantanista, Adam; Zieliński, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of thermoregulatory adaptation to exercise cannot yet be fully explained, however, infrared thermography (IRT) seems to have potential for monitoring physiological changes during exercise and training. It is a non-contact and easy to use technology to measure heat radiation from the body surface. The objective of the study was to examine the temperature changes over time on lower limbs in sprinters during speed endurance training session. Eight sprinters, specialized in distances 100 m and 200 m, aged 21-29 years, members of the Polish national team, were evaluated during an outdoor speed endurance work-out. Their track session comprised of warm-up, specific drills for sprinting technique, and speed endurance exercise. The surface temperature of lower limbs was measured and thermal images were taken using infrared camera after each part of the session. The speed endurance training session brought about specific time course of body surface (legs) temperature. The warm-up induced a significant decline in surface temperature by ∼2.5 °C, measured both on the front and back of lower limbs (p < 0.001), followed by a temperature stabilization until the end of the session. No significant asymmetry between the front and back sides of legs was observed. Body surface temperature may help identify an individual optimal time to terminate warm up and start the main part of the training session. It may also be useful for the assessment of muscle activity symmetry in cyclical activities, such as sprint running. This is of particular relevance when a training session is performed outdoors in changeable weather conditions.

  16. Acute changes in oxygen consumption and body temperature after burn injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Childs, C.; Little, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the pattern of oxygen consumption (VO2), rectal temperature (Tr), and acral skin temperature (Tac) in sleeping and resting (awake) burned children nursed in a thermoneutral environment. Measurements of respiratory gas exchange (VO2 and carbon dioxide production (VCO2)) were made using an open circuit, flow through system of indirect calorimetry. Tr and Tac were monitored continuously. Sixteen patients were studied during the first 18 hours after being burned. Three phases...

  17. Our Bodies Are Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国清

    2004-01-01

    Have you ever thought about your body changes?Up to about the age of eight or nine,girls and boys look quite alike.They have similar shaped bodies(形体相似)and their voices sound almost the same.As they grow, all their organs(器官)grow,too.

  18. Tomographic measurement of temperature change in phantoms of the human body by chirp radar-type microwave computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, M

    1993-07-01

    The chirp radar-type microwave computed tomograph (CT) measures the temperature change in a human body noninvasively. The paper examines its feasibility. A chirp pulse signal between 1 and 2 GHz is radiated from the transmitting antenna to the phantom. The transmitted waves are detected by the receiving antenna, which is placed on the opposite side of the object, and the beat signal between the incident wave and the transmitted wave is produced by the mixer. By spectral analysis of the beat signal, only those signals transmitted on the straight line between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna are discriminated from multipath signals. The microwave tomogram can therefore be reconstructed easily using the conventional algorithms for an X-ray CT image. The microwave CT can use the chirp signal to remove the influence of multipath signals caused by diffraction and reflection. The imaging of dielectric materials with complicated structures is thus possible. The experimental results using phantoms show that the spatial resolution of this microwave CT is about 10 mm and that a two-dimensional distribution of temperature change can be measured.

  19. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  20. Temperature- and parasite-induced changes in toxicity and lethal body burdens of pentachlorophenol in the freshwater clam Pisidium amnicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, J; Kukkonen, J V; Holopainen, I J

    2001-12-01

    Seasonal variation in abiotic and biotic environments may modify the toxicity of organic chemicals for aquatic organisms. In present study, survival of the freshwater clam Pisidium amnicum was studied in laboratory exposures to pentachlorophenol (PCP) in April (at 5 degress C) and July (at 19 degress C). Behavioral responses, mean survival times (MSTs), and the lethal body burdens (LBBs) of PCP for uninfected clams and for clams infected by digenean trematodes were determined separately in two PCP concentrations, 100 and 300 microgram/L. Analysis of data revealed reduced behavioral activity of the clams in the PCP exposure compared to that in the control. The time needed for toxic responses was greatly affected by temperature; MSTs were 5 to 15 times longer in winter than at summer temperatures. Unexpectedly, the infected clams in summer were more tolerant to PCP than the uninfected clams. Despite the differences in survival times, the LBBs between the seasons were constant. However, in summer, the infected clams had significantly higher LBBs than the uninfected clams. The differences in survival and LBBs between the infected and uninfected clams are suggested to be caused by the high lipid contents found in parasites, which may change the internal distribution of PCP. PMID:11764161

  1. Changes in body temperature pattern in vertebrates do not influence the codon usages of alpha-globin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Kazuo; Horiike, Tokumasa; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ota, Hidetoshi; Yatogo, Takayuki; Okada, Kazuhisa; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shinozawa, Takao

    2002-06-01

    Codon usages are known to vary among vertebrates chiefly due to variations in isochore structure. Under the assumption that marked differences exist in isochore structure between warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals, the variations among vertebrates were previously attributed to an adaptation to homeothermy. However, based on data from a turtle species and a crocodile (Archosauromorpha), it was recently proposed that the common ancestors of mammals, birds and extent reptiles already had the "warm-blooded" isochore structure. We determined the nucleotide sequences of alpha-globin genes from two species of heterotherms, cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and bat (Pipistrellus abramus), and three species of snakes (Lepidosauromorpha), Naja kaouthia from a tropical terrestrial habitat, Elaphe climacophora from a temperate terrestrial habitat, and Hydrophis melanocephalus from a tropical marine habitat. Our purposes were to assess the influence of differential body temperature patterns on codon usage and GC content at the third position of a codon (GC3), and to test the hypothesis concerning the phylogenetic position at which GC contents had increased in vertebrates. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) using the present data and data for other taxa from GenBank indicate that the primary difference in codon usage in globin genes among amniotes and other vertebrates lies in GC3. The codon usages (and GC3) in alpha-globin genes from two heterotherms and three snakes are similar to those in alpha-globin genes from warm-blooded vertebrates. These results refute the influence of body temperature pattern upon codon usages (and GC3) in alpha-globin genes, and support the hypothesis that the increase in GC content in the genome occurred in the common ancestor of amniotes. PMID:12207041

  2. Aging changes in body shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003998.htm Aging changes in body shape To use the sharing ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ...

  3. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  4. Impact of water temperature and stressor controllability on swim stress-induced changes in body temperature, serum corticosterone, and immobility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugan, Robert C; Eren, Senem; Hazi, Agnes; Silva, Jennifer; Christianson, John P; Kent, Stephen

    2005-10-01

    The present study compared the effects of three different water temperatures (20, 25, and 30 degrees C) and stressor controllability on several physiological and behavioral endpoints in an intermittent swim stress paradigm. The escape latency of rats in the 20 and 25 degrees C water was less than that observed for the 30 degrees C group. Both escape and yoked groups at 20 and 25 degrees C exhibited moderate to severe hypothermia following the swim stress session that returned to prestress levels 30-40 min post-stress. At 30 degrees C core body temperature (Tb) only decreased by 1 degree C for either swim group. Following swim, serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were significantly elevated in both escape and yoked groups in comparison to confined and home cage controls. The confined control group showed a significant elevation that was approximately halfway between the home cage control and the swim stress groups. At 30 degrees C, there was still a significant elevation of serum CORT in both swim groups in comparison to confined and home cage controls. Therefore, 30 degrees C appears to be the optimal water temperature to evaluate stress controllability effects in the current paradigm. In a final experiment, swim stressor controllability effects were examined in a 5 min forced swim test (FST) 24 h following the initial stress exposure. Rats exposed to yoked-inescapable swim stress at 30 degrees C exhibited more immobility than their escapable swim stress and confined counterparts, while the escape and confined controls did not differ. These results demonstrate that the behavioral deficits observed in the FST are attributable to the stress of inescapable swim and not swim stress per se.

  5. Body temperature influence on time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P A

    1993-07-01

    The chemical clock hypothesis implies a causal link between body temperature and the perception of duration. A strict interpretation of this construct requires a common slope value in an Arrhenius plot that relates time to temperature for every individual tested. Previous studies testing this proposition have confirmed a general relationship for data summed across multiple subjects. However, the same studies raise doubts as to whether this relationship holds for each and every individual tested. Unfortunately, these investigations have been limited by methodological constraints, thus, one could argue that the strong isomorphism intrinsic to the chemical clock hypothesis has yet to be fairly tested. In the present experiment, I sought to distinguish the effects of selective head temperature changes on the estimation of duration. Nonlinear decreases in estimated duration were observed with ascending deep auditory canal temperature. These findings support the contention of a thermally stable region of temporal perception bounded by conditions in which temporal estimates directly depend on body temperature. In contradicting physiological adequacy as an explanatory construct, the present results suggest a direct relationship between time perception and the homeothermic platform. I compare these results with earlier findings concerning the chemical clock concept and examine respective discrepancies as a basis for a fuller understanding of a temporal phenomenon that is frequently referred to as the internal clock.

  6. A thermosensory pathway that controls body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Morrison, Shaun F

    2008-01-01

    Defending body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is one of the most fundamental homeostatic functions that are governed by the nervous system. Here we describe a somatosensory pathway that essentially constitutes the afferent arm of the thermoregulatory reflex that is triggered by cutaneous sensation of environmental temperature changes. Using in vivo electrophysiological and anatomical approaches in the rat, we found that lateral parabrachial neurons are pivotal in this pathway by glutamatergically transmitting cutaneous thermosensory signals received from spinal somatosensory neurons directly to the thermoregulatory command center, the preoptic area. This feedforward pathway mediates not only sympathetic and shivering thermogenic responses but also metabolic and cardiac responses to skin cooling challenges. Notably, this 'thermoregulatory afferent' pathway exists in parallel with the spinothalamocortical somatosensory pathway that mediates temperature perception. These findings make an important contribution to our understanding of both the somatosensory system and thermal homeostasis -- two mechanisms that are fundamental to the nervous system and to our survival.

  7. Lower body temperature in sleeping supine infants.

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. North; Petersen, S A; Wailoo, M P

    1995-01-01

    Night time rectal temperature recordings were made from 103 infants sleeping in their own home in different sleeping positions. In most cases sleeping position was verified by video monitoring throughout the night. In the period before an adult-like night time body temperature pattern appeared there was no significant effect of sleeping position upon night time body temperature, in line with previous reports. Once an adult-like night time temperature pattern appeared, infants sleeping supine ...

  8. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven;

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  9. Body temperature regulation in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Glen P.; Sigal, Ronald J.; McGinn, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the body's physiological response to thermal stress is a relatively new topic in research. Diabetes tends to place individuals at greater risk for heat-related illness during heat waves and physical activity due to an impaired capacity to dissipate heat. Specifically, individuals with diabetes have been reported to have lower skin blood flow and sweating responses during heat exposure and this can have important consequences on cardiovascu...

  10. Changes of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, internal body temperature, and blood acido-basic balance in the unanaesthetized rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation at a mean absorbed dose of 250 rads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, R.; Court, L.

    1973-09-01

    The general effects of whole-body gamma -irradiation at a mean absorbed dose of 250 rads were studied simultaneously in the unanaesthetized rabbit for 48 hours. They occurred early, with the following characteristics: arterial blood pressure decreased steadily as early as the 2nd hour and reached its minimum value on the 5th hour with a decrease of about 14%; it remained low during the following two days. Heart rate increased during the first hour, was the highest by the end of the second hour, and resumed normal value on the 24th hour. Internal body temperature increased during the 1st hour and was maximum by the end of the 2nd hour, with a mean increase of 1.2 deg C; hyperthermia steadily decreased between the 4th and the 6th hours and had completely disappeared by the 24th hour. Respiratory alkalosis is shown in the acido-basic balance by a raise of pH, a decrease of PCO/sub 2/ and arterial blood bicarbonates. These various changes seem to indicate a double origin, both central and peripheral. (FR)

  11. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R

    2004-04-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). METHODS: %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 +/- 11, weight (kg) 64 +/- 14, height (cm) 167 +/- 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. RESULTS: BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P BOD PODBH %fat (28.9%), body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6 degrees C; P BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH. Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified.

  12. Hypercoagulability in response to elevated body temperature and central hypovolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Martin; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Overgaard, Flemming Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation abnormalities contribute to poor outcomes in critically ill patients. In trauma patients exposed to a hot environment, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elevated body temperature, and reduced central blood volume occur in parallel with changes in hemostasis and endothelial...... damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether experimentally elevated body temperature and reduced central blood volume (CBV) per se affects hemostasis and endothelial activation....

  13. Cardiovascular changes and hearing threshold shifts in men under complex exposures to noise, whole body vibrations, temperatures and competition-type psychic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, O

    1985-01-01

    This study deals with changes in the temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP) and reaction time (RT) in subjects (n = 108) who, while working on a choice reaction apparatus, were exposed in an exposure chamber to combinations of noise and vibration at dry bulb temperatures of 20 degrees and 30 degrees C. The study was carried out as a type 2-3-3 factorial experiment, the number of the exposure combinations thus being 18. To find out the effects of competition-type psychic stress, some of the subjects were placed in a competitive group and some in a non-competitive group. The members of the competitive group were given financial encouragement and information on their progress during the test, whereas those in the non-competitive group worked at the rate they considered best without any monetary rewards or interim information. The noise classes were: no noise, a stable broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted noise of 90 dB not related to competition, and a stable broadband A-weighted noise of 90 dB related to competition about the fastest reaction time. The vibration classes were: no vibration, sinusoidal whole body vibration (Z-axis) at a frequency of 5 Hz, and stochastic broadband (bandwidth 2.8-11.2 Hz) whole body vibration (Z-axis). The acceleration (rms) of both vibrations was 2.12 m/s2. One experiment consisted of a control period of 30 min, three consecutive exposure periods of 16 min with an interval of 4 min, and a 15-min recovery period. The variance analysis model best explained the variation in TTS2 values at 4 kHz and second best the variation in TTS2 values at 6 kHz; it explained the variation in HR values third best, the variation in SBP values fourth best and the variation in PP values fifth best. On the other hand, the model explained least well the variation in DBP and RWA values. In general, the explanatory power of the model

  14. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifespans both in wild populations and in laboratory conditions. Many life-extending manipulations in rodents, such as caloric restriction, also decrease core body temperature. Nonetheless, an inverse relationship between temperature and lifespan can be obscured or reversed, especially when the range of body temperatures is small as in homeotherms. An example is observed in humans: women appear to have a slightly higher body temperature and yet live longer than men. The mechanisms involved in the relationship between temperature and longevity also appear to be less direct than once thought with neuroendocrine processes possibly mediating complex physiological responses to temperature changes. Lastly, we discuss species differences in longevity in mammals and how this relates to body temperature and argue that the low temperature of the long-lived naked mole-rat possibly contributes to its exceptional longevity. PMID:25832892

  15. Body Composition Changes Associated With Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Methadone is associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in the first 2 years of treatment. Objectives To evaluate the changes of body composition (bone mass, % fat, % muscle mass, % water, and basal metabolic rate related to this increase. Patients and Methods Changes in body composition were monitored, via bioelectrical impedance, in 29 patients in methadone treatment for opiate dependency (age 18 to 44, mean = 29.3, SD = 7.0, 13 men, 16 women. Results Within one year from admission to treatment, a statistically significant (t-tests, P < 0.05 increase was noted in their body mass index (BMI, % of body fat, average body mass, and average basal metabolic rate, and relative decrease in their % of muscle mass and % of bone mass. Neither absolute bone mass nor muscle mass changed significantly. Conclusions Physicians involved in care of methadone patients should recommend dietary and lifestyle changes to improve their overall health.

  16. Immunohistochemical and Morphological Changes in Chipmunk Carotid Body during Hibernaiton

    OpenAIRE

    FUKUHARA, Kohko; YOSHIZAKI, Katsuaki; Wu, Yi; Senoo, Haruki; OHTOMO, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian hibernators experience drastic changes in vital signs such asbody temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate during hibernation because of periodicarousals during which vital signs return to non-hibernating levels. The carotid body, anarterial chemoreceptor organ regulating respiration, contains several neuroactive substances.However, little is known about changes of neuroactive substances in the carotidbody during hibernation. Immunohistochemical study using antibodies against n...

  17. Men's attraction to women's bodies changes seasonally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Humans exhibit seasonal variation in hormone levels, behaviour, and perception. Here we show that men's assessments of women's attractiveness change also seasonally. In five seasons (from winter 2004 to winter 2005) 114 heterosexual men were asked to assess the attractiveness of the same stimuli: photos of a female with three different waist-to-hip ratios; photos of female breasts, and photos of average-looking faces of young women. For each season, the scores given to the stimuli of the same category (body shape, breast, and face) were combined. Friedman's test revealed significant changes for body shape and breast attractiveness assessments across the seasons, but no changes for face ratings. The highest scores for attractiveness were given in winter and the lowest in summer. We suggest that the observed seasonality is related to the well-known 'contrast effect'. More frequent exposure to women's bodies in warmer seasons might increase men's attractiveness criteria for women's body shape and breasts. PMID:18773730

  18. 豚鼠耳蜗电图变化与体温影响的关系%Association between the changes of electrocochleogram and the effects of body temperature in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何斯纯; 周丽丽; 姚平

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Body temperature has significant effects on brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). The wave latency of BAEP is the sensitive and objective index for reflecting the effects of body temperature on the synaptic transmission and nerve fiber conduction. The wave origin of electrocochleogram (ECochG) and the effects of body temperature on it need to be probed into to further define its wave origin so as to guide its clinical application.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of body temperature on ECochG and provide important basis for further defining its wave origin and guiding its clinical application.DESIGN: A randomized block design.MATERIALS: This study was performed in the Department of Physiology, Medical College of Jinan University between July and September 2002. Forty adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into hypothermia group (n=20) and hyperthermia group (n=20).INTERVENTIONS: The body temperature of the guinea pigs was decreased or increased step by step with their body contacted with physical method. and the changed rate of body temperature was kept as decreased or increased by 1 ℃ every 5-10 minutes. BAEP and ECochG were detected when the body temperature was changed by 1 ℃.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The PL and IPL of BAEP and ECochG were observed.RESULTS: Finally, 37 guinea pigs were involved in the analysis of relonged as the body temperature was decreased step by step from 36 ℃ to 25 ℃, and shortened as the body temperature was increased gradually from 36 ℃ to 42 ℃. The PL and Ⅰ-Ⅳ IPL prolonged or shortened more significantly with the temperature changed. The PL of wave N1, N2 and N3 and N1-N3 IPL of ECochG also prolonged or shortened as the body temperature perature,the total prolonged and shortened values of Ⅰ -Ⅳ IPL representing the central transmission time of brainstem were much greater than that of wave Ⅰ PL representing the peripheral conduction time, .and the total prolonged and shortened values of thePL of wave

  19. Primate body temperature and sleep responses to lower body positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cephalic fluid shifts, induced by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) are known to influence various physiological systems (i.e., cardiovascular and renal). In earlier experiments, an apparent change in the arousal state of primates in such LBPP conditions was observed. This study was designed to examine the effects of LBPP on arousal state and body temperature level which is normally correlated with sleep. Chair-restrained male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 40 mmHg LBPP for 90-100 minutes between the daytime hours of 13:00-15:00. Each monkey was placed in a specially modified restraint chair to which they were highly trained. Deep body temperature (DBT) was collected from 10 animals. Sleep parameters were obtained from six animals chronically implanted for sleep recording. A video camera was used to observe each animal's apparent state of arousal. LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.9 C decrease in DBT. During video observation, some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP; however, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in the state of arousal. Thus, LBPP is capable of inducing a mild hyperthermia. Further, the mechanisms underlying the observed lowering of body temperature appear to be independent of arousal state.

  20. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  1. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  2. Effect of temperature on body temperature and resting metabolic rate in pups of Eothenomys miletus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wan-long; Mu, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zheng-Kun

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of ambient temperature and thermoregulation in Eothenomys miletus, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured during postnatal development (1-49 day) when E. miletus exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in E. miletus increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low tem...

  3. The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I: The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomko Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

  4. Central control of body temperature [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES OF CONTACTLESS MEASURING THE BODY SURFACE TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Švejdová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The regular measuring of the body surface temperature can help to evaluate health condition of animals and react immediately on the first symptoms of illness. There are many of technological possibilities of contactless measuring the body surface temperature. It is important to find the right part of the body which the temperature will show the first possible symptoms of illness. This experiment with dairy cows and heifers was realized at the farm in Petrovice. The body surface temperature and rectal temperature of animals were observed in dairy cows and heifers. It was rated 3 different groups of dairy cows and heifers in 2 stables. The body temperature was obtained by the thermocamera. The temperatures were shot from the 3 different parts of body of animals (the body core, the eyes and the udder. The relative humidity, temperature, cooling value environment and flow rate in stable were measured as further independent variables. The aim of this study was finding how body temperature correlate together with health of animals, reproduction, milk quality, vital signs and productivity of dairy cows and heifers.

  6. Assessment of the use of temperature-sensitive microchips to determine core body temperature in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrao, N A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L C R; Fick, L G

    2011-03-26

    Body temperature was measured at five different body sites (retroperitoneum, groin, semimembranosus muscle, flank and shoulder) using temperature-sensitive microchips implanted in five female goats, and compared with the core body and rectal temperatures. Body temperature was measured while the goats were kept in different ambient temperatures, with and without radiant heat, as well as during a fever induced experimentally by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Bland-Altman limit of agreement analysis was used to compare the temperature measurements at the different body sites during the different interventions. Temperatures measured by the microchip implanted in the retroperitoneum showed the closest agreement (mean 0.2 °C lower) with core and rectal temperatures during all interventions, whereas temperatures measured by the microchips implanted in the groin, muscle, flank and shoulder differed from core body temperature by up to 3.5 °C during the various interventions.

  7. Air temperature investigation in microenvironment around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the temperature boundary layer around a human body in a quiescent indoor environment. The air temperature, mean in time and standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations around a breathing thermal manikin are examined in relation to the room temperatur...... accurate measurements of occupant's thermal microenvironment....

  8. Phase Change Fabrics Control Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Originally featured in Spinoff in 1997, Outlast Technologies Inc. (formerly Gateway Technologies Inc.) has built its entire product line on microencapsulated phase change materials, developed in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Johnson Space Center after initial development for the U.S. Air Force. The Boulder, Colorado-based company acquired the exclusive patent rights and now integrates these materials into textiles or onto finished apparel, providing temperature regulation in bedding materials and a full line of apparel for both ordinary and extreme conditions.

  9. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses.

  10. Dust Ejection from Planetary Bodies by Temperature Gradients: Laboratory Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelling, Thorben; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Klacka, Jozef; Reiss, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that dusty bodies in a gaseous environment eject dust particles if they are illuminated. We find that even more intense dust eruptions occur when the light source is turned off. We attribute this to a compression of gas by thermal creep in response to the changing temperature gradients in the top dust layers. The effect is studied at a light flux of 13 kW/(m*m) and 1 mbar ambient pressure. The effect is applicable to protoplanetary disks and Mars. In the inner part of protoplanetary disks, planetesimals can be eroded especially at the terminator of a rotating body. This leads to the production of dust which can then be transported towards the disk edges or the outer disk regions. The generated dust might constitute a significant fraction of the warm dust observed in extrasolar protoplanetary disks. We estimate erosion rates of about 1 kg/s for 100 m parent bodies. The dust might also contribute to subsequent planetary growth in different locations or on existing protoplanets which ...

  11. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of fun...

  12. Negative Body Image Associated with Changes in the Visual Body Appearance Increases Pain Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Michihiro Osumi; Ryota Imai; Kozo Ueta; Satoshi Nobusako; Shu Morioka

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analg...

  13. Central temperature changes are poorly perceived during epidural anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosten, B; Sessler, D I; Faure, E A; Karl, L; Thisted, R A

    1992-07-01

    Hypothermia and shivering are common during epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery but are not always accompanied by a sensation of coldness. To test the hypothesis that central temperature changes are not perceived during epidural anesthesia, we measured central and skin temperatures and thermal perception in 30 patients undergoing cesarean delivery with epidural anesthesia. Central temperature decreased 1.0 +/- 0.6 degrees C from control values during anesthesia and surgery, but thermal perception scores did not reflect central temperatures (P = 0.56) or changes in central temperature (P = 0.63). A feeling of warmth was significantly correlated with increased mean skin temperature (P = 0.02) and increased upper body skin temperature (P = 0.03). We conclude that central temperature is poorly perceived and is less important than skin temperature in determining thermal perception during high levels of epidural anesthesia.

  14. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation.

  15. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Anne-Mari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb recordings, change-point analysis (CPA, home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS, the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  16. Sociocultural influences on body image and body changes among adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2003-02-01

    In 2 studies, the authors evaluated the role of parents, peers, and the media in body image and body-change strategies among adolescent boys and girls. The respondents for Study 1 (423 boys and 377 girls) completed the Body Image and Body Change Inventory (L. A. Ricciardelli & M. P. McCabe, 2002) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire (M. P. McCabe & L. A. Ricciardelli, 2001b). Body mass index and age were also included in the analyses. Regression analyses demonstrated that sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best male friend were important predictors for all body-change strategies among boys. For girls, sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best female friend and mother were important predictors for body-change strategies. The most consistent predictor of weight loss, weight gain, and strategies to increase muscles was body-image importance. In Study 2, the authors examined the influence of the same sociocultural variables, as well as negative affect and puberty on body image and body-change strategies among a second group of 199 boys and 267 girls. The results demonstrated that a broad range of sociocultural influences predicted body-change strategies for boys and girls, with negative affect also having a unique influence for boys but not for girls. Puberty played a minor role, once other sociocultural variables were entered into the regression equation. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:12617344

  17. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. PMID:26724197

  18. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures.

  19. Low Temperature Induced Conformation Changes of Aminoacylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢强; 孟凡国; 周海梦

    2004-01-01

    Control of aggregation, by lowering temperature and protein concentrations, can enhance the extent of successful refolding. The low temperature has been used in protein folding studies, as undesired aggregations often occur at higher temperatures. Therefore, it is very important to study the effects of low temperature on the native enzyme to help understand the factors that affect the structure of the proteins. In this paper, aminoacylase was studied at different temperatures by measuring enzyme activity, fluorescence emission spectra, and ultraviolet difference spectra. The results show that aminoacylase conformation changes as the temperature changes, becoming more compact at low temperatures, and having more secondary structural content. However, the activity is very low at low temperature, and totally diminishes at 4℃. Aminoacylase tends therefore to be more condense, with less residues exposed and low enzyme activities at low temperature. This observation might explain the self-protection of organisms under conditions of extreme temperature.

  20. Body temperature set-point and the conscious perception of skin temperature in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorska-Markiewicz, B; Staszkiewicz, M

    1987-01-01

    Obese and control women were immersed in a bath of water kept at 37 degrees C. Oral temperature was measured. The subjects left hand was placed outside the bath for the local application of thermal stimuli between 20 degrees and 45 degrees C, subjects reporting the most pleasant temperature. The lower oral temperatures and lower levels of skin temperature rated as pleasant by obese women as compared with women of normal body weight or less suggests that in obesity the set-point of body temperature is lowered.

  1. Changes of body temperature and threshold of thermoregulatory vasoconstriction under general anesthesia%全身麻醉下吸烟病人体温与体温调节性血管收缩阈值的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 王朝忠

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨全身麻醉下吸烟病人体温与体温调节性血管收缩阈值的变化。方法43例 ASA 1~2级,分为吸烟组(n =22)与对照组(n =21组)。麻醉诱导:丙泊酚、芬太尼、维库溴铵。麻醉维持:异氟烷、瑞芬太尼、维库溴铵。用呼吸机行间歇正压肺通气(IPPV)。记录麻醉诱导前(T0)至诱导后180 min(T180)内的体温、血压、心率的变化。结果不同时间点心率和平均动脉压之间的差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),观察组与对照组患者的心率和平均动脉压之间的差别有统计学意义(P <0.05),吸烟与否对心率和平均动脉压的影响和时间之间无交互作用(P >0.05),两组间不同时间点的食道温度和平均皮肤温度之间的差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),食道温、平均皮肤温度、食道—皮肤温度差和前臂—指尖温度差在不同人群之间的变化与时间之间均无交互作用(P >0.05),而前臂—指尖温度差随着麻醉时间的增加而先降低后升高,且吸烟组的食道皮肤温度差在 T30、T60、T120、T150及 T180值均低于对照组,吸烟组的前臂—指尖温度差在 T120、T150以及 T180的值均低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义。血管收缩阈值及其增益:对照组与吸烟组血管收缩阈值分别为(35.48±0.18)、(34.89±0.20)℃,吸烟组显著低于对照组(P <0.01)。对照组与吸烟组血管收缩阈值的增益分别为(6.57±2.31)、(6.83±1.68)℃,两组相比无显著性差异(P >0.05)。结论全身麻醉下吸烟病人核心温及体温调节性血管收缩阈值显著下降。其原因可能与长期吸烟致体温调节中枢受体与神经递质改变、周围血管功能障碍及压力感受器受损等有关。吸烟病人全身麻醉时更应加强体温管理。%Objective To investigate changes of body temperature

  2. A Novel Intra-body Sensor for Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Binod Vaidya; João Caldeira; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years some medical studies have tried to better understand the internal behavior of human beings. Many researchers in this domain have been striving to find relationships between intra-vaginal temperature and certain female health conditions, such as ovulation and fertile period since woman’s intra-vaginal temperature is one of the body parameters most preferred in such studies. However, due to lack of a appropriate technology, medical research devoted to studying correlations of suc...

  3. cAMP signalling in mushroom bodies modulates temperature preference behaviour in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Tae; Bang, Sunhoe; Hyun, Seogang; Kang, Jongkyun; Jeong, Kyunghwa; Paik, Donggi; Chung, Jongkyeong; Kim, Jaeseob

    2008-08-01

    Homoiotherms, for example mammals, regulate their body temperature with physiological responses such as a change of metabolic rate and sweating. In contrast, the body temperature of poikilotherms, for example Drosophila, is the result of heat exchange with the surrounding environment as a result of the large ratio of surface area to volume of their bodies. Accordingly, these animals must instinctively move to places with an environmental temperature as close as possible to their genetically determined desired temperature. The temperature that Drosophila instinctively prefers has a function equivalent to the 'set point' temperature in mammals. Although various temperature-gated TRP channels have been discovered, molecular and cellular components in Drosophila brain responsible for determining the desired temperature remain unknown. We identified these components by performing a large-scale genetic screen of temperature preference behaviour (TPB) in Drosophila. In parallel, we mapped areas of the Drosophila brain controlling TPB by targeted inactivation of neurons with tetanus toxin and a potassium channel (Kir2.1) driven with various brain-specific GAL4s. Here we show that mushroom bodies (MBs) and the cyclic AMP-cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway are essential for controlling TPB. Furthermore, targeted expression of cAMP-PKA pathway components in only the MB was sufficient to rescue abnormal TPB of the corresponding mutants. Preferred temperatures were affected by the level of cAMP and PKA activity in the MBs in various PKA pathway mutants. PMID:18594510

  4. Influence of ambient temperature on whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Bausch, R.; Ismail, A. H.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements are easy to implement and could be used for continuous monitoring. However, several factors (e.g. environment temperature) influence the measurements limiting the accuracy of the technology. Changes in skin temperature produced by changes in ambient temperature are related with changes in skin blood flow and skin impedance. It is assumed that skin impedance change is responsible for the error observed in whole body and segmental measurements. Measurements including body parts more distant from the torso seem to be more affected. In the present article skin and segment impedance have been performed on healthy subjects under extreme changes in environment temperature (13-39 °C). A commercial BIS device with a range between 5 kHz and 1 MHz has been used for the measurements. The results indicate that not only skin impedance, but also impedance of deeper tissue (e.g. muscle) may be responsible for the influence of environment temperature on BIS measurements. Segmental (knee-to-knee) BIS measurements show a relative change of only 2 %, while forearm and whole body impedance changed 14 % and 8 % respectively.

  5. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD of age was 31.06 (10.24 years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  6. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  7. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yu

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+, and outward K(+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.

  8. A simple method to predict body temperature of small reptiles from environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mathew; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To study behavioral thermoregulation, it is useful to use thermal sensors and physical models to collect environmental temperatures that are used to predict organism body temperature. Many techniques involve expensive or numerous types of sensors (cast copper models, or temperature, humidity, radiation, and wind speed sensors) to collect the microhabitat data necessary to predict body temperatures. Expense and diversity of requisite sensors can limit sampling resolution and accessibility of these methods. We compare body temperature predictions of small lizards from iButtons, DS18B20 sensors, and simple copper models, in both laboratory and natural conditions. Our aim was to develop an inexpensive yet accurate method for body temperature prediction. Either method was applicable given appropriate parameterization of the heat transfer equation used. The simplest and cheapest method was DS18B20 sensors attached to a small recording computer. There was little if any deficit in precision or accuracy compared to other published methods. We show how the heat transfer equation can be parameterized, and it can also be used to predict body temperature from historically collected data, allowing strong comparisons between current and previous environmental temperatures using the most modern techniques. Our simple method uses very cheap sensors and loggers to extensively sample habitat temperature, improving our understanding of microhabitat structure and thermal variability with respect to small ectotherms. While our method was quite precise, we feel any potential loss in accuracy is offset by the increase in sample resolution, important as it is increasingly apparent that, particularly for small ectotherms, habitat thermal heterogeneity is the strongest influence on transient body temperature. PMID:27252829

  9. Thermal insulation and body temperature wearing a thermal swimsuit during water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Hanai, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Shintaro; Nomura, Takeo

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a thermal swimsuit on body temperatures, thermoregulatory responses and thermal insulation during 60 min water immersion at rest. Ten healthy male subjects wearing either thermal swimsuits or normal swimsuits were immersed in water (26 degrees C or 29 degrees C). Esophageal temperature, skin temperatures and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiments. Metabolic heat production was calculated from oxygen consumption. Heat loss from skin to the water was calculated from the metabolic heat production and the change in mean body temperature during water immersion. Total insulation and tissue insulation were estimated by dividing the temperature difference between the esophagus and the water or the esophagus and the skin with heat loss from the skin. Esophageal temperature with a thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit at the end of immersion in both water temperature conditions (pinsulation with the thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit due to insulation of the suit at both water temperatures (pinsulation was similar in all four conditions, but significantly higher with the thermal swimsuit in both water temperature conditions (pinsulation and reduce heat loss from the skin. Therefore, subjects with thermal swimsuits can maintain higher body temperatures than with a normal swimsuit and reduce shivering thermo-genesis.

  10. Perioperative core body temperatures effect on outcome after colorectal resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Timothy M; Horst, Sara; Muldoon, Roberta; Wise, Paul E; Enrenfeld, Jesse; Poulose, Ben; Herline, Alan J

    2012-05-01

    The World Health Organization has set a standard of maintaining a core body temperature above 36°C in the perioperative period. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between both intraoperative temperature (IOT) and immediate postop core body temperature as it relates to postop complications. A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of patients who underwent an elective segmental colectomy without a stoma, for 3 diagnoses was performed. Six postoperative outcomes were examined: length of stay (LOS), placement of a nasogastric tube, return to the operating room, placement of an interventional drain, diagnosed leak, and surgical site infection (SSI). Statistics were calculated using a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test. Seventy-nine patients met the inclusion criteria and there were no preoperative differences between the groups (those with a postop complication vs without). LOS > 9 days (36.64°C vs 35.98°C; P = 0.011) and clinical leak (37.06°C vs 35.99°C; P = 0.005) both had a statistically higher average IOT than those who did not. Patients with SSI trended to a higher IOT (36.44°C vs 35.99°C; P = 0.062). When the last IOT recorded was compared with the six outcomes, again length of stay and leak both were statistically significant (P = 0.018, P = 0.012) showing a higher temperature related to a higher complication rate. No other complications were related to IOT, nor did postop temperature relate to complication. In our data, relatively lower IOTs were protective for LOS and clinical leaks, with a trend of lower SSI rates. Further research is needed to fully endorse or refute the absolute recommendations for core body temperature.

  11. Validation of temperature-sensitive radio transmitters for measurement of body temperature in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. I.; Shobrak, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on the core body temperature (T(b)) of desert birds, we purposed to use temperature-sensitive implantable radio transmitters. Because of the difficulty in recapturing these birds, we needed to know if these electronic devices held their calibration over the duration of normal batt

  12. A comparison of technologies used for estimation of body temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body temperature measurement is an important clinical parameter. The performance of a number of non-invasive thermometers was measured by comparing intra- and inter-operator variability (n = 100) and clinical accuracy (n = 61). Variability was elevated in febrile compared to normothermic subjects for axillary and oral electronic contact thermometer measures and a temporal artery thermometer (p < 0.001 for both). Temporal artery thermometry and one mode of an infrared tympanic thermometer demonstrated significant clinical inaccuracy (p < 0.001 for both). Electronic contact thermometer repeatability and reproducibility are highly variable in febrile adults both in the axilla and oral cavity. Infrared thermometry of the skin over the superficial temporal artery is unreliable for measuring core body temperature, particularly in febrile subjects and patients in theatre. The infrared tympanic thermometers tested are acceptable for clinical practice; however, care should be exercised with the different modes of operation offered

  13. Effect of temperature on body temperature and resting metabolic rate in pups of Eothenomys miletus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of ambient temperature and thermoregulation in Eothenomys miletus, body temperature and resting metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1-49 day when E. miletus exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in E. miletus increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature (5 oC, 10 oC, relatively and RMR increased significantly when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature (35 oC when 28 day; on 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30 oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of E. miletus in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  14. Genetic parameters for level and change of body condition score and body weight in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    (Co)variance components for body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change, BW change, and milk yield traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 6646 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, and(or) milk yield at different stages of lactation from 74 dairy herds

  15. Core and body surface temperatures of nesting leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J; McCafferty, Dominic J; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-07-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are the largest species of marine turtle and the fourth most massive extant reptile. In temperate waters they maintain body temperatures higher than surrounding seawater through a combination of insulation, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. Nesting involves physical activity in addition to contact with warm sand and air, potentially presenting thermal challenges in the absence of the cooling effect of water, and data are lacking with which to understand their nesting thermal biology. Using non-contact methods (thermal imaging and infrared thermometry) to avoid any stress-related effects, we investigated core and surface temperature during nesting. The mean±SE core temperature was 31.4±0.05°C (newly emerged eggs) and was not correlated with environmental conditions on the nesting beach. Core temperature of leatherbacks was greater than that of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at a nearby colony, 30.0±0.13°C. Body surface temperatures of leatherbacks showed regional variation, the lateral and dorsal regions of the head were warmest while the carapace was the coolest surface. Surface temperature increased during the early nesting phases, then levelled off or decreased during later phases with the rates of change varying between body regions. Body region, behavioural phase of nesting and air temperature were found to be the best predictors of surface temperature. Regional variation in surface temperature were likely due to alterations in blood supply, and temporal changes in local muscular activity of flippers during the different phases of nesting. Heat exchange from the upper surface of the turtle was dominated by radiative heat loss from all body regions and small convective heat gains to the carapace and front flippers. PMID:25965013

  16. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT while dogs in group W received warmed (W irrigation fluid (36oC. A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1 pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2 arrival into theatre, (T3 end of surgery and (T4 arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1 and return to the recovery suite (T4 was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58oC (p<0.001 in group RT and 1.53±0.76oC (p<0.001 group W. There was no significant difference between the groups. At the end of surgery (T3 4/19 (21.1% of dogs were hypothermic (<37oC. The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses.

  17. The effect of water temperature on the human body and the swimming effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERAFEIM ALEXIOU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although many research papers have dealt with the influence of environmental temperature on the various Human body functions during exercise in land, a few only informations exist for the equivalent alterations in water temperatures during immersion and swimming. The present preview research paper is referred on this subject. During swimming in the normal water temperature 26° ± 1° C (63, the functions of the human body respond regularly and the performance of swimmers tends to be improved. However, during swimming in cold water critical differences appear in human functions, such as bradycardia, angiospasm, hyperventilation and adaptations of thermoregulatory mechanism which influence the swimming performance and the life itself. Especially in very cold water temperature the disturbances of the cardiovascular system may lead in critical arrhythmia or sudden death. The cold water temperature, however, influences the kinetic and energy behavior related to the reduction of swimmers performance because of its possible influence on the neuromuscular function. In the increased water temperature up to 28° C appears tachycardia, vasodilation and other alternations which aim to better thermoregulation. The swimmers records are possibly equivalent with a tendency to be improved, to the records in normal temperature of championships 26° C and the increased temperature mainly in the speed events (3. Therefore, there is a differentiation on swimmers performances due to water temperature declination from normal. Also, body functions change during water immersion.

  18. EFFECT OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON BODY TEMPERATURE AND REST METABOLIC RATE IN APODEMUS CHEVRIERI DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Wan-long; Sun Shu-ran; Ge Fang; Sun Cong-nan; Zhang Lin; Wang Zheng-kun

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR) were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day) when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in lo...

  19. The changing appearance of the body in working life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Çetin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  Today the features of the workers and changes in newly founded working areas bring about new demands in the physical appearance of body and dressing. From this point of view, this article will focus on the changing appearances of body in working life. It will be attempted to relate consumption and fashion with the physical appearance of  body in working life and employment application period. The reasons why specifically the bodies who work for service sector are rendered as distintive and  then are controlled in a way which fit suitable for organizations’ missions and visions will be discussed.

  20. The changing appearance of the body in working life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Çetin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the features of the workers and changes in newly founded working areas bring about new demands in the physical appearance of body and dressing. From this point of view, this article will focus on the changing appearances of body in working life. It will be attempted to relate consumption and fashion with the physical appearance of body in working life and employment application period. The reasons why specifically the bodies who work for service sector are rendered as distintive and then are controlled in a way which fit suitable for organizations’ missions and visions will be discussed.

  1. The changing appearance of the body in working life

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin, Ebru

    2009-01-01

     Today the features of the workers and changes in newly founded working areas bring about new demands in the physical appearance of body and dressing. From this point of view, this article will focus on the changing appearances of body in working life. It will be attempted to relate consumption and fashion with the physical appearance of  body in working life and employment application period. The reasons why specifically the bodies who work for service sector are rendered as distintive and  ...

  2. Prediction of Core Body Temperature from Multiple Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Victoria L; Davey, Sarah; Griggs, Katy; Havenith, George

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to improve the prediction of rectal temperature (T re) from insulated skin temperature (T is) and micro-climate temperature (T mc) previously reported (Richmond et al., Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing. Physiol Meas 2013; 34:1531-43.) using additional physiological and/or environmental variables, under several clothing and climatic conditions. Twelve male (25.8±5.1 years; 73.6±11.5kg; 178±6cm) and nine female (24.2±5.1 years; 62.4±11.5kg; 169±3cm) volunteers completed six trials, each consisting of two 40-min periods of treadmill walking separated by a 20-min rest, wearing permeable or impermeable clothing, under neutral (25°C, 50%), moderate (35°C, 35%), and hot (40°C, 25%) conditions, with and without solar radiation (600W m(-2)). Participants were measured for heart rate (HR) (Polar, Finland), skin temperature (T s) at 11 sites, T is (Grant, Cambridge, UK), and breathing rate (f) (Hidalgo, Cambridge, UK). T mc and relative humidity were measured within the clothing. T re was monitored as the 'gold standard' measure of T c for industrial or military applications using a 10cm flexible probe (Grant, Cambridge, UK). A stepwise multiple regression analysis was run to determine which of 30 variables (T is, T s at 11 sites, HR, f, T mc, temperature, and humidity inside the clothing front and back, body mass, age, body fat, sex, clothing, Thermal comfort, sensation and perception, and sweat rate) were the strongest on which to base the model. Using a bootstrap methodology to develop the equation, the best model in terms of practicality and validity included T is, T mc, HR, and 'work' (0 = rest; 1 = exercise), predicting T re with a standard error of the estimate of 0.27°C and adjusted r (2) of 0.86. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting individuals who reached 39°C was 97 and 85%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature was the most important individual

  3. Metabolism of polychaete Neanthes japonica Izuka: relations to temperature, salinity and body weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; XIAN Weiwei; SUN Shichun

    2009-01-01

    Polychaete Neanthesjaponica is a species geographically specific in China and Japan with important scientific implication and commercial value. In this study, the relations of body weight, salinity and temperature to oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of N. japonica were determined. Threedifferent groups in body weight (large: 2.34±0.36 g, middle: 1.50±0.21 g and small: 0.62±0.12 g) were set for all experiments. Results show that the body weight is negatively related to the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion; and the relationship is significant. The oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion at 24℃ decreased at salinity from 5 to 30 and increased above 30, indicating that both lower and higher salinity are adverse and certain degree of salinity stress is necessary for enhancing the energy demand. At salinity 30, rising temperature from 18℃ to 30℃, the oxygen consumption increased before 27℃ and then decreased. However, the relation of ammonia excretion and temperature seems more complex. Two-way ANOVA shows that salinity, temperature and body weight all have a significant effect on the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the worm. Moreover, interaction between salinity/temperature and body weight is also significant. O:N (oxygen/nitrogen) ratio varies greatly in this case from 5.97 to 463.22, indicating that N. japonica can regulate the type of metabolic substrate against environment changes.

  4. Body temperature of the parasitic wasp Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera) during host location by vibrational sounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroder, Stefan; Samietz, Jörg; Stabentheiner, Anton; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    The pupal parasitoid Pimpla turionellae (L.) uses self-produced vibrations transmitted on the plant substrate, so-called vibrational sounding, to locate immobile concealed pupal hosts. The wasps are able to use vibrational sounding reliably over a broad range of ambient temperatures and even show an increased signal frequency and intensity at low temperatures. The present study investigates how control of body temperature in the wasps by endothermic mechanisms may facilitate host location under changing thermal environments. Insect body temperature is measured with real-time IR thermography on plant-stem models at temperature treatments of 10, 18, 26 and 30 °C, whereas behaviour is recorded with respect to vibrational host location. The results reveal a low-level endothermy that likely interferes with vibrational sound production because it occurs only in nonsearching females. At the lowest temperature of 10 °C, the thoracic temperature is 1.15 °C warmer than the ambient surface temperature whereas, at the high temperatures of 26 and 30 ° C, the wasps cool down their thorax by 0.29 and 0.47 °C, respectively, and their head by 0.45 and 0.61 °C below ambient surface temperature. By contrast, regardless of ambient temperature, searching females always have a slightly elevated body temperature of at most 0.30 °C above the ambient surface temperature. Behavioural observations indicate that searching females interrupt host location more frequently at suboptimal temperatures, presumably due to the requirements of thermoregulation. It is assumed that both mechanisms, producing vibrations for host location and low-level endothermy, are located in the thorax. Endothermy by thoracic muscle work probably disturbs signal structure of vibrational sounding, so the processes cannot be used at the same time. PMID:22140295

  5. Changes in body weight and pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined the rela...... rate and changes in pulse rate may not be an important modifier nor a clinically useful predictor of outcome in an individual elderly cardiovascular obese subject exposed to weight management....

  6. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes;

    thermometer. This work, however, can be quite time consuming and laborious, and further compromising the immediate well-fare of the pig, when restraining of the individual animal is necessary. Therefore, an electronic body monitoring system using implantable microchip transponders for measuring peripheral...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... microchip transponder was injected deep subcutaneously by the left ear base of each individual. The transponder was before insertion programmed with ID identical to the individual pig’s ear tag number. The pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups: one group placebo-infected and two groups virus...

  7. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations. PMID:26779953

  8. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations.

  9. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  10. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics, die

  11. [Hypothermia--mechanism of action and pathophysiological changes in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowski, Przemysław; Mikrut, Kinga; Krauss, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the physiological responses and pathophysiological changes induced by hypothermia. Normal body function depends on its ability to maintain thermal homeostasis. The human body can be divided arbitrarily into two thermal compartments: a core compartment (trunk and head), with precisely regulated temperature around 37°C, and a peripheral compartment (skin and extremities) with less strictly controlled temperature, and lower than the core temperature. Thermoregulatory processes occur in three phases: afferent thermal sensing, central regulation, mainly by the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, and efferent response. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses including cutaneous vasoconstriction, shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis, and behavioral changes. Alterations of body temperature associated with impaired thermoregulation, decreased heat production or increased heat loss can lead to hypothermia. Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature below 35ºC, and may be classified according to the origin as accidental (e.g. caused by exposure to a cold environment, drugs, or illness) or intentional (i.e. therapeutic), or by the degree of hypothermia as mild, moderate or severe. Classification by temperature is not universal. Lowering of body temperature disrupts the physiological processes at the molecular, cellular and system level, but hypothermia induced prior to cardiosurgical or neurosurgical procedures, by the decrease in tissue oxygen demand, can reduce the risk of cerebral or cardiac ischemic damage. Therapeutic hypothermia has been recommended as a clinical procedure in situations characterized by ischemia, such as cardiac arrest, stroke and brain injuries. PMID:25614675

  12. The Analysis of Fiber Sensor of Temperature Field Disturbance by Human Body Part Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Dvorak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of this sensor function is based on polarization maintaining fiber (PMF sensitivity during excitation of both two polarization modes. This excitation is caused by temperature change, when absorbing thermal radiation. This mechanism is used for detection of temperature field disturbance as an indicator. In the case described below, attention was devoted to temperature field disturbance on a part of the human body. Thus this sensor system could be used for protection of some entity. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of PMF to radiating heat, the space configuration and time response.

  13. Temperature Evaluation of Heat Transferring Body while Preparing Temperature Chart of Heating Technologies and Metal Thermal Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Nesenchuk; T. V. Ryzhova; O. F. Kraetskaya; S. S. Коvaliov; A. V. Begliak

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers problems pertaining to temperature evaluation of a heat transferring body in the operational space of high temperature installations. A formula for evaluation of this temperature has been written down in the paper. Calculation of a heating transferring body (furnace) makes it possible to realize temperature chart parameters in the plant heating technologies and steel thermal treatment.

  14. Temperature Evaluation of Heat Transferring Body while Preparing Temperature Chart of Heating Technologies and Metal Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to temperature evaluation of a heat transferring body in the operational space of high temperature installations. A formula for evaluation of this temperature has been written down in the paper. Calculation of a heating transferring body (furnace makes it possible to realize temperature chart parameters in the plant heating technologies and steel thermal treatment.

  15. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    OpenAIRE

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the ...

  16. Effective body water and body mass changes during summer ultra-endurance road cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; Ganio, Matthew S; Judelson, Daniel A; Vingren, Jakob L; Kupchak, Brian R; Kunces, Laura J; Muñoz, Colleen X; McKenzie, Amy L; Williamson, Keith H

    2015-01-01

    Because body mass change (ΔMb) does not represent all water losses and gains, the present field investigation determined if (a) ΔMb equalled the net effective body water change during ultra-endurance exercise and (b) ground speed and exercise duration influenced these variables. Thirty-two male cyclists (age range, 35-52 years) completed a 164-km event in a hot environment, were retrospectively triplet matched and placed into one of three groups based on exercise duration (4.8, 6.3, 9.6 h). Net effective body water loss was computed from measurements (body mass, total fluid intake and urine excreted) and calculations (water evolved and mass loss due to substrate oxidation, solid food mass and sweat loss), including (ΔEBWgly) and excluding (ΔEBW) water bound to glycogen. With all cyclists combined, the mean ΔMb (i.e. loss) was greater than that of ΔEBWgly by 1200 ± 200 g (P = 1.4 × 10(-18)), was similar to ΔEBW (difference, 0 ± 200 g; P = .21) and was strongly correlated with both (R(2) = .98). Analysis of equivalence indicated that ΔMb was not equivalent to ΔEBWgly, but was equivalent to ΔEBW. Due to measurement complexity, we concluded that (a) athletes will not calculate the effective body water calculations routinely and (b) body mass change remains a useful field-expedient estimate of net effective body water change.

  17. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  18. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (ppain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (pnegative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  19. Negative Body Image Associated with Changes in the Visual Body Appearance Increases Pain Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an “injured rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a “hairy rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a “twisted rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a “normal rubber hand” as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001). The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001). We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity. PMID:25210738

  20. Changes in Soil Temperature Regimes under Regional Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperatures can provide a smoothed record of regional changes in atmospheric conditions due to soil thermal properties that reduce the annual air and surface temperature amplitude. In areas with seasonal snow cover, however, its insulating effect isolates the soil thermal regime from winter air temperatures. Under changing regional climate patterns, snow cover extent, depth and duration are decreasing. The net effect is thus an expected winter cooling of soil temperature. However, the extent to which this might be mitigated by warmer summer conditions, and changing soil moisture remains to be seen. To examine the relative strength of a cold-season cooling signal versus enhanced summer warming, a network of soil temperature loggers has recorded hourly soil temperatures over the period 2005-2013 within a single watershed experiencing 'lake effect snow'. Elevations range from 168 m to 612 m, on Silurian and Ordovician shale, limestone, and sandstone that have been heavily glaciated. Most of the sites are located on NY Department of Environmental Conservation land in mixed, hardwood and spruce forests. At six sites in varied topographic and land-use setting, two ONSET HOBO Outdoor 4 channel soil temperature loggers are deployed in order to reduce concerns of data reliability and systematic logger drift. Five sites also record air temperature using HOBO Pro Series Temperature loggers at three sites and HOBO Weather Stations at two. Soil temperature data are recorded at hourly intervals at depths of 2-, 5-, 10-, and 25-cm. Several other sites have been operationalized over the 8 year period, but have been tampered with, damaged, stolen, or have failed. These partial records are included to provide greater geographic representation of changing conditions where possible. Data indicate decreasing winter soil temperatures in specific land-use and topographic settings. Only one site, located in a dense spruce plantation, experiences soil freezing within the top 5 cm

  1. Social Stress at Work and Change in Women's Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Kottwitz, Maria Undine; Grebner, Simone Irmgard; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; ELFERING, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participa...

  2. Social stress at work and change in women's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516

  3. An Investigation of Summertime Inland Water Body Temperatures in California and Nevada (USA): Recent Trends and Future Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Nathan; Hook, Simon; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco; Radocinski, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Inland water body temperature has been identified as an ideal indicator of potential climate change. Understanding inland water body temperature trends is important for forecasting impacts to limnological, biological, and hydrological resources. Many inland water bodies are situated in remote locations with incomplete data records of in-situ monitoring or lack in-situ observations altogether. Thus, the utilization of satellite data is essential for understanding the behavior of global inland water body temperatures. Part of this research provides an analysis of summertime (July-September) temperature trends in the largest California/Nevada (USA) inland water bodies between 1991 and 2015. We examine satellite temperature retrievals from ATSR (ATSR-1, ATSR-2, AATSR), MODIS (Terra and Aqua), and VIIRS sensors. Our findings indicate that inland water body temperatures in the western United States were rapidly warming between 1991 and 2009, but since then trends have been decreasing. This research also includes implementation of a model called air2water to predict future inland water body surface temperature through the sole input of air temperature. Using projections from CMIP5-CCSM4 output, our model indicates that Lake Tahoe (USA) is expected to experience an increase of roughly 3 °C by 2100.

  4. Low body temperature governs the decline of circulating lymphocytes during hibernation through sphingosine-1-phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Kok, Jan Willem; Talaei, Fatimeh; Boerema, Ate S.; Herwig, Annika; Draghiciu, Oana; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Epema, Anne H.; van Dam, Annie; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Henning, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation is an energy-conserving behavior consisting of periods of inhibited metabolism ('torpor') with lowered body temperature. Torpor bouts are interspersed by arousal periods, in which metabolism increases and body temperature returns to euthermia. In deep torpor, the body temperature typical

  5. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C.; Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J.

    2013-01-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature u

  6. Behavior and survival of Mytilus congeners following episodes of elevated body temperature in air and seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, W Wesley; Somero, George N

    2013-02-01

    elevated body temperature in seawater). Surprisingly, we observed no cumulative impact on survival of 3 days relative to 1 day of exposure to elevated body temperature. The delayed mortality and context-specific outcomes we observed have important implications for the design of future experiments and for interpretation of field distribution patterns of these species. Ultimately, variation in the catalog of physiological and behavioral capacities among closely related or sympatric species is likely to complicate prediction of the ecological consequences of global change and species invasions.

  7. Effects of temperature changes on groundwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, Christian; Kellermann, Claudia; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Lueders, Tillmann; Brielmann, Heike; Schmidt, Susanne; Kuntz, David; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone

    2014-05-01

    The use of groundwater as a carrier of thermal energy is becoming more and more important as a sustainable source of heating and cooling. At the same time, the present understanding of the effects of aquifer thermal usage on geochemical and biological aquifer ecosystem functions is extremely limited. Recently we started to assess the effects of temperature changes in groundwater on the ecological integrity of aquifers. In a field study, we have monitored hydrogeochemical, microbial, and faunal parameters in groundwater of an oligotrophic aquifer in the vicinity of an active thermal discharge facility. The observed seasonal variability of abiotic and biotic parameters between wells was considerable. Yet, due to the energy-limited conditions no significant temperature impacts on bacterial or faunal abundances and on bacterial productivity were observed. In contrast, the diversity of aquifer bacterial communities and invertebrate fauna was either positively or negatively affected by temperature, respectively. In follow-up laboratory experiments temperature effects were systematically evaluated with respect to energy limitation (e.g. establishment of unlimited growth conditions), geochemistry (e.g. dynamics of DOC and nutrients), microbiology (e.g. survival of pathogens), and fauna (temperature preference and tolerance). First, with increased nutrient and organic carbon concentrations even small temperature changes revealed microbiological dynamics. Second, considerable amounts of adsorbed DOC were mobilized from sediments of different origin with an increase in temperatures. No evidence was obtained for growth of pathogenic bacteria and extended survival of viruses at elevated temperatures. Invertebrates clearly preferred natural thermal conditions (10-12°C), where their highest frequency of appearance was measured in a temperature gradient. Short-term incubations (48h) of invertebrates in temperature dose-response tests resulted in LT50 (lethal temperature) values

  8. Body core temperature of rats subjected to daily exercise limited to a fixed time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shido, O.; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Sakurada, Sotaro; Kaneko, Yoshiko; Nagasaka, Tetsuo

    Several timed daily environmental cues alter the pattern of nycthemeral variations in body core temperature in rodents. The present study investigated the effect of timed exercise on variations of daily body core temperature. Male rats were housed in cages with a running wheel at an ambient temperature of 24° C with a 12:12 h light/dark cycle. Timed daily exercise rats (TEX) were allowed access to the wheel for 6 h in the last half of the dark phase, freely exercising rats (FEX) could run at any time, and sedentary rats (NEX) were not allowed to run. After a 3-week exercise period, all animals were denied access to the wheel. The intraabdominal temperatures (Tab) and spontaneous activities of rats were measured for 6 days after the exercise period. The Tab values of the TEX rats were significantly higher than those of the other two groups only in the last half of the dark phase, while Tab in the FEX and NEX rats showed no significant difference. The specific Tab changes in the TEX rats lasted for 2 days after the exercise period. Spontaneous activity levels were higher in the TEX rats than the FEX and NEX rats in the last half of the dark phase for 1 day after the exercise period. The results suggest that daily exercise limited to a fixed time per day modifies nycthemeral variations of body core temperature in rats so that the temperature increases during the period when the animals had previously exercised. Such a rise in body core temperature is partly attributed to an increase in the spontaneous activity level.

  9. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the geothermal one, which is deposited mainly in the epidermal parts of caves.

  10. Infrared thermoimages display of body surface temperature reaction in experimental cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zhang; Yuan-Gen Zhu; Shu-You Wang; Hui-Min Ma; Yan-Yan Ye; Wei-Xing Fu; Wei-Guo Hu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To display the thermoirnages of the body surface inexperimental cholecystitis, to observe the body surfacetemperature reaction in visceral disorders, and to study if the theory of body surface-viscera correlation is true and the mechanism of temperature changes along the meridians. METHODS: By injecting bacteria ssuspension into the stricturebile duct and gallbladder, 21 rabbits were prepared as acutepyogenic cholangiocholecystitis models, with another 8rabbits prepared by the same process except withoutinjection of bacteria suspension as control. The body surfaceinfrared thermoimages were continuously observed on thehair shaven rabbit skin with AGA-782 thermovision 24 hbefore, 1-11 d after and (2,3 wk) 4 wk after the operation witha total of over 10 records of thermoimages.RESULTS: Twelve cases out of 21 rabbits with cholecystitisrevealed bi-lsteral longitudinal high temperature lines in itstrunk; with negative findings in the control group. The high-temperature line appeared on d l-d2, first in the right trunk,after the preparation of the model, about 7 d after the modelpreparation, the lines appeared at the left side too,persisting for 4 wk. The hyper-temperature line revealed 1.1-2.7 ℃ higher than before the model preparation, 0.7-2.5 ℃higher than the surrounding skin. The length of the hightemperature line might reach a half length of the body trunk,or as long as the whole body itself.CONCLUSION: The appearance of the longitudinal hightemperature lines st the lateral aspects of the trunk in theexperimental group is directly bound up with theexperimental animals pyogenic cholecystitis, with itsrunning course quite similar to that of the GallbladderChannel of Foot Shaoyang, but different to the zones ofhyperalgesia and site of referred pain in cholecystitis.

  11. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. N.; Gebremedhin, K. G.; Parkhurst, A.; Hillman, P. E.

    2015-09-01

    There has been increasing interest to measure core-body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" (Hillman et al. Appl Eng Agric ASAE 25(2):291-296, 2009) in the vagina of multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Two types of anchors were used: (a) long "fingers" (4.5-6 cm), and (b) short "fingers" (3.5 cm). The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position (rotate) within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core-body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors. This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected.

  12. COMMUNICATION: The effects of elevated body temperature on the complexity of the diaphragm EMG signals during maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, David; Akay, Yasemin M.; Akay, Metin

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we examine the effect of elevated body temperature on the complexity of the diaphragm electromyography (EMGdia), the output of the respiratory neural network--using the approximate entropy method. The diaphragm EMG, EEG, EOG as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume) in chronically instrumented rats were recorded at two postnatal ages: 25-35 days age (juvenile, n = 5) and 36-44 days age (early adult, n = 6) groups during control (36-37 °C), mild elevated body temperature (38 °C) and severe elevated body temperature (39-40 °C). Three to five trials of the recordings were performed at normal body temperature before raising the animal's core temperature by 1-4 °C with an electric heating pad. At the elevated temperature, another 3-5 trials were performed. Finally, the animal was cooled to the original temperature, and trials were again repeated. Complexity values of the diaphragm EMG signal were estimated and evaluated using the approximate entropy method (ApEn) over the ten consecutive breaths. Our results suggested that the mean approximate entropy values for the juvenile age group were 1.01 ± 0.01 (standard error) during control, 0.91 ± 0.02 during mild elevated body temperature and 0.81 ± 0.02 during severe elevated body temperature. For the early adult age group, these values were 0.94 ± 0.01 during control, 0.93 ± 0.01 during mild elevated body temperature and 0.92 ± 0.01 during severe elevated body temperature. Our results show that the complexity values and the durations of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) were significantly decreased when the elevated body temperature was shifted from control or mild to severe body temperature (p < 0.05) for the juvenile age group. However, for the early adult age group, an increase in body temperature slightly reduced the complexity measures and the duration of the EMGdia. But, these changes were not statistically significant. These results furthermore

  13. The Effects of Increased Body Temperature on Motor Control during Golf Putting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, John F.; Grealy, Madeleine A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased core temperature on the performance outcome and movement kinematics of elite golfers during a golf putting task. The study aimed to examine individual differences in the extent to which increased temperature influenced the rate of putting success, whether increased temperature speeded up the timing of the putting downswing and whether elite golfers changed their movement kinematics during times of thermal stress. Six participants performed 20 putts to each of four putt distances (1, 2, 3, and 4 m) under normal temperature conditions and when core body temperature was increased. There was no significant difference in the number of successful putts between the two temperature conditions, but there was an increase in putterhead velocity at ball impact on successful putts to distances of 1 and 4 m when temperature was elevated. This reflected an increase in swing amplitude rather than a reduction in swing duration as hypothesized. There were individual differences in the motor control response to thermal stress as three of the golfers changed the kinematic parameters used to scale their putting movements to achieve putts of different distances at elevated temperatures. Theoretical implications for these findings and the practical implications for elite golfers and future research are discussed.

  14. Seasonal Changes in Central England Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Hillebrand, Eric

    and stochastic trends, as well as seasonally varying autocorrelation and residual variances. The model can be summarized as containing a permanent and a transitory component, where global warming is captured in the permanent component, on which the seasons load differentially. The phase of the seasonal cycle......The aim of this paper is to assess how climate change is reflected in the variation of the seasonal patterns of the monthly Central England Temperature time series between 1772 and 2013. In particular, we model changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Starting from the seminal work...... by Thomson (“The Seasons, Global Temperature and Precession”, Science, 7 April 1995, vol 268, p. 59–68), a number of studies have documented a shift in the phase of the annual cycle implying an earlier onset of the spring season at various European locations. A significant reduction in the amplitude...

  15. Evolution and plasticity of body size of Drosophila in response to temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Calboli, F. C. F.

    2004-01-01

    Ectotherm body size is positively correlated with latitude, giving rise to body size clines, found in different continents. Ectotherm body size also shows a developmental response to temperature, increasing at lower developmental temperatures. To investigate the effects of temperature in the evolution and plasticity of body size dines, I used two species of the genus Drosophila as model organisms. To investigate the cellular mechanism underlying the evolution of wing size clines the two newly...

  16. Skin temperature and sleep-onset latency: changes with age and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Swaab, D.F.; Someren, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the 24-hour day, the occurrence of sleep and wakefulness is closely related to changes in body temperatures. Changes in skin temperature may causally affect the ability to initiate and maintain sleep. First, we briefly summarize a previously proposed neurobiological mechanism that couples

  17. Skin temperature and sleep-onset latency: Changes with age and insomnia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymann, R.J.; Swaab, D.F.; Someren, E.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 24-hour day, the occurrence of sleep and wakefulness is closely related to changes in body temperatures. Changes in skin temperature may causally affect the ability to initiate and maintain sleep. First, we briefly summarize a previously proposed neurobiological mechanism that couples

  18. Deferoxamine prevents cerebral glutathione and vitamin E depletions in asphyxiated neonatal rats: role of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, Hanna; Nowakowska, Anna; Siejka, Agnieszka; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Woźniak, Alina; Caputa, Michał; Rogalska, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury involves increased oxidative stress. In asphyxiated newborns iron deposited in the brain catalyses formation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E are key factors protecting cells against such agents. Our previous investigation has demonstrated that newborn rats, showing physiological low body temperature as well as their hyperthermic counterparts injected with deferoxamine (DF) are protected against iron-mediated, delayed neurotoxicity of perinatal asphyxia. Therefore, we decided to study the effects of body temperature and DF on the antioxidant status of the brain in rats exposed neonatally to critical anoxia. Two-day-old newborn rats were exposed to anoxia in 100% nitrogen atmosphere for 10 min. Rectal temperature was kept at 33 °C (physiological to rat neonates), or elevated to the level typical of healthy adult rats (37 °C), or of febrile adult rats (39 °C). Half of the rats exposed to anoxia under extremely hyperthermic conditions (39 °C) were injected with DF. Cerebral concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid peroxidation marker) and the levels of GSH and vitamin E were determined post-mortem, (1) immediately after anoxia, (2) 3 days, (3) 7 days, and (4) 2 weeks after anoxia. There were no post-anoxic changes in MDA, GSH and vitamin E concentrations in newborn rats kept at body temperature of 33 °C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at elevated body temperatures intensified oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool in a temperature-dependent manner. Both the depletion of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were prevented by post-anoxic DF injection. The data support the idea that hyperthermia may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions.

  19. Surviving breast cancer: women's experiences with their changed bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Burke, Shaunna

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we explored women's experiences with their bodies following treatment for breast cancer. Eleven women who had been treated for the disease (M(time since treatment)=4.45 years) were interviewed. Data were collected and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith et al., 2009). Four main themes emerged from the data: changing visibly and invisibly; experiencing intense thoughts and emotions; meaning of the body: a vehicle of health, well-being, and social expression; and managing and dealing with physical changes. Overall, the women experienced various physical changes that shaped, mostly in a negative way, their perceptions, thoughts, attitudes, feelings, and beliefs about their bodies. The women described attempts to make positive lifestyle behavior choices (e.g., diet, participate in physical activity), and used other strategies (e.g., wigs, make-up, clothes) to manage their appearances and restore positive body-related experiences. Based on these findings, it is important to be cognizant of women's body image concerns following breast cancer given the poignant and lasting effects they can have on their psychosocial and emotional well-being.

  20. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  1. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. PMID:26185248

  2. Critical body temperature profile as indicator of heat stress vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, P K; Dutta, Priya; Nag, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Extreme climatic heat is a major health concern among workers in different occupational pursuits. People in the regions of western India confront frequent heat emergencies, with great risk of mortality and morbidity. Taking account of informal occupational groups (foundry and sheet metal, FSM, N=587; ceramic and pottery, CP, N=426; stone quarry, SQ, N=934) in different seasons, the study examined the body temperature profiling as indicator of vulnerability to environmental warmth. About 3/4th of 1947 workers had habitual exposure at 30.1-35.5°C WBGT and ~10% of them were exposed to 38.2-41.6°C WBGT. The responses of FSM, CP and SQ workers indicated prevailing high heat load during summer and post-monsoon months. Local skin temperatures (T(sk)) varied significantly in different seasons, with consistently high level in summer, followed by post-monsoon and winter months. The mean difference of T(cr) and T(sk) was ~5.2°C up to 26.7°C WBGT, and ~2.5°C beyond 30°C WBGT. Nearly 90% of the workers had T(cr) within 38°C, suggesting their self-adjustment strategy in pacing work and regulating T(cr). In extreme heat, the limit of peripheral adjustability (35-36°C T(sk)) and the narrowing down of the difference between T(cr) and T(sk) might indicate the limit of one's ability to withstand heat exposure. PMID:23411761

  3. How important are changes in body weight for mass perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen E.

    It is often assumed that weight judgements depend primarily on the effort experienced in lifting an object against a 1-G force. Changes in effort and in other weight-cues certainly alter apparent heaviness; but there is a tendency towards mass-constancy when such changes are unrelated to mass. Under water or altered G, both the observer's body and other objects change their effective weight: the change in the former probably provides a cue to the latter. Mass-constancy increases with opportunity for adaptation to the change, leaving a negative aftereffect on return to normal circumstances. The discrimination of weight or mass also deteriorates with sudden changes in arm weight, just as it does with other types of maladaptation and with a reduction in sensory cues. The relative importance of arm weight and other factors has not been precisely measured, but experiments in prolonged spaceflight should help to elucidate the issue.

  4. The changes of holographic characteristics of photopolymer induced by temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingju Huang(黄明举); Huawen Yao(姚华文); Zhongyu Chen(陈仲裕); Lisong Hou(侯立松); Fuxi Gan(干福熹)

    2003-01-01

    The changes of holographic characteristics of photopolymer induced by temperature are studied experimentally. The results show that the exposure sensitivity increases with the increase of temperature. The maximum diffraction efficiency and the final maximum diffraction efficiency increase with the increase of temperature when the temperature is lower than Tg (glass transition temperature), while they decrease with the increase of temperature when the temperature is higher than Tg. The effect of the change of temperature on the saturation refractive index modulation is very weak.

  5. Estimation of the temperature of a radiating body by measuring the stationary temperatures of a thermometer placed at different distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, V. M.; Villaluenga, J. P. G.; Izquierdo-Gil, M. A.; Pérez-Cordón, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method for determining the temperature of a radiating body. The experimental method requires only very common instrumentation. It is based on the measurement of the stationary temperature of an object placed at different distances from the body and on the application of the energy balance equation in a stationary state. The method allows one to obtain the temperature of an inaccessible radiating body when radiation measurements are not available. The method has been applied to the determination of the filament temperature of incandescent lamps of different powers.

  6. Effects of body size and change in body size from infancy through childhood on body mass index in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, L G; Rasmussen, K M; Michaelsen, K F;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain.Aims:Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult b...... first month of life.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 19 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.108....

  7. Change of MMP dependent on temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Akwansa, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    was divided into three samples. The pure carbon dioxide was injected into a chamber with the sample under pressure gradually increasing from 60 bars to 420 bars. CO2 was injected in a first sample at temperature 50oC , second at 60oC and third at 70oC. The amount of oil extracted was plotted against pressure......   The experiment was conducted with the purpose to investigate how Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP) changes at different temperatures. MMP was measured in a high pressure unit. An original oil saturated chalk core plug from the Danish oil field in North Sea was under investigation. The plug....... The oil recovery/pressure correlation obtained showed that: -  oil recovery grows rather in steps, - MMP (the point B on the curve), above which the oil recovery increases insignificantly,  is equal for all the temperatures, - but the starting points (A on the graph) from which oil recovery starts growing...

  8. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  9. Conservatism of lizard thermal tolerances and body temperatures across evolutionary history and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Joseph W; Buckley, Lauren B

    2013-04-23

    Species may exhibit similar thermal tolerances via either common ancestry or environmental filtering and local adaptation, if the species inhabit similar environments. We ask whether upper and lower thermal limits (critical thermal maxima and minima) and body temperatures are more strongly conserved across evolutionary history or geography for lizard populations distributed globally. We find that critical thermal maxima are highly conserved with location accounting for a higher proportion of the variation than phylogeny. Notably, thermal tolerance breadth is conserved across the phylogeny despite critical thermal minima showing little niche conservatism. Body temperatures observed during activity in the field show the greatest degree of conservatism, with phylogeny accounting for most of the variation. This suggests that propensities for thermoregulatory behaviour, which can buffer body temperatures from environmental variation, are similar within lineages. Phylogeny and geography constrain thermal tolerances similarly within continents, but variably within clades. Conservatism of thermal tolerances across lineages suggests that the potential for local adaptation to alleviate the impacts of climate change on lizards may be limited.

  10. The change in body stressed to relaxed body through breathing, visualization and a protective environment together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn I. Rodríguez Morrill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows several ways to meet and relax the body through personal knowledge and techniques encounter with nature. Modern life and fast, the constant pressure from childhood to adulthood, in the modes of interaction between individuals and groups, they lead to construction of bodies that reflect emotional anatomy visible loss of balance, contractures, inflammation, multiple imbalances by lack of knowledge and awareness especially being in the world fully, the person has moved away from its ecological relationship with itself and the environment. Methods are shown to positively change a condition of constant stress and chronic discomfort, a learned condition of physical and psychological wellbeing, with a series of movements, recovering the body through exercise, to tend to personal balance, obtaining a positive relationship with the environment and the people attended. The proposal starts promoting new habits that can be saved in consciousness. Partly, mainly of breath, alignment with the music and the environment and personal and group work

  11. Circadian rhythm of body temperature during prolonged undersea voyages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, W P; Paine, M W; Fort, A

    1978-05-01

    Circadian rhythms of oral temperature were assessed in 12 watchkeepers during a prolonged submarine voyage and compared with a "standard" rhythm obtained from nonwatchkeepers ashore. Initially, the parameters of the rhythms were similar to those of the standard; however, among eight ratings working 4-h watches in a rapidly rotating cycle, considerable changes in the rhythms occurred as the voyage progressed, and concurrent alterations in sleep patterning were observed. The most characteristic change in the rhythm was a marked decline in its amplitude. In most subjects, the rhythm also tended to depart from its original circadian pattern; in at least one case, it effectively disintegrated. One subject's rhythm appeared to "free-run" with a period greater than 24 h. A strong circadian rhythm was maintained in only one of these eight subjects. In four officers whose watch times were at fixed hours, adaptation of the rhythm to unusual times of sleep occurred in 2 of 3 cases where the schedule demanded it. The results are discussed in relation to the design of optimal watchkeeping systems for submariners. PMID:655989

  12. Size matters: plasticity in metabolic scaling shows body-size may modulate responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Sigwart, Julia D

    2014-08-01

    Variability in metabolic scaling in animals, the relationship between metabolic rate ( R: ) and body mass ( M: ), has been a source of debate and controversy for decades. R: is proportional to MB: , the precise value of B: much debated, but historically considered equal in all organisms. Recent metabolic theory, however, predicts B: to vary among species with ecology and metabolic level, and may also vary within species under different abiotic conditions. Under climate change, most species will experience increased temperatures, and marine organisms will experience the additional stressor of decreased seawater pH ('ocean acidification'). Responses to these environmental changes are modulated by myriad species-specific factors. Body-size is a fundamental biological parameter, but its modulating role is relatively unexplored. Here, we show that changes to metabolic scaling reveal asymmetric responses to stressors across body-size ranges; B: is systematically decreased under increasing temperature in three grazing molluscs, indicating smaller individuals were more responsive to warming. Larger individuals were, however, more responsive to reduced seawater pH in low temperatures. These alterations to the allometry of metabolism highlight abiotic control of metabolic scaling, and indicate that responses to climate warming and ocean acidification may be modulated by body-size. PMID:25122741

  13. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifes...

  14. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight.

  15. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. PMID:20492540

  16. Assessing climate change. Temperatures, solar radiation, and heat balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Donald

    2008-07-01

    In ASSESSING CLIMATE CHANGE Donald Rapp has investigated a large body of scientific data relevant to climate change, approaching each element with necessary (but neutral) scientific skepticism. The chapters of the book attempt to answer a number of essential questions in relation to global warming and climate change. He begins by showing how the earth's climate has varied in the past, discussing ice ages, the Holocene period since the end of the last ice age, particularly during the past 1000 years. He investigates the reliability of ''proxies'' for historical temperatures and assesses the hockey stick version of global temperatures for the past millennium. To do this effectively he looks carefully at how well near surface temperatures of land and ocean on earth have been monitored during the past 100 years or more, and looks at the utility and significance of a single global average temperature. Topics such as the variability of the Sun and the Earth's heat balance are discussed in considerable detail. The author also investigates how the current global warming trend compares with past fluctuations in earth's climate and what is the likelihood that the warming trend we are experiencing now is primarily just another in a series of natural climate fluctuations as opposed to a direct result of human activities. A key factor in understanding what may happen in the future is to examine the credibility of the global climate models which claim that greenhouse gases produce most of the temperature rise of the 20th Century, and forecast much greater impacts in the century ahead. Finally, the book considers future global energy requirements, fossil fuel usage and carbon dioxide production, public policy relating to global warming, and agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol. (orig.)

  17. Ostracod Body Size Change Across Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, L.; Llarena, L. A.; Saux, J.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many factors drive evolution, although it is not always clear which factors are more influential. Miller et al. (2009) found that there is a change in geographic disparity in diversity in marine biotas over time. We tested if there was also geographic disparity in body size during different epochs. We used marine ostracods, which are tiny crustaceans, as a study group for this analysis. We also studied which factor is more influential in body size change: distance or time. We compared the mean body size from different geologic time intervals as well as the mean body size from different locations for each epoch. We grouped ostracod occurrences from the Paleobiology Database into 10º x 10º grid cells on a paleogeographic map. Then we calculated the difference in mean size and the distance between the grid cells containing specimens. Our size data came from the Ellis & Messina"Catalogue of Ostracod" as well as the"Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology". Sizes were calculated by applying the formula for the volume of an ellipsoid to three linear dimensions of the ostracod carapace (anteroposterior, dorsoventral, and right-left lengths). Throughout this analysis we have come to the realization that there is a trend in ostracods towards smaller size over time. Therefore there is also a trend through time of decreasing difference in size between occurrences in different grid cells. However, if time is not taken into account, there is no correlation between size and geographic distance. This may be attributed to the fact that one might not expect a big size difference between locations that are far apart but still at a similar latitude (for example, at the equator). This analysis suggests that distance alone is not the main factor in driving changes in ostracod size over time.

  18. Asymetric change of daily temperature range: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers presented at the MINIMAX workshop. Topics include; temperature fluxes, influence of clouds on temperature, anthropogenic influences on temperature flux, and carbon dioxide and aerosol induced greenhouse effect

  19. Ambient temperature influences core body temperature response in rat lines bred for differences in sensitivity to 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Andrea C; Seiden, Lewis S

    2003-04-01

    Agonist-induced decrease in core body temperature has commonly been used as a measure of serotonin1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor sensitivity in mood disorder. The thermoregulatory basis for 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist-induced temperature responses in humans and rats remains unclear. Therefore, the influence of ambient temperature on 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated decreases in core body temperature were measured in rat lines bred for high (HDS) or low (LDS) sensitivity to the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT). HDS and LDS rats were injected with either saline, 0.25 or 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at ambient temperatures of 10.5, 24, 30, or 37.5 degrees C, and core temperature was measured by radiotelemetry. For both lines, the thermic response to acute 8-OH-DPAT was greatest at 10.5 degrees C and decreased in magnitude as ambient temperature increased to 30 degrees C, consistent with hypothermia. HDS rats displayed a greater hypothermic response than LDS rats at 10.5, 24, and 30 degrees C. At 37.5 degrees C, LDS rats showed a lethal elevation of temperature in response to 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT. All thermic responses to 8-OH-DPAT, including the lethality, were effectively blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635, suggesting line differences in thermoregulatory circuits that are influenced by 5-HT(1A) receptor activation. Following repeated injection of 8-OH-DPAT, the magnitude of the hypothermic response decreased in both lines at 10.5 degrees C, but increased in HDS rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at 30 and 37.5 degrees C. This pattern was reversed in HDS rats following 8-OH-DPAT challenge at 24 degrees C, suggesting that a compensatory thermoregulatory response accounts for changes in the hypothermic response to chronic 8-OH-DPAT. PMID:12649391

  20. [Hyperthermia. Modification of body temperature as clinical therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuña Urtasun, Berta; Villalgordo Ortin, Paola; Montes García, Yolanda; Marín, Fernández Blanca

    2011-04-01

    The application of heat or cold therapy is called thermotherapy Thermotherapy has been used since ancient times, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans used solar radiation or submersion in springs to apply heat and ice and snow for cold application. The first scientific references related to thermotherapy appear in late eighteenth century but the twentieth century when the introduction of new forms of deep heat therapy have expanded their capabilities and their operation with media surface more comfortable and effective. Thermotherapy although they require more experimentation to obtain a solid scientific proof that their use is raising great expectations in various fields such as oncology treatment, surgery neurology etc. In the surgical field thermal ablation has been used successfully in the treatment of various diseases, benign prostatic hyperplasia, liver and gynecological tumors, among others. In the field of oncology has been shown to improve outcomes diathermy applied in conjunction with chemo and radiation therapy Based on the literature review describing the main uses of the change in temperature as a therapeutic, the main indications for these techniques, as applicable, evidence of its benefits and complications arising from their use.

  1. 低温体外循环术后体温变化对血乳酸及氧代谢的影响%Effects of body temperature change on the level of lactic acid and oxygen metabolism after the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继芝; 彭玉兰; 秦卫华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of body temperature change on the level of arterial blood lactic acid and oxygen metabolism after the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB),and to provide a basis for controlling body temperature of patients.Methods 60 patients performed the open cardiac operation under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass were monitored.The arterial and mixed venous blood gas,and the level of lactic acid were measured at four different rectal temperatures:37,37.5,38℃ and 38.5℃,by taking samples of arterial and venous bloods.Results The systemic arterial-venous oxygen content and oxygen extraction were increased during rewarming time.The level of arterial blood lactic acid at the rectal temperature of 37.5℃ mostly approachs the nornlal value.next is at the rectal temperature of 37℃ and 38 ℃,respectively.And the level of arterial blood laetic acid at the rectal temperature of 38.5℃ is the hilghest (hyperlactacidemia).The difference shows a statistically significance.Conclusions During the rewarming process after the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB),the body temperature change is a key factor influencing oxygen extraction and blood lactic acid level.The nursing staff should control the body temperature of patients with the safe range of around 37.5℃.%目的 探讨低温体外循环心脏术后复温过程中体温变化对血乳酸水平及氧代谢的影响,为合理控制患者体温提供依据.方法 对60例低温体外循环心脏术后患者进行监测,分别在肛温37,37.5,38,38.5℃时采集动、静脉血标本,检测动静脉血氧代谢及血乳酸值.结果 复温时全身的氧耗量明显增加;动脉血乳酸值在肛温37.5℃时最接近正常,37,38℃时次之,肛温38.5℃时血乳酸值最高(高乳酸血症),差异有统计学意义.结论 在低温体外循环心脏术后复温过程中,体温变化是影响氧耗量和血乳酸水平的重要因素,护理人员应将患者体温控制在37.5℃左右的安全范围内.

  2. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  3. Model of local temperature changes in brain upon functional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher M; Smith, Michael B; Turner, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Experimental results for changes in brain temperature during functional activation show large variations. It is, therefore, desirable to develop a careful numerical model for such changes. Here, a three-dimensional model of temperature in the human head using the bioheat equation, which includes effects of metabolism, perfusion, and thermal conduction, is employed to examine potential temperature changes due to functional activation in brain. It is found that, depending on location in brain and corresponding baseline temperature relative to blood temperature, temperature may increase or decrease on activation and concomitant increases in perfusion and rate of metabolism. Changes in perfusion are generally seen to have a greater effect on temperature than are changes in metabolism, and hence active brain is predicted to approach blood temperature from its initial temperature. All calculated changes in temperature for reasonable physiological parameters have magnitudes <0.12 degrees C and are well within the range reported in recent experimental studies involving human subjects.

  4. Small body exploration: triggering major changes of paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The solar system space exploration, in revealing a totally unexpected diversity of the planetary worlds, is triggering an in-depth revisiting of our understanding of the processes responsible for their formation and evolution. It drives a complete change of paradigm, in particular in the address of the time and space scale of Earth and life unicity. Small bodies have preserved some of the initial ingredients and early processes which modelled and shaped the diversity of planetary pathways. Their exploration has thus a critical potential, in particular in delivering key clues of astrobiological relevance. We shall present some of the major results recently acquired, with a specific emphasis on Philae and Rosetta, and discuss them in the frame of the ongoing and planned programs of small body space exploration.

  5. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs.

  6. Spectral-based inferential measurement of grey-body's temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng; Liu, Liying; Zhu, Lingxi; Huan, Kewei; Li, Ye; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    Aiming at the problems of temperature measurement and the defects of radiance thermometry theory, one method of spectral-based inferential measurement is proposed, which adopts the Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) functional model as the temperature measurement model. Then, the radiance thermometry theory and inferential measurement technology are discussed comparatively. Temperatures of some targets, such and tungsten lamp and solar surface, are measured by spectral-based inferential measurement.

  7. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S.; Hazel, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1–3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38oC, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal temperatures

  8. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  9. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  10. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J. Littman, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96 and 3,790 men without amputation frequency-matched (5:1 on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline up to 39 mo of follow-up in men with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%–9% increase than in men with a PFA (3%–6% increase. Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  11. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  12. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue. PMID:26244755

  13. Relationship between core temperature change during recovery and prognosis in classic heat stroke rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-nan LIU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To construct classic heat stroke rat models, and observe the changes of body temperature in the recovery period after heat stress to explore its relationship with prognosis. Methods Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into heat stroke group (HS group, n=50 and control group (C group, n=10. Rats in HS group were exposed to 39℃ heat stress. Core temperature and systolic blood pressure (SBP of rats were monitored until it reached diagnostic criteria of heat stroke. The core body temperature and survival were continuously monitored until 72h. The risk factors of survival were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results During the recovery, compared with the control group, the body temperature of the HS rats represented a biphasic change that consisted of an initial hypothermia and a delayed hyperthermia. Univariable analysis showed that both the highest and lowest core body temperatures were correlated with prognosis in the heat stroke rats (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis revealed that both the highest core body temperature (P=0.000, HR=102.386 and lowest core body temperature in the recovery period (P=0.001, HR=0.134 were the independent risk factors for heat stroke. Conclusion In heat stroke rats, the higher the core body temperature and the deeper the depth of hypothermia, the poorer the prognosis. Core body temperature in heat stress and recovery period could serve as prognostic indexes in heat stroke. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.10.007

  14. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pifferi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly.

  15. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  16. Temperature Trapping: Energy-Free Maintenance of Constant Temperatures as Ambient Temperature Gradients Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Huang, Jiping

    2016-07-01

    It is crucial to maintain constant temperatures in an energy-efficient way. Here we establish a temperature-trapping theory for asymmetric phase-transition materials with thermally responsive thermal conductivities. Then we theoretically introduce and experimentally demonstrate a concept of an energy-free thermostat within ambient temperature gradients. The thermostat is capable of self-maintaining a desired constant temperature without the need of consuming energy even though the environmental temperature gradient varies in a large range. As a model application of the concept, we design and show a different type of thermal cloak that has a constant temperature inside its central region in spite of the changing ambient temperature gradient, which is in sharp contrast to all the existing thermal cloaks. This work has relevance to energy-saving heat preservation, and it provides guidance both for manipulating heat flow without energy consumption and for designing new metamaterials with temperature-responsive or field-responsive parameters in many disciplines such as thermotics, optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, mechanics, electrics, and magnetism.

  17. Changes of Body Temperature and Oxygen Consumption of Shivering or Non-shivering Patients in Postoperative Forepart after General Anesthesia%全麻术后早期寒颤与非寒颤病人体温和耗氧量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康孝荣; 李晓强; 王恩真

    2001-01-01

    探讨全麻术后早期寒颤与非寒颤病人体温恢复和耗氧量变化的关系。方法:随机对21例寒颤和29例非寒颤病人的鼓膜温度和耗氧量进行监测,比较两组病人手术结束到术后40分鼓膜温度和耗氧量的变化,并对寒颤前后耗氧量进行比较。结果:两组病人的鼓膜温度均无显著升高,升高程度两组间也无显著性差异。术后40分的耗氧量都高于手术结束时,寒颤病人耗氧量增加显著,寒颤后耗氧量高于寒颤前。结论:寒颤对全麻术后早期病人体温恢复没有显著影响,相反增加耗氧量。%To probe into the relationship between the recoveries of body temperature and the changes of oxygen consumption of shivering or non-shivering patients in the postoperative forepart after general anesthesia. Methods:The tympanic temperatures and oxygen consumptions were randomly observed in 21 shivering and 29 non-shivering patients. The changes of tympanic temperatures and oxygen consumptions from the end of operation to 40 minutes after operation were compared between the two group patients,and the oxygen consumptions between before and after shivering were also compared. Results: The tympanic temperatures of all the two group patients did not significantly increase, and there was no significant difference in the increase degree between the two groups. All the oxygen consumptions at 40 minutes after operation were very significantly higher than those at the end of operation, the increase of oxygen consumptions in shivering patients markedly more than that in non-shivering patients, and the oxygen consumptions after shivering was very significantly higher than those before shivering. Conclusion:Shivering has no significant effect on the recovery of body temperature in the postoperative forepart after general anesthesia and increases the oxygen consumptions contrarily.

  18. Early changes in corticospinal excitability when seeing fearful body expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Vitale, Francesca; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-09-21

    Quick inhibition of approach tendencies in response to signals of potential threats is thought to promote survival. However, little is known about the effect of viewing fearful expressions on the early dynamics of the human motor system. We used the high temporal resolution of single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex to assess corticospinal excitability (CSE) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) during observation of happy, fearful and neutral body postures. To test motor circuits involved in approach tendencies, CSE and ICF were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), a muscle involved in grasping, and the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), which served as a control. To test early motor dynamics, CSE and ICF were measured 70-90 ms after stimulus onset. We found a selective reduction in CSE in the FDI when participants observed fearful body expressions. No changes in ICF or in the excitability of APB were detected. Our study establishes an extremely rapid motor system reaction to observed fearful body expressions. This motor modulation involves corticospinal downstream projections but not cortical excitatory mechanisms, and appears to reflect an inhibition of hand grasping. Our results suggest a fast visuo-motor route that may rapidly inhibit inappropriate approaching actions.

  19. Body temperature measurements in pigs during general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, G C; Costa, R S; Tuke, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to compare rectal, pharyngeal and oesophageal temperature measurements in anaesthetized pigs. Data were compared using the Bland-Altman method, and correlation coefficients and error measures were calculated. Sixty-six sets of data were collected from 16 pigs weighing 16.2 ± 4.2 kg. The bias (and 95% limit of agreement) for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature were 0.69 (-1.18 to 2.57) ℃ and 0.22 (-0.84 to 1.28) ℃, respectively. The correlation coefficients for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature were 0.47 and 0.87, respectively. The absolute error for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature was 0.7 ± 0.9℃ and 0.2 ± 0.5℃, respectively. Pharyngeal temperature measurement may be more suitable than rectal temperature measurement for estimation of oesophageal temperature during general anaesthesia of pigs.

  20. Sleeping body temperatures in 3-4 month old infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Wailoo, M P; Petersen, S A; Whittaker, H.; Goodenough, P

    1989-01-01

    Rectal, skin, and ambient temperatures were continuously recorded overnight from 3-4 month old normal infants in their home cots under conditions of room temperature and wrapping chosen freely by parents. It was found that rectal temperature was above 37 degrees C when infants were put down, but fell rapidly to 36.4 degrees C within one and a half hours, then stabilised for a few hours before rising steadily. This pattern was tied more closely to the time of putting down than time of day. The...

  1. New insulating material in maintenance of body temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, B M; Bates, A R; Gray, O. P.; Pearson, J F; Wardrop, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Flectalon, web of aluminised polyvinylchloride fibres, has been formulated to minimise radiant heat losses and to provide conventional insulation. Critical temperature determinations were used to assess the insulating efficacy of this and other swaddling materials in infants. The critical temperature for a baby 2 to 10 days old was 31 degrees C when naked and 23 degrees C when wrapped in a Silver Swaddler or a sheet and two blankets. The use of a quilt made with Thinsulate or Hollofil with a ...

  2. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-12-15

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism's size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the temperature-dependent physical properties of water (e.g. viscosity) in determining swimming speed is poorly understood. Here we propose a semi-mechanistic model to describe how biological rates, size and the physics of the environment contribute to the temperature dependency of microbial swimming speed. Data on the swimming speed and size of a predatory protist and its protist prey were collected and used to test our model. Data were collected by manipulating both the temperature and the viscosity (independently of temperature) of the organism's environment. Protists were either cultured in their test environment (for several generations) or rapidly exposed to their test environment to assess their ability to adapt or acclimate to treatments. Both biological rates and the physics of the environment were predicted to and observed to contribute to the swimming speed of protists. Body size was not temperature dependent, and protists expressed some ability to acclimate to changes in either temperature or viscosity. Overall, using our parameter estimates and novel model, we are able to suggest that 30 to 40% (depending on species) of the response in swimming speed associated with a reduction in temperature from 20 to 5°C is due to viscosity. Because encounter rates between protist predators and their prey are determined by swimming speed, temperature- and viscosity-dependent swimming speeds are likely to result in temperature- and viscosity-dependent trophic interactions. PMID:21113003

  3. Too hot to sleep? Sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen T Downs

    Full Text Available The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed. Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%, compared with summer (15.6%. In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios.

  4. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  5. Detecting changing river temperatures in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet G Orr; Gavin L. SIMPSON; des Clers, Sophie; Watts, Glenn; Hughes, Mike; Hannaford, Jamie; Dunbar, Michael J; Laize, Cedric L.R.; Wilby, Rob L.; Battarbee, Richard W.; Evans, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Changes in water temperature can have important consequences for aquatic ecosystems, with some species being sensitive even to small shifts in temperature during some or all of their lifecycle. While many studies report increasing regional and global air temperatures, evidence of changes in river water temperature has thus far been site-specific and often from sites heavily influenced by human activities that themselves could lead to warming. Here we present a tiered assessment of changing ri...

  6. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The pill temperature (Tpill) was compared with the rectal temperature (Tre) and esophageal temperature (Tes). Tpill corresponded well to Tre during the entire trial, but deviated considerably from Tes during the exercise and recovery periods. During maximal exercise, the average ΔTpill−Tre and ΔTpill−Tes were 0.13 ± 0.26 and −0.57 ± 0.53 °C, respectively. The response time from the start of exercise, the rate of change during exercise and the peak temperature were similar for Tpill and Tre. Tes responded 5 min earlier, increased more than twice as fast and its peak value was 0.42 ± 0.46 °C higher than Tpill. In conclusion, also during considerable temperature changes at a very high rate, Tpill is still a representative of Tre. The extent of the deviation in the pattern and peak values between Tpill and Tes (up to >1 °C) strengthens the assumption that Tpill is unsuited to evaluate central blood temperature when body temperatures change rapidly. (paper)

  7. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Body Temperature and Rest Metabolic Rate in Apodemus chevrieri During Postnatal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature(5oC and 10oC, relatively and RMR significant increased when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature(35oC when 28 day; when day age was 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of A. chevrieri in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  8. Optimization of a pain model: effects of body temperature and anesthesia on bladder nociception in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Katelyn E; Stratton, Jarred M; DeBerry, Jennifer J; Kolber, Benedict J

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating urological condition that is resistant to treatment and poorly understood. To determine novel molecular treatment targets and to elucidate the contribution of the nervous system to IC/BPS, many rodent bladder pain models have been developed. In this study we evaluated the effects of anesthesia induction and temperature variation in a mouse model of bladder pain known as urinary bladder distension (UBD). In this model compressed air is used to distend the bladder to distinct pressures while electrodes record the reflexive visceromotor response (VMR) from the overlying abdominal muscle. Two isoflurane induction models are commonly used before UBD: a short method lasting approximately 30 minutes and a long method lasting approximately 90 minutes. Animals were anesthetized with one of the methods then put through three sets of graded bladder distensions. Distensions performed following the short anesthesia protocol were significantly different from one another despite identical testing parameters; this same effect was not observed when the long anesthesia protocol was used. In order to determine the effect of temperature on VMRs, animals were put through three graded distension sets at 37.5 (normal mouse body temperature), 35.5, and 33.5°C. Distensions performed at 33.5 and 35.5°C were significantly lower than those performed at 37.5°C. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed significantly smaller increases in spinal levels of phosphorylated extracellular-signal regulated kinase 2 (pERK2) following bladder distension in animals whose body temperature was maintained at 33.5°C as opposed to 37.5°C. These results highlight the significance of the dynamic effects of anesthesia on pain-like changes and the importance of close monitoring of temperature while performing UBD. For successful interpretation of VMRs and translation to human disease, body temperature should be maintained at 37.5

  9. How Temperature Changes Reset a Circadian Oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrow, Martha; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    1998-01-01

    Circadian rhythms control many physiological activities. The environmental entrainment of rhythms involves the immediate responses of clock components. Levels of the clock protein FRQ were measured in Neurospora at various temperatures; at higher temperatures, the amount of FRQ oscillated around hig

  10. Constraints on the Adiabatic Temperature Change in Magnetocaloric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the magnetocaloric effect implies constraints on the allowed variation in the adiabatic temperature change for a magnetocaloric material. An inequality for the derivative of the adiabatic temperature change with respect to temperature is derived for both first- and second......-order materials. For materials with a continuous adiabatic temperature change as a function of temperature, this inequality is shown to hold for all temperatures. However, discontinuous materials may violate the inequality. We compare our results with measured results in the literature and discuss...

  11. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  12. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-02-01

    Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes.

  13. The use of body mass changes as a practical measure of dehydration in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gemma; Meir, Rudi; Brooks, Lyndon; Holloway, Kate

    2008-11-01

    Body mass changes, hematocrit, specific gravity and urine colour were recorded during two games of soccer to determine which of these methods was the most practical in a field setting for monitoring dehydration. Members (n=13) of a premiership soccer team with a mean age of 22.6 (+/-4.9) years old, height of 177.8 (+/-7.1)cm and sum of skinfolds (four sites) of 37 (+/-12.8) were invited to participate in this study with 11 participating in each game. Players had weight, hematocrit, specific gravity and urine colour recorded pre- and post-game. Players were allowed to ingest fluid ad libitum throughout the matches with the amount consumed recorded. Urine excretion was also recorded and included in the calculation of final body mass loss (kg). A mean ambient temperature of 21 degrees C and relative humidity 77% was recorded for both games. Pre- and post-game body mass, sweat loss, hematocrit, urine specific gravity and colour were significantly different (pprediction equation for sweat loss. The model predicting from mass change was clearly the best fitting. The results demonstrate that a change in body mass during a game of soccer is an effective method of monitoring dehydration due to sweat loss when compared to other known methods that may be invasive and inappropriate in the field. PMID:17888734

  14. Effects of Body Weight and Water Temperature on Maximum Food Consumption of Juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢松光; 杨红生; 周毅; 张福绥

    2004-01-01

    Maximum rate of food consumption (Cmax) was determined for juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn) at water temperature of 10, 15, 20 and 25℃. The relationships of Cmax to the body weight (W) at each temperature were described by a power equation: lnCmax = a + b lnW. Covariance analysis revealed significant interaction of the temperature and body weight. The relationship of adjusted Cmax to water temperature (T) was described by a quadratic equation: Cmax =-0.369 + 0.456T - 0.0117T2. The optimal feeding temperature calculated from this equation was 19.5℃. The coefficients of the multiple regression estimation relating Cmax to body weight (W) and water temperature (T) were given in the Table 2.

  15. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  16. MRI Could Be Changed Vertebral Body Fracture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jalal Shokouki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Evaluation of spinal column fracture or trauma with MRI in more than two years among 500 patients can change classifications of frac-tures that is important because of intervention ther-apy methods like vertebroplasty and kyfoplasty. As there are changes at Salter harrie fractures, classifica-tion, treatments` way, and management of vertebral body fracture will change. Also MRI can show inter-nal parts ruptures, vessel punctures, and show the size of hematomas."nPatients and Methods: Fifty patients at two imaging centers have been tested with MRI 1.5 tesla machines from GE and Siemens with superficial coil, and all of them had vertebral column trauma. We used T1 and T2 sagital and in some cases STIR or FAT SAT sagital. "nResults: Among our cases, 147 had fractures, and two cases had spinal punctures. The most common from of fractures were anterior wedging with compression of upper endplate. "nThe maximum fractures were five in a single trauma and mostly there were 2-3 fractures in a single trau-ma. Most of the fractures did not appear at X-ray, but they revealed at MRI specially with STIR pulse."nConclusion: 1 MRI especially STIR pulse is definite and sensitive to compression even in slight among which can be hidden from X-ray and CT. 2 Findings number and form of fractures with MRI, comparing with clinical signs will change classification of verte-bral fractures that leads to the better treatment re-sults. 3 CT is better for vertebral appendix fractures. 4 MRI is better for seeing complications of soft tis-sue. 5 MRI is better for siagnosins of old complica-tions and old fractures.

  17. Influence of body temperatures and hypercapnia on pulmonary ventilation during hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Jesse Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Static and dynamic body temperatures, hypercapnia, and exercise state were assessed for their influence on human pulmonary ventilation. METHODS: In study 1, each participant exercised with normothermic and hyperthermic core temperatures, in ambient temperatures of 25, 30 and 35°C, and were subjected to hypercapnic challenges of +4 and +8 mmHg in each condition. In study 2 before and after sub-maximal exercise, radiant heating was employed to assess the influence of dynamic skin temperature on...

  18. Spatial and body-size dependent response of marine pelagic communities to projected global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Stelly; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Arsouze, Thomas; Gehlen, Marion; Maury, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, oxygen, and food availability directly affect marine life. Climate models project a global warming of the ocean's surface (~+3 °C), a de-oxygenation of the ocean's interior (~-3%) and a decrease in total marine net primary production (~-8%) under the 'business as usual' climate change scenario (RCP8.5). We estimated the effects of these changes on biological communities using a coupled biogeochemical (PISCES)--ecosystems (APECOSM) model forced by the physical outputs of the last generation of the IPSL-CM Earth System Model. The APECOSM model is a size-structured bio-energetic model that simulates the 3D dynamical distributions of three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, mesopelagic, and migratory) under the effects of multiple environmental factors. The PISCES-APECOSM model ran from 1850 to 2100 under historical forcing followed by RCP8.5. Our RCP8.5 simulation highlights significant changes in the spatial distribution, biomass, and maximum body-size of the simulated pelagic communities. Biomass and maximum body-size increase at high latitude over the course of the century, reflecting the capacity of marine organisms to respond to new suitable environment. At low- and midlatitude, biomass and maximum body-size strongly decrease. In those regions, large organisms cannot maintain their high metabolic needs because of limited and declining food availability. This resource reduction enhances the competition and modifies the biomass distribution among and within the three communities: the proportion of small organisms increases in the three communities and the migrant community that initially comprised a higher proportion of small organisms is favored. The greater resilience of small body-size organisms resides in their capacity to fulfill their metabolic needs under reduced energy supply and is further favored by the release of predation pressure due to the decline of large organisms. These results suggest that small body-size organisms might be

  19. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enøe Claes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable transponders were compared with rectal temperatures, recorded by a conventional digital thermometer. Methods In a preliminary study, transponders were inserted subcutaneously at 6 different positions of the body of 5 pigs. The transponders positioned by the ear base provided the best correlation to rectal temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1°C lower than the rectal temperature. However, a simple linear relationship between the measures of the two methods was found. Conclusions Our study showed that the tested body monitoring system may represent a promising tool to obtain an approximate correlate of body temperatures in groups of pigs. In contrast, however, the tested system did not constitute a suitable tool to measure body temperatures of individual animals in the present pig infection experiment.

  20. Leptin actions on food intake and body temperature are mediated by IL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Luheshi, Giamal N; Gardner, Jason D.; Rushforth, David A.; Loudon, Andrew S.; Rothwell, Nancy J

    1999-01-01

    Leptin regulates energy balance through its actions in the brain on appetite and energy expenditure and also shares properties with cytokines such as IL-1. We report here that leptin, injected into rats intracerebroventricularly or peripherally, induces significant dose-dependent increases in core body temperature as well as suppression of appetite. Leptin failed to affect food intake or body temperature in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, which posses a defective leptin receptor. Furthermore, inje...

  1. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  2. Tourette syndrome associated with body temperature dysregulation: possible involvement of an idiopathic hypothalamic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Abraham R

    2002-10-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder that holds the potential to afflict the emotional, familial, social, or scholastic performances of patients with Tourette syndrome in day-to-day life functioning. The disorder is today characterized mainly and diagnosed by clinical observations, yet false-negative results obtained in the diagnosis of Tourette syndrome are numerous and well documented. There is still no laboratory or imaging technique available for the diagnosis of Tourette syndrome. This article reports on changes of the ambient thermal perception (38%) and a circadian dysregulation of the body-temperature profile present in Tourette syndrome probands, irrespective of their chronologic age, sex, or comorbid symptoms. An involvement of idiopathic hypothalamic dysfunctions associated with Tourette syndrome is proposed. Such a phenomenon, if substantiated, could lead to a better understanding of Tourette syndrome and the development of unbiased physical diagnostic criteria of Tourette syndrome and potentiate possible production of novel therapeutic possibilities.

  3. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sheean, Patricia M.; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971–2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography (CAT)...

  4. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: a double-blind, randomized phase II clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); E.J. van Breda (Eric); H.M.A. van Gemert (Maarten); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); R.J. Meijer (Ron); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Body temperature is a strong predictor of outcome in acute stroke. However, it is unknown whether antipyretic treatment leads to early and clinically worthwhile reduction of body temperature in patients with acute stroke, especially w

  5. Effects of temperature change on fatigue life of carbon steel in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain controlled fatigue tests of a carbon steel in oxygenated high temperature water were carried out under the condition of combined and synchronized mechanical and thermal strain cycling. The effects of temperature change on environmental fatigue life were investigated, showing basic conceptual data to evaluate the fatigue damage under the condition of transient temperature change of actual plant components

  6. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model. PMID:21664886

  7. CHANGES IN RELATIVE FITNESS WITH TEMPERATURE AMONG 2ND CHROMOSOME ARRANGEMENTS IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDELDEN, W; KAMPING, A

    1991-01-01

    Development time and body weight of In(2L)t, R (a putative short inversion on the left arm of the second chromosome) and ST (standard) karyotypes of Drosophila melanogaster were measured at different temperatures. Frequency changes were followed in populations polymorphic for In(2L)t and ST and kept

  8. Contrasting effects of temperature and precipitation change on amphibian phenology, abundance and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Maiorano, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    Climate change is determining a generalized phenological advancement, and amphibians are among the taxa showing the strongest phenological responsiveness to warming temperatures. Amphibians are strongly influenced by climate change, but we do not have a clear picture of how climate influences important parameters of amphibian populations, such as abundance, survival, breeding success and morphology. Furthermore, the relative impact of temperature and precipitation change remains underappreciated. We used Bayesian meta-analysis and meta-regression to quantify the impact of temperature and precipitation change on amphibian phenology, abundance, individual features and performance. We obtained effect sizes from studies performed in five continents. Temperature increase was the major driver of phenological advancement, while the impact of precipitation on phenology was weak. Conversely, population dynamics was mostly determined by precipitation: negative trends were associated with drying regimes. The impact of precipitation on abundance was particularly strong in tropical areas, while the importance of temperature was feeble. Both temperature and precipitation influenced parameters representing breeding performance, morphology, developmental rate and survival, but the response was highly heterogeneous among species. For instance, warming temperature increased body size in some species, and decreased size in others. Similarly, rainy periods increased survival of some species and reduced the survival of others. Our study showed contrasting impacts of temperature and precipitation changes on amphibian populations. Both climatic parameters strongly influenced amphibian performance, but temperature was the major determinant of the phenological changes, while precipitation had the major role on population dynamics, with alarming declines associated with drying trends.

  9. Speed over efficiency: locusts select body temperatures that favour growth rate over efficient nutrient utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Gabriel A; Clissold, Fiona J; Mayntz, David;

    2009-01-01

    Ectotherms have evolved preferences for particular body temperatures, but the nutritional and life-history consequences of such temperature preferences are not well understood. We measured thermal preferences in Locusta migratoria (migratory locusts) and used a multi-factorial experimental design...

  10. Variations of body temperature and metabolism during entrance into cold lethargy in the bat Myotis myotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldmaier, Gerhard

    1970-01-01

    Bats of temperate zones which hibernate during winter become cold-lethargic during their diurnal rest time even in summer. At the end of their nocturnal activity period they show a drop in body temperature close to ambient temperature (M. myotis, cf. Pohl, 1961). This takes place periodically even i

  11. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting

  12. Observational Evidence of Changes in Soil Temperatures across Eurasian Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil temperature is one of the key climate change indicators and plays an important role in plant growth, agriculture, carbon cycle and ecosystems as a whole. In this study, variability and changes in ground surface and soil temperatures up to 3.20 m were investigated based on data and information obtained from hydrometeorological stations across Eurasian continent since the early 1950s. Ground surface and soil temperatures were measured daily by using the same standard method and by the trained professionals across Eurasian continent, which makes the dataset unique and comparable over a large study region. Using the daily soil temperature profiles, soil seasonal freeze depth was also obtained through linear interpolation. Preliminary results show that soil temperatures at various depths have increased dramatically, almost twice as much as air temperature increase over the same period. Regionally, soil temperature increase was more dramatically in high northern latitudes than mid/lower latitude regions. Air temperature changes alone may not be able to fully explain the magnitude of changes in soil temperatures. Further study indicates that snow cover establishment started later in autumn and snow cover disappearance occurred earlier in spring, while winter snow depth became thicker with a decreasing trend of snow density. Changes in snow cover conditions may play an important role in changes of soil temperatures over the Eurasian continent.

  13. Agreement between auricular and rectal measurements of body temperature in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of body temperature is a routine part of the clinical assessment of a patient. However, this procedure may be time-consuming and stressful to most animals because the standard site of temperature acquisition remains the rectal mucosa. Although an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature, evidence is still lacking regarding agreement between these two methods in cats. In this investigation, we evaluated the agreement between temperatures measured in the rectum and ear in 29 healthy cats over a 2-week period. Temperatures were measured in the rectum (using digital and mercury-in-glass thermometers) and ear once a day for 14 consecutive days, producing 406 temperature readings for each thermometer. Mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar between methods, and Bland-Altman plots showed small biases and narrow limits of agreement acceptable for clinical purposes. The interobserver variability was also checked, which indicated a strong correlation between two near-simultaneous temperature readings. Results are consistent with auricular thermometry being a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature in healthy cats.

  14. Novel energy-saving strategies to multiple stressors in birds: the ultradian regulation of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Roussel, Damien; Voituron, Yann; Teulier, Loïc

    2016-09-28

    This study aimed to examine thermoregulatory responses in birds facing two commonly experienced stressors, cold and fasting. Logging devices allowing long-term and precise access to internal body temperature were placed within the gizzards of ducklings acclimated to cold (CA) (5°C) or thermoneutrality (TN) (25°C). The animals were then examined under three equal 4-day periods: ad libitum feeding, fasting and re-feeding. Through the analysis of daily as well as short-term, or ultradian, variations of body temperature, we showed that while ducklings at TN show only a modest decline in daily thermoregulatory parameters when fasted, they exhibit reduced surface temperatures from key sites of vascular heat exchange during fasting. The CA birds, on the other hand, significantly reduced their short-term variations of body temperature while increasing long-term variability when fasting. This phenomenon would allow the CA birds to reduce the energetic cost of body temperature maintenance under fasting. By analysing ultradian regulation of body temperature, we describe a means by which an endotherm appears to lower thermoregulatory costs in response to the combined stressors of cold and fasting.

  15. Perceived intensity of peripheral thermal stimuli is independent of internal body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, G D

    1976-12-01

    Four adult male human subjects were tested under three conditions of internal body temperature: hypothermia, normal, and hyperthermia. Under each of these conditions, they judged the intensity (degree of warmness or coolness) and the hedonic quality (degree of pleasantness or unpleasantness) of a series of stimuli ranging from hot to cold. The results showed that whereas hedonic quality is greatly influenced by the value of internal body temperature, the perception of warmness or coolness is independent of internal temperature and dependent only on peripheral stimulation.

  16. Climate Change Signal Analysis for Northeast Asian Surface Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Byungsoo KIM; Keon-Tae SOHN; Won-Tae KOWN; Seung-Ki MIN

    2005-01-01

    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO42-) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SOl- effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959-1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10%-21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO42- played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO24- scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1° by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  17. Influence of a temperature change on in-reactor creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a series of pressurized tube creep experiments were evaluated to determine the effect of a temperature change on the in-reactor creep of AISI 316 stainless steel. In contrast to prior experiments where a temperature change was imposed and only a short interval of additional fluence accumulated prior to examination, this experiment examines the long term effects of a temperature change. Data are reported from three separate experiments in which the temperature history was altered by a linear reduction with fluence, a step increase and a step decrease. Analysis of the data indicated that the long term creep rate adjusts to the new temperature. However, evidence of swelling and stress affected swelling resulting from the temperature change were found

  18. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    1999-01-01

    the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05°C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0°C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40.1-40.2°C, muscle...... (all P muscle temperature (40.1-40.3 and 40.7-40.9°C, respectively), but with significantly different skin temperature (38.4 ± 0.4 vs. 35.6 ± 0.2°C during high vs. low rate of heat storage......We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature...

  19. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling for the analysis of longitudinal body core temperature data in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Ming Chai, Adam Kian; Yuen Fun, David Chiok; Teo, Ya Shi; Sze Tan, Pearl Min; Ang, Wee Hon; Wei Lee, Jason Kai

    2016-04-01

    Many longitudinal studies have collected serial body core temperature (T c) data to understand thermal work strain of workers under various environmental and operational heat stress environments. This provides the opportunity for the development of mathematical models to analyse and forecast temporal T c changes across populations of subjects. Such models can reduce the need for invasive methods that continuously measure T c. This current work sought to develop a nonlinear mixed effects modelling framework to delineate the dynamic changes of T c and its association with a set of covariates of interest (e.g. heart rate, chest skin temperature), and the structure of the variability of T c in various longitudinal studies. Data to train and evaluate the model were derived from two laboratory investigations involving male soldiers who participated in either a 12 (N  =  18) or 15 km (N  =  16) foot march with varied clothing, load and heat acclimatisation status. Model qualification was conducted using nonparametric bootstrap and cross validation procedures. For cross validation, the trajectory of a new subject's T c was simulated via Bayesian maximum a posteriori estimation when using only the baseline T c or using the baseline T c as well as measured T c at the end of every work (march) phase. The final model described T c versus time profiles using a parametric function with its main parameters modelled as a sigmoid hyperbolic function of the load and/or chest skin temperature. Overall, T c predictions corresponded well with the measured data (root mean square deviation: 0.16 °C), and compared favourably with those provided by two recently published Kalman filter models. PMID:26963194

  20. Observed soil temperature trends associated with climate change in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Budong; Gregorich, Edward G.; Gameda, Sam; Hopkins, David W.; Wang, Xiaolan L.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in soil temperature are important, but rarely reported, indicators of climate change. On the basis of the soil temperature data from 30 climate stations across Canada during 1958-2008, trends in soil temperatures at 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 150 cm depths were analyzed, together with atmospheric variables, such as air temperature, precipitation, and depth of snow on the ground, observed at the same locations. There was a significant positive trend with soil temperatures in spring and summer means, but not for the winter and annual means. A positive trend with time in soil temperature was detected at about two-thirds of the stations at all depths below 5 cm. A warming trend of 0.26-0.30°C/decade was consistently detected in spring (March-April-May) at all depths between 1958 and 2008. The warming trend in soil temperatures was associated with trends in air temperatures and snow cover depth over the same period. A significant decreasing trend in snow cover depth in winter and spring was associated with increasing air temperatures. The combined effects of the higher air temperature and reduced snow depth probably resulted in an enhanced increasing trend in spring soil temperatures, but no significant trends in winter soil temperatures. The thermal insulation by snow cover appeared to play an important role in the response of soil temperatures to climate change and must be accounted for in projecting future soil-related impacts of climate change.

  1. Dopamine Signalling in Mushroom Bodies Regulates Temperature-Preference Behaviour in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Sunhoe Bang; Seogang Hyun; Sung-Tae Hong; Jongkyun Kang; Kyunghwa Jeong; Joong-Jean Park; Joonho Choe; Jongkyeong Chung

    2011-01-01

    The ability to respond to environmental temperature variation is essential for survival in animals. Flies show robust temperature-preference behaviour (TPB) to find optimal temperatures. Recently, we have shown that Drosophila mushroom body (MB) functions as a center controlling TPB. However, neuromodulators that control the TPB in MB remain unknown. To identify the functions of dopamine in TPB, we have conducted various genetic studies in Drosophila. Inhibition of dopamine biosynthesis by ge...

  2. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  3. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation. (paper)

  4. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the ventilatory response to rising body temperature during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiji; Kawashima, Takayo; Suzuki, Yuichi

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of menstrual cycle on the ventilatory sensitivity to rising body temperature, ten healthy women exercised for ~60 min on a cycle ergometer at 50% of peak oxygen uptake during the follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, minute ventilation, and tidal volume were all significantly higher at baseline and during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. On the other hand, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide was significantly lower during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. Plotting ventilatory parameters against esophageal temperature revealed there to be no significant menstrual cycle-related differences in the slopes or intercepts of the regression lines, although minute ventilation and tidal volume did significantly differ during exercise with mild hyperthermia. To evaluate the cutaneous vasodilatory response, relative laser-Doppler flowmetry values were plotted against mean body temperature, which revealed that the mean body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly higher in the luteal phase than the follicular phase, but there were no significant differences in the sensitivity or peak values. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle phase influences the cutaneous vasodilatory response during exercise and the ventilatory response at rest and during exercise with mild hyperthermia, but it does not influence ventilatory responses during exercise with moderate hyperthermia. PMID:22604882

  5. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation.

  6. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  7. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (pexercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. PMID:25479573

  8. A simplified physically-based model to calculate surface water temperature of lakes from air temperature in climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.

    2012-12-01

    Modifications of water temperature are crucial for the ecology of lakes, but long-term analyses are not usually able to provide reliable estimations. This is particularly true for climate change studies based on Global Circulation Models, whose mesh size is normally too coarse for explicitly including even some of the biggest lakes on Earth. On the other hand, modeled predictions of air temperature changes are more reliable, and long-term, high-resolution air temperature observational datasets are more available than water temperature measurements. For these reasons, air temperature series are often used to obtain some information about the surface temperature of water bodies. In order to do that, it is common to exploit regression models, but they are questionable especially when it is necessary to extrapolate current trends beyond maximum (or minimum) measured temperatures. Moreover, water temperature is influenced by a variety of processes of heat exchange across the lake surface and by the thermal inertia of the water mass, which also causes an annual hysteresis cycle between air and water temperatures that is hard to consider in regressions. In this work we propose a simplified, physically-based model for the estimation of the epilimnetic temperature in lakes. Starting from the zero-dimensional heat budget, we derive a simplified first-order differential equation for water temperature, primarily forced by a seasonally varying external term (mainly related to solar radiation) and an exchange term explicitly depending on the difference between air and water temperatures. Assuming annual sinusoidal cycles of the main heat flux components at the atmosphere-lake interface, eight parameters (some of them can be disregarded, though) are identified, which can be calibrated if two temporal series of air and water temperature are available. We note that such a calibration is supported by the physical interpretation of the parameters, which provide good initial

  9. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  10. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew F.; Soldin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups. PMID:27429267

  11. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  12. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body weight......, body fat distribution, and body composition in a random group of adult Danes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsample of men and women from the Danish arm of the Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study. The subsample comprised 185 men and 191 women...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta...

  13. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  14. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. H.; Leonhardt, S.

    2013-04-01

    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  15. Method for changing brightness temperature into true temperature based on twice recognition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Song; Xiaogang Sun; Hong Tang

    2007-01-01

    The channel output of a multi-wavelength pyrometer is the brightness temperature rather than the true temperature. Twice recognition method is put forward to change the brightness temperatures of a multiwavelength pyrometer into the true temperatures of targets. Using the data offered by Dr. F. Righini,the experimental results show that the difference between the calculated true temperature based on twice recognition method and the real true temperature is within ±20 K. The method presented in this paper is feasible and effective for the true temperature measurement of targets.

  16. Locatable-body temperature monitoring based on semi-active UHF RFID tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-03-26

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program.

  17. [Realization of an adaptive method of simulating the process of temperature change of a cadaver on a microcomputer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shved, E F; Novikov, P I; Vlasov, A Iu

    1989-01-01

    Programme based on mathematical model of the process of dead body temperature changing was developed for estimation of postmortem interval. Automatic retrieval of problem solution was performed on programmable microcalculators of "Electronica MK-61" type using adaptive approach. Diagnostical accuracy in case of dead body being preserved in permanent cooling conditions is +/- 3%.

  18. Carbon Budget of Bastard Halibut Paralichthys Oliva-eus in Relation to Body Weight and Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    线薇薇; 刘瑞玉; 朱鑫华

    2003-01-01

    The effects of body weight and temperature on the carbon budget of the juvenile bastard halibut, Paralichthys olivaceus , were studied at temperature 13.5, 18, 21.5 and 24 ℃, respectively. The carbon intake, faecal and growth carbon were measured, and the carbon respiration was calculated using the carbon budget equation(CC=GC+FC+RC). The combined relationship between different components of the carbon budget, body weight and temperature could be described by regression equations: CC =1.0206 W 0.8126 e 0.1483 T; G=0.0042 W 1.4096 (-5.11 T 3+285.90 T2-5173.72 T +30314.03); FC =0.0485 W0.7711e 0.1624 T ; UC = 1.4333 W 0.6715e 0.1487 T. Body weight had no significant ffect on the carbon absorption efficiency and the conversion efficiency.

  19. Synthesis of Thermoresponsive Amphiphilic Polyurethane Gel as a New Cell Printing Material near Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chun; Li, Suming; Hu, Shiaw-Guang; Chang, Wen-Chi; Jeng, U-Ser; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-12-23

    Waterborne polyurethane (PU) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol and a second oligodiol containing amphiphilic blocks was synthesized in this study. The microstructure was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological measurement of the PU dispersion. The surface hydrophilicity measurement, infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, mechanical and thermal analyses were conducted in solid state. It was observed that the presence of a small amount of amphiphilic blocks in the soft segment resulted in significant changes in microstructure. When 90 mol % PCL diol and 10 mol % amphiphilic blocks of poly(l-lactide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PLLA-PEO) diol were used as the soft segment, the synthesized PU had a water contact angle of ∼24° and degree of crystallinity of ∼14%. The dispersion had a low viscosity below room temperature. As the temperature was raised to body temperature (37 °C), the dispersion rapidly (∼170 s) underwent sol-gel transition with excellent gel modulus (G' ≈ 6.5 kPa) in 20 min. PU dispersions with a solid content of 25-30% could be easily mixed with cells in sol state, extruded by a 3D printer, and deposited layer by layer as a gel. Cells remained alive and proliferating in the printed hydrogel scaffold. We expect that the development of novel thermoresponsive PU system can be used as smart injectable hydrogel and applied as a new type of bio-3D printing ink.

  20. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes;

    2010-01-01

    Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable...... temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1º...

  1. Changes in body composition during refeeding of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, N; Corey, M; Rossi, M F; Goldberg, E; Pencharz, P

    1988-11-01

    Changes in body composition were studied in 13 girls with anorexia nervosa before and during 2 months of refeeding. Fat body mass and fat-free body mass were derived from skin-fold measurements. Total body potassium was measured by whole body counter, and intracellular water was calculated from it. Extracellular water was measured as the bromide space after oral bromide administration. A gradual increase was noted in weight, fat body mass, fat-free body mass, and total body potassium during refeeding. Extracellular water was expanded on admission and increased in all patients in the first weeks of treatment; later it fell to normal. Most of the changes in fat-free body mass over the first weeks of refeeding could be accounted for by an expansion in extracellular water. Particular care must therefore be taken with fluid balance during the first few weeks of refeeding. PMID:3183854

  2. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Abreu-Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  3. Compensating temperature-induced ultrasonic phase and amplitude changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peng; Hay, Thomas R.; Greve, David W.; Junker, Warren R.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    In ultrasonic structural health monitoring (SHM), environmental and operational conditions, especially temperature, can significantly affect the propagation of ultrasonic waves and thus degrade damage detection. Typically, temperature effects are compensated using optimal baseline selection (OBS) or optimal signal stretch (OSS). The OSS method achieves compensation by adjusting phase shifts caused by temperature, but it does not fully compensate phase shifts and it does not compensate for accompanying signal amplitude changes. In this paper, we develop a new temperature compensation strategy to address both phase shifts and amplitude changes. In this strategy, OSS is first used to compensate some of the phase shifts and to quantify the temperature effects by stretching factors. Based on stretching factors, empirical adjusting factors for a damage indicator are then applied to compensate for the temperature induced remaining phase shifts and amplitude changes. The empirical adjusting factors can be trained from baseline data with temperature variations in the absence of incremental damage. We applied this temperature compensation approach to detect volume loss in a thick wall aluminum tube with multiple damage levels and temperature variations. Our specimen is a thick-walled short tube, with dimensions closely comparable to the outlet region of a frac iron elbow where flow-induced erosion produces the volume loss that governs the service life of that component, and our experimental sequence simulates the erosion process by removing material in small damage steps. Our results show that damage detection is greatly improved when this new temperature compensation strategy, termed modified-OSS, is implemented.

  4. The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A S; Nolting, J M; Workman, J D; Cooper, M; Fisher, A E; Marsh, B; Forshey, T

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural fairs create an unconventional animal-human interface that has been associated with swine-to-human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in recent years. Early detection of IAV-infected pigs at agricultural fairs would allow veterinarians to better protect swine and human health during these swine exhibitions. This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV-infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs immediately prior to the unloading of the animals at a single large swine exhibition. Concurrent to the snout wipe collection, owners took the rectal temperatures of his/her pigs. In this case, 47 (2.4%) pigs tested positive for IAV before they entered the swine barn. The mean rectal temperatures differed by only 0.19°C between IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs. The low prevalence of IAV among the pigs upon entry to the fair in the second objective provides evidence that limiting intraspecies spread of IAV during the fairs will likely have significant impacts on the zoonotic transmission. However, in both objectives, the high degree of similarity in the body temperature measurements between the IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs made it impossible to set a diagnostically meaningful cut point to differentiate IAV status of the individual animals. Unfortunately, body temperature measurement cannot be used to accurately screen exhibition swine for IAV.

  5. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  6. Human thermoregulation and measurement of body temperature in exercise and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Leong; Byrne, Chris; Lee, Jason Kw

    2008-04-01

    This review discusses human thermoregulation during exercise and the measurement of body temperature in clinical and exercise settings. The thermoregulatory mechanisms play important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis during rest and physical exercise. Physical exertion poses a challenge to thermoregulation by causing a substantial increase in metabolic heat production. However, within a non-thermolytic range, the thermoregulatory mechanisms are capable of adapting to sustain physiological functions under these conditions. The central nervous system may also rely on hyperthermia to protect the body from "overheating." Hyperthermia may serve as a self-limiting signal that triggers central inhibition of exercise performance when a temperature threshold is achieved. Exposure to sub-lethal heat stress may also confer tolerance against higher doses of heat stress by inducing the production of heat shock proteins, which protect cells against the thermolytic effects of heat. Advances in body temperature measurement also contribute to research in thermoregulation. Current evidence supports the use of oral temperature measurement in the clinical setting, although it may not be as convenient as tympanic temperature measurement using the infrared temperature scanner. Rectal and oesophagus temperatures are widely accepted surrogate measurements of core temperature (Tc), but they cause discomfort and are less likely to be accepted by users. Gastrointestinal temperature measurement using the ingestible temperature sensor provides an acceptable level of accuracy as a surrogate measure of Tc without causing discomfort to the user. This form of Tc measurement also allows Tc to be measured continuously in the field and has gained wider acceptance in the last decade.

  7. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body...... weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a random group of adult Danes. Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsample of men and women from the Danish arm of the Monitoring Trendsand Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study. The ubsample comprised 185 men and 191 women...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. Results: Positive associations between GI and changes in bodyweight (¿BW), percentage body fat (%BF...

  8. Anthropometric and body composition changes during expeditions at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagni, Luciana; Barbieri, Davide; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate separately in the two sexes the physical adaptations associated to exposure to high altitude in a sample of 18 nonacclimatized Caucasian subjects (10 males and 8 females, 22-59 years) who participated to scientific expeditions to Himalaya up to the Pyramid Laboratory (5050 m, Nepal) or Everest North Base Camp (5300 m, Tibet). Anthropometric traits (body height and weight, eight girths and six skinfolds) were collected according to standard procedures, before departure at sea level, during ascent (at altitude > 4000 m above sea level), and after return to low altitude. Body composition was assessed by means of the skinfold method. Both sexes lost on average 4.0% of initial body mass, corresponding to 7.6% of fat mass and 3.5% of fat free mass in males, and to 5.0% of fat mass and 3.6% of fat free mass in females. Average fat mass loss was greater in males than in females. Initial fat mass percentage was positively correlated to fat mass loss and negatively to FFM loss in males only, thus at HA leanest subjects lost more FFM and less FM than the fattest ones. Adaptations were faster in males than in females. In conclusion, the present research describes significant adaptations to high altitude, in terms of body weight reduction, regardless of the amount of performed physical activity. PMID:24665979

  9. Illusory changes in body size modulate body satisfaction in a way that is related to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Preston

    Full Text Available Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology.

  10. Illusory changes in body size modulate body satisfaction in a way that is related to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Catherine; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical) eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology. PMID:24465698

  11. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues. PMID:26954265

  12. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  13. Predicting changes of body weight, body fat, energy expenditure and metabolic fuel selection in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Guo

    Full Text Available The mouse is an important model organism for investigating the molecular mechanisms of body weight regulation, but a quantitative understanding of mouse energy metabolism remains lacking. Therefore, we created a mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism to predict dynamic changes of body weight, body fat, energy expenditure, and metabolic fuel selection. Based on the principle of energy balance, we constructed ordinary differential equations representing the dynamics of body fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM as a function of dietary intake and energy expenditure (EE. The EE model included the cost of tissue deposition, physical activity, diet-induced thermogenesis, and the influence of FM and FFM on metabolic rate. The model was calibrated using previously published data and validated by comparing its predictions to measurements in five groups of male C57/BL6 mice (N = 30 provided ad libitum access to either chow or high fat diets for varying time periods. The mathematical model accurately predicted the observed body weight and FM changes. Physical activity was predicted to decrease immediately upon switching from the chow to the high fat diet and the model coefficients relating EE to FM and FFM agreed with previous independent estimates. Metabolic fuel selection was predicted to depend on a complex interplay between diet composition, the degree of energy imbalance, and body composition. This is the first validated mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism and it provides a quantitative framework for investigating energy balance relationships in mouse models of obesity and diabetes.

  14. The changing shape of Northern Hemisphere summer temperature distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Karen A.; Rhines, Andrew; Tingley, Martin P.; Huybers, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence of recent summer temperature extremes in the midlatitudes has raised questions about whether and how the distributions of summer temperature are changing. While it is clear that in most regions the average temperature is increasing, there is less consensus regarding the presence or nature of changes in the shape of the distributions, which can influence the probability of extreme events. Using data from over 4000 weather stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily database, we quantify the changes in daily maximum and minimum temperature distributions for peak summer in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes during 1980-2015 using quantile regression. A large majority (87-88%) of the trends across percentiles and stations can be explained by a shift of the distributions with no change in shape. The remaining variability is summarized through projections onto orthogonal basis functions that are closely related to changes in variance, skewness, and kurtosis. North America and Eurasia show significant shifts in the estimated distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperatures. Although no general change in summer variance is found, variance has regionally increased in Eurasia and decreased in most of North America. Changes in shape that project onto the skewness and kurtosis basis functions have a much smaller spatial scale and are generally insignificant.

  15. Historical Change of Equilibrium Water Temperature in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in freshwater ecosystems due to a climate change have been great concern for sustainable river basin management both for water resources utilization and ecological conservation. However, their impact seems to be difficult to evaluate because of wide variety of basin characteristics along a river network both in nature and social environment. This presentation uses equilibrium water temperature as a simple criterion index for evaluating the long-term changes of stream thermal environment due to the historical climate change in Japan. It examines, at first, the relationship between the equilibrium water temperature and the stream temperature observed for 7 years at a lower reach in the Ibo River, Japan. It analyzes, then, the seasonal and regional trends of the equilibrium water temperature change for the last 50 years at 133 meteorological station sites throughout Japan, discussing their rising or falling characteristics. The correlation analysis at the local reach of the Ibo River shows that the equilibrium water temperature has similar trend of change as the stream temperature. However, its value tends to be higher than the stream temperature in summer, while lower in winter. The onset of the higher equilibrium water temperature fluctuates annually from mid February to early April. This onset fluctuation at each spring could be influenced by the different amount of snow at the antecedent winter. The rising or falling trends of the equilibrium water temperature are analyzed both annually and seasonally through the regression analysis of the 133 sites in Japan. Consequently, the trends of the temperature change could be categorized by 12 patterns. As for the seasonal analysis, the results shows that there are many sites indicating the falling trend in spring and summer, and rising trends in autumn and winter. In particular, winter has the strong rising tendency throughout Japan. As for the regional analysis, the result illustrates the precise rationality; e

  16. Reduction of body temperature governs neutrophil retention in hibernating and nonhibernating animals by margination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Dugbartey, George J.; Boerema, Ate S.; Talaei, Fatemeh; Herwig, Annika; Goris, Maaike; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Carey, Hannah V.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Low body temperature leads to decrease of circulating neutrophils due to margination in hibernating and nonhibernating animals. Hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism, called torpor, interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. During deep and daily (shallow) torpor, the number of circulati

  17. Development of an Anti-Theft Device using Motion Detection and Body Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhowel Dellosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available –The researcher aimed to design, assemble and determine the performance of the anti-theft device using motion detection and body temperature. The study utilized developmental design to observe the functionality of the device. Study showed that the anti-theft device can detect motion from a moving object for those with body temperature like human being, animals. A signal from the sensor circuits will trigger the receiver circuit to produce an audible sound that served as alarm. It was also found out that the output of the study is accurate in terms of detecting moving objects with body temperature during day and night times. The researchers formulated an evaluation instrument to determine its performance. Results showed that the device had a good performance and acceptable in terms of functionality. It is strongly recommended that further studies be conducted to enrich the anti-theft device using motion detection and body temperature in a controlled environment like museum and banks to determine the effectiveness of the integration of the anti-theft device.

  18. Selective SWS suppression does not affect the time course of core body temperature in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    1992-01-01

    In eight healthy middle-aged men, sleep and core body temperature were recorded under baseline conditions, during all-night SWS suppression by acoustic stimulation, and during undisturbed recovery sleep. SWS suppression resulted in a marked reduction of sleep stages 3 and 4 but did not affect the ti

  19. A body temperature model for lizards as estimated from the thermal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Venus, V.; Wang, T.; Schlerf, M.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Overjijk, van S.; Bian, B.M.; Liu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A physically based model was built to predict the transient body temperature of lizards in a thermally heterogeneous environment. Six heat transfer terms were taken into account in this model: solar radiation, convective heat flow, longwave radiation, conductive heat flow, metabolic heat gain and re

  20. Intracerebral implantation of carbachol in the rat: Its effect on water intake and body temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.Th.

    1972-01-01

    Intracerebral carbachol produces a fall in body temperature as well as drinking in the rat when implanted in various subcortical structures, related to the emotion-motivation limbic circuit. These effects are due to a central cholinergic stimulation since they can be prevented by the systemic admini

  1. Orexin-a regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Orexins, hypothalamic neuropeptieds, are involved in modulation of food intake and arousal state. To examine further physiological roles of orexin in brain function, the effects of centrally administered orexin- A on body temperature was investigated in rats. Assessed by a telemetry-sensor system implanted into the abdominal cavity, infusion of orexin-A into the third cerebroventricle increased body temperature in a dose-responsive manner. Cumulative ambulatory activity was concomitantly increased during 6 h but not 12 h after administration of orexin-A. Expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA in brown adipose tissue, as a marker for peripheal thermogenesis which affects body temperature, failed to increase after orexin-A administration. Expression of UCP3 mRNA in skeletal muscle but not UCP 2 in white adipose tissue was upregulated by infusion of orexin-A. The resulting information indicates that orexin neuron regulates body temperature in coordination with control of arousal system independently of peripheral thermogenesis through the BAT UCP1.

  2. Endogenous and exogenous components in the circadian variation of core body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, AE; Beersma, DGM; VandenHoofdakker, RH

    1997-01-01

    Core body temperature is predominantly modulated by endogenous and exogenous components. In the present study we tested whether these two components can be reliably assessed in a protocol which lasts for only 120 h. In this so-called forced desynchrony protocol, 12 healthy male subjects (age 23.7 +/

  3. Differences in oral temperature and body shape in two populations with different propensities for obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Weyer, C; Bogardus, C;

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature is a function of heat production and heat dissipation. Substantial interindividual variability has been reported in healthy humans. We hypothesized that Pima Indians, a population with a high prevalence of abdominal obesity, may have a lower surface area relative to volume, that is...

  4. Simultaneous collection of body temperature and activity data in burrowing mammals : a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Ryan A.; Hut, Roelof A.; Barnes, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating physiological and behavioral observations into ecological field studies of animals can provide novel insights into relationships among animal behavior, physiology, and ecology. We describe and evaluate a new technique for simultaneously collecting body temperature (T-b) and burrow use da

  5. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  6. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  7. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed

    OpenAIRE

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism’s size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the te...

  8. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  9. Inhaled vasopressin increases sociability and reduces body temperature and heart rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Linnet; Hicks, Callum; Caminer, Alex; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-08-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have therapeutic potential across a range of psychiatric disorders. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of the intranasal route of administration that is often used to deliver these neuropeptides. Recent preclinical studies, typically involving anesthetized or restrained animals, have assessed intranasal AVP or OT effects, and have obtained somewhat inconsistent results. Here we obtained intranasal administration of AVP in rats by nebulizing the peptide (1ml of 5 or 10mg/ml solution) into a small enclosed chamber over a 2min period in which well-habituated, unanesthetized, unrestrained, rats were placed. Rats were immediately removed from the chamber and tested in the social interaction test, or assessed for changes in heart rate and body temperature using biotelemetry. Results showed that rats exposed to nebulized AVP (5 or 10mg/ml) showed increased social proximity (adjacent lying) and decreased anogenital sniffing in the social interaction test. Biotelemetry showed substantial and long lasting (>1h) hypothermic and bradycardic effects of nebulized AVP. These behavioral and physiological effects of nebulized AVP mimic those observed in recent studies with peripherally injected AVP. Plasma AVP concentrations were substantially increased 10min after nebulized AVP, producing levels above those seen with a behaviorally effective injected dose of AVP (0.005mg/kg intraperitoneal). This study thus provides a novel and effective method for neuropeptide administration to rodents.

  10. Solar geoengineering to limit the rate of temperature change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G; Caldeira, Ken; Keith, David W

    2014-12-28

    Solar geoengineering has been suggested as a tool that might reduce damage from anthropogenic climate change. Analysis often assumes that geoengineering would be used to maintain a constant global mean temperature. Under this scenario, geoengineering would be required either indefinitely (on societal time scales) or until atmospheric CO2 concentrations were sufficiently reduced. Impacts of climate change, however, are related to the rate of change as well as its magnitude. We thus describe an alternative scenario in which solar geoengineering is used only to constrain the rate of change of global mean temperature; this leads to a finite deployment period for any emissions pathway that stabilizes global mean temperature. The length of deployment and amount of geoengineering required depends on the emissions pathway and allowable rate of change, e.g. in our simulations, reducing the maximum approximately 0.3°C per decade rate of change in an RCP 4.5 pathway to 0.1°C per decade would require geoengineering for 160 years; under RCP 6.0, the required time nearly doubles. We demonstrate that feedback control can limit rates of change in a climate model. Finally, we note that a decision to terminate use of solar geoengineering does not automatically imply rapid temperature increases: feedback could be used to limit rates of change in a gradual phase-out.

  11. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, J; Teller, C; Andersen, S L; Jensen, F B; Hyldig, T; Nielsen, B

    1999-03-01

    We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature (Tes) = 35.9 +/- 0.2, 37.4 +/- 0. 1, or 38.2 +/- 0.1 (SE) degrees C induced by 30 min of water immersion], seven cyclists (maximal O2 uptake = 5.1 +/- 0.1 l/min) performed three randomly assigned bouts of cycle ergometer exercise (60% maximal O2 uptake) in the heat (40 degrees C) until volitional exhaustion. To determine the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05 degrees C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0 degrees C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40. 1-40.2 degrees C, muscle temperature = 40.7-40.9 degrees C, skin temperature = 37.0-37.2 degrees C) and cardiovascular strain (heart rate = 196-198 beats/min, cardiac output = 19.9-20.8 l/min). Time to exhaustion was inversely related to the initial body temperature: 63 +/- 3, 46 +/- 3, and 28 +/- 2 min with initial Tes of approximately 36, 37, and 38 degrees C, respectively (all P heat storage, all subjects reached exhaustion at similar Tes and muscle temperature (40.1-40.3 and 40. 7-40.9 degrees C, respectively), but with significantly different skin temperature (38.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C during high vs. low rate of heat storage, respectively, P heat storage (31 +/- 4 vs. 56 +/- 11 min, respectively, P stroke volume paralleled the rise in core temperature (36-40 degrees C), with skin blood flow plateauing at Tes of approximately 38 degrees C. These results demonstrate that high internal body temperature per se causes fatigue in trained subjects during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments. Furthermore, time to exhaustion in

  12. The changing features of the body-mind problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agassi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The body-mind problem invites scientific study, since mental events are repeated and repeatable and invite testable explanations. They seemed troublesome because of the classical theory of substance that failed to solve its own central problems. These are soluble with the aid of the theory of the laws of nature, particularly in its emergentist version [Bunge, M., 1980. The Body-mind Problem, Pergamon, Oxford] that invites refutable explanations [Popper, K.R., 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Hutchinson, London]. The view of mental properties as emergent is a modification of the two chief classical views, materialism and dualism. As this view invites testable explanations of events of the inner world, it is better than the quasi-behaviorist view of self-awareness as computer-style self-monitoring [Minsky, M., Laske, O., 1992. A conversation with Marvin Minsky. AI Magazine 13 (3), 31-45]. PMID:18261888

  13. Microenvironment temperature prediction between body and seat interface using autoregressive data-driven model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Lin; Luo, Zhongming; Heusch, Andrew I; Cascioli, Vincenzo; McCarthy, Peter W

    2015-11-01

    There is a need to develop a greater understanding of temperature at the skin-seat interface during prolonged seating from the perspectives of both industrial design (comfort/discomfort) and medical care (skin ulcer formation). Here we test the concept of predicting temperature at the seat surface and skin interface during prolonged sitting (such as required from wheelchair users). As caregivers are usually busy, such a method would give them warning ahead of a problem. This paper describes a data-driven model capable of predicting thermal changes and thus having the potential to provide an early warning (15- to 25-min ahead prediction) of an impending temperature that may increase the risk for potential skin damages for those subject to enforced sitting and who have little or no sensory feedback from this area. Initially, the oscillations of the original signal are suppressed using the reconstruction strategy of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Consequentially, the autoregressive data-driven model can be used to predict future thermal trends based on a shorter period of acquisition, which reduces the possibility of introducing human errors and artefacts associated with longer duration "enforced" sitting by volunteers. In this study, the method had a maximum predictive error of <0.4 °C when used to predict the temperature at the seat and skin interface 15 min ahead, but required 45 min data prior to give this accuracy. Although the 45 min front loading of data appears large (in proportion to the 15 min prediction), a relative strength derives from the fact that the same algorithm could be used on the other 4 sitting datasets created by the same individual, suggesting that the period of 45 min required to train the algorithm is transferable to other data from the same individual. This approach might be developed (along with incorporation of other measures such as movement and humidity) into a system that can give caregivers prior warning to help avoid

  14. ON TEMPERATURE CHANGES OF SHANGHAI AND URBANIZATION IMPACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Hai-zhen; KONG Chun-yan; TANG Xu; KE Xiao-xin

    2009-01-01

    To understand how temperature varies in urban Shanghai under the background of global climate change and how it is affected by urbanization,the Shanghai temperature responses to global warming were analyzed,and then the temperature trends of urban and suburb stations under different climatic backgrounds were obtained. The urbanization effects on temperature were studied by comparing urban stations to suburb stations,the relationship between urbanization variables and temperature components were obtained,and observation data of surface and high level were combined to assess the contribution of urbanization effect. In the last part of the paper,the cause of urbanization effects on temperature was discussed. The results indicated: The long term change trend of Shanghai annual mean temperature is 1.31/100a from 1873 to 2004,the periods of 1921-1948 and 1979 - 2004 are warmer,and the 1979 - 2004 period is the warmest; compared to suburb stations,the representative urban station has slower decreases in the cool period and faster increases in the warm one; the urban and suburb temperatures have distinct differences resulting from urbanization and the differences are increasing by the year. with the difference of mean temperature and minimum temperature being the greatest in fall and that of maximum temperature being the largest in summer between the urban and suburban areas. The urbanization process accelerates the warming speed,with the minimum temperature being the most obvious; the urbanization effect contributes a 0.4~C increase in 1980s and I. l~C in 1990s to the annual mean temperature.

  15. Historical changes in air temperature are evident in temperature fluxes measured in the sub-soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Fiona; McCormick, Benjamin; Hallett, Paul; Wookey, Philip; Hopkins, David

    2013-04-01

    Warming trends in soil temperature have implications for a plethora of soil processes, including exacerbated climate change through the net release of greenhouse gases. Whereas long-term datasets of air temperature changes are abundant, a search of scientific literature reveals a lack of information on soil temperature changes and their specific consequences. We analysed five long-term data series collected in the UK (Dundee and Armagh) and Canada (Charlottetown, Ottawa and Swift Current). They show that the temperatures of soils at 5 - 20 cm depth, and sub-soils at 30 - 150 cm depth, increased in line with air temperature changes over the period 1958 - 2003. Differences were found, however, between soil and air temperatures when data were sub-divided into seasons. In spring, soil temperature warming ranged from 0.19°C at 30 cm in Armagh to 4.30°C at 50 cm in Charlottetown. In summer, however, the difference was smaller and ranged from 0.21°C at 10 cm in Ottawa to 3.70°C at 50 cm in Charlottetown. Winter temperatures were warmer in soil and ranged from 0.45°C at 5 cm in Charlottetown to 3.76°C at 150 cm in Charlottetown. There were significant trends in changes to soil temperature over time, whereas air temperature trends tended only to be significant in winter (changes range from 1.27°C in Armagh to 3.35°C in Swift Current). Differences in the seasonal warming patterns between air and soil temperatures have potential implications for the parameterization of models of biogeochemical cycling.

  16. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A.; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke

    2000-01-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight wats indistinguishable from...

  17. Preliminary study on the time-related changes of the infrared thermal images of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng; Lin, Gang; Chen, Zhigang

    2009-08-01

    It is of great importance to study the manifestations and the influencing factors of the time-related changes of infrared thermal images (ITI) of human body since the variable body surface temperature distribution seriously affected the application of ITI in medicine. In this paper, manifestations of time-related changes of the ITI of human body from three double-blind randomized trials and their correlation with meteorological factors (e.g. temperature, pressure, humidity, cold front passage and tropical cyclone landing) were studied. The trials were placebo or drug controlled studying the influences of Chinese medicine health food (including Shengsheng capsule with immunity adjustment function, Shengan capsule with sleep improvement function and Shengyi capsule with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid) on the ITI of human body. In the first thirty-six days of the trials images were scanned every six days and image data in the seven observation time spots (including the 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 day of the trial) were used for the time-related study. For every subject the scanned time was fixed in the day within two hours. The ITI features which could reflect the functions of the health foods were studied. The indexes of the features were relative magnitude (temperature difference between the viewing area and the reference area). Results showed that the variation tendencies of the trial group and control group were basically the same in placebo controlled trials and some of the long-term effects of Chinese medicine health food could be reflected significantly in certain time spots in the first thirty-six days. Time-related changes of the ITI of human body were closely related with meteorological factors but there were other influencing factors still need to be studied. As the ITI of human body could reflect the influences of Chinese medicine health foods and are closely related with meteorology, there are bright prospects for the application of ITI in

  18. Do fentanyl and morphine influence body temperature after severe burn injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Steven Alexander; Beers, Ryan J; Lentz, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    Fentanyl lacks the antiinflammatory properties of morphine. Morphine attenuates the inflammatory response through differential stimulation of μ-receptor subtypes. Patients who receive morphine during coronary artery bypass graft have been shown to experience less postoperative fever than those who receive fentanyl. Patients who receive continuous fentanyl infusions in increased room temperatures after thermal injury may be at increased risk to experience higher body temperature than those who receive morphine. The records of 28 patients with >20%TBSA burn in 30 intensive care unit rooms (13 received fentanyl and 15 received morphine or hydromorphone) and 12 trauma patients who received fentanyl in 22°C intensive care unit rooms were reviewed. Mean maximum core temperature and percentage of temperature recordings > 39°C in the first 48 hours of admission were compared between burn patients who received fentanyl, those who did not, and with trauma patients. Burn patients exposed to fentanyl experienced significantly higher temperatures (40.1 ± 0.9°C) compared with those given morphine (38.7 ± 0.8°C) and compared with trauma patients (37.5 ± 2.4°C), P Burn patients on fentanyl had temperatures > 39°C for a higher percentage of time (33 ± 27%) than those without fentanyl (7.2 ± 13%) and trauma patients (1 ± 2.8%), P Burn patients who receive fentanyl in 30°C rooms experience higher body temperatures and are febrile for a higher percentage of time than those receiving morphine only. Morphine has well-established antiinflammatory properties and likely attenuates the postburn inflammatory response more than fentanyl, resulting in lower body temperatures. This phenomenon needs to be further investigated in additional studies.

  19. [Body thermal status under low-temperature conditions in brewing production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva-Todorova, L; Dimitrova-Toneva, I

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to trace the thermal state of workers exposed to low temperatures in brewery production, establishing the heat loss and the stress of thermoregulation. The investigations are performed in the departments for fermentation, deposit, cask washing and filling of 3 brewery plants. In order to characterize the microclimate methods of thermometry, psychometry and catathermometry are used. The heat state is controlled by methods of subjective heat perception, skin temperature, average skin temperature, temperature gradients, oral, rectal and average body temperature and the thermal content. The results of the physiological examinations point out to significant loss, which affects not only the periphery but also the deep tissues. There is an expressed risk of supercooling of the organism. The data of the heat deficit impose a correction of the working clothes and limitation of the exposure.

  20. Stimulation of bioluminescence in Noctiluca sp. using controlled temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Li, GuiJuan; Liu, HuanYing; Hu, HaoHao; Zhang, XueGang

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence induced by multifarious stimuli has long been observed and is remains under investigation because of its great complexity. In particular, the exact mechanism underlying bioluminescence is not yet fully understood. This work presents a new experimental method for studying Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation. It is a study of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence using controlled temperature changes in a tank. A characteristic of this experiment is the large volume of water used (1 m(3) in a tank of 2 × 1 × 1 m). Temperature changes were controlled by two methods. In the first, a flask filled with hot water was introduced into the tank and in the second, a water heater was used in the tank. Temperature changes were recorded using sensors. Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence was recorded using a Canon 5D Mark II and this allowed the characteristics of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation to be monitored.

  1. Shrinking body size as an ecological response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Jennifer A.; Bickford, David

    2011-11-01

    Determining how climate change will affect global ecology and ecosystem services is one of the next important frontiers in environmental science. Many species already exhibit smaller sizes as a result of climate change and many others are likely to shrink in response to continued climate change, following fundamental ecological and metabolic rules. This could negatively impact both crop plants and protein sources such as fish that are important for human nutrition. Furthermore, heterogeneity in response is likely to upset ecosystem balances. We discuss future research directions to better understand the trend and help ameliorate the trophic cascades and loss of biodiversity that will probably result from continued decreases in organism size.

  2. Level of activation, body temperature, and interpersonal conflict in family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, C N

    1979-01-01

    The 24-hour variation in physiological and psychological functioning within the individual and interpersonal differences were investigated in relation to the nature of social interaction between individuals. Level of activation, body temperature, and interpersonal conflict were studied in a sample of 16 married couples for a period of six weekdays of routine activity. Homogeneity was a major factor in sample selection. Body temperature was measured every hour during the waking time by electronic thermometer, and level of activation was measured four times a day on alternate forms of a self-report adjective checklist. Interpersonal conflict, defined as perceived fulfillment of emotional and interaction needs, was measured in the morning and late day. The interpersonal Conflict Scale with established validity was constructed for the study and had two alternate forms of equal reliability. An index of desynchrony between partners for both temperature and activation was calculated for each day of data collection by the following method: The deviation score from the overall six-day mean was determined for each measurement time for each spouse and for each variable. Absolute values of the differences between deviation scores were added to obtain an index of desynchrony in that variable for the day. A daily mean of interpersonal conflict scores for both partners was also calculated. The hypotheses that a desynchrony between partners in body temperature rhythm and in level of activation rhythm would be positively related to conflict were tested by the Pearson product moment correlation. Obtained coefficient; were not significant at the .05 level. PMID:254897

  3. No relation between body temperature and arterial recanalization at three days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); H.B. Van Der Worp (H. Bart); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); K.E. Droogh-De Greve; H.P. Bienfait; M.A. van Walderveen (M.); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (W.); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); J. Bot (Joseph); M.C. Visser (Marieke); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); T. van Seeters (Tom); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle; J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods: We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine

  4. Microenvironment temperature prediction between body and seat interface using autoregressive data-driven model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Lin; Luo, Zhongming; Heusch, Andrew I; Cascioli, Vincenzo; McCarthy, Peter W

    2015-11-01

    There is a need to develop a greater understanding of temperature at the skin-seat interface during prolonged seating from the perspectives of both industrial design (comfort/discomfort) and medical care (skin ulcer formation). Here we test the concept of predicting temperature at the seat surface and skin interface during prolonged sitting (such as required from wheelchair users). As caregivers are usually busy, such a method would give them warning ahead of a problem. This paper describes a data-driven model capable of predicting thermal changes and thus having the potential to provide an early warning (15- to 25-min ahead prediction) of an impending temperature that may increase the risk for potential skin damages for those subject to enforced sitting and who have little or no sensory feedback from this area. Initially, the oscillations of the original signal are suppressed using the reconstruction strategy of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Consequentially, the autoregressive data-driven model can be used to predict future thermal trends based on a shorter period of acquisition, which reduces the possibility of introducing human errors and artefacts associated with longer duration "enforced" sitting by volunteers. In this study, the method had a maximum predictive error of seat and skin interface 15 min ahead, but required 45 min data prior to give this accuracy. Although the 45 min front loading of data appears large (in proportion to the 15 min prediction), a relative strength derives from the fact that the same algorithm could be used on the other 4 sitting datasets created by the same individual, suggesting that the period of 45 min required to train the algorithm is transferable to other data from the same individual. This approach might be developed (along with incorporation of other measures such as movement and humidity) into a system that can give caregivers prior warning to help avoid exacerbating the skin disorders of patients who suffer

  5. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time. (letter)

  6. Laser-tissue photothermal interaction and tissue temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Andrea K.; Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, John A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    Responses of tissue to laser stimulation are crucial in both disease diagnostics and treatment. In general, when tissue absorbs laser energy photothermal interaction occurs. The most important signature of the photothermal reaction is the tissue temperature change during and after the laser irradiation. Experimentally, the tissue reaction to laser irradiation can be measured by numerous methods including direct temperature measurement and measurement of perfusion change. In this study, a multiple-channel temperature probe was used to measure tissue temperature change during irradiation of lasers with different wavelengths at different power settings. Tissue temperature in chicken breast tissue as well as skin and breast tumor of rats was measured during irradiation of an 805-nm diode laser. The vertical profiles of temperature were obtained using simultaneous measurement at several different locations. The absorption of laser energy by tissue was enhanced by injecting laser-absorbing dye into the tissue. A Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength was also used to irradiate turkey breast tissue. Our results showed that both laser penetration ability and photothermal reaction depended on the wavelength of lasers. In the case of 805-nm laser, the temperature increased rapidly only in the region close to the laser source and the thermal equilibrium could be reached within a short time period. The laser absorbing dye drastically enhanced the thermal reaction, resulting in approximately 4-fold temperature increase. On the contrary, the laser beam with 1064-nm wavelength penetrated deeply into tissue and the tissue temperature continued increasing even after a 10-minute laser irradiation.

  7. Changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in pesticide toxicity to earthworms: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The occurring climate changes will have direct consequences to all ecosystems, including the soil ecosystems. The effects of climate change include, among other, the changes in temperature and greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions. Temperature is an important factor in ecotoxicological investigations since it can act as a stressor and influence the physiological status of organisms, as well as affect the fate and transport of pollutants present in the environment. However, most of so far conducted (eco)toxicological investigations neglected the possible effects of temperature and focused solely on the effects of toxicants on organisms. Considering that temperature can contribute to the toxicity of pollutants, it is of immense importance to investigate whether the change in the exposure temperature will impact the strength of the toxic effects of pollutants present in soil ecosystems. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of several commonly used pesticides to earthworms was assessed under different exposure temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C). The results showed that changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in susceptibility of earthworms to particular pesticides. Namely, exposures to the same pesticide concentration at different temperatures lead to different toxicity responses. Increase in exposure temperature in most cases caused increase in toxicity, whereas decrease in temperature mostly caused decrease in toxicity. This preliminary study points to need for an in-depth investigation of mechanisms by which temperature affects the toxicity of pesticides and also provides important data for future research on the effects of temperature change on the soil ecosystems. PMID:26436694

  8. Exploring Terrestrial Temperature Changes during the Early Eocene Hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, K. E.; Clyde, W. C.; Fricke, H. C.; Eiler, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Eocene is marked by a number of rapid global warming events called hyperthermals. These hyperthermals are associated with negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE) in both marine and terrestrial records. Multiple theories exist to explain the connection of these hyperthermals with the CIEs and each theory predicts different responses by the climate system. Characterizing the timing, duration and magnitude of temperature change that is associated with these hyperthermals is important for determining whether the hyperthermals are all driven by the same underlying climate dynamics or perhaps differ from one another in cause and climatic consequences. In the simplest case, all share a common underlying mechanism; this predicts that the associated temperature changes scale in a predictable way with the magnitude of the CIE (and perhaps exhibit other similarities, such as the relative amplitudes of marine and terrestrial temperature change). To our knowledge, however, the only hyperthermal with paleotemperature data from land is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Here we present preliminary carbonate clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for Early Eocene hyperthermal ETM2/H2 from paleosol carbonates from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming, USA. We compare the results to existing clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for the PETM in the Bighorn Basin. Temperatures recorded by paleosol carbonates (which likely reflect near-peak summer ground temperatures) prior to each CIE are ~30°C and increase to ~40-43°C during the apex of each CIE. Following both CIEs, temperatures drop back to pre-CIE values. In the case of ETM2/H2, temperatures begin to rise again immediately, possibly in association with a later hyperthermal, though further work needs to be done to establish this with certainty. These preliminary data suggest that both the absolute values and the magnitudes of temperature changes associated with the PETM and ETM2/H2 are similar; the

  9. Scaling law for electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenkov, S.; Mani, B. K.; Glazkova, E.; Miller, C. W.; Ponomareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of theoretical and first-principles computational methods, along with experimental evidence from the literature, were used to predict the existence of a scaling law for the electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectric materials. We show that the temperature change scales quadratically with electric field, allowing a simple transformation to collapse the set of ΔT(E) onto a single curve. This offers a unique method that can be used to predict electrocaloric behavior beyond the limits of present measurement ranges or in regions where data are not yet available. PMID:26796343

  10. Global Stream Temperatures and Flows under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Franssen, W. H.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will affect thermal and hydrologic regimes of rivers, having a direct impact on human water use and freshwater ecosystems. Here we assess the impact of climate change on stream temperature and streamflow globally. We used a physically-based stream temperature river basin model (RBM) linked to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The modelling framework was adapted for global application including impacts of reservoirs and thermal heat discharges, and was validated using observed water temperature and river discharge records in large river basins globally. VIC-RBM was forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected Global Climate Model (GCM) output resulting in global projections of daily streamflow and water temperature for the 21st century. Global mean and high (95th percentile) stream temperatures are projected to increase on average by 0.8-1.6 (1.0-2.2)°C for the SRES B1-A2 scenario for 2071-2100 relative to 1971-2000. The largest water temperature increases are projected for Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, South Africa and parts of Australia. In these regions, the sensitivities for warming are exacerbated by projected decreases in summer low flows. Large increases in water temperature combined with decreases in low flows are found for the southeastern U.S., Europe and eastern China. These regions could potentially be affected by increased deterioration of water quality and freshwater habitats, and reduced water available for beneficial uses such as thermoelectric power production.

  11. Relationship between core temperature change during recovery and prognosis in classic heat stroke rat models

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ya-Nan; Geng, Yan; Fu, Wei; Na PENG; Zheng-tao GU; Su, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Objective To construct classic heat stroke rat models, and observe the changes of body temperature in the recovery period after heat stress to explore its relationship with prognosis. Methods Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into heat stroke group (HS group, n=50) and control group (C group, n=10). Rats in HS group were exposed to 39℃ heat stress. Core temperature and systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats were monitored until it reached diagnostic criteria of heat stroke. The core bod...

  12. Temporal changes and variability in temperature series over Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin

    2015-02-01

    With the current concern over climate change, the descriptions on how temperature series changed over time are very useful. Annual mean temperature has been analyzed for several stations over Peninsular Malaysia. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for assessing the significance and detection of trends, while a nonparametric Pettitt's test and sequential Mann-Kendall test are adopted to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significance increasing trends for annual mean temperature are detected for almost all studied stations with the magnitude of significant trend varied from 0.02°C to 0.05°C per year. The results shows that climate over Peninsular Malaysia is getting warmer than before. In addition, the results of the abrupt changes in temperature using Pettitt's and sequential Mann-Kendall test reveal the beginning of trends which can be related to El Nino episodes that occur in Malaysia. In general, the analysis results can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean events in the region.

  13. Intraspecific scaling in frog calls: the interplay of temperature, body size and metabolic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Lucia; Arim, Matías; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Understanding physiological and environmental determinants of strategies of reproductive allocation is a pivotal aim in biology. Because of their high metabolic cost, properties of sexual acoustic signals may correlate with body size, temperature, and an individual's energetic state. A quantitative theory of acoustic communication, based on the metabolic scaling with temperature and mass, was recently proposed, adding to the well-reported empirical patterns. It provides quantitative predictions for frequencies, call rate, and durations. Here, we analysed the mass, temperature, and body condition scaling of spectral and temporal attributes of the advertisement call of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus. Mass dependence of call frequency followed metabolic expectations (f~M (-0.25), where f is frequency and M is mass) although non-metabolic allometry could also account for the observed pattern. Temporal variables scaled inversely with mass contradicting metabolic expectations (d~M (0.25), where d is duration), supporting instead empirical patterns reported to date. Temperature was positively associated with call rate and negatively with temporal variables, which is congruent with metabolic predictions. We found no significant association between temperature and frequencies, adding to the bulk of empirical evidence. Finally, a result of particular relevance was that body condition consistently determined call characteristics, in interaction with temperature or mass. Our intraspecific study highlights that even if proximate determinants of call variability are rather well understood, the mechanisms through which they operate are proving to be more complex than previously thought. The determinants of call characteristics emerge as a key topic of research in behavioural and physiological biology, with several clear points under debate which need to be analysed on theoretical and empirical grounds. PMID:26552381

  14. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Patricia M; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-10-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971 and 2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography , dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or magnetic resonance imaging were employed for body composition assessment. Of the initial 440 studies, 106 papers were evaluated and 36 papers met all eligibility criteria (15 observational and 21 intervention trials). Results of these studies revealed that body weight did not consistently increase. Importantly, studies also showed that body weight did not accurately depict changes in lean or adipose tissues. Further findings included that sarcopenic obesity as a consequence of breast cancer treatment was not definitive, as menopausal status may be a substantial moderator of body composition. Overall, the behavioral interventions did not exhibit consistent or profound effects on body composition outcomes; approximately half showed favorable influence on adiposity while the effects on LBM were not apparent. The use of tamoxifen had a clear negative impact on body composition. The majority of studies were conducted in predominantly white survivors, highlighting the need for trials in minority populations. Collectively, these studies were limited by age, race, and/or menopause status matched control groups, overall size, and statistical power. Very few studies simultaneously collected diet and exercise data-two potential factors that impact body composition. Future breast cancer trials should prioritize precise body composition methodologies to elucidate how these changes impact recurrence, prognosis, and mortality, and to provide clinicians

  15. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine body composition changes in HIV-associated wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Stephan; Fischer, Harald; Rieger, Armin; Frühauf, Lukas; Staszewski, Schlomo; Althoff, Peter-Henning; Helm, Eilke Brigitte

    2005-04-01

    AIDS wasting syndrome results in loss of lean body mass and body cell mass. This 12-week, open-label study used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition changes in 24 patients with AIDS wasting syndrome receiving recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH). The primary endpoint was percentage monthly change in body weight before/after r-hGH. Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), isometric strength and CD4+ count. Twenty patients completed the study: r-hGH resulted in mean weight gains (+2.7%, P = 0.146), and significant increases in mean body cell mass (+8.0%, P = 0.0211), lean body mass (+4.8%, P = 0.0373) and water (+5.5%, P r-hGH was generally well tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were fever (7.3%) and diarrhoea (6.3%). Thus, bioelectrical impedance analysis can detect improved body cell mass independent of changes in body weight resulting from r-hGH treatment in patients with AIDS wasting syndrome.

  16. Low body temperature affects associative processes in long-trace conditioned flavor aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misanin, J R; Wilson, H A; Schwarz, P R; Tuschak, J B; Hinderliter, C F

    1998-12-01

    A series of experiments examined the effect of low body temperature on the associative process in long-trace conditioned flavor aversion. Experiment 1 demonstrated that maintaining a low body temperature between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) administration facilitates the associative process and allows a flavor aversion to be conditioned in young rats over an interval that would normally not support conditioning. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that this was due neither to lingering systemic saccharin serving as a CS nor to a cold induced enhancement of US intensity. Experiment 4 demonstrated that inducing hypothermia at various times during a 3-h CS-US interval results in an apparent delay of reinforcement gradient. We propose that a cold induced decrease in metabolic rate slows the internal clock that governs the perception of time and that the CS-US association depends upon perceived contiguity rather than upon an external clock-referenced contiguity.

  17. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation theory revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Santra, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We present an algebraic, nondiagrammatic derivation of finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation theory [FT-MBPT(2)], using techniques and concepts accessible to theoretical chemical physicists. We give explicit expressions not just for the grand potential but particularly for the mean energy of an interacting many-electron system. The framework presented is suitable for computing the energy of a finite or infinite system in contact with a heat and particle bath at finite temperature and chemical potential. FT-MBPT(2) may be applied if the system, at zero temperature, may be described using standard (i.e., zero-temperature) second-order many-body perturbation theory [ZT-MBPT(2)] for the energy. We point out that in such a situation, FT-MBPT(2) reproduces, in the zero-temperature limit, the energy computed within ZT-MBPT(2). In other words, the difficulty that has been referred to as the Kohn--Luttinger conundrum, does not occur. We comment, in this context, on a "renormalization" scheme recently ...

  18. Temperature Changes in the Brain of Patients Undergoing MRI Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Bebaaku Dery

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanners have become important tools in modern day health care. During the imaging process, total radiofrequency power is transferred from the RF coil to the brain tissues resulting in increase in temperature in the subject being imaged. Currently, reliable and validated means to predict RF heating are not unavailable.This research was conducted to determine temperature changes in the human brain during MRI examination.This study was carried out at two MRI Units in Ghana. One hundred and twenty-six patients were investigated. Data collected include pre- and post-scan tympanic temperatures and specific absorption rates values. The average pre- and post-scan tympanic temperatures measured for Centre A were 36.5±0.1 °C and 37.0±0.1 °C respectively with an average change in temperature of 0.5±0.1 °C for 30.68 minutes scan and an average SAR value of 1.25 W/kg. Centre B measured average pre- and post-scan tympanic temperatures of 36.4±0.1 °C and 36.8±0.1 °C respectively with an average change in temperature of 0.4±0.1 °C for 41.58 minutes scan and an average SAR value of 0.1 W/kg.The rise in tympanic temperature and SAR values were within guidance level of 1 °C recommended by theUnited States Food and Administration and the International Electrotechnical Commission.

  19. Contribution of a Membrane Estrogen Receptor to the Estrogenic Regulation of Body Temperature and Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Roepke, Troy A.; Bosch, Martha A.; Rick, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Benjamin; Wagner, Edward J.; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Martin J Kelly

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a key region of the central nervous system involved in the control of homeostasis, including energy and core body temperature (Tc). 17β-Estradiol (E2) regulates Tc, in part, via actions in the basal hypothalamus and preoptic area. E2 primarily controls hypothalamic functions via the nuclear steroid receptors, estrogen receptor α/β. However, we have previously described an E2-responsive, Gq-coupled membrane receptor that reduces the postsynaptic inhibitory γ-aminobutyric ac...

  20. Biphasic Effect of Melanocortin Agonists on Metabolic Rate and Body Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M.; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Miller, Nicole R.; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia tha...

  1. Body actions change the appearance of facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition, and emotion do not operate along segregated pathways; rather, their adaptive interaction is supported by various sources of evidence. For instance, the aesthetic appraisal of powerful mood inducers like music can bias the facial expression of emotions towards mood congruency. In four experiments we showed similar mood-congruency effects elicited by the comfort/discomfort of body actions. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, we let participants perform comfortable/uncomfortable visually-guided reaches and tested them in a facial emotion identification task. Through the alleged mediation of motor action induced mood, action comfort enhanced the quality of the participant's global experience (a neutral face appeared happy and a slightly angry face neutral, while action discomfort made a neutral face appear angry and a slightly happy face neutral. Furthermore, uncomfortable (but not comfortable reaching improved the sensitivity for the identification of emotional faces and reduced the identification time of facial expressions, as a possible effect of hyper-arousal from an unpleasant bodily experience.

  2. Changing motor perception by sensorimotor conflicts and body ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, R.; Fernandez, N. B.; van Elk, M.; Vachicouras, N.; Sabatier, F.; Tychinskaya, A.; Llobera, J.; Blanke, O.

    2016-01-01

    Experimentally induced sensorimotor conflicts can result in a loss of the feeling of control over a movement (sense of agency). These findings are typically interpreted in terms of a forward model in which the predicted sensory consequences of the movement are compared with the observed sensory consequences. In the present study we investigated whether a mismatch between movements and their observed sensory consequences does not only result in a reduced feeling of agency, but may affect motor perception as well. Visual feedback of participants’ finger movements was manipulated using virtual reality to be anatomically congruent or incongruent to the performed movement. Participants made a motor perception judgment (i.e. which finger did you move?) or a visual perceptual judgment (i.e. which finger did you see moving?). Subjective measures of agency and body ownership were also collected. Seeing movements that were visually incongruent to the performed movement resulted in a lower accuracy for motor perception judgments, but not visual perceptual judgments. This effect was modified by rotating the virtual hand (Exp.2), but not by passively induced movements (Exp.3). Hence, sensorimotor conflicts can modulate the perception of one’s motor actions, causing viewed “alien actions” to be felt as one’s own. PMID:27225834

  3. The changes of ADI structure during high temperature annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of structure investigations of ADI during it was annealing at elevated temperature are presented. Ductile iron austempered at temperature 325oC was then isothermally annealed 360 minutes at temperature 400, 450, 500 and 550oC. The structure investigations showed that annealing at these temperatures caused substantial structure changes and thus essential hardness decrease, which is most useful property of ADI from point of view its practical application. Degradation advance of the structure depends mainly on annealing temperature, less on the time of the heat treatment. It was concluded that high temperature annealing caused precipitation of Fe3C type carbides, which morphology and distribution depend on temperature. In case of 400oC annealing the carbides precipitates inside bainitic ferrite lath in specific crystallographic planes and partly at the grain boundaries. The annealing at the temperature 550oC caused disappearing of characteristic for ADI needle or lath – like morphology, which is replaced with equiaxed grains. In this case Fe3C carbides take the form very fine precipitates with spheroidal geometry.

  4. Effect of body size and temperature on respiration of Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, D.; Vigliano, P.H.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Body mass and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals. Oxygen consumption of post-larval Galaxias maculatus was measured in respirometry trials under different temperatures (5–21°C) and varying body masses (0.1–>1.5 g) spanning a relevant range of thermal conditions and sizes. Specific respiration rates (R in g O2 g−1 d−1) declined as a power function of body mass and increased exponentially with temperature and was expressed as: R = 0.0007 * W −0.31 * e 0.13 * T. The ability of this model to predict specific respiration rate was evaluated by comparing observed values with those predicted by the model. Our findings suggest that the respiration rate of G. maculatus is the result of multiple interactive processes (intrinsic and extrinsic factors) that modulate each other in ‘meta-mechanistic’ ways; this would help to explain the species’ ability to undergo the complex ontogenetic habitat shifts observed in the lakes of the Andean Patagonic range.

  5. Long-term changes in sea surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical observations of sea surface temperature since 1856 have been improved by applying corrections to compensate for the predominant use of uninsulated or partly insulated buckets until the Second World War. There are large gaps in coverage in the late nineteenth century and around the two world wars, but a range of statistical techniques suggest that these gaps do not severely prejudice estimates of global and regional climatic change. Nonetheless, to improve the analysis on smaller scales, many unused historical data are to be digitized and incorporated. For recent years, satellite-based sea surface temperatures have improved the coverage, after adjustments for their biases relative to in situ data. An initial version of a nominally globally complete sea ice and interpolated sea surface temperature data set, beginning in 1871, has been created for use in numerical simulations of recent climate. Long time series of corrected regional, hemispheric, and global sea surface temperatures are mostly consistent with corresponding night marine air temperature series, and confirm the regionally specific climatic changes portrayed in the Scientific Assessments of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The observations also show an El Nino-like oscillation on bidecadal and longer time scales

  6. Geothermal climate change observatory in south India 1: Borehole temperatures and inferred surface temperature histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkiraju, Vyasulu V.; Roy, Sukanta

    Temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes contain records of changes in surface ground temperature over the past few centuries. We have recently set up a geothermal climate change observatory at the Choutuppal campus of National Geophysical Research Institute (17.29 °N, 78.92 °E) to measure subsurface temperature changes on annual to decadal timescales and quantify how well they track surface temperature changes. The site is located about 60 km to the east of Hyderabad in south India, in a designated reserved forest land and far from potential urban heat islands. In April 2009, two boreholes were drilled to depths of 210 m and 21 m respectively after careful site selection to minimize perturbations to the subsurface temperatures on account of groundwater flow in the borehole, large thermal conductivity contrasts and rugged topography. Temperature measurements in the two holes are being carried out periodically. Analysis of equilibrium temperature-depth profile in the 210 m deep borehole reveals at least two ongoing events that started during the past Century: (i) surface ground warming of 0.5 ± 0.1 °C over the past 92 ± 7 years, and (ii) a more recent cooling of ∼1 °C over the past ∼39 years, probably representing local changes to surface vegetation caused by the presence of a thicker grass cover throughout the year inside the campus since 1967 AD compared to the short cropping of grass outside it. The inferred surface ground warming is consistent with estimates from temperature measurements in three other boreholes (170-300 m deep) distributed in a 10 × 5 km 2 area in the vicinity of the observatory (mean: 0.5 ± 0.1 °C over the past 93 ± 21 years), and is characteristic of the Interior Peninsula region of south India.

  7. Why farmers’ sowing dates hardly change when temperature rises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Timmermans, B.G.H.; Swaaij, van A.C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that temperature rise leads to an earlier onset of spring in wild plant species and that farmers are not keeping track of climate change. Crop growth models and experiments show yield gains to be obtained from earlier sowing. Why do farmers not sow earlier? We propose sim

  8. Locomotion and control of a self-propelled shape-changing body in a perfect fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chambrion, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in studying some issues relating to the general problem of locomotion by shape- changes in a two dimensional perfect fluis. Our results are two folds: first we introduce a rigorous model for a weighted self-propelled swimming body - one specificity of this model being that the number of the body's deformations degrees of freedom is infinite. The dynamic of the coupled system fluid-body is driven by the so-called Euler-Lagrange equations: a system of ODEs allowing to compute the rigid motion of the body with respect to its prescribed shape-changes. Second, we prove controllability results for this model using powerful tools of geometric control theory. For instance, we show that the body can follow (approximately) any prescribed trajectory while undergoing (approximately) any prescribed shape-changes (this surprising phenomenon will be called Moonwalking). Most of our theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  9. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  10. The acute and subchronic effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on body temperature in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consumption of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy is known to cause severe hyperthermia in humans. This is of extreme importance since ecstasy is often consumed at 'rave' parties, where dancing takes place in a warm environment, which may exacerbate the effect of MDMA on thermoregulation. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of single and repeated administration of MDMA on body temperature in Wistar rats. Material and methods. The study included 72 male Wistar rats, housed in groups of four in cages at a room temperature of 222oC. They were divided in two groups. The rats in the first group were treated with oral solution of MDMA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and their temperature was measured hourly until 8th hour. The rats in the second group were treated with oral solution of MDMA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg every day during 15 days and their temperature was measured daily at 0th, 1st, 3rd, 5th and 8th hour. Temperature was measured by inserting a thermocouple probe 2,5 cm into the rectum. Results. Both groups showed dose dependent increase of body temperature, determined by rectal temperature measurements. The magnitude of hyperthemic response caused by subchronic administration of MDMA was markedly diminished during the experiment. Conclusion. The hyperthermic effect of MDMA was dose-dependent. The magnitude of the hyperthermic response was markedly diminished in subchronic administration.

  11. Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Dent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7–40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia.

  12. Discrimination training with multimodal stimuli changes activity in the mushroom body of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Balkenius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mushroom bodies of the insect brain play an important role in olfactory processing, associative learning and memory. The mushroom bodies show odor-specific spatial patterns of activity and are also influenced by visual stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Functional imaging was used to investigate changes in the in vivo responses of the mushroom body of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta during multimodal discrimination training. A visual and an odour stimulus were presented either together or individually. Initially, mushroom body activation patterns were identical to the odour stimulus and the multimodal stimulus. After training, however, the mushroom body response to the rewarded multimodal stimulus was significantly lower than the response to the unrewarded unimodal odour stimulus, indicating that the coding of the stimuli had changed as a result of training. The opposite pattern was seen when only the unimodal odour stimulus was rewarded. In this case, the mushroom body was more strongly activated by the multimodal stimuli after training. When no stimuli were rewarded, the mushroom body activity decreased for both the multimodal and unimodal odour stimuli. There was no measurable response to the unimodal visual stimulus in any of the experiments. These results can be explained using a connectionist model where the mushroom body is assumed to be excited by olfactory stimulus components, and suppressed by multimodal configurations. CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination training with multimodal stimuli consisting of visual and odour cues leads to stimulus specific changes in the in vivo responses of the mushroom body of the hawkmoth.

  13. Sequential changes of body composition in patients with enterocutaneous fistula during the 10 days after admission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Bo Wang; Jian-An Ren; Jie-Shou Li

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the sequential changes of body composition in the metabolic response that occurred in a group of patients with enterocutaneous fistula after admission to the hospital.METHODS: Sixty-one patients with enterocutaneous fistula admitted to our hospital had measurements of body composition by multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis after admission and 5, 10 days later. Sequential measurements of plasma constitutive proteins were also made. RESULTS: The body weight, fat-free mass, body mass index, and body cell mass were initially well below the normal range, especially the body mass index and body cell mass. And all the data gradually moved up over the 10-day study period, only a highly significant difference was found in body cell mass. Once the patients Received nutrition supplement, ECW began to return to normal range slowly as well as ICW and TBW began to rise up, and ECW/TBW significantly declined to near normal level by day 10 in either male or female patients. There was a reprioritization of plasma constitutive protein synthesis that was obligatory and independent of changes in FFM.CONCLUSION: Serial measurements can quantify the disturbance of body composition in enterocutaneous fistula patients. The early nutritional intervention rapidly ameliorates the abnormal distribution of body water while the state-of-the-art surgical management prevents the further deterioration in cellular composition.

  14. Body composition changes in men and women after 2-3 weeks of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Price, D. C.; Newsom, B. D.

    1976-01-01

    Several parameters of body composition were measured in eight men before and after 14 days of continuous recumbency, and in eight women before and after 17 days of recumbency. The parameters measured included body weight, body water, body potassium, plasma volume, and plasma protein concentrations. From these, values were derived for body fat content, lean body mass, body mass, and circulating plasma proteins. In general, the men and women responded similarly to continuous recumbency. Characteristically, there was significant reduction of plasma volume and body potassium in both groups. The women showed a significant reduction in circulating plasma protein, entirely in the albumin fraction; a similar change was observed in the men. The women, but not the men, showed a significant increase in circulating fibrinogen. Both men and women lost body cell mass, while body fat content remained the same or tended to increase slightly. It is expected that similar changes would occur in weightlessness. It is further concluded that women should tolerate the weightlessness of space flight physiologically as well as men.

  15. A Longitudinal Comparison of Body Composition Changes in Adolescent Girls Receiving Hormonal Contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea E. Bonny; Secic, Michelle; Cromer, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine body composition changes in adolescent girls initiating depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), oral contraceptives, or no hormonal contraceptive method. At 6 months, DMPA resulted in significant increases in adiposity with concomitant decreases in lean body mass. Supplemental estrogen may lessen these DMPA effects.

  16. Impact of body composition changes on risk of all-cause mortality in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, Christophe E; Herrmann, François R; Spoerri, Adrian;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) changes and mortality in persons ≥65 years. METHODS: Adults ≥65 years with at least two body composition measurements (BCM) between 1990 and 2011 were included. We...

  17. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...

  18. Bose–Einstein Condensates with Two- and Three-Body Interactions in an Anharmonic Trap at Finite Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition temperature, the depletion of the condensate atoms and the collective excitations of a Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) with two- and three-body interactions in an anharmonic trap at finite temperature are studied in detail. By using the Popov version of the Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB) approximation, an extended self-consistent model describing BEC with both two- and three-body interactions in a distorted harmonic potential at finite temperature is obtained and solved numerically. The results show that the transition temperature, the condensed atom number and the collective excitations are modified dramatically by the atomic three-body interactions and the distortion of the harmonic trap. (general)

  19. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; González, Francisco J; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J; Campos-Lara, Nadia P; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  20. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar S. Kolosovas-Machuca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p<0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p<0.001 and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Neutron Absorption Materials with Temperature Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Some of these facilities are operated at higher than room temperature, thus the neutron absorption material can be directly affected by the surrounding environment where the temperature is not maintained in a constant condition. Meanwhile, a nucleus in an atom is continuously vibrated with the thermal energy, after which there arises a range of relative speeds between a neutron and the nucleus, even for a fixed neutron speed. At higher temperature, the random motion of the nucleus reproduces new resonance with a lower and broader peak, i.e., Doppler broadening of a resonance, and the capture cross section of neutron is revised. Therefore, the performance of neutron absorption materials may vary with a change of temperature. In this study, the absorption abilities of three kinds of neutron absorbers generally used in the reactor core were analyzed at a range of temperatures from 293.6K to 584K. As a result, the neutron absorption abilities for B{sup 4}C and Ag-In-Cd do not vary with the change of temperature, while that for Gd{sup 2}O{sup 3} absorbers was shown to be decreased approximately 3% with reference to that at 293.6K in the temperature range between the 293.6K and 584K. This phenomenon of the Gd{sup 2}O{sup 3} absorber seems to be caused by the Doppler broadening of the neutron absorption cross-section. Therefore, it is expected that the effect of material temperature on the neutron absorption performance is needed to be considered in the design of nuclear reactor and the analysis of radiation shielding.

  2. Temperature reduction due to the application of phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Conrad; Kornadt, Oliver [Department of Building Physics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Coudraystrasse 11a, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Ostry, Milan [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Department of Building Structures, Veveri 95, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    Overheating is a major problem in many modern buildings due to the utilization of lightweight constructions with low heat storing capacity. A possible answer to this problem is the emplacement of phase change materials (PCM), thereby increasing the thermal mass of a building. These materials change their state of aggregation within a defined temperature range. Useful PCM for buildings show a phase transition from solid to liquid and vice versa. The thermal mass of the materials is increased by the latent heat. A modified gypsum plaster and a salt mixture were chosen as two materials for the study of their impact on room temperature reduction. For realistic investigations, test rooms were erected where measurements were carried out under different conditions such as temporary air change, alternate internal heat gains or clouding. The experimental data was finally reproduced by dint of a mathematical model. (author)

  3. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke

    2000-01-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods

  4. OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness alters murine heart rate variability and body temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Jasmin Domnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Altered autonomic (ANS tone in chronic respiratory disease is implicated as a factor in cardiovascular co-morbidities, yet no studies address its impact on cardiovascular function in the presence of murine allergic airway (AW hyperresponsiveness (AHR. Since antigen (Ag-induced AHR is used to model allergic asthma (in which ANS alterations have been reported, we performed a pilot study to assess measurement feasibility of, as well as the impact of allergic sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA on, heart rate variability (HRV in a murine model. Heart rate (HR, body temperature (TB and time- and frequency-domain HRV analyses, a reflection of ANS control, were obtained in chronically instrumented mice (telemetry before, during and for 22 h after OVA or saline aerosolization in sensitized (OVA or Alum adjuvant control exposed animals. OVA mice diverged significantly from Alum mice with respect to change in HR during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001, two-way ANOVA; HR max change Ctrl = +80 ± 10 bpm vs. OVA = +1 ± 23 bpm, mean ± SEM, and displayed elevated HR during the subsequent dark cycle (P = 0.006. Sensitization decreased the TB during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001. Sensitized mice had decreased HRV prior to challenge (SDNN: P = 0.038; Low frequency (LF power: P = 0.021; Low/high Frequency (HF power: P = 0.042, and increased HRV during Ag challenge (RMSSD: P = 0.047; pNN6: P = 0.039. Sensitized mice displayed decreased HRV subsequent to OVA challenge, primarily in the dark cycle (RMSSD: P = 0.018; pNN6: P < 0.001; LF: P < 0.001; HF: P = 0.040; LF/HF: P < 0.001. We conclude that implanted telemetry technology is an effective method to assess the ANS impact of allergic sensitization. Preliminary results show mild sensitization is associated with reduced HRV and a suppression of the acute TB response to OVA challenge. This approach to assess altered ANS control in the acute OVA model may also be beneficial in chronic AHR models.

  5. Quasi-periodicity of temperature changes on the millennial scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Quansheng; FANG Xiuqi; ZHENG Jingyun

    2003-01-01

    Quasi-periodicity of temperature changes on the millennial scale is found according to the proxy data both from historical documents and natural evidence in China. The auto-correlation of the temperature changes series for the last 2000 years is most significant on the 1350 a time lag. The period of 1350 a includes 4 warm/cold stages: 200~250 a warm stage, 150~200 a cold stage, 300~350 a warm stage, and 550~600 a cold stage. In contrast to the 550~600 a cold stage, the other three stages can be united in one warm dominant stage. Inferred from the 1350 a period, the 20th century warm stage belongs to the 200~250 a warm stage, which is similar to the warm stage occurring during the 570's~770's. The process of temperature change in the 20th century warm stage is similar to that of the 570's~770's. But the warming rate in the 20th century is more rapid. The temperature anomaly in the 1980's~1990's shows a greater departure from the regression equation of that between 1500's~1900's and 150's~650's. Whether it can be regarded as the forcing of human activities is worth studying further.

  6. Observed and projected changes in temperature and rainfall in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Chan Thoeun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and rainfall patterns in Cambodia are governed by monsoons and characterized by two major wet and dry seasons. The average annual rainfall is 1400 mm in the central low land regions and may reach 4000 mm in certain coastal zones or in highland areas. The annual average temperature is 28 °C, with an average maximum temperature of 38 °C in April and an average minimum temperature of 17 °C in January. This paper presents the climate change scenarios using MAGICC–SCENGEN program, which links emissions scenarios with global and regional climate change and has adopted the regional climate model (PRECIS in combination with a number of GCM models with resolution of 50×50 km, using observation data and two historical and future climate data sets generated by RCM model downscaling under the two emission scenarios SRES A2 and SRES B2. Projections of maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall patterns from 2008 to 2099 are described. For future studies, daily data are required perform vulnerability and adaptation assessments.

  7. Body mass index across midlife and cognitive change in late life

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Anna K.; Hassing, Linda B.; Fransson, Eleonor I; Gatz, Margaret; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background High midlife body mass index (BMI) has been linked to a greater risk of dementia in late life, but few have studied the effect of BMI across midlife on cognitive abilities and cognitive change in a dementia free sample. Methods We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI), measured twice across midlife (mean age 40 and 61 years, respectively), and cognitive change in four domains across two decades in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). Results Latent...

  8. The river temperature changes follows the climate variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature of the river water is a dynamical characteristic affected by the geophysical processes- and climate characteristics of the catchment area, as well as the hydrological processes of the runoff formation and movement. The knowledge about the river water is very important when the water losses for transpiration are concerned. One should add that the river pollution problems, the self purification, the potable water supply require this information also. We consider the temperature of the river water as a very important parameter for diversity of ecological studies and research. It is a general practice to accept that the river water temperature is rather homogeneous across any profile because of the turbulent mass exchange. The temperature stratification is a matter of concern in limnology and oceanology studies mainly. We have shown several basic regularities about the cyclic feature of the daily and seasonal changes or about the river water temperature and both the altitude of the catchment area (gradient 1oC per a 100 m) and so on. After the mean water temperatures on any hydro metric gauge stations are being determined the area patterns with equal temperatures are identified, thus drawing a map. It is a presumption that the river water temperatures inside a specific area are equal on any place, meaning that the temperature field is rather homogeneous. The mapping allowed to distinguish the river reaches, subjected to the anthropogenic impact. The study and the map have been developed on the basis of the new hydro metric information data bank, composed recently by the authors.(Author)

  9. Supraphysiological cyclic dosing of sustained release T3 in order to reset low basal body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Gonzalez, Michael J

    2006-03-01

    The use of sustained release tri-iodothyronine (SR-T3) in clinical practice, has gained popularity in the complementary and alternative medical community in the treatment of chronic fatigue with a protocol (WT3) pioneered by Dr. Denis Wilson. The WT3 protocol involves the use of SR-T3 taken orally by the patient every 12 hours according to a cyclic dose schedule determined by patient response. The patient is then weaned once a body temperature of 98.6 degrees F has been maintained for 3 consecutive weeks. The symptoms associated with this protocol have been given the name Wilson's Temperature Syndrome (WTS). There have been clinical studies using T3 in patients who are euthyroid based on normal TSH values. However, this treatment has created a controversy in the conventional medical community, especially with the American Thyroid Association, because it is not based on a measured deficiency of thyroid hormone. However, just as estrogen and progesterone are prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles in patients who have normal serum hormone levels, the WT3 therapy can be used to regulate metabolism despite normal serum thyroid hormone levels. SR-T3 prescription is based exclusively on low body temperature and presentation of symptoms. Decreased T3 function exerts widespread effects throughout the body. It can decrease serotonin and growth hormone levels and increase the number of adrenal hormone receptor sites. These effects may explain some of the symptoms observed in WTS. The dysregulation of neuroendocrine function may begin to explain such symptoms as alpha intrusion into slow wave sleep, decrease in blood flow to the brain, alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, fatigue, myalgia and arthralgia, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Despite all thermoregulatory control mechanisms of the body and the complex metabolic processes involved, WT3 therapy seems a valuable tool to re-establish normal body functions. We report the results of 11 patients who underwent the

  10. Causes of Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kobashi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Precise understanding of Greenland temperature variability is important in two ways. First, Greenland ice sheet melting associated with rising temperature is a major global sea level forcing, potentially affecting large populations in coming centuries. Second, Greenland temperatures are highly affected by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO. In our earlier study, we found that Greenland temperature deviated negatively (positively from northern hemispheric (NH temperature trend during stronger (weaker solar activity owing to changes in atmospheric/oceanic changes (e.g. NAO/AO over the past 800 yr (Kobashi et al., 2013. Therefore, a precise Greenland temperature record can provide important constraints on the past atmospheric/oceanic circulation in the region and beyond. Here, we investigated Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr reconstructed from argon and nitrogen isotopes from trapped air in a GISP2 ice core, using a one-dimensional energy balance model with orbital, solar, volcanic, greenhouse gas, and aerosol forcings. The modelled northern Northern Hemisphere (NH temperature exhibits a cooling trend over the past 4000 yr as observed for the reconstructed Greenland temperature through decreasing annual average insolation. With consideration of the negative influence of solar variability, the modelled and observed Greenland temperatures agree with correlation coefficients of r = 0.34–0.36 (p = 0.1–0.04 in 21 yr running means (RMs and r = 0.38–0.45 (p = 0.1–0.05 on a centennial timescale (101 yr RMs. Thus, the model can explain 14 to 20% of variance of the observed Greenland temperature in multidecadal to centennial timescales with a 90–96% confidence interval, suggesting that a weak but persistent negative solar influence on Greenland temperature continued over the past 4000 yr. Then, we estimated the distribution of multidecadal NH and northern high

  11. Whole-Body Reaching Movements Formulated by Minimum Muscle-Tension Change Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Naoki; Choi, Kyuheong; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that planar reaching movements of the human shoulder and elbow joints have invariant features: roughly straight hand paths and bell-shaped velocity profiles. The optimal control models with the criteria of smoothness or precision, which determine a unique movement pattern, predict such features of hand trajectories. In this letter on expanding the research on simple arm reaching movements, we examine whether the smoothness criteria can be applied to whole-body reaching movements with many degrees of freedom. Determining a suitable joint trajectory in the whole-body reaching movement corresponds to the optimization problem with constraints, since body balance must be maintained during a motion task. First, we measured human joint trajectories and ground reaction forces during whole-body reaching movements, and confirmed that subjects formed similar movements with common characteristics in the trajectories of the hand position and body center of mass. Second, we calculated the optimal trajectories according to the criteria of torque and muscle-tension smoothness. While the minimum torque change trajectories were not consistent with the experimental data, the minimum muscle-tension change model was able to predict the stereotyped features of the measured trajectories. To explore the dominant effects of the extension from the torque change to the muscle-tension change, we introduced a weighted torque change cost function. Considering the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the muscle as the weighting factor of each joint torque, we formulated the weighted torque change cost as a simplified version of the minimum muscle-tension change cost. The trajectories owing to the minimum weighted torque change criterion also showed qualitative agreement with the common features of the measured data. Proper estimation of the MVC forces in the body joints is essential to reproduce human whole-body movements according to the minimum muscle-tension change

  12. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields

  13. Neuropeptides and anticipatory changes in behaviour and physiology: seasonal body weight regulation in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Julian G; Tups, Alexander

    2003-11-01

    The Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is a powerful model of physiological body weight regulation. This seasonal model offers the potential to distinguish between the compensatory neuroendocrine systems that defend body weight against imposed negative energy balance, and those that are involved in the programming of the level of body weight that will be defended-a seasonally appropriate body weight. Of the known, studied, components of the hypothalamic energy balance system, the anorexogenic peptide, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), is the only candidate where gene expression changes in a manner consistent with a role in initiating or sustaining photoperiod-induced differences in body weight trajectory. Siberian hamsters effect a reversible biannual switch in leptin sensitivity in which only short day (SD)-acclimated hamsters that have undergone a reduction in body weight, adiposity and plasma leptin are sensitive to peripheral exogenous leptin. The suppressor of cytokine signalling protein, SOCS3, appears to be the molecular correlate of this seasonal sensitivity.

  14. Global DNA Methylation Changes in Nile Tilapia Gonads during High Temperature-Induced Masculinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    In some fish species, high or low temperature can switch the sex determination mechanisms and induce fish sex reversal when the gonads are undifferentiated. During this high or low temperature-induced sex reversal, the expressions of many genes are altered. However, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in fish gonads after high or low temperature treatment are unclear. Herein, we compared the global DNA methylation changes in the gonads from control females (CF), control males (CM), high temperature-treated females (TF), and high temperature-induced males (IM) from the F8 family of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. The DNA methylation level in CF was higher than that in CM for various chromosomes. Both females and males showed an increase in methylation levels on various chromosomes after high-temperature induction. We identified 64,438 (CF/CM), 63,437 (TF/IM), 98,675 (TF/CF), 235,270 (IM/CM) and 119,958 (IM/CF) differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in Nile tilapia gonads, representing approximately 0.70% (CF/CM), 0.69% (TF/IM), 1.07% (TF/CF), 2.56% (IM/CM), and 1.30% (IM/CF)of the length of the genome. A total of 89 and 65 genes that exhibited DMRs in their gene bodies and promoters were mapped to the Nile tilapia genome. Furthermore, more than half of the genes with DMRs in the gene body in CF/CM were also included in the IM/CM, TF/CF, TF/IM, and IM/CF groups. Additionally, many important pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were identified. This study provided an important foundation to investigate the molecular mechanism of high temperature-induced sex reversal in fish species. PMID:27486872

  15. Global DNA Methylation Changes in Nile Tilapia Gonads during High Temperature-Induced Masculinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Xue; Wang, Yi-Ya; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hui; Li, Ning; Ji, Xiang Shan

    2016-01-01

    In some fish species, high or low temperature can switch the sex determination mechanisms and induce fish sex reversal when the gonads are undifferentiated. During this high or low temperature-induced sex reversal, the expressions of many genes are altered. However, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in fish gonads after high or low temperature treatment are unclear. Herein, we compared the global DNA methylation changes in the gonads from control females (CF), control males (CM), high temperature-treated females (TF), and high temperature-induced males (IM) from the F8 family of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. The DNA methylation level in CF was higher than that in CM for various chromosomes. Both females and males showed an increase in methylation levels on various chromosomes after high-temperature induction. We identified 64,438 (CF/CM), 63,437 (TF/IM), 98,675 (TF/CF), 235,270 (IM/CM) and 119,958 (IM/CF) differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in Nile tilapia gonads, representing approximately 0.70% (CF/CM), 0.69% (TF/IM), 1.07% (TF/CF), 2.56% (IM/CM), and 1.30% (IM/CF)of the length of the genome. A total of 89 and 65 genes that exhibited DMRs in their gene bodies and promoters were mapped to the Nile tilapia genome. Furthermore, more than half of the genes with DMRs in the gene body in CF/CM were also included in the IM/CM, TF/CF, TF/IM, and IM/CF groups. Additionally, many important pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were identified. This study provided an important foundation to investigate the molecular mechanism of high temperature-induced sex reversal in fish species. PMID:27486872

  16. Ultrasonic vocalization and body temperature maintenance in infant voles of three species (Rodentia: Arvicolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, B H

    1992-12-01

    Infant voles thermoregulate poorly and produce ultrasonic vocalizations when cooled. Vocalizing and the ability to maintain body temperature in isolated pups cold-challenged at 5 degrees C or 22 degrees C were studied in nestling Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus agrestis, and Arvicola terrestris. The tendency to vocalize varied with age, since pups vocalized more in their 2nd week than in their 1st or 3rd weeks. Rate of vocalizing was correlated with sound pressure level of vocalizations. Their was no apparent relation between vocalizing rate and deep body temperature. M. agrestis pups vocalized most and A. terrestris pups least, and all three species vocalized more at the lower temperature. Maximal vocalizing occurred in mid aged M. agrestis (at 5 degrees C) with mean of 1291 vocalizations/20 min and mean SPL of 80 dB (decibels re: 20 microN/m2). It is suggested that the vocalizing response is an adaptation related to risk from hypothermia in infant voles. PMID:1487083

  17. Quantum three-body calculation of the nonresonant triple-\\alpha reaction rate at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Kazuyuki; Kamimura, Masayasu

    2009-01-01

    The triple-\\alpha reaction rate is re-evaluated by directly solving the three-body Schroedinger equation. The resonant and nonresonant processes are treated on the same footing using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method for three-body scattering. Accurate description of the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant states significantly quenches the Coulomb barrier between the two-\\alpha's and the third \\alpha particle. Consequently, the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant continuum states below the resonance at 92.04 keV, i.e., the ground state of 8Be, give markedly larger contribution at low temperatures than in foregoing studies. We find about 20 orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the triple-\\alpha reaction rate around 10^7 K compared to the rate of the NACRE compilation.

  18. Temperature extremes in Europe: mechanisms and responses to climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe witnessed a spate of record-breaking warm seasons during the 2000's. As illustrated by the devastating heat-wave of the summer 2003, these episodes induced strong societal and environmental impacts. Such occurrence of exceptional events over a relatively short time period raised up many questionings in the present context of climate change. In particular, can recent temperature extremes be considered as 'previews' of future climate conditions? Do they result from an increasing temperature variability? These questions constitute the main motivations of this thesis. Thus, our work aims to contribute to the understanding of physical mechanisms responsible for seasonal temperature extremes in Europe, in order to anticipate their future statistical characteristics. Involved processes are assessed by both statistical data-analysis of observations and climate projections and regional modeling experiments. First we show that while the inter-annual European temperature variability appears driven by disturbances in the North-Atlantic dynamics, the recent warming is likely to be dissociated with potential circulation changes. This inconsistency climaxes during the exceptionally mild autumn of 2006, whose temperature anomaly is only half explained by the atmospheric flow. Recent warm surface conditions in the North-Atlantic ocean seem to substantially contribute to the European warming in autumn-winter, through the establishment of advective and radiative processes. In spring-summer, since both advection by the westerlies and Atlantic warming are reduced, more local processes appear predominant (e.g. soil moisture, clouds, aerosols). Then the issue of future evolution of the relationship between North-Atlantic dynamics and European temperatures is addressed, based on climate projections of the International Panel on Climate Change. Multi-model analysis, using both flow-analogues and weather regimes methods, show that the inconsistency noticed over recent decades is

  19. Giant Magnetic Entropy Change in Manganese Perovskites near Room Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟; 王锦辉; 都有为; 陈伟

    2001-01-01

    A large magnetic entropy change about twice as high as that of pure gadolinium metal near room temperature has been discovered in manganese perovskites La0.837Ca0.098Na0.03sMn0.987O3.00(8.3 J. kg-1.K-1, at 256 K) and La0.s22Ca0.096K0.043Mn0.974O3.00 (6.8 J. kg-1.K-1, at 265K) under a magnetic field of 1.5 T. This phenomenon indicates that manganese perovskites have potential applications for magnetic refrigerants in an extended temperature range even near room temperature.

  20. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition

  1. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  2. Seasonal Temperature Changes Do Not Affect Cardiac Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Schildt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available FDG-PET/CT is widely used to diagnose cardiac inflammation such as cardiac sarcoidosis. Physiological myocardial FDG uptake often creates a problem when assessing the possible pathological glucose metabolism of the heart. Several factors, such as fasting, blood glucose, and hormone levels, influence normal myocardial glucose metabolism. The effect of outdoor temperature on myocardial FDG uptake has not been reported before. We retrospectively reviewed 29 cancer patients who underwent PET scans in warm summer months and again in cold winter months. We obtained myocardial, liver, and mediastinal standardized uptake values (SUVs as well as quantitative cardiac heterogeneity and the myocardial FDG uptake pattern. We also compared age and body mass index to other variables. The mean myocardial FDG uptake showed no significant difference between summer and winter months. Average outdoor temperature did not correlate significantly with myocardial SUVmax in either summer or winter. The heterogeneity of myocardial FDG uptake did not differ significantly between seasons. Outdoor temperature seems to have no significant effect on myocardial FDG uptake or heterogeneity. Therefore, warming the patients prior to attending cardiac PET studies in order to reduce physiological myocardial FDG uptake seems to be unnecessary.

  3. Dinosaur body temperatures determined from isotopic (¹³C-¹⁸O) ordering in fossil biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Tütken, Thomas; Martin, Taylor S; Tripati, Aradhna K; Fricke, Henry C; Connely, Melissa; Cifelli, Richard L; Eiler, John M

    2011-07-22

    The nature of the physiology and thermal regulation of the nonavian dinosaurs is the subject of debate. Previously, arguments have been made for both endothermic and ectothermic metabolisms on the basis of differing methodologies. We used clumped isotope thermometry to determine body temperatures from the fossilized teeth of large Jurassic sauropods. Our data indicate body temperatures of 36° to 38°C, which are similar to those of most modern mammals. This temperature range is 4° to 7°C lower than predicted by a model that showed scaling of dinosaur body temperature with mass, which could indicate that sauropods had mechanisms to prevent excessively high body temperatures being reached because of their gigantic size.

  4. Phase maintenance in a rhythmic motor pattern during temperature changes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soofi, Wafa; Goeritz, Marie L; Kispersky, Tilman J; Prinz, Astrid A; Marder, Eve; Stein, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Central-pattern-generating neural circuits function reliably throughout an animal's life, despite constant molecular turnover and environmental perturbations. Fluctuations in temperature pose a problem to the nervous systems of poikilotherms because their body temperature follows the ambient temperature, thus affecting the temperature-dependent dynamics of various subcellular components that constitute neuronal circuits. In the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, the pyloric circuit produces a triphasic rhythm comprising the output of the pyloric dilator, lateral pyloric, and pyloric constrictor neurons. In vitro, the phase relationships of these neurons are maintained over a fourfold change in pyloric frequency as temperature increases from 7°C to 23°C. To determine whether these temperature effects are also found in intact crabs, in the presence of sensory feedback and neuromodulator-rich environments, we measured the temperature dependence of the pyloric frequency and phases in vivo by implanting extracellular electrodes into Cancer borealis and Cancer pagurus and shifting tank water temperature from 11°C to 26°C. Pyloric frequency in the intact crab increased significantly with temperature (Q10 = 2-2.5), while pyloric phases were generally conserved. For a subset of the C. borealis experiments, animals were subsequently dissected and the stomatogastric ganglion subjected to a similar temperature ramp in vitro. We found that the maximal frequency attained at high temperatures in vivo is lower than it is under in vitro conditions. Our results demonstrate that, over a wide temperature range, the phases of the pyloric rhythm in vivo are generally preserved, but that the frequency range is more restricted than it is in vitro. PMID:24671541

  5. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Briga; Simon Verhulst

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimenta...

  6. Power change in amorphous silicon technology by low temperature annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Ankit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous silicon (a-Si is one of the best established thin-film solar-cell technologies. Despite its long history of research, it still has many critical issues because of its defect rich material and its susceptibility to degrade under light also called as Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE. This leads to an increase in the defect density of a-Si, but as a metastable effect it can be completely healed at temperatures above 170 °C. Our study is focused on investigating the behavior of annealing of different a-Si modules under low temperature conditions below 80 °C indicated by successive change of module power. These conditions reflect the environmental temperature impact of the modules in the field, or integrated in buildings as well. The power changes were followed by STC power rating and investigation of module-power evolution under low irradiance conditions at 50 W/m2. Our samples were recovered close to their initial state of power, reaching as high as 99% from its degraded value. This shows the influence of low temperature annealing and light on metastable module behavior in a-Si thin-film modules.

  7. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, C.; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  8. Cytoskeletal regulation dominates temperature-sensitive proteomic changes of hibernation in forebrain of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson G Hindle

    Full Text Available 13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy - wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins

  9. Prediction of thermal environment via revision of PMV index with body temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yan; Liu Jiaping; Kubota Hideki

    2007-01-01

    PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) is a widely used index for evaluating the thermal environment. However, few studies have been conducted to take physiological values directly as evaluating indices. This paper assumes a linear relation between body temperature and both sweating rate and heat produced by shivering, and introduces the linear relation into the human heat balance equation to revise the classic PMV. And the assumption of linear relation is subsequently proved. The revised PMV possesses the same characteristic of dependent heat load as that of the classic one, and moreover it is convenient to be calculated.

  10. The effect of direct heating and cooling of heat regulation centers on body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were done on 28 rabbits in which puncture instruments were left in the brain for 1-2 days until the calori-puncture hyperthermia had passed and the body temperature was again normal. The instrument remaining in the brain was then used as a galvanic electrode and a second fever was produced, this time due to the electrical stimulus. It was concluded that heat is a centrally acting antipyretic and that cold is a centrally acting stimulus which produces hyperpyrexia cold-induced fever.

  11. Circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in aging BALB/c mice: early and late life span predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Andrea; Del Bello, Giovanna; Piacenza, Francesco; Giacconi, Robertina; Costarelli, Laura; Malavolta, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Impairment of one or more parameters of circadian rhythms (CR) of body temperature (BT) and locomotor activity (LMA) are considered among the hallmarks of mammalian aging. These alterations are frequently used as markers for imminent death in laboratory mice. However, there are still contradictory data for particular strains and it is also uncertain which changes might predict senescence changes later in life, including the force of mortality. In the present paper we use telemetry to study LMA and CR of BT during aging of BALB/c mice. At our knowledge this is the first time that CR of BT and LMA are investigated in this strain in a range of age covering the whole lifespan, from young adult up to very old age. CR of BT was analyzed with a cosine model using a cross sectional approach and follow-up measurements. The results show that BT, LMA, amplitude, goodness-of-fit (GoF) to circadian cycle of temperature decrease with different shapes during chronological age. Moreover, we found that the % change of amplitude and BT in early life (5-19 months) can predict the remaining lifespan of the mice. Later in life (22-32 months), best predictors are single measurements of LMA and GoF. The results of this study also offer potential measures to rapidly identifying freely unrestrained mice with the worst longitudinal outcome and against which existing or novel biomarkers and treatments may be assessed. PMID:26820297

  12. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based prediction needs further investigation.

  13. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K. Y.; Sastri, A. R.; Gong, G. C.; Hsieh, C. H.

    2013-03-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE). In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  14. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Lin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE, linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE. In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  15. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardinha Luís B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2 engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22. Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols.

  16. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2016-09-01

    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  17. Changes in Skin Surface Temperature during Muscular Endurance indicated Strain – An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fröhlich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-contact thermography enables the diagnosis of the distribution of skin surface temperature during athletic movement. Resistance exercise results in stress of required musculature, which is supposed to be measurable thermographically in terms of skin surface temperature change. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the application of thermography to analyze changes in skin temperature, representing specific muscle groups, during and after resistance exercise. Method: Thirteen male participants (age: 27.1 ± 4.9 years, height: 181.5 ± 5.7 cm, mass: 74.8 ± 7.4 kg completed the study. On 5 separate visits to the laboratory, participants performed one of 5 resistance exercise to target specific muscles (M. pectoralis major, M. rectus abdominis, M. trapezius, M. erector spinae, M. quadriceps femoris. The exercise protocol consisted of 3 sets of 20 repetitions, with 1 minute rest between exercise sets. The average skin surface temperature above the muscle groups used was thermographically determined using standard methods at 7 time points; pre-exercise, immediately following each exercise set, and post exercise (2, 3, and 6 minutes after the finale exercise set. The measurement areas were standardized using anatomic reference points. Results: From an inferential statistical point of view, no significant change in the average temperature caused by the applied resistance training was found for the individual muscle groups over time at the individual measurement times (all P>0.08. However, thermography showed a characteristic chronological temperature curve for the five body areas between measurement times, as well as a distinctive spatial temperature distribution over the measurement areas. Discussion: Based on the thermographic image data and the characteristic temperature curve, it is possible to identify the primarily used functional musculature after device-controlled resistance training. Therefore, thermography seems to be

  18. Temperature changes across CO2-lased dentin during multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Barron, Joseph R.; Boran, Thomas L.

    1990-06-01

    The literature increasingly indicates that lasers will have a multitude of applications for dental hard tissue procedures, e.g. preventive therapy, caries removal, laser etching and endodontic therapy. However, it is critical that such laser therapies avoid the production of heat levels which will be damaging to the surrounding vital tissues, such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. Our preliminary research on temperature changes across C02 lased dentin indicated that for single preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot) the mean temperature rise across 350 j.tm of dentin was 0.57 0C while across 1000 .tm of dentin the mean rise was only 0.18 °C. Further research utilizing multiple preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot, 3 x 1.0 sec. intervals) showed mean temperature elevations of 1.56 0C across 350 m of dentin and 0.66 O across 1000 xm of dentin. While these temperature elevations, which would be associated with preventive therapy, are very low and would be biologically acceptable, it must be noted that exposures of higher intensities are required to fuse enamel and porcelain, or remove decay. This current research investigates temperature elevations which occuT during C02 lasing utilizing the following exposure parameters: 8.0 W., 1.0 mm focal spot, 0.1 sec. exposures, 2 or 4 exposures per site pulsed 1.0 sec. apart. Three dentin thicknesses were utilized, i.e. 1000 jim, 1500 p.tm and 2000 .tm. Four sections of each thickness were utilized with four exposure sites per specimen (2 with 2 exposures, 2 with 4 exposures). All dentin sections were prepared from non-carious third molars using a hard tissue microtome. A thermistor was placed on the dentin surface opposite each lased site and temperature changes were recorded for approximately 50 sec. following lasing. Mean temperature elevations ranged from a high of 3.07 C for the 1000 xm section utilizing four exposures to a low of 0.37 0C for the

  19. Antidepressant Use and Body Mass Index Change in Overweight Adolescents: A Historical Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cockerill, Richard G.; Biggs, Bridget K.; Oesterle, Tyler S.; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Given the limited empirical data on antidepressant use and weight change in children, we performed a historical cohort study to assess change in age- and sex-standardized body mass index associated with antidepressant use among overweight adolescents diagnosed with a depressive disorder.

  20. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  1. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight.

  2. [Primary Study on Noninvasive Detection of Vascular Function Based on Finger Temperature Change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Li, Xia; Wan, Yungao; Lu, Gaoquan; Wang, Xinxin; Zhang, Kuan

    2016-02-01

    By studying the relationship between fingertip temperature changes and arterial function during vascular reactivity test, we established a new non-invasive method for detecting vascular function, in order to provide an assistance for early diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We customized three modules respectively for blood occlusion, measurement of finger temperature and blood oxygen acquisition, and then we established the hardware of data acquisition system. And the software was programmed with Labview. Healthy subjects [group A, n = 24, (44.6 ± 9.0) years] and subjects with cardiovascular diseases [group B, n = 33, (57.2 ± 9.9) years)] were chosen for the study. Subject's finger temperature, blood oxygen and occlusion pressure of block side during and after unilateral arm brachial artery occlusion were recorded, as well as some other regular physiological indexes. By time-domain analysis, we extracted 12 parameters from fingertip temperature signal, including the initial temperature (Ti), temperature rebound (TR), the time of the temperature recovering to initial status (RIt) and other parameters from the finger temperature signal. We in the experiment also measured other regular physiological body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastiolic blood pressure (DBP) and so on. Results showed that 8 parameters difference between the two group of data were significant. based on the statistical results. A discriminant function of vascular function status was established afterwards. We found in the study that the changes of finger temperature during unilateral arms brachial artery occlusion and open were closely related to vascular function. We hope that the method presented in this article could lay a foundation of early detection of vascular function. PMID:27382755

  3. Effects of body mass and water temperature on routine metabolism of American paddlefish Polyodon spathula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J T; Mims, S D; Wright, R A

    2013-04-01

    This study quantified the effects of temperature and fish mass on routine metabolism of the American paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Thermal sensitivity, as measured by Q(10) value, was low in P. spathula. Mean Q(10) was 1·78 while poikilotherms are generally expected to have Q(10) values in the 2·00-2·50 range. Mass-specific metabolism did not decrease with increased fish size to the extent that this phenomenon is observed in teleosts, as evidenced by a mass exponent (β) value of 0·92 for P. spathula compared with 0·79 in a review of teleost species. Other Acipenseriformes have exhibited relatively high β values for mass-specific respiration. Overall P. spathula metabolism appears to be more dependent on body mass and less dependent on temperature than for many other fishes. An equation utilizing temperature and fish mass to estimate gross respiration for P. spathula was derived and this equation was applied to respiratory data from other Acipenseriformes to assess inter-species variation. Polyodon spathula respiration rates across water temperature and fish mass appear most similar to those of Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. PMID:23557305

  4. A simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using MRI and the effect of body temperature on the hepatic kinetics of Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kenya; Assanai, Purapan; Takata, Hiroshige; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Nishiura, Motoko

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and inexpensive system for controlling body temperature in small animal experiments using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate the effect of body temperature on the kinetic behavior of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in the liver. In our temperature-control system, body temperature was controlled using a feedback-regulated heated or cooled air flow generated by two Futon dryers. The switches of the two Futon dryers were controlled using a digital temperature controller, in which the rectal temperature of a mouse measured by an optical fiber thermometer was used as the input. In experimental studies, male ICR mice aged 8weeks old were used and allocated into 5 groups (39-, 36-, 33-, 30-, and 27-degree groups, n=10), in which the body temperature was maintained at 39 °C, 36 °C, 33 °C, 30 °C, and 27 °C, respectively, using our system. The dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data were acquired with an MRI system for animal experiments equipped with a 1.5-Tesla permanent magnet, for approximately 43min, after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA into the tail vein. After correction of the image shift due to the temperature-dependent drift of the Larmor frequency using the gradient-based image registration method with robust estimation of displacement parameters, the kinetic behavior of Gd-EOB-DTPA was analyzed using an empirical mathematical model. With the use of this approach, the upper limit of the relative enhancement (A), the rates of contrast uptake (α) and washout (β), the parameter related to the slope of early uptake (q), the area under the curve (AUC), the maximum relative enhancement (REmax), the time to REmax (Tmax), and the elimination half-life of the contrast agent (T1/2) were calculated. The body temperature of mice could be controlled well by use of our system. Although there were no significant differences in α, AUC, and q among groups, there

  5. Association between dietary protein and change in body composition among children (EYHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Heitmann, Berit L; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G;

    2009-01-01

    of protein, arginine, lysine and subsequent 6-year change in body composition among 8-10-year-old children. METHODS: Data of 364 children were collected from Odense, Denmark, during 1997-1998 and 6-year later as part of the European Youth Heart Study. Body mass index among children was subdivided by fat free......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Growth hormone (GH) affects body composition by a relatively reduced fat mass and increased fat free mass. The intake of protein as well as the specific amino acids arginine and lysine potently stimulate GH secretion. This study investigated associations between intakes...... with a body mass index in the 5th quintile, protein intake was associated with DeltaFFMI (p=0.04), and more specific when LYS intake was high, ARG intake was associated with DeltaFFMI (p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Among girls high protein intakes may decrease body fat gain and increase fat free mass gain, depending...

  6. Temperature changes among organophosphate poisoned patients, Tehran- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaie Haleh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPs is a major global clinical problem in the developing countries. There have been many animal studies and few human surveys on the effects of organophosphorus pesticide (OP poisoning on thermoregulation. The aim of this prospective study was to document the pattern of tympanic temperature changes among OP poisoned patients throughout the length of their hospital stay. Methods 60 patients with diagnose of organophosphate poisoning were included in this study. Questioner was filled out by trained nurses including demographic, clinical and paraclinical data. Tympanic temperature and Pulse rate data of the cases were collected on five- occasions after admission. Results There were 41 (68.3% male and 19 (31.7% female, with a mean age of 34.4 ±19.4 years (range 13–89 years. Forty five patients had intentional poisoning for suicidal attempt. At the time of entry, the mean tympanic temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic of the OP poisoned patients were respectively 37.1+/−0.6°C (36.0- 39.5, 91+/−18 (55–145, 18+/−5.6 (8–44, 116+/−20 mm Hg (70–170 and 75+/−11.6 mm Hg (40–110. 41.7% of the cases had serum butyryl cholinesterase activities (BChE ≥ 50% normal (≥1600 mU/ml. Our patients had normal temperature at the time entry (mean = 37.1. Tympanic temperature decreasing below 36°C was not detected among the patients during the study period. A rise in mean tympanic temperature was found after atropine administration. Conclusion Our study showed hypothermia was not considerable factor among organophosphate poisoned patients, although more studies with similar situations in tropical countries are needed.

  7. Changes in Mammalian Body Length over 175 Years—Adaptations to a Fragmented Landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Moestrup Jensen

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential consequences of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on species diversity and extinction have drawn considerable attention in recent decades. In many cases, traditional island biogeography theory has been applied to explain the observed patterns. Here, we propose that habitat fragmentation as a selective force can be traced in mammalian body length changes. By exploring historical sources, we are able to show that the body length of Danish mammals has altered over a period of 175 years, possibly in response to increasing habitat fragmentation. The rate of body length change was generally lowest in medium-sized mammals, and increased with both smaller and larger body mass. Small mammals have generally increased, whereas large mammals have decreased in length. In addition to habitat fragmentation, some species may experience other selective forces, such as traffic, and may be trapped in an evolutionary tug-of-war, where the selective forces pull in opposite directions.

  8. Changes in size of nano phase iron inclusions with temperature: Experimental simulation of space weathering effects at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, S. S.; Moroz, L. V.; Stockhoff, T.; Baither, D.; Bischoff, A.; Hiesinger, H.

    2011-10-01

    The mean size of nano phase iron inclusions (npFe0), produced during the space weathering of iron-rich regolith of airless solar system bodies, significantly affects visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. To experimentally simulate the change in the size of npFe0 inclusions with increasing temperature, we produced sputter film deposits on a silicon dioxide substrate by sputtering a pressed pellet prepared from fine olivine powder using 600V Ar+ ions. This silicon dioxide substrate covered with the deposit was later heated to 450°C for 24 hours in an oven under argon atmosphere. Initial TEM analysis of the unheated silicon dioxide substrate showed the presence of a ~ 50 nm-thick layer of an amorphous deposit with nano clusters that has not yet been identified.

  9. Effects of airflow on body temperatures and sleep stages in a warm humid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Iwaki, Tatsuya

    2008-03-01

    Airflow is an effective way to increase heat loss—an ongoing process during sleep and wakefulness in daily life. However, it is unclear whether airflow stimulates cutaneous sensation and disturbs sleep or reduces the heat load and facilitates sleep. In this study, 17 male subjects wearing short pyjamas slept on a bed with a cotton blanket under two of the following conditions: (1) air temperature (Ta) 26°C, relative humidity (RH) 50%, and air velocity (V) 0.2 m s-1; (2) Ta 32°C, RH 80%, V 1.7 m s-1; (3) Ta 32°C; RH 80%, V 0.2 m s-1 (hereafter referred to as 26/50, 32/80 with airflow, and 32/80 with still air, respectively). Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, and mental electromyograms were obtained for all subjects. Rectal (Tre) and skin (Ts) temperatures were recorded continuously during the sleep session, and body-mass was measured before and after the sleep session. No significant differences were observed in the duration of sleep stages between subjects under the 26/50 and 32/80 with airflow conditions; however, the total duration of wakefulness decreased significantly in subjects under the 32/80 with airflow condition compared to that in subjects under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss under the 32/80 with airflow condition were significantly higher compared to those under the 26/50 condition, and significantly lower than those under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). An alleviated heat load due to increased airflow was considered to exist between the 32/80 with still air and the 26/50 conditions. Airflow reduces the duration of wakefulness by decreasing Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss in a warm humid condition.

  10. Structural changes in fine-grained high-temperature steels under the influence of temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine-grained high-temperature steels have gained great importance as materials for reactor pressure vessels. Alloying with small additions of carbide-forming elements does not only preserve the fine grain but also helps to achieve a certain retention of hardness which improves the high-temperature strength of these steels. During welding, a narrow zone of the basic material is heated over the transition temperature. The result is a coarse-grained, austenitic structure. In order to find out whether such structural changes caused by welding may damage the material during heat treatment or operation, the mechanical properties of some types of structures were tested with regard to their strength, their notched bar impact strength, and their creep rupture strength, and the findings were interpreted with the aid of scans of the surfaces of fracture and electron microscope pictures of the microstructure. The results show that the toughness of the structure of a heat influence region of the steels investigated would decrease further at operating temperatures above 2000C and below the appropriate tempering temperature if the additional heat treatment in the tempering temperature region after welding were omitted. The toughness of the heat influence region is increased by annealing to such a degree that it almost reaches that of the basic material. (GSCH)

  11. Changes in tropospheric and stratospheric global temperatures, 1958-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a network of 63 radiosonde stations distributed fairly evenly around the world, the global tropospheric temperature in 1988 was the maximum observed since the beginning of the record in 1958, 0.02 C warmer than 1983, 0.06 C warmer than 1987, and about 0.16 C warmer than 1980 and 1981. The global tropospheric temperature is indicated to have increased by a significant 0.2 C between 1958-72 and 1974-88, but with most of the warming in the Southern hemisphere and the north temperate zone even cooling slightly. Between these two intervals there was cooling in all climatic zones in the tropopause layer, the cooling of 0.2-0.3 C being significant in both hemispheres. The global low stratosphere cooled by more than 1.5 C following the 0.5 C warming occasioned by the El Chichon volcanic eruption, with most of the cooling in the Southern hemisphere and, in particular, in the south polar zone (Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon). Emphasized is the strong influence of El Nino on global tropospheric temperatures about two seasons later, and because of the El Nino in 1987, the need for caution in relating the record warmth of 1988 to any greenhouse effect. Discussed is the extent to which these tropospheric and stratospheric temperature changes support the presumption that a greenhouse effect is already being observed. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Changes in tropospheric and stratospheric global temperatures, 1958-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a network of 63 radiosonde stations distributed fairly evenly around the world, the global tropospheric temperature in 1988 was the maximum observed since the beginning of the record in 1958, 0.02 C warmer than 1983, 0.06 C warmer than 1987, and about 0.16 C warmer than 1980 and 1981. The global tropospheric temperature is indicated to have increased by a significant 0.2 C between 1958-72 and 1974-88, but with most of the warming in the Southern hemisphere and the north temperate zone even cooling slightly. Between these two intervals there was cooling in all climatic zones in the tropopause layer, the cooling of 0.2-0.3 C being significant in both hemispheres. The global low stratosphere cooled by more than 1.5 C following the 0.5 C warming occasioned by the El Chichon volcanic eruption, with most of the cooling in the Southern hemisphere and, in particular, in the south polar zone (Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon). Emphasized is the strong influence of El Nino on global tropospheric temperatures about two seasons later, and because of the El Nino in 1987, the need for caution in relating the record warmth of 1988 to any greenhouse effect. Discussed is the extent to which these tropospheric and stratospheric temperature changes support the presumption that a greenhouse effect is already being observed

  13. Body weight changes in female patients with prolactinoma treated with bromocriptin

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Velija-Ašimi;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the body weight changes in female patients with bromocriptin treated prolactinoma. Seventeen hyperprolactinemic pre-menopausal female with prolactinoma, aged 18-45 years, with body mass index (BMI) 30+/-2,1kg/m2 were included. Basal insulin level was measured in all patients as well as concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogens, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin (PRL). All patient...

  14. Changes in body composition in broilers by a sulfur amino acid deficiency during growth

    OpenAIRE

    Conde Aguilera, Jose Alberto; Cobo Ortega, Carlos; Tesseraud, Sophie; LESSIRE, Michel; Mercier, Yves; Van Milgen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In the factorial approach, amino acid (AA) requirements are determined using the AA composition of retained protein, which is assumed to be constant. However, this hypothesis may not be valid because the AA composition of body protein can be affected by the diet. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes in chemical body composition of broilers receiving diets either deficient (TSAA–) or sufficient (TSAA+) in TSAA. Diet TSAA+ was formulated according to the Ross recommendation. ...

  15. Intermittent exposure to social defeat and open-field test in rats: acute and long-term effects on ECG, body temperature and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. After implantation of a transmitter for the radiotelemetric recording of electrocardiogram (ECG), body temperature and physical activity, adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus, Wild Type Groningen strain) were repeatedly exposed (10 consecutive times, on alternate days) to either a social stressor (defeat by a con-specific, n = 15) or an open-field, control challenge (transfer to a new cage; n = 8). ECGs, body temperature and physical activity were continuously recorded in baseline, test and recovery periods (each lasting 15 min), at the 1st and 10th episodes of both defeat and open-field challenge. The circadian rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and physical activity were monitored before (5 days), during (16 days) and after (21 days) the intermittent stress protocol. This study indicates that there is no clear habituation of either acute cardiac autonomic responsivity (as estimated by means of time-domain indexes of heart rate variability) or arrhythmia occurrence to a brief, intermittent, homotypic challenge, regardless of the nature of the stressor (social or non-social). On the other hand, rats exposed to social challenge also failed to show adaptation of acute temperature and activity stress responsiveness, whereas rats facing open-field challenge developed habituation of activity and sensitization of temperature responses. Repeated social challenge produced remarkable reductions of the heart rate circadian rhythm amplitude (this effect being significantly greater than that produced by intermittent open-field), but only minor changes in the daily rhythms of body temperature and physical activity. PMID:12171764

  16. Body composition analysis by DEXA by using dynamically changing samarium filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Arne; Baeksgaard, L; Hilsted, J

    1997-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis but is influenced by beam hardening and other error sources in the extremes of measurement. To compensate for beam hardening, the Norland XR-36 introduces a dynamically changing samarium filtration system...... filtration) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis. It has a potential for gaining status as a reference method in the future and may presently be used as a supplement to the traditional methods for body composition analysis....

  17. Northwestern Pacific Typhoon Intensity Controlled by Changes in Ocean Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, W.; Xie, S. P.; Primeau, F.; McWilliams, J. C.; Pasquero, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate (i.e., RCP 4.5) climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100.

  18. Directed transport of Brownian particles in a changing temperature field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, A [DMFCI, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Catania. Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Jinha, A [HPL-Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Federico, S [HPL-Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Ait-Haddou, R [HPL-Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Herzog, W [HPL-Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Giaquinta, G [DMFCI, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Catania. Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2008-01-11

    We study the interaction of Brownian particles with a changing temperature field in the presence of a one-dimensional periodic adiabatic potential. We show the existence of directed transport through the determination of the overall current of Brownian particles crossing the boundary of the system. With respect to the case of Brownian particles in a thermal bath, we determine a current which exhibits a contribution explicitly related to the presence of a thermal gradient. Beyond the self-consistent calculation of the temperature and probability density distribution of Brownian particles, we evaluate the energy consumption for directed transport to take place. Our description is based on Streater's model, and solutions are obtained by perturbing the system from its initial thermodynamic equilibrium state.

  19. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100. PMID:26601179

  20. The response of human thermal sensation and its prediction to temperature step-change (cool-neutral-cool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan Du

    Full Text Available This paper reports on studies of the effect of temperature step-change (between a cool and a neutral environment on human thermal sensation and skin temperature. Experiments with three temperature conditions were carried out in a climate chamber during the period in winter. Twelve subjects participated in the experiments simulating moving inside and outside of rooms or cabins with air conditioning. Skin temperatures and thermal sensation were recorded. Results showed overshoot and asymmetry of TSV due to the step-change. Skin temperature changed immediately when subjects entered a new environment. When moving into a neutral environment from cool, dynamic thermal sensation was in the thermal comfort zone and overshoot was not obvious. Air-conditioning in a transitional area should be considered to limit temperature difference to not more than 5°C to decrease the unacceptability of temperature step-change. The linear relationship between thermal sensation and skin temperature or gradient of skin temperature does not apply in a step-change environment. There is a significant linear correlation between TSV and Qloss in the transient environment. Heat loss from the human skin surface can be used to predict dynamic thermal sensation instead of the heat transfer of the whole human body.

  1. Changes of arterial blood ketone body ratio following hypoperfusion in old and adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling YE; Shiwen WANG; Songtao YU; Wei CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of arterial ketone body ratio as an indicator for multiple organ failure.Materials and methods The experimental model of multiple organ failure was made in adult and old rats by hypoperfusion-induced hemorrhagic shock. After blood sampling, the arterial acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, total ketone body, ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine at 2, 4, 8 hr in hypoperfusion were examined to compare the differences of ketone body ratio and organ failure between adult and old rats. Hepatic and mitochondrial metabolism were assessed by comparing ketone body ratios (AcAc/β-OHB) and free NAD+/NADH ratios. Results Ketone body ratio in old rats at 2, 4, 8 hr after the induction of hemorrhagic shock decreased from 0.68 to 0.31, 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. In adult rats, it decreased from 1.12 to 0.17, 0.12 and 0.09, respectively. Changes of ketone body ratio in the adult group were larger than in the elderly group ( P < 0.001). The development of multiple organ failure is associated with the time of hemorrhagic shock development. Conclusions There was a different ketone body ratio between multiple organ failure in the elderly (MOFE) and multiple organ failure (MOF) in general adults. Ketone body ratio is a better indicator than ALT and AST in reflecting hepatic function in the early status of MOF. (J Geriatr Cardiol 2004;1(2) :125-128. )

  2. Visual diet versus associative learning as mechanisms of change in body size preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda G Boothroyd

    Full Text Available Systematic differences between populations in their preferences for body size may arise as a result of an adaptive 'prepared learning' mechanism, whereby cues to health or status in the local population are internalized and affect body preferences. Alternatively, differences between populations may reflect their 'visual diet' as a cognitive byproduct of mere exposure. Here we test the relative importance of these two explanations for variation in body preferences. Two studies were conducted where female observers were exposed to pictures of high or low BMI women which were either aspirational (healthy, attractive models in high status clothes or non-aspirational (eating disordered patients in grey leotards, or to combinations thereof, in order to manipulate their body-weight preferences which were tested at baseline and at post-test. Overall, results showed good support for visual diet effects (seeing a string of small or large bodies resulted in a change from pre- to post-test whether the bodies were aspirational or not and also some support for the associative learning explanation (exposure to aspirational images of overweight women induced a towards preferring larger bodies, even when accompanied by equal exposure to lower weight bodies in the non-aspirational category. Thus, both influences may act in parallel.

  3. MR imaging of degenerative lumbar disc disease emphasizing on signal intensity changes in vertebral body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Keiko; Ida, Masahiro; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Harada, Junta; Tada, Shimpei (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 400 patients with degenerative disc disease. Signal changes and their sites in the vertebral body were classified and referred to narrowing of the intervertebral disc space. MR findings were compared with those of plain roentgenograms of the lumbar spine. Signal changes in the vertebral body were noted in 83 cases (102 vertebral bodies). Low-intensity abnormality on both T1- and T2-weighted images (WI) was the most common finding, and was most frequently seen at the end plate and/or the angle. These changes were correlated with narrowing of the disc space and osteosclerosis on the plain roentgenogram of the lumbar spine. Signal changes occasionally occurred in the inner region of the vertebral body, and these lesions tended to show a high-intensity abnormality on T1-WI. We conclude that signal changes in degenerative disc disease are not specific, but are sometimes difficult to distinguish from the signal changes in other conditions such as spinal tumor or bone marrow disorder. (author).

  4. Body shape changes during the early development of the Beluga (Huso huso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Asgari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Early body shape changes of beluga sturgeon were studied using landmark-based geometric morphometric approach to recognize its allometric growth pattern. Sampling was done from hatching up to 50 days post hatching (DPH. Left side of specimens were photographed using digital camera and nine landmark points were digitized on two-dimensional images. Total length (TI was measured using the software ImageJ. To study of the body shape changes during early development, the mean procrustes distance between all specimens of same age, for all age groups, was calculated. The scores of relative warp analysis (RW were used as descriptors for the variation in shape. RW analysis revealed a sharp body shape change during early ontogeny on 18 DPH. Growth trajectory was computed by plotting RW against TL. The inflection point of body shape corresponds to a TL of 23.3 mm (18 DPH. Results showed that ontogenetic shape changes encompassed a pre-inflection shape changes, which included the elongation of the head and tail regions i.e. positive allometric growth pattern and post-inflection shape changes, with a nearly isometric growth pattern.

  5. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorde...

  6. Body Temperature Monitoring Using Subcutaneously Implanted Thermo-loggers from Holstein Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Bok, J D; Lee, H J; Lee, H G; Kim, D; Lee, I; Kang, S K; Choi, Y J

    2016-02-01

    Body temperature (BT) monitoring in cattle could be used to early detect fever from infectious disease or physiological events. Various ways to measure BT have been applied at different locations on cattle including rectum, reticulum, milk, subcutis and ear canal. In other to evaluate the temperature stability and reliability of subcutaneous temperature (ST) in highly fluctuating field conditions for continuous BT monitoring, long term ST profiles were collected and analyzed from cattle in autumn/winter and summer season by surgically implanted thermo-logger devices. Purposes of this study were to assess ST in the field condition as a reference BT and to determine any location effect of implantation on ST profile. In results, ST profile in cattle showed a clear circadian rhythm with daily lowest at 05:00 to 07:00 AM and highest around midnight and rather stable temperature readings (mean±standard deviation [SD], 37.1°C to 37.36°C±0.91°C to 1.02°C). STs are 1.39°C to 1.65°C lower than the rectal temperature and sometimes showed an irregular temperature drop below the normal physiologic one: 19.4% or 36.4% of 54,192 readings were below 36.5°C or 37°C, respectively. Thus, for BT monitoring purposes in a fever-alarming-system, a correction algorithm is necessary to remove the influences of ambient temperature and animal resting behavior especially in winter time. One way to do this is simply discard outlier readings below 36.5°C or 37°C resulting in a much improved mean±SD of 37.6°C±0.64°C or 37.8°C±0.55°C, respectively. For location the upper scapula region seems the most reliable and convenient site for implantation of a thermo-sensor tag in terms of relatively low influence by ambient temperature and easy insertion compared to lower scapula or lateral neck.

  7. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Jull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study. Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity.

  8. Touch-free measurement of body temperature using close-up thermography of the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Benjamin; Wagner, Heike; Gmoser, Johanna; Wörner, Anja; Löschberger, Anna; Peters, Laura; Frey, Anna; Hofmann, Ulrich; Frantz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In experimental animal research body temperature (BT) is measured for the objective determination of an animals' physiological condition. Invasive, probe-based measurements are stressful and can influence experimental outcome. Alternatively BT can be determined touch-free from the emitted heat of the organism at a single spot using infrared thermometers [1]. To get visual confirmation and find more appropriate surfaces for measurement a hand-held thermal imager was equipped with a self-made, cheap, 3D-printable close-up lens system that reproducibly creates eight-time magnified thermal images and improves sensitivity. This setup was used to establish ocular surface temperature (OST), representing the temperature of the brain-heart axis, as a touch-free alternative for measurement of BT in mice, rats, rabbits and humans.OST measurement after isoflurane exposure and myocardial infarction (MI) experiments in mice revealed high physiological relevance and sensitivity, the possibility to discriminate between MI and sham operations in one hour and even long-term outcome-predictive capabilities of OST after MI. Summarized here we present: •Self-made close-up lens for thermal imaging cameras for eight-time magnification•Establishment of OST for touch-free determination of BT in rodents and humans•Short- and long-term predictive capabilities of OST in experimental MI in mice. PMID:27284532

  9. Research: Testing of a Novel Portable Body Temperature Conditioner Using a Thermal Manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Daniel; Heller, Alex; Moujaes, Samir; Williams, Shelley J; Hoffmann, Ryan; Sarkisian, Paul; Khalili, Kaveh; Rockenfeller, Uwe; Browder, Timothy D; Kuhls, Deborah A; Fildes, John J

    2016-01-01

    A battery-operated active cooling/heating device was developed to maintain thermoregulation of trauma victims in austere environments while awaiting evacuation to a hospital for further treatment. The use of a thermal manikin was adopted for this study in order to simulate load testing and evaluate the performance of this novel portable active cooling/heating device for both continuous (external power source) and battery power. The performance of the portable body temperature conditioner (PBTC) was evaluated through cooling/heating fraction tests to analyze the heat transfer between a thermal manikin and circulating water blanket to show consistent performance while operating under battery power. For the cooling/heating fraction tests, the ambient temperature was set to 15°C ± 1°C (heating) and 30°C ± 1°C (cooling). The PBTC water temperature was set to 37°C for the heating mode tests and 15°C for the cooling mode tests. The results showed consistent performance of the PBTC in terms of cooling/heating capacity while operating under both continuous and battery power. The PBTC functioned as intended and shows promise as a portable warming/cooling device for operation in the field. PMID:27632039

  10. Plasma Phospholipid Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Body Weight Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M;

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.......We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  11. An All-Elastomeric Transparent and Stretchable Temperature Sensor for Body-Attachable Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Tran Quang; Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2016-01-20

    A transparent stretchable (TS) gated sensor array with high optical transparency, conformality, and high stretchability of up to 70% is demonstrated. The TS-gated sensor array has high responsivity to temperature changes in objects and human skin. This unprecedented TS-gated sensor array, as well as the integrated platform of the TS-gated sensor with a transparent and stretchable strain sensor, show great potential for application to wearable skin electronics for recognition of human activity.

  12. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Dollins, A B; Zhdanova, I.V.; Wurtman, R J; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M H

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep...

  13. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  14. Phase maintenance in a rhythmic motor pattern during temperature changes in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Soofi, Wafa; Goeritz, Marie L.; Kispersky, Tilman J.; Prinz, Astrid A; Marder, Eve; Stein, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Central-pattern-generating neural circuits function reliably throughout an animal's life, despite constant molecular turnover and environmental perturbations. Fluctuations in temperature pose a problem to the nervous systems of poikilotherms because their body temperature follows the ambient temperature, thus affecting the temperature-dependent dynamics of various subcellular components that constitute neuronal circuits. In the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, the pyloric circuit pro...

  15. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K. Y.; A. Sastri; G. C. Gong; C. H. Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested th...

  16. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K. Y.; A. R. Sastri; G. C. Gong; C. H. Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically,...

  17. The effect of body temperature on the dynamic respiratory system compliance-breathing frequency relationship in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Alessandro; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical inhomogeneity of the respiratory system is frequently investigated by measuring the frequency dependence of dynamic compliance, but no data are currently available describing the effects of body temperature variations. The aim of the present report was to study those effects in vivo. Peak airway pressure was measured during positive pressure ventilation in eight anesthetized rats while breathing frequency (but not tidal volume) was altered. Dynamic compliance was calculated as the tidal volume/peak airway pressure, and measurements were taken in basal conditions (mean rectal temperature 37.3 °C) as well as after total body warming (mean rectal temperature 39.7 °C). Due to parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation-linked effects, the normal rat respiratory system exhibited frequency dependence of dynamic lung compliance. Even moderate body temperature increments significantly reduced the decrements in dynamic compliance linked to breathing rate increments. The results were analyzed using Student's and Wilcoxon's tests, which yielded the same results (p temperature variations are known to influence respiratory mechanics. The frequency dependence of dynamic compliance was found, in the experiments described, to be temperature-dependent as temperature variations affected parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation. These results suggest that body temperature variations should be taken into consideration when the dynamic compliance-breathing frequency relationship is being examined during clinical assessment of inhomogeneity of lung parenchyma in patients.

  18. Comparison of different measuring methods for body temperature in lactating cows under different climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, Stefanie; Lambertz, Christian; Gauly, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the research described here was to compare different methods of body temperature (BT) measurements in dairy cows. It was hypothesised that reticular temperature (RET) values reflect the physiological status of the animals in an equivalent way to rectal (RT) and vaginal (VT) measurements. RT, VT and RET temperatures of twelve lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were measured over five consecutive days in June and October 2013. While RT and VT were manually measured three times a day, RET was automatically recorded at 10 min intervals using a bolus in the reticulum. For comparison with RT and VT, different RET values were used: single values at the respective recording times (RET-SIN), and mean (RET-MEAN) and median (RET-MED) values of 2 h prior to RT and VT measurements. Overall, body temperatures averaged 38·1 ± 0·6, 38·2 ± 0·4, 38·7 ± 0·9, 38·5 ± 0·7 and 38·7 ± 0·5 °C for RT, VT, RET-SIN, RET-MEAN and RET-MED, respectively. RT and VT were lower than all RET measurements, while RET-SIN and RET-MED were higher than RET-MEAN (P < 0·001). RET-MEAN and RET-MED values were higher in the morning, whereas RT and VT were greatest in the evening (P < 0·001). Overall, records of RT and VT were strongly correlated (r = 0·75; P < 0·001). In contrast to RET-SIN and RET-MEAN, RET-MED was higher correlated to RT and VT. In June, coefficients were higher between all methods than in October. Relation of barn T to RT and VT was stronger when compared to RET measurements. RET-SIN was higher correlated to barn T than RET-MEAN or RET-MED. Correlation between VT and barn T was strongest (r = 0·48; P < 0·001). In summary, RET-MED showed highest correlation with VT and RT. However, single RET measurements (influenced by water or feed intake) can lead to extreme variations and differences to single VT and RT values.

  19. Changing guards: time to move beyond body mass index for population monitoring of excess adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamas, S K; Lean, M E J; Combet, E; Vlassopoulos, A; Zimmet, P Z; Peeters, A

    2016-07-01

    With the obesity epidemic, and the effects of aging populations, human phenotypes have changed over two generations, possibly more dramatically than in other species previously. As obesity is an important and growing hazard for population health, we recommend a systematic evaluation of the optimal measure(s) for population-level excess body fat. Ideal measure(s) for monitoring body composition and obesity should be simple, as accurate and sensitive as possible, and provide good categorization of related health risks. Combinations of anthropometric markers or predictive equations may facilitate better use of anthropometric data than single measures to estimate body composition for populations. Here, we provide new evidence that increasing proportions of aging populations are at high health-risk according to waist circumference, but not body mass index (BMI), so continued use of BMI as the principal population-level measure substantially underestimates the health-burden from excess adiposity.

  20. Projected changes in precipitation extremes linked to temperature over Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, S.; Dairaku, K.; Takayabu, I.; Suzuki-Parker, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have argued that the extreme precipitation intensities are increasing in many regions across the globe due to atmospheric warming. This argument is based on the principle of Clausius-Clapeyron relationship which states that the atmosphere can hold more moisture in warmer air temperature (~7%/°C). In our study, we have investigated the precipitation extremes linked to temperature in current climate (1981-2000) and their projected changes in late 21st century (2081-2100, RCP4.5) over Japan from multi-model ensemble downscaling experiments by three RCMs (NHRCM, NRAMS, WRF) forced by JRA25 as well as three GCMs (CCSM4, MIROC5, MRI-GCM3). To do this, the precipitation intensities of wet days (defined as ≥ 0.05 mm/d) are stratified to different bins with 1°C temperature interval. We have also identified the occurrences of precipitation extremes in different spell durations and associated peak intensities exceeding various thresholds in two climate periods. We found that extreme precipitation intensities are increased by 5 mm/d in future climate for temperatures above 21°C (Fig. 1). Precipitation extremes of higher percentiles are projected to have larger increase rates in future climate scenarios (3-5%/°C in the current climate and 4-6%/°C in the future climate scenarios). The joint probability distribution of wet hours (≥1mm/h) with various peak intensities under future climate scenarios (RCP4.5) of the late 21st century suggests an increase of long-lived (>10hr) and short-lived (1-2hr) events. On the other hand, a relatively decrease of medium-lived events (3-10hr) are noticed in future climate scenario. The increase of extreme precipitation intensities in future climate is due to the increase in temperature under RCP4.5 (~2°C). Increase in temperature causes more evapotranspiration and subsequently increases the water vapor in the atmosphere.

  1. To use or not to use torpor? Activity and body temperature as predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Nereda; Geiser, Fritz

    2007-06-01

    When food is limited and/or environmental conditions are unfavourable, many mammals reduce activity and use torpor to save energy. Nevertheless, reliable predictors for torpor occurrence, especially in the wild, are currently not available. Interrelations between torpor use and other energy conserving strategies are also poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that reductions in normothermic body temperature ( T b) and the period of activity before torpor events could be used as predictors for torpor occurrence in sugar gliders, Petaurus breviceps (body mass, ˜125 g), known to display daily torpor in the wild. Occurrence of torpor was preceded by significant (˜10-25%) reductions of the duration of the activity phase. Moreover, the normothermic resting T b fell by an average of 1.2°C over 3 days before a torpor event, relative to individuals that did not display torpor. Our new findings suggest that before entering torpor, sugar gliders, which appear to use torpor as an emergency measure rather than a routine energy saving strategy, systematically reduce activity times and normothermic resting T bs to lower energy expenditure and perhaps to avoid employing torpor. Thus, reduced activity and normothermic T b may provide a predictive tool for the occurrence of daily torpor in the wild.

  2. Methylphenidate alters flash-evoked potentials, body temperature, and behavior in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Bruce E; Meckel, Katherine R; Stickle, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of methylphenidate hydrochloride on flash-evoked potentials (FEPs) recorded from the visual cortex (VC) and superior colliculus (SC) of chronically implanted male Long-Evans rats, as well as on body temperature and open field behavior. FEPs were recorded at 10, 20 and 40 min following intraperitoneal injections of saline, and of doses of 0.7, 2.9, and 11.6 mg/kg methylphenidate on separate days. The 0.7 mg/kg dose did not produce significant effects. In the VC, following administration of the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate the amplitude of components P83, N146, and P232 decreased, the amplitude of component N64 briefly increased and components P23, N30, N40, and P48 were unchanged in amplitude. In the SC, component P29 was unaffected, while components P38 and N51 were reduced in amplitude by the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate. Peak latencies of components N40, P48, P83, and N146 in the VC and component P38 in the SC were increased by the 11.6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate. When body temperature was recorded 45 min after drug administration, a mild dose-dependent hypothermia was found with the 2.9 and 11.6 mg/kg methylphenidate doses, suggesting that this may have contributed to the increased latencies. In subsequent open field observations, both line crossings and rearings were significantly increased by the 11.6 mg/kg dose. Increased movement into the center of the testing area was also observed, which could be a sign of increased exploration and reduced anxiety following methylphenidate.

  3. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( PEPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  4. Development of a novel scheme for long-term body temperature monitoring: a review of benefits and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Frau, David; Varela-Entrecanales, Manuel; Valor-Perez, Raul; Vargas, Borja

    2015-04-01

    Body temperature is a health or disease marker that has been in clinical use for centuries. The threshold currently applied to define fever, with small variations, is 38 °C. However, current approaches do not provide a full picture of the thermoregulation process and its correlation with disease. This paper describes a new non-invasive body temperature device that improves the understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases by integrating a variety of temperature data from different body locations. This device enables to gain a deeper insight into fever, endogenous rhythms, subject activity and ambient temperature to provide anticipatory and more efficient treatments. Its clinical use would be a big step in the overcoming of the anachronistic febrile/afebrile dichotomy and walking towards a system medicine approach to certain diseases. This device has already been used in some clinical applications successfully. Other possible applications based on the device features and clinical requirements are also described in this paper.

  5. Changes in Body Composition in Anorexia Nervosa: Predictors of Recovery and Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Zaida Agüera; Xandra Romero; Jon Arcelus; Isabel Sánchez; Nadine Riesco; Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Jana González-Gómez; Roser Granero; Nuria Custal; Monica Montserrat-Gil de Bernabé; Salomé Tárrega; Baños, Rosa. M; Cristina Botella; Rafael de la Torre; Fernández-García, José C.

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of body composition (BC) parameters is considered to be one of the most important goals in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, little is known about differences between AN diagnostic subtypes [restricting (AN-R) and binge/purging (AN-BP)] and weekly changes in BC during refeeding treatment. Therefore, the main objectives of our study were twofold: 1) to assess the changes in BC throughout nutritional treatment in an AN sample and 2) to analyze predic...

  6. Changes in body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Calverley, Peter M A; Casaburi, Richard;

    2013-01-01

    The follow-up of the ECLIPSE study, a prospective longitudinal study to identify and define parameters that predict disease progression over 3 years in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allows the examination of the effect of body composition changes on COPD-related outcomes....

  7. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. Th

  8. Changes in cognition, arm function and lower body function after slow-release Fampridine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H; Ravnborg, M; Mamoei, S;

    2014-01-01

    meaningful change on the SSST compared with 25.7% on the T25FW. The response to treatment with SR Fampridine did not correlate with age, sex, Expanded Disability Status Scale and disease duration. CONCLUSION: SR Fampridine treatment has significant effects on different domains including upper and lower body...

  9. Obesity and Minority--Changing Meanings of Big Bodies among Young Pakistani Obesity Patients in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathne, Kjetil; Mburu, Christina Brux; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Globally, paediatric obesity causes widespread concern, and the role of ethnicity is an important focus. Investigating how culture can mediate health-related behaviour through ideas about bodies, food and physical activity, while addressing a notion that the Pakistani community in Norway is particularly conservative and slow to change, this…

  10. Age-related changes in body composition in laboratory rats: Strain and gender comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD), Fischer 344 (F344), and Brown Norway (BN) rats are all commonly used as laboratory research subjects. These strains have been studied under many conditions, but few studies have measured changes in body composition as the animals age. Underst...

  11. Evolution of microstructure in flyash-containing porcelain body on heating at different temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kausik Dana; Swapan Kumar Das

    2004-04-01

    15 wt% flyash (a calcined byproduct of thermal power plant) was incorporated in a normal triaxial kaolin–quartz–feldspar system by replacing equivalent amount of quartz. The differences in microstructural evolution on heating the compact mass of both normal and flyash-containing porcelain at different temperatures (1150–1300°C) were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) operating in secondary electron image (SEI) mode. Microstructure of normal porcelain did not show the presence of mullite and quartz grains at 1200°C and the viscosity of silica-rich glass restricted the growth of mullite crystals at 1250°C. Flyash porcelain, on the other hand, shows the presence of primary mullite aggregates in the clay relict and a significant growth of mullite crystals in a low viscosity glassy matrix at 1200°C itself. At 1300°C, both the bodies show a larger region of more elongated (> 1 m) secondary mullite along with clusters of smaller sized primary mullite (< 1 m). Small primary mullite crystals in the clay relict can be distinguished from elongated secondary mullite crystals in the feldspar relict in their size. Primary mullite aggregates remain stable also at higher temperatures. XRD studies were carried out for quantitative estimation of quartz, mullite and glass, which supported the SEM observations. An attempt was also made to correlate their mechanical strength with the constituent phases.

  12. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries.

  13. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M; May, Anne M; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Teucher, Birgit; Kühn, Tilman; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der A, Daphne L; Engeset, Dagrun; Hjartåker, Anette; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Chajès, Veronique; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H M; Overvad, Kim

    2013-01-28

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344,757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95 % CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95 % CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95 % CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95 % CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.

  14. Variational principle of carbon nanotubes with temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tao

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, the CNS are considered as the Euler-Bernoulli beams which have been used in many references about the CNS. Taken the thermal-mechanical coupling into account, the variational principle for the CNS is presented by the variational integral method. With the derivation of the varitional principle, the stationary value conditions are obtained. At last, the vibration governing equation is illustrated, which will be benefit for the numerical simulation with finite element method in further investigations. From the stationary value conditions deduced by the variational principle, it can be observed that the vibration characteristics of the CNS can be influenced by the temperature changes. It is expected to be useful for the design and application of the nano scale devices.

  15. Decadal Changes in the World's Coastal Latitudinal Temperature Gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Baumann

    Full Text Available Most of the world's living marine resources inhabit coastal environments, where average thermal conditions change predictably with latitude. These coastal latitudinal temperature gradients (CLTG coincide with important ecological clines,e.g., in marine species diversity or adaptive genetic variations, but how tightly thermal and ecological gradients are linked remains unclear. A first step is to consistently characterize the world's CLTGs. We extracted coastal cells from a global 1°×1° dataset of weekly sea surface temperatures (SST, 1982-2012 to quantify spatial and temporal variability of the world's 11 major CLTGs. Gradient strength, i.e., the slope of the linear mean-SST/latitude relationship, varied 3-fold between the steepest (North-American Atlantic and Asian Pacific gradients: -0.91°C and -0.68°C lat(-1, respectively and weakest CLTGs (African Indian Ocean and the South- and North-American Pacific gradients: -0.28, -0.29, -0.32°C lat(-1, respectively. Analyzing CLTG strength by year revealed that seven gradients have weakened by 3-10% over the past three decades due to increased warming at high compared to low latitudes. Almost the entire South-American Pacific gradient (6-47°S, however, has considerably cooled over the study period (-0.3 to -1.7°C, 31 years, and the substantial weakening of the North-American Atlantic gradient (-10% was due to warming at high latitudes (42-60°N, +0.8 to +1.6°C,31 years and significant mid-latitude cooling (Florida to Cape Hatteras 26-35°N, -0.5 to -2.2°C, 31 years. Average SST trends rarely resulted from uniform shifts throughout the year; instead individual seasonal warming or cooling patterns elicited the observed changes in annual means. This is consistent with our finding of increased seasonality (i.e., summer-winter SST amplitude in three quarters of all coastal cells (331 of 433. Our study highlights the regionally variable footprint of global climate change, while emphasizing

  16. Accuracy of parents in measuring body temperature with a tympanic thermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now common for parents to measure tympanic temperatures in children. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these measurements. Methods Parents and then nurses measured the temperature of 60 children with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use (home thermometer. The reference standard was a temperature measured by a nurse with a model of tympanic thermometer commonly used in hospitals (hospital thermometer. A difference of ≥ 0.5 °C was considered clinically significant. A fever was defined as a temperature ≥ 38.5 °C. Results The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent and the nurse with the home thermometer was 0.44 ± 0.61 °C, and 33% of the readings differed by ≥ 0.5 °C. The mean absolute difference between the readings done by the parent with the home thermometer and the nurse with the hospital thermometer was 0.51 ± 0.63 °C, and 72 % of the readings differed by ≥ 0.5 °C. Using the home thermometer, parents detected fever with a sensitivity of 76% (95% CI 50–93%, a specificity of 95% (95% CI 84–99%, a positive predictive value of 87% (95% CI 60–98%, and a negative predictive value of 91% (95% CI 79–98 %. In comparing the readings the nurse obtained from the two different tympanic thermometers, the mean absolute difference was 0.24 ± 0.22 °C. Nurses detected fever with a sensitivity of 94% (95 % CI 71–100 %, a specificity of 88% (95% CI 75–96 %, a positive predictive value of 76% (95% CI 53–92%, and a negative predictive value of 97% (95%CI 87–100 % using the home thermometer. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the three sets of readings was 0.80, and the consistency of readings was not affected by the body temperature. Conclusions The readings done by parents with a tympanic thermometer designed for home use differed a clinically significant amount from the reference standard (readings done by nurses with a model of

  17. Use of a novel pediatric body composition technique for assessing body fatness and its changes during the first 6 month of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of infant growth and nutritional status is enhanced by accurate measurement of body composition and its changes over time. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of an air-displacement plethysmograph, the PEA POD (Registered Trademark) Infant Body Composition System (Lif...

  18. Changes in physiological and behavioral parameters of preterm infants undergoing body hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Patrícia de; Marques, Silvia Rezende; Alves, Taisy Bezerra; Takahashi, Juliana; Kimura, Amélia Fumiko

    2014-08-01

    Objective To verify the effect of bathing on the body temperature of preterm infants (PTI). Method Systematic review conducted in the following bibliographic electronic sources: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde/Lilacs (BVS), Cumulated Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science, using a combination of search terms, keywords and free terms. The review question was adjusted to the PICO acronym (Patient/population, Intervention, Control/comparative intervention, Outcome). The selected publications were evaluated according to levels of evidence and grades of recommendation for efficacy/effectiveness studies, as established by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results Eight hundred and twenty four (824) publications were identified and four studies met the inclusion criteria, of which three analyzed the effect of sponge baths and the effect of immersion baths. Conclusion Sponge baths showed a statistically significant drop in body temperature, while in immersion baths the body temperature remained stable, although they studied late preterm infants.

  19. Improving image quality by accounting for changes in water temperature during a photoacoustic tomography scan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Van de Sompel

    Full Text Available The emerging field of photoacoustic tomography is rapidly evolving with many new system designs and reconstruction algorithms being published. Many systems use water as a coupling medium between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Prior to a scan, the water is heated to body temperature to enable small animal imaging. During the scan, the water heating system of some systems is switched off to minimize the risk of bubble formation, which leads to a gradual decrease in water temperature and hence the speed of sound. In this work, we use a commercially available scanner that follows this procedure, and show that a failure to model intra-scan temperature decreases as small as 1.5°C leads to image artifacts that may be difficult to distinguish from true structures, particularly in complex scenes. We then improve image quality by continuously monitoring the water temperature during the scan and applying variable speed of sound corrections in the image reconstruction algorithm. While upgrading to an air bubble-free heating pump and keeping it running during the scan could also solve the changing temperature problem, we show that a software correction for the temperature changes provides a cost-effective alternative to a hardware upgrade. The efficacy of the software corrections was shown to be consistent across objects of widely varying appearances, namely physical phantoms, ex vivo tissue, and in vivo mouse imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of modeling temporal variations in the speed of sound during photoacoustic scans, as opposed to spatial variations as focused on by previous studies. Since air bubbles pose a common problem in ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging systems, our results will be useful to future small animal imaging studies that use scanners with similarly limited heating units.

  20. Body size and activity times mediate mammalian responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Christy M; King, Sarah R B

    2014-06-01

    Model predictions of extinction risks from anthropogenic climate change are dire, but still overly simplistic. To reliably predict at-risk species we need to know which species are currently responding, which are not, and what traits are mediating the responses. For mammals, we have yet to identify overarching physiological, behavioral, or biogeographic traits determining species' responses to climate change, but they must exist. To date, 73 mammal species in North America and eight additional species worldwide have been assessed for responses to climate change, including local extirpations, range contractions and shifts, decreased abundance, phenological shifts, morphological or genetic changes. Only 52% of those species have responded as expected, 7% responded opposite to expectations, and the remaining 41% have not responded. Which mammals are and are not responding to climate change is mediated predominantly by body size and activity times (phylogenetic multivariate logistic regressions, P climate change than a shrew. Obligate diurnal and nocturnal mammals are more than twice as likely to respond as mammals with flexible activity times (P climate change in some analyses, whereas hibernation, heterothermy, burrowing, nesting, and study location did not influence responses. These results indicate that some mammal species can behaviorally escape climate change whereas others cannot, analogous to paleontology's climate sheltering hypothesis. Including body size and activity flexibility traits into future extinction risk forecasts should substantially improve their predictive utility for conservation and management. PMID:24449019

  1. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  2. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  3. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropome......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes...... in anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight...

  4. Changes in body water distribution during treatment with inhaled steroid in pre-school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Anhøj, Jacob; Bisgaard, A M;

    2004-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine the changes in water distribution in the soft tissue during systemic steroid activity. RESEARCH DESIGN: A three-way cross-over, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was used, including 4 weeks of fluticasone propionate pMDI 200 microg b....... At the end of each treatment period body impedance and skin ultrasonography were measured. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We measured changes in water content of the soft tissues by two methods. Skin ultrasonography was used to detect small changes in dermal water content, and bioelectrical impedance was...... used to assess body water content and distribution. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: We found an increase in skin density of the shin from fluticasone as measured by ultrasonography (p = 0.01). There was a tendency for a consistent elevation of impedance parameters from active treatments compared to placebo...

  5. Body temperature control in patients with refractory septic shock:too much may be harmful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan-li; LIU Da-wei; WANG Xiao-ting; LONG Yun; ZHOU Xiang; CHAI Wen-zao

    2013-01-01

    Background The lowering of body temperature is a common,almost reflexive step in the daily care of septic shock patient.However,the effect of different magnitudes of fever control on the outcome of refractory septic patients with a very poor outcome is controversial and has yet to be explored.Methods This prospective trial examined sixty-five refractory septic shock patients with a core temperature higher than 38.5℃.Patients were randomly assigned to a group achieving a "low temperature" range (LT group:36.0-37.5 ℃) or to a group achieving a "high temperature" range (HT group:37.5-38.3 ℃C) by physical methods including a water-flow cooling blanket and ice packs.A target core temperature was achieved in 1-2 hours post-treatment,and maintained for 72 hours.Averaged values of core temperature as well as hemodynamic,respiratory,and laboratory variables were analyzed at baseline and during the first 72 hours after fever control.Results Thirty-four (52.31%) patients were assigned to the LT group and thirty-one (47.69%) patients were assigned to the HT group.The mean core temperature was significantly lower in the LT group than in the HT group (36.61 vs.37.85 ℃,respectively; P < 0.0001).The average heart rate (HR) (75.5 vs.91.9 beats/min,respectively; P < 0.0001) and the mean cardiac output (CO) (5.35 vs.6.45 L/min,respectively; P =0.002) were also statistically significant lower in the LT group than in the HT group.The averaged serum lactate level was significantly higher in the LT group compared to the HT group (5.59 vs.2.82 mmol/L,respectively; P=-0.008).Fibrinogen and activated partial thromboplatin time were also different between the two groups.The 28 days mortality was significantly higher in the LT group than in the HT group (61.8vs.25.8%,respectively; P=0.003).A Cox-regression model analysis showed that mean core temperature during the 72 h period was an independent predictor of 28 days mortality (odds ratio (OR) =0.42,95%Cl 0

  6. Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Q; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille;

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional body composition were measured in 373 early postmenopausal women aged 49-60 y by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate whether the changes in body composition in the early postmenopausal years are related to menopause itself or merely to age. Both fat mass and fat...... distribution correlated with age (r = 0.12-0.21, P < 0.05-P < 0.001), but not with years since menopause (YSM). Lean tissue mass, on the other hand, decreased with YSM (r = -0.17, P < 0.001) but was not related significantly to age. Total body bone mineral density decreased with both YSM (r = -0.30, P < 0.......001) and age (r = -0.21, P < 0.001). Our study suggests that postmenopausal changes in body fat and fat distribution are more dependent on age than on menopause, but we cannot exclude a separate effect of the menopause. Changes in fat-free mass, including a postmenopausal decline in both soft lean tissue...

  7. Measuring the mechanical efficiency of a working cardiac muscle sample at body temperature using a flow-through calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberner, Andrew J; Johnston, Callum M; Pham, Toan; June-Chiew Han; Ruddy, Bryan P; Loiselle, Denis S; Nielsen, Poul M F

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a new `work-loop calorimeter' that is capable of measuring, simultaneously, the work-done and heat production of isolated cardiac muscle samples at body temperature. Through the innovative use of thermoelectric modules as temperature sensors, the development of a low-noise fluid-flow system, and implementation of precise temperature control, the heat resolution of this device is 10 nW, an improvement by a factor of ten over previous designs. These advances have allowed us to conduct the first flow-through measurements of work output and heat dissipation from cardiac tissue at body temperature. The mechanical efficiency is found to vary with peak stress, and reaches a peak value of approximately 15 %, a figure similar to that observed in cardiac muscle at lower temperatures.

  8. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte;

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective...... was to investigate the association between intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products and subsequent changes in weight and WC. Furthermore, potential effect modification by sex, age, body mass index and WC at baseline was investigated....

  9. Effect of Protein Intake on Strength, Body Composition and Endocrine Changes in Strength/Power Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comparison of protein intakes on strength, body composition and hormonal changes were examined in 23 experienced collegiate strength/power athletes participating in a 12-week resistance training program. Subjects were stratified into three groups depending upon their daily consumption of protein; below recommended levels (BL; 1.0 – 1.4 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 8, recommended levels (RL; 1.6 – 1.8 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 7 and above recommended levels (AL; > 2.0 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 8. Subjects were assessed for strength [one-repetition maximum (1-RM bench press and squat] and body composition. Resting blood samples were analyzed for total testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor. No differences were seen in energy intake (3,171 ± 577 kcal between the groups, and the energy intake for all groups were also below the recommended levels for strength/power athletes. No significant changes were seen in body mass, lean body mass or fat mass in any group. Significant improvements in 1-RM bench press and 1-RM squat were seen in all three groups, however no differences between the groups were observed. Subjects in AL experienced a 22% and 42% greater change in Δ 1-RM squat and Δ 1-RM bench press than subjects in RL, however these differences were not significant. No significant changes were seen in any of the resting hormonal concentrations. The results of this study do not provide support for protein intakes greater than recommended levels in collegiate strength/power athletes for body composition improvements, or alterations in resting hormonal concentrations.

  10. Body composition of female road and track endurance cyclists: Normative values and typical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakonssen, Eric C; Barras, Martin; Burke, Louise M; Jenkins, David G; Martin, David T

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to describe normative values and seasonal variation of body composition in female cyclists comparing female road and track endurance cyclists, and to validate the use of anthropometry to monitor lean mass changes. Anthropometric profiles (seven site skinfolds) were measured over 16 years from 126 female cyclists. Lean mass index (LMI) was calculated as body weight × skinfolds(-x). The exponent (x) was calculated as the slope of the natural logarithm of body weight and skinfolds. Percentage changes in LMI were compared to lean mass changes measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of 25 road cyclists. Compared to sub-elite and elite cyclists, world class cyclists were (mean [95% CI]) 1.18 kg [0.46, 1.90] and 0.60 kg [0.05, 1.15] lighter and had skinfolds that were 7.4 mm [3.8, 11.0] and 4.6 mm [1.8, 7.4] lower, respectively. Body weight (0.41 kg [0.04, 0.77]) and skinfolds (4.0 mm [2.1, 6.0]) were higher in the off-season compared to the early-season. World class female road cyclists had lower body weight (6.04 kg [2.73, 9.35]) and skinfolds (11.5 mm [1.1, 21.9]) than track endurance cyclists. LMI (mean exponent 0.15 [0.13, 0.18]) explained 87% of the variance in DXA lean mass. In conclusion, higher performing female cyclists were lighter and leaner than their less successful peers, road cyclists were lighter and leaner than track endurance cyclists, and weight and skinfolds were lowest early in the season. LMI appears to be a reasonably valid tool for monitoring lean mass changes. PMID:26366462

  11. Body composition of female road and track endurance cyclists: Normative values and typical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakonssen, Eric C; Barras, Martin; Burke, Louise M; Jenkins, David G; Martin, David T

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to describe normative values and seasonal variation of body composition in female cyclists comparing female road and track endurance cyclists, and to validate the use of anthropometry to monitor lean mass changes. Anthropometric profiles (seven site skinfolds) were measured over 16 years from 126 female cyclists. Lean mass index (LMI) was calculated as body weight × skinfolds(-x). The exponent (x) was calculated as the slope of the natural logarithm of body weight and skinfolds. Percentage changes in LMI were compared to lean mass changes measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of 25 road cyclists. Compared to sub-elite and elite cyclists, world class cyclists were (mean [95% CI]) 1.18 kg [0.46, 1.90] and 0.60 kg [0.05, 1.15] lighter and had skinfolds that were 7.4 mm [3.8, 11.0] and 4.6 mm [1.8, 7.4] lower, respectively. Body weight (0.41 kg [0.04, 0.77]) and skinfolds (4.0 mm [2.1, 6.0]) were higher in the off-season compared to the early-season. World class female road cyclists had lower body weight (6.04 kg [2.73, 9.35]) and skinfolds (11.5 mm [1.1, 21.9]) than track endurance cyclists. LMI (mean exponent 0.15 [0.13, 0.18]) explained 87% of the variance in DXA lean mass. In conclusion, higher performing female cyclists were lighter and leaner than their less successful peers, road cyclists were lighter and leaner than track endurance cyclists, and weight and skinfolds were lowest early in the season. LMI appears to be a reasonably valid tool for monitoring lean mass changes.

  12. Change In Minimum Temperature As A Response To Land Cover Change In South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Replacement of higher evapotranspirative surface materials such as water and vegetation cover by other materials such as buildings, roads, and pavements increases the Bowen's ratio from about 0.5-2.0 in rural to about ≈ 5.0 in urban areas resulting in higher surface and near surface atmospheric temperatures in the urban areas (Taha, 1997). This effect is intensified by low emissivity surfaces of the urban covers storing more heat energy during day time, but emitting less during night compared to the energy emitted by rural covers causing higher night time temperatures in urban centers, an effect called Urban Heat Island (UHI). South Florida has undergone tremendous land cover change from its pre-drainage vegetated and wetlands to post drainage agricultural and urban lands, especially after late 20th century. The objective of this study was to simultaneously analyze the land use/ land cover change and the rural/ urban minimum temperatures in south Florida for the period representing pre and post drainage states. The result shows urban sprawl increased from 8% at the beginning of the analysis period to about 14% at the end. Green vegetated areas, shrubs, and forests are found to be declined. The minimum temperature is found increased as maximum as 2°F in the urbanized stations, which remained constant or shows negligible increase in rural stations. The study dictates further micro level scrutiny in order to reach a conclusion on the development of UHI in south Florida. Key words: Bowen's ratio, emissivity, urban heat island

  13. Psychoneuroendocrine immunology: perception of stress can alter body temperature and natural killer cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, R N; Solvason, H B; Hsueh, C M; Rogers, C F; Demissie, S; Hiramoto, N S; Gauthier, D K; Lorden, J F; Ghanta, V K

    1999-01-01

    Psychoimmunology has been credited with using the mind as a way to alter immunity. The problem with this concept is that many of the current psychoimmunology techniques in use are aimed at alleviating stress effects on the immune system rather than at direct augmentation of immunity by the brain. Studies in animals provide a model that permits us to approach the difficulties associated with gaining an understanding of the CNS-immune system connection. A particular advantage of using animals over humans is that psychological and social contributions play a less prominent role for animals than for human subjects, since the animals are all inbred and reared under identical controlled conditions. If the insightful information provided by animal studies is correct, then psychotherapy for the treatment of diseases might be made more effective if some aspect of this knowledge is included in the design of the treatment. We emphasize conditioning as a regimen and an acceptable way to train the brain to remember an output pathway to raise immunity. We propose that a specific drug or perception (mild stress, represented by rotation, total body heating or handling) could substitute and kindle the same output pathway without the need for conditioning. If this view is correct, then instead of using conditioning, it may be possible to use an antigen to activate desired immune cells, and substitute a drug or an external environmental sensory stimulus (perception) to energize the output pathway to these cells. Alternatively, monitoring alterations of body temperature in response to a drug or perception might allow us to follow how effectively the brain is performing in altering immunity. Studies with animals suggest that there are alternative ways to use the mind to raise natural or acquired immunity in man.

  14. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. METHODS: The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent...... examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. RESULTS: Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A...... similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: LTPA and OPA were associated with...

  15. Association of Body Mass Index and Body Mass Index Change with Mortality in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although high body mass index (BMI appears to confer a survival advantage in hemodialysis patients, the association of BMI with mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients is uncertain. We enrolled incident CAPD patients and BMI was categorized according to World Health Organization classification for Asian population. BMI at baseline and one year after the initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD treatment was assessed to calculate the BMI change (∆BMI. Patients were split into four categories according quartiles of ∆BMI. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis were performed to assess the association of BMI on outcomes. A total of 1263 CAPD patients were included, with a mean age of 47.8 ± 15.0 years, a mean BMI of 21.58 ± 3.13 kg/m2. During a median follow-up of 25.3 months, obesity was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD death (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 2.01; 95% CI 1.14, 3.54, but not all-cause mortality. Additionally, patients with more BMI decline (>0.80% during the first year after CAPD initiation had an elevated risk for both all-cause (AHR: 2.21, 95% CI 1.23–3.95 and CVD mortality (AHR 2.31, 95% CI 1.11, 4.84, which was independent of baseline BMI values.

  16. Metabolic and body composition changes in first year following traumatic amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly S. Eckard, MS, RD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Body composition and metabolism may change considerably after traumatic amputation because of muscle atrophy and an increase in adiposity. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in weight, body composition, and metabolic rate during the first year following traumatic amputation in military servicemembers. Servicemembers without amputation were included for comparison. Participants were measured within the first 12 wk after amputation (baseline and at 6, 9, and 12 mo after amputation. Muscle mass, fat mass, weight, and metabolic rate were measured at each time point. There was a significant increase in weight and body mass index in the unilateral group between baseline and all follow-up visits (p < 0.01. Over the 12 mo period, total fat mass and trunk fat mass increased in both unilateral and bilateral groups; however, these changes were not statistically significant over time. Muscle mass increased in both the unilateral and bilateral groups despite percent of lean mass decreasing. No changes in resting metabolism or walking energy expenditure were observed in any group. The results of this study conclude that weight significantly increased because of an increase in both fat mass and muscle mass in the first year following unilateral and bilateral amputation.

  17. Multiband fiber optic radiometry for measuring the temperature and emissivity of gray bodies of low or high emissivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Sharon; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-03-20

    Infrared fiber optic radiometry was used for noncontact thermometry of gray bodies whose temperature was close to room temperature (40-70 degrees C). We selected three gray bodies, one with high emissivity (epsilon = 0.97), one with medium emissivity (epsilon = 0.71), and one with low emissivity (epsilon = 0.025). We carried out optimization calculations and measurements for a multiband fiber optic radiometer that consisted of a silver halide (AgClBr) infrared-transmitting fiber, a dual-band cooled infrared detector, and a set of 18 narrowband infrared filters that covered the 2-14-microm spectral range. We determined the optimal spectral range, the optimal number of filters to be used, and the optimal chopping scheme. Using these optimal conditions, we performed measurements of the three gray bodies and obtained an accuracy of better than 1 degrees C for body temperature and for room temperature. An accuracy of 0.03 was obtained for body emissivity.

  18. Change in body size and mortality: results from the Melbourne collaborative cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Karahalios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between change in weight or body mass index, and mortality is widely reported, however, both measures fail to account for fat distribution. Change in waist circumference, a measure of central adiposity, in relation to mortality has not been studied extensively. METHODS: We investigated the association between mortality and changes in directly measured waist circumference, hips circumference and weight from baseline (1990-1994 to wave 2 (2003-2007 in a prospective cohort study of people aged 40-69 years at baseline. Cox regression, with age as the time metric and follow-up starting at wave 2, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for change in body size in relation to mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. RESULTS: There were 1465 deaths (109 cancer, 242 cardiovascular disease identified during an average 7.7 years of follow-up from 21 298 participants. Compared to minimal increase in body size, loss of waist circumference (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09-1.47, weight (1.80; 1.54-2.11, or hips circumference (1.35; 1.15-1.57 were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, particularly for older adults. Weight loss was associated with cardiovascular disease mortality (2.40; 1.57-3.65 but change in body size was not associated with obesity-related cancer mortality. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the association between weight loss and increased mortality from all-causes for older adults. Based on evidence from observational cohort studies, weight stability may be the recommended option for most adults, especially older adults.

  19. Changes in Body Composition in Anorexia Nervosa: Predictors of Recovery and Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcelus, Jon; Sánchez, Isabel; Riesco, Nadine; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; González-Gómez, Jana; Granero, Roser; Custal, Nuria; Montserrat-Gil de Bernabé, Monica; Tárrega, Salomé; Baños, Rosa M.; Botella, Cristina; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernández-García, José C.; Fernández-Real, José M.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of body composition (BC) parameters is considered to be one of the most important goals in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, little is known about differences between AN diagnostic subtypes [restricting (AN-R) and binge/purging (AN-BP)] and weekly changes in BC during refeeding treatment. Therefore, the main objectives of our study were twofold: 1) to assess the changes in BC throughout nutritional treatment in an AN sample and 2) to analyze predictors of BC changes during treatment, as well as predictors of treatment outcome. The whole sample comprised 261 participants [118 adult females with AN (70 AN-R vs. 48 AN-BP), and 143 healthy controls]. BC was measured weekly during 15 weeks of day-hospital treatment using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Assessment measures also included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2, as well as a number of other clinical indices. Overall, the results showed that AN-R and AN-BP patients statistically differed in all BC measures at admission. However, no significant time×group interaction was found for almost all BC parameters. Significant time×group interactions were only found for basal metabolic rate (p = .041) and body mass index (BMI) (p = .035). Multiple regression models showed that the best predictors of pre-post changes in BC parameters (namely fat-free mass, muscular mass, total body water and BMI) were the baseline values of BC parameters. Stepwise predictive logistic regressions showed that only BMI and age were significantly associated with outcome, but not with the percentage of body fat. In conclusion, these data suggest that although AN patients tended to restore all BC parameters during nutritional treatment, only AN-BP patients obtained the same fat mass values as healthy controls. Put succinctly, the best predictors of changes in BC were baseline BC values, which did not, however, seem to influence treatment outcome. PMID:26600309

  20. Changes in Body Composition in Anorexia Nervosa: Predictors of Recovery and Treatment Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Agüera

    Full Text Available The restoration of body composition (BC parameters is considered to be one of the most important goals in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN. However, little is known about differences between AN diagnostic subtypes [restricting (AN-R and binge/purging (AN-BP] and weekly changes in BC during refeeding treatment. Therefore, the main objectives of our study were twofold: 1 to assess the changes in BC throughout nutritional treatment in an AN sample and 2 to analyze predictors of BC changes during treatment, as well as predictors of treatment outcome. The whole sample comprised 261 participants [118 adult females with AN (70 AN-R vs. 48 AN-BP, and 143 healthy controls]. BC was measured weekly during 15 weeks of day-hospital treatment using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Assessment measures also included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2, as well as a number of other clinical indices. Overall, the results showed that AN-R and AN-BP patients statistically differed in all BC measures at admission. However, no significant time×group interaction was found for almost all BC parameters. Significant time×group interactions were only found for basal metabolic rate (p = .041 and body mass index (BMI (p = .035. Multiple regression models showed that the best predictors of pre-post changes in BC parameters (namely fat-free mass, muscular mass, total body water and BMI were the baseline values of BC parameters. Stepwise predictive logistic regressions showed that only BMI and age were significantly associated with outcome, but not with the percentage of body fat. In conclusion, these data suggest that although AN patients tended to restore all BC parameters during nutritional treatment, only AN-BP patients obtained the same fat mass values as healthy controls. Put succinctly, the best predictors of changes in BC were baseline BC values, which did not, however, seem to influence treatment outcome.

  1. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  2. Effect of muscle length on cross-bridge kinetics in intact cardiac trabeculae at body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Xu, Ying; Davis, Jonathan P; Campbell, Kenneth S; Janssen, Paul M L

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic force generation in cardiac muscle, which determines cardiac pumping activity, depends on both the number of sarcomeric cross-bridges and on their cycling kinetics. The Frank-Starling mechanism dictates that cardiac force development increases with increasing cardiac muscle length (corresponding to increased ventricular volume). It is, however, unclear to what extent this increase in cardiac muscle length affects the rate of cross-bridge cycling. Previous studies using permeabilized cardiac preparations, sub-physiological temperatures, or both have obtained conflicting results. Here, we developed a protocol that allowed us to reliably and reproducibly measure the rate of tension redevelopment (k(tr); which depends on the rate of cross-bridge cycling) in intact trabeculae at body temperature. Using K(+) contractures to induce a tonic level of force, we showed the k(tr) was slower in rabbit muscle (which contains predominantly β myosin) than in rat muscle (which contains predominantly α myosin). Analyses of k(tr) in rat muscle at optimal length (L(opt)) and 90% of optimal length (L(90)) revealed that k(tr) was significantly slower at L(opt) (27.7 ± 3.3 and 27.8 ± 3.0 s(-1) in duplicate analyses) than at L(90) (45.1 ± 7.6 and 47.5 ± 9.2 s(-1)). We therefore show that k(tr) can be measured in intact rat and rabbit cardiac trabeculae, and that the k(tr) decreases when muscles are stretched to their optimal length under near-physiological conditions, indicating that the Frank-Starling mechanism not only increases force but also affects cross-bridge cycling kinetics.

  3. Rates of global temperature change during the past millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the characteristics (amplitude and phase of the temporal variation in the rates of global-mean surface temperature change during the past millennium. The study was conducted by applying 20-, 30-, and 50-yr sliding windows to the observations of recent century and reconstructions of earlier times. The analysis focuses on the characteristics of the 20th century within the context of the millennium as well as their sensitivity to the low frequency variability of sea surface temperature (SST and time scales. On 20-yr time scale, comparable rates to that of the 20th century in both amplitude and phase occur in earlier nine centuries. The peak in the amplitude of rates in the 20th century on 30-yr time scale, although is not the largest during the past millennium, but is the most persistent. On 50-yr time scale, the 20th century warming rates are the highest and the most persistent during the past millennium. The results also indicate that although the SST variability does not affect much the amplitude of the rates, but the phases is quite different, thus highlighting the importance of the role of oceans in affecting the rates. We also analyzed the characteristics from global climate model (1000–1999 AD simulations with different climate (solar, volcanic, and greenhouse gases forcing. Except for the one driven by the solar forcing, other forcing simulates similar amplitudes as the observed ones. However, only greenhouse gases (GHG forcing can reproduce the persistent high warming rates of the 20th century.

  4. Population-specific effects of developmental temperature on body condition and jumping performance of a widespread European frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulić, Sanja; Feldhaar, Heike; Lisičić, Duje; Mioč, Mia; Cizelj, Ivan; Seiler, Michael; Spatz, Theresa; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-05-01

    All physiological processes of ectotherms depend on environmental temperature. Thus, adaptation of physiological mechanisms to the thermal environments is important for achieving optimal performance and fitness. The European Common Frog, Rana temporaria, is widely distributed across different thermal habitats. This makes it an exceptional model for studying the adaptations to different thermal conditions. We raised tadpoles from Germany and Croatia at two constant temperature treatments (15°C, 20°C), and under natural temperature fluctuations (in outdoor treatments), and tested how different developmental temperatures affected developmental traits, that is, length of larval development, morphometrics, and body condition, as well as jumping performance of metamorphs. Our results revealed population-specific differences in developmental time, body condition, and jumping performance. Croatian frogs developed faster in all treatments, were heavier, in better body condition, and had longer hind limbs and better jumping abilities than German metamorphs. The populations further differed in thermal sensitivity of jumping performance. While metamorphs from Croatia increased their jumping performance with higher temperatures, German metamorphs reached their performance maximum at lower temperatures. These population-specific differences in common environments indicate local genetic adaptation, with southern populations being better adapted to higher temperatures than those from north of the Alps. PMID:27092238

  5. Age-related changes of serum mitochondrial uncoupling 1, rumen and rectal temperature in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfuso, Francesca; Rizzo, Maria; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Thermoregulatory processes are induced not only by exposure to cold or heat but also by a variety of physiological situations including age, fasting and food intake that result in changes in body temperature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), rumen temperature (TRUMEN) and rectal temperature (TRECTAL) values between adult and kids goats. Ten adult male Maltese goats aged 3-5 years old (Group A) and 30 male kids, raised for meat, were enrolled in this study. The kids were equally divided into 3 groups according to their age: Group B included kids aged 3 months, Group C included kids aged 4 months and Group D included kids aged 5 months. Blood samples and measurements of TRUMEN and TRECTAL were obtained from each animal. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to evaluate the effect of age on the studied parameters. Statistically significant higher serum UCP1 levels (P<0.001) were found in Group A as compared to Groups B, C and D. Higher TRUMEN values (P<0.001) were found in Group A than in Groups B, C and D, and in Group B than in Groups C and D. Group A showed lower TRECTAL values (P<0.001) than Groups B, C and D. The Pearson's Correlation test was applied to assess significant relationship among studied parameters showing a statistically significant negative correlation between the values of TRECTAL and serum UCP1 in all studied Groups (P<0.001). These results indicate that goats have good control of body temperature suggesting that further details about the thermogenic capacity and the function of UCP1 in kids and adult goats are worth exploring. PMID:27264887

  6. Sequential changes of lamellar body hydrolases during ozone-induced alveolar injury and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glew, R.H.; Basu, A.; Shelley, S.A.; Paterson, J.F.; Diven, W.F.; Montgomery, M.R.; Balis, J.U.

    1989-05-01

    Lamellar body hydrolases in acutely damaged and regenerating type II cells were determined using an established rat model with well-defined stages of bronchiolo-alveolar injury and repair. Lamellar bodies were isolated from control and ozone-exposed (3.0 ppm for 8 hours) adult male rats by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and analyzed for their content of six different lysosomal hydrolases. Immediately after 3 ppm ozone exposure (zero-time) there was a significant decrease in specific enzyme activity (units/mg protein) of five lamellar body hydrolases and these activities remained depressed for at least 24 hours after exposure. In addition, total enzyme activity (units/lung) was reduced at zero-time for beta-hexosaminidase and at 24 hours postexposure for alpha-mannosidase and alpha-L-fucosidase. During the reparative and recovery stages (48 to 96 hours) the hydrolases demonstrated variable elevations in both specific activity and total activity (units/lung). Characteristically, beta-hexosaminidase and beta-galactosidase reached supranormal values at 96 hours, whereas alpha-mannosidase remained below normal levels through the recovery stage. Moreover, at 24 to 48 hours the lamellar body fraction demonstrated prominent enzyme depletion relative to the expanding pool of stored surfactant. It is concluded that acute ozone stress initiates the development of hydrolase deficiency within the lamellar bodies of injured and regenerating type II cells. This deficiency state is followed by asynchronous lamellar body hydrolase elevations that reflect distinct patterns of response rather than uniform return to normal condition. The lysosomal enzyme changes of lamellar bodies may be pathogenetically linked to the development of associated alterations in the storage and secretion of surfactant.

  7. Biphasic effect of melanocortin agonists on metabolic rate and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Miller, Nicole R; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2014-08-01

    The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia that is preserved in mice lacking any one of Mc1r, Mc3r, Mc4r, or Mc5r. Three other melanocortin agonists also caused hypothermia, which is actively achieved via seeking a cool environment, vasodilation, and inhibition of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. These results suggest that the hypometabolic/hypothermic effect of MTII is not due to a failure of thermoregulation. The hypometabolism/hypothermia was prevented by dopamine antagonists, and MTII selectively activated arcuate nucleus dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that these neurons may contribute to the hypometabolism/hypothermia. We propose that the hypometabolism/hypothermia is a regulated response, potentially beneficial during extreme physiologic stress.

  8. Post-warmup strategies to maintain body temperature and physical performance in professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Russell, Mark; Bracken, Richard M; Cook, Christian J; Giroud, Tibault; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of using passive-heat maintenance, explosive activity or a combination of both strategies during the post-warmup recovery time on physical performance. After a standardised warmup, 16 professional rugby union players, in a randomised design, completed a counter-movement jump (peak power output) before resting for 20 min and wearing normal-training attire (CON), wearing a passive heat maintenance (PHM) jacket, wearing normal attire and performing 3 × 5 CMJ (with a 20% body mass load) after 12 min of recovery (neuromuscular function, NMF), or combining PHM and NMF (COMB). After 20 min, participants completed further counter-movement jump and a repeated sprint protocol. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured at baseline, post-warmup and post-20 min. After 20 min of recovery, Tcore was significantly lower under CON and NMF, when compared with both PHM and COMB (P drop was less in COMB versus all other conditions (P < 0.05). Repeated sprint performance was significantly better under COMB when compared to all other conditions. Combining PHM with NMF priming attenuates the post-warmup decline in Tcore and can positively influence physical performance in professional rugby union players. PMID:25925751

  9. Visual Aid to Demonstrate Change of State and Gas Pressure with Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Shahrokh

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrations are used in chemistry lectures to improve conceptual understanding by direct observation. The visual aid described here is designed to demonstrate the change in state of matter with the change of temperature and the change of pressure with temperature. Temperature is presented by the rate of airflow and pressure is presented by…

  10. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P Snelling

    Full Text Available Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m scales with body mass (M; g according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI, jump take-off angle (A; degrees scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06, and jump energy (E; mJ per jump scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09. Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02. The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12% legs and a relatively larger (11% femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight.

  11. The effects of temperature and body mass on jump performance of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Edward P; Becker, Christie L; Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Locusts jump by rapidly releasing energy from cuticular springs built into the hind femur that deform when the femur muscle contracts. This study is the first to examine the effect of temperature on jump energy at each life stage of any orthopteran. Ballistics and high-speed cinematography were used to quantify the energy, distance, and take-off angle of the jump at 15, 25, and 35°C in the locust Locusta migratoria. Allometric analysis across the five juvenile stages at 35°C reveals that jump distance (D; m) scales with body mass (M; g) according to the power equation D = 0.35M (0.17±0.08 (95% CI)), jump take-off angle (A; degrees) scales as A = 52.5M (0.00±0.06), and jump energy (E; mJ per jump) scales as E = 1.91M (1.14±0.09). Temperature has no significant effect on the exponent of these relationships, and only a modest effect on the elevation, with an overall Q10 of 1.08 for jump distance and 1.09 for jump energy. On average, adults jump 87% farther and with 74% more energy than predicted based on juvenile scaling data. The positive allometric scaling of jump distance and jump energy across the juvenile life stages is likely facilitated by the concomitant relative increase in the total length (L f+t; mm) of the femur and tibia of the hind leg, L f+t = 34.9M (0.37±0.02). The weak temperature-dependence of jump performance can be traced to the maximum tension of the hind femur muscle and the energy storage capacity of the femur's cuticular springs. The disproportionately greater jump energy and jump distance of adults is associated with relatively longer (12%) legs and a relatively larger (11%) femur muscle cross-sectional area, which could allow more strain loading into the femur's cuticular springs. Augmented jump performance in volant adult locusts achieves the take-off velocity required to initiate flight. PMID:23967304

  12. Changes in blood pressure and body weight over ten years in men selected for glucose intolerance.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, R J; Keen, H; Murrells, T

    1987-01-01

    Relative changes in body weight and blood pressure over ten years of observation are reported in men recruited for a trial of therapy in relation to the natural history of glucose intolerance. Half were recommended a diet restricting carbohydrate to 120 g daily (diet group) and half were recommended to 'limit use of table sugar' (no diet). In both groups average weight and blood pressure fell over the 12 to 18 months after treatment allocation, the decline being proportionately greater for bo...

  13. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.;

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  14. Extensive white-matter changes in case of adult polyglucosan body disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhoff, M.; Sturzenegger, M. [Dept. of Neurology, Inselspital, Berne (Switzerland); Weis, J. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Univ. of Berne (Switzerland); Schroth, G. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Berne (Switzerland)

    2001-03-01

    Extensive white matter signal changes were observed on T2-weighted images of a 49-year-old man. He presented with a slowly progressive gait disorder, and finally developed severe dementia. Extensive metabolic and infectious investigations failed to disclose the underlying cause during life. Autopsy revealed adult polyglucosan body disease. We discuss MRI findings likely to permit this diagnosis if combined with clinical findings and nerve or skin biopsy. (orig.)

  15. How $\\pi^0 \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ changes with temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Pisarski, R D; Pisarski, Robert D.; Tytgat, Michel

    1997-01-01

    At zero temperature, in the chiral limit the amplitude for \\pi^0 to decay into two photons is directly related to the coefficient of the axial anomaly. At any nonzero temperature, this direct relationship is lost: while the coefficient of the axial anomaly is independent of temperature, in a thermal bath the anomalous Ward identities do not uniquely constrain the amplitude for zero temperature, this amplitude decreases.

  16. Organization of lipids in avian stratum corneum: Changes with temperature and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Allen, Heather C; Bautista-Jimenez, Robin C; Williams, Joseph B

    2016-02-01

    In response to increases in ambient temperature (Ta), many animals increase total evaporative water loss (TEWL) through their skin and respiratory passages to maintain a constant body temperature, a response that compromises water balance. In birds, cutaneous water loss (CWL) accounts for approximately 65% of TEWL at thermoneutral temperatures. Although the proportion of TEWL accounted for by CWL decreases to only 25% at high Ta, the magnitude of CWL still increases, suggesting changes in the barrier function of the skin. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of flat, dead cells called corneocytes embedded in a matrix of lipids, many of which arrange in layers called lamellae. The classes of lipids that comprise these lamellae, and their attendant physical properties, determine the rate of CWL. We measured CWL at 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) caught in the winter and summer, and in sparrows acclimated to warm and cold lab environments. We then used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to measure lipid-lipid and lipid-water interactions in the SC under different conditions of temperature and hydration, and correlated these results with lipid classes in the SC. As CWL increased at higher temperatures, the amount of gauche defects in lipid alkyl chains increased, indicating that lipid disorder is partially responsible for higher CWL at high temperatures. However, variation in CWL between groups could not be explained by the amount of gauche defects, and this remaining variation may be attributed to greater amounts of cerebrosides in birds with low CWL, as the sugar moieties of cerebrosides lie outside lipid lamellae and form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules. PMID:26708071

  17. Seasonal change in tropical habitat quality and body condition for a declining migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Emily A; Rotenberg, James A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-10-01

    Many migratory songbirds spend their non-breeding season in tropical humid forests, where climate change is predicted to increase the severity and frequency of droughts and decrease rainfall. For conservation of these songbirds, it is critical to understand how resources during the non-breeding season are affected by seasonal patterns of drying, and thereby predict potential long-term effects of climate change. We studied habitat quality for a declining tropical forest-dwelling songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and tested the hypothesis that habitat moisture and arthropod abundance are drivers of body condition during the overwintering period. We examined habitat moisture, abundance of arthropods and fruit, and condition of individual birds (n = 418) in three habitat types--mature forest, mature forest with increased presence of human activity, and riparian scrub--from October to April. We found a strong pattern of habitat drying from October (wet season) to March (prior to spring migration) in all habitats, with concurrent declines in arthropod and fruit abundance. Body condition of birds also declined (estimated ~5 % decline over the wintering period), with no significant difference by habitat. Relatively poor condition (low body condition index, low fat and pectoral muscles scores) was equally apparent in all habitat types in March. Climate change is predicted to increase the severity of dry seasons in Central America, and our results suggest that this could negatively affect the condition of individual wood thrushes. PMID:26001604

  18. Body weight changes in female patients with prolactinoma treated with bromocriptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Velija-Ašimi;

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the body weight changes in female patients with bromocriptin treated prolactinoma. Seventeen hyperprolactinemic pre-menopausal female with prolactinoma, aged 18-45 years, with body mass index (BMI 30+/-2,1kg/m2 were included. Basal insulin level was measured in all patients as well as concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estrogens, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and prolactin (PRL. All patients were treated with bromocriptine. PRL levels significantly decreased after six months of the treatment (3543+/-1211 vs.1130+/-588 μIU/ml, p<0.05. After a year of the treatment PRL level was normalized (560+/-297 μIU/ml. Mean body weight did not significantly change during the first 6 months but after a two-year period it significantly decreased (27.6+/-1,4kg/m2. Waist/hip ratio did not significantly change. Normalization of menstrual cycle and libido was obtained in all patients. The results of this study suggest that hyperprolactinemia may be regarded as a reversible cause of obesity in female patients with prolactinoma, and bromocriptin has an important role in the weight loss and insulin decreasing and normalization of gonadotropin secretion as well.

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. PMID:27101759

  20. The Relation of Standard Metabolic Rate to Water Temperature and Body Weight of Schlegels Black Rockfish (Sebastodes Fuscescens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志敏; 孙耀; 张波; 唐启升

    2004-01-01

    Standard metabolic rates of Schlegels black rockfish with different body weights are determined in laboratory by using the flow-through respirometer at 11.2 ℃, 14.7 ℃, 18.0℃ and 23.6 ℃. The results indicate that the standard metabolic rates increase with the increase of body weight at different temperatures. Relationship between them could be described as Rs = a InW b. The mean of standard metabolic rate is significantly different among groups, but the b values are not. The standard metabolic rates of amended standard body weights decrease with the increase of temperature, and the mean of standard metabolic rate is also significantly different among groups when the standard body weights are 48.6 g, 147.9 g, and 243.1 g.Relationship between them could be described as Rsw = me-bT . The relations of standard metabolic rate ( Rs ) or relative metabolic rate ( Rs ) to body weight and temperature yield the following equations: Rs = 1.160 W0.752 e-9.494/7 and Rs1= 1.160 W0.254e-9.494/7.

  1. The relation between body size perception and change in body mass index over 13 years: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Liu, Kiang; Wei, Gina S; Spring, Bonnie; Kiefe, Catarina; Greenland, Philip

    2009-04-01

    The authors assessed associations of body size perception and weight change over 13 years in black men and women and white men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (1992-2005). The perceptions of self and ideal body size were measured by using the Stunkard 9-figure scale at the year 7 examination (1992-1993). Figures were classified into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. Self-ideal discrepancy yielded 4 body size satisfaction categories. Body mass index (BMI) (measured at years 7, 10, 15, and 20) was the dependent variable in gender-specific adjusted multiple regression models stratified by year 7 BMI. Obese women who perceived themselves as obese lost 0.09 BMI units annually, while those who perceived themselves as normal weight gained 0.31 units annually (P = 0.0005); obese women who considered their body size much too large had less annual weight gain than did those who considered their body size a bit too large (0.21 vs. 0.38 BMI units; P = 0.009). Obese women with overweight ideal body size gained less weight annually than did those with normal weight ideal body size (0.12 vs. 0.27 BMI units; P = 0.04). Results for men showed fewer and weaker associations. When obese women perceive themselves as obese and feel that their body size is too large, they gain less weight over time. PMID:19221119

  2. Body weight and weight change and their health implications for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidell, J C; Visscher, T L

    2000-06-01

    After the age of 60 y, body weight on average tends to decrease. The contribution of fat mass to this weight loss is relatively small, but fat tends to be redistributed with advancing age toward more abdominal (particularly visceral) fat. Anthropometric data are relatively poor indicators of these aging processes. This may be one of the explanations why the relationship between high body mass index and mortality is less pronounced in older than in younger people. Reduced lipolysis in the visceral fat depot with aging is among potential explanations why increased visceral fat seems to be less harmful in elderly subjects compared to young adults. Even though the relative contribution of increased fat mass to mortality may be less pronounced in elderly people, the impact on disability and functional limitations is found to be important from both a clinical and a public health point of view. At the other end of the scale studies have shown that low body mass index and weight loss in the elderly are both strong predictors of subsequent mortality. This cannot be explained by effects of smoking and early mortality after baseline. There are only few systematic studies comparing the predictive validity of different anthropometric data for mortality. One recent prospective study showed that a high waist circumference (in nonsmoking men) may be a better predictor of all-cause mortality than high body mass index and waist/hip ratio. Low BMI was a better predictor of mortality than low waist circumference. In conclusion changes in body composition and fat distribution with aging are poorly captured by standard anthropometric data. Low lean body mass is probably better reflected by low BMI, whereas increased (abdominal) fatness is better reflected by increased waist circumference. PMID:11041073

  3. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollins, A. B.; Zhdanova, I. V.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  4. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD...

  5. STUDY AND APPLICATION ABOUT COMPUTED SYSTEM FOR EXTERNAL CARDIAC MASSAGE,MONITOR OF HEART AND BODY TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To make and study computed system for external cardiac massage, monitor of heart and body temperature and observe its clinical effect. Method: The system was made and applied. Result: The effect of system was obvious. Conclusion: The system was an effective clinical equipment in treatment of patient with cardiac arrest.

  6. Impact of temperature and humidity on acceptability of indoor air quality during immediate and longer whole-body exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1997-01-01

    Acceptability of clean air and air polluted by building materials was studied in climate chambers with different levels of air temperature and humidity in the ranges 18-28°C and 30-70%. The immediate acceptability after entering a chamber and the acceptability during a 20-minute whole-body exposure...

  7. Comparison of physical characteristics, body temperature and resting metabolic rate at 30‡C between subtropical and temperate natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, S.; Ihzuka, H.

    1986-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements, measurements of skin temperatures, rectal temperature, heart rate and metabolic rate at 30‡C were made on 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised in Okinawa (group O) and 25 young male residents of Okinawa who were born and raised on the Japan mainland but moved to Okinawa less than 2 years before the test (group M) in summer. Group O showed significantly shorter height, lighter body weight, and slender body shape than group M. Group O showed thinner skinfold thickness and smaller percentage of body fat content than group M. Skin temperatures for group O were higher than those for group M, and rectal temperature for group O was slightly lower than that for group M. Group O showed, less metabolic rate per body surface area and slower heart rate than group M. It is concluded that physical characteristics of subtropical natives is favorable for heat dissipation, and subtropical natives have superior capacity for non-evaporative heat dissipation than migrants of temperate natives to a subtropical zone.

  8. Changes in body size, abundance, and energy allocation in rockfish assemblages of the northeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Chris J; Tolimieri, Nick; Levin, Phillip S

    2006-08-01

    Fish body size, a key driver of many aspects of fish population biology and ecology, is affected by fisheries that deplete the largest individuals. Rockfish (genus Sebastes) are a diverse group that has been heavily fished on the U.S. West Coast in recent decades. We examined trawl survey data from 1980 to 2001 to determine spatial and temporal trends in body size and density of 16 shelf rockfish species, including six that are considered overfished. Mean individual mass and maximum observed mass declined in the majority of species in one or more zoogeographic regions between central California and Washington. Density changes were far more variable in time and space, but in all regions, density declines were most often associated with large-bodied rockfish. We next estimated the impact of size and density changes on energy consumption and fecundity in a five-species rockfish assemblage that includes bocaccio (S. paucispinis), a large-bodied, overfished species. Indexes of both consumption and fecundity by the assemblage increased in the southern portion of the study area between 1980 and 2001 but decreased in the northern portion. Allocation of energy and reproductive potential within the assemblage shifted dramatically: relative to bocaccio, total energy consumption and fecundity indexes for the other four species increased by orders of magnitude from 1980 to 2001. These changes in community structure may affect the ability of bocaccio and other large rockfish species to recover from overfishing, especially in light of long-term declines in zooplankton production that may also be affecting rockfish size and production. Addressing these issues may require a regional, multispecies management approach.

  9. Immunologic changes after loco-regional radiotherapy and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunologic effects of fractionated irradiation to both hind limbs and the tail of adult mice were investigated. A dose of 34 Gy given in 17 fractions of 2 Gy, 1 fraction per day, 5 days per week, was delivered with a 60Co source. A significant decrease of the total splenocyte count and of the PHA(phytohemagglutinin)-induced proliferation of T cells was found immediately after irradiation. Both parameters normalized within 30 days after irradiation. Immediately after irradiation, the MLC (mixed lymphocyte culture) was supranormal, dropped to 45% 1 week later, and normalized within 1 month after radiotherapy. The NK (natural killer) activity was significantly decreased only the first week after loco-regional irradiation, while the LAK (lymphokine activated killer) activity was not altered at all. The percentage of goat-anti-mouse+ cells (mainly B lymphocytes) was not changed immediately after loco-regional irradiation, but rose to supranormal values (175% of control level) 3 months after irradiation. A persistent decrease of the percentage and the absolute numbers of the Lyt2+ cells (= CD8+ cells, suppressor/cytotoxic phenotype) was observed up to 3 months after irradiation, while the percentage of L3T4+ cells (= CD4+ cells, helper phenotype) remained normal for the total follow-up. No differences in allogeneic skin graft survival could be demonstrated between irradiated and control animals. The observed immunological effects could not be explained by the scatter irradiation to the whole body as total body irradiation (TBI) administered in a dose and dose rate similar to the scatter dose did not result in persistent immunologic changes. No dose-rate effect could be demonstrated in a low dose fractionated total body irradiation schedule. A total body irradiation similar to the scatter dose in humans did not result in significant immunologic changes

  10. Equilibrium energy intake estimated by dietary energy intake and body weight changes in young Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kayoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Kodama, Naoko; Yoshitake, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    To determine the energy intake (EI) required to maintain body weight (equilibrium energy intake: EEI), we investigated the relationship between calculated energy intake and body weight changes in female subjects participating in 14 human balance studies (n=149) conducted at the National Institute of Health and Nutrition (Tokyo). In four and a half studies (n=43), sweat was collected from the arm to estimate loss of minerals through sweating during exercise on a bicycle ergometer; these subjects were classified in the exercise group (Ex G). In nine and a half experiments (n=106) subjects did not exercise, and were classified in the sedentary group (Sed G). The relationship between dietary energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW) changes (ΔBW) was analyzed and divided by four variables: body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM), standard body weight (SBW), and body surface area (BSA). Equilibrium energy intake (EEI) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for EEI in Ex G were 34.3 and 32.8-35.9 kcal/kg BW/d, 32.0 and 30.8-33.1 kcal/kg SBW/d, 46.3 and 44.2-48.5 kcal/kg LBW/d, and 1,200 and 1,170-1,240 kcal/m(2) BSA/d, respectively. EEI and 95% CI for EEI in Sed G were 34.5 and 33.9-35.1 kcal/kg BW/d, 31.4 and 30.9-32.0 kcal/kg SBW/d, 44.9 and 44.1-45.8 kcal/kg LBM/d, and 1,200 and 1,180-1,210 kcal/m2 BSA/d, respectively. EEIs obtained in this study are 3 to 5% higher than estimated energy requirement (EER) for Japanese. In five out of six analyses, EER in a population (female, 18-29 y, physical activity level: 1.50) was under 95% CI of EEI obtained in this study.

  11. Seasonal Change Detection and Attribution of Surface Temperature changes over Interior Peninsular Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Sonali; Nagesh Kumar, Dasika

    2015-04-01

    A good number of studies have investigated recent trends in the observed and simulated hydrometeorological variables across the world. It has been challenging for the research community to address whether the significant change in climate over the course of 2nd half of 20th century is caused either due to natural or manmade effects. Although evidences for an anthropogenic contribution to climatic trends have been accumulated rapidly worldwide, for India these are scarce. Hence the formal efforts have been undertaken to distinguish whether the recent changes in seasonal temperature over India occurred due to natural internal variation of climate system or human influence using rigorous detection and attribution (D&A) procedure. The surface temperature is the most widely cited indicator of climate fluctuation. Hence maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax & Tmin) which are among the six most commonly used variables for impact assessment studies are analyzed here. Seasonal divisions are based on conventional meteorological seasons: January-February (winter); March-May (pre monsoon); June-September (monsoon); October-December (post monsoon). Time span considered for this study is 1950-2005. Climate Research Unit (Version 3.21) gridded monthly temperature datasets are considered as observed data. Initially TFPW-MK (Trend Free Pre Whitening Mann Kendall) test is used to search the significant trends in the four seasons over all India. Temporal change detection analysis in evapotranspiration (which is one of the key processes in hydrological cycle) is essential for progress in water resources planning and management. Hence along with Tmax and Tmin, potential evapotranspiration (PET) has also been analyzed for the similar conditions. Significant upward trends in Tmax, Tmin and PET are observed over most of the grid points in Interior Peninsula (IP) region over India. Significant correlation was obtained between PET and Tmax compared to PET and Tmin. Trends in Tmin clearly

  12. Lost in the move? Secondary task performance impairs tactile change detection on the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Zeeden, Sophia; Röder, Brigitte; Spence, Charles

    2010-03-01

    Change blindness, the surprising inability of people to detect significant changes between consecutively-presented visual displays, has recently been shown to affect tactile perception as well. Visual change blindness has been observed during saccades and eye blinks, conditions under which people's awareness of visual information is temporarily suppressed. In the present study, we demonstrate change blindness for suprathreshold tactile stimuli resulting from the execution of a secondary task requiring bodily movement. In Experiment 1, the ability of participants to detect changes between two sequentially-presented vibrotactile patterns delivered on their arms and legs was compared while they performed a secondary task consisting of either the execution of a movement with the right arm toward a visual target or the verbal identification of the target side. The results demonstrated that a motor response gave rise to the largest drop in perceptual sensitivity (as measured by changes in d') in detecting changes to the tactile display. In Experiment 2, we replicated these results under conditions in which the participants had to detect tactile changes while turning a steering wheel instead. These findings are discussed in terms of the role played by bodily movements, sensory suppression, and higher order information processing in modulating people's awareness of tactile information across the body surface. PMID:19647451

  13. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  14. Evaluation of body composition changes, epicardial adipose tissue, and serum omentin-1 levels in overt hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerit, Ethem Turgay; Akturk, Mujde; Altinova, Alev E; Tavil, Yusuf; Ozkan, Cigdem; Yayla, Cagri; Altay, Mustafa; Demirtas, Canan; Cakir, Nuri

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to investigate body composition changes, epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT), serum omentin-1 levels, and the relationship among them along with some atherosclerosis markers in overt hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight newly diagnosed overt hypothyroid patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) and compared to the healthy subjects in this prospective longitudinal study. Body compositions were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and EATT was measured by echocardiography. Carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), thyroid hormone levels, lipid parameters, high sensitive c-reactive protein, homocysteine, and omentin-1 levels were measured in all subjects. Body weight and lean body mass were higher in patients with hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid state after THRT (p = 0.012, 0.034, respectively). EATT was higher in patients with hypothyroidism than the control group (p hypothyroid state, omentin-1 levels were lower than controls (p = 0.037) but increased in 6 months with THRT (p = 0.001). The c-IMT was higher, and FMD was lower in hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid state and control group (p hypothyroidism. The increased amount of EATT and decreased omentin-1 levels can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in addition to other factors in hypothyroidism.

  15. Soil erosion under climate change: simulatingthe response of temperature and rainfall changes in three UK catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Walker-Springett, Kate J.; Constantine, José Antonio; Hales, Tristram C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion by water cost in environmental damages across the Great Britain is estimated in over £200m (2014 GBP) each year and could increase for the effect of climate change. Assessing the potential for increased climate-driven soil erosion, due to the several water processes involved (e.g., infiltration excess, return flow, direct precipitation onto saturated soil),is recognizedas a complex task. Climate change can have a positive and direct effect on soil erosionsuch the case of increasing rainfall in amount and intensity, or an indirect effect through the variation of the atmospheric CO2 level, which can improve plant productivityandwater infiltration capacity of soil reducing the likelihood of soil erosion. Changes in vegetation patterns and typologies with a different protection effect can lead also the soil system to dramatic changes in soil erosion rates, potentially amplifying or ameliorating the direct effects of climate change.Climate, vegetation and soil erosion are thus connected and several feedback effects could be accounted in the study of global change. Understanding these interactions may be a primary goal for clarifying the impact of global change on soil erosion and its consequences on related soil functions such as water and organic carbon storage support to vegetation and agricultural production. In this research, focused on three UK catchments (i.e. Conwy, 627 km2, Wales; Ehen, 225 km2, England; and Dee, 2100 km2, Scotland), we simulated soil erosionapplying SRES climatic scenarios(IPCC, 2000) for different CO2 emission levels. We modelled using Pesera "The Pan European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment" (Kirkby et al., 2004), a model for vegetation growing and soil erosion evaluation at regional scale. For each catchment,we realised a sensitivity - analysis - like test investigating different increments in temperature and rainfall, then, we compared the results of the SRES scenarios with the issues of the parametric sensitivity analysis. The

  16. Temperature and Precipitation Changes in China During the Holocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We review here proxy records of temperatare and precipitation in China during the Holocene,especially the last two millennia.The quality of proxy data,methodology of reconstruction,and uncertainties in reconstruction were emphasized in comparing different temperatare and precipitation reconstruction and clarilying temporal and spatial patterns of temperature and precipitation during the Holocene.The Holocene climate was generally warm and wet.The warmest period occurred in 9.6-6.2 cal ka BP,whereas a period of maximum monsoon precipitation started at about 11.0 cal ka BP and lasted until about 8.O-5.0 cal ka BP.There were a series of millennial-scale cold or dry events superimposed on the general trend of climate changes.During past two millennia,a warming trend in the 20th century was clearly detected,but the warming magnitude was smaller than the maximum level of the Medieval Warm Period and the Middle Holocene.Cold conditions occurred over the whole of China during the Little Ice Age (AD 1400-AD 1900),but the warming of the Medieval Warm Period(AD 900-AD 1300)was not distinct in China,especially west China.The spatial pattern of precipitation showed significant regional differences in China,especially east China.The modern warm period has lasted 20、years from 1987 to 2006.Bi-decadal oscillation in precipitation variability was apparent over China during the 20th century. Solar activity and volcanic eruptions both were major forcings governing the climate variability during the last millennium.

  17. [A new method for the transcutaneous measurement of deep body temperature during anaesthesia and intensive care (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, U; Hanf, K; Köhler, C O; Just, O H

    1978-04-01

    A new method for monitoring deep body temperature is described. It is based on the establishment, by means of electronic appliances, of a zone without heatflow from the deep tissues. The method is simple and the results compare favourably with those obtained by other procedures for measuring core temperature. The uses of this transcutaneous mehtod are discussed and its advantages and reliability in the operating theatre and intensive care unit are emphasized. It becomes less reliable if it is employed during and after extracorporeal circulation in hypothermia on account of the temperature gradient.

  18. Profiling physicochemical changes within catalyst bodies during preparation: new insights from invasive and noninvasive microspectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Alonso, Leticia; Beale, Andrew M; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2010-09-21

    -dependent. Different processes occurring in the core or in the outer rim of the catalytic solid are enhanced by several factors, such as the impregnation solution pH, the metal ion concentration, the presence of organic additives, and the temperature gradients inside the body. Invasive methods for studying the molecular nature of the metal-ion species during the preparation of catalyst bodies include Raman, UV-vis-NIR, and IR microspectroscopies. Noninvasive techniques include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Synchrotron-based techniques such as tomographic energy dispersive diffraction imaging (TEDDI) and X-ray microtomography for noninvasive characterization are also evaluated. PMID:20604550

  19. Rearing temperature induces changes in muscle growth and gene expression in juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez de Paula, Tassiana; de Almeida, Fernanda Losi Alves; Carani, Fernanda Regina; Vechetti-Júnior, Ivan José; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Salomão, Rondinelle Arthur Simões; Mareco, Edson Assunção; Dos Santos, Vander Bruno; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2014-03-01

    Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is a fast-growing fish that is extensively used in Brazilian aquaculture programs and shows a wide range of thermal tolerance. Because temperature is an environmental factor that influences the growth rate of fish and is directly related to muscle plasticity and growth, we hypothesized that different rearing temperatures in juvenile pacu, which exhibits intense muscle growth by hyperplasia, can potentially alter the muscle growth patterns of this species. The aim of this study was to analyze the muscle growth characteristics together with the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and myogenin and the growth factor myostatin in juvenile pacu that were submitted to different rearing temperatures. Juvenile fish (1.5 g weight) were distributed in tanks containing water and maintained at 24°C (G24), 28 °C (G28) and 32 °C (G32) (three replicates for each group) for 60 days. At days 30 and 60, the fish were anesthetized and euthanized, and muscle samples (n=12) were collected for morphological, morphometric and gene expression analyses. At day 30, the body weight and standard length were lower for G24 than for G28 and G32. Muscle fiber frequency in the 50 μm class was lower in G24. MyoD gene expression was higher in G24 compared with that in G28 and G32, and myogenin and myostatin mRNA levels were higher in G24 than G28. At day 60, the body weight and the standard length were higher in G32 but lower in G24. The frequency distribution of the muscle fibers was higher in G24, and that of the >50 μm class was lower in G24. MyoD mRNA levels were higher in G24 and G32, and myogenin mRNA levels were similar between G24 and G28 and between G24 and G32 but were higher in G28 compared to G32. The myostatin mRNA levels were similar between the studied temperatures. In light of our results, we conclude that low rearing temperature altered the expression of muscle growth-related genes and induced a delay in muscle growth in juvenile

  20. Age-related changes of serum mitochondrial uncoupling 1, rumen and rectal temperature in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfuso, Francesca; Rizzo, Maria; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Thermoregulatory processes are induced not only by exposure to cold or heat but also by a variety of physiological situations including age, fasting and food intake that result in changes in body temperature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), rumen temperature (TRUMEN) and rectal temperature (TRECTAL) values between adult and kids goats. Ten adult male Maltese goats aged 3-5 years old (Group A) and 30 male kids, raised for meat, were enrolled in this study. The kids were equally divided into 3 groups according to their age: Group B included kids aged 3 months, Group C included kids aged 4 months and Group D included kids aged 5 months. Blood samples and measurements of TRUMEN and TRECTAL were obtained from each animal. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to evaluate the effect of age on the studied parameters. Statistically significant higher serum UCP1 levels (Ptemperature suggesting that further details about the thermogenic capacity and the function of UCP1 in kids and adult goats are worth exploring.

  1. Air temperature changes and their impact on permafrost ecosystems in eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desyatkin Roman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant increasing of mean annual air temperatures, freezing index and thawing index - have exerted a considerable impact on the state of permafrost landscapes and ecosystems in Eastern Siberia on the last few decades. Many animals and plants have shifted their ranges and this may be the precursor of northward shifts of the landscape zones. Landscapes that contain ground ice bodies in the underlying permafrost are especially sensitive to climate warming. Increase of mean annual air temperature for 2-3°C over the last three decades has resulted an increase in ground temperature by 0.4-1.3°C in the upper part of permafrost, which in turn has led intensification of negative cryogenic processes. Previous year’s measurements of greenhouses gases emission in the Middle Taiga forest of central Yakutia were found to show high values and spatial variability. The wet meadow soils and shallow lakes have highest methane fluxes, almost comparable with emissions from tropical peatlands. Permafrost ecosystems respond to global warming quite rapidly. This makes the study of their changes somewhat easier, but still requires meticulous attention to observations, research, and analysis of the processes under way.

  2. Data logging of body temperatures provides precise information on phenology of reproductive events in a free-living arctic hibernator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.T.; Sheriff, M.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Kohl, F.; Toien, O.; Buck, C.L.; Barnes, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Precise measures of phenology are critical to understanding how animals organize their annual cycles and how individuals and populations respond to climate-induced changes in physical and ecological stressors. We show that patterns of core body temperature (T b) can be used to precisely determine the timing of key seasonal events including hibernation, mating and parturition, and immergence and emergence from the hibernacula in free-living arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). Using temperature loggers that recorded T b every 20 min for up to 18 months, we monitored core T b from three females that subsequently gave birth in captivity and from 66 female and 57 male ground squirrels free-living in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range Alaska. In addition, dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed for four free-living male squirrels. Average T b in captive females decreased by 0.5–1.0°C during gestation and abruptly increased by 1–1.5°C on the day of parturition. In free-living females, similar shifts in T b were observed in 78% (n = 9) of yearlings and 94% (n = 31) of adults; females without the shift are assumed not to have given birth. Three of four ground squirrels for which dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed did not exhibit obvious diurnal rhythms in T b until they first emerged onto the surface when T b patterns became diurnal. In free-living males undergoing reproductive maturation, this pre-emergence euthermic interval averaged 20.4 days (n = 56). T b-loggers represent a cost-effective and logistically feasible method to precisely investigate the phenology of reproduction and hibernation in ground squirrels.

  3. Effect of a phase I Coxiella burnetii inactivated vaccine on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, L S-Ch; Borchardt, S; Ouellet, V; Heuwieser, W

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The pathogen is prevalent in ruminants (goats, sheep, cows), which are the main sources of human infection. In the cattle industry around the world, animal (15 to 20%) and herd (38 to 72%) level prevalences of C. burnetii are high. Vaccination of ruminants against Q fever is considered important to prevent spreading of the disease and risk of infection in humans. However, published information on side effects of the Q fever vaccination under field conditions is limited for cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the phase I C. burnetii inactivated vaccine Coxevac on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. In 2 experiments, a total of 508 cows were randomly divided into 2 groups to determine the effect of first vaccination on body temperature and milk yield. The C. burnetii serostatus of all cows was tested before vaccination with an indirect ELISA. The first experiment took place in the teaching and research barn of the Clinic of Animal Reproduction at the Freie Universität Berlin. Temperature was measured vaginally in 10 cows in a crossover design. The second experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm. Milk yield of 498 cows was measured 1 wk before and 1 wk after vaccination. In a subset of 41 cows, temperature was measured rectally. In both experiments, body temperature increased significantly after vaccination (1.0 ± 0.9°C and 0.7 ± 0.8°C). A significant difference was also found in body temperature between vaccinated and control cows. Thirty percent of the vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed reversible swelling at the injection site as a reaction to the vaccination. The results indicate that vaccination against Q fever causes a transient increase of body temperature that peaks in the first 12 to 24h and declines after that. In experiment 2, vaccinated cows (26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d) produced significantly less milk than did control cows (28.2 ± 0.44 kg

  4. Effect of attack angle change on hydrodynamic character of supercavitating bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zeng-hui; YU Kai-ping; WANG Cong; ZHANG Jia-zhong; HUANG Wen-hu

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments has been done in a moderate-velocity cavitation tunnel to investigate the effects of attack angle change on hydrodynamic characters of supercavitation. Hydrodynamic characters of the aft section at various attack angles were compared. The investigation shows that hydrodynamic forces of the aft section are dependent of supercavity shapes at different attack angles, and the magnitude of hydrodynamic forces of the aft section varies with the change of attack angle. When the aft section is in the fully wetted case, the drag coefficient changes little. Lift and moment coefficients both increase with the increased attack angle, and the increase magnitude is not large. When the aft body planing is on the cavity boundary, the drag coefficient of nonzero attack angle is larger than that of zero attack angle, and the maximal lift and moment coefficients both vary obviously with the increased attack angle. In the case that the body is fully enveloped by cavity, the drag coefficient, lift coefficient and moment coefficient are nearly constant with the change of attack angles.

  5. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fei; XU Qiang; YANG Hongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons (P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid contents both varied clearly with seasons (P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:1n7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA)and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6)and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations (P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly.The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein,MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  6. A possible means of monitoring the progress of demyelination in multiple sclerosis: effect of body temperature on visual perception of double light flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, R J; Regan, D; Heron, J R

    1976-09-01

    The ability to discriminate closely separated pairs of light flashes as being double is impaired in multiple sclerosis. The effects of altering body temperature on double flash resolution and on visual acuity were studied in four multiple sclerosis patients and in control subjects. At demyelinated sites heating impaired and cooling improved double flash resolution. Visual acuity behaved similarly. The double flash test was very sensitive, changing up to 75 ms in response to simple heating and cooling procedures that produced small variations in acuity. Apart from its diagnostic value, the double flash test furnishes a simple in vivo model to study the effect of temperature change (and potential symptomatic therapy) on conduction in partially demyelinated axons in the visual system.

  7. Quantification of ln-Flight Physical Changes: Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Amick, R.; Rajulu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, NASA does not have sufficient in-flight anthropometric data to assess the impact of changes in body shape and size. For developing future planetary and reduced-gravity suits, NASA needs to quantify the impacts of microgravity on anthropometry and body posture to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort. To obtain data on these changes, circumference, length, height, breadth, and depth for body segments (chest, waist, bicep, thigh, calf) from astronauts for preflight, in-flight, and post-flight conditions needs to be collected. Once these data have been collected, pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight anthropometric values will be compared, yielding microgravity factors. The neutral body posture (NBP) will also be measured, to determine body posture (joint angle) changes between subjects throughout the duration of a mission. Data collection, starting with Increments 37/38, is still in progress but has been completed for 6 out of 9 subjects. NASA suit engineers and NASA's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Project Office have identified that suit fit in microgravity could become an issue. It has been noted that crewmembers often need to adjust their suit sizing once they are in orbit. This adjustment could be due to microgravity effects on anthropometry and postural changes, and is necessary to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort in space. To date, the only data collected to determine the effects of microgravity on physical human changes were collected during Skylab 4, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle mission STS-57, and a recent HRP study on seated height changes due to spinal elongation (Spinal Elongation, Master Task List [MTL] #221). The Skylab 4, ASTP, and the STS-57 studies found that, according to photographs, a distinct NBP exists. The still photographs showed a distinguishable posture with the arms raised and the shoulders abducted; in addition, the knees are flexed, with noticeable hip flexion, and the foot

  8. Assessing the Influence of Precipitation on Diurnal Temperature Range Changes: Implications for Climate Change Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Hoof, C.; Garreaud, R.

    2014-12-01

    . Braganza, D.J. Karoly, and J.M. Arblaster. Diurnal temperature range as an index of global climate change during the twentieth century. Geophysical Research Letters, 31:1-4, 2004. [2] A. Dai, A.D. Del Genio, and I.Y. Fung. Clouds, precipitation and temperature range. Nature, 386:665-666, 1997.

  9. Changes in serum amylase and its isoenzymes after whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of total body irradiation on pancreatic and parotid isoenzymes of amylase in patients about to undergo bone-marrow transplantation who had received high-dose cyclophosphamide. Twelve patients were studied, enzyme activity being measured before and at various times after total body irradiation. Serum total amylase activity rose rapidly within 12 hours of irradiation to a maximum at 36 hours, returning to normal by six days; most of the increase was derived from salivary damage, with a much smaller pancreatic component. These results confirm that radiation produces acute changes in amylase activity, which may be of use in assessing radiation-induced damage. (author)

  10. Circadian variation of EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep in humans: dissociation from body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.

  11. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cappello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  12. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  13. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Haan, A. de; Koning, J.J. de; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The p

  14. Global mean temperature changes during the last millennium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A synthetic study is made on the global or hemispheric mean temperature series for the last millennium worked out by Mann et al., Jones et al., Crowley and Lowery, and Briffa. The global mean temperature series reconstructed by using proxy data at 30 sites by Wang et al. and simulations from AD 1000 to 2000 by energy balance model are described and compared with the series of others. Wang's series gives greater variability and shows the highest correlation coefficient (0.83) with the simulation results. Uncertainties in the reconstructions and simulations are discussed. The errors in reconstructing a global mean temperature series according to 30 sites as used in the research are estimated. Wang's series indicate that temperature average for the 11th century is higher than the mean of the last millennium. It infers that the Medieval Warm Period predominated to some extent over the globe. However, the 20th century is no doubt the warmest century during the last millennium.

  15. Research on the changes of the tidal force and the air temperature in the atmosphere of Lushan (China Ms7.0 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Weiyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cycle process of the tidal force of celestial body for Lushan M7.0 earthquake, occurred in Lushan county of Sichuan, China on April 20, 2013 was calculated. The earthquake occurred at the lowest point phase. It indicated that the type of seismogenic fault that the tide force acted on belonged to the thrust fault. According to the tidal cycle, the abnormal air temperature change was analyzed based on NCEP satellite data around the whole China before and after the earthquake. The result showed that the air temperature changed evidently with the tide force changing. In temporal, the change went through: initial air temperature rise → strength→ reaching abnormal peak→ gradually decline; in spatial, the abnormal area winded its way along the margin of the southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and went through: scattered→ conversion→ scattered procession. The procession was similar to the change procession of a rock breaking under the stress loading. This shows that the stress change of rock may cause the air temperature change in the atmosphere before and after earthquake. It indicated that the tidal force of celestial body could trigger the earthquake, when the tectonic stress reaches its critical broken point and the air temperature anomaly was proportional to the seismic tectonic stress change. It was useful to combine air temperature and tidal force in earthquake precursory.

  16. FTO genotype is associated with exercise training-induced changes in body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2009-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is the first obesity-susceptibility gene identified by genome-wide association scans and confirmed in several follow-up studies. Homozygotes for the risk allele (A/A) have 1.67 times greater risk of obesity than those who do not have the allele. However, it is not known if regular exercise-induced changes in body composition are influenced by the FTO genotype. The purpose of our study was to test if the FTO genotype is associated with exercise-in...

  17. On the change of density of states in two-body interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We derive a general relation in two-body scattering theory that more directly relates the change of density of states (DDOS) due to interaction to the shape of the potential. The relation allows us to infer certain global properties of the DDOS from the global properties of the potential. In particular, we show that DDOS is negative at all energies and for all partial waves, for potentials that are more repulsive than $+1/r^2$ everywhere. This behavior represents a different class of global properties of DDOS from that described by the Levinson's theorem.

  18. The dependence of body weight in copepodite stages of Pseudocalanus spp. on variations of ambient temperature and food concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative expressions are presented describing the effects of temperature and food concentration on the mean body weight of copepodite stages of Pseudocalanus spp. The calculations were made on the basis of experimental data from the literature for three geographically separate populations of Pseudocalanus from Puget Sound (Washington, USA, from the southern North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Relationships were obtained between the coefficient of daily exponential growth of body weight of Pseudocalanus sp. from Puget Sound and temperature in the 8-15.5oC range and food concentrations from 10 mgC m-3 to excess, as well as for Pseudocalanus elongatus from the southern North Sea at high food concentrations and in the 4-15oC temperature range. Also computed was the mean body weight for stages CII to CV of P. elongatus from the southern Baltic Sea at 5oC. The empirical models presented here can be used with good precision in mathematical models of pelagic communities. The results presented here indicate that Pseudocalanus sp. from Puget Sound (a species resembling Pseudocalanus minutus is similar to P. elongatus from the southern North Sea and the English Channel with respect to growth parameters in the studied range of temperatures for excess food. P. elongatus collected in the Baltic Sea (Gulf of Gdańsk differs from P. elongatus from the southern North Sea.

  19. The predicting value of postoperative body temperature on long-term survival in patients with rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huichuan; Luo, Yanxin; Peng, Hui; Kang, Liang; Huang, Meijin; Luo, Shuangling; Chen, Wenhao; Yang, Zihuan; Wang, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between postoperative body temperature and prognosis in patients with rectal cancer. Five hundred and seven patients with stage I to III rectal cancers were enrolled in the current study. Basal body temperature (BBT, measured at 6 am) and maximal body temperature (MBT) on each day after surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two equal groups according to the median of BBT and MBT at each day. The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with low D0-MBT (37.4 °C). In the subset of 318 patients with T3 stage tumor and the subgroup of 458 patients without blood transfusion as well, low D0-MBT continues to be an independent predictor of DFS/OS with an adjusted HR equal to 1.48 (95 % CI 1.02-2.24, P = 0.046)/1.68 (95 % CI 1.04-2.99, P = 0.048) and 1.45 (95 % CI 1.02-2.13, P = 0.048)/1.59 (95 % CI 1.01-2.74, P = 0.049), respectively. In addition, we found that patients have higher risk of 1-year recurrence if those were exhibiting low preoperative BBT (temperature (D0-MBT rectal cancer.

  20. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; Mcwilliams, James C.; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensificatio...

  1. Changes in water and sugar-containing beverage consumption and body weight outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Gortmaker, Steven L; Libuda, Lars; Kersting, Mathilde; Clausen, Kerstin; Adelberger, Bettina; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    An intervention study showed that promoting water consumption in schoolchildren prevented overweight, but a mechanism linking water consumption to overweight was not substantiated. We investigated whether increased water consumption replaced sugar-containing beverages and whether changes in water or sugar-containing beverages influenced body weight outcomes. In a secondary analysis of the intervention study in Germany, we analysed combined longitudinal data from the intervention and control groups. Body weight and height were measured and beverage consumption was self-reported by a 24-h recall questionnaire at the beginning and end of the school year 2006/2007. The effect of a change in water consumption on change in sugar-containing beverage (soft drinks and juices) consumption, change in BMI (kg/m2) and prevalence of overweight and obesity at follow-up was analysed using regression analyses. Of 3220 enroled children, 1987 children (mean age 8·3 (sd 0·7) years) from thirty-two schools were analysed. Increased water consumption by 1 glass/d was associated with a reduced consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 0·12 glasses/d (95 % CI -0·16, -0·08) but was not associated with changes in BMI (P=0·63). Increased consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 1 glass/d was associated with an increased BMI by 0·02 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·03) kg/m2 and increased prevalence of obesity (OR 1·22; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·44) but not with overweight (P=0·83). In conclusion, an increase in water consumption can replace sugar-containing beverages. As sugar-containing beverages were associated with weight gain, this replacement might explain the prevention of obesity through the promotion of water consumption. PMID:27040694

  2. Effect of climate change on water temperature and attainment of water temperature criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cheryl A.; Sharp, Darrin; Mochon Collura, T. Chris

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that our planet is warming and this warming is also resulting in rising sea levels. Estuaries which are located at the interface between land and ocean are impacted by these changes. We used CE-QUAL-W2 water quality model to predict changes in water temperature as a function of increasing air temperatures and rising sea level for the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Annual average air temperature in the Yaquina watershed is expected to increase about 0.3 °C per decade by 2040-2069. An air temperature increase of 3 °C in the Yaquina watershed is likely to result in estuarine water temperature increasing by 0.7-1.6 °C. Largest water temperature increases are expected in the upper portion of the estuary, while sea level rise may mitigate some of the warming in the lower portion of the estuary. Smallest changes in water temperature are predicted to occur in the summer, and maximum changes during the winter and spring. Increases in air temperature may result in an increase in the number of days per year that the 7-day maximum average temperature exceeds 18 °C (criterion for protection of rearing and migration of salmonids and trout) as well as other water quality concerns. In the upstream portion of the estuary, a 4 °C increase in air temperature is predicted to cause an increase of 40 days not meeting the temperature criterion, while in the lower estuary the increase will depend upon rate of sea level rise (ranging from 31 to 19 days).

  3. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stelmach-Mardas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19. In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  4. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-04-20

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  5. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  6. Whole-body heat exposure induces membrane changes in spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis of laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechalekar, Harsha; Setchell, Brian P; Peirce, Eleanor J; Ricci, Mario; Leigh, Chris; Breed, William G

    2010-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if exposure to hot environmental temperatures had a direct, detrimental effect on sperm quality. For this the effect of whole-body heat exposure on epididymal spermatozoa of laboratory mice was investigated. C57BL/6 mice (n = 7) were housed in a microclimate chamber at 37 degrees C-38 degrees C for 8 h per day for three consecutive days, while control mice (n = 7) were kept at 23 degrees C-24 degrees C. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were obtained 16 h after the last heat treatment. The results showed that sperm numbers were similar in the two groups (P = 0.23), but after heat treatment, a significant reduction in the percentage of motile sperm was present (P phosphotidylserine from the inner to the outer leaflet of the sperm plasma membrane, and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD), which binds to the sperm nucleus when the plasma membrane is damaged. The percentage of spermatozoa showing positive staining with Annexin V-PE or 7-AAD or both, was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in heat-exposed mice compared with controls. These results show that whole-body heat exposure to 37 degrees C-38 degrees C induces membrane changes in the epididymal spermatozoa of mice, which may lead to apoptosis. PMID:20531278

  7. Some like it hot... : the evolution and genetics of temperature dependent body size in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Bochdanovits, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Body size is one of the most obvious and most important characteristic of any organism. A thorough understanding of how and why a certain individual obtains a specific body size, given its evolutionary history and ecological context, is a fundamental question in biology. One special case of variation in size is clinal variation: individuals of the same species indigenous to higher latitudes are on average larger than their conspecifics inhabiting regions at lower latitudes (closer to the equa...

  8. The Highest and Lowest Temperature Changes in Dongling in Shenyang from 1951 to 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the characteristics of climate changes of highest and lowest temperature in Dongling District in Shenyang Province in recent 58 years.[Method] By dint of the highest temperature and lowest temperature in the meteorological observation station in Dongling District in Shenyang from 1951 to 2008,and through statistical method such as climate tendency rate and sequence relevance,the interannual trend changes of annual and seasonal average highest and lowest temperature were expo...

  9. Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhaes E.N.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia. The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the histology of carotid bodies collected from patients who died of ARDS. A morphometric study of carotid bodies collected during routine autopsies was carried out on three groups: patients that died of non-respiratory diseases (controls, N = 8, patients that presented COPD and died of its complications or associated diseases (N = 7, and patients that died of ARDS (N = 7. Morphometric measurements of the volume fraction of clusters of chief cells were performed in five fields on each slide at 40X magnification. The numerical proportion of the four main histological cell types (light, dark, progenitor and sustentacular cells was determined analyzing 10 fields on each slide at 400X magnification. The proportion of dark cells was 0.22 in ARDS patients, 0.12 in controls (P<0.001, and 0.08 in the COPD group. The proportion of light cells was 0.33 (ARDS, 0.44 (controls (P<0.001, and 0.36 (COPD. These findings suggest that chronic and acute hypoxia have different effects on the histology of glomic tissue.

  10. Nature of changes in body composition indices in students during physical training using a set of athleticism.

    OpenAIRE

    Chernozub A.A.

    2011-01-01

    During investigations it was established that there are important changes in body composition parameters university students, who in the classroom with the general physical culture introduced by the training facilities with athleticism. The level indicators of body composition and dynamics are fully dependent on the employment structure, volume and intensity of physical exertion their focus. It is established that achieving the optimal performance of body composition may occur even with minim...

  11. Comparison of Apical Sealing Ability of Lateral Condensation Technique in Room and Body- Simulated Temperatures (An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhnamayan F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Studies reported that nearly 60% of endodontic failures have been attributed to inadequate obturation of the root canal system. Thus, complete obturation of the root canal system and proper apical seal are essential elements in the long-term success of root canal treatment.Purpose: This study aimed to compare the apical seal of lateral condensation tech-nique in the room and in body- simulated temperature.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 70 extracted, single- rooted, human premolar teeth were instrumented and divided up into four groups. All tooth’s canals were obturated by lateral condensation technique except the teeth in the positive control group. Group 1and 2, each with 30 teeth, were obturated in the room and intracanal temperature respectively. The other two groups were positive and negative control group each with 5 teeth. All groups except negative control were covered by two layers of nail polish. Then linear dye penetration was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Data was analyzed with student-t test and also Kolmogorov- Smirnov Goodness- of- Fit test to make sure of data. Results: Results showed that dye penetration in group one (obturation in room temperature was 0.6mm more than group 2 (obturation in simulated-body temperature although this was not statistically significant (p> 0.05.Conclusion: Under the condition of this invitro study, apical sealing ability was better in the body-simulated temperature than the room temperature, although it was not statistically significant.

  12. Effects of interleukin-1 beta injections into the subfornical organ and median preoptic nucleus on sodium appetite, blood pressure and body temperature of sodium-depleted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Diana R; Ferreira, Hilda S; Moiteiro, Andrei L B B; Fregoneze, Josmara B

    2016-09-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) appears to be the mediator of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the immune system. IL-1β has been shown to modulate homeostatic functions including fever, feeding, drinking and cardiovascular control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of IL-1β injections directly into the subfornical organ (SFO) and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) on salt appetite, hedonic response, locomotion, body temperature and blood pressure in sodium-depleted rats. IL-1β injections into the SFO and MnPO at the doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6ng/0.2μl promoted a dose-dependent inhibition of salt intake in sodium-depleted rats. Results of the "dessert" test and the "open field" test suggested that the inhibition of salt appetite is not due to any changes in the hedonic aspect of ingestive behavior or to changes in locomotor activity. As expected, IL-1β injections into the SFO and MnPO promoted an increase in body temperature. However, the fever induced by IL-1β injected into the SFO was slower than the increase in body temperature obtained following IL-1β injection into the MnPO. Furthermore, IL-1β at a dose of 1.6ng/0.2μl directly injected into the MnPO led to a significant increase in blood pressure, while injection of the same concentration of IL-1β into the SFO caused no significant change in blood pressure or heart rate. The action of pro-inflammatory cytokines may interfere with the normal control of body temperature, blood pressure and fluid homeostasis, producing the adjustment required to cope with infection and inflammation. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms involved in fever, blood pressure increase and inhibition of sodium appetite induced by injections of IL-1β into the SFO and MnPO in sodium-depleted rats. PMID:27163523

  13. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000) and DXA (Lunar...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean...

  14. The changing understanding of ageing. Part 2: Body composition, metabolism and cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis F. Lawler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This second of three discussions about ageing biology and diseases continues at the level of the organism, examining the relationship among body composition, late life and diseases. One view of significant age-related mass loss in humans suggests that anabolic failure is associated with various precipitating factors that may share anorexia in common. Lean mass decline with even partial anorexia should alert clinicians to monitor patients for emergence of otherwise subclinical disease. Weight or mass loss and clinical disease also may be independent, thus creating an interwoven and complex view. Recent data from the Portuguese water dog genetics model suggest that heritable factors play a role in end of life body metrics and some histological changes, and that some metric and histological changes are themselves inter-related. While widespread inflammation and hyperplasia were less frequent than expected, there exists nonetheless a disease relationship to the growth hormone (GH-insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1-insulin axis that requires further exploration. Oxidative metabolism and apoptosis are reviewed briefly as examples at the cellular level that may be reflected in gross ageing phenotypes, further unders