WorldWideScience

Sample records for body image disturbance

  1. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  2. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

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    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  3. Book Review Overcoming Body Image Disturbance: A Programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Overcoming Body Image Disturbance: A Programme for People with Eating Disorders By Lorraine Bell and Jenny Rushforth (2008). Carla Dukas. Abstract. Routledge, London Paperback, ISBN 978-0-415-42330-4, ZAR 393 160 pages40. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health 2008, 20(2): 133–134.

  4. A Fear Avoidance Model in Facial Burn Body Image Disturbance

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    Tagkalakis, P.; Demiri, E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The quality of life of burn-injured patients can be impaired physically and psychologically. Burn patients who experience facial disfigurement have psychological, social, and economic difficulties living with their appearance in addition to difficulties associated with their medical treatment. The aim of this review was to investigate, within a cognitive behavioural framework, the effect of facial disfigurement on body image and social integration in burn patients. Body image is a complex concept used to express the mental image of a person's physical self. Newell offered a cognitive-behavioural model which drew on clinical studies of phobic disorders, assuming that many of the psychological difficulties in patients who have suffered a threat to their body image are mediated primarily by fear and avoidance. The model proposes two ends of a continuum for disturbed body image: confrontation leading to social integration, and avoidance leading to social isolation. The literature suggests that many of the confrontational and adaptive processes described in the model are likely to be important in addressing facial disfigurement issues in burn patients. However, the conclusions drawn may be entirely speculative until they are confirmed by sufficient robust research evidence. PMID:21991183

  5. Different Facets of Body Image Disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Bauer, Anika

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present review is to give an overview of the current findings on various facets of body image disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder such as body dissatisfaction, overconcern with weight and shape, body-related checking and avoidance behavior, misperception of body size, and body-related cognitive bias. In addition, treatments for a disturbed body image in BED and evidence of body image disturbance in youth with binge eating are reviewed. The results show that a disturbed body image in BED is present in the form of overconcern with weight and shape. Furthermore, there are hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as body-related checking and avoidance behavior, are also impaired. Research concerning misperception of body size in BED has been neglected so far, but first findings show that individuals with BED rate their own body shape rather accurately. Furthermore, there are first hints that body-related cognitive biases are present in individuals with BED. Moreover, in children and adolescents, there are first hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as shape and weight concerns, seem to be associated with loss of control and binge eating. Treatments aimed directly at the convertibility of a disturbed body image in BED have revealed encouraging outcomes. In conclusion, body image disturbance seems to occur in BED, and first studies show that it can be treated effectively. PMID:29182531

  6. Different Facets of Body Image Disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Lewer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present review is to give an overview of the current findings on various facets of body image disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder such as body dissatisfaction, overconcern with weight and shape, body-related checking and avoidance behavior, misperception of body size, and body-related cognitive bias. In addition, treatments for a disturbed body image in BED and evidence of body image disturbance in youth with binge eating are reviewed. The results show that a disturbed body image in BED is present in the form of overconcern with weight and shape. Furthermore, there are hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as body-related checking and avoidance behavior, are also impaired. Research concerning misperception of body size in BED has been neglected so far, but first findings show that individuals with BED rate their own body shape rather accurately. Furthermore, there are first hints that body-related cognitive biases are present in individuals with BED. Moreover, in children and adolescents, there are first hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as shape and weight concerns, seem to be associated with loss of control and binge eating. Treatments aimed directly at the convertibility of a disturbed body image in BED have revealed encouraging outcomes. In conclusion, body image disturbance seems to occur in BED, and first studies show that it can be treated effectively.

  7. A Virtual Reality Full Body Illusion Improves Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa.

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    Anouk Keizer

    Full Text Available Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body.We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30 decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29 also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group.The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed.

  8. A Virtual Reality Full Body Illusion Improves Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Anouk; van Elburg, Annemarie; Helms, Rossa; Dijkerman, H. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI) affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body. Methods and Results We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips) before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30) decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29) also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group. Conclusion The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed. PMID:27711234

  9. Body image disturbance in children and adolescents with eating disorders. Current evidence and future directions.

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    Legenbauer, Tanja; Thiemann, Pia; Vocks, Silja

    2014-01-01

    Body image is multifaceted and incorporates perceptual, affective, and cognitive components as well as behavioral features. Only few studies have examined the character of body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders. It is unknown whether body-image disturbances in children/adolescent with eating disturbances are comparable to those of adult patients with eating disorders. Body-image disturbance might differ quantitatively and qualitatively according to the cognitive developmental status and the age of the individual. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence for body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders, and how they compare with those adults with eating disorders. Current evidence indicates that older adolescent patients show similar deficits as adult patients with eating disorders, in particular for the attitudinal body-image component. However, evidence for a perceptual body-image disturbance in adolescent patients, in particular anorexia nervosa, is not conclusive. Reliable statements for childhood can hardly be made because clinical studies are not available. Investigations of body-image disturbance in children have focused on the predictive value for eating disorders. Limitations of the current evidence are discussed, and future directions for research and therapy are indicated.

  10. Examining the impact of acculturative stress on body image disturbance among Hispanic college students.

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    Menon, Chloe V; Harter, Stephanie L

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of acculturative stress on psychological well-being and body image disturbance in a sample of female and male Hispanic individuals. The unique protective effects of differing social support sources, including family and peer support, were examined against acculturative stress and body image disturbance. A total of 399 participants of Hispanic origin were recruited from Texas Tech University in West Texas. Students completed a battery of measures of acculturative stress and internalization of the thin ideal, as well as perceived social support. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that acculturative stress is a significant positive predictor of body image disturbance among Hispanic college students. Thin ideal internalization was found to mediate this relationship such that acculturative stress was associated with heightened body image disturbance through its impact on thin ideal internalization. Social support significantly reduced acculturative stress as well as body image disturbance but did not moderate the relation between these 2 factors. Results highlight the importance of considering acculturative stress as a strong predictor of body image disturbance among college students of Hispanic origin. The mechanisms of influence of acculturative stress on body image disturbance are discussed in relation to thin ideal internalization. The protective role of social support on these negative psychological outcomes is also clarified. This study is the first to examine these issues in a sample of female and male Hispanic college students and provides avenues for clinical interventions and future trials with diverse populations.

  11. Body Image Disturbance in Acromegaly Patients Compared to Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Patients and Controls

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    Helen M. Conaglen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Excess growth hormone secretion in adults results in acromegaly, a condition in which multiple physical changes occur including bony and soft tissue overgrowth. Over time these changes can markedly alter a person’s appearance. The aim of this study was to compare body image disturbance in patients with acromegaly to those with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs and controls and assess the impact of obesity in these groups. Methods. A cross-sectional survey including quality of life, body image disturbance, anxiety and depression measures, growth hormone, and BMI measurement was carried out. Results. The groups did not differ with respect to body image disturbance. However separate analysis of obese participants demonstrated relationships between mood scales, body image disturbance, and pain issues, particularly for acromegaly patients. Conclusions. While the primary hypothesis that acromegaly might be associated with body image disturbance was not borne out, we have shown that obesity together with acromegaly and NFA can be associated with body image issues, suggesting that BMI rather than primary diagnosis might better indicate whether patients might experience body image disturbance problems.

  12. Differences for gender, weight and exercise in body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms.

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    Varnado-Sullivan, P J; Horton, R; Savoy, S

    2006-09-01

    Differences for gender, weight, exercise frequency and type for eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance were examined. Further understanding of male body image disturbance was the primary goal. Males (n=200) and females (n=233) completed measures to assess eating disorder symptoms and multiple components of body image disturbance. Measures were modified to be more appropriate for males. Females endorsed higher levels of eating and body concerns. Males were divided between a desire to maintain, increase or decrease their size. Higher weight and exercise frequency was associated with increased body image concern and eating disorder symptoms, particularly for males. Exercise frequency was also linked to higher self-esteem for males. Males who used muscle-enhancing supplements indicated increased social pressures and concern for appearance, and a desire to increase their size. The findings support that weight and exercise frequency affect eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance. Males appear to exhibit body image disturbance, which is related to their current weight status. Results support the call for further development of measures that more adequately address male concerns.

  13. Body image in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: validation of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire--Scoliosis Version.

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    Auerbach, Joshua D; Lonner, Baron S; Crerand, Canice E; Shah, Suken A; Flynn, John M; Bastrom, Tracey; Penn, Phedra; Ahn, Jennifer; Toombs, Courtney; Bharucha, Neil; Bowe, Whitney P; Newton, Peter O

    2014-04-16

    Appearance concerns in individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can result in impairment in daily functioning, or body image disturbance. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire (BIDQ) is a self-reported, seven-question instrument that measures body image disturbance in general populations; no studies have specifically examined body image disturbance in those with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This study aimed to validate a modified version of the BIDQ in a population with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and to establish discriminant validity by comparing responses of operatively and nonoperatively treated patients with those of normal controls. In the first phase, a multicenter study of forty-nine patients (mean age, fourteen years; thirty-seven female) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was performed to validate the BIDQ-Scoliosis version (BIDQ-S). Participants completed the BIDQ-S, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22, Children's Depression Index (CDI), and Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. In the second phase, ninety-eight patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (mean age, 15.7 years; seventy-five female) matched by age and sex with ninety-eight healthy adolescents were enrolled into a single-center study to evaluate the discriminant validity of the BIDQ-S. Subjects completed the BIDQ-S and a demographic form before treatment. Independent-sample t tests and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. The BIDQ-S was internally consistent (Cronbach alpha = 0.82), and corrected item total correlations ranged from 0.47 to 0.67. The BIDQ-S was significantly correlated with each domain of the SRS-22 and the total score (r = -0.50 to -0.72, p ≤ 0.001), with the CDI (r = 0.31, p = 0.03), and with the BESAA (r = 0.60, p image disturbance compared with healthy controls. To our knowledge, this user-friendly instrument is the first to

  14. The tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance: a replication with a Japanese sample.

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    Yamamiya, Yuko; Shroff, Hemal; Thompson, J Kevin

    2008-01-01

    To examine the tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance as a viable sociocultural explanation for the development of eating and body image problems with young Japanese females. A sample of 289 Japanese female undergraduates completed a variety of measures designed to index family, peer, and media influences, as well as levels of body dissatisfaction, eating disturbances, and self-esteem. The data were evaluated with structural equation modeling to test the tripartite model. Fit indices indicated a moderate fit to the overall tripartite model, replicating previous findings. This study suggests that the sociocultural variables found to influence body image and eating disturbances in Japan are similar to those observed with US samples. The implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed.

  15. The tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance: A replication with adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Hemal; Thompson, J Kevin

    2006-03-01

    The tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance is a recent theoretical approach that includes a test of direct (peer, parental, and media factors) and mediational links (internalization of societal appearance standards, appearance comparison processes) as factors potentially leading to body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance. The theory was evaluated in the current study in a sample of 391 adolescent females. A structural equation model that evaluated the tripartite model replicated previous findings reported by Keery, van den Berg and Thompson (2004) [Keery, H., van den Berg, & Thompson, J. K. (2004). A test of the tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance in adolescent girls. Body Image: An International Journal of Research, 1, 237-251.]. Additionally, a second model extended these findings, suggesting that peer and media influences are more important than parental influences. The results are discussed in light of the need for prevention programs to incorporate formative influences and mediational processes in the construction of intervention strategies.

  16. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances among Children and Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemp-Arlt, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbances are prevalent among youths and are beginning at an increasingly younger age. The glorification of the ideal, thin body type surrounds youths, in direct contrast to the increasing rates of overweight and obesity among the same population. The messages that children and adolescents are receiving are…

  17. Persistent body image disturbance following recovery from eating disorders.

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    Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Rieger, Elizabeth; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick; Treasure, Janet

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with an eating disorder experience the rubber hand illusion (RHI) significantly more strongly than healthy controls on both perceptual (proprioceptive drift) and subjective (self-report embodiment questionnaire) measures. This heightened sensitivity to visual information about the body, and/or reduced somatosensory information processing about the body, suggest an increased malleability of the bodily self. The aim of the present study was to explore whether this is a state phenomenon or a persisting individual trait that outlasts the period of acute eating disorder. The RHI and self-report measures of eating disorder psychopathology (EDI-3 subscales of Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, Body Dissatisfaction, Interoceptive Deficits, and Emotional Dysregulation; DASS-21; and the Self-Objectification Questionnaire) were administered to 78 individuals with an eating disorder, 28 individuals recovered from an eating disorder, and 61 healthy controls. Proprioceptive drift in recovered individuals was intermediate between the acutely ill and HC groups. Subjective report of the strength of the illusion in recovered individuals was similar to acutely ill individuals. These results suggest that increased malleability of the bodily self persists, at least partially, following recovery and may be a trait phenomenon in people with eating disorders. Those with a lifetime history of an eating disorder may have heightened sensitivity to visual information about the body and reduced somatosensory information processing of the body. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Body image disturbance, parental bonding and alexithymia in patients with eating disorders.

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    De Panfilis, C; Rabbaglio, P; Rossi, C; Zita, G; Maggini, C

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate if body image disturbance and alexithymia, two major clinical features of eating disorders (ED), are predicted by an altered parental bonding. 64 female ED outpatients and 68 female healthy controls were assessed by means of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT), and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Pearson's correlations and multiple stepwise regression analysis were applied to explore the contribution of PBI factors on BUT and TAS scores. BUT weight phobia, body image concerns, avoidance, depersonalization, Global Severity Index and positive symptom total were predicted by low parental care, while compulsive self-monitoring was predicted by parental overprotection. TAS total score and difficulty in describing feelings were predicted by low maternal care. Body image disturbance in ED may be conceptualized as a deficit in self-development, resulting from failures in parent-child interactions which impaired the ability to distinguish bodily needs from emotional experiences. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Relationship between body image disturbance and incidence of depression: the SUN prospective cohort

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    López Celeste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body image disturbance is an increasing problem in Western societies and is associated with a number of mental health outcomes including anorexia, bulimia, body dysmorphia, and depression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression. Methods This study included 10,286 participants from a dynamic prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, who were followed-up for a median period of 4.2 years (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra – the SUN study. The key characteristic of the study is the permanently open recruitment that started in 1999. The baseline questionnaire included information about body mass index (BMI and the nine figure schemes that were used to assess body size perception. These variables were grouped according to recommended classifications and the difference between BMI and body size perception was considered as a proxy of body image disturbance. A subject was classified as an incident case of depression if he/she was initially free of depression and reported a physician-made diagnosis of depression and/or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression was estimated by calculating the multivariable adjusted Odds Ratio (OR and its 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI, using logistic regression models. Results The cumulative incidence of depression during follow-up in the cohort was 4.8%. Men who underestimated their body size had a high percentage of overweight and obesity (50.1% and 12.6%, respectively, whereas women who overestimated their body size had a high percentage of underweight (87.6%. The underestimation exhibited a negative association with the incidence of depression among women (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54 – 0.95, but this effect disappeared after adjusting for possible confounding variables. The proportion of

  20. Relationship between body image disturbance and incidence of depression: the SUN prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; López, Celeste Nicole; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-02

    Body image disturbance is an increasing problem in Western societies and is associated with a number of mental health outcomes including anorexia, bulimia, body dysmorphia, and depression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression. This study included 10,286 participants from a dynamic prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, who were followed-up for a median period of 4.2 years (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra - the SUN study). The key characteristic of the study is the permanently open recruitment that started in 1999. The baseline questionnaire included information about body mass index (BMI) and the nine figure schemes that were used to assess body size perception. These variables were grouped according to recommended classifications and the difference between BMI and body size perception was considered as a proxy of body image disturbance. A subject was classified as an incident case of depression if he/she was initially free of depression and reported a physician-made diagnosis of depression and/or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression was estimated by calculating the multivariable adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and its 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI), using logistic regression models. The cumulative incidence of depression during follow-up in the cohort was 4.8%. Men who underestimated their body size had a high percentage of overweight and obesity (50.1% and 12.6%, respectively), whereas women who overestimated their body size had a high percentage of underweight (87.6%). The underestimation exhibited a negative association with the incidence of depression among women (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54 - 0.95), but this effect disappeared after adjusting for possible confounding variables. The proportion of participants who correctly perceived their body size was

  1. Exploring the influence of gender-role socialization and objectified body consciousness on body image disturbance in breast cancer survivors.

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    Boquiren, Virginia M; Esplen, Mary Jane; Wong, Jiahui; Toner, Brenda; Warner, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationships between gender-role socialization, objectified body consciousness and quality of life in breast cancer (BC) survivors with body image (BI) disturbance post-treatment. A total of 150 BC survivors participating in an ongoing randomized clinical trial of a group psychotherapy intervention for BI-related concerns completed a baseline battery of standardized measures including the following: Body Image Scale (BIS), Body Image after Breast Cancer Questionnaire (BIBCQ), Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) measuring Body Shame and Surveillance, Gender-Role Socialization Scale (GRSS) measuring internalization of traditional gender roles and attitudes and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Quality-of-Life Instrument (FACT-B). Correlational analyses were conducted between the two BI questionnaires, the two primary psychosocial variables GRSS and OBCS, and FACT-B. Path analysis was conducted on a proposed theoretical model delineating pathways between the two primary psychosocial variables and BI disturbance. Significant positive correlations were found between the two BI scales and (a) GRSS (average r = 0.53, p gender roles and attitudes, who engaged in greater self-surveillance and experienced greater body shame, reported greater BI disturbance and poorer quality of life post-treatment. Women with these predispositions are likely to be more vulnerable for psychological distress and may experience poorer adjustment after BC treatment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Body image disturbance and surgical decision making in egyptian post menopausal breast cancer patients.

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    Shoma, Ashraf M; Mohamed, Madiha H; Nouman, Nashaat; Amin, Mahmoud; Ibrahim, Ibtihal M; Tobar, Salwa S; Gaffar, Hanan E; Aboelez, Warda F; Ali, Salwa E; William, Soheir G

    2009-08-13

    In most developing countries, as in Egypt; postmenopausal breast cancer cases are offered a radical form of surgery relying on their unawareness of the subsequent body image disturbance. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of breast cancer surgical choice; Breast Conservative Therapy (BCT) versus Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM); on body image perception among Egyptian postmenopausal cases. One hundred postmenopausal women with breast cancer were divided into 2 groups, one group underwent BCT and the other underwent MRM. Pre- and post-operative assessments of body image distress were done using four scales; Breast Impact of Treatment Scale (BITS), Impact of Event Scale (IES), Situational Discomfort Scale (SDS), and Body Satisfaction Scale (BSS). Preoperative assessment showed no statistical significant difference regarding cognitive, affective, behavioral and evaluative components of body image between both studied groups. While in postoperative assessment, women in MRM group showed higher levels of body image distress among cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects. Body image is an important factor for postmenopausal women with breast cancer in developing countries where that concept is widely ignored. We should not deprive those cases from their right of less mutilating option of treatment as BCT.

  3. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

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    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  4. Body image perceptions and symptoms of disturbed eating behavior among children and adolescents in Germany.

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    Schuck, Kathrin; Munsch, Simone; Schneider, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Body image distortions such as perception biases are assumed to be precursors of eating disorders (ED). This study aims to investigate body image perceptions and symptoms of disturbed eating behavior among a sample of 11-17 year-old students in Germany. A cross-sectional survey study was carried out among 1524 students of twelve secondary schools from all school types in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). A naturalistic photograph-rating consisting of photographs of young women's bodies was used to examine children's perceptions of female bodies (i.e., perceived average body size and perceived ideal body size of young women). Also, symptoms of disturbed eating behavior were examined. Compared to statistical data, children and adolescents underestimated the average body size of young women by more than two BMI-points (estimated average BMI = 20), with no differences between boys and girls. Also, girls and boys generally held a slim female thin-ideal (perceived ideal BMI = 19.5), which is nearly three BMI-points below the average body size in the young female population. Girls showed a slightly stronger female thin-ideal than boys. Among all subgroups, early-adolescent girls (13-14 years) displayed the strongest thin-ideal internalization. Nearly one-third of this group perceived a BMI below 18 as ideal female body size. Symptoms of disturbed eating behavior were common among youth and most frequent among adolescent girls (15-17 years). Girls who displayed a bias towards underestimation of female body size and girls who displayed an underweight female thin-ideal were more likely to report harmful dieting behaviors and psychological distress associated with eating, body, and weight. This study found that 11-17 year-old girls and boys do not show accurate judgements regarding the average body size of young women. Instead, there is systematic and significant underestimation, indicating considerable perception biases, which may constitute a risk factor for the

  5. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance.

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    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-01-10

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear "normal" before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia).

  6. Body Image and Body Experience Disturbances in Schizophrenia: an Attempt to Introduce the Concept of Body Self as a Conceptual Framework.

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    Sakson-Obada, Olga; Chudzikiewicz, Paulina; Pankowski, Daniel; Jarema, Marek

    2018-01-01

    Disturbances in body experience are described as key schizophrenia symptoms and early disease predictors. In case studies, different disorders relating to body experience are presented, but only a few empirical studies have aimed to distinguish the characteristics of body experience in schizophrenia, and these have been selected arbitrarily and without reference to cohesive theoretical model. To integrate this fragmentary approach, we propose a body self (BS) model, composed of: functions; representations (e.g., body image); and sense of body identity. The aim of the study was to determine whether the BS differentiates schizophrenic patients from healthy controls, and to investigate the relations between aspects of BS and a history of illness and clinical characteristics. The Body Self Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered to 63 schizophrenic patients and 63 healthy subjects. The difference was found in the functions of the body-self (perceiving, interpreting, and regulating body experience), in the sense of body identity, and in one of three aspects of body image explored (e.g., acceptance of biological sex). Disturbances in BS were related to positive symptoms and to the number of hospitalizations for other diseases. Together, the results demonstrate that schizophrenia is more body experience than body image disorder, since the negative emotional attitude towards the body and acceptance of fitness were not distinctive for schizophrenia. The link between the disturbances in BS and the number of nonpsychiatric hospitalizations suggests that misinterpretation of body experiences in schizophrenia can promote a search for medical attention.

  7. Neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa: Serotonin Dysfunctions Link Self-Starvation with Body Image Disturbances through an Impaired Body Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is still unclear, despite that it is a critical and potentially mortal illness. A recent neurobiological model considers AN as the outcome of dysfunctions in the neuronal processes related to appetite and emotionality (Kaye et al., 2009, 2013). However, this model still is not able to answer a critical question: What is behind body image disturbances (BIDs) in AN? The article starts its analysis from reviewing some of the studies exploring the effects of ...

  8. The influence of maternal modeling on body image concerns and eating disturbances in preadolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Charlotte M; Rapee, Ronald M; Fardouly, Jasmine

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that mothers may influence the development of body image concerns and eating disturbances in their daughters by modeling negative body image beliefs and unhealthy eating behaviors. However, the causal nature of that mode of influence is yet to be established. This study implemented an experimental design to examine the impact of mothers' modeling of negative comments about their own appearance and diet on their daughters' body image concerns and eating behaviors. Participants were 8-12 year old girls and their mothers (N = 50). While viewing thin-ideal magazine advertisements with their daughter, mothers were instructed to make either negative comments about their own weight, shape, and diet or to make no appearance or diet related comments. Daughters' levels of body esteem, body satisfaction, and eating attitudes were assessed pre- and post-manipulation, and their actual eating habits were measured post-manipulation. Girls whose mothers had made self-critical comments about their own appearance and diet reported lower body esteem, lower body satisfaction, more problematic eating attitudes, and ate significantly fewer sweets than girls whose mothers had not made self-critical comments. These results have implications for disordered eating prevention programs, suggesting that greater emphasis be placed on discouraging negative modeling behaviors among mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Body Image Disturbance and Perfectionism as Predictor’s Factors of Disordered Eating Behavior among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors has been reported to increase in recent decades; therefore, scientific studies should perform for specifying psychological variables that may contribute to the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we examined the role of body image disturbance and perfectionism variables in predicting disordered eating behaviors among female students.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 upon a sample consisting of 464 female students in Allame Tabatabaie University were selected based on a Morgan formula and multi-stage cluster random sampling. Then, participants responded to the questionnaires of body image disturbance of Reas and et al. (2002, perfectionism scale of Besharat (2004 and eating attitudes test of Garner and Garfinkel (1979. The data were analyzed by correlation techniques and stepwise regression.Results: The results showed that these were internal correlation among body image disturbance and perfectionism and disordered eating behavior. Also, the results of stepwise regression analysis revealed that body image disturbance and perfectionism significantly predicted, respectively, almost 16% and 14% of variances of disordered eating behaviors among female students.Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, body image disturbance and perfectionism can predict disordered eating behaviors. Therefore, considering these variables can be important to prevent the development of eating-related diseases and to promote students’ health. Key Words: Body Image Disturbance, Perfectionism, Disordered Eating Behavior, Female Students.

  10. Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males. Attention is focused on disorders most likely to be observed among males, such as muscle dysmorphia and muscularity-oriented excessive exercise. It is argued that, given the multiple challenges involved in research of this kind, a focus on features is more likely to advance the field than a focus on diagnoses. In terms of correlates, we focus on impairment and help-seeking, since these issues are most relevant in informing public health burden, service provision, and related issues. We end with some thoughts about current gaps in the knowledge base and directions for future research that we consider to be most promising.

  11. The link between women's body image disturbances and body-focused cancer screening behaviors: a critical review of the literature and a new integrated model for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Danielle R; Crowther, Janis H

    2013-03-01

    A large body of literature demonstrates the association between body image disturbances and health compromising behaviors among women (e.g., pathological eating, substance use, inappropriate exercise). However, given that disturbed body image is a pervasive problem, it is likely inversely related to health maintenance behaviors. Cancer screenings for breast, skin, and cervical cancer represent an important type of health maintenance behavior, yet adherence rates are low. Given the body-focused nature of these screenings, body image may be a salient predictor. This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between body image disturbances and cancer screening behaviors among women culminating in the proposal of a theoretical model. This model posits that body shame and body avoidance predict performance of cancer screenings and that variables drawn from the cancer literature, including risk perception, health anxiety, subjective norms, and self-efficacy, may moderate this relationship. Clinical implications and suggestions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa: Serotonin Dysfunctions Link Self-starvation with Body Image Disturbances through an Impaired Body Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Riva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN is still unclear, despite that it is a critical and potentially mortal illness. A recent neurobiological model considers AN as the outcome of dysfunctions in the neuronal processes related to appetite and emotionality (Kaye et al., 2009, 2013. However, this model still is not able to answer a critical question: What is behind body image disturbances (BIDs in AN? The article starts its analysis from reviewing some of the studies exploring the effects of the serotonin systems in memory (episodic, working and spatial and its dysfunctions. The review suggests that serotonin disturbances may: a facilitate the encoding of third person (allocentric episodic memories; b facilitate the consolidation of emotional episodic memories (e.g. teasing, if preceded by repeated stress; c reduce voluntary inhibition of mnestic contents; d impair allocentric spatial memory. If we discuss these results within the interpretative frame suggested by the Allocentric Lock Hypothesis (Riva, 2012, 2014, we can hypothesize that altered serotoninergic activity in AN patients: i improve their ability to store and consolidate negative autobiographical memories, including those of their body, in allocentric perspective; ii impair their ability to trigger voluntary inhibition of the previously stored negative memory of the body; iii impair their capacity to retrieve/update allocentric information. Taken together, these points suggest a possible link between serotonin dysfunctions, memory impairments and BIDs: the impossibility of updating a disturbed body memory using real time experiential data – I’m locked to a negative body stored in long term memory - pushes AN patients to control body weight and shape even when underweight.

  13. German validation of the BIDQ-S questionnaire on body image disturbance in idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterkamp, Mark; Thielsch, Meinald T; Gosheger, Georg; Boertz, Patrick; Terheyden, Jan Henrik; Schulte, Tobias L

    2017-02-01

    The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire-Scoliosis (BIDQ-S) is a seven-item questionnaire inquiring into patients' worries about back shape and associated problems at school, at work, with friends or family, and whether the patients are avoiding certain activities. The aim of this study was to translate the BIDQ-S into German (G-BIDQ-S), test its reliability, and establish its convergent, divergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity. In a prospective cohort study, 259 patients with idiopathic scoliosis (mean age 30.2; 221 female; mean Cobb angle 43.8°) completed the G-BIDQ-S; Scoliosis Research Society 22-r (SRS 22-r); Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9); Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS); Questionnaire on Body Dysmorphic Symptoms (FKS); and WHO-5 Well-Being Index. Healthy control individuals matched by age, sex and BMI (n = 149; mean age 36.1; 133 female; BMI = 23.0) answered the same questions to establish discriminant validity. Discriminant statistics, and Pearson and Spearman correlations were calculated. The G-BIDQ-S proved to be one-factorial, internally consistent (Cronbach alpha = 0.87), and stable over time (total score 2.22 vs. 2.21 during retest; retest reliability r = 0.79, P scoliosis group (total score 2.19) and the control group (total score 1.13; P < 0.001). The G-BIDQ-S showed good internal consistency, reliability, and convergent, divergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity. This questionnaire is the first one inquiring into patients' body image disturbances that has been validated and is available in German.

  14. Body-Image and Eating Disturbances Prospectively Predict Increases in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls: A Growth Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinal community data to test whether body-image and eating disturbances partially explain increased depression in adolescent girls. Found that initial pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic symptoms predicted subsequent increased depressive symptoms. There was also prospective…

  15. An Empirical Model of Body Image Disturbance Using Behavioral Principles Found in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Glenn M.; Duenas, Julissa A.; Nadeau, Sarah E.; Darrow, Sabrina M.; Van der Merwe, Jessica; Misko, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The literature examining body image disturbance and Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is fraught with competing theoretical constructions of the etiology and nosology of these problems. Recent studies on various forms of psychopathology suggest that intrapersonal processes, including experiential avoidance, and interpersonal processes such as…

  16. Perfectionism dimensions, appearance schemas, and body image disturbance in community members and university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Simon B; Vriend, Jennifer L; Hewitt, Paul L; Sherry, Dayna L; Flett, Gordon L; Wardrop, Andrea A

    2009-03-01

    The present study examined the relationship between a self-presentational style involving an extreme need to conceal perceived imperfections from others and body image disturbance (BID). Findings from both a community and a university sample indicated that nondisplay of imperfection (i.e., concerns over behavioral displays of imperfections to others) predicted BID beyond self-imposed perfectionistic expectations and other contributors to BID. Mediational analyses suggested that dysfunctional appearance schemas represent one possible mechanism through which nondisplay of imperfection influences BID. In contrast to earlier work on perfectionism and BID, which emphasized the role of self-imposed perfectionistic expectations, the current study offers a novel view of the connection between perfectionism and BID. That is, rather than striving to achieve perfection, the present study suggests that individuals with BID are characterized by a strong need to avoid appearing imperfect to others.

  17. Body Image Disturbance in 1000 Male Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Alfano, Lauren; Langenbucher, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Body image disturbance (BID) among men has only recently become a phenomenon of clinical significance with noted heterogeneity in the behavioral consequences of these disturbances. The degree of heterogeneity among appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) users is unknown and an empirically derived framework for studying BID is necessary. 1000 APED users were recruited via the Internet and they completed a comprehensive online assessment APED use patterns, motivations, consequences, and BID. Data were evaluated using latent trait, latent class, and factor mixture models. Model results were validated using a range of covariates including cycle characteristics, age, APED history, and APED risk. A 1-Factor, 4-Class model provided the best fit to the data with Class 1 scoring the highest on all measures of BID and Class 4 the lowest on all measures. Class 2 differed in their preference for being lean over muscular and Class 3 preferred adding mass and size. Each class was associated with unique risks, APED history, and training identity. Not all APED users suffer from significant BID and there are unique profiles for those with elevated BID. Future research on male BID should account for this structure in order to better define relevant diagnostic categories and evaluate the clinical significance of BID. PMID:20110092

  18. Body image disturbance in patients with borderline personality disorder: impact of eating disorders and perceived childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Anne; Borgmann, Elisabeth; Feldmann, Robert E; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Priebe, Kathlen; Bohus, Martin; Vocks, Silja

    2013-03-01

    Body image disturbances occur in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Systematic research on these characteristics in well-defined BPD groups is lacking. It is unknown, if the disturbances are related to eating disorders and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), which frequently co-occur in patients with BPD. In the present study, cognitive-affective and behavioral components of body image for 89 female patients with BPD (49 with lifetime eating disorders) and 41 healthy participants were assessed via Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ) and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ). Within the BPD group, 43 patients reported a history of CSA. Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients reported significantly more negative scores in the BIAQ and the MBSRQ. Both a history of CSA and a comorbid eating disorder were independently associated with an even more negative body image. Results suggest a disturbance of cognitive-affective and behavioral components of body image in female BPD patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness and feasibility of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for body image disturbance in women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Kelly A C; Wisniewski, Lucene; Solomon, Mindy; Heinberg, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness and feasibility of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for the treatment of body image disturbance in women with eating disorders. The study used a multiple-baseline design and enrolled 38 participants with a range of eating disorders. The intervention targeted attitudinal and behavioral components of body image disturbance using psychoeducation, self-monitoring, systematic desensitization, and cognitive restructuring. Primary outcomes included multidimensional body image assessment (effectiveness) and treatment adherence and satisfaction (feasibility). Participants undergoing manualized group treatment reported significantly less body image disturbance than participants randomized to a waitlist control condition. However, differences disappeared after both groups had been through intervention. Participants also reported less depression and eating disorder pathology from baseline to posttreatment, however this difference was not considered statistically significant. Feasibility outcomes suggest the intervention was well received and highly acceptable to participants. Findings emphasize the importance of adding an evidence-based body image component to standard eating disorder treatment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Body Image Disturbances Have Impact on the Sexual Problems in Chinese Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyu Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SLE might affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning; previous study found that body image disturbance (BID was the most powerful predictors of impaired partner relationships and sexual function. The current study investigated the relationship among disease parameters, quality of life, the psychological status, BID, and sexual problems in Chinese patients with SLE. A self-report survey design was administered to 168 SLE patients and 210 healthy individuals. Our results showed that 86 (55.1% SLE patients reported impaired relationships with a sexual partner or partners, and 100 (64.1% patients reported impaired sexual function which were significantly higher than the control group (31.6%, 35.7%, rep.. Age, marital status, depression, and BIDQ were the most powerful predictors of impaired partner relationships, while BIDQ3 and education, disease activity, and depression were the most significant causes of impaired sexual function. The study for first time reported Chinese SLE patients had sexual problems and BID was associated with sexual problems. So, early detection and interventions might not only rehabilitate the patients and their loved ones, but also improve overall health outcomes and reduce the direct and indirect costs of their medical care.

  1. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  2. Associations between Chinese/Asian versus Western mass media influences and body image disturbances of young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Jiang, Chengcheng; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated associations of experiences with mass media imported from Western nations such as the United States versus mass media from China and other Asian countries with eating and body image disturbances of young Chinese women. Participating women (N=456) completed self-report measures of disordered eating, specific sources of appearance dissatisfaction (fatness, facial features, stature), and Western versus Chinese/Asian mass media influences. The sample was significantly more likely to report perceived pressure from, comparisons with, and preferences for physical appearance depictions in Chinese/Asian mass media than Western media. Chinese/Asian media influences also combined for more unique variance in prediction models for all disturbances except stature concerns. While experiences with Western media were related to disturbances as well, the overall impact of Chinese/Asian media influences was more prominent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Virtual reality in the treatment of body image disturbances after bariatric surgery: a clinical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Cárdenas-López, Georgina; Duran, Ximena; Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo M; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is an operation on the stomach and/or intestines that helps patients with extreme obesity to lose weight. Even if bariatric surgery, compared with traditional obesity treatment, is more effective in reducing BMI, this approach does not achieve equal results in every patient. More, following bariatric surgery common problems are body image dissatisfaction and body disparagement: there is a significant difference between the weight loss clinicians consider successful (50% of excess weight) and the weight loss potential patients expect to achieve (at least 67% of the excess weight). The paper discusses the possible role of virtual reality (VR) in addressing this problem within an integrated treatment approach. More, the clinical case of a female bariatric patient who experienced body dissatisfaction even after a 30% body weight loss and a 62% excess body weight loss, is presented and discussed.

  4. Prevention programme for eating disturbances in adolescents. Is their effect on body image maintained at 30 months later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M

    2013-03-01

    We assessed changes in the body image of Spanish adolescents who participated in a programme aimed at preventing disordered eating, with a 30-month follow-up. 254 girls and 189 boys aged 12-14 were assigned to a control group (n=201) or one of two possible experimental conditions: media literacy programme (ML, n=143) and media literacy plus nutrition awareness programme (ML+NUT, n=99). Body image was assessed with the Body Image Questionnaire (Qüestionari d'Imatge Corporal; QÜIC). Pre-test, post-test, 7- and 30-month follow-up measurements were taken. Linear model analyses were carried out with a 2×3×3 ANOVA (sex×group×phase), adjusted by the baseline level. At 30-month follow-up, ML and ML+NUT participants showed fewer body problems and more body satisfaction than the control group. There is a need for prevention programmes addressing eating and body image disturbances that involve both boys and girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mental state, body image disturbances and social competences in adolescents with strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecylia Smug

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strabismus is a serious ophthalmological and cosmetic disorder which may cause psychological discomfort. An increased incidence of various mental disturbances in patients with squint has been described. Affected children and adolescents experience more difficulties at school and worse results in sport. Squint may cause a disadvantageous social reception and may sometimes make it difficult to get a satisfying job. It may considerably decrease the quality of life. Objective: This study addressed three questions: 1 Is strabismus linked to psychiatric and psychological disorders? 2 Can it influence social competences? 3 Is it linked to dysmorphophobia (DSM-IV? Material and methods: Thirty persons with strabismus at the age of 13-17 years were compared with the control group of 30 persons of the same age, without eye problems. To detect psychiatric problems GHQ-28 scale was used. To assess social competences the Social Competence Questionnaire KKS (Kwestionariusz Kompetencji Społecznych was used. Dysmorphophobia symptoms were measured using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, functioning, social competences or dysmorphophobia in adolescents with strabismus, as compared to the control group. Significantly worse social competences were shown by those adolescents with strabismus who underwent surgical treatment, as compared to other persons with squint (p=0.006. Discussion: In literature, we have not found any studies on social competences in young people with strabismus. The prevalence of dysmorphophobia was not confirmed among them. No higher incidence of psychiatric disorders was observed in our study in adolescents with strabismus.

  6. Prevalence of Eating Disturbance and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Young Girls: An Examination of the Variance across Racial and Socioeconomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeel, Marissa L.; Hughes, Tammy L.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Hipwell, Alison; Theodore, Lea A.

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder research has predominantly focused on White adolescent females. More recent research suggests that eating disorders occur in various racial and age groups. The current study examines prevalence and stability of body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in 9- and 10-year-old girls and whether there is variability by racial…

  7. The Tripartite Influence model of body image and eating disturbance: a covariance structure modeling investigation testing the mediational role of appearance comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Patricia; Thompson, J Kevin; Obremski-Brandon, Karen; Coovert, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Recent theoretical approaches to the etiology of eating disorders and body image disturbances have begun to focus on multifactorial models. In the current study, the Tripartite Influence model was examined in a large sample of college females (ages 18-22). This model proposes that three primary core sources of influence--parents, peers and media--contribute to the development of body image and eating disturbances. Additionally, the model suggests that at least two factors mediate the relationship between influences and disturbance-appearance comparison and internalization of media information. In this study, appearance comparison was examined as a mediational link between peer, family and media influence variables and the outcome disturbance measures of eating dysfunction and body image dissatisfaction. Covariance structure modeling (CSM) was used to test the proposed pathways. The results indicated that appearance comparison mediated the effects of family and media influences on body dissatisfaction, which in turn influenced restrictive and bulimic behaviors. In addition, peer influences had a direct influence on restriction. Perfectionism was hypothesized to relate to body dissatisfaction, but was in fact found to influence appearance comparison. The findings were limited by the necessity of several modifications to the originally proposed models, yet offer replication and extension of previous work with appearance comparison and support for further testing of the Tripartite Influence model. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  8. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect body image Pre-baby body Pregnancy and eating disorders Looking for information on mental health conditions? Visit ... Mental health section. Fact sheets Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during ...

  9. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  10. Body representation disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disturbed experience of body size and shape. Although patients are underweight, they experience their body as bigger than it in reality is. Previous studies were mainly conducted by (clinical) psychologists and psychiatrists, and almost

  11. [Body image; literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Muyor, José María; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in developed countries there are standards of beauty based on pro-thin models, which are internalized by adolescents and young people especially in the case of women, assuming it as risk factor for developing changes in body image and perception. To analyze the current state of research in relation to body image, the sociodemographic variables that influence it, the relationship between body composition, conducting diets, eating disorders, sports and intervention programs and prevention, and the body image. It was searched in Medline, Isi Web of knowledge and Dialnet as well as a manual search among the references of selected studies and in different libraries. A increased socio-cultural influence is associated with a greater perception of body fat, greater body image dissatisfaction and lower self assessment of overall fitness. This leads to a lot of teenagers and young adults to abuse to the restrictive diets and to suffer eating disorders. Numerous studies have analyzed the relationship between sports practice with body image disturbance; there are conflictive results. Moreover it is necessary to design objective tools to detect changes and enhance the design of prevention and intervention programs in order to avoid distortion of body image, especially in those age ranges where the population is more vulnerable to this phenomenon. The excessive current preoccupation about body image has resulted in the realization of diets and changes as eating disorders. There are other factors that influence body image and perception as the realization of physical exercise, although the results about the relationship between these factors are contradictory. Therefore, further work is needed on the issue by creating tools to detect changes and enhance the design of prevention and intervention programs. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. The correlations of psychological status, quality of life, self-esteem, social support and body image disturbance in Chinese patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Chen, Haoyang; Yan, Hongyan; He, Yan; Zhu, Li; Fu, WenTing; Shen, Biyu

    2018-01-31

    This study aimed (i) to complement existing research by focusing on body image disturbance issues in Chinese Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients; (ii) to investigate how Chinese patients make sense of disease diagnosis and perceived cultural influences within the context of their SLE. A total of 118 SLE patients underwent standardized laboratory examinations and completed several questionnaires. Independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, and multivariate analysis using backward stepwise logistic regression model were used to analyze these data. We found 18.3% SLE patients had BID, which were significantly higher than the control group (.8%). SLE patients are more concerned about their physical changes caused by disease. There were significant correlations among personal health insurance, complication of diabetes, appearance of new rash, depression, anxiety, self-esteem and BID in patients with SLE. Meanwhile, logistic regression analysis revealed that appearance of new rash and high anxiety were significantly associated with BID in SLE patients. In conclusion, it is beneficial to pay attention to the physical and mental health of patients with rheumatic disease from the perspective of body image, to understand their needs and to provide effective and effective service for them.

  13. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  14. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  15. Body image in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltzman, Alina; Falcon, Bani; Harrison, Megan E

    2015-04-01

    To review the existing literature on body image in adolescent pregnancy and explore concepts about the relationship between the two. A systematic review. Peer-reviewed articles were identified through MEDLINE (1946-present) and PsycINFO (1806-November 2013), conducted in any setting. Pregnant and postpartum adolescents ages 13-19 y. None. The outcome measures used in the studies reviewed varied: themes from focus groups, diary entry analysis, Pregnancy and weight gain attitude scale, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Parenting stress index, Eating disorder inventory, Tennessee self concept scale. The search yielded a total of 149 studies, of which 6 were relevant to the specific topic and age group. The very limited research shows a dichotomy in body image perception during pregnancy in adolescence; some studies show an increase in body image disturbance and dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescents, and other studies reviewed found that the majority of pregnant adolescents had positive body image and positive attitudes towards weight gain. A bidirectional link between depression and negative body image in adolescent pregnancy is suggested. The current research exploring the relationshp between body image and pregnancy in adolescence is limited, both in quality and quantity. Future research is needed to evaluate longitudinal models that will better inform about potential risk factors for body dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescence, including the possible role of depression. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Body Image and Transsexualism

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer, B; Delsignore, A; Schnyder, U; Hepp, U

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To achieve a detailed view of the body image of transsexual patients, an assessment of perception, attitudes and experiences about one's own body is necessary. To date, research on the body image of transsexual patients has mostly covered body dissatisfaction with respect to body perception. SAMPLING AND METHODS: We investigated 23 preoperative (16 male-to-female and 7 female-to-male transsexual patients) and 22 postoperative (14 male-to-female and 8 female-to-male) transsexual pa...

  17. Body Weight and Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Traci

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs than men, a lower incidence of being overweight and a higher incidence of being underweight. However, women across all weight categories are more dissatisfied with their bodies. Sixty percent of women are inactive, and women with a BMI of 27 or higher are more likely to be inactive than women with lower BMIs. The data show that women are aware of the health benefits of exercise, but there is a gap between knowledge and practice. When asked about barriers to health improvement, 39.7% of women cited lack of time and 39.2% lack of willpower. Data Gaps and Recommendations Weight prejudice must be made unacceptable and positive body image should be encouraged and diversity valued. Health policies should encourage healthy eating and healthy activity. Health curricula for young students should include information about healthy eating, active lifestyle, and self-esteem. Physical activities that mothers can participate in with their families should be encouraged. Research should be funded to elucidate the most effective methods of getting women to become and remain physically active without focusing on appearance.

  18. An evaluation of the Tripartite Influence Model of body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance with adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keery, Helene; van den Berg, Patricia; Thompson, J Kevin

    2004-09-01

    The Tripartite Influence Model of body image and eating disturbance proposes that three formative influences (peer, parents, and media) affect body image and eating problems through two mediational mechanisms: internalization of the thin-ideal and appearance comparison processes. The current study evaluated this model in a sample of 325 sixth through eighth grade girls. Simple path analyses indicated that internalization and comparison fully mediated the relationship between parental influence and body dissatisfaction and partially mediated the relationship between peer influence and body dissatisfaction. Additionally, internalization and comparison partially mediated the relationship between media influence and body dissatisfaction. Six a priori SEM models based on the full Tripartite Influence Model were also evaluated. A resulting model was found to be an adequate fit to the data, supporting the viability of the Tripartite Model as a useful framework for understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop body image disturbances and eating dysfunction.

  19. Substance Use, Bullying, and Body Image Disturbances in Adolescents and Young Adults Under the Prism of a 3D Simulation Program: Validation of MySchool4web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Álvaro I; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Ulloa, Valentina G; Carmona-Torres, José A; Cangas, Adolfo J

    2016-01-01

    The use of virtual reality or three-dimensional (3D) simulation programs has been explored in different mental health problems and contexts. One of the applications that showed evidence of a suitable assessment for behavioral and emotional problems in adolescents is the 3D questionnaire called MySchool4web. The aim of this work was to analyze the psychometric properties of a tailored version of MySchool4web. A correlational, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study was carried out. The participants were 668 secondary students from schools in Santiago, Chile with a mean age of 15.74 years. Adolescents completed MySchool4web in the informatics classroom of each school. Results indicated that two of the items had to be removed, and a three-factor solution was found representing the dimensions substance use, bullying, and body image. This final model of 10 items showed acceptable internal consistency per factor, and its scores were significantly associated with other related measures in nine items. These outcomes suggest that this version of MySchool4web is a reliable and valid measure of a 3D instrument for the screening of risky behaviors and emotional problems in adolescents and young adults in a school context.

  20. Body Image of Anorexic, Obese, and Normal Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Crystal; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated disturbances in body image perception with anorexic, obese and control groups. Significant difference was found among the groups in perception of present-self body image, body image at plus 10 pounds, and minus 10 pounds. A directional trend was noted in anorexic overestimation and obese underestimation on the total concept of body…

  1. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate students...... (2,699 females, 765 males) from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic, lifestyle, well-being and BIC based on the Body Shape Questionnaire developed by Cooper et al. Multifactorial logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios......, perceived health, depressive symptoms) on the other. RESULTS: More females (35%) than males (8%) reported being moderately or markedly concerned with their body image. For both genders, BIC was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms and to variable extents, with nutrition and year...

  2. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  3. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Alves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  4. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Body Image Satisfaction among Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Carton, Thomas W.; Shahien, Amir A.; Andersen, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Satisfaction with body image is a factor related to health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and body size perception in an urban, Black community sample in New Orleans, Louisiana. Only 42.2% of respondents were satisfied with their body image and 44.1% correctly perceived their body…

  6. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  7. Body volume in ground beetles (Carabidae reflects biotope disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langraf Vladimír

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body size of living organisms can indicate changes in environmental quality. The family Carabidae is frequently used as an indicator of environmental status. We collected ground beetles in 9 Slovakian localities (in the Veporské vrchy Mts and the Juhoslovenská kotlina Basin of various levels of disturbance, and evaluated the volume of individuals. The lowest average body volumes of individual were found for an intensively grazed pasture (locality 5 and a nitrophilous waterside vegetation (locality 6 (1,298 mm3–4,648 mm3 with predominantly macropterous species. We have confirmed the significantly higher average biovolume value of individual Carabidae in less disturbed habitats: a Picea abies plantation (locality 1, a Carpathian oak-hornbeam forest (locality 4 and a Carpathian turkey oak forest (locality 7 (from 9,837 mm3 to 13,038 mm3, where apterous and brachypterous species dominated.

  8. The vertebral body growth plate in scoliosis: a primary disturbance of growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrom Robert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study Design and Aims This was an observational pilot study of the vertebral body growth plates in scoliosis involving high-resolution coronal plane magnetic resonance (MR imaging and histological examination. One aim of this study was to determine whether vertebral body growth plates in scoliosis demonstrated abnormalities on MR imaging. A second aim was to determine if a relationship existed between MR and histological abnormalities in these vertebral body growth plates. Methods MR imaging sequences of 18 patients demonstrated the vertebral body growth plates well enough to detect gross abnormalities/deficient areas/zones. Histological examination of ten vertebral body growth plates removed during routine scoliosis surgery was performed. Observational histological comparison with MR images was possible in four cases. Results Four of the 18 MR images demonstrated spines with normal curvature and normal vertebral body growth plates. In 13 scoliotic spines, convex and concave side growth plate deficiencies were observed most frequently at or near the apex of the curve. One MR image demonstrated a 55° kyphosis and no convex or concave side deficiencies. The degree of vertebral body wedging was independent of the presence of vertebral body growth plate deficiency. Histological abnormalities of the vertebral body growth plates were demonstrated in four with MR imaging abnormalities. Conclusion This study demonstrated MR image abnormalities of scoliotic vertebral body growth plates compared to controls. A qualitative relationship was demonstrated between MR imaging and histological abnormalities. The finding that vertebral body growth plate deficiencies occurred both on the convex and concave sides of the spine, closest to the apical vertebra of the scoliosis curve, implied that they are less likely to be the result of adaptive changes to the physical forces involved in the scoliotic deformity. One explanation is that they represent a

  9. Computerized assessment of body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: comparison with standardized body image assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Asaf; Amiaz, Revital; Davidson, Noa; Czerniak, Efrat; Gur, Eitan; Kiryati, Nahum; Harari, Daniel; Furst, Miriam; Stein, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Body image disturbances are a prominent feature of eating disorders (EDs). Our aim was to test and evaluate a computerized assessment of body image (CABI), to compare the body image disturbances in different ED types, and to assess the factors affecting body image. The body image of 22 individuals undergoing inpatient treatment with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 22 with binge/purge AN (AN-B/P), 20 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 41 healthy controls was assessed using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), the CABI, which simulated the participants' self-image in different levels of weight changes, and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2-Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-2-BD) scale. Severity of depression and anxiety was also assessed. Significant differences were found among the three scales assessing body image, although most of their dimensions differentiated between patients with EDs and controls. Our findings support the use of the CABI in the comparison of body image disturbances in patients with EDs vs. Moreover, the use of different assessment tools allows for a better understanding of the differences in body image disturbances in different ED types.

  10. [Marshmallow for investigating functional disturbances of the esophageal body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, S; Argaman, E

    1992-09-01

    Manometric studies using water boluses do not always demonstrate disturbances in esophageal motility. We tested the use of a marshmallow bolus to induce abnormal manometric patterns in patients with dysphagia in whom manometric studies using water boluses were normal or nearly so. The study group included 12 normal volunteers and 22 patients with dysphagia and nearly normal manometric studies. Pressure was recorded along the esophageal body using 10 "wet" swallows followed by 10 "solid" swallows of marshmallow. In normal subjects there were fewer abnormal contractions after solid swallows than after wet swallows. In 15 patients solid swallows induced abnormal motility patterns which were not observed after wet swallows. The probability of inducing abnormal contractions in patients after solid swallows is significantly greater than after wet swallows (p < 0.0001). Solid swallowing is therefore useful in evaluating functional disturbances of the esophagus in patients with dysphagia.

  11. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  12. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Normal Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Alice A.; Penner, Louis A.

    Research suggests that, in clinical samples, body image disturbances are related to severe eating disorders and problems with self-concept and self-esteem. There have been relatively few studies, however, which have empirically investigated the relation between body image and personality characteristics among normal women. This study investigated…

  13. Neuroanatomical correlates and somatosensorial disturbances in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaryura-Tobias, Jose A; Neziroglu, Fugen; Torres-Gallegos, Melissa

    2002-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a condition characterized by an intense preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in physical appearance. Although there is a general consensus that psychosocial factors play a major role in the development of BDD, there is some evidence suggesting that an organic somatosensorial disturbance may also exist in this condition. Several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including the interparietal syndrome, Gertsman's syndrome, inferoparietal syndrome, phantom limb syndrome, genital retraction syndrome, panencephalitis, cerebrovascular syndromes, and pharyngeal streptococcia affecting the basal ganglia, can present with somatosensorial disturbances similar to BDD. The cerebral pathology in all these disorders appears to be localized in the parietal-occipital region, indicating that cerebral involvement may also be associated with BDD. An interdependence exists between cerebral regions through integrated neural networks that enable efficient processing of information. Disturbances in these association pathways can lead to an imbalance in the extensive cerebral loops. Therefore, it is possible that a defect in information-processing may play a role in the pathogenesis of BDD.

  14. Body image and prosthesis satisfaction in the lower limb amputee.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Craig; Fox, Jezz

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between prosthesis satisfaction and body image in lower limb prosthesis users, and the gendered variations within these relationships. Method: A total of 44 valid responses were obtained to an Internet survey regarding prosthesis satisfaction, body image, and phantom pain. Spearman Rho correlations were calculated for these three domains. Results: Moderate to high negative correlations were observed between Body Image Disturbance and Prosthesis Sa...

  15. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  16. Body image and cosmetic medical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetic medical treatments have become increasingly popular over the past decade. The explosion in popularity can be attributed to several factors-the evolution of safer, minimally invasive procedures, increased mass media attention, and the greater willingness of individuals to undergo cosmetic procedures as a means to enhance physical appearance. Medical and mental health professionals have long been interested in understanding both the motivations for seeking a change in physical appearance as well as the psychological outcomes of these treatments. Body image has been thought to play a key role in the decision to seek cosmetic procedures, however, only recently have studies investigated the pre- and postoperative body image concerns of patients. While body image dissatisfaction may motivate the pursuit of cosmetic medical treatments, psychiatric disorders characterized by body image disturbances, such as body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, may be relatively common among these patients. Subsequent research on persons who alter their physical appearance through cosmetic medical treatments are likely provide important information on the nature of body image.

  17. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  18. Body Image (Children and Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... critical role in helping children develop a positive body image and self-esteem (how you see yourself and feel about yourself). ... sign of a more serious response to low self-esteem and body image. Symptoms of depression Social withdrawal (from friends/activities) ...

  19. Metabolic Disturbances Independent of Body Mass in Patients with Schizophrenia Taking Atypical Antipsychotics

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Shi Hyun; Lee, Jong Il

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) treatment is associated with weight gain and metabolic disturbances such as dyslipidemia and dysglycemia. The metabolic disturbances are usually considered to develop secondary to weight gain. We performed the comparison of metabolic disturbances of three AAP group with different risk of metabolic side effect after adjusting for body mass to investigate whether any metabolic disturbances develop independently from body mass index (BMI). Methods This cros...

  20. Body representation disturbances in visual perception and affordance perception persist in eating disorder patients after completing treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Manja M; Keizer, Anouk

    2017-01-01

    Body image disturbances (BID) are a key feature of eating disorders (ED). Clinical experience shows that BID exists in patients who Completed their Eating Disorder Treatment (CEDT), however studies concerning BID in CEDT patients are often limited to cognition and affect, measured by interviews and

  1. Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

  2. Childhood trauma and anorexia nervosa: From body image to embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Jennifer; Rhodes, Paul; Ussher, Jane

    2018-02-27

    Contemporary understandings of anorexia nervosa are framed by the body image paradigm. The body-image framework considers that women's bodily experiences are reflected through distorted mental images of their bodies or disordered thinking and behavior around food and eating. Body image has come to symbolize all that can go wrong with women's relationship with their bodies, food and eating. The problem with this approach is its failure to consider the experience of women who survived childhood abuse. Women's bodily disturbances are not easily discernible through objective measures as they lie within the inner subjective realm of the embodied 'self', and embodied emotional experience. Consideration of the different ways that women inhabit their bodies inform this paper's examination of the conceptual framework embodiment as an alternate to the body image paradigm.

  3. Perfectionistic self-presentation, body image, and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Brandy J; Hewitt, Paul L; Sherry, Simon B; Parkin, Melanie; Flett, Gordon L

    2005-03-01

    A specific model for eating disorder symptoms involving perfectionistic self-presentation and two different moderators (i.e., body image evaluation and body image investment) was tested. Participants completed measures of perfectionistic self-presentation, body image dysfunction, and eating disorder symptoms. Findings indicated that all three dimensions of perfectionistic self-presentation were associated with eating disorder symptoms. Results also showed that perfectionistic self-presentation predicted eating disorder symptoms in women who were dissatisfied with their bodies, but that it did not predict eating problems in women who liked their bodies and felt there was little or no discrepancy between their actual and ideal appearances. Body image investment did not moderate the relationship between perfectionistic self-presentation and eating disorder symptoms, suggesting that ego-involvement alone is insufficient to promote eating disturbance in the context of perfectionism. The importance of self-presentation components of perfectionism and specific body image difficulties in predicting eating disorder symptoms are discussed.

  4. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers.The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure to...

  5. Marketing importance of body image

    OpenAIRE

    Francová, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Body image is undoubtedly important in everyone's life. The main objective of this thesis is to find its importance for marketing. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to find out the society's opinions on the issue of beauty and body image, how do media picture human body and if there exists a difference between these two things. The first part of this theses consists of the historical development of the beauty ideal. It is followed by segmentation of Czech population, based on the data fr...

  6. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  7. The Body-Image of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratty, Bryant J.; Sams, Theressa A.

    To develop an assessment device for the evaluation of body image, to evaluate the body image of blind children, to make comparisons between subgroups (sex, age, IQ) and to derive sequences of tasks related to body image training, 91 children (mean age 10.06 years, mean IQ 88.32) were evaluated by a body image survey form. Analysis of the data…

  8. The Vulnerability of Female Body Image to Weight Related Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, DeAnna L.; Morey, Leslie

    A central component of anorexia nervosa is a body image disturbance (BID). BID, as it is experienced in anorexia nervosa, is defined as an inability to recognize how thin one really is and is exhibited by a sense of feeling overweight in spite of severe emaciation. Several researchers have recognized a relationship between depressive personality…

  9. Disturbed Mental Imagery of Affected Body-Parts in Patients with Hysterical Conversion Paraplegia Correlates with Pathological Limbic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with conversion disorder generally suffer from a severe neurological deficit which cannot be attributed to a structural neurological damage. In two patients with acute conversion paraplegia, investigation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI showed that the insular cortex, a limbic-related cortex involved in body-representation and subjective emotional experience, was activated not only during attempt to move the paralytic body-parts, but also during mental imagery of their movements. In addition, mental rotation of affected body-parts was found to be disturbed, as compared to unaffected body parts or external objects. fMRI during mental rotation of the paralytic body-part showed an activation of another limbic related region, the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that conversion paraplegia is associated with pathological activity in limbic structures involved in body representation and a deficit in mental processing of the affected body-parts.

  10. Body image in social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderka, Idan M; Gutner, Cassidy A; Lazarov, Amit; Hermesh, Haggai; Hofmann, Stefan G; Marom, Sofi

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder falls under the category of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, yet research has suggested it may also be highly associated with social anxiety disorder. The current study examined body image variables among 68 outpatients with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=22), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=25), and panic disorder (PD; n=21). Participants filled out self-report measures of body image disturbance, attitudes toward one's appearance, and anxiety. Body image disturbance and attitudes toward appearance did not significantly differ between the groups. However, SAD symptoms predicted body image disturbance, Appearance Evaluation and Body Areas Satisfaction, and OCD symptoms predicted Appearance Orientation. These findings suggest that SAD and OCD may be associated with different facets of body image. Implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders and for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The "Body Beautiful": English Adolescents' Images of Ideal Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Helga; Lloyd, Barbara; Dugan, Shaun; Halliwell, Emma; Jacobs, Neil; Cramer, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examine qualities capturing adolescents' images of ideal bodies for both genders. Data from questionnaires and discussions of photographs indicate that body-image ideals are multidimensional, show systematic gender differences, and become more conventional with age. Adolescents' own body mass links systematically to body-image…

  12. Altered Visual Adaptation to Body Shape in Eating Disorders: Implications for Body Image Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Harald M; Rickmeyer, Constanze; Hummel, Dennis; Ernst, Mareike; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that after adapting to a thin body, healthy participants (HP) perceive pictures of their own bodies as being fatter and vice versa. This aftereffect might contribute to the development of perceptual body image disturbances in eating disorders (ED).In the present study, HP and ED completed a behavioral experiment to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to thin or fat body pictures. After adapting to a thin body, HP judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. ED only showed such an adaptation effect when they adapted to fat body pictures.The reported results indicate a relationship between body image distortion in ED and visual body image adaptation. It can be suspected that due to a pre-existing, long-lasting adaptation to thin body shapes in ED, an additional visual adaption to thin body shapes cannot be induced. Hence this pre-existing adaptation to thin body shapes could induce perceptual body image distortions in ED. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Body Image and Quality of Life in Adolescents With Craniofacial Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crerand, Canice E; Sarwer, David B; Kazak, Anne E; Clarke, Alexandra; Rumsey, Nichola

    2017-01-01

      To evaluate body image in adolescents with and without craniofacial conditions and to examine relationships between body image and quality of life.   Case-control design.   A pediatric hospital's craniofacial center and primary care practices.   Seventy adolescents with visible craniofacial conditions and a demographically matched sample of 42 adolescents without craniofacial conditions.   Adolescents completed measures of quality of life and body image including satisfaction with weight, facial and overall appearance, investment in appearance (importance of appearance to self-worth), and body image disturbance (appearance-related distress and impairment in functioning).   Adolescents with craniofacial conditions reported lower appearance investment (P body image disturbance, and lower weight satisfaction compared with males (P body image disturbance was associated with lower quality of life (P body image disturbance, or satisfaction with appearance.   Body image and quality of life in adolescents with craniofacial conditions are similar to nonaffected youth. Relationships between body image and quality of life emphasize that appearance perceptions are important to adolescents' well-being regardless of whether they have a facial disfigurement. Investment in one's appearance may explain variations in body image satisfaction and serve as an intervention target, particularly for females.

  14. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research. PMID:26052476

  15. Body Image in the Dance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  16. [Body image and low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenig, C G; Hasenbring, M I; Kleinert, J; Kellmann, M

    2016-10-01

    Many factors seem to be causal for non-specific low back pain and are sometimes controversially discussed. Some years ago the concept of subjective body image attracted attention but due to the inconsistent use of terms and concepts it is difficult to classify publications in the literature. Studies confirmed a difference between the body images of patients with low back pain and healthy controls so that an inclusion of body image concepts could be relevant for causation and therapy. This article presents an overview of the current state of research on the association between body image and low back pain and with respect to the allocation of body image in psychosocial concepts of low back pain. Relevant studies on body image and low back pain were reviewed and are discussed with respect to the different use of terms and concepts of body image. Moreover, an approach for integration of the body image into current psychosocial concepts and therapy of low back pain is presented. Finally, it is discussed whether consideration of the body image could be of value in the therapy of low back pain. Studies have shown that low back pain patients have a more negative body image compared to healthy controls. There is a lack of studies on clinical evidence for the application and effectiveness of interventions that influence the body image in low back pain. Further studies are necessary which include body image concepts as a possible psychosocial risk factor, in particular studies on the mechanism of body image procedures.

  17. Workshop on Body Image: Creating or Reinventing a Positive Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This paper examines the culturization of body image and the impact of body image on women and men, noting that the strict definition of body size has made many women and men dissatisfied with their bodies. The first section defines body image and culturization, explaining how the current media images put tremendous pressure on men and women that…

  18. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zar-Shenas; Ashraf Karbalaaei-Nouri; Seyyed-Ali Hosseini; Mahdi Rahgozar; Reza Seyed-Nour; Nahaleh Moshtagh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and qu...

  19. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities.

  20. Psychological consequences of obesity: weight bias and body image in overweight and obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriger, Jennifer A; Thompson, J Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Over the past several decades, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has increased considerably. While it has been widely documented that childhood obesity is related to a variety of negative health consequences, and numerous campaigns have focused on increasing physical activity and healthy food choices in children, less research has focused on the negative psychological consequences of childhood obesity, namely body image disturbance. This article examines research on body image disturbance in overweight/obese children, comorbidity of psychological disorders and childhood overweight/obesity, and factors that contribute to body image disturbance in overweight and obese youths. Additionally, the authors present research pertaining to treatment and prevention of body image disturbance in overweight/obese youths and discuss potential future directions for research, prevention and advocacy.

  1. Whole body imaging system mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.W.; Doherty, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (U.K.)

  2. The becoming of bodies : girls, media effects and body image.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The relations between women's bodies and images have long interested and occupied feminist theoretical and empirical work. Recently, much feminist research has focused on the relations between girls' and young women's bodies and images in “the media.” Underpinning much of this research, I argue, is an oppositional model of subject/object onto which bodies and images are mapped. Developing Deleuze's concept of becoming and exploring my own research with a small number of white British teenage ...

  3. Body-image thought processes: The development and initial validation of the Assessment of Body-Image Cognitive Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakatdar, Tejal A; Cash, Thomas F; Engle, Erin K

    2006-12-01

    No measures exist that specifically assess cognitive distortions related to body image per se, despite their theoretical and clinical significance. Most cognitive-distortion scales pertain to depression, anxiety, or eating disorders. Accordingly, the 37-item Assessment of Body-Image Cognitive Distortions (ABCD) was developed and validated in this study with a sample of 263 college women. The ABCD samples eight types of distorted thinking related to how persons process information about their physical appearance. Two 18-item parallel forms of the unidimensional measure were also constructed. All forms were highly internally consistent and relatively free from socially desirable responding. Convergent validity for all ABCD forms was established using several standardized measures of body image and eating attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ABCD was predictable from body-image evaluation, investment, and overweight preoccupation. The ABCD uniquely predicted body-image quality of life and disturbed eating attitudes above and beyond other body-image predictors. Heavier women and White women were more prone to body-image cognitive distortions than were thinner women and Black women. Finally, limitations of this preliminary study, directions for future research, and clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Body image and media use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Bayer, Angela M

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on body image and media use among adolescents. We begin by defining body image and how it is constructed, especially among young people. We then offer information on when one's body image perception is askew with one's perception of personal ideal, which can result in disordered eating, including obesity, anorexia, and bulimia. Next, we describe the research literature on media use and its relationship to adolescents' body image perceptions and discuss content analyses and correlational, experimental, and qualitative studies. Lastly, we recommend, beyond conducting further and improved research studies, interventions and policies that may have an impact on body image and media use.

  5. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF, specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods.Patients and methods: The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q.Results: Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001, Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT (P < 0.0001, and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD (P < 0.0001. The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001. With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI.Conclusion: The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life.Keywords: cognitive distortions, quality of life, body appreciation, psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  6. The Practical Application of Promoting Positive Body Image on a College Campus: Insights from Freshmen Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Jackson, TeriSue; Reel, Justine J.; Thackeray, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image disturbances and disordered eating behaviors are prevalent across college campuses and can lead to psychological and physical health consequences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain formative research on the promotion of positive body image on a university campus with the goal of developing educational programs.…

  7. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  8. Body satisfaction, emotional intelligence, and the development of disturbed eating: a survey of Taiwanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yueching; Lin, Jing-Shan; Chang, Yu-Jhen

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between adolescents' emotional intelligence and the tendency to develop an eating disorder. Senior high school students in Taiwan were recruited for the study. A 3- part anonymous questionnaire measured demographic information, body weight satisfaction, and expectation of body weight. Students also completed the Adolescent Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Eating Disorders Attitude- 26 Test (EAT-26). Height and weight were also measured. The mean of EAT-26 score was 8.66 ± 7.36, and 8.6% students were at high risk to develop eating disorders. Gender, body weight, body dissatisfaction and the expected body shape were significantly related to disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours. Scores of EAT-26 were positively correlated with emotional perception, emotional expression, and emotional application. Disturbed eating behaviours exist among adolescents in Taiwan, and these behaviours may be related to emotional intelligence. However further studies with larger samples are needed.

  9. Body image satisfaction and anxiety of a Turkish sample of university students with skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymak, Yeşim; Ulutaş, Ilkay; Taner, Ender; Bakir, Bilal; Simşek, Isil

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of body image and anxiety of 221 university students presenting to the dermatology outpatient clinic with a skin disease and 205 students without skin disease. Analysis of anxiety and body image scores yielded differences by sex and age in both groups. The group with skin disease had lower scores on body image. Acne vulgaris seems to be the most disturbing among the skin diseases, and this was more prominent in younger patients.

  10. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H; Kappeler, Peter M; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals' general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations.

  11. Body Image Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Figen

    1990-01-01

    Examined body image satisfaction in Turkish adolescents. Findings from 269 female and 286 male secondary school students revealed that males were more satisfied with their bodies than were females, early-maturing males and late-maturing females had higher levels of body image satisfaction, and participants in physical activities were more…

  12. Changes in neuronal correlates of body image processing by means of cognitive-behavioural body image therapy for eating disorders: a randomized controlled fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, S; Schulte, D; Busch, M; Grönemeyer, D; Herpertz, S; Suchan, B

    2011-08-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated abnormalities in visual body image processing in anorexia and bulimia nervosa, possibly underlying body image disturbance in these disorders. Although cognitive behavioural interventions have been shown to be successful in improving body image disturbance in eating disorders, no randomized controlled study has yet analysed treatment-induced changes in neuronal correlates of visual body image processing. Altogether, 32 females with eating disorders were randomly assigned either to a manualized cognitive behavioural body image therapy consisting of 10 group sessions, or to a waiting list control condition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain responses to viewing photographs of one's own and another female's body taken from 16 standardized perspectives while participants were wearing a uniform bikini were acquired before and after the intervention and the waiting time, respectively. Data indicate a general blood oxygen level dependent signal enhancement in response to looking at photographs of one's own body from pre- to post-treatment, whereas exclusively in the control group activation decreases from pre- to post-waiting time were observed. Focused activation increases from pre- to post-treatment were found in the left middle temporal gyrus covering the coordinates of the extrastriate body area and in bilateral frontal structures including the middle frontal gyrus. Results point to a more intense neuronal processing of one's own body after the cognitive behavioural body image therapy in cortical regions that are responsible for the visual processing of the human body and for self-awareness. © Cambridge University Press 2010

  13. The effects of body exposure on self-body image and esthetic appreciation in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Valentina; Mian, Emanuel; Mele, Sonia; Tognana, Giulia; Todisco, Patrizia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Repeated exposures to thin-idealized body shapes may alter women's perceptions of what normal (e.g., accepted) and ideal (e.g., desired) bodies in a cultural environment look like. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to thin and round body shapes may change the subsequent esthetic appreciation of others' bodies and the perceptual and cognitive-affective dimensions of self-body image in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Thirteen AN patients and 13 matched healthy controls were exposed to pictures of either thin or round unfamiliar body models and, before and after exposure, they were required to either express liking judgments about round and slim figures of unfamiliar bodies (esthetic task) or to adjust distorted pictures of their own body to their perceptual (How do you see yourself?), affective (How do you feel yourself?), metacognitive (How do others see you?) and ideal (How would you like to look like?) body image (self-body adjustment task). Brief exposures to round models increased liking judgments of round figures in both groups. However, only in AN patients, exposure to round models induced an increase in thin figures liking, which positively correlated with their preoccupation with dieting. Furthermore, exposure to round bodies in AN patients, but not in controls, increased the distortion for the perceptual body image and decreased the size of the ideal one. No differences between the two groups were obtained after adaptation to thin models. Our results suggest that AN patients' perception of their own and others' body is more easily malleable by exposure to round figures as compared to controls. Crucially, this mechanism may strongly contribute to the development and maintenance of self-body image disturbances.

  14. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  15. Importance of body image in marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Váradyová, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The thesis dedicated to the issue of body image in the context of marketing communication emphasizing female body imaging in advertising. The aim of Master's thesis is to identify differences in the perception of beauty between the German and Czechoslovak culture. The theoretical part is intended to explain the body image issues, including historical development. Furthermore points out the influence of mass media on women's physical self-concept. The practical part deals with content analysis...

  16. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Marieke B.; Van Der Heijden, Amber A W A; Van Dam, Rob M.; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hiddink, Gerrit J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, Robert J.; Bouter, Lex M.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dairy consumption has been postulated to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: We used cross-sectional data for

  17. Sleep Quality and Body Mass Index in College Students: The Role of Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A.; Flores, Melissa; Robles, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. Methods: A convenience sample of 515 college students completed an online survey consisting of the Pittsburgh Sleep…

  18. Anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder: A comparison of body image concerns and explicit and implicit attractiveness beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A S; Thomas, J J; Greenberg, J L; Elliott, C M; Matheny, N L; Wilhelm, S

    2015-06-01

    Although body image is central to the etiological models of anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder, studies comparing body image and beliefs about attractiveness between the disorders are rare. Sixty-nine individuals (anorexia nervosa: n=24, body dysmorphic disorder: n=23, healthy controls: n=22) completed self-report measures (body image and general psychopathology), diagnostic interviews, and Go/No-Go Association tasks measuring implicit associations. Compared to controls, both clinical groups exhibited greater negative body image, a more negative attitude toward their physical selves, and more dysfunctional coping strategies (psbody image disturbance, this study also showed that beliefs regarding the importance of appearance (e.g., "one must be attractive to be successful") might be a fruitful target for therapy across both disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of whole-body-imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.; Hoffer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Currently there are four different devices that have found clinical utility in whole-body imaging. These are the rectilinear scanner, the multicrystal whole-body scanner, the Anger-type camera with a whole-body-imaging table, and the tomoscanner. In this text, the basic theory of operation and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages in whole-body imaging is presented for each device. When applicable, a comparative assessment of the various devices is also presented. As with all else in life, there is no simple answer to the question ''which total body imaging device is best.'' Institutions with a very heavy total-body-imaging load may prefer to use an already available dual-headed rectilinear scanner system for these studies, rather than invest in a new instrument. Institutions with moderate total-body-imaging loads may wish to invest in moving table or moving camera devices which make total body imaging more convenient but retain the basic flexibility of the camera. The large-field Anger camera with or without motion offers another flexible option to these institutions. The laboratory with a very heavy total body imaging load may select efficiency over flexibility, thereby freeing up other instruments for additional studies. Finally, reliability as well as availability and quality of local service must be considered. After all, design features of an instrument become irrelevant when it is broken down and awaiting repair

  20. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. © 2013.

  1. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  2. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  3. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  4. Correlates of body image dissatisfaction among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to examine factors predicting body image dissatisfaction among female university undergraduates in Ogun State. Adolescent have been found to be influenced by a number of factors which may determine how they feel about their body images. Two hundred and fifty Undergraduate students ...

  5. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  6. Food choice criteria in adolescents according to body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousana K. Papadopoulou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased worldwide, while the percentage of adolescents who are dissatisfied with their body image has also increased. Disturbed body image is an important criterion for eating disturbances. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of body image on the food choice criteria of adolescents. The participants consisted of 1003 students (495 boys and 508 girls from High and Junior High schools in Thessaloniki, with mean age of 14.6±1.5 years. The sample for our study was chosen with stratified sampling plan. Data was collected with the use of a questionnaire regarding the food choice criteria, based on the studies of Lappalainen et al. (1998, Steptoe et al. (1995, Contento et al. (1995 and Worsley and Leitch (1981. Body image was assessed using Contento et al. (1995 questionnaire. The difference between desired and real body weight was used to estimate the desire of body weight change. The SPSS computer program was used for the statistical analysis. Chi square (X2 test was used to assess the differences between subgroups. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results showed that 35.9% of the adolescents (45% females and 26.6% males wanted to lose weight, while 14% (6.3% females and 22% males wished to gain weight. The remaining 50.1% (48.7% females and 51.4% males wanted to maintain their body weight. Food appearance constituted a more important criterion for the adolescents who wished to gain weight compared to those who wished to maintain their weight and the adolescents who wanted to lose weight. Dietary value was more important for the individuals who wanted to lose weight, than those who wished to maintain their weight and those who wished to gain weight. Overall, the majority of the girls was dissatisfied with their body image and wanted to lose weight. More boys wished to gain weight compared to girls. Adolescents who wished to lose weight seemed more concerned about food dietary value than

  7. The protective effect of a satisfying romantic relationship on women's body image after breast cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo Notari, Sarah; Notari, Luca; Favez, Nicolas; Delaloye, Jean-François; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    To examine the protective role of relationship satisfaction on body image in women with breast cancer throughout the first year post-surgery. Seventy-four Swiss patients engaged in a relationship filled out a questionnaire assessing body image disturbance 2 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year after surgery. A univariate latent change score model was used to analyze the evolution of body image disturbance and the contribution of relationship satisfaction to body image disturbance. Women who were satisfied with their relationship reported less body image disturbance than did dissatisfied women at 2 weeks post-surgery. Being married was also associated with less body image disturbance at that time. The protective effect of these relational variables was still observable 1 year later. Changes in body image disturbance over time were explained by the negative impacts of mastectomy and chemotherapy. How women perceive the impact of breast cancer treatment on their body may be partly determined by the quality of the relational context in which they live. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Body enhancement : body images, vulnerability and moral responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dikken, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this explorative study is to show that it is highly relevant to integrate cultural and personal body images into the ethical debate on human enhancement. The current debate has little attention for the motivations to make use of technology to alter the human body, such as cultural

  9. Body shape as body image determinant in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández Torres, Rosa P; Wall Medrano, Abraham; Urquídez Romero, René; Barahona, Igor; Villalobos Molina, Rafael

    2017-10-24

    Body shape (BSP) and body image (BI) are part of the external physical structure, then modifications in body shape necessarily affect body image; however, both combined have not been studied. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the statistical relationship between BSP and BI in university students. Two hundred and ninety-six participants (17-35 years) were included in this study. Different anthropometric measurements were used to define their somatotype (BSP), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC). In addition, a questionnaire on body image perception was applied (McElhone et al.), regarding "how do I look?", "how do I think others see me?", "how do others see me?", and "how do I want to look like?". On average, men perceived themselves in normal weight; in contrast, women perceived themselves as overweight. Men were meso-endomorphic, while women were endo-mesomorphic as an average. Body shape measured as somatotype as well as WC and WHR were excellent determinants of body image. Participants who presented a higher endomorphy, WC and WHR and a lower ectomorphy had a higher appreciation of being overweight or obese and wish to become thinner.

  10. [Eating disorders, body image and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricio; Kes, Mariana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are a growing problem in healthcare. Altered eating behaviors are a consequence of cognitions and emotions generated by low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with body image and schema. It is possible, that a negative body image, and in many cases, distorted, may be the most difficult feature to approach and improve in this disorders. But the dissatisfaction to one's own body would not be related only to altered eating behaviors. Several studies show that body image and one's own body perception are an essential feature in sexual experiences, especially in women's sexuality. This article describes the relation and influences between body image and women's sexuality, and the sexuality in women with eating disorders.

  11. Measures of body image: Confirmatory factor analysis and association with disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzer, Mia L; Tiggemann, Marika; Waller, Glenn; Wade, Tracey D

    2018-02-01

    The current study aimed to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of 3 measures of body image disturbance (body image flexibility, body avoidance, and body checking) considered to be relevant to eating disorder psychopathology, with the aim of determining the optimal structure of each for use in treatment planning and outcome monitoring. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which factors had the strongest association with disordered eating. Participants were 328 female undergraduate university students aged 17-25 years. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted followed by correlational, regression, and t test analyses. The original proposed models were retained for the body image flexibility and body checking measures, while an alternative model was supported for the body image avoidance measure. All 3 solutions were found to have acceptable validity and reliability. Scores on each measure differed significantly between normal and disordered eaters. The body image flexibility measure and selected subscales of the body image avoidance and checking measures had unique associations with eating disorder psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. Results of this study indicate how the assessment of body image can be achieved in treatment of eating disorders in such a way as to reduce participant burden while adequately assessing the body image disturbance that is characteristic of eating disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Shweta; Sachdeva, Sandeep; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, wei...

  13. Body Image Avoidance, Body Dissatisfaction, and Eating Pathology: Is There a Difference Between Male Gym Users and Non-Gym Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Peta; McIntyre, Timothy; Bannatyne, Amy

    2016-03-01

    With research highlighting the increasing prevalence and severity of body image and eating disturbances in males, particularly athletes and regular gymnasium users, the current study examined body image and eating disturbances in a sample of male gym users and non-gym users (N = 180). Based on previous research, it was predicted that male gym users would report greater body image disturbance (e.g., body image avoidance and body dissatisfaction) and eating pathology, compared with non-gym users. Results of the study partially supported hypotheses, revealing body dissatisfaction and eating pathology were significantly increased in male gym users. However, no significant differences were observed in body image avoidance behaviors, though this is likely because of methodological limitations associated with psychometric measures selected. The study provides preliminary evidence that male gym users do experience subclinical eating and body image concerns, with some also experiencing clinically significant symptoms that could be precursors to the later development of an eating disorder. Results of the current study highlight the importance of educating key stakeholders within health and fitness centers, through community-based interventions, to increase awareness regarding male body image and eating disturbances. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Considerations on the correlation between real body and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice ABALAȘEI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available very individual in the society has a representation of it’s own body in relation to the spatial cues, postural cues, time cues, etc., considered by specialists the body scheme. Throughout its development, the human being goes through different stages of organization of both the image the and body scheme. We start carrying out this study from the idea that there could be, in male individuals, a link between body representation (own image projected outwardly apparent by reference to an image presented through a questionnaire and anthropological parameters, such as body fat and body mass index. The study was conducted on a total of 28 subjects, aged 22.71 ± 2.62 years, height of 177.11 ± 6.76 cm and body weight of 73.56 ± 12.60 kg. For these subjects the body composition has been determined by electromagnetic bioimpendance technique and projection of the self was assesed through a questionnaire. After analyzing statistical data, our hypothesis was refuted by the lack of mathematical connections between the variables analyzed.

  15. The Relationship among Overexcitability, Social Coping, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Implications for Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Heath R.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents confront a plethora of physical and emotional changes, especially those alterations surrounding puberty. Body image disturbances have become commonplace with high school students, and school personnel seem to have had little success in fighting this problem. Teenagers with body dissatisfaction may also be at risk for mental health…

  16. Disturbances in melatonin, cortisol and core body temperature rhythms after major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Ocak, Ubbat; Altunpinar, Omer; Middleton, Benita; Skene, Debra J; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2007-02-01

    It has been suggested that circadian rhythm disturbances are present after major surgery and that this may play a role in the development of postoperative sleep disturbances, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. The objective of this study was to examine the profile of melatonin, cortisol and core body temperature rhythms before and after major surgery. Blood samples (melatonin and cortisol) and core body temperature readings were collected every hour in the 24-h period prior to surgery and the 48 h after surgery from 11 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. All patients had private rooms. Light exposure was controlled and monitored. Phase markers [50% dim light melatonin onset (DLMO 50%) and offset (DLMOff 50%), cortisol and core body temperature acrophase] for the three circadian rhythm profiles were calculated before and after surgery. The correlation between the melatonin rhythm and time of surgery, duration of surgery and opioid use was examined. A median delay in the onset of melatonin was seen on the first postoperative day [median DLMO 50% 22:46 hours (range: 21:15-01:08 hours) on the preoperative day compared with 23:54 hours (range: 19:09-02:46 hours) on the first postoperative day; P melatonin onset (r = 0.67, P melatonin immediately after surgery, with a subsequent significant increase in maximum melatonin values on the second postoperative night. A median delay of up to 4 h was seen in the timing of the peak of the temperature rhythm on the second postoperative day. Both cortisol secretion and core body temperature were increased after surgery and did not return to preoperative values in the 48 h of the postoperative study period. No significant correlation between opioid dose and the basal or maximum melatonin levels or the time of melatonin onset was found. We found disturbances in three circadian markers after major surgery. The clinical consequences of postoperative circadian disturbances should be investigated

  17. Body image construct of Sri Lankan adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonapienuwala, B L; Agampodi, S B; Kalupahana, N S; Siribaddana, S

    2017-03-31

    Body image” is more than the visual perception of size and it is probably multidimensional. It is known to influence eating behaviors and self-esteem of adolescents. Although widely studied in developed countries, it has been studied little in Sri Lanka. This study was designed to translate and culturally adapt a tool to assess dimensions of body image in Sri Lankan adolescents. The study was carried out in the Anuradhapura District on school going children in grades nine to eleven. A multidimensional body image questionnaire was translated to Sinhalese language using the nominal group consensus method. The translated version was administered to 278 (114 boys) students after content validation and pre-testing. To assess test-retest reliability, the same questionnaire was administered to the same sample after two weeks. Psychometric properties were assessed using exploratory factor analysis. Three-factor model emerged when dimensions in body image were analysed. Both boys and girls had almost identical factor structure. The three dimensions identified were “affective body image”, “body perception” and “orientation on body size”. All factors had good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha > 0.76 and explained more than 56% of the total variance in both sexes. The translated body image questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool which can be used in Sri Lankan adolescents. Both genders had a similar, multidimensional body image construct.

  18. Form and formulation: Examining the distinctiveness of body image constructs in treatment-seeking patients with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-11-01

    Body-image disturbance is a core aspect of eating disorders, yet the clinical manifestations of individuals' weight and shape concerns are complex, vary considerably, and are poorly understood by clinicians and researchers. This study aimed to distinguish different aspects of body-image disturbance-including weight/shape dissatisfaction, weight/shape overvaluation, weight/shape preoccupation, and fear of weight gain-in patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Examining how each specific body image construct relates to biopsychosocial features of BED could contribute to the refinement of conceptualization and treatment planning. The current study assessed body-image disturbance and eating-disorder psychopathology in 748 treatment-seeking patients with BED using established investigator-based interviews reliably administered by doctoral clinicians. The 4 body image constructs, although related to one another, showed some important similarities in associations with biopsychosocial clinical features, as well as some important distinctions. The relation between overvaluation and self-esteem was, as conceptualized, more strongly negative than for other body image variables, and preoccupation was more associated than other body image variables with eating concerns. Biopsychosocial features of BED were associated with different forms of body-image disturbance, but associations of body image variables with body mass index (BMI) were not significant and associations with binge-eating frequency did not differ across body image variables. Manifestations of body-image disturbance in BED are complex and understanding the distinctions between different body image constructs can contribute to treatment formulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Body image in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, C; Pistorio, M L; Sorbello, M; Parrinello, L; Corona, D; Gagliano, M; Giuffrida, G; Giaquinta, A; Sinagra, N; Zerbo, D; Veroux, P; Veroux, M

    2010-05-01

    Psychologic disturbances are becoming more common in kidney transplantation, owing to effects of immunosuppressive therapy. In this study, we explored the incidence and specifity of psychopathology among kidney transplant patients. Twenty kidney transplant recipients underwent the Machover Draw-A-person test to detect significant variables (V1=V6) hypothetically related to chronologic age, education, years from transplantation, and gender differences. Emotional coarctation (V1) in the sense of "mental rigidity," "egocentrism," and "hypercontrol" were present in all transplant recipients (100%), followed by difficulty in interpersonal relationships (V3; 70%) and anxiety (V5; 70%). This research confirmed the hypothesis that transplantation can display a potential risk to the psychologic balance of the patient. Psychologic evaluation may be a fundamental step together with surgical aspects and management of immunosuppression to achieve well-being of kidney transplant recipients. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing Body Image in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin E. Heron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine body image discrepancies in elementary-age children in a racially diverse sample. Body image and body image discrepancy were measured in elementary school children (N = 58 of various racial groups (35% Hispanic, 33% African American, 16% Caucasian, 14% other. Each participant was shown a set of silhouette figure drawings and reported current and ideal body sizes. Children’s body discrepancies appear to change between Grades 1 and 2. Notable discrepancies between their current and ideal figures, and their current figure and those that they believe are most attractive, are largely absent in Grade 1, but are evident in Grade 2 and older children. No substantive racial or gender differences in body image perceptions or dissatisfaction were observed in this sample. Body image dissatisfaction may begin as early as second grade in both girls and boys of various racial and ethnic backgrounds. These findings provide preliminary evidence that body discrepancies may begin much earlier than previously thought.

  1. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  2. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-03-01

    image disturbances, but also by other psychopathological syndromes. Nevertheless, the greatest effect was related to ED, and seemed to be more negative among men. This finding is the opposite of that found in other groups studied previously.Keywords: body image, quality of life, eating disorders, self-esteem, social functioning, gender differences

  3. Locked to a wrong body: Eating disorders as the outcome of a primary disturbance in multisensory body integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Gaudio, Santino

    2018-03-01

    In his recent paper "Distorted body representations in anorexia nervosa" Gadsby (2017) discussed empirical evidence regarding anorexic patients' distorted body representations. In particular, he interpreted them using the O'Shaughnessy's long-term body image (LTB) hypothesis (O'Shaughnessy, 1998): individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a distorted LTB that tracks changes in the spatial content of the body and supplies this distorted content to other body representations. Even if we agree on the involvement of body memory in the distorted body representation, an open issue not fully addressed in the paper is: why AN patients do not update their LTBs to reflect their true dimensions? Our correspondence tries to answer to this question using a new neuropsychological and neurobiological theory: the Allocentric Lock Theory - ALT. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... capitis ), or the pubic area ( Phthirus pubis ). Some body lice may carry diseases such as epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, or trench fever. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  5. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception ( P<0.001, current general health status ( P<0.001 and self weight assessment ( P<0.001. Mother′s education had a statistically significant ( P=0.004 but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (85.71% prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (54.54% prevalence of dissatisfaction ( P<0.001. Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  6. Body image satisfaction among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shweta; Sachdeva, Sandeep; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2012-07-01

    To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception (Passessment (Psatisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m(2)) had a significantly higher (54.54%) prevalence of dissatisfaction (Psatisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  7. Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Steven W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the relationship between body image, global self-concept, and depression. Men and women (N=224) completed questionnaires and were videotaped and objectively rated on attractiveness. Results indicated that depressed subjects were less satisfied with their bodies and saw themselves as less physically attractive than was reported by…

  8. Breast Hypertrophy, Reduction Mammaplasty, and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cristiane Costa; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Garcia, Edgard da Silva; Cabral, Isaías Vieira; de Carvalho, Monique Maçais; de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2018-02-07

    Body image dissatisfaction is one of the major factors that motivate patients to undergo plastic surgery. However, few studies have associated body satisfaction with reduction mammaplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of breast hypertrophy and reduction mammaplasty on body image. Breast hypertrophy patients, with reduction mammaplasty already scheduled between June 2013 and December 2015 (mammaplasty group, MG), were prospectively evaluated through the body dysmorphic disorder examination (BDDE), body investment scale (BIS), and breast evaluation questionnaire (BEQ55) tools. Women with normal-sized breasts were also evaluated as study controls (normal-sized breast group, NSBG). All the participants were interviewed at the initial assessment and after six months. Data were analyzed before and after six months. Each group consisted of 103 women. The MG group had a significant improvement in BDDE, BIS, and BEQ55 scores six months postoperatively (P ≤ 0.001 for the three instruments), whereas the NSBG group showed no alteration in results over time (P = 0.876; P = 0.442; and P = 0.184, respectively). In the intergroup comparison it was observed that the MG group began to invest more in the body, similarly to the NSBG group, and surpassed the level of satisfaction and body image that the women of the NSBG group had after the surgery. Reduction mammaplasty promoted improvement in body image of women with breast hypertrophy. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Body image and eating patterns among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pich, Jordi; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2013-12-01

    Data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns among adolescents are scarce. This study assessed the association between body image and eating patterns among normal-weight, overweight and obese adolescents. A cross-sectional survey (n = 1231; 12-17 years old) was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Anthropometry, body image, socio-economic determinants, and food consumption were studied. Fifty-one percent of boys and sixty percent of girls that wished to be thinner had less than or equal to 3 eating occasions per day. Overfat girls that wish to be thinner skipped breakfast more frequently than normal-fat girls. Overfat boys and girls that wished a thinner body reported lower consumption of several food groups than normal-fat adolescents and overfat boys satisfied with their own body image (i.e. breakfast cereals, pasta and rice dishes, other oils and fats, high fat foods, soft drinks and chocolates in boys; and dairy products and chocolates in girls).A restriction of Western diet foods and energy intake was associated with a wish to be thinner among overfat adolescents. Many overfat boys were satisfied with their body image while practically all overfat girls reported wishing a thinner body. Meal patterns and food consumption were associated with body dissatisfaction and overfat status among adolescents.

  10. Media Impact on Students' Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2015-01-01

    Media promotion of the ideal body as slimness for women and muscularity for men, has led to increasing numbers of both genders reporting dissatisfaction with their bodies and trying to change using unhealthy eating habits. This research was conducted in University for Development Studies, Tamale campus. The main goal was to assess the impact of the media on university students' attitude toward body image. The objectives of the study is to, determine whether there was any association between b...

  11. Body image in patients with mental disorders: Characteristics, associations with diagnosis and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Aerts, Liza C; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A

    2017-04-01

    Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety of mental disorders and to compare scores with those in the general population in order to obtain more insight in the relative disturbance of body image in the patients group compared to healthy controls. In a further exploration associations with self-reported mental health, quality of life and empowerment were established as well as the changes in body image in patients over time. 176 women and 91 men in regular psychiatric treatment completed the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire, the Outcome Questionnaire, the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life and the Mental Health Confidence Scale. Measurements were repeated after four months. Patients with mental disorders, especially those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), scored significantly lower on body image, with large effect sizes, in comparison with the healthy controls. Scores of patients from different diagnostic groups varied across domains of body image, with body acceptance lowest in the group with eating disorders, and sexual fulfillment extremely low in PTSD. Vitality did not differ significantly between the various disorders. Gender differences were large for body acceptance and sexual fulfillment and small for vitality. Associations of body image with self-reported mental health, quality of life and empowerment were moderate to strong. After four months of treatment positive changes in body image were observed. Negative body image is a common problem occurring in most patients with mental disorders. Diagnosis-specific profiles emerge, with PTSD being the most affected disorder. Body acceptance and sexual fulfillment were the most differentiating aspects of body image between diagnoses. Changes in body

  12. Parental Influences on Elite Aesthetic Athletes’ Body Image Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Rita; Narciso, Isabel; Alarcão, Madalena

    2013-01-01

    Although different forms of parental influences on adolescents’ body image and eating disturbances have been studied, this relationship is nearly uninvestigated within the population of aesthetic athletes, a risk group for the development of eating disorders. The present study examined the role of specific family variables on the body image dissatisfaction (BID) and disordered eating (DE) of elite aesthetic athletes (n = 85) and controls (n = 142). Adolescents (M = 14.87 years, SD = 2.22) com...

  13. Association of Hidradenitis Suppurativa With Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Burrus, Sylke; Jost, Agata; Peters, Eva Milena Johanna; Witte-Haendel, Ellen; Sterry, Wolfram; Sabat, Robert

    2018-02-21

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) leads to disfigurement and painful eruptions in terminal hair follicles of the intertriginous skin, mainly of axillary, genitofemoral, and perianal sites. It is associated with an excessive impairment of quality of life, psychiatric disorders, and sexual distress. Body image impairment has been linked to depression and anxiety and has been described for some dermatologic disorders but has not yet been investigated in patients with HS. To investigate whether body image is diminished in patients with HS and whether disease severity, age at onset, disease duration, obesity, depression, and anxiety are linked to body image impairment. This 12-month (August 1, 2009, to August 31, 2010) case-control study with a prospective, observational, cross-sectional design recruited 47 consecutive patients with HS entering a tertiary care center and 45 healthy control individuals matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). One patient and 4 controls failed to complete the questionnaire and were excluded from the evaluation. Data analysis was performed from December 1, 2013, to February 15, 2014. The Frankfurt Body Concept Scale (FKKS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were given to patients and controls. Correlations among FKKS, HADS, and disease features were calculated. Of the 46 patients and 41 controls included in the evaluation (mean [SD] age, 35.6 [1.6] years; 40 [46%] male and 47 [54%] female), HS significantly reduced body image (mean FKKS score, 234.2 [5.4] in patients and 276.9 [5.7] in controls; P < .001), even when controlled for BMI. A correlation was found for the extent of body image disruption and BMI (r = -0.589; P < .001), HADS-depression score (r = -0.619; P < .001), and HADS-anxiety score (r = -0.340; P = .03). No association was found for the body image score and the severity of HS, age at onset of disease, and duration of disease. The body contact subscale score was the only

  14. Fluctuations of body images in anorexia nervosa: patients' perception of contextual triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeset, Ester M S; Gulliksen, Kjersti S; Nordbø, Ragnfrid H S; Skårderud, Finn; Holte, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Body image disturbance is a central diagnostic criterion of anorexia nervosa (AN). To a great extent, previous studies have conceptualized body image disturbance as a relatively stable and trait-like characteristic of the patient. There is, however, growing evidence that body images fluctuate in different situations and contexts. The aim of the present study was to explore which everyday contexts that patients with AN themselves associate with fluctuations in body image. Thirty-two women (20-35 years) who had been diagnosed with AN (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) within the last year participated. Semi-open and focused qualitative interviews were conducted, transcribed and analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The results suggest that body image is a dynamic phenomenon that may fluctuate in different situations and contexts. The participants linked such fluctuations to their own uncertainty about their real appearance. In lack of a stable and integrated experience of their own body, they were extremely sensitive towards body image threats and challenges in their daily life and reacted to these situations by fluctuations in their body image. Four contextual cues were found to trigger such changes in body image: these were eating food, being reminded of one's body appearance, relating to one's own emotional signals and interpreting other people's expressed and unexpressed opinions about oneself and one's appearance. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. Individuals with anorexia nervosa may have quite varied body image experiences in different contexts. The contexts identified in this study may be a point of departure for clinicians in helping their patients to explore their subjective body image experiences and to connect these with emotional, cognitive and relational contexts in a psychologically meaningfully way. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Sleep quality and body mass index in college students: the role of sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A; Flores, Melissa; Robles, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. A convenience sample of 515 college students completed an online survey consisting of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and self-reported height and weight to calculate BMI. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using components of the PSQI as predictors of overweight (BMI ≥ 25). One-third of the participants had BMI ≥ 25, and 51% were poor-quality sleepers (PSQI > 5). Controlling for age and sex, only sleep disturbances were associated with overweight (odds ratio = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [1.08, 2.57]). Sleep disturbances, rather than sleep duration, predicted overweight among young adults; this is consistent with the most recent evidence in the literature. These findings support expanding the scope of wellness programs to promote healthy sleep among students.

  16. Habitat disturbance and hydrological parameters determine the body size and reproductive strategy of alluvial ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerisch, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Environmental variability is the main driver for the variation of biological characteristics (life-history traits) of species. Therefore, life-history traits are particularly suited to identify mechanistic linkages between environmental variability and species occurrence and can help in explaining ecological patterns. For ground beetles, few studies directly related species traits to environmental variables. This study aims to analyse how life-history traits of alluvial ground beetles are controlled by environmental factors. I expected that the occurrence of species and the occurrence of specific traits are closely related to hydrological and disturbance parameters. Furthermore I expected most of the trait-variation to be explained by a combination of environmental variables, rather than by their isolated effects. Ground beetles were sampled in the year 2005 in floodplain grassland along the Elbe River in Germany. I used redundancy analysis to quantify the effects of hydrological, sediment, and disturbance related parameters on both species occurrence and species traits. I applied variation partitioning to analyse which environmental compartments explain most of the trait variation. Species occurrence and trait variation were both mainly controlled by hydrological and flood disturbance parameters. I could clearly identify reproductive traits and body size as key traits for floodplain ground beetles to cope with the environmental variability. Furthermore, combinations of hydrological, habitat disturbance, habitat type, and species diversity parameters, rather than their isolated effects, explained large parts of ground beetle trait variation. Thus, a main conclusion of this study is that ground beetle occurrence is mainly determined by complex, multi-scale interactions between environmental variability and their life-history traits.

  17. The Role of the Media in Body Image Concerns among Women: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental and Correlational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Shelly; Ward, L. Monique; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to mass media depicting the thin-ideal body may be linked to body image disturbance in women. This meta-analysis examined experimental and correlational studies testing the links between media exposure to women's body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, and eating behaviors and beliefs with a sample…

  18. Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Hannah M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors.

  19. The relationship between symptom prevalence, body image, and quality of life in Asian gynecologic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Irene; Cheung, Yin Bun; Lim, Timothy Yong Kuei; Namuduri, Rama Padmavathi; Long, Victoria; Tewani, Komal

    2018-01-01

    Gynecologic cancer is associated with long-term effects that can be both physical and emotional. We examined symptom prevalence and body image disturbance in patients with gynecologic cancer and their association with quality of life. Predictors of clinically-relevant body image disturbance were examined. A sample of patients in Singapore (n = 104) was assessed for symptom prevalence, quality of life, and body image dissatisfaction. Clinical factors were extracted from medical records. The most frequently reported symptoms were fatigue, abdominal bloatedness, weight gain, constipation, hot flashes, and pelvic pain. Approximately one quarter patients reported feeling less physically attractive and dissatisfied with their body. Ordinary least squares regression indicated that symptom prevalence alone predicted physical well-being, b = -1.09, P < .001, 95% CI, -1.45 to -0.73, and functional well-being, b = -0.88, P < .001, 95% CI, -1.32 to -0.45. Body image dissatisfaction alone significantly predicted emotional well-being, b = -0.21, P < .01, 95% CI, -0.35 to -0.06. Younger age was a significant risk factor for clinically-relevant score of body image distress, OR = 0.95 per year older, 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.99, P = .02. Symptom prevalence and body image dissatisfaction were associated with different domains of quality of life. Emotional well-being of patients was better explained by body image, rather than extent of symptoms experienced. Patients who are younger appear particularly susceptible to body image disturbance. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [Body image of adolescents in rural cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Laus, Maria Fernanda; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the body image of adolescents from rural cities and its relationship with nutritional status, sex and the adolescent phase. Adolescents of both sexes participated in the cross-sectional study. Body image was evaluated through the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS) for adolescents. Weight and height were measured for the evaluation of body mass index (BMI). Stages of adolescence were classified by age. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Four hundred and forty-five adolescents (190 boys and 255 girls), with a mean age of 16.44 comprised the sample. Higher risk of body dissatisfaction was found among overweight and obese participants (BSQ: OR = 3.359 p adolescence revealed a lesser risk of dissatisfaction compared to those from the initial phase. Body dissatisfaction was related to overweight and obesity, to the female sex and to the initial period of adolescence. Intervention research is required to control the factors that influence excessive adolescent body dissatisfaction.

  1. Eating Issues and Body Image in Elementary School: Detection and Prevention Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Sarah I.; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2016-01-01

    Body image disturbance continues to be recognized in increasingly younger populations. Eating issues among elementary school children have become more overt and statistically prevalent in recent years. Elementary school counselors are in important positions to provide their communities with early detection information and prevention strategies.…

  2. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs.

  3. Body image attitude among Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Liang, Rui; Ma, Zhen-Ling; Chen, Jue; Cheung, Eric F C; Roalf, David R; Gur, Ruben C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine body image attitude in Chinese college students and related psychological consequences. A silhouette-matching test was administered to 425 college students in mainland China. Self-esteem, negative emotions, subjective well-being, and eating-disorder-related weight-controlling behaviors were also measured. Only 12.9% of the participants were satisfied with their figure and the extent of body image dissatisfaction was comparable for both sexes. The majority of the female participants indicated a preference to be more slender. Their ideal figure was underweight and was far smaller than the most attractive female figure chosen by male participants. For male participants, the proportion wanting a fuller figure was comparable to that wanting a slimmer figure. Among female participants, body image dissatisfaction negatively correlated with self-esteem and subjective well-being, and positively correlated with negative emotions. Drive for thinness correlated with eating-disorder-related weight-controlling behaviors not only for females, but also for males. Body image dissatisfaction, as a diagnostic feature for major subtypes of eating disorders, may signal serious concern among Chinese college students. © 2018 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  5. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females. The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ to 78.9% (SST. Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001. Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05. Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents.

  7. Usefulness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain for diagnosis of sleep disturbances - preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodziak, A.; Ziolko, E.; Kwiatkowska, A.; Muc-Wierzgon, M.; Wojtek, P.; Trejtowicz, D.

    2006-01-01

    We studied sleep disturbances reported by patients admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine. According to history of disease in each case the sleep disturbances had a chronic character and lasted several months. All patients received the questionnaire we designed. The idea of the questionnaire was to objectively assess the disorder. We assumed that there are rational medical indications for MRI of the brain examination in the selected group of 10 patients. Our study proved that this imaging technique (MRI) is very useful in detection of ischemic lesions related to long-term sleep disturbances. Lesions of the type are observed in most patients with such disturbances. The lesions we found in the so called 'sleep areas' have also been discussed in other papers published recently. (author)

  8. Amplification of disturbances generated by localized body forces in channel flows of viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Gokul; Jovanovic, Mihailo; Kumar, Satish

    2017-11-01

    The study of non-modal amplification of distributed body forces in channel flows of viscoelastic fluids has provided useful insight into the mechanisms that may govern the initial stages of transition to elastic turbulence. However, distributed body forces are not easy to implement in experiments and there is a need to examine amplification of localized body forces. In this work, we use the linearized governing equations to examine such amplification in plane Poiseuille flow of FENE-CR fluids. We first identify the location at which the impulsive excitations experience the largest amplification and then analyze the energy of the fluctuations and resulting flow structures. For both a Newtonian fluid at high Reynolds number and a viscoelastic fluid at low Reynolds number, the largest amplification occurs for disturbances that are located near the channel wall. Analysis of the energy evolution shows that the localized point force directed in the spanwise direction has the largest impact and that the streamwise velocity is most affected. For viscoelastic fluids we observe the development of vortical structures away from the source of impulsive excitation, a feature absent in Newtonian fluids that may provide a mechanism for the initial stages of transition to elastic turbulence.

  9. Effects of donepezil on sleep disturbances in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies: An open-label study with actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazui, Hiroaki; Adachi, Hiroyoshi; Kanemoto, Hideki; Yoshiyama, Kenji; Wada, Tamiki; Tokumasu Nomura, Keiko; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Ikeda, Manabu

    2017-05-01

    We investigated whether donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, can be used to treat sleep disturbances in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Sleep disturbances were evaluated with the sleep disturbances item of the Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) and an actigraph in 16 DLB patients and 24 normal elderly control (NC) subjects. The presence/absence of nine kinds of sleep symptoms, such as dream enactment, were also evaluated in the DLB patients. The DLB patients were then given 5mg/day donepezil for 14 weeks and evaluated again. Eight of the 16 DLB patients had some sleep disturbances before taking donepezil. The actigraphy data indicated that average activity count per minute in sleep (AAC), which reflects body activity at night, was significantly higher and total sleep time was significantly longer in DLB patients than in NC subjects. The NPI sleep disturbances score significantly improved and the number of DLB patients who had sleep disturbances decreased after taking donepezil. The actigraphy results indicate that the sum of all wake epochs within the sleep period, which reflects the degree of fragmented sleep, and the AAC decreased in the DLB patients after donepezil treatment. These results indicate that donepezil treatment reduced sleep disturbances in DLB patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Body Image and Eating Disorders Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Zachary; Peebles, Rebecka

    2016-12-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for emerging sexual orientation and gender identity and also body image disturbance and disordered eating. Body image distortion and disordered eating are important pediatric problems affecting individuals along the sexual orientation and gender identity spectrum. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for eating disorders and body dissatisfaction. Disordered eating in LGBT and gender variant youth may be associated with poorer quality of life and mental health outcomes. Pediatricians should know that these problems occur more frequently in LGBT youth. There is evidence that newer treatment paradigms involving family support are more effective than individual models of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Body Image in a Sexual Context : The Relationship between Body Image and Sexual Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large sociocultural emphasis on appearance and the widespread incidence of a negative body image in current society, scientific understanding of its potential psychological and physical health consequences, including sexual problems, is now of particular importance. The value of

  12. Toward a Theoretical Model of Women's Body Image Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses women's body image resilience. Body image dissatisfaction is prevalent among girls and women. Girls as young as 6 years old experience negative body image, and there is evidence that women struggle with body concerns throughout the life cycle (Lewis & Cachelin, 2001; Smolak, 2002; Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002). In fact,…

  13. Comparison of the perception of ideal body images of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ghanaian men preferred Ghanaian women to be of the larger, traditional body size. Ghanaian men and women were selected at random to complete a survey and to select a body image that best represented their current body image (CBI), and an ideal body image ...

  14. Body Image in Female Professional and Amateur Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatou, Elisana; Bakali, Nikoleta; Theodorakis, Yannis; Goudas, Marios

    2010-01-01

    Body image is considered to be an obscure, mental representation of body shape, size and form which is influenced by a variety of factors that operate over varying time spans. Research has shown that professional female dancers may face preoccupations with their body image and weight. The present study aimed to investigate how body image was…

  15. A Model for the Effect of Disturbances in the Optical Media on the OCT Image Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Pauline H. B.; van Dijk, Hille W.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.; Verbraak, Frank D.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE. The loss of quality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images resulting from disturbances in the optical media has been modeled. METHODS. OCT measurements were performed in two healthy volunteers using time domain (TD)-OCT (StratusOCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Optical

  16. Imaging evidence for anatomical disturbances and neuroplastic compensation in persons with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Peterson, Bradley S

    2009-01-01

    , and methods of image analysis, the preponderance of evidence suggests that disturbances in the development of the motor portions of cortical-subcortical circuits likely predispose to the development TS and that neuroplastic changes in control systems of the brain help to modulate the severity of symptom...

  17. Whole body MR imaging in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckbach, Sabine; Schoenberg, Stefan O.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and one of the major causes for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic complications have not only major impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients, but are also potentially life-threatening. Therefore prevention, diagnosis and therapy of these long-term complications are of high importance. However, diagnosis of the variety of complications from diabetes mellitus remains a diagnostic challenge and usually several diagnostic steps are necessary to diagnose or exclude these complications. In the last years whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) has been introduced for cardiovascular imaging and is now increasingly applied in clinical routine for the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease and for cardiovascular screening. The article summarizes rationales for WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus, technical concepts of disease specific cardiovascular WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus and discusses potential clinical consequences.

  18. Body image, compulsory heterosexuality, and internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, G E

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body dissatisfaction in lesbians is a subject which has traditionally been ignored in the psychological literature on body image and eating disorders. Early feminist theorists and researchers argued that body dissatisfaction in women developed as a way of dealing with the oppression and misogyny they are faced with on a daily basis. However, these theories failed to take issues of race, class, and sexual orientation into account, thereby excluding the experiences of a diversity of women. This article focuses specifically on the lesbian experience and explores how cultural messages about thinness, femininity, and heterosexuality shape lesbians' feelings about their sexuality and about their bodies. Through the inevitable process of internalizing homophobia and fat hatred, both of which are institutionalized ways of keeping heterosexuality and female oppression in place, lesbians may begin to believe that there is something inherently wrong with them and with their bodies. This article explores how the impact of racism, classism, sexism, and homophobia on women may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the cultural forces behind women's dissatisfaction with their bodies.

  19. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  20. Body image v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Michelík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Today's era depicts life of consumer society with the growing battle for customers. Every single person in this world wants to have a solid life and look pretty. Advertisements, which display handsome and slender people are all around us and they influence our consumer behavior. We tend to equilibrate these ideals by buying the most diverse products and even attempt to achieve the alleged feeling of happiness. This thesis is focused on Body image in which explains individual consumer behavior...

  1. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. Copyright ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  3. Body image, media, and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L; Beresin, Eugene V

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The authors attempt to explain the historical context of the problem and explore potential avenues for change. The authors review changes in ideal female body type throughout history, comment on current attitudes toward shape and weight in both men and women, and outline interventions aimed at increasing healthy habits and fostering self-esteem in youth. Throughout history, the ideal of beauty has been difficult to achieve and has been shaped by social context. Current mass media is ubiquitous and powerful, leading to increased body dissatisfaction among both men and women. Parents need to limit children's exposure to media, promote healthy eating and moderate physical activity, and encourage participation in activities that increase mastery and self-esteem. Funding for high-quality, visible advertising campaigns promoting healthy life styles may increase awareness.

  4. Self-compassion moderates the relationship between body mass index and both eating disorder pathology and body image flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Miller, Kathryn E

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined whether self-compassion, the tendency to treat oneself kindly during distress and disappointments, would attenuate the positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder pathology, and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility. One-hundred and fifty-three female undergraduate students completed measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, eating disorder pathology, and body image flexibility, which refers to one's acceptance of negative body image experiences. Controlling for self-esteem, hierarchical regressions revealed that self-compassion moderated the relationships between BMI and the criteria. Specifically, the positive relationship between BMI and eating disorder pathology and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility were weaker the higher women's levels of self-compassion. Among young women, self-compassion may help to protect against the greater eating disturbances that coincide with a higher BMI, and may facilitate the positive body image experiences that tend to be lower the higher one's BMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss. PMID:25372728

  6. How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e.g., it is solely a person's weight or merely a woman's issue), body image continua for positive and negative body image, degree of complexity of body image dimensions, broad considerations of body image (e.g., it is self-esteem), and limited knowledge about body image. These findings suggest a need for knowledge translation between researchers and the general public which informs future body image program design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  8. Body Image and its Relation with Body Mass Index among Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Vaishali R; Kulkarni, Aditi A

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate association of body mass index with perception and attitude towards bodyweight, shape and body image among adolescents. This cross-sectional study was done on 1811 adolescents. Attitude towards body image was assessed by using a self-administered Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Perceived body shape was measured using the Stunkard scale. Adolescents showed significant difference (P<0.005) in perceptions and behaviors related to appearance, fitness, health, body areas and weight across various body mass index and socioeconomic categories. Girls articulated significantly higher (P<0.005) body dissatisfaction than boys. Attitudes and perceptions towards body image differ with sex, body mass index and socioeconomic class.

  9. Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.L. Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to systematically review Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image. A literature review of his work on body perception, distorted body image, body boundary, assigned meanings to specific body areas, and general body awareness was carried out on four of the books written by the author. Fisher correlated those variables with defense mechanisms, adaptation, and body anxiety. Moreover, he also considered the roles played by culture and personality on the complex phenomenon of body experience. This review intends to disseminate Seymour Fisher contributions among Brazilian researchers on body image.

  10. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pbody image, particularly Weight Esteem. After adjustment for physical activity, BMI and %FM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pbody image decreases, particularly in women.

  11. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy supported by virtual reality in the treatment of body image in eating disorders: One year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Arbona, Cristina; Perpiñá Tordera, Concha; Marco Salvador, José Heliodoro

    2013-01-01

    Postprint de l’autor Body image disturbance is a significant maintenance and prognosis factor in eating disorders. Hence,existing eating disorder treatments can benefit from direct intervention in patients’ body image. No controlled studies have yet compared eating disorder treatments with and without a treatment component centered on body image. This paper includes a controlled study comparing Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) for eating disorders with and without a component for body im...

  12. Body image features and interpersonal strategies in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fadieieva Kseniia-Marharyta Olegivna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the phenomenon of teenagers physical socialization in the context of extracurricular activities. The features of body image of dance, sports, travel and psychological courses participants. This article highlights typical stylistic features of teens body image.

  13. Whole-body imaging of bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Reiser, Maximilian F; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    For bone marrow screening, multimodality algorithms including conventional radiographs, bone scintigraphy, multislice computed tomography CT (MS-CT) scan, and dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely established in clinical routine. Although radiographs are used as a basic imaging procedure for clarification of suspected focal bone pathologies, low sensitivity has been reported for the detection of limited osteolytic bone marrow destruction. Therefore, skeletal scintigraphy often is used as a more sensitive and integrated method in patients with suspected malignant bone marrow disease. MS-CT scan is the method of choice in the assessment of bone stability and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. Hybrid imaging concepts, such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan, have been established as an effective tool for the detection of skeletal metastases, using the additional metabolic information of a PET scan for the assessment of tumor viability and therapy response. MRI is an imaging technique that allows direct visualization of bone marrow components with high spatial resolution. The unique soft-tissue contrast of MRI enables precise assessment of bone marrow infiltration before osteolytic changes become visible in MS-CT or metabolic changes occur in bone scintigraphy or a PET scan. Furthermore it can depict tumor expansion into adjacent paraosseous structures, such as the spinal canal. The development of multichannel whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) systems has enabled bone marrow screening without use of ionizing radiation at high diagnostic accuracy. Parallel imaging techniques in combination with global matrix coil concepts, as well as the introduction of high-field whole-body scanners, have substantially reduced acquisition times without compromises in spatial resolution. WB-MRI has successfully been applied for screening of bone metastases and hematologic bone marrow diseases, like multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and histiocytosis X

  14. [The effect of permanent ostomy on body image, self-esteem, marital adjustment, and sexual functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Esra; Taycan, Okan; Belli, Ahmet Korkut; Ozmen, Mine

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of permanent ostomy on body image, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and marital adjustment. SCID-I outpatient forms were administered to 52 subsequent patients that underwent permanent colostomy or ileostomy operations, and 40 of them that did not fit any of the diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders were then administered a sociodemographic data questionnaire, and the Body Image Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Golombok Rust Sexual Functions scale. The control group consisted of 20 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Body Image, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale scores were higher in permanent ostomy patients compared to controls, indicating more ostomy-related disturbance. Sexual functions were found to be impaired as well, except impotence and rapid ejaculation parameters. Complaints of anorgasmia were more frequent among female colostomy patients. Body image, and the touch, communication, and frequency parameters of sexual functioning were less disturbed in male patients than in females. Female patients with a psychiatric history experienced vaginismus problems more frequently. Patients with a history early childhood separation from parents had lower self-esteem scores and more frequently avoided sexual activity. Following ostomy surgery, the frequency of male impotence decreased over time. Permanent ostomy causes impairment in perceived body image, dyadic adjustment, and sexual functioning.

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Women's Body-Image Dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Jonathan W.; Cash, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Assigned college women with a significant level of body-image dissatisfaction to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program or to a waiting-list control group. The CBT program successfully improved affective body image, weakened maladaptive body-image cognitions, and enhanced social self-esteem and feelings about physical fitness and…

  16. Body Image and Self-Esteem (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Body Image and Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Teens / Body Image and Self-Esteem ... your self-esteem . Why Are Self-Esteem and Body Image Important? Self-esteem is all about how much you feel you ...

  17. Understanding the Social Basis of Adolescent Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholt, L. J.

    It is apparent from current research and professional experience that body image has a strong social basis, but the form of such comparisons is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine likely forms of the social basis of adolescent body image. This study compares two approaches to the social basis of body image to ask to what extent…

  18. The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R

    2017-01-01

    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The female aging body: A systematic review of female perspectives on aging, health, and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Erin; Ward, Pamela; Mandville-Anstey, Sue Ann; Coombs, Alyssa

    2018-03-20

    While most body image research has focused on young female populations, evidence has shown that as few as 12% of older women are satisfied with their body size. Recent studies have also highlighted how anti-aging discourses are promoting unrealistic body norms, which have shown to contribute to poor body image and altered health behaviors. A systematic review of empirical studies focused on older women's perspectives of health, body image, and the aging body is presented. Findings support that body image is a persistent, lifelong issue for women and should be considered when implementing healthy aging policies and practices.

  20. Contextual body image and athletes’ disordered eating: The role of athletic body image in disordered eating in elite women athletes

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruin, A.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Bakker, F.C.; Woertman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of a contextual body image perspective to understanding disordered eating in high performance women athletes. Because existing questionnaires were not suitable for measuring body image in the contexts of sport and daily life, we developed the 'Contextual Body Image Questionnaire for Athletes' (CBIQA) in which body image is divided into 'appearance', 'muscularity', 'thin-fat self-evaluations' and 'thin-fat perceived opinions of others', in both c...

  1. Social comparisons, appearance related comments, contingent self-esteem and their relationships with body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Shannon D; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2010-04-01

    This study examined social comparisons, appearance related comments and contingent self-esteem, and their relationships with body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in young adult women. Importantly, the role of both positive and negative appearance related comments, and upward and downward comparisons, were investigated. A self-report questionnaire assessing each of these variables was completed by one hundred and ninety-six women aged 18-35. A higher frequency of negative comments and contingent self-esteem were associated with higher upward comparisons, and more positive comments were associated with higher downward comparisons. Overall, social comparisons were shown to be more important than verbal commentary and contingent self-esteem. More upward comparisons and less downward comparisons uniquely predicted higher body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance. In addition, negative appearance comments were found to be more salient than positive comments. Negative comments and contingent self-esteem uniquely predicted more eating disturbance but positive comments were not a predictor of body dissatisfaction or eating disturbance. Longitudinal studies are now required to establish the direction of these relationships and to more fully examine the interplay among the factors. In addition, given that our study only assessed self-reported social comparisons, our findings need to be validated against experimental methods. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  3. Assessing appearance-related disturbances in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM): psychometrics of the body change and distress questionnaire-short form (ABCD-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J; Wilson, Johannes M; Baker, Joshua S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2014-06-01

    Appearance-related disturbances are common among HIV-infected MSM; however, to date, there have been limited options in the valid assessment of this construct. The aim of the current study was to assess the structural, internal, and convergent validity of the assessment of body change distress questionnaire (ABCD) and its short version. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both versions fit the data well. Four subfactors were revealed measuring the following body disturbance constructs: (1) negative affect about appearance, (2) HIV health-related outcomes and stigma, (3) eating and exercise confusion, and (4) ART non-adherence. The subfactors and total scores revealed bivariate associations with salient health outcomes, including depressive symptoms, HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, and ART non-adherence. The ABCD and its short form, offer valid means to assess varied aspects of body image disturbance among HIV-infected MSM, and require modest participant burden.

  4. Near Real-Time Disturbance Detection in Terrestrial Ecosystems Using Satellite Image Time Series: Drought Detection in Somalia

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Verbesselt; Achim Zeileis; Martin Herold

    2011-01-01

    Near real-time monitoring of ecosystem disturbances is critical for addressing impacts on carbon dynamics, biodiversity, and socio-ecological processes. Satellite remote sensing enables cost-effective and accurate monitoring at frequent time steps over large areas. Yet, generic methods to detect disturbances within newly captured satellite images are lacking. We propose a generic time series based disturbance detection approach by modelling stable historical behaviour to enable detection of a...

  5. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire : A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Bosscher, Ruud J; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that

  6. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  7. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  8. Body image and anthropometric indicators in adolescents living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare body image and anthropometric indicators among adolescents living with HIV and healthy adolescents (control group. In addition, we verified the associations of anthropometric indicators, infection/treatment, sexual maturity, and sociodemographic characteristics with body image in adolescents living with HIV. One hundred and eleven adolescents aged 10 to 15 years were divided into those living with HIV (n = 57 and a control group (n = 54. Body image was investigated using an eight-point body silhouette scale. Body weight, height, circumferences, and skinfolds were measured. Body image dissatisfaction was found in 54.4% of the adolescents living with HIV, with 38.6% of them wishing to increase their body size. Conversely, body image dissatisfaction was due to the desire to reduce body size in the control group (40.7%. No difference between the HIV and control groups was found for the anthropometric indicators analyzed. Gender (β = -0.52, age (β = 0.18, body weight (β = 0.07, body mass index (β = -0.19, and upper arm muscle area (β = -0.08 explained 42% of the variation in the body image score of adolescents living with HIV. Thinness is the main reason for body image dissatisfaction in adolescents living with HIV. Almost half the body dissatisfaction of adolescents living with HIV was explained by demographic and anthropometric variables.

  9. Effects of a cognitive-behavioral exposure-based body image therapy for overweight females with binge eating disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Kosfelder, Joachim; Michalak, Johannes; Schroeder, Dorothea; Nasrawi, Nadia; Vocks, Silja

    2017-01-01

    Although not part of the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5, body image disturbance seems to be a relevant feature of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) as well as of other eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or Bulimia Nervosa (BN). Hence, the aim of the present pilot study was to assess the changeability of body image disturbance in a sample of overweight females with BED by a cognitive-behavioral treatment, directly addressing body image disturbance. Overweight females ( N  = 34) with BED were randomized to a manualized body image therapy or a waiting-list control group. The final sample consisted of n  = 15 participants in the intervention group and n  = 19 in the control group due to two drop-outs in the control condition. Before and after the intervention or the waiting period, respectively, participants filled out a questionnaire battery assessing several body image and eating disorder related features. To quantify the perceptual component of body image disturbance, a digital photo distortion technique based on a picture of each participant taken in a standardized suit was applied. In a two-way ANOVA, significant Time × Group interactions were found for eating and shape concerns, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, depressiveness and low self-esteem. Follow-up t -tests indicated a significant symptom reduction of a generally high magnitude in the intervention group. No significant changes concerning body checking and the estimations of one's own "real", "felt" and "ideal" body dimensions were found. The strong symptom reduction in the cognitive-affective component of body image disturbance indicates that an exposure-based cognitive-behavioral body image intervention is a promising treatment module for overweight females with BED, but future research with a larger sample size is needed to quantify possible changes in all components of body image.

  10. Relationship between body image and somatotype profile in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rodrigues Castro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate associations among body dissatisfaction, behaviors, feelings, and beliefs related to the body - and somatotypical profile. The sample included 142 undergraduate female students (21.81 ± 3 years who underwent to assessment of Body Mass Index and somatotype, according to the World Health Organization and Heath-Carter protocols, respectively. To assess body image the following instruments were applied: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale, Self-Subject Silhouettes To the analysis data we proceeded to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA one-way. As the main result, we find that body dissatisfaction, body avoidance and negative attitudes about appearance components are linked to each other and they are influenced by body profiles with mesomorphic and endomorphic predominance. We conclude that the somatotype profile can be an important predictor of changes in body image and is indicated for tracking risk groups.

  11. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  12. Asian American college women's body image: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Allison S M; Lum, Sharilyn K; Chronister, Krista M; Forrest, Linda

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of values acculturation and the influence of media on Asian American college women's overall body image. A sample of 59 Asian American women from two large universities completed self-report surveys, which included questions regarding values acculturation, media internalization, and overall body satisfaction. Results showed that Asian American women who identified more strongly with traditional Asian values reported higher levels of body image dissatisfaction. Further, Asian American women who reported higher internalization of media portrayals of beauty ideals reported higher body image dissatisfaction. Research and clinical recommendations are made to enhance psychologists' understanding of Asian American women's body image and acculturation.

  13. Silent Bodies: Japanese taciturnity and image thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Došen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A nonverbal transmission and an implicit way of communication are highly encouraged in Japanese society. The reason for this “silence prerogative” is often found in historical facts of lengthy feudal era or in ancient philosophies and religions such as Buddhism and Confucianism and their various concepts which privilege taciturn way of communication. Moreover, the unspoken comprehension is often complemented by the attitude which equates truthfulness with silence. This paper explores the silence as a communicative act in the domain of Japanese art, where the body takes over the place of the language. In traditional Japanese theatrical performance, such as noh, words are often inadequate to convey emotion and therefore the aesthetics of emptiness, understatement and abstraction is transcended by the masks with "nonmoving lips". Drawing on theoretical perspectives from both East and West, I argue that the silent bodies operate as deliberate and integral determinants of Japanese non-silent art forms – especially in cinema and theatre. In the Eastern thought, visual perception is fundamental in cognition of the world, whereas auditory discernment is secondary to "image-thinking" (Yuasa. Accustomed to taciturnity, Japanese audience effectively corresponds to the performance and "completes" it in silence.

  14. Attractive celebrity and peer images on Instagram: Effect on women's mood and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Zoe; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-12-01

    A large body of research has documented that exposure to images of thin fashion models contributes to women's body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of attractive celebrity and peer images on women's body image. Participants were 138 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of celebrity images, a set of equally attractive unknown peer images, or a control set of travel images. All images were sourced from public Instagram profiles. Results showed that exposure to celebrity and peer images increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction relative to travel images, with no significant difference between celebrity and peer images. This effect was mediated by state appearance comparison. In addition, celebrity worship moderated an increased effect of celebrity images on body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that exposure to attractive celebrity and peer images can be detrimental to women's body image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Weight status and perceived body size image in overweight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doaa K. Hussin

    Children;. Obesity;. Body image. Abstract Background: Young people's perception of their weight status attracted much interest. With a better understanding of childhood body image problems, investigating prevention programs within schools is an important next step. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate body ...

  16. Media-portrayed idealized images, body shame, and appearance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Fiona; Huon, Gail

    2005-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of media-portrayed idealized images on young women's body shame and appearance anxiety, and to establish whether the effects depend on advertisement type and on participant self-objectification. Participants were 39 female university students. Twenty-four magazine advertisements comprised 12 body-related and 12 non-body-related products, one half of each with, and the other one half without, idealized images. Preexposure and post exposure body shame and appearance anxiety measures were recorded. Appearance anxiety increased after viewing advertisements featuring idealized images. There was also a significant interaction between self-objectification level and idealized body (presence vs. absence). No differences emerged for body-related compared with non-body-related product advertisements. The only result for body shame was a main effect for time. Participants' body shame increased after exposure to idealized images, irrespective of advertisement type. Although our findings reveal that media-portrayed idealized images detrimentally affect the body image of young women, they highlight the individual differences in vulnerability and the different effects for different components of body image. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention and early intervention of body image and dieting-related disorders. ( Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  17. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow after body image exposure in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato-Fernández, Luis; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; García-Vilches, Inmaculada; García-Vicente, Ana; Poblete-García, Victor; Castrejon, Angel Soriano; Toro, Josep

    2009-02-28

    Relationships of 'perceptual distortion' and 'cognitive evaluation' components of body image disturbances to brain activity were investigated. Changes in regional cerebral blood (rCBF) of nine patients with anorexia nervosa restrictive type (AN), 13 patients with bulimia nervosa purging type (BN) and 12 controls following three experiments with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were compared: at rest, following a landscape video presentation (neutral stimulus), and after their filmed body image (positive stimulus) exposure. Body distortion was measured with the Silhouette test and body dissatisfaction with the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Patients with AN showed a hyperactivation of the left parietal and right superior frontal from neutral to positive stimulus. Patients with BN showed a hyperactivation of the right temporal and right occipital areas. Changes in BSQ responses were associated with changes in the right inferior frontal and right temporal rCBF, whereas changes in body distortion were related to the left parietal. The activation of the right temporal after the own body image exposure might be in accordance with the aversive events' response. Functional abnormalities in AN might be related to the storage of a distorted prototypical image of the body in the left parietal lobe.

  18. Should body image programs be inclusive? A focus group study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C; Ohls, Olivia C; Pringle, Kevin D

    2018-01-01

    Most evidence-based body image programs for college students (e.g., the Body Project) are designed for female-only audiences, although body dissatisfaction is not limited to female-identified individuals. Furthermore, programs do not explicitly discuss diversity, although individuals with marginalized gender, racial, and sexual identities may be particularly vulnerable to body image disturbances. Making programs more inclusive may increase their disseminability. This qualitative study examined the feasibility of adapting the Body Project for universal and inclusive use with college students. Participants (N = 36; M age = 21.66 years; 73% female-identified; 20% sexual minority; 23% racial minority) attended one of five semi-structured focus groups to explore the inclusivity of appearance-based cultural norms using adapted Body Project activities and discuss the feasibility of universal and inclusive interventions. Inductive qualitative content analysis with three-rater consensus identified focus group themes. There was consensus that inclusive interventions could have a positive impact (broadening perspectives, normalizing body image concerns, increasing awareness) despite potential barriers (poor diversity representation, vulnerability). There was strong consensus regarding advice for facilitating inclusive interventions (e.g., skilled facilitation, education, increasing diversity). Results suggest that inclusive body image programs are desirable and provide a framework for creating the EVERYbody Project, a program for more universal audiences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A system and method for imaging body areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethals, F.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a system for imaging one or more external human body areas comprising a photographic device configured to acquire, store and output an image or images of the one or more body areas. The invention also relates to a method for determining a probable disease state of an

  20. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  1. The development and validation of the Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, T F; Szymanski, M L

    1995-06-01

    The Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIQ) was developed as a unique attitudinal body-image assessment that considers one's perceived discrepancy from and degree of investment in personal ideals on multiple physical attributes. Reliability and validity of the 20-item instrument were examined for a sample of 284 college women. The results indicated that the BIQ consists of two relatively distinct and internally consistent Discrepancy and Importance subscales, as well as their multiplicative composite. The subscales' respective convergent validities vis-à-vis extant body-image measures and specific facets of personality (i.e., public self-consciousness and perfectionism) and psychosocial adjustment (i.e., social anxiety, depression, and eating disturbance) were confirmed. Evidence also supported the incremental validity of multiple self-ideal discrepancies. Effects due to socially desirable responding were inconsequential. Directions for needed basic and clinical research were identified.

  2. [Body image and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micskei, Orsolya; Deli, Tamás; Jakab, Attila; Bugán, Antal

    2014-07-06

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disease in women. Psychic consequences are significant; patients have difficulties to be pregnant and the disease disturbs the quality of life. Due to complications associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, studies on psychological state and disease perception of patients appear to be important. The aim of the authors was to assess how the disease influences quality of life and changes in body image. The authors used the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale, Health-Related-Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and their own body image questionnaire. 121 women took part in the study. There was a negative correlation between illness intrusiveness and quality of life (r = -0.353) and a positive correlation between body image and quality of life (r = 0.614). A significant difference was observed in body satisfaction between patients who had visible body changes and those who had metabolic disturbances (p<0.05). Overweight patients who lost weight with lifestyle changes had significantly better quality of life (p<0.05). These results appear to be convincing in that in addition to gynecological care, psychotherapy could be offered to patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  3. Effects of High Inclined and Eccentric Disturbers on the Dynamics of the Equator of an Axy-Simmetric Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tadashi; Frouard, J. H.; Deienno, R.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): In this work we consider the rotational long term dynamics of an axy-simmetric body under the action of a high inclined and eccentric disturber. The problem is written in terms of Andoyer canonical variables (L,G,H, l,g,h), with respect to an independent inertial frame. Since A=B (moments of inertia ), the l angle is an ignorable variable, so that spin-orbit resonance is ruled out. Therefore the Hamiltonian can be averaged in the mean anomaly of the orbital motion of the disturber. An extra average is still possible in g as it is a fast Andoyer variable. In order to have a first and rough idea of the real dynamics, the disturber is assumed in a simplified precessing keplerian motion (Henrard & Schwanen, 2004) . Then the Hamiltonian is reduced to a problem of one degree of freedom and the level curves show a gross idea of the basic dynamics. In particular the curves show interesting equilibrium points, some of them are related to Cassini’s second law. Depending on the mass and eccentricity or inclination of the disturber, a strong resonance between h and longitude of the node of the disturber can appear. This resonance can cause interesting variations of the inclination of the plane normal to the angular momentum of the perturbed body. Finally, numerical integrations of the complete averaged problem are performed. In particular, we study the possible cumulative effects of temporary satellites when they orbit their host planet in high inclined and eccentric orbit. These satellites ( planetesimals) might have existed during the planetary migration but due to Lidov-Kozai resonance they should have ejected after some time.

  4. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  5. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  6. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...... affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have....... Objectives The aim is to explore perceived body image and sexuality after having had mastectomy in the acute phase. Further, the aim is to focus on body image and sexuality as determinants for whether women choose reconstruction or not. Insight into women's perceived body image and sexuality is valuable...

  7. Marketingový význam body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koudelka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior is significantly influenced by body image. Psychological, social and cultural reflections of body image play serious role in marketing approach as they noticeably enter the buying decision process of consumers. Commonly substantial attention is devoted to problems connected with body image due to their healthy life relations and media attractiveness. Arising occurrence of critical data with regard to the worsening health condition of population used to be connected with marketing activities that leads to the increasing pressure on marketing regulation. That is why the research of this potential influence is very actual. Both the real body image impact on consumer behavior and the ideal body image imaginary should be explored. Contrary to the importance of body image in consumer behavior, concentrated attention to it is relatively rare or even missing in marketing literature. There is also the other reason why to investigate it: naturally, there exist many differences in body image behavior among consumers . This implies the possibilities of physiognomic variables in market segmentation processes. A lot of research lines and methods could be employed to investigate marketing specifics of body image. One area is represented by comparative analyses of various secondary data. For example, the Body Mass Index date, their structure and trends can indicate some backgrounds moments. Data mining of syndicated data of marketing research agencies (such as project Market&Media&Lifestyle-TGI of Median agency in CR offer an immense possibility to explore overall tendencies in body image consumer behavior, changes in time, cross relations between several body image variables and consumer descriptive characteristics. Moreover, body image behavior could be related to media behavior and attitudes to advertising. Quantitative and qualitative ad hoc research represents further important research direction. It enables to explore specific levels of

  8. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan M; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the "thin ideal" has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of "self" and "other" are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to "thin" and to "fat" others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  9. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brooks

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the thin ideal has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of self and other are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g. expanded other/contracted self, and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one’s own body following exposure to thin and to fat others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  10. The association between sexual satisfaction and body image in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujols, Yasisca; Seal, Brooke N; Meston, Cindy M

    2010-02-01

    Although sexual functioning has been linked to sexual satisfaction, it only partially explains the degree to which women report being sexually satisfied. Other factors include quality of life, relational variables, and individual factors such as body image. Of the few studies that have investigated the link between body image and sexual satisfaction, most have considered body image to be a single construct and have shown mixed results. The present study assessed multiple body image variables in order to better understand which aspects of body image influence multiple domains of sexual satisfaction, including sexual communication, compatibility, contentment, personal concern, and relational concern in a community sample of women. Women between the ages of 18 and 49 years in sexual relationships (N = 154) participated in an Internet survey that assessed sexual functioning, five domains of sexual satisfaction, and several body image variables. Body image variables included the sexual attractiveness, weight concern, and physical condition subscales of the Body Esteem Scale, the appearance-based subscale of the Cognitive Distractions During Sexual Activity Scale, and body mass index. Total score of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women was the main outcome measure. Sexual functioning was measured by a modified Female Sexual Function Index. Consistent with expectations, correlations indicated significant positive relationships between sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and all body image variables. A multiple regression analysis revealed that sexual satisfaction was predicted by high body esteem and low frequency of appearance-based distracting thoughts during sexual activity, even after controlling for sexual functioning status. Several aspects of body image, including weight concern, physical condition, sexual attractiveness, and thoughts about the body during sexual activity predict sexual satisfaction in women. The findings suggest that women who experience

  11. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Consumer behavior is significantly influenced by body image. Psychological, social and cultural reflections of body image play serious role in marketing approach as they noticeably enter the buying decision process of consumers. Commonly substantial attention is devoted to problems connected with body image due to their healthy life relations and media attractiveness. Arising occurrence of critical data with regard to the worsening health condition of population used to be connected wi...

  12. Body Image in Younger Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Carly; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Tofthagen, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. Objective The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Intervention/Methods Combinations of the terms “body image,” “sexuality intervention,” “women,” “younger women,” and “breast cancer” were searched in the PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) original research; 2) published in English from the year 2000 forward; 3) measuring body image as an outcome variable; and 4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Results Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only one intervention study found a significant improvement in body image post-intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest body image is a complex post-treatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Implications for Practice Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors. PMID:25881807

  13. The Impact of the Ideal Thin Body Image on Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have postulated that the thin-ideal image portrayed in the media leads to body dissatisfaction and negative self-appraisals among women; however, there is little research that has directly examined the effects of these images on women. The purpose of this research investigation was to experimentally examine the effects of exposure to the thin-ideal on women's affect, self-esteem, body satisfaction, and level of internalization of the thin body image. This study also...

  14. Hubungan Body Image dengan Kepercayaan Diri Remaja Putri

    OpenAIRE

    Ifdil Ifdil; Amandha Unzilla Denich; Asmidir Ilyas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This study aims to describe the condition of teenage girl’s self-confidence and body image and to identify the relationship between teenage girl's body image with self confidence. This descriptive and correlation study using 77 teenage girls as sample. Sampling technique used stratified random sampling technique. The research used instrument  Zila & Ifdil Kepercayaan Diri Inventori and Zila & Ifdil Body Images Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis technique and co...

  15. Body Image Disorder Linked with Sport Activities to Obesity Students

    OpenAIRE

    Trijayanti Idris, Desi Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Physical changes are very influential on a person's psychological development, and will have an impact on body image, many people are doing the wrong way, whereas sports is a better way. The purpose this study was to determine the correlation body image disorder and sport activities to obesity students at Nursing Study Program S1 STIKES RS Baptis Kediri. The design this study was cross sectional with sample of 71 respondents. The Independent variable was body image disorder and dependent vari...

  16. Study of Body Image in Fertile and Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Dadkhah, Asghar; Bagherpour, Ahmad; Ardakani, Zohreh Behjati; Kamali, Kourosh; Binaafar, Sima; Kosari, Haleh; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Background Body Image as a multidimensional entity is related to both physical and psychological aspects of the image one has of his or her own body. Lack/absence of an acceptable body image is one of the reasons of mental distress in infertile individuals. Methods In this study, an equal number (No=120) of fertile and infertile men attending Avicenna Infertility Clinic (AIC) were enrolled. The participants were compared in regard to body image variables based on the "Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ)" consisting of 10 subscales. Data was analyzed by SPSS, version 11.5, using Chi square and independent t-tests. Results Fertile men had a more positive body image as compared to infertile individuals. Significant statistical differences were observed when body image subscales were compared in both groups; in other words appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, Novy, health evaluation, health orientation, illness orientation, body satisfaction, overweight preoccupation and self-classified weight showed differences, while no significant difference was observed in regard to fitness orientation. Conclusion It seems that the ability and efficiency of body image is affected by infertility leading to dissatisfaction of one's body image. PMID:23926517

  17. [Analysis of body image perception of university students in navarra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Ruiz, Ma Nelia; Marin Fernández, Blanca; Aguinaga Ontoso, Inés; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Serrano Mozó, Inmaculada; Canga Armayor, Navidad; Hermoso de Mendoza Cantón, Juana; Stock, Christiane; Kraemer, Alexander; Annan, James

    2015-05-01

    Current models of beauty represent an extreme thinness in the women and a muscular body in the men. The body image perception will condition the search of ideal beauty through different behaviors and can be transform in eating disorders. The university students, with the changes typical of youth and university transition, are a vulnerable group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the body image perception of university students in Navarra. The study included 1162 subjects of which 64.2% were female. Students asked for a self-managed questionnaire and they were weighted and heighted to calculate the body mass index (BMI). Their body image perception were obtained asking the students to select a picture, according to their perception which corresponded to their current body image from nine different silhouettes for men and women. Their BMI were calculated and compared with their perceived BMI. 43.03% of students, overestimated their body image (10.65% in males and 59.69% in females) and 10.20% of students underestimated it. 46.75% of students had concordance between BMI and body image perception. There were more cases the alterations in the body image perception in women. In general, women saw themselves as being fatter than really were while men saw themselves as being thinner than they really were. The results shown that the women were more worried about their weight and body image than the men. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Glaner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence, anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 kg/m² and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: 36 mm; boys: low: 25 mm were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05 among rural (64,2% and urban adolescents (62,8%. Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%, whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5% (p<0,001. Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.

  19. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  20. Depression, anxiety, body image, sexual functioning, and dyadic adjustment associated with dialysis type in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekçin, Demet Güleç; Gülpek, Demet; Sahin, Erkan Melih; Mete, Levent

    2012-01-01

    Depression is the most widely studied complication in dialysis patients. In patients with chronic renal failure, changes in body image are considered to be associated with invasive treatment interventions. In addition, sexual problems are common in dialysis patients. In this study, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients are investigated for depression, anxiety, body image, sexual satisfaction, and dyadic adjustment. Hemodialysis patients (n = 36), peritoneal dialysis patients (n = 54), and healthy controls (n = 30) were included in the study. All the subjects were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Body Image Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Scale, Golombok-Rust Inventory for Sexual Satisfaction, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Depression (20.64 +/- 15.20) and anxiety levels (14.72 +/- 12.36) were significantly higher in hemodialysis group compared to peritoneal dialysis (13.54 +/- 12.51; 12.74 +/- 11.21) and control groups (7.17 +/- 5.58; 9.86 +/- 9.19). In peritoneal dialysis group, as depression and anxiety levels increased, body image was disturbed and sexual satisfaction decreased. In peritoneal dialysis group, body image (86.98 +/- 23.63) was better than hemodialysis group (101.58 +/- 26.51) and was not different from the control group (83.67 +/- 22.11). In hemodialysis group, as depression and anxiety levels increased, body image was disturbed. In both groups, long-term dialysis disturbed body image. Patients should be informed about the impacts of dialysis. Clinicians may wish to monitor dialysis-users for anxiety, depression, dyadic adjustment, and body image difficulties at follow-up appointments. Interventions that target intimate partner interventions, appearance-related beliefs, and anxiety depression may be of benefit to this population.

  1. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body.

  2. Binge eating disorder, anxiety, depression and body image in grade III obesity patients

    OpenAIRE

    Matos,Maria Isabel R; Aranha,Luciana S; Faria,Alessandra N; Ferreira,Sandra R G; Bacaltchuck,Josué; Zanella,Maria Teresa

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) or Binge Eating episodes (BINGE), anxiety, depression and body image disturbances in severely obese patients seeking treatment for obesity. METHOD: We assessed 50 patients (10M and 40F) with Body Mass Index (BMI) between 40 and 81.7 Kg/m² (mean 52.2±9.2 Kg/m²) and aging from 18 to 56 years (mean 38.5±9.7). Used instruments: Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns ¾ Rev...

  3. Studies of the body image in various psychological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Kaminskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to systematize modern concepts of body image and body scheme. For the analysis of theoretical models the following criteria were allocated: explication of the mechanism underlying the formation and restructuring of body image, development of certain aspects of body image which are explained by the presented concepts. Separately the issue of the difference between the body scheme and the body image is discussed that seems relevant in connection with the specific features of the neural mechanisms of body image. In the study of the phenomenological level of bodily experience the assumption that the body scheme is fragmented and has no hierarchical structure is considered. Significant differences in viewing basic mechanisms of developing the body image associated with attention to various bodily phenomena are showed. Psychodynamic, cognitive, socio-cultural, feminist and interdisciplinary approaches are analyzed, which permitted to identify mechanisms of integration-differentiation, cognitive generalization and internalization-introjection. The analysis suggests the consideration of the body image in the context of issues on the appropriation of the body. If person is considered as a tool for shaping and maintening integration of mental processes, the patterns of interconnected and interdependent changes in the processes that occur in the construction of the image of the external situation and the body image acquires a special psychological meaning. It becomes necessary to allocate correctly the structure of the integrating object in which the subject is involved during the normal course of life, and in exceptional cases, i.e. in the presence of physical defects, the sudden change of appearance, etc. These development objects determine specific form of body image and its possible distortions.

  4. Body image altered by psoriasis. A study based on individual interviews and a model for body image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Lina R; Danielsen, Patricia L; Skiveren, Jette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Visible psoriasis skin symptoms have a severe psychological impact on quality of life. To improve clinical approaches, methods of assessing these aspects are needed. Objectives: To investigate the influence of psoriasis on patients' body image based on the Body Image Model (BIM...... on patient body image were identified: body coverage, sexual inhibitions, the influence of social support, reduced exercise activity and a negative self-image. Furthermore, information obtained through the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires did not entirely reflect statements from patients...... made during interviews. Conclusion: An altered body image has a psychosocial impact on patients with visible psoriasis that may result in increased body coverage, sexual inhibitions and reduced exercise activity. This further affects self-image negatively and influences how people with psoriasis handle...

  5. Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

    2010-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using psychophysical tools to quantify body image perception: a tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mauerberg-deCastro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article presents a tutorial about two protocols that can be used to measure an individual's perception of body image, direct and indirect , and which follow S.S. ( Stevens 1951 methods. Two psychophysical task approaches illustrate the ability of individuals to quantify body image distortions. We selected psychophysical tasks that indirectly assess a participant's behavioral component of body image (i.e., satisfaction tendencies about body image; and second, the cognitive component of body image (i.e., individuals' perceptual accuracy in magnitude estimation tasks, which depend on a familiarity with interval scales and the use of numbers and ratios to represent physical dimensions of stimuli. We determined individuals' perceptual sensitivity (i.e., his or her perceptual style to manipulations of the body's size by using Stevens' power function ( Stevens, 1951.

  7. A database of body-only computer-generated pictures of women for body-image studies: Development and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussally, Joanna M; Rochat, Lucien; Posada, Andrés; Van der Linden, Martial

    2017-02-01

    The body-shape-related stimuli used in most body-image studies have several limitations (e.g., a lack of pilot validation procedures and the use of non-body-shape-related control/neutral stimuli). We therefore developed a database of 61 computer-generated body-only pictures of women, wherein bodies were methodically manipulated in terms of fatness versus thinness. Eighty-two young women assessed the pictures' attractiveness, beauty, harmony (valence ratings), and body shape (assessed on a thinness/fatness axis), providing normative data for valence and body shape ratings. First, stimuli manipulated for fatness versus thinness conveyed comparable emotional intensities regarding the valence and body shape ratings. Second, different subcategories of stimuli were obtained on the basis of variations in body shape and valence judgments. Fat and thin bodies were distributed into several subcategories depending on their valence ratings, and a subcategory containing stimuli that were neutral in terms of valence and body shape was identified. Interestingly, at a descriptive level, the thinness/fatness manipulations of the bodies were in a curvilinear relationship with the valence ratings: Thin bodies were not only judged as positive, but also as negative when their estimated body mass indexes (BMIs) decreased too much. Finally, convergent validity was assessed by exploring the impacts of body-image-related variables (BMI, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction) on participants' judgments of the bodies. Valence judgments, but not body shape judgments, were influenced by the participants' levels of thin-ideal internalization and body dissatisfaction. Participants' BMIs did not significantly influence their judgments. Given these findings, this database contains relevant material that can be used in various fields, primarily for studies of body-image disturbance or eating disorders.

  8. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Zar-Shenas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and quasi experimental study, 82 females among 150 women (18-45 years old referred to Enghelab and Gol sports clubs in Tehran were selected by convenient and simple sampling based on inclusive and exclusive criteria and randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. They did not participate in any exercise in last 3 months and also they did not have any physical disease and meet criteria for deficit of body image attitudes. Data collection was done by using demographic and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire. The intervention group participated in aerobic exercise program. These sessions lasted 3 hours per week for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed by Chi–Square, Paired T and Independent T tests. Results: There were significant differences between two groups after intervention in sub items of body image including: self-appearance evaluation (P<0.001, self-appearance orientation (P<0.001, health orientation (P=0.003, illness orientation (P=0.002, but their fitness evaluation (P=0.141, self-fitness orientation (P=0.888, health evaluation (P=0.072, self-body satisfaction (P=0.082, overweight preoccupations (P=0.167 and self-assesed weight (P=0.156 did not change clearly. Conclusion: Short periods of aerobic exercise can effectively promote body image attitudes among women, and exercise can be used as a method of treatment in occupational therapy of the disorder.

  9. Body image and attitudinal aspects of eating disorders in rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbach, Harriet; Klinkowski, Nora; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Korte, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Aesthetic sports, especially on a competitive level, are often considered as a risk factor for the development of an eating disorder. A few studies have examined this issue in rhythmic gymnasts, but no reports on body image disturbance exist for these athletes compared to anorectic patients. Fifty elite rhythmic gymnasts (average age 14.8 years) including the German national team, 58 female patients with anorexia nervosa (AN; average age 15.5 years), and 56 high school girls (average age 14.9 years) completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and the Test for Detecting Body Image Distortion in Children and Adolescents (Test zur Erfassung der Körperbildstörung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen). Furthermore, body weight and height, body mass index, presence of amenorrhea and frequency of exercise were surveyed. Body mass index was significantly lower in the elite rhythmic gymnasts than in the high school students, and significantly higher than in the AN patients. Both the elite rhythmic gymnasts and the AN patients were significantly smaller than the high school students. The elite rhythmic gymnasts trained significantly more frequently compared with the AN group and the high school group. Regarding the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and the Test for Detecting Body Image Distortion in Children and Adolescents, AN patients scored significantly higher on all explored subscales than both the elite rhythmic gymnasts and the high school students. Even though some physical similarities were found for the elite rhythmic gymnasts and the AN patients, contrary to previous studies, no noticeable problems related to attitudinal aspects of eating disorders were detected in the elite rhythmic gymnasts. A mildly distorted body image of the abdomen was identified in elite rhythmic gymnasts, while AN patients expressed a broad body image distortion and students expressed no body image distortion. Our data do not allow us to draw conclusions regarding prevalence rates, long-term effects or

  10. Adolescent Body Image Distortion: A Consideration of Immigrant Generational Status, Immigrant Concentration, Sex and Body Dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Melissa; Georgiades, Katholiki; Couturier, Jennifer; Jack, Susan M; Wahoush, Olive

    2015-11-01

    Immigrant adolescents represent a significant and growing proportion of the population in the United States. Yet, little is known about their experiences of body image distortion. This is particularly concerning given that body image distortion has been identified as a significant and modifiable risk factor for a number of mental illnesses, including depression and eating disorders. This study uses multi-level modeling to examine the associations between immigrant generational status, neighborhood immigrant concentration, sex, body dissatisfaction and risk for body image distortion. Data come from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and includes 10,962 11-19 year olds (49.6 % female). First generation immigrant females were significantly more likely than 3rd generation-or-later adolescents to experience underweight body image distortion. There was no association between neighborhood immigrant concentration and risk for body image distortion. Body dissatisfaction was associated with greater risk for underweight and overweight body image distortion, with the magnitude of underweight distortion risk significantly greater among 1st generation immigrants. Interventions that encourage the development of a healthy body image have the potential to reduce the onset and duration of body image distortion among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents.

  11. Imaging evidence for anatomical disturbances and neuroplastic compensation in persons with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Peterson, Bradley S

    2009-01-01

    were reviewed. Findings of reduced caudate volumes across the life span and thinning of sensorimotor cortices that is proportional with tic severity in children with TS implicate these regions in the genesis of tics. Hypertrophy of limbic and prefrontal cortices and a smaller corpus callosum accompany......BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a disorder of chronic motor and vocal tics that begins in childhood. METHODS: A systematic Medline search was conducted to identify existing anatomical imaging studies in persons with TS. RESULTS: Thirty studies were identified, and their methods and findings......, and methods of image analysis, the preponderance of evidence suggests that disturbances in the development of the motor portions of cortical-subcortical circuits likely predispose to the development TS and that neuroplastic changes in control systems of the brain help to modulate the severity of symptom...

  12. Body Dissatisfaction Revisited: On the Importance of Implicit Beliefs about Actual and Ideal Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Heider

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction (i.e., a negative attitude towards one’s own physical appearance is assumed to originate from a perceived discrepancy between the actual physical appearance (i.e., actual body image and the desired ideal state of the body (i.e., ideal body image. We assessed implicit beliefs about these two aspects of the body image independently using two Relational Responding Tasks (RRT in a sample of participants who were either low or high in explicitly reported body dissatisfaction. As hypothesized, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two RRT scores. The implicit belief that one is thin was less pronounced in participants who were strongly dissatisfied with their body relative to participants who were more satisfied with their body. The implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image, in contrast, tended to be more pronounced in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction as compared to participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. Hierarchical regression analyses also revealed that the RRT scores were predictive of self-reported body dissatisfaction, even over and above the predictive validity of some (but not all explicit predictors of body dissatisfaction that were included in the present study. More generally, these findings contribute to the empirical validation of the RRT as a measure of implicit beliefs in the context of body dissatisfaction.

  13. Empowerment, feminism, and self-efficacy: relationships to body image and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsaul, Jessica A E; Curtin, Lisa; Bazzini, Doris; Martz, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural norms pertaining to an ideal of thinness for women likely play a role in the development and maintenance of disturbance in body image, and by extension, disordered eating. However, competing norms associated with feminism may buffer women from pressures associated with achieving the thin ideal. The present study explored the relationship between feminist ideology, empowerment, and self-efficacy relative to body image and eating behavior with a sample of U.S. undergraduate women (N=318) attending a southeastern U.S. mid-sized university. In planned hierarchical multiple regression analyses, endorsement of feminist ideology predicted perceptions of positive body image, but did not appear to predict disordered eating. Self-efficacy emerged as a robust predictor of positive body image and lower disordered eating even after controlling for perceptions of personal empowerment and feminism. Results, although limited by correlational data, suggest that self-efficacy may protect college-aged women from disordered eating and negative body image. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)

  15. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Stenzel, Lucia Marques; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles

    2013-01-01

    To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF), among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6%) and 23 athletes (14.7%), respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0 ± 5.2% and 9.8 ± 4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106). However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6 ± 5.9% and 9.7 ± 3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034). There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  16. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  17. University hosts Eating Issues and Body Image Awareness Week

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrt, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Eating Disorders Task Force will host the Eating Issues and Body Image Awareness Week through Feb. 26. The event features a variety of activities to encourage participants to identify and practice healthy eating and body image attitudes. The activities are free and open to the public.

  18. Cross-Cultural Examination of Women's Body Image Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R. John; And Others

    The media's portrayal of the ideal body image has been shown to be a large determinant of one's body image perception. The desire to be excessively thin can be conceived of as an artifact of White-American culture largely due to the media's influence. This study looks at cultures that have had limited exposure to the American ideal and examines…

  19. Influence of Percieved body Image on Nutrient Intake and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: There is need for nutritional counseling and education among university students to address the issue of body image vis a viz food intake since most students skipped meals and this together with knowledge on food choice were found to significantly predict nutrient intake and body image perceptions.

  20. Psychosocial variables and body image anxiety among tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that whereas gender has no significant effect on body image anxiety, media model, peer influence and self-esteem had a significant relationship with body image anxiety. The major recommendation was that primary care physicians should help patients to value themselves as individuals as this will ...

  1. Adolescent Attitudes Toward Body Image and Anorexic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carol Lee; Fodor, Iris Goldstein

    1986-01-01

    Explored the relationship between anorexic behavior and selected dimensions of body image predictor variables, selected dimensions of body image, physical attractiveness, self-esteem, and physical effectiveness). Results indicated that the dimension of self-esteem was the major factor in the prediction of anorexic behaviors as measured by the…

  2. Treatment of Body Image Dissatisfaction among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Mariette

    1990-01-01

    Sees body image dissatisfaction as contributing to development and maintenance of bulimia nervosa and bulimic's desire for thinness breeding low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy, and resistance to recovery. Offers treatment suggestions for body image dissatisfaction as it relates to bulimia. Advises counselors to be satisfied with their own…

  3. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  4. Battling Body Image: Confessions of a Health Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N.

    2008-01-01

    As a college health educator, the author knows much about healthy behaviors. In spite of this, however, the author discusses finding herself struggling with the same problems of body image that her students express. With a variety of influences tied to negative body image, it is important that college health professionals create a plan of action…

  5. Relationship between body image and socio-economic status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the body image (BI) and its relationship with socio-economic status (SES) among adolescents. The 15-year-old adolescents (N=287), consisting of 111 boys and 176 girls, were grouped according to SES. They completed the Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIQ) to assess any ...

  6. Sociocultural influences on adolescent boys' body image and body change strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Jacqueline N; McCabe, Marita P

    2005-06-01

    Society provides messages about how people should ideally look and previous research has indicated these messages, both the actual messages provided and the perception of the message, influence body image. Research into male body image has shown males are concerned with having a lean and muscular body and as such, may want to decrease fat and increase their muscles. This paper explored the influence of a range of messages from parents, peers, and the media on a number of different measures of 362 adolescent boys' body image and body change strategies. Specifically, messages about shape, food, exercise, losing weight and increasing muscles were explored in relation to satisfaction with weight and muscles, and the use of strategies to decrease weight and increase muscles. The findings indicated that parental messages were the strongest influence on body image and that parents, the media, and to a lesser extent messages from male friends were the strongest predictors of body change strategies.

  7. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  8. Development of a human body RMN imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Jalmes, H.

    1984-03-01

    Imaging device for human body is studied in this thesis. The section images presented are got by a projection-reconstruction method associated to a section plane selection by an oscillating gradient application. Different stages of the machine development are presented: - design and calculation of a resistive magnet for very homogeneous field imaging - design of gradient coils for imaging magnets - realization of control and acquisition interfaces - realization of imaging software in real time [fr

  9. A model of disturbed eating behavior in men: The role of body dissatisfaction, emotion dysregulation and cognitive distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyssen, Andrea; Bryjova, Jana; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Munsch, Simone

    2016-12-30

    Comprehensive models, targeting the development of eating disorders (EDs) in males, often employ a sociocultural perspective and empathize the importance of body dissatisfaction (BD). To further illuminate psychological factors contributing to the development of ED pathology, we propose a mediator model of disturbed eating and compensatory behavior (DECB) for men. This model suggests that emotion dysregulation and the susceptibility to body-related cognitive distortions (thought-shape fusion, TSF) mediate the relationship between BD and DECB. Based on data from a cross-sectional online-survey we tested our model in a non-clinical community sample of young men (N=123, 18-37 years). We found a significant positive association between BD and DECB, accounting for participant's body mass index (BMI), age and depressive symptoms. While TSF partially mediated the relationship between BD and DECB, we did not detect a corresponding effect for emotion dysregulation. Based on our findings, we concluded that TSF, which describes specific distorted cognitions with respect to one's own body triggered by fattening/ forbidden food, contributes to the pathological eating- and body-related behavior in men who are dissatisfied with their body. We suggest that TSF should be included in etiological models as a relevant aspect of cognitive information processing with emotional and behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Body image: a survey of children in Caribbean Bonaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist-van Holthe, Joana; Melchers, Laura; Blom, Tirza; Altenburg, Teatske; Luinstra-Passchier, Marian; Janga-Jansen, Alcira; van Kanten, Tahirih; Wirix, Aleid; Hirasing, Remy; Chinapaw, Mai

    2017-01-01

    In Bonaire, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is twice as high compared with Northern Europe but similar to other Caribbean Islands and the USA. Having a realistic body image may be an important tool in the battle against childhood obesity. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between having a realistic body image and efforts to control weight. The aim of the study was to explore the body image of children in Bonaire. In a cross-sectional study from March to May 2015 in Bonaire, weight and height were measured in all children aged 10-14 years attending school. Body mass index (kg/m 2 ) was classified according to the International Obesity Task Force. The children were asked about their body image using a validated questionnaire. Body mass index was measured in 939 of 1029 (91.3%) children aged 10-14 years (51.5% boys) in Bonaire. Of all children, 9.7% was underweight, 57.6% was normal weight, 32.7% was overweight (including obesity) and 11.6% was obese. The question pertaining to body image was completed by 750 of 939 (79.9%) children. Having a realistic perception of body image varied per weight category from 65% in underweight girls to 13% in obese boys. The percentage of obese children who underestimate their weight is high (boys 87%, girls 77%). In many children in Caribbean Bonaire, perceived body image is not in agreement with actual weight status. This applies especially to obese children. Disagreement between perceived body image and actual weight status may prevent weight management in overweight children. Future research is needed to elucidate determinants of disagreement between body image and actual weight status.

  11. (DMT) on the body image of female adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of dance and movement therapy (DMT) on the body image of female adolescents. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The excessive emphasis in the media on low body weight and body appearance may contribute to adolescents' dissatisfaction with their own physical appearance.

  12. Style and Body Language in the Moving Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Audio visual style has a complex multi-functionality and the important part of this deals with the way that the character body is visualized and how body language is implemented in the moving image. With a number of examples of contemporary film and television, the article will line up of key...... issues of body language in the moving image. This article describes two important aspects of body language in visual media—how visual style mediates the body expressions of fictional character and real persons in news on television and how aspects of the visual style always represent bodily presence...

  13. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos,Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED) clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body...

  14. BODY IMAGE IN CHILDHOOD: AN INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Clara Mockdece; Cipriani, Flávia Marcelle; Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the scientific literature regarding the evaluation of body image in children through an integrative literature review. An intersection of the keywords "body image" AND "child" was conducted in Scopus, Medline and Virtual Health Library (BVS - Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) databases. The electronic search was based on studies published from January 2013 to January 2016, in order to verify the most current investigations on the subject. Exclusion criteria were: articles in duplicate; no available summaries; not empirical; not assessing any component of body image; the sample did not consider the target age of this research (0 to 12 years old) and/or considered clinical populations; besides articles not fully available. 7,681 references were identified, and, after the exclusion criteria were implemented, 33 studies were analysed. Results showed that the perceptual and attitudinal dimensions focusing on body dissatisfaction were explored, mainly evaluated by silhouette scales. Intervention programs were developed internationally to prevent negative body image in children. The studies included in this review evaluated specific aspects of body image in children, especially body perception and body dissatisfaction. The creation of specific tools for children to evaluate body image is recommended to promote the psychosocial well being of individuals throughout human development.

  15. Contextual body image and athletes’ disordered eating: The role of athletic body image in disordered eating in elite women athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Bakker, F.C.; Woertman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of a contextual body image perspective to understanding disordered eating in high performance women athletes. Because existing questionnaires were not suitable for measuring body image in the contexts of sport and daily life, we developed the

  16. "But I Like My Body": Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L

    2010-03-01

    Extant body image research has provided a rich understanding of negative body image but a rather underdeveloped depiction of positive body image. Thus, this study used Grounded Theory to analyze interviews from 15 college women classified as having positive body image and five body image experts. Many characteristics of positive body image emerged, including appreciating the unique beauty and functionality of their body, filtering information (e.g., appearance commentary, media ideals) in a body-protective manner, defining beauty broadly, and highlighting their body's assets while minimizing perceived imperfections. A holistic model emerged: when women processed mostly positive and rejected negative source information, their body investment decreased and body evaluation became more positive, illustrating the fluidity of body image. Women reciprocally influenced these sources (e.g., mentoring others to love their bodies, surrounding themselves with others who promote body acceptance, taking care of their health), which, in turn, promoted increased positive source information. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Body talk and body-related co-rumination: associations with body image, eating attitudes, and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiger, Jonathan A; Winstead, Barbara A

    2013-09-01

    Talk about physical appearance and body image is common among young women. We investigated how body talk (negative, positive/self-accepting, and co-ruminative) is related to body image, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, psychological adjustment, and friendship quality via hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for social desirability and body mass index). In a sample of young adult women (N=203), negative body talk was, as predicted, negatively related to body satisfaction and self-esteem and positively related to appearance investment, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and depression, but not friendship quality. Self-accepting/positive body talk was negatively related to body-related cognitive distortions and positively related to body satisfaction, self-esteem, and friendship quality. Body-related co-rumination demonstrated adjustment trade-offs, being related to body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and higher friendship quality. Results indicated no advantage to negative body talk, both individual and relationship benefits from positive/self-accepting body talk, and mixed outcomes for body-related co-rumination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Are Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disturbance, and Body Mass Index Predictors of Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Scott; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and obesity have been associated cross sectionally with suicidal behavior in adolescents. To determine the extent to which these variables predicted suicidal ideation and attempts, the authors examined these relationships in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,516 older adolescents and…

  20. Impact of exposure to idealised male images on adolescent boys' body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Paul; Paxton, Susan J

    2004-09-01

    Research examining the impact on adolescent boys of exposure to muscular, athletic, idealised male images has been limited. This research had two aims (i) to investigate the mean effect on state body satisfaction and mood of exposure to idealised male images in adolescent boys, and, (ii) to identify individual attributes that predicted change in state body satisfaction, depression and anxiety following image exposure. One hundred and six boys (mean age=15.6 years) completed a self-report questionnaire on body image attitudes and psychological status. One week later, participants were divided into two groups, one that viewed idealised male images (experimental condition) while the other viewed non-figure advertising images (control condition). Three body satisfaction Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and a depression and anxiety VAS were completed immediately prior to and following image exposure. In the experimental compared to control condition, there were no significant changes on Want Toned Body, Want to Change Body Shape, Depression and Anxiety VAS following image exposure. However, there was a significant improvement in Like Body Shape VAS. In the experimental group, high internalisation of the muscular, athletic ideal predicted more negative response to viewing images on the body image and Depression VAS. Prior body dissatisfaction significantly predicted negative response to Body Shape Liking and Anxiety VAS. While on average, adolescent boys in this research were not negatively affected by exposure to idealised male images, reaction to exposure is dependent on individual attributes.

  1. Body image in adolescents with disorders of steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Cong; Green-Golan, Liza; Stratakis, Constantine A; Leschek, Ellen; Sinaii, Ninet; Schroth, Elizabeth; Ernst, Monique; Merke, Deborah P

    2008-08-01

    Little is known about body image in children with endocrine conditions. We evaluated body image in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), familial male precocious puberty (FMPP), and Cushing's syndrome (CS). We compared 67 patients (41 CAH, 12 FMPP, 14 CS) age 8-18 years with 55 age-matched controls. Patients expressed more weight unhappiness than controls (females: p body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.03), but not for males (p = 0.12). Unhappiness with height and age of appearance was similar between groups. In female patients, higher BMI was a significant predictor of weight unhappiness (p = 0.01). Adolescents with CAH, FMPP, and CS are at risk for negative body image regarding weight, but not height or age of appearance. Weight unhappiness is partially related to greater weight, but factors unrelated to physical findings seem to contribute to negative body image in female patients.

  2. Images of a poe(rotic body scanned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carolina Hipólito de Assis

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to determine how the poetic eroticized body is evident in the visual images of some works of the poet, translator and literary critic Brazilian Décio Pignatari, as well as put on the reintegration of this debate in the media desiring body from the critical explained by the Mexican poet and essayist Octávio Paz is work Conjunções e Disjunções (1979. To address this body lov(erotic as cut corpus study of the work: Poesia Pois é Poesia, of Décio Pignatari (2004. Poetry expressing the brand and put in concrete dialogue resulting images of translating a digital body that extends (McLuhan while communication apparatus, media convergence in the conception of art as scanned image, such as sensory, tactile, eroticized body. Attendance plastic, tangible reflecting a face that survives own image: a concrete icon.

  3. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kwak, Young-Sook; Hong, Sung-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Won; Yoo, Bora

    2014-01-01

    Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents. In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26) and related factors. Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.58; P=0.015) and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51-71.35; Pbody image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.

  4. Improving body image and sexual health behaviors among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Stephanie L; Campagna, Bianca; Brochu, Hadley; Odermatt, Meline; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2018-03-22

    To conduct a pilot test to determine if the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program, was able to reduce risky sexual behaviors. Twenty college-age women ages 18-21 (in March, 2015) who endorsed both body image dissatisfaction and previous or current sexual activity. Participants were randomized to the Body Project or psychoeducational control group, and completed baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up measures assessing body image concerns, eating behaviors, and sexual behaviors and attitudes. An intervention manipulation check demonstrated that body image variables were in expected directions, though were not significant by group. There was a significant interaction across group and time for "unanticipated sexual encounters," which decreased in the Body Project group. This pilot study supports the feasibility of using an eating disorder prevention program to reduce other risky behaviors, specifically risky sexual behavior.

  5. Second-order small-disturbance solutions for hypersonic flow over power-law bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Similarity solutions were found which give the adiabatic flow of an ideal gas about two-dimensional and axisymmetric power-law bodies at infinite Mach number to second order in the body slenderness parameter. The flow variables were expressed as a sum of zero-order and perturbation similarity functions for which the axial variations in the flow equations separated out. The resulting similarity equations were integrated numerically. The solutions, which are universal functions, are presented in graphic and tabular form. To avoid a singularity in the calculations, the results are limited to body power-law exponents greater than about 0.85 for the two-dimensional case and 0.75 for the axisymmetric case. Because of the entropy layer induced by the nose bluntness (for power-law bodies other than cones and wedges), only the pressure function is valid at the body surface. The similarity results give excellent agreement with the exact solutions for inviscid flow over wedges and cones having half-angles up to about 20 deg. They give good agreement with experimental shock-wave shapes and surface-pressure distributions for 3/4-power axisymmetric bodies, considering that Mach number and boundary-layer displacement effects are not included in the theory.

  6. Attention biases in preoccupation with body image: An ERP study of the role of social comparison and automaticity when processing body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusberg, Helen; Peet, Krista; Uusberg, Andero; Akkermann, Kirsti

    2018-03-17

    Appearance-related attention biases are thought to contribute to body image disturbances. We investigated how preoccupation with body image is associated with attention biases to body size, focusing on the role of social comparison processes and automaticity. Thirty-six women varying on self-reported preoccupation compared their actual body size to size-modified images of either themselves or a figure-matched peer. Amplification of earlier (N170, P2) and later (P3, LPP) ERP components recorded under low vs. high concurrent working memory load were analyzed. Women with high preoccupation exhibited an earlier bias to larger bodies of both self and peer. During later processing stages, they exhibited a stronger bias to enlarged as well as reduced self-images and a lack of sensitivity to size-modifications of the peer-image. Working memory load did not affect these biases systematically. Current findings suggest that preoccupation with body image involves an earlier attention bias to weight increase cues and later over-engagement with own figure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  8. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  9. Non-suicidal self-injury in patients with eating disorders: prevalence, forms, functions, and body image correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sandra; Marco, Jos H; Cañabate, Montse

    2018-04-12

    More than one third of patients with eating disorders report NSSI. Moreover, negative attitudes and feelings toward the body, body dissatisfaction, and body image disturbances have been linked to NSSI in community and clinical samples. However, there is a lack of studies exploring NSSI frequency and functions and the specific relationship between multidimensional body image dimensions and NSSI in eating disorder patients. First, we explored the frequency, types, and functions of NSSI in a sample of 226 Spanish female participants with eating disorders (ED). Second, we explored differences in NSSI and body image depending on the ED restrictive-purgative subtype; and third, we explored differences in body dissatisfaction, body image orientation, and body investment in eating disorder patients without NSSI (n = 144), with NSSI in their lifetime (n = 19), and (b) with NSSI in the previous year (n = 63). Of the overall sample, 37.1% (n = 89) had a history of self-injury during their lifetime, and 27.1% (n = 65) had self-injured in the previous year. Among the types of ongoing NSSI, the most frequent were banging (64.6%) and cutting (56.9%). Restrictive vs purgative patients differed on NSSI lifetime, Appearance Evaluation, Body Areas Satisfaction, Body Protection and Feelings and Attitudes toward the Body. Moreover, significant differences were found on Appearance Evaluation, Body Areas Satisfaction, Positive Feelings and Attitudes towards the Body, Body Protection, and Comfort with physical contact, between participants without a history of self-injury and both NSSI groups. Body dissatisfaction and body investment have been found to be variables related to NSSI. Thus, the present study highlights the importance of working on body image in ED patients to reduce the frequency of NSSI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reconceptualizing causative factors and intervention strategies in the eating disorders: a shift from body image to self-concept impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen

    2003-04-01

    In this report, we argue that impairments in self-concept development function as a cognitive vulnerability that contributes to the formation of the eating disorders (ED) of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). More specifically we argue that impairments in development of the total collection of identities that comprise the self-concept contribute to body image disturbances which in turn, motivate the eating and body-weight attitudes and behaviors that characterize the disorders. First, we review current understandings of the role of body image disturbances in the ED and discuss limitations of this approach. Then we review theories from psychoanalytic and feminist traditions that suggest that identity disturbances are a key factor in the etiology of the ED. Next, results of studies that examine identity disturbances in the ED are reviewed. Results of a study of women with AN and BN using the schema model of the self-concept as the theoretical framework showed that women with few positive and many negative self-cognitions are particularly vulnerable to cultural messages about body weight and form weight-related cognitions about the self that contribute to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Finally, the implications of these findings for primary and secondary level prevention of ED are addressed. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  12. Can a latent image explain the characteristics of the Shroud body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, G.; Mandaglio, G.

    2012-03-01

    The distribution of the fibrils that have yielded the body image on the Shroud is stochastic. In this paper, we show that the hypothesis of latent image can explain the chemical and physical characteristics of the above body image. It is also concluded that the "Shroud question" requires new radiocarbon dating done on a sample selected after careful chemical analysis.

  13. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  14. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women.

  15. Medical Imaging of Mummies and Bog Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Mummification by natural influences results in so-called natural mummies, while mummification induced by active (human) intervention results in so-called artificial mummies, although many cultures practiced burial rites which to some...... severely degraded, bone is quite readily visualized, but accurate imaging of preserved soft tissues, and pathological lesions therein, may require considerable post-image capture processing of CT data....

  16. Body image altered by psoriasis. A study based on individual interviews and a model for body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Lina R; Danielsen, Patricia L; Skiveren, Jette

    2014-02-01

    Visible psoriasis skin symptoms have a severe psychological impact on quality of life. To improve clinical approaches, methods of assessing these aspects are needed. To investigate the influence of psoriasis on patients' body image based on the Body Image Model (BIM). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. Transcriptions of the interviews were subsequently analyzed using concepts from the BIM. Eight patients with severe to moderate psoriasis (PASI ≥10) were interviewed. Five thematic issues linked to the negative impact of psoriasis on patient body image were identified: body coverage, sexual inhibitions, the influence of social support, reduced exercise activity and a negative self-image. Furthermore, information obtained through the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires did not entirely reflect statements from patients made during interviews. An altered body image has a psychosocial impact on patients with visible psoriasis that may result in increased body coverage, sexual inhibitions and reduced exercise activity. This further affects self-image negatively and influences how people with psoriasis handle the risk of metabolic syndrome. Assessment of patient body image using components of the BIM increases the possibility of identifying important psychosocial aspects of psoriasis and the related risk of metabolic syndrome and is thus a valuable support for the DLQI questionnaires.

  17. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image.

  18. Effects of exposure to information about appearance stereotyping and discrimination on women's body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, M A; Cash, T F

    2001-01-01

    There is widespread public dissemination of research findings and media messages regarding social advantages of physical attractiveness and liabilities of unattractiveness. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of such information on women's body-image experiences. College women (n = 66) listened to one of two audiotapes that detailed research-based information either on the subject of appearance stereotyping and discrimination or on the control topic of television violence and aggression. Although the two conditions did not differentially alter mood, exposure to appearance-related versus control information produced significantly less favorable body-image evaluations. Furthermore, as predicted, women who were schematically invested in their physical appearance were especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of the appearance information. The scientific and clinical implications of these findings were discussed, particularly with respect to eating disturbances.

  19. Adolescents and Body Image: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mannat M; Ashok, Lena; Binu, V S; Parsekar, Shradha S; Bhumika, T V

    2015-12-01

    To assess proportion of adolescents perceiving their body image as normal and to study association between body shape, self-esteem and body mass index; each with body image perception. A cross sectional study was conducted among pre university college (PUC) students of Udupi taluk. A total of 550 students in the age group of 15-19y were randomly selected from 11 PUC's: four were taken from government and unaided strata respectively and three from aided. The PUC's were selected based on proportional allocation from a total of 48 PUC's. From each PUC a class was randomly chosen as a cluster; all students in the class were included. Body shape questionnaire and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used to assess body shape concerns and self-esteem respectively. Height and weight was measured and body mass index was calculated. SPSS version 15 has been used for analysis. Results were tabulated using frequency distribution and proportions. Multinomial logistic regression was done. About 38 % of the respondents perceived their body image as normal. Body shape [OR = 0.48,95 % CI: 0.305, 0.76], self-esteem [OR = 6.12,95 % CI: 2.76, 13.9] and body mass index [OR = 4.65,95 % CI: 2.13,10.12] were found to be independently associated with body image perception. Educational institutes are a major component of adolescent's lives; the identified factors for body image perception should be taken into consideration and appropriate educational efforts to be incorporated into the routine curriculum.

  20. Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Heijden, van der A.A.; Dam, van R.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hiddink, G.J.; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Design:We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50¿75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined

  1. Body image and health behaviors: is there a relationship between lifestyles and positive body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, A; Tomassoni, R; Gargano, M; Granai, M G

    2016-01-01

    The study illustrates a research on the relationship between body image and lifestyles in a sample of 262 young amateur athletes that have a regular attendance of a gym in Cassino (Central Italy). The following questionnaires were used: Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ34), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Short form 12 items (SF12). The participants were 257 (response rate 98.1%) mainly of young age (18-24 years, 63.8%), single (72%), with a senior high school diploma (57.2%), students (63%). For almost all the BSQ-34 questionnaire items differences for gender were found, with Females more worried than males. 187 (72.8%) reported some vigorous activity during a week, 207 (80.5%) some moderate activity, and 229 (89.1%) walking. The participants had a median PCS score of 54.2 (range: 24.5-64.8) and a median MCS score of 43.8 (range: 9.3 - 58.7). The mean score of the Mediterranean diet was 4.8 (median = 5; Range = 1-8), and only 72 individuals (11.7%) had optimal score (over or equal to 6).

  2. 5 Ways to Promote a Positive Body Image for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... On the other hand, kids with a negative body image feel more self-conscious, anxious and isolated. They are at greater risk for excessive weight gain and for eating disorders. Here are five ways you can give your ...

  3. The Association between Body Image and Adjustment in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Tamannaeifar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past decades a large amount of research has been done on body image of adolescents. The motivation for this new surge is based on its effect on their functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate relationship between body image and adjustment in both sexes. Materials and Methods: The subjects of the study included 400 male and female students of high school selected by cluster sampling. Information was gathered using Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression analysis.Results: Results indicated that there was significant relationship between body image and adjustment in both sexes.Conclusion: In general, findings demonstrate that positive body image lead to high self worth and adjustive behaviors in both sexes.

  4. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janet F; Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Larsen, Tine B

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... synthesized into one major theme: on the edge of control, that is describing these women's feelings of being on the edge of balance between control and loss of control. CONCLUSION: Perception of control may be an essential aspect of body image and the key to understanding these young women's feelings...

  5. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data an...

  6. The impact of anal sphincter injury on perceived body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, David; Khan, Rabia; Naidoo, Kristina; Kearney, Rohna; Myers, Jenny; Reid, Fiona

    2017-05-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury is common but the effect on body image is unreported. The aim of this study was to explore patient perceived changes in body image and other psychological aspects in women attending a perineal follow-up clinic. This retrospective study analysed women's responses to a self-reported questionnaire. Consecutive women with anal sphincter injury who attended a United Kingdom Maternity Hospital perineal follow-up clinic between January 1999 and January 2012 were identified and the records obtained and reviewed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine variables influencing self-reported change in body image. Questionnaires and operation notes were analysed from 422 women who attended at a median of four months after delivery. 222 (53%) reported a change in body image with 80 (19%) reporting lower self-esteem and 75 (18%) a change in their personality due to the change in body image. 248 (59%) perceived an anatomical change due to the delivery. Factors associated with increased likelihood of reporting a change in body image were reporting a perceived change in anatomy due to the delivery, adjusted OR 6.11 (3.56-10.49), anal incontinence, OR 1.97 (1.16-3.36), and delivery by forceps, OR 2.59 (1.23-5.43). This is the first study to quantify body image changes in women after anal sphincter injury sustained in childbirth. These were found to be very common, affecting up to 50% of women. The study has several limitations but it does highlight the significant psychosocial problems of negative self-esteem and personality changes associated with a perceived change in body image that has not previously been reported. It also outlines the further research questions that need to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Rašková, Barbora

    2009-01-01

    The Diploma thesis deals with the importance of body image marketing. Thesis depicts concept of body image, its evolution in time and the influence of media on people's self-concept and self-evaluation. The practical part is focused on content analysis of front-pages of specific magazine in given time period. Independent chapter concerns with analysis of consumers via data from MML-TGI database.

  8. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  9. High incidence of body image dissatisfaction in pregnancy and the postnatal period: Associations with depression, anxiety, body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Maes, Michael

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to delineate the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women and parturients in relation to depression and anxiety symptoms. We assessed 126 pregnant women during the third trimester and 2-3days and 4-6weeks after delivery using the Body Image Scale (BIS). Many pregnant participants (34.1%) showed body image dissatisfaction (BIS score ≤3) which was associated with current antenatal depression, severity of depression, a lifetime history of mood disorders, trait anxiety, body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy. The BIS score improved after delivery but was still associated with depression, lifetime history of mood disorders, age, BMI and weight gain during pregnancy. These findings suggest that about a third of pregnant women have a body image disturbance which is strongly associated with current and a life history of clinical depression and anxiety symptoms. Medical personnel should be alert to detect body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women because it may indicate an underlying mood disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between perceived body image and recorded body mass index among Kuwaiti female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Yearul; Zafar, Tasleem A; Waslien, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The associations between body image and attitudes toward obesity and thinness and their associations with measured body mass index (BMI) among female students of Kuwait University (n = 137) was examined in 2008. The body image perceptions were assessed using nine female silhouettes figures. The difference between current perceived body image (PBI) and ideal body image (IBI) was used as a measure of body image dissatisfaction (BID). Students tended to have a bigger PBI and smaller IBI than would be expected from their BMI category, leading to high levels of BID in each BMI category. PBI, IBI, BID, RBI were highly correlated with each other, and BMI was significantly correlated with each of them. The coefficients of these associations were not significantly altered in multiple regression analysis by the addition of potential confounding variables, such as age, marital status, physical activity, dieting behavior, parental education, and family size. These results suggest that PBI and a desire to be thinner were strongly related to BID and that thinness is becoming more desired in Kuwaiti society than the plump body image of the past.

  11. Delusionality of body image beliefs in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakopoulos, George; Varsou, Eleytheria; Dikeos, Dimitris; Ioannidi, Nikoleta; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Papadimitriou, George; Oulis, Panagiotis

    2012-12-30

    Preoccupation with body shape and weight is characteristic of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Despite their diagnostic and clinical significance, evidence on the nature of the underlying beliefs is relatively scarce. We used the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS) to assess the degree of delusionality of body image beliefs in seventy-two participants: 39 with anorexia and 33 with bulimia nervosa. We also investigated the relationship between body image delusionality and other clinical characteristics in eating disorders. Only patients with anorexia nervosa (28.8%) had delusional body image beliefs, whereas overvalued ideas appeared to be frequent in both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Body image delusionality in anorexia nervosa was associated with restrictive eating pathology, early onset of the disorder and body dissatisfaction, whereas in the bulimia group it was linked to shorter duration of the illness, more intense dieting behaviors and specific psychological factors: ineffectiveness and maturity fears. Results suggest that a delusional variant of anorexia nervosa represents the one end of a continuum of insight among patients with eating disorders. Categorization of patients with eating disorders based on the level of delusionality of body image beliefs could facilitate further research on the role of insight deficits in these disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  13. [Sociodemographic factors and body image among high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Claumann, Gaia Salvador; Sacomori, Cinara; Daronco, Luciane Sanchotene Etchepare; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this article is to investigate associations between body image dissatisfaction and sociodemographic indicators among adolescents. Participants included 1126 high school students in the city of Santa Maria in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Aspects regarding body image dissatisfaction and sociodemographic indicators were analyzed. Association analyses were performed using crude Poisson regression duly adjusted for sex and age. Boys were found to be dissatisfied due to slimness and girls due to excess weight. Adolescents where the parents had less schooling, as well as those from lower socioeconomic classes and with lower income were found to be more likely to have body image dissatisfaction due to slimness. However, those where the parents had completed higher education and those living in the downtown area were more likely to have body image dissatisfaction due to excess weight. Sociodemographic indicators are closely associated with body image dissatisfaction. Body image dissatisfaction due to slimness can be explained by the lower level of schooling of the parents, lower socioeconomic class and lower income. Dissatisfaction due to excess weight can be explained by the higher schooling of the parents and the fact of living in the downtown area.

  14. [Body image disorder in 100 Tunisian female breast cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faten, Ellouze; Nader, Marrakchi; Raies, Hend; Sana, Masmoudi; Amel, Mezlini; Fadhel, M'rad Mohamed

    2018-03-07

    This study aimed at tracking the prevalence of body image disorder in a population of Tunisian women followed for breast cancer and the factors associated with it. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Salah-Azaiez Institute in Tunis, over a period of four months. One hundred outpatients followed for confirmed breast cancer were recruited. The questionnaire targeted the women's sexuality and their couple relationships, along with their socio-demographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics. The scales used were BIS, HADS, and FSFI. The prevalence of body image disorder according to BIS was 45% with an average of 11.5±11.2 among the interrogated patients, 24.7% of which reported an alteration in their couple relationships and 47% in their sexual relations. In univariate analysis, body image disorder was associated with family support, change in couple relationship, depression and anxiety. Body image disorder and sexual dysfunction were interrelated: each of them fostered the prevalence of the other. Multivariate analysis showed that occupational activity was an independent predictor and the absence of anxiety an independent protective factor. Body image disorder was an independent predictive factor of depression and anxiety. The quality of couple relation and sexuality, along with the impact of the patient's surrounding are decisive for the protection or alteration of her body image. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  16. STUDY OF BODY IMAGE IN PROFESSIONAL DANCERS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana Alexandre Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Body image is multidimensional, dynamic, and entirely linked to the body in motion, which entails relevant bodily concerns in the routine of professional dancers, who need to maintain their body aesthetics constantly. The objective was summarizing the scientific production on the body image of professional dancers and to understand how they perceive it. This review is composed by seven studies that investigated professional dancers of classical ballet, jazz and contemporary dance. The results demonstrate that even though they are lean and had appropriate body mass index, professional dancers are dissatisfied with their body and wish to be thinner, that is, professional dancers constitute a risk group for the development of eating disorders.

  17. Correlates of Body Image in Polish Weight Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.

  18. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  19. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  20. Perceived body image and weight: discrepancies and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that includes perceptual, attitudinal, behavioural components, and feedback from other people's perception of oneself. The feedback from others and the degree to which one accepts or rejects it can determine self evaluation and perception. Body weight ...

  1. Weight status and perceived body size image in overweight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Young people's perception of their weight status attracted much interest. With a better understanding of childhood body image problems, investigating prevention programs within schools is an important next step. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate body size perception in school children using ...

  2. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  3. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (pappearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  4. Reconceptualization of the body image construct from a multidisciplinary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Castro-Lemus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article carries out a systematic review of the main conceptualizations that currently exist of the body image construct from different disciplines, such as philosophy, psychology, sociology, and even Physical Education. This review argues the terminological unification of terms such as body, embodiment, corporeality, corporal identity, self-concept, corporal asset, and body schema. It also offers a reconceptualization of the construct.

  5. Does the Use of Body Scanners Discriminate Overweight Flight Passengers? The Effect of Body Scanners on Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Laib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the introduction of body scanners at airports has been accompanied by critical voices raising concerns that body scanners might have a negative impact on different minority groups, it has not been investigated thus far whether they might also have negative impacts on the average flight passenger and if the provision of adequate information might attenuate such negative impacts. Using a pre/post-design the current study examines the effect of a body scan in a controlled laboratory setting on the explicit and implicit body image of normal-weight and overweight people as assessed by questionnaires and an Implicit Association Test. Half of the sample received an information sheet concerning body scanners before they were scanned. While there was a negative impact of the body scan on the implicit body image of overweight participants, there was a positive impact on their explicit body image. The negative effect of the body scan was unaffected by receiving information. This study demonstrates that body scans do not only have negative effects on certain minority groups but potentially on a large proportion of the general public which suggests a critical reconsideration of the control procedures at airports, the training of the airport staff who is in charge of these procedures and the information flight passengers get about these procedures.

  6. Body image in the mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Iris Bazán; Rosinella Miño

    2015-01-01

    The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, t...

  7. Disturbances in Body Ownership in Schizophrenia: Evidence from the Rubber Hand Illusion and Case Study of a Spontaneous Out-of-Body Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Nichols, Heathman S.; McIntosh, Lindsey G.; Park, Sohee

    2011-01-01

    Background A weakened sense of self may contribute to psychotic experiences. Body ownership, one component of self-awareness, can be studied with the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Watching a rubber hand being stroked while one's unseen hand is stroked synchronously can lead to a sense of ownership over the rubber hand, a shift in perceived position of the real hand, and a limb-specific drop in stimulated hand temperature. We aimed to assess the RHI in schizophrenia using quantifiable measures: proprioceptive drift and stimulation-dependent changes in hand temperature. Methods The RHI was elicited in 24 schizophrenia patients and 21 matched controls by placing their unseen hand adjacent to a visible rubber hand and brushing real and rubber hands synchronously or asynchronously. Perceived finger location was measured before and after stimulation. Hand temperature was taken before and during stimulation. Subjective strength of the illusion was assessed by a questionnaire. Results Across groups, the RHI was stronger during synchronous stimulation, indicated by self-report and proprioceptive drift. Patients reported a stronger RHI than controls. Self-reported strength of RHI was associated with schizotypy in controls Proprioceptive drift was larger in patients, but only following synchronous stimulation. Further, we observed stimulation-dependent changes in skin temperature. During right hand stimulation, temperature dropped in the stimulated hand and rose in the unstimulated hand. Interestingly, induction of RHI led to an out-of-body experience in one patient, linking body disownership and psychotic experiences. Conclusions The RHI is quantitatively and qualitatively stronger in schizophrenia. These findings suggest that patients have a more flexible body representation and weakened sense of self, and potentially indicate abnormalities in temporo-parietal networks implicated in body ownership. Further, results suggest that these body ownership disturbances might be at

  8. Disturbances in body ownership in schizophrenia: evidence from the rubber hand illusion and case study of a spontaneous out-of-body experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine N Thakkar

    Full Text Available A weakened sense of self may contribute to psychotic experiences. Body ownership, one component of self-awareness, can be studied with the rubber hand illusion (RHI. Watching a rubber hand being stroked while one's unseen hand is stroked synchronously can lead to a sense of ownership over the rubber hand, a shift in perceived position of the real hand, and a limb-specific drop in stimulated hand temperature. We aimed to assess the RHI in schizophrenia using quantifiable measures: proprioceptive drift and stimulation-dependent changes in hand temperature.The RHI was elicited in 24 schizophrenia patients and 21 matched controls by placing their unseen hand adjacent to a visible rubber hand and brushing real and rubber hands synchronously or asynchronously. Perceived finger location was measured before and after stimulation. Hand temperature was taken before and during stimulation. Subjective strength of the illusion was assessed by a questionnaire.Across groups, the RHI was stronger during synchronous stimulation, indicated by self-report and proprioceptive drift. Patients reported a stronger RHI than controls. Self-reported strength of RHI was associated with schizotypy in controls Proprioceptive drift was larger in patients, but only following synchronous stimulation. Further, we observed stimulation-dependent changes in skin temperature. During right hand stimulation, temperature dropped in the stimulated hand and rose in the unstimulated hand. Interestingly, induction of RHI led to an out-of-body experience in one patient, linking body disownership and psychotic experiences.The RHI is quantitatively and qualitatively stronger in schizophrenia. These findings suggest that patients have a more flexible body representation and weakened sense of self, and potentially indicate abnormalities in temporo-parietal networks implicated in body ownership. Further, results suggest that these body ownership disturbances might be at the heart of a subset of

  9. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Science Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender.Patients and methods: The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57% and 277 women (66.43%, and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12. After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women.Conclusion: The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life.Keywords: body appreciation, wellbeing, self-esteem, social

  10. The relationship between friendship factors and adolescent girls' body image concern, body dissatisfaction, and restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Bibi; Wilson, Peter H

    2005-05-01

    This study examined whether poorer friendship relations predict weight concerns and dietary restraint in adolescent girls. Questionnaires were administered to 131 Year 9 and Year 10 girls to assess the relationship between acceptance by friends, perceived social support, friendship intimacy, and perceived impact of thinness on male (PITOF-M) and female (PITOF-F) friendships on the one hand, and body image concern, body dissatisfaction, and restrained eating on the other. Friendship variables contributed significantly to the prediction of body image concern, body dissatisfaction, and restrained eating. The largest unique contribution to prediction was from the PITOF-M. Poor acceptance by friends significantly predicted the PITOF-M and PITOF-F. Whereas heavier girls were more likely to believe being thinner would improve their friendships, they did not experience poorer friendships. Results suggest sociocultural risk factors for disordered eating and underline the importance of perceived peer affiliation on girls' body image concern and dieting. Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  11. 1.5-T high-resolution MR imaging of oculomotor disturbances due to intrinsic brain-stem disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.C.; Quint, D.J.; Sanders, W.P.; Mehta, B.A.; Boulos, R.S.; Froelich, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen patients who presented with oculomotor disturbances (internuclear ophthalmoplegia, ophthalmoparesis) underwent MR imaging, which demonstrated brain-stem abnormalities in 11 cases. Lesions identified included occult vascular malformation with hemorrhage (two), hypertensive hemorrhage (one), infarction (two), neoplasm (two), and demyelinating disease (four). The authors' exhibit illustrates the exquisite anatomic detail displayed by high-field MR imaging in localizing various intrinsic brain-stem lesions in the region of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nuclei and the medial longitudinal fasciculus

  12. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD of age was 31.06 (10.24 years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  13. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  14. Body image and body change: predictive factors in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R

    2013-08-01

    Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  15. Body image and body change methods in adolescent boys. Role of parents, friends and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, L A; McCabe, M P; Banfield, S

    2000-09-01

    This study examines sociocultural influences affecting both body image and body change methods in adolescent boys. Twenty boys in grade 7 (aged 12-13) and twenty boys in grade 9 (aged 14-15) were individually interviewed. The influence of parents, siblings, friends and the media on both body image and body change methods was evaluated. For approximately a third of the boys, parents, siblings, friends and the media were perceived to have at least some influence over boys' feelings about their bodies and body change methods. In particular, feedback from mothers and female friends were viewed as having a positive impact on boys' body image whereas feed-back from fathers and male friends was viewed as more important in influencing body change methods. The media was also viewed as contributing to boys' body satisfaction but it was seen to encourage greater exercise to alter body size and shape. The differences and similarities between the sociocultural messages received by males and females are discussed. The implication of these findings in fostering better health among adolescent males are explored.

  16. Brief Report: Body Image in Autism: Evidence from Body Size Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Kosuke; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Hakarino, Koichiro; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kumagaya, Shinichiro

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with social interaction and communication. First-hand accounts written by individuals with ASD have shown the existence of other atypical characteristics such as difficulties with body awareness. However, few studies have examined whether such atypicalities are found more generally among individuals with ASD. We examined body image (i.e., self-body awareness) by asking individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals to estimate their own body size (shoulder width). Results show that TD individuals estimated their shoulder width more accurately than individuals with ASD. This study suggests that individuals with ASD often experience misperceptions in their body size.

  17. Advanced imaging techniques in pediatric body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtier, Jesse [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rao, Anil G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Anupindi, Sudha A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    While there are many challenges specific to pediatric abdomino-pelvic MRI, many recent advances are addressing these challenges. It is therefore essential for radiologists to be familiar with the latest advances in MR imaging. Laudable efforts have also recently been implemented in many centers to improve the overall experience of pediatric patients, including the use of dedicated radiology child life specialists, MRI video goggles, and improved MR suite environments. These efforts have allowed a larger number of children to be scanned while awake, with fewer studies being done under sedation or anesthesia; this has resulted in additional challenges from patient motion and difficulties with breath-holding and tolerating longer scan times. In this review, we highlight common challenges faced in imaging the pediatric abdomen and pelvis and discuss the application of the newest techniques to address these challenges. Additionally, we highlight the newest advances in quantified imaging techniques, specifically in MR liver iron quantification. The techniques described in this review are all commercially available and can be readily implemented. (orig.)

  18. Optimal body balance disturbance tolerance skills as a methodological basis for selection of firefighters to solve difficult rescue tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Jagiełło

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the methodology of optimal choice of firefighters to solve difficult rescue tasks. 27 firefighters were analyzed: aged from 22–50 years of age, and with 2–27 years of work experience. Body balance disturbance tolerance skills (BBDTS measured by the ‘Rotational Test’ (RT and time of transition (back and forth on a 4 meter beam located 3 meters above the ground, was the criterion for simulation of a rescue task (SRT. RT and SRT were carried out first in a sports tracksuit and then in protective clothing. A total of 4 results of the RT and SRT is the substantive base of the 4 rankings. The correlation of the RT and SRT results with 3 criteria for estimating BBDTS and 2 categories ranged from 0.478 (p<0.01 – 0.884 (p<0.01 and the results of SRT 0.911 (p<0.01. The basic ranking very highly correlated indicators of SRT (0.860 and 0.844, while the 6 indicators of RT only 2 (0.396 and 0.381; p<0.05. There was no correlation between the results of the RT and SRT, but there was an important partial correlation of these variables, but only then was the effect stabilized. The Rotational Test is a simple and easy to use tool for measuring body balance disturbance tolerance skills. However, the BBDTS typology is an accurate criteria for forecasting on this basis, including the results of accurate motor simulations, and the periodic ability of firefighters to solve the most difficult rescue tasks.

  19. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  20. The relationship of body image with symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with anorexia nervosa during outpatient psychotherapy: Results of the ANTOP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junne, Florian; Zipfel, Stephan; Wild, Beate; Martus, Peter; Giel, Katrin; Resmark, Gaby; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Teufel, Martin; de Zwaan, Martina; Dinkel, Andreas; Herpertz, Stephan; Burgmer, Markus; Tagay, Sefik; Rothermund, Eva; Zeeck, Almut; Ziser, Katrin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Löwe, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    Body image disturbance represents a central characteristic of anorexia nervosa (AN). Depression and anxiety are the most common mental comorbidities in patients with AN. This study aims to investigate the relationship of body image with symptoms of depression and anxiety during outpatient psychotherapy in AN. Analyses were conducted using the data set of the Anorexia Nervosa Treatment Outpatient Study (ANTOP) randomized controlled trial. The ANTOP study included N = 242 females with AN between 18 and 56 years of age. The trial was designed to compare enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) and focal psychodynamic therapy (FPT) with optimized treatment as usual (TAU-O) for patients with AN. The analyses on body image dimensions were conducted using measures of correlations and multiple linear regression analyses to assess the relationship and longitudinal prediction of symptoms of depression and anxiety by body image dimensions. Results showed that body image perceptions were significantly associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with AN at all treatment stages. In addition, body image dimensions at early treatment stages predict depression and anxiety in follow-up measurements. The correlation of symptoms of depression and anxiety by body image perceptions increased along treatment course. The persistence of body image disturbance, while body mass index increases under treatment (persistency effect), may constitute a relevant factor contributing to the course of the most common affective comorbidities of depression and anxiety in patients with AN. Body image disturbances in patients with AN should therefore be explicitly targeted within the specialized psychotherapy of affected patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Body image and subjective well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look.

  2. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  3. Swimsuit issues: promoting positive body image in young women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Elizabeth Reid; Moncrieff-Boyd, Jessica

    2011-08-01

    This preliminary study reviews the promotion of healthy body image to young Australian women, following the 2009 introduction of the voluntary Industry Code of Conduct on Body Image. The Code includes using diverse sized models in magazines. A qualitative content analysis of the 2010 annual 'swimsuit issues' was conducted on 10 Australian young women's magazines. Pictorial and/or textual editorial evidence of promoting diverse body shapes and sizes was regarded as indicative of the magazines' upholding aspects of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image. Diverse sized models were incorporated in four of the seven magazines with swimsuit features sampled. Body size differentials were presented as part of the swimsuit features in three of the magazines sampled. Tips for diverse body type enhancement were included in four of the magazines. All magazines met at least one criterion. One magazine displayed evidence of all three criteria. Preliminary examination suggests that more than half of young women's magazines are upholding elements of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image, through representation of diverse-sized women in their swimsuit issues.

  4. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-06-01

    To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents' feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects' context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents' self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  5. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  6. Body Image: It's Not Just About How You See Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Let's be honest. As women, we can be pretty hard on ourselves, and we can be especially hard on how our bodies look. Having a negative body image can affect not only how you feel about yourself, but it can also keep you from living the life you want to have.

  7. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  8. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  9. Body image flexibility as a protective factor against disordered eating behavior for women with lower body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary L; Masuda, Akihiko; Latzman, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility would be uniquely and significantly associated with disordered eating behavior. In addition, the study examined if body mass index (BMI) moderated the relationships between each of the body image related variables and disordered eating. Two-hundred-fifty-eight female participants completed the web-based survey. Body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility were significantly related to disordered eating behavior, after controlling for ethnicity and BMI, and BMI moderated the relation between body image flexibility and disordered eating. Specifically, for those with low BMI, greater body image flexibility was associated with reduced disordered eating behavior. Body image flexibility was not associated with disordered eating behavior among those with average or high BMI. These results suggest that greater body image flexibility may serve as a protective factor against disordered eating behaviors for those with low BMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator. 13 figs.

  11. Body Image as Strategy for Engagement in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Torres Silva

    2015-06-01

    This work intends to analyze not only how communication technologies have contributed to the emergence of such events but also how image production can be interpreted in such environments. Since the use of social media in protests caught the attention of broadcasting media in 2009 during demonstrations in Iran, a strong connection can be noticed between the content circulating through digital communication technologies and the body. For images produced during the Arab Spring, the same is observed with a series of strategies connecting body image and social mobilization. Our intention is to contribute to the debate of political images, considering the way they have been produced in contemporary society, which deals with a complex environment composed of communication technologies, social organization, and the body itself.

  12. The effect of gynecomastia on body image perception and gender roles in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenboğa, Saliha; Akgül, Sinem; Kanbur, Nuray; Tüzün, Zeynep; Derman, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of gynecomastia on body image perception and gender roles in adolescents. Forty-seven adolescents with gynecomastia and 63 healthy adolescents were enrolled in the study. The Body Image Perception Scale (BIPS) and the Bem Gender Role Inventory (BGRI) were administered to the study group after the first evaluation and also one month later. The percentage of adolescents with a BIPS score lower than the median was higher in the study group than in the control group, although there was no significant difference. Additionally, considering the single item "my breasts," it was observed that body image perception disturbance existed mostly, if not entirely, in relation to this body part. After detailed information regarding gynecomastia was given during the first clinical session, the BIPS score improved at the one-month follow-up, emphasizing the importance of informing and educating patients regarding this condition. BGRI results showed that gender roles of patients with gynecomastia are not influenced in the feminine direction.

  13. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños Ríos, Patricia

    2011-01-25

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP) as well as its test-retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress) and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender. The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57%) and 277 women (66.43%), and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12). After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women. The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life.

  14. The Body Caught in an Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Tavčar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a private collection in Nova Gorica, Slovenia, two photographs from the beginning of the twentieth century have been preserved that are interesting as both sociological evidence and documentation of the history of photography; specifically, that of two photography studios: one in Rijeka, Croatia, and the other in the faraway Egypt. The persons in these photos are “bodies frozen in time,” but at the same time they are “holders of lives.” They offer an insight into their individual lifestyles and, by applying appropriate methods, they unveil history at the “micro” level. This paper discusses the “vocation” of a wet nurse in Alexandria (born in 1877, one of numerous women from the Gorizia region that left their homeland to earn their living in a faraway country out of economic necessity. The focus is on the issue of her body, which, in the case of the earlier photograph taken on the occasion of her wedding, serves as a clothes-hanger for a fashionable dress, whereas the second photograph was taken after she had been forced to offer her body to the “labor market,” receiving wages in return for having weaned her own child and going to Alexandria to suckle the baby of rich parents there. Along with this bitter central theme, the creators of the two photographs are also studied: the older photo was taken in 1895/96 in Rijeka by Ilario Carposio (1852–1921, who received several international awards for his trade, which he also documented on the verso of the photograph. The second photo was taken at the Fettel & Bernard studio in Alexandria. By a strange coincidence, both the Alexandria wet nurse (in 1906/07 and, a decade earlier (in 1896, the Greek poet Constantin P. Cavafy (1863–1933 were photographed in the same studio, posed next to the same studio requisite, which demonstrates that people of both upper and lower classes could meet in these studios.

  15. Smoking for weight control: effect of priming for body image in female restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A; Nhean, Siphannay; Hinson, Riley E; Mase, Tricia

    2006-12-01

    Women are more likely than men to believe that smoking helps to control their weight, and this relationship may be more pronounced in those with eating disturbances, such as eating restraint. Restrained eaters have been shown to be more susceptible to media portrayals of idealized body image, like those used in tobacco advertising. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of an implicit prime for body image on expectations that smoking can control weight in restrained and non-restrained eaters. Participants were 40 females, who smoked an average of 7.65 (S.D.=4.38) cigarettes per day. Participants were presented with a bogus task of rating slides; either participants viewed 30 slides of nature scenes (neutral prime); or viewed 30 slides depicting fashion models (body image prime). Participants then completed questionnaires that assessed smoking expectancies, smoking history, and eating restraint. As hypothesized, restrained eaters who viewed the slides depicting models had greater likelihood ratings that smoking helps to control appetite and manage weight, in comparison to restrained eaters who viewed the control slides and non-restrained eaters who viewed either type of slides. There were no other group differences across the remaining smoking expectancy factors. Images similar to those used in tobacco advertising targeting women had the ability to elicit stronger beliefs that smoking is beneficial for weight control in a group of women who are at heightened risk for such beliefs.

  16. Body Image and Body Satisfaction Differ by Race in Overweight Postpartum Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Lori A.; Revels, Jessica; Durham, Holiday; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Amamoo, M. Ahinee; Ostbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Body image (BI) and body satisfaction may be important in understanding weight loss behaviors, particularly during the postpartum period. We assessed these constructs among African American and white overweight postpartum women. Methods The sample included 162 women (73 African American and 89 white) in the intervention arm 6 months into the Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP) Study, a nutritional and physical activity weight loss intervention. BIs, self-reported using the Stunkard figure rating scale, were compared assessing mean values by race. Body satisfaction was measured using body discrepancy (BD), calculated as perceived current image minus ideal image (BD0: desire to be lighter). BD was assessed by race for: BDIdeal (current image minus the ideal image) and BDIdeal Mother (current image minus ideal mother image). Results Compared with white women, African American women were younger and were less likely to report being married, having any college education, or residing in households with annual incomes >$30,000 (all p < 0.01). They also had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04), although perceived current BI did not differ by race (p = 0.21). African Americans had higher mean ideal (p = 0.07) and ideal mother (p = 0.001) BIs compared with whites. African Americans' mean BDs (adjusting for age, BMI, education, income, marital status, and interaction terms) were significantly lower than those of whites, indicating greater body satisfaction among African Americans (BDIdeal: 1.7 vs. 2.3, p = 0.005; BDIdeal Mother: 1.1 vs. 1.8, p = 0.0002). Conclusions Racial differences exist in postpartum weight, ideal images, and body satisfaction. Healthcare providers should consider tailored messaging that accounts for these racially different perceptions and factors when designing weight loss programs for overweight mothers. PMID:20113143

  17. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  18. Body image and eating disorders amongst Japanese adolescents. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisuwa, Naomi; O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2010-02-01

    This review describes the prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors as well as factors influencing body image disturbance amongst Japanese adolescents and compares the prevalence and trends with those of Westernized countries. Although eating disorders have been previously regarded as peculiar to Western society, they are now a more global issue with reports of non-Western countries including Japan having increasing rates of eating disorders. As the aetiology of eating disorders is related to societal norms, culture and ethnicity, their study requires an understanding of body image disturbance within different cultural contexts. Although considered less prevalent than in the West, Japan has an early history of eating disorder research and trends outlined in this review suggest that, as in Western countries the interest in, and study of eating disorders in Japan has increased during the 1980s. The prevalence of eating disorders in Japan based on available reviews, epidemiological studies and clinical reports ranges from 0.025% to 0.2% for AN and from 1.9% to 2.9% for BN. Studies suggest that the prevalence of eating disorders has increased significantly during the past two decades but the prevalence is still quite low compared to those in Western countries. Strategies for culturally appropriate prevention are discussed. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Personality characteristics and body image in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarısoy, Gökhan; Atmaca, Ayşegül; Ecemiş, Gülçin; Gümüş, Kübra; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the personality characteristics of obese and morbidly obese individuals with no psychiatric disorder and the correlation between these characteristics and body image and self-esteem. Sixty-nine obese individuals and 69 healthy controls, matched in age, sex and marital status, were included in the study. Psychiatric disorders were excluded for all participants using SCID-I and II. Obese and healthy volunteers were compared in terms of body image, self-esteem and personality characteristics. TCI harm avoidance scores were higher in obese individuals compared to healthy controls. Harm avoidance scores were also higher in individuals with morbid obesity compared to non-morbid individuals, while self-directedness and persistence scores were lower. Body image dissatisfaction was higher in obese individuals. There was a negative correlation in obese individuals between body image and self-esteem scale scores and harm avoidance scores, and a positive correlation with self-directedness scores. An elevated harm avoidance temperament characteristic may be correlated with obesity. Furthermore, high harm avoidance, low self-directedness and low persistence may be significant personality characteristics in a process leading to morbid obesity. In addition, harm avoidance temperament and self-directedness personality characteristics may be correlated with body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem in obese individuals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. FOOD BEHAVIOR, BODY IMAGE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to assess food behavior, self-image perception and anthropometric indices of college students. This was a cross-sectional study with 54 students in a public university. The lifestyle and self-image perception was collected using a standardized questionnaire tested. Food behavior was evaluated through the Eating Attitudes Test. Body composition was assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI, circumferences, skinfold analysis and bioelectrical impedance (BIA. The statistics tests used were Chi-square and Pearson correlation (p< 0.05. The students had 19 to 27 years old, 96.3% were non-smokers, 46.3% drank alcoholic beverages and 37.0% practiced regular physical activity. Most of the students (75.5% were considered normal weight (BMI but the body fat percentage was found to be above average. Regarding self- image perception, 40.7% felt overweight. Observing food behavior results, 12.0% were at risk of developing eating disorders. Positive correlations were verifi ed between BMI with skinfold and skinfold with bioelectrical impedance. It was concluded that a considerable number of the college students assessed had a distorted self-image perception. Many of them had normal weight but with high body fat percentage. This study is relevant to investigate the risk of eating disorders and body image perception as part of the nutritional assessment.

  1. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Body image and depressive symptoms in person suffering from psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Monika; Rzepa, Teresa; Szramka-Pawlak, Beata; Żaba, Ryszard

    2017-12-30

    The purpose of the research study was specifying the relationship between severity of psoriasis and body image and self-reported depressive symptoms, taking into account the differences between the sexes. The research study involved 54 psoriasis patients, including 30 men and 24 women aged from 19 to 82. The level of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory, and body image - using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. The disease severity was objectively assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. The female psoriasis patients were more critical of their appearance than the men (p< 0.01), and at the same time they were more appearance-oriented (p< 0.05). The men rated their fitness level (p< 0.01) and care for good physical condition (p< 0.01) higher than the women. The women showed less satisfaction with their body parts than the men (p< 0.01) and more fear of obesity (p< 0.05) and overweight (p< 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between men and women with regard to general evaluation of body image and self-reported depressive symptoms. Moreover, it was established that in the case of both women and men there was a correlation between lowered mood and psoriasis severity (R = 0.416), as well as body image (R = - 0.282). In relation to individual scales, there was a statistically significant relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and appearance evaluation (R = - 0.519), health evaluation (R = - 0.585), satisfaction with body parts (R = - 0.462), as well as appearance orientation (R = 0.425). Distortion of body image is correlated with self-reported depressive symptoms in psoriasis patients.

  3. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Emine; Özdilli, Kürşat; Yorulmaz, Hatice

    2013-09-01

    The study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of disease-related variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, disease complaints and use of necrosis factor (anti-TNF) on the body image and self-esteem in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The data was collected by an Introductory Information Form, Body Image Scale (PfP) BIS and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) in 120 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in 120 healthy controls. One-way analysis of variance, Tukey HDS analysis, t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to compare the data. 60% of the control group were in the 20-44 year-age group, 75% were women and 30.8% had a bachelor's degree or above, while 60% of patient group were in the 20-44 year-age group, 71.7% were women and 36.7% had a bachelor's degree or higher education level. We observed that the body satisfaction and self-esteem levels were higher in the 20-44 age group, in those with a bachelor's degree or higher education and in the patients who had no additional disease and who did not use anti-TNF. The body satisfaction and self-esteem levels were lower in those who had been receiving treatment for longer than 5 years, who had changes in hands and body, who had gait disturbance and who had changes in family and working life. The assessment of the psychosocial needs with a holistic approach and training programs for body image and self-esteem would be advisable for patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are aged 45-59 years, who have low self-esteem, who have additional diseases, who use anti-TNF, who have changes in hands and body and who have primary-school education.

  4. Body imaging diagnosis of obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanehiro, Kenji; Kuno, Nobuyoshi; Kurimoto, Kumiko; Yokota, Tetsuo; Kato, Tomoyuki

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated the efficacy of ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in comparison with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), and angiography (AG), and discussed a rational diagnostic approach for the evaluation of obstructive jaundice. The subjects were 70 patients with obstructive jaundice, finally confirmed by subsequent surgery or autopsy. In this study, US and CT achieved a diagnostic accuracy of 95% and 98%, respectively, in detection of the presence and level of an obstruction. Therefore, we consider that US is the best initial procedure for evaluation of obstructive jaundice; followed by CT only when the bilialy ducts should be poorly demonstrated by US because of body habitus or gaseous distension. US might be able to identify even the specific etiology of an obstructive lesion. In tumors of the bilialy tract and the pancreas including small and resectable ones, the diagnostic rate of US was high, 91% for bilialy tract tumor and 100% for pancreatic tumor, which was almost the same as that of ERCP, PTC or AG. This result suggests that US eliminates the need of invasive procedures in some cases before making decision of therapeutic approach, while CT was not so accurate diagnostic modality as US in small lesions. But in papillary tumors, small lesions of the distal common bile duct, and gallstone diseases, either ERCP or PTC yielding almost 100% diagnostic accuracy, is the most reliable procedure, while US or CT did not show a good diagnostic accuracy. (J.P.N.)

  5. Body Covering and Body Image: A Comparison of Veiled and Unveiled Muslim Women, Christian Women, and Atheist Women Regarding Body Checking, Body Dissatisfaction, and Eating Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Leonie; Hartmann, Andrea S; Becker, Julia C; Kişi, Melahat; Waldorf, Manuel; Vocks, Silja

    2018-02-21

    Although Islam is the fastest growing religion worldwide, only few studies have investigated body image in Muslim women, and no study has investigated body checking. Therefore, the present study examined whether body image, body checking, and disordered eating differ between veiled and unveiled Muslim women, Christian women, and atheist women. While the groups did not differ regarding body dissatisfaction, unveiled Muslim women reported more checking than veiled Muslim and Christian women, and higher bulimia scores than Christian. Thus, prevention against eating disorders should integrate all women, irrespective of religious affiliation or veiling, with a particular focus on unveiled Muslim women.

  6. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun MY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mi-Yeul Hyun,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Young-Sook Kwak,2 Sung-Chul Hong,3 Won-Myong Bahk,4 Bo-Hyun Yoon,5 Hye Won Yoon,6 Bora Yoo61College of Nursing, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, Korea; 6School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaPurpose: Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents.Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26 and related factors.Results: Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015 and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001 or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001.Conclusion: These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.Keywords: body image distortion, high risk for eating disorders, Korean adolescent

  7. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  8. Imaging Ionospheric Disturbances with a Global Array of the Ground-Based GPS TEC Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C.; Coster, A.; Rideout, B.; Immel, T.; Rich, F. J.

    2004-05-01

    A prime example of distributed arrays of small instruments for space science research is found in the use of the existing global array of GPS receivers to provide high spatial/temporal resolution mapping of the total electron electron content (TEC) at equatorial, mid, auroral, and polar latitudes. Particularly dramatic effects are observed during major disturbances when magnetospheric electric fields perturb and redistribute the thermal plasmas of inner magnetosphere (plasmasphere/ionosphere). Enhancement and poleward displacement of the equatorial anomalies (EA), the formation of plasmaspheric drainage plumes which erode the outer plasmasphere and produce significant storm enhanced density and space weather effects at mid latitudes, and tongues of ionization which span the polar caps are all a part of the systematic redistribution of the low-latitude thermal plasma during strong events. The present distribution of GPS receivers permits mapping such features primarily over the land masses of North America and Europe, where 1x1 deg spatial and 30-sec temporal observations of vertical TEC can be achieved. Few receivers currently exist in developing countries and large gaps in coverage exist over the oceans. However, the large and meso-scale characteristics and evolution of these thermal plasma storm effects can be identified in the global maps. We address the cross-calibration of ground-based and space-based techniques to image and sample such features by comparing simultaneous observations of the major features observed during the strong storm on May 30, 2003. GPS TEC mapping observed the rapid enhancement of the EA and the formation of a concentration of enhanced plasma in the Carribean sector. This co-rotating enhancement provided a continuing a source for the dusk-sector plasmaspheric drainage plume. The down-looking IMAGE FUV instrument can map enhancements in the equatorial emissions associated with the EA and observed the spatial extent and evolution of the co

  9. Food intake affects state body image: impact of restrained eating patterns and concerns about eating, weight and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, Silja; Legenbauer, Tanja; Heil, Andrea

    2007-09-01

    Body image disturbances play a significant role in the development of eating disorders. Since body image can vary in diverse contexts, the aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether it is affected by recent food intake. Fifty-seven females without clinically relevant eating disorders were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG, n=28) that consumed a milkshake while watching a neutral film and a control group (CG, n=29) that only viewed the movie. Before and after the tasks, participants filled in the "Body Image States Scale" and the "Mood Questionnaire" and indicated their own "actual", "felt" and "ideal" body dimensions with a digital distortion technique based on a photograph of themselves. It was shown that after milkshake consumption, state body dissatisfaction as well as the discrepancy between "actual-ideal" and "felt-ideal" body size estimations was higher in the EG than in the CG. Judgements of the "actual", "felt" and "ideal" body dimensions and of mood were not affected. Further analyses revealed that the effect of milkshake consumption on body image and mood was higher the more the participants displayed restrained eating or eating, weight and shape concerns in general. Clinical implications are discussed.

  10. [Assessment of Body-Related Avoidance Behaviour: Validation of the German Version of the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ) in Adolescents with Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa and Healthy Controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Beate; Waldorf, Manuel; Bauer, Anika; Huber, Thomas J; Braks, Karsten; Vocks, Silja

    2018-03-01

    Body image avoidance is conceptualised as a behavioural manifestation of body image disturbance, and describes efforts to avoid confrontation with one's own body. While studies have provided hints that body image avoidance in adulthood contributes to the development and maintenance of eating disorders, so far, there are no corresponding findings for adolescence. The Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ) is the most widely used international questionnaire for measuring body-related avoidance behaviour. As its German version has only been validated in an adult sample, the aim of the present study is to statistically test the questionnaire in adolescents with eating disorders. In total, N=127 female adolescents, including n=57 with Anorexia Nervosa, n=24 with Bulimia Nervosa, and n=46 healthy controls, answered the BIAQ as well as various other instruments for assessing body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms. The factor structure assumed for the original English version, comprising the higher-order factor "body-related avoidance behaviour" and the 4 subfactors "clothing", "social activities", "eating restraint" and "grooming and weighing", was confirmed by a confirmatory factor analysis. With the exception of the scale "grooming and weighing", all scales showed mostly acceptable internal consistencies, test-retest reliability, differential validity and construct validity. Due to their satisfying psychometric properties, the use of the BIAQ scales "clothing", "social activities" and "eating restraint" can be recommended in research and practice for adolescence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Body image satisfaction and self-esteem status among the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Ziaei, Saeide; Montazeri, Ali; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2013-10-01

    Most previous research has focused on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) characteristics and their association with psychological disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In the present study, our aim was to study whether PCOS characteristics are associated with several aspects of psychological well-being namely self-esteem and body satisfaction. This was a cross-sectional study of 300 women with PCOS that was carried out in Kashan, Iran. Main outcome measures were the Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) and the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and clinical information of PCOS. Major clinical PCOS features including obesity (BMI), excessive body hair (hirsutism score), acne, menstrual cycle disturbances and infertility. The findings of regression analysis indicated that infertile women had lower levels of self-esteem (=-0.11, p=0.049) and poorer body satisfaction (=0.121, p=0.036) compared with PCOS women without infertility. Furthermore, hirsute women experienced poorer self-esteem than women without hirsutism (=-0.124, p=0.032). Women with menstrual irregularities had higher body dissatisfaction (=0.159, p=0.005). Moreover, women with higher body mass index scores had poorer body satisfaction (=0.151, p=0.009) but were not associated with self-esteem. The emotional well-being of the patients presenting with the syndrome needs to be recognized more fully, particularly in relation to the low self-esteem, poor body image, and struggles with weight, menstrual irregularities, hirsutism and infertility. The results of this study raise implications for clinical practice and suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of women with PCOS. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Fatemeh Bazarganipour).

  12. [Body image and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with somatoform gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ute; Czerwenka, Susanne; Schrauth, Markus; Kowalski, Axel; Enck, Paul; Hartmann, Mechthild; Zipfel, Stephan; Sammet, Isa

    2010-01-01

    The significance of body perception and satisfaction with one's own body in patients with somatoform disorders of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract is presently unknown, as is the relationship thereof to depression and other psychiatric comorbidities. Consecutive patients from the outpatient clinic of a university centre presenting with symptoms suggestive of somatoform gastrointestinal disorders were examined by gastroenterological and psychosomatic experts. In addition, psychological tests (The Body Image Questionnaire, FKB-20, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS-D) were carried out. Complete data from n = 44 patients were evaluated. In 64 % of patients we found high scores of anxiety, and in 45 % high scores of depression. In the FKB-20, 32 % of patients scored high on the "Negative Evaluation of the Body" subscale (AKB), and 96 % had low scores on the subscale "Perception of Body Dynamics" (VKD). Patients with functional bowel disorders perceived their own body significantly more negative than did healthy controls and patients after acute myocardial infarction. The AKB subscale of the FKB-20 correlated significantly and positively with anxiety in the HADS. HADS depression in turn correlated negatively with the VKD subscale of the FKB-20: Patients with low scores in depression report higher vitality. Nearly half of the patients with somatoform gastrointestinal disorders seen at a university centre exhibited high scores in anxiety and depression. A substantial fraction reported disturbed body perception and satisfaction with their own body image. These patients have not yet found their place between somatic medicine and psychotherapy: Although somatic und psychological symptoms coexist to a similar degree, patients tend to focus predominantly on their somatic complaints.

  13. Body Image and Attachment Style Among University Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind

    2018-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to investigate how body image and attachment style among university students are related. We approach these different student types on a cross sectional dataset including 898 university students from Denmark, Germany, Portugal, Croatia and Czechoslovakia. Based...... on the combination of the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Attachment Style Scale (WASQ) we create four types: "double jeopardy students", "well-balanced students", "nurturing solitude students" and "social mirroring students". The "double jeopardy students" are students with low social attachment and a high dislike...... of their body. Based on this combination of body image and social attachment we investigate how these four student types are related to three different dimensions: parental characteristics, northern versus southern countries and different field of study....

  14. [Images and representations of the female body in Brazilian magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Márcia Rebeca Rocha; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; do Nascimento, Enilda Rosendo; Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana

    2013-06-01

    This documentary, qualitative, descriptive study has the objective to analyze images and representations of the female body and their relation to drug use in the content of articles published in four magazines with national circulation (Veja, Isto E, Boa Forma, Claúdia). The articles selected were submitted to the technique of content analysis, with three thematic groups identified: the body as an incentive to use drugs; risks to the body resulting from drug use; and the search for the perfect body through drug use. The data showed that the media reproduces rigid aesthetic standards, exposing women to social and health offenses that stimulate drug use, either autonomously or by prescription. The search for beauty and the appeal to feminine eroticism, published through the communication channels analyzed limit the social importance of women by using images that link them to the status of sexual object.

  15. Assessing body image in anorexia nervosa using biometric self-avatars in virtual reality: Attitudinal components rather than visual body size estimation are distorted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölbert, S C; Thaler, A; Mohler, B J; Streuber, S; Romero, J; Black, M J; Zipfel, S; Karnath, H-O; Giel, K E

    2018-03-01

    Body image disturbance (BID) is a core symptom of anorexia nervosa (AN), but as yet distinctive features of BID are unknown. The present study aimed at disentangling perceptual and attitudinal components of BID in AN. We investigated n = 24 women with AN and n = 24 controls. Based on a three-dimensional (3D) body scan, we created realistic virtual 3D bodies (avatars) for each participant that were varied through a range of ±20% of the participants' weights. Avatars were presented in a virtual reality mirror scenario. Using different psychophysical tasks, participants identified and adjusted their actual and their desired body weight. To test for general perceptual biases in estimating body weight, a second experiment investigated perception of weight and shape matched avatars with another identity. Women with AN and controls underestimated their weight, with a trend that women with AN underestimated more. The average desired body of controls had normal weight while the average desired weight of women with AN corresponded to extreme AN (DSM-5). Correlation analyses revealed that desired body weight, but not accuracy of weight estimation, was associated with eating disorder symptoms. In the second experiment, both groups estimated accurately while the most attractive body was similar to Experiment 1. Our results contradict the widespread assumption that patients with AN overestimate their body weight due to visual distortions. Rather, they illustrate that BID might be driven by distorted attitudes with regard to the desired body. Clinical interventions should aim at helping patients with AN to change their desired weight.

  16. Prospective Changes in Body Image Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Bariatric Patients: The Importance of Body Size Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, M.B.; Eshleman, K.E.; Reiter-Purtill, J.; Zeller, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Body image dissatisfaction (BID) is pervasive among patients presenting for bariatric surgery but significantly improves post-operatively. These findings are based primarily on studies of adults. Objective The objective of this study was to examine changes in BID among adolescents with extreme obesity from baseline/preoperative to 6 and 12 months following bariatric surgery using body size estimation. Setting Pediatric Medical Center. Methods BID was prospectively assessed among 16 adolescent bariatric patients (Mage=16.3±1.2, MBMI=66.2±12.0, 67% female) using a standard visual/perceptual measure [i.e., Stunkard Figure Rating Scale. Participants identified Current and Ideal body size, with a discrepancy score (Current – Ideal) indicating BID. Body size estimation ratings were compared to attitudinal (i.e., IWQOL-Kids: Body Esteem and Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents: Physical Appearance) body image scores, BMI (kg/m2), and Total weight-related quality of life (WRQOL). Results There was a significant reduction in Current body size (7.9 to 6.4, pbody size was related to BMI and %EWL but not attitudinal body image at each time point. Smaller Discrepancy (Current – Ideal) was associated with higher Total WRQOL (r=−0.68), with a trend towards significance for Body Esteem (r=−0.65) at 12 months. Conclusions Adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery experience significantly decreased BID within the first 12 months post-surgery, with the most substantial change between baseline and 6 months. Post-operative WRQOL is more closely associated to body size discrepancy than current body size. PMID:22154271

  17. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  18. Body image concerns amongst massive weight loss patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2013-05-01

    To explore body image matters amongst patients following massive weight loss. In contemporary health care, a growing number of morbidly obese patients are seeking surgical solutions such as bariatric surgery or in other cases engaging with radical lifestyle changes. Massive weight loss can leave patients with a huge excess of lax overstretched skin that in some cases can trigger major body image dissatisfaction or depression. There is a scarcity of research about the needs of this group of patients and this is important for nursing practice. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews was employed. Twenty white adults (18 women and two men) were recruited retrospectively amongst patients who had massive weight loss by undergoing bariatric surgery or radical lifestyle changes, aged 29-63 years. All of the participants gave signed informed consent. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. One core theme focusing on body image ugliness and three associated subthemes were identified: the subthemes included feeling socially marginalised, feeling depressed and sexual and intimacy difficulties. Body image matters are hugely significant and appear to have a lasting effect on emotional well-being and function, contributing to psychological distress and social isolation. Greater sensitivity is required in enabling patients to work through emotional isolation and shame that has been a part of their childhood. Furthermore more, treatments need to be accessible to this growing patient population such as reconstructive surgery. Nurses who care for massive weight loss patients need to be mindful of their psychodynamic needs and be non-judgemental and accepting. Moreover, nurses need to be aware of treatment options and be able to assess body image matters and implement quality care for this particular patient group including body image acceptance programmes and support groups. © 2013 Blackwell

  19. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). CONCLUSIONS: Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients. PMID:22279481

  20. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  1. Development of a body image scale for Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catiane Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Body image is an important parameter of body satisfaction and needs to be evaluated with instruments developed and validated for a specific population. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to assess body image in Brazilian women. A scale consisting of 11 silhouettes was prepared. Content validation was performed by seven experts from different health areas. To assess repeatability (two consecutive assessments and reproducibility (reassessment after one week, an intentional sample stratified into four groups according to the characterization of Brazilian women regarding nutritional status was selected. Participants were 125 women aged 18-55 years and body mass index (BMI between 18.5 and 38.6 kg/m2. The Kappa coefficient (k was used to assess repeatability and reproducibility, considering the isolated responses of the current body, ideal body and the difference between them, assumed as satisfactory when k≥0.6. For all trials, α=0.05. During the content validation phase, the instrument developed was changed following the evaluators’ suggestions and it was considered very suitable by six of seven evaluators. The Kappa coefficient was good in isolated issues and in the difference between them in both repeatability and reproducibility. The Body Image Scale was considered a valid content, with good repeatability and reproducibility. Considering the instrument as low cost and of rapid implementation/evaluation, it may be used to evaluate the body image of Brazilian women with BMI between 18.5 and 38.6 kg/m2, in different contexts.

  2. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Cornejo, Fiorela; Kamego-Tome, Mayumi; Zapata-Pachas, Mariana A.; Alvarado, German F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family histor...

  3. Abnormalities in visual processing amongst students with body image concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy E., Matthew; Sadusky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they observe and discriminate visual information. A pre-occupation with perceived defects in appearance has been attributed to a local visual processing bias. We studied the nature of visual bias in individuals who may be at risk of developing BDD – those with high body image concerns (BICs) – by using inverted stimulus discrimination. Inversion disrupts global, configural information in favor of local,...

  4. Adolescents Eating Behavior, Body Image and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Lana; Sujoldžić, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the middle school students in the Croatian region of Dalmatia. The survey was designed to examine adolescent eating behavior as it relates to body image and psychological well-being (self-esteem, life-satisfaction and stress) in relation to body mass index; BMI. Differences among participants in food intake were examined according to demographic variables and eating behavior (regular food intake or dieting) as well. Psychological variables were highly associated with die...

  5. Racial differences in predictors of college women's body image attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S M

    1994-01-01

    African-American and Euro-American women from three predominantly Euro-American colleges in the southeast U.S. between 17 and 23 years of age completed instruments assessing body image attitudes, social competence, sex-role attitudes, racial identity, and a measure of family and personal characteristics. Analyses revealed race differences on all body image measures with the exception of appearance evaluation which was influenced by family income and race. Specifically, African-American women reported more satisfaction with and positive feelings towards their bodies and less dissatisfaction than Euro-American women. Unlike Euro-Americans, African-American women attached importance to fitness and health. The relationship between personal/physical factors and body image was stronger for African-American than Euro-American women. Additionally, personal/physical characteristics were the best model of appearance evaluation for African-American women, whereas personal/physical and sociodemographic factors best predicted this measure for Euro-American women. The results are discussed in relation to body image norms and standards of the African-American subculture and middle-class, Euro-American mainstream culture.

  6. [Effect of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghui, Peng; Jing, Kang; Xiao, Deng

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to probe the psychological factors adolescent orthodontic patients, the role of body image and self-esteem in the whole process of orthodontic treatment and the impact on the efficacy and satisfaction of orthodontic. Five hundred and twenty-eight patients were selected in this study. The Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC) , Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Negative Physical Self-General (NPS-G) and other body analysis scale study after orthodontic lasted 18-24 months were used to investigate the role of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment. Esthetic evaluation of patients teeth after correction had been significantly improved, patient self-evaluation difference IOTN-AC doctor evaluation, Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire-tooth confidence, aesthetic concerns, psychological impact and social function were significantly improved. The improvement of the dental aesthetics component (T2 when doctors evaluate IOTN-AC) was positively correlated with the evaluation of the efficacy, and was significantly negatively correlated with the negative emotions of patients at baseline. Negative body image-dental dissatisfied-cognitive component and the affective component, the overall negative body image and negative emotions can predict patient satisfaction with treatment efficacy. Orthodontic treatment not only improves the self-aesthetic evaluation of adolescent patients, but also has a positive effect on the mental health of adolescent patients.

  7. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Ježová, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    The thesis addresses issues of body image in a marketing context. The aim of the thesis is to affect elements of the body image of persons shown in the printed local and foreign media, determine the extent to which people look identical and how it differs. Part of the objective is to affect the factors leading consumers to solve their dissatisfaction of how they look like by looking for the help of plastic surgery. The work is divided into theoretical and analytical part, the theoretical part...

  8. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, Anna J. F.; Mundy, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  9. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L Beilharz

    Full Text Available The body image concern (BIC continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing. Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD.

  10. Selective distortion of body image by asynchronous visuotactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Marcos, Daniel; Martini, Matteo; Fuentes, Christina T; Bellido Rivas, Anna I; Haggard, Patrick; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2018-03-01

    In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), a rubber hand is felt as being part of one's body. This illusion is evoked by providing synchronous visuotactile stimulation to the fake and real hands. Asynchronous visuotactile stimulation is known not to produce such an illusion of ownership, being commonly used as the control condition. Here we explored the impact of synchronous and asynchronous visuotactile stimulation on the body image. We combined the induction of the RHI with a quantitative test for the internal representation of body metrics (i.e., the positions of key fiducial points on the body relative to each other). We found a significant recalibration of the upper/lower arm lengths following asynchronous visuotactile stimulation. In particular, we observed a selective elongation of the lower arm, a distortion typical of deafferentation. Conversely, synchronous visuotactile stimulation did not alter the estimation of the arm segments' length. Our findings are consistent with a dynamic internal representation of body image that is continuously updated based on incoming multisensory information. Furthermore, the use of asynchronous multisensory stimulation as a neutral condition should be reconsidered since it introduces changes in the body image. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The body image in ancient tragedy: a verbal visuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisana De Carli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two tragedies of Sophocles and two others from Seneca are analyzed in order to identify the visuality given to the body through the word, image built for the character’s body, their levels of meaning and reverberation in text and scene. This information can be characterized as internal rubric because such data supports the scene’s construction. Thus, structure and content engender enhancing body's significance on scene either by its presence or a verbal visual, figuring a semantic occupation, which configures as one of the marks of the ancient theater.

  12. Abnormalities in visual processing amongst students with body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy E, Matthew; Sadusky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they observe and discriminate visual information. A pre-occupation with perceived defects in appearance has been attributed to a local visual processing bias. We studied the nature of visual bias in individuals who may be at risk of developing BDD - those with high body image concerns (BICs) - by using inverted stimulus discrimination. Inversion disrupts global, configural information in favor of local, feature-based processing. 40 individuals with high BIC and 40 low BIC controls performed a discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, bodies, and scenes. Individuals with high BIC discriminated inverted faces and bodies faster than controls, and were also more accurate when discriminating inverted bodies and scenes. This reduction in inversion effect for high BIC individuals may be due to a stimulus-general local, detail-focused processing bias, which may be associated with maladaptive fixation on small features in their appearance.

  13. Dieting practices and body image perception among Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; El-Ghazale, Hiba; Achkar, Alice; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Dieting is becoming a popular phenomenon among university students to achieve or maintain a healthy weight. The purpose of this study is to obtain a preliminary understanding of what dieting practices university students use in order to achieve their desirable body weight and to determine the magnitude of body dissatisfaction in relation to weight status among a sample of students (n=252) from the Lebanese American University in Beirut, Lebanon. Students filled out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their dieting and physical activity practices in addition to the body shape questionnaire (BSQ). Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index. Percentage body fat was measured using Tanita scale body fat analyzer 300A. The outcome of this study showed that smoking and unhealthy dieting practices were not common among students (only 26% reported smoking, 8% reported taking laxatives and 4% taking diet pills). Half of the students reported practicing regular physical activity. Multivitamin intake was also not popular among students. BSQ scores indicate that the majority of students were not worried about their body image perception (64% reported not being worried, 19% were slightly worried, 12% were moderately worried and 5% were extremely worried). A gender difference was observed in the BSQ scores, as 89% of the "extremely worried" students were females. Collectively, results indicate that unhealthy dieting practices are uncommon among students. However, developing health promotion awareness' programs to promote good self image within the concept of a realistic healthy weight will be beneficial, especially among females.

  14. Body Image in Anorexia Nervosa: Body Size Estimation Utilising a Biological Motion Task and Eyetracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Troje, Nikolaus Friedrich; Abel, Larry Allen

    2016-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric condition characterised by a distortion of body image. However, whether individuals with AN can accurately perceive the size of other individuals' bodies is unclear. In the current study, 24 women with AN and 24 healthy control participants undertook two biological motion tasks while eyetracking was performed: to identify the gender and to indicate the walkers' body size. Anorexia nervosa participants tended to 'hyperscan' stimuli but did not demonstrate differences in how visual attention was directed to different body areas, relative to controls. Groups also did not differ in their estimation of body size. The hyperscanning behaviours suggest increased anxiety to disorder-relevant stimuli in AN. The lack of group difference in the estimation of body size suggests that the AN group was able to judge the body size of others accurately. The findings are discussed in terms of body image distortion specific to oneself in AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Medical imaging feasibility in body fluids using Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehrad, M.; Armstrong, A. D.

    2017-02-01

    A relatively wide field-of-view and high resolution imaging is necessary for navigating the scope within the body, inspecting tissue, diagnosing disease, and guiding surgical interventions. As the large number of modes available in the multimode fibers (MMF) provides higher resolution, MMFs could replace the millimeters-thick bundles of fibers and lenses currently used in endoscopes. However, attributes of body fluids and obscurants such as blood, impose perennial limitations on resolution and reliability of optical imaging inside human body. To design and evaluate optimum imaging techniques that operate under realistic body fluids conditions, a good understanding of the channel (medium) behavior is necessary. In most prior works, Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) algorithm has been used to analyze the channel behavior. This task is quite numerically intensive. The focus of this paper is on investigating the possibility of simplifying this task by a direct extraction of state transition matrices associated with standard Markov modeling from the MCRT computer simulations programs. We show that by tracing a photon's trajectory in the body fluids via a Markov chain model, the angular distribution can be calculated by simple matrix multiplications. We also demonstrate that the new approach produces result that are close to those obtained by MCRT and other known methods. Furthermore, considering the fact that angular, spatial, and temporal distributions of energy are inter-related, mixing time of Monte- Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) for different types of liquid concentrations is calculated based on Eigen-analysis of the state transition matrix and possibility of imaging in scattering media are investigated. To this end, we have started to characterize the body fluids that reduce the resolution of imaging [1].

  16. Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and Plasma Bubbles Observed by an All-Sky Airglow Imager at Yonaguni, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiko Ogawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on night time air glow imaging observations of the low latitude ionosphere by means of a 630-m all-sky imager in stalled in March 2006 at Yonaguni, Japan (24.5°N, 123.0°E; 14.6°N geomagnetic, about 100 km east of Taiwan. The imager detected medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs for about 7 hours on the night of 26 May 2006. A dense GPS net work in Japan also ob served the same MSTID event on this night. The imager and GEONET data indicate that most of the MSTIDs prop a gated south west ward from the north of Japan to the south of Yonaguni and Taiwan over 4000 km, with a southern limit of 19°N (geomagnetic latitude 9°N or lower. On the night of 10 November 2006, the imager observed two weak emission bands that were embedded on the F-region anomaly crest to the south of Yonaguni. The simultaneous electron density profiles from the FORMOSAT-3/COS MIC mission demonstrate that the weak emission bands are due to density depletions in equatorial plasma bubbles. These case studies suggest that the Yonaguni imager in collaboration with other instruments is very suit able for the study of ionospheric disturbances in and around the northern F-region anomaly crest.

  17. The role of body image and self-perception in anorexia nervosa: the neuroimaging perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Roberto; Cieri, Filippo; di Giannantonio, Massimo; Tartaro, Armando

    2018-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric illness characterized by intense fear of gaining weight, relentless pursuit of thinness, deep concerns about food and a pervasive disturbance of body image. Functional magnetic resonance imaging tries to shed light on the neurobiological underpinnings of anorexia nervosa. This review aims to evaluate the empirical neuroimaging literature about self-perception in anorexia nervosa. This narrative review summarizes a number of task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in anorexia nervosa about body image and self-perception. The articles listed in references were searched using electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) from 1990 to February 2016 using specific key words. All studies were reviewed with regard to their quality and eligibility for the review. Differences in brain activity were observed using body image perception and body size estimation tasks showing significant modifications in activity of specific brain areas (extrastriate body area, fusiform body area, inferior parietal lobule). Recent studies highlighted the role of emotions and self-perception in anorexia nervosa and their neural substrate involving resting-state networks and particularly frontal and posterior midline cortical structures within default mode network and insula. These findings open new horizons to understand the neural substrate of anorexia nervosa. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lídia de Abreu Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS : A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects’ context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. RESULTS : Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. CONCLUSIONS : The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents’ self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  19. Predictors of Change in Body Image in Female Participants of an Outdoor Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kate; Foland, Jody; Foley, John T.; Kniffin, Mike; Bailey, JoEllen

    2016-01-01

    Body image is an ever-changing phenomenon that has a profound effect on women's quality of life. Research related to body image is expansive, but few researchers have focused on how outdoor education may influence body image. This study examines predictors of change in body image of female participants of an outdoor education program. Twenty-eight…

  20. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  1. Should women be "All About That Bass?": Diverse body-ideal messages and women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Diana E; Ramsey, Laura R

    2017-09-01

    While most body image research emphasizes the thin ideal, a wider variety of body-ideal messages pervade U.S. popular culture today, including those promoting athleticism or curves. Two studies assessed women's reactions to messages conveying thin, athletic, and curvy ideals, compared to a control message that emphasized accepting all body types. Study 1 (N=192) surveyed women's responses to these messages and found they perceived body-acceptance and athletic messages most favorably, curvy messages more negatively, and thin messages most negatively. Further, greatest liking within each message category came from women who identified with that body type. Study 2 (N=189) experimentally manipulated exposure to these messages, then measured self-objectification and body satisfaction. Messages promoting a body-ideal caused more self-objectification than body-acceptance messages. Also, athletic messages caused more body dissatisfaction than thin messages. Together, these findings reveal the complexity of women's responses to diverse messages they receive about ideal bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender differences in body image and preferences for an ideal silhouette among Brazilian undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the accuracy of body size estimation and body dissatisfaction among Brazilian undergraduates and their relationships with perceptions of the ideal body silhouettes that would be selected by same-gender and opposite-gender peers. A total of 159 undergraduates (79 males) from a public University in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. They completed a Figure Rating Scale and indicated the figure that best describes the size of their own body (actual), their desired body, the body they judged would be ideal to same-gender peers, and the body they judged would be ideal to opposite-gender peers. The results showed that women were less precise in estimating their actual size and more dissatisfied. The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) that was selected as “current” by women was significantly higher than their desired and ideal BMIs, whereas the mean BMIs that were selected by men were practically the same. Men and women selected ideal silhouettes for their own gender that were the same as those that were selected as ideal by the opposite gender. The mean BMIs that were actually chosen by men and women as desired and ideal were closer to the upper end of normal weight and lower end of overweight, respectively. Such results contradict what has been assumed to be a normative characteristic of men and women in several countries, raising some doubts regarding the role of beliefs about judgments of the opposite gender in the development of body image disturbances.

  3. [Reasons and prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Edio Luiz; Pelegrini, Andreia; Glaner, Maria Fátima

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of body image (BI) dissatisfaction in adolescents. The study enrolled 641 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the town of Saudades, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of BI dissatisfaction was 60.4% (males = 54.5%, females = 65.7%; p vigorexia).

  4. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Rama, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first…

  5. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H D; Gregersen, A M; Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...

  6. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  7. Self-Esteem and Body-Image Concept in Paraplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Marian; Gruver, Gene Gary

    1978-01-01

    Paraplegics, hospitalized tuberculosis patients, and nonhospitalized normal people were compared to ascertain the relationship between body image and self-concept. There were no significant differences between paraplegics and nonhospitalized normal people. Between the hospitalized tuberculosis patients and the other two groups, however, the…

  8. Promoting Healthy Body Image through the Comprehensive School Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Examines research indicating that children are affected by U.S. society's preoccupation with thinness, discusses self-esteem and healthy body image, and offers suggestions for incorporating strategies into existing comprehensive school health programs to deter disordered eating and inappropriate dieting habits among children. (SM)

  9. Body image hos mastektomiopererede kvinder, med og uden rekonstruktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Gregersen, Anette Møller; Damgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Baggrund: I Danmark er incidensen for brystkræft ca. 5.000 årligt. Kvinder, der er mastektomiopereret, risikerer ubalance i body image. De kan føle sig amputeret, lemlæstede, mindre kvindelige og mindre seksuelt attraktive. De kan frygte at se sig selv i spejlet. De kan opleve, at kroppen ikke er...... hel. Mange undersøgelser er kvantitative og kun få har undersøgt kvindernes oplevelse af body image kvalitativt. Formål: At opnå indsigt i danske mastektomiopererede kvinders oplevelse af body image, med fokus på den akutte fase samt år efter operationen, hvor beslutningen om valg eller fravalg af...... rekonstruktion var taget. Metode: Undersøgelsen var fænomenologisk hermeneutisk, idet hensigten var at opnå indsigt i kvinders oplevelser af body image relateret til mastektomi. Fund: Undersøgelsen resulterede i tre temaer, der følger Bob Price begreber. Kropsrealiteten viste sig som ”en krop, der ikke var hel...

  10. Correlates of Bio-Psychosocial Factors on Perceived Body Image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlates of Bio-Psychosocial Factors on Perceived Body Image amongst Adolescents: Implications for Preventive Health Education. ... The questionnaire contained measures of demographics, self-esteem, self-efficacy, food habit index, exercise, weight. Data was analyzed using correlation analysis. The results indicated ...

  11. Anthropometric Indices, Perceived Body Image and Risk of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A socio-demographic Questionnaire was administered on the subjects and question-items to elicit their perception of self body image. Appropriate anhtropometic measurements were carried out on them and they were also screened for possible presence of psychopathologies/psychological distress using General Health ...

  12. Body Image Assessment Among Community Mental Health Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Brett, Anna; Pevehouse-Pfeiffer, Danielle; O'Neill, Elizabeth A; Ellis-Ordway, Nancy

    2017-11-14

    Although research suggests an association between body image and mental health, with poor body image related to several mental illnesses, there is no research exploring mental health clinicians' body image screening practices. This study aims to fill this gap among a sample of community mental health providers (N = 216). Using a cross-sectional design, clinicians in Community Health Centers were recruited through email using purposeful and snowball sampling in a Midwest state. The majority of participants identified as women (88.4%) and White (88.4%). Additionally, the mean age of the sample was 36.66 years and participants reported working an average of 8.44 years as a mental health provider. We ran descriptive and Chi square analyses. Results suggest a relationship between viewing body image screening as important and level of preparedness as well as level of preparedness and actual assessment. Training and assessment tools may be warranted to increase clinician's preparedness. Additional clinical and policy recommendations are discussed.

  13. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  14. Body Image Disorder in Adolescent Males: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…

  15. Sport practice, physical structure, and body image among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Spiga, Federico

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate body image perception in undergraduate students, and to investigate its associations with weight status, abdominal obesity, muscularity, gender and sport. The sample consisted of 231 Italian students (174 males and 57 females); anthropometric measurements, taken by trained technicians, were: height, weight, arm-circumference, waist and hip circumferences. BMI, WHR and Δ arm-circumference were calculated. Body image was assessed using body silhouette charts. Information about sport (currently practiced sport, starting age, and weekly hours of sport) was acquired with questionnaires. Females perceived themselves as slightly overweight, while males identified themselves as normal weight. Females had a tendency to desire to be thinner in all weight status categories; in males, normal weight subjects had a tendency to desire to be larger, while overweight wished to be thinner. Sport practice was significantly higher in males. Individuals who were overweight and did less sport were significantly more likely to have higher body dissatisfaction. The present study highlights a positive relationship between sport practice, corpulence and body image perception.

  16. [Cognitive mechanisms and self-acceptance of body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuel, Adriana; Bracho, Angie; Brito, Nereida; Rondón, José Eduardo; Sulbarán, Dimas

    2012-01-01

    This research proposed to investigate the effect of an intervention program to strengthen self-acceptance (positive), and a cognitive intervention program on body image. Specifically, it is based on the idea of prevention of risk factors for eating disorders from the perspective of normalcy in the prevention of body dissatisfaction. We used a 2×2 factorial design with 120 participants of both sexes, aged between 10 and 12 years, selected by stratification. To evaluate the hypothesis, we used two-way analysis of variance. The results concluded that only the cognitive intervention program affected the dependent variable body image, maintaining its statistical significance, which is revealed both in the general two-way ANOVA and when controlling the effect of the covariates, age and sex.

  17. Body image and dieting behavior in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, H; Paxton, A S

    2001-06-01

    To examine the relationship between pulmonary function, nutritional status, body image, and eating attitudes in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) compared with healthy controls. Seventy-six children with CF (39 girls) and 153 healthy control children (82 girls) were recruited. All children were between 7 and 12 years of age. After being weighed and measured, participants undertook a structured 1-to-1 interview. Four measures were used to assess body image: body size (perception and satisfaction) were ascertained using the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS), which uses photographs of children of various body mass index (BMI) representative of the range of BMI percentiles for children 7 to 12 years of age. Body size satisfaction was measured by the response to the questions, "Do you think your body is 1) much too thin, 2) too thin, 3) just right, 4) too fat, and 5) much too fat?" Body weight satisfaction was measured by the question, "Would you like your body to be 1) much thinner, 2) a little bit thinner, 3) stay the same, 4) a little bit fatter, and 5) much fatter?" Global self-esteem was measured using the children's version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Body Esteem Scale using a 24-item scale. Dieting behavior was measured by asking directly about previous weight control behaviors, use of the Dutch Eating Behavior-Restraint Scale (DEBQ-R), and, in children who acknowledged previous dieting behavior, the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) was additionally administered. Results. Both girls and boys with CF had significantly reduced BMI percentiles compared with control children. Boys with CF did not have a significantly different BMI compared with girls with CF. There were significant positive correlations between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) (% of predicted) and BMI percentile in girls (r =.35) and boys (r =.50) with CF. Body image perceptions in boys and girls with CF were examined in relation to the healthy control group using 2

  18. The phenomenology of body image in men living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jamie Stephen; Langdon, Dawn; Serpell, Lucy

    2009-12-01

    Research into how people living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA) experience and make sense of feared or actual body changes, such as lipodystrophy, is limited. The present study conducted in-depth interviews with gay men living with HIV. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) yielded themes across five domains. The ambiguity of early-stage lipodystrophy was a cause of distress. There was a drive to detect changes early, leading to anxiety, uncertainty and negative feelings about the body as well as possible misperception of change. In later stages, lipodystrophy was felt to be highly distinctive. Participants struggled to live with a shape that transgressed a body ideal. Feelings of loss of control were evident in both the increased ineffectiveness of strategies to maintain a desirable appearance and in the tendency for such changes to act as a visible marker of status. Conflicting feelings emerged in ideas of thinness and of health, with loss of fat seen as desirable in certain contexts. The study builds on previous research suggesting that the high value of appearance, particularly within gay communities, may lead to extreme compensatory behaviours. HIV places increased risk on a group highly vulnerable to body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. The study concludes with a cognitive-behavioural model of body image for PLWHA and suggestions for intervention. Further research is needed to validate the model and investigate whether the findings are generalisable. However, body image concerns should be acknowledged when addressing HIV-related health.

  19. Control of satellite imaging formations in multi-body regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kathleen C.; Millard, Lindsay D.

    2009-03-01

    Libration point orbits may be ideal locations for satellite imaging formations. Therefore, control of these arrays in multi-body regimes is critical. A continuous feedback control algorithm is developed that maintains a formation of satellites in motion that is bounded relative to a halo orbit. This algorithm is derived based on the dynamic characteristics of the phase space near periodic orbits in the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP). By adjusting parameters of the control algorithm appropriately, satellites in the formation follow trajectories that are particularly advantageous to imaging arrays. Image reconstruction and coverage of the ( u, v) plane are simulated for interferometric satellite configurations, demonstrating potential applications of the algorithm and the resulting motion.

  20. The phenomenology of body image distortions induced by regional anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paqueron, X; Leguen, M; Rosenthal, D; Coriat, P; Willer, J C; Danziger, N

    2003-03-01

    Patients with peripheral nerve or spinal cord lesions frequently report perceptual distortions related to position, shape, texture or temperature of the affected areas. This study aimed to describe the phenomenology of such body image alterations during the course of upper limb, lower limb or spinal anaesthetic blocks in patients (n = 36) undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Multimodal sensory testing and assessment of motor function were performed at regular intervals, and the relationship between the reported body image distortions and the progression of sensory and motor impairment was analysed. We found that perceptual changes concerning the shape and size of the deafferented limb occurred in the great majority of patients. In all of them, illusions of swelling, elongation or shortening of the limb coincided with the impairment of warm, cold and/or pinprick sensations, suggesting that thin myelinated Adelta- and/or unmyelinated C-fibres may provide a source of tonic modulation to the limb's cortical representation. Such perceptual alterations of shape and size of body parts differed clearly from postural illusions in terms of frequency, time course and influence of vision. In addition to perceptual changes in the deafferented area, almost half of the patients felt their unanaesthetized lips and/or mouth swelling during the course of upper limb block, suggesting the unmasking of dynamic interactions between somatotopically adjacent cortical representations. Conflicting sensations could co-exist in the patient's body image, such as the illusion of swelling of a limb, which, at the same time, was felt to be missing. The sense of ownership of the deafferented limb was impaired in some cases. These observations show that the perception of body shape and the awareness of its postural variations are built from different plastic models. They also underline the contribution of peripheral afferent activity to the maintenance of a unified body image.

  1. A systematic review of the measurement properties of the Body Image Scale (BIS) in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissant, Heleen C; Neijenhuijs, Koen I; Jansen, Femke; Aaronson, Neil K; Groenvold, Mogens; Holzner, Bernhard; Terwee, Caroline B; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2018-03-12

    Body image is acknowledged as an important aspect of health-related quality of life in cancer patients. The Body Image Scale (BIS) is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to evaluate body image in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to systematically review measurement properties of the BIS among cancer patients. A search in Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science was performed to identify studies that investigated measurement properties of the BIS (Prospero ID 42017057237). Study quality was assessed (excellent, good, fair, poor), and data were extracted and analyzed according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) methodology on structural validity, internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, hypothesis testing for construct validity, and responsiveness. Evidence was categorized into sufficient, insufficient, inconsistent, or indeterminate. Nine studies were included. Evidence was sufficient for structural validity (one factor solution), internal consistency (α = 0.86-0.96), and reliability (r > 0.70); indeterminate for measurement error (information on minimal important change lacked) and responsiveness (increasing body image disturbance in only one study); and inconsistent for hypothesis testing (conflicting results). Quality of the evidence was moderate to low. No studies reported on cross-cultural validity. The BIS is a PROM with good structural validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability, but good quality studies on the other measurement properties are needed to optimize evidence. It is recommended to include a wider variety of cancer diagnoses and treatment modalities in these future studies.

  2. Body after baby: a pilot survey of genital body image and sexual esteem following vaginal birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth; Kane Low, Lisa; Smith, Abigail R; Miller, Janis M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine acceptability of the Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem (VSBE) scale for women post childbirth and explore the association between childbirth events and sexual/body esteem. This is a cross-sectional study within the Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery study. This study was conducted in a community setting. The study was conducted in women post first vaginal birth with birth events that posed risk factors for levator ani muscle tears. Survey, magnetic resonance images of levator ani, and physical examination were the data collected 8 months postpartum. Birth variables were collected by hospital chart review. Descriptive analysis of VSBE response rates and distribution of responses was conducted. An exploratory analysis of the potential association of demographic, birth, clinical, and magnetic resonance image characteristics with VSBE scores was conducted. The outcome measure used in this study is VSBE scale. The majority of participants (97%) completed the scale, with responses to most questions skewed toward positive sexual/body esteem, with the exception of sexual enjoyment, where 38% indicated some interference due to genital changes. The scale showed high internal consistency (alpha =0.93). In the exploratory analysis of potential characteristics associated with VSBE, women with episiotomies had lower sexual/body esteem compared to those who did not (median VSBE scores 35 vs 42.5, P =0.01). Anal sphincter tear was not associated with sexual/body esteem ( P =0.78). Additional study is indicated to further explore observed trends toward the association of severe levator ani tear, maternal age at childbirth, and forceps with VSBE scores. The VSBE is suitable for use to assess sexual/body esteem in women post childbirth. Most women in this sample did not indicate negative genital body image/sexual esteem. However, some indicated that the changes post birth negatively affected their sexual/body esteem

  3. Imaging Ionospheric/Plasmaspheric Disturbances Triggered by the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse with the Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmboldt, Joseph; Schinzel, Frank K.; VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE)

    2018-01-01

    Along with many Americans and several other observatories, the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) was observing the Sun before, during, and after the total solar eclipse on 21 August 2017. However, the VLA also simultaneously conducted a unique set of observations aimed at characterizing the effects of the eclipse on Earth’s ionosphere/plasmasphere. While most of the VLA antennas were pointed at the Sun, 12 were looking at the bright radio galaxy M87. These 12 antennas are part of the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE; http://vlite.nrao.edu), a dedicated backend that continuously captures, correlates, and analyzes data in the 320-384 MHz frequency range. In addition to traditional synthesis imaging, VLITE also characterizes fluctuations in ionospheric/plasmaspheric density via measured variations in visibility phases. When observing a bright cosmic source, this can be done with unmatched precision, the equivalent of ~1-10 ppm. To look for ionospheric/plasmaspheric disturbances tied to the eclipse, a specialized spectral decomposition was applied to the M87 VLITE data. This method exploits the fact that disturbed flux tubes within the plasmasphere appear as magnetic eastward-directed waves to the VLA because the plasmasphere is dynamically dominated by co-rotation. The phase speeds of these waves are proportional to distance, allowing for a reconstruction of the electron density gradient as a function of (slant) range and time. The time ranges spanned by the large-scale ionospheric depletion seen within concurrent Global Positioning System (GPS) data as a function of longitude were mapped to the flux tubes imaged with this method using the M87 observations. With the exception of some solar flare-induced fluctuations, the observed disturbances appear confined to this part of the range/time image. This strongly implies the disturbances resulted from the rapid depletion and slower recovery of the ionosphere/plasmasphere system brought on by

  4. Women's exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images: body image effects of media-ideal internalization and impact-reduction interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamiya, Yuko; Cash, Thomas F; Melnyk, Susan E; Posavac, Heidi D; Posavac, Steven S

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to media images of thin-and-beautiful women negatively affects the body image and mood states of young women. However, not all women are equally susceptible to these effects. The present experimental investigation with 123 young college women evaluated the moderating effects of the extent of internalization of media ideals. It also examined the preventative impact of two brief interventions (i.e., media literacy information with and without a dissonance-induction procedure). Results indicated that relative to a control group, the exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images adversely influenced the state body image of participants with high internalization levels. Media-literacy psychoeducation prior to the media exposure prevented this adverse effect. Adding a pre-exposure dissonance-induction procedure did not significantly enhance the preventative effects relative to psychoeducation alone. These results and their implications for the treatment and prevention of body image disturbances are discussed in the context of the empirical literature on the media's effects on body image.

  5. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  6. Living into the imagined body: how the diagnostic image confronts the lived body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Devan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper I will show how the medical image, presented to the patient by the physician, participates in medicine's cold culture of abstraction, objectification and mandated normativity. I begin by giving a brief account of the use of anatomical imaging since the Renaissance to show how images have historically functioned in contrast to how they are currently used in medical practice. Next, I examine how contemporary medical imaging techniques participate in a kind of knowledge production that objectifies the human body. Finally, I elucidate how physicians ought to place the medical image within the context of the lived body so as to create a healing relationship with the patient. In all this I hope to show that the medical image, far from a piece of objective data, testifies to the interplay of particular beliefs, practices and doctrines contemporary medicine holds dear. To best treat her patient, the physician must appreciate the influence of these images and appropriately place them within the context of the patient's lived experience.

  7. Body image and genital self-image in pre-menopausal women with dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul

    2013-08-01

    With a prevalence of 15-21%, dyspareunia is one of the most commonly reported sexual dysfunctions in pre-menopausal women under the age of 40. Studies to date have focused primarily on clinical samples, showing that women with dyspareunia report overall sexual impairment, anxiety, and feelings of sexual inadequacy. However, little is known about their body image and genital self-image and few studies have sampled women exclusively from the general population. The aim of the present, controlled study was to investigate body image and genital self-image in a community sample of pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia. In total, 330 women completed an online survey, of which 192 (58%) had dyspareunia and 138 (42%) were pain-free control women. In comparison to pain-free control women, women with dyspareunia reported significantly more distress about their body image and a more negative genital self-image. Moreover, findings from a logistic regression, in which trait anxiety was controlled for, showed that a more negative genital self-image was strongly and independently associated with an increased likelihood of reporting dyspareunia. These results suggest that, in women with dyspareunia, body image and genital self-image are significantly poorer and would benefit from more attention from both clinicians and researchers.

  8. Role of Perfectionism and Body Image in the Prediction of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Arji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD has been reported to increase in recent decades. Therefore, scientific studies should be performed to specify psychological variables, which may contribute to the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we examined the role of body image and perfectionism in predicting BDD symptoms among students. Objective The aim of this survey was to investigate the role of body image and perfectionism in the prediction of BDD symptoms. Methods This cross sectional study was performed in 2016 on a sample, including 351 students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, who were selected based on the Morgan formula and multistage cluster random sampling. The participants completed the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale modified for BDD (BDD-YBOCS, multidimensional body-self relations questionnaire (MBSRQ, and Besharat’s Tehran multidimensional perfectionism scale (TMPS. The collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation test and stepwise regression analysis. Results and Conclusions The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that perfectionism and body image could significantly predict BDD symptoms (P < 0.001. Therefore, these variables can be important in the promotion of students’ health.

  9. Relationship Among Body Image, Anthropometric Parameters and Mental Health in Physical Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legey, Sandro; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Lattari, Eduardo; Campos, Carlos; Paes, Flávia; Sancassiani, Federica; Mura, Gioia; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Nardi, Antônio Egídio; José de Oliveira, Aldair; Neto, Geraldo Maranhão; Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning; Machado, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction (BID) is currently high. Given that psychological well-being is associated with the body measurements imposed by esthetic standards, BID is an important risk factor for mental disorders. Identify the prevalence of BID, and compare anthropometric and mental health parameters between individuals satisfied and dissatisfied with their body image. A total of 140 university students completed the silhouette scale to screen for BID. Anthropometric measures, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BFP) were used. To investigate mental health, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI-S and STAI-T), Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale and Quality of Life (QOL-36) questionnaire were used to investigate mental health. The Student's t-test was applied to compare anthropometric and mental health parameters. 67.1% of university students exhibited BID. There was a significant difference (p = 0.041) in BF and WC (p = 0.048) between dissatisfied and satisfied individuals. With respect to mood states, significant differences were observed for anger (p = 0.014), depression (p = 0.011), hostility (p = 0.006), fatigue (p = 0.013), mental confusion (p = 0.021) and total mood disturbance (TMD) (p = 0.001). The mental aspect of QOL was significantly higher (p = 0.001) in satisfied university students compared to their dissatisfied counterparts. BID was high and it seems to be influenced by anthropometric measures related to the amount and distribution of body fat. This dissatisfaction may have a negative effect on the quality of life and mood state of young adults.

  10. Breast cancer and body image as a prognostic factor of depression: a case study in México City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, María J; Mur Villar, Norma; Neri Sánchez, Marisol; Pimentel-Ramírez, María L; García-Rillo, Arturo; Gómez Valverde, Eusebio

    2014-12-01

    Being diagnosed with breast cancer is devastating for women because they face a "sense of loss". Since this loss is observed by the women themselves as well as by those around them, this can often lead to depression. (1) To verify a possible association between body image and depression; (2) To establish a relation between depression and time since breast cancer diagnosis. The data came from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Body Image Scale (BIS), which were used to evaluate the subjects. A random sample of n=120 women was divided into two groups. The women in Group 1 had been recently diagnosed with breast cancer, but had not at that time had any type of surgical treatment. The women in Group 2 had undergone a mastectomy over a year ago. The women in Group 1 were found to be more severely depressed, and a statistically significant association was detected between depression and body image (p0.05). The women in Group 1, the majority of whom were suffering from severe depression, had a disturbed body image even though they had not had a mastectomy. The women in Group 2, who had been operated, also suffered from similar body image problems, but their depression was not as intense. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Idealized media images and adolescent body image: "comparing" boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Duane A; Tiggemann, Marika

    2004-12-01

    Sociocultural theories of body image suggest that body dissatisfaction results from unrealistic societal beauty ideals, and one way of transmitting these ideals is through the mass media. The present research aimed to examine the effect of exposure to images of idealized beauty in the media on adolescent girls' and boys' body image. The participants (595 adolescents) viewed television commercials containing either images of the thin ideal for women, images of the muscular ideal for men, or non-appearance television commercials. Body dissatisfaction was measured before and after commercial viewing. It was found that exposure to idealized commercials led to increased body dissatisfaction for girls but not for boys. Idealized commercials led to increased negative mood and appearance comparison for girls and boys, although the effect on appearance comparison was stronger for girls. Further, participants high on appearance investment reported greater appearance comparison after viewing idealized commercials than those less strongly invested in their appearance. The results suggest the immediate impact of the media on body image is both stronger and more normative for girls than for boys, but that some boys may also be affected.

  12. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. Body image in gay and straight men: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John F; Arcelus, Jon

    2009-11-01

    Recent research has emphasized vulnerability to eating disorders in gay men, with calls for research on causality, cultural factors and focus on a younger age cohort. This study aimed to examine body image and related eating behaviours in younger gay and straight men. Qualitative study using a sample of gay and straight male university students, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Fifteen young men (18-24) with a spectrum of sexual orientation (gay, straight and bisexual) agreed to participate. Five dominant categories emerged: body image ideal, external influences, perception of body image, dieting, mechanisms for modification (diet, exercise, cosmetics) and sexual orientation. Health and aesthetic ideals appear less divorced for young men than women, offering some degree of protection from eating disorders. Nonetheless there is widespread body dissatisfaction. Media and social influences are powerful, particularly for single gay men, but the study suggests fewer differences than similarities between gay and straight men. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Exploring adolescent views of body image: the influence of media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.

  15. Evaluation of cutaneous body image dissatisfaction in the dermatology patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous body image (CBI), defined as the individual's mental representation of his or her skin, hair, and nails, is an important clinical factor in dermatologic disorders and often the primary consideration in deciding whether to proceed with cosmetic procedures or institute treatment in some skin disorders such as acne. CBI is a highly subjective construct that can be significantly confounded by cultural, psychosocial, and psychiatric factors. Assessment of CBI in the dermatology patient is best accomplished using a biopsychosocial model that involves (1) evaluation of concerns about the appearance of the skin, hair, and nails, (2) assessment of comorbid body image pathologies, especially body dysmorphic disorder, and (3) assessment of other psychiatric comorbidities such as major depressive disorder that can confound the presentation of the CBI complaint. Depending on the psychiatric comobidities, an assessment of suicide risk may have to be done, and if necessary, a referral made to a mental health professional. The clinician should consider the patient's developmental stage (eg, body image concerns are likely to be much greater in the adolescent patient independent of his or her dermatologic disorder) and sociocultural background (eg, a desire for lighter skin in some ethnic groups), factors that can also have a major effect on CBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hippocampal substructural vulnerability to sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment in patients with chronic primary insomnia: magnetic resonance imaging morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Kim, Hosung; Suh, Sooyeon; Hong, Seung Bong

    2014-07-01

    Despite compelling evidence from animal studies indicating hippocampal subfield-specific vulnerability to poor sleep quality and related cognitive impairment, there have been no human magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies investigating the relationship between hippocampal subfield volume and sleep disturbance. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of volume changes across hippocampal subfields in patients with primary insomnia relative to controls. Pointwise morphometry allowed for volume measurements of hippocampal regions on T1-weighted MRI. University hospital. Twenty-seven unmedicated patients (age: 51.2 ± 9.6 y) and 30 good sleepers as controls (50.4 ± 7.1 y). N/A. We compared hippocampal subfield volumes between patients and controls and correlated volume with clinical and neuropsychological features in patients. Patients exhibited bilateral atrophy across all hippocampal subfields (P sleep quality (higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and higher arousal index of polysomnography) (r 0.45, P sleep fragmentation and related chronic stress condition. Atrophy in the CA3-4-DG region was associated with impaired cognitive functions in patients. These observations may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that make patients with chronic sleep disturbance vulnerable to cognitive impairment. Joo EY, Kim H, Suh S, Hong SB. Hippocampal substructural vulnerability to sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment in patients with chronic primary insomnia: magnetic resonance imaging morphometry.

  17. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  18. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in South Asian children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallan, Miranda J; Hiam, Lucinda C; Duda, Joan L; Adab, Peymane

    2011-01-09

    Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing

  19. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  20. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy supported by virtual reality in the treatment of body image in eating disorders: one year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, José H; Perpiñá, Conxa; Botella, Cristina

    2013-10-30

    Body image disturbance is a significant maintenance and prognosis factor in eating disorders. Hence, existing eating disorder treatments can benefit from direct intervention in patients' body image. No controlled studies have yet compared eating disorder treatments with and without a treatment component centered on body image. This paper includes a controlled study comparing Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) for eating disorders with and without a component for body image treatment using Virtual Reality techniques. Thirty-four participants diagnosed with eating disorders were evaluated and treated. The clinical improvement was analyzed from statistical and clinical points of view. Results showed that the patients who received the component for body image treatment improved more than the group without this component. Furthermore, improvement was maintained in post-treatment and at one year follow-up. The results reveal the advantage of including a treatment component addressing body image disturbances in the protocol for general treatment of eating disorders. The implications and limitations of these results are discussed below. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between the body image and level of pain, functional status, severity of depression, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Nuray; Akkaya, Semih; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Balci, Ceyhan Sengul; Sahin, Fusun

    2012-06-01

    The aims were to investigate how the body image is affected in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in comparison to healthy people, as well as to explore the relationship of the body image with the level of pain, functional status, severity of depression, and quality of life (QoL). Demographic variables, symptoms of fibromyalgia, and number of fibromyalgia tender points for 51 patients with FMS and 41 control subjects were recorded. All patients were asked to mark the level of pain on visual analogue scale (VAS). Six-minute walking test was recorded for functional assessment. The impact of the disease was evaluated by fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ). All patients were asked to complete body image scale (BIS), Beck depression inventory (BDI), and short form-36 (SF-36). There were no differences between groups with regard to demographic variables (p>0.05). Mean VAS was 7.5±1.4 for the patients with FMS and 0.3±0.4 for control subjects (pBody image was associated with VAS in the multivariate linear regression analysis. The results of the present study indicate that body image is disturbed in patients with FMS compared to control subjects. For the evaluation of the level of pain, impact of the disease, and QoL in patients with FMS, it would be useful to consider the relationship of the body image disturbance with these parameters.

  2. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-21

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte-Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq 18 F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  3. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-01

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte-Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq 18F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  4. Self-image differences as related to body image of students in a middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donna M; Skemp, Karen M

    2012-07-01

    To examine whether gender and ethnic self-image differences exist among Asian and white adolescents within the context of body image. One hundred seventy-seven students in a Midwestern US middle school were surveyed on self-image. Analyzed using 2-way ANOVA by gender and race. Asian students have lower self-image compared to white students, including the subcomponents of self-esteem, identity, and integrity. Asian students have more critical feelings about themselves, base their identities on a few sources rather than on diverse sources, and choose unrealistic standards. However, Asian girls scored better on the image-consciousness subscale.

  5. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    with reproducibility data). The Working Group decided on inflammation in peripheral joints and entheses as primary focus areas, and then developed consensus MRI definitions for these pathologies, selected anatomical locations for assessment, agreed on a core set of MRI sequences and imaging planes for the different...... was to perform a systematic literature review (SLR) and to develop consensus definitions of key pathologies, anatomical locations for assessment, a set of MRI sequences and imaging planes for the different body regions, and a preliminary scoring system for WB-MRI in inflammatory arthritis. Methods: An SLR...

  6. Body image issues in Lithuanian females before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Juskaite, Austeja; Katinaite, Justina; Silove, Simona; Drasutis, Jonas; Sargautyte, Ruta; Ramasauskaite, Diana; Drasutiene, Grazina

    2018-02-01

    There is a risk that during pregnancy a woman's changing physique might result in stronger concerns about her appearance and may lead to negative consequences both for mother and foetus. The aim of the present study was to assess women's self-esteem, body image and weight control before and during pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Centre of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Vilnius University Hospital. In total, 234 pregnant women were investigated. The Self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's scale (1965), while the attitude towards the body size - by Stunkard's figure rating scale (1983). When rating their actual body size and the preferred body shape using Stunkard's figures, the investigated females chose, on average, 3.40 and 2.93 (respectively) size figures for the period before pregnancy ( p 0.05). Regardless of their body shape assessment during pregnancy, pregnant women did not restrict their diet ( r s (232) = 0.064, p > 0.05). Conclusions: during pregnancy women assessed their weight gain adequately, pregnant women chose larger body sizes as an ideal physique if compared to the ones of the period before pregnancy, women's efforts not to gain weight during pregnancy were not determined by their body size perception during pregnancy, pregnant women, despite their body shape assessment during pregnancy, did not restrict their diet, i.e. pregnant women became psychologically adapted to their body changes during pregnancy, and the maternity became a much more important factor than the beauty ideals associated with slender figures.

  7. Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

  8. Images and bodies subject: sexuality in advertising campaign be stupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Luiz Menegazzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the portrayal of sexuality and gender in contemporary advertising by the image and it focuses on visual analysis of the case study of the campaign Be Stupid, the clothing brand Diesel. Examines some of the ads clearer suggestions to the theme of sexuality, about fifteen images, running between 2010 and 2011em many countries, including Brazil, having won the controversial impact of media such as magazines, billboards and especially the Internet. Perform a survey of theoretical and methodological aspects that facilitate the action of reading and deciphering the images, mainly based on the theory Flusser conceptions of technical image, apparatus, with a view to focus on media production, broadcasting, and formats distribution. These advertising images as visual anthropological objects who discourse through the triad body, image and media conditions of power and surveillance, eroticism, stereotypes and cultural life of the spectacle. Contextualizes the scenario analysis within the postmodern perspective, the society of advanced capitalism and diffuse power and media, marked by profound changes in the scale of the feeling of their individual identities unstable. With an emphasis on Foucauldian theory, discusses the concepts of identity, gender intelligible and cultural practices of subjection of the individual mechanisms for language and sexuality. Discusses how is the construction of visual messages of sexuality and gender roles specified by the images and search on it, demonstrating the wider aspects of visual advertising messages today.

  9. Body imaging in the differential diagnosis of jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Nobuyoshi; Endo, Tokiko; Kasugai, Tatsuzo

    1981-01-01

    Forty-five jaundiced patients with confirmed pancreatico-biliary diseases were studied to determine the value of body imaging in the differential diagnosis of jaundice. In this study, body imaging included five tests, which were US, CT, ERCP, PTC and RI. The results indicate that each to these five tests is useful and highly accurate in differentiating between obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice (about 90%). The site of obstruction was delineated in 91.3%, 90.9%, 82.5%, 66.7% and 50% by PTC, ERCP, CT, US and RI, respectively. ERCP, PTC, CT, US and RI helped determine the etiology of jaundice in 79.5%, 65.2%, 57.5%, 50% and 0%, respectively. ERCP and US were highly accurate in establishing the diagnosis of resectable pancreatico-biliary cancer with obstructive jaundice. On the basis of these results, we propose a diagnostic approach to obstructive jaundice as in Table 5. (author)

  10. Body Image And Sensation Seeking In Gym-Goers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Petr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore a relation between Body image (PSPP and Sensation Seeking (SSS-V and to determine gym-goers based on these entities. The research file (N = 182 consisted of gym-goers aged between 24 – 45. The comparison of the tests showed a weak relation (0.25 between PSPP and SST tests and also among the individual subscales. The comparison of men and women did not come up with any significant differences. In terms of Body image, the file showed above-average results, in the case of Sensation Seeking, its score was average. The outcome of our findings is that there is no marked relation between PSPP and SST and the same goes for men and women.

  11. Body imaging in the differential diagnosis of jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, N.; Endo, T.; Kasugai, T. (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan))

    1981-12-01

    Forty-five jaundiced patients with confirmed pancreatico-biliary diseases were studied to determine the value of body imaging in the differential diagnosis of jaundice. In this study, body imaging included five tests, which were US, CT, ERCP, PTC and RI. The results indicate that each to these five tests is useful and highly accurate in differentiating between obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice (about 90%). The site of obstruction was delineated in 91.3%, 90.9%, 82.5%, 66.7% and 50% by PTC, ERCP, CT, US and RI, respectively. ERCP, PTC, CT, US and RI helped determine the etiology of jaundice in 79.5%, 65.2%, 57.5%, 50% and 0%, respectively. ERCP and US were highly accurate in establishing the diagnosis of resectable pancreatico-biliary cancer with obstructive jaundice. On the basis of these results, we propose a diagnostic approach to obstructive jaundice as in Table 5.

  12. Body image and HIV risk among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Meghan M; Markey, Charlotte N

    2014-11-01

    To focus on the role of sex, race/ethnicity, and body image in HIV-protective behaviors. Undergraduates (N = 277; 53% women; M = 19.27 years old) from the United States completed a survey on HIV-related behaviors and body image (appearance orientation and appearance evaluation). Women and African Americans/ Blacks were more likely to have ever had an HIV test. African Americans/Blacks and individuals who had more positive evaluations of their appearance were more likely to have ever asked a partner's HIV status and to have asked a partner to get tested for HIV. Findings indicate low rates of HIV testing and communication with a partner about HIV, suggesting the importance of sexual health intervention and education programs for college students.

  13. Psychological predictors of body image dissatisfaction in women suffering from eating discorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify factors influencing body image dissatisfaction in female patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. 61 women, aged 16 to 31, (M = 21.69; SD = 3.85) filled questionnaires evaluating dissatisfaction with their body (Body Dissatisfaction Scale by Garner & al., 1984), attitudes about the body (Body Attitude Test by Probst & al., 1995), avoidance with regard to body image (Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire by Rosen & al., 1991), negative mood states (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) as well as self-esteem (Self-Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith, 1984). Negative appreciation of body size, symptoms of depression, grooming and weighting, lack of familiarity with one's own body, as well as low self-esteem in general, could predict the body image dissatisfaction among eating disordered women. The fact of knowing the most important determinants of body image could give indications for the prevention of the cognitive distortions concerning body image.

  14. Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Anderle, Alisa; Schmidt, Hagen; Febry, Stephanie; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2018-03-14

    A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder. Body-related negative interpretation bias (i.e., a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about the own body in a negative way) was measured by a Scrambled Sentences Task. Patients with AN showed a stronger body-related negative interpretation bias than healthy controls. Within both groups, negative interpretation bias correlated strongly and positively with AN symptom severity and these effects were not moderated by levels of depressive symptoms. The findings support the idea that biased interpretation of body-related information is associated with the specific psychopathology of AN. Targeted, computerised interventions (e.g. interpretation bias modification) may help to alter these dysfunctional cognitive schemas that lie at the heart of AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Body Image Perception and Self-esteem During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sema Inanir; Bulent Cakmak; Mehmet Can Nacar; Askin Evren Guler; Ahmet Inanir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the change in body image perception (BIP) and evaluate self-esteem levels during pregnancy. Material and Methods: This study includes totally 180 females having similar demographic features, i.e. 30 non-pregnant (control group) and 50 pregnant women from each trimester (first, second and third trimester groups) at an Obstetrics Outpatient Department of a university hospital. BIP and self-esteem scores have been compared among the groups. Dat...

  16. Engaging stakeholder communities as body image intervention partners: The Body Project as a case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Perez, Marisol; Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Trujillo, Eva; Stice, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Despite recent advances in developing evidence-based psychological interventions, substantial changes are needed in the current system of intervention delivery to impact mental health on a global scale (Kazdin & Blase, 2011). Prevention offers one avenue for reaching large populations because prevention interventions often are amenable to scaling-up strategies, such as task-shifting to lay providers, which further facilitate community stakeholder partnerships. This paper discusses the dissemination and implementation of the Body Project, an evidence-based body image prevention program, across 6 diverse stakeholder partnerships that span academic, non-profit and business sectors at national and international levels. The paper details key elements of the Body Project that facilitated partnership development, dissemination and implementation, including use of community-based participatory research methods and a blended train-the-trainer and task-shifting approach. We observed consistent themes across partnerships, including: sharing decision making with community partners, engaging of community leaders as gatekeepers, emphasizing strengths of community partners, working within the community's structure, optimizing non-traditional and/or private financial resources, placing value on cost-effectiveness and sustainability, marketing the program, and supporting flexibility and creativity in developing strategies for evolution within the community and in research. Ideally, lessons learned with the Body Project can be generalized to implementation of other body image and eating disorder prevention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Body Image Coping Strategies among Aesthetic Surgery Patients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Hayatbini, Niki; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad

    2017-05-01

    Aesthetic surgery procedures have been performed at dramatically increased rates in recent years in Iran. Few researches exist documenting the usage of body image coping strategies and its relationship in seeking surgery. The present research examined data from 90 aesthetic surgery participants (30 Subjects each in invasive, minimally-invasive, and control groups). Assessed subjects on body image coping strategies inventory (avoidance, appearance fixing and positive rational acceptance) provided dysfunctional usage of its variables among Iranian clients. Between the three groups, on variables of body image coping strategies, there was a significant difference. There was a significant difference on avoidance variable in three groups. On positive rational acceptance variable, there was a significant difference for invasive group with minimally-invasive and control groups. No significant difference was found on appearance fixing variable. The study emphasizes on the role of psychological problems of aesthetic surgery clients that surgeons should be aware of them, which could inhibit the positive effects of aesthetic surgery. These results have implications for pre-surgical assessment along with psychological interventions at first step rather than invasive medical interventions.

  18. Maternal effects on daughters' eating pathology and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eric; Toray, Tamina; Wang, Mei Chuan; Valdez, Noreen N

    2008-01-01

    Effects of maternal eating behaviors and attitudes, maternal feedback to daughter about weight issues, mother-daughter relationship closeness, media influences, and mothers' perceptions of daughters shape on daughters' body image and eating pathology were examined using 91 pairs of mothers and college-aged daughters. Hierarchical multiple regressions using daughters' BMI as the first step were separately performed for daughters' body image and eating pathology. Variables predictive of daughters' body image included negative feedback from mother, mother's disapproval of daughter's figure, and mothers' eating behaviors and attitudes as perceived by daughters. A similar pattern was found for daughters' eating pathology scores with the addition of mothers' tendency to internalize media messages regarding thinness and beauty significantly adding to the prediction. Maternal influence through modeling may be best assessed by using the daughters' perceptions of their mothers because this corresponds to what the daughter was aware of in their mothers' eating attitudes and behaviors. Negative feedback from mothers about daughters' figures and eating patterns significantly increased daughters' difficulties in these areas. Mothers who showed a greater internalization of media messages about thinness were most likely to have daughters with eating pathologies.

  19. Toward imaging the body at 10.5 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, M Arcan; Wu, Xiaoping; Eryaman, Yiğitcan; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Auerbach, Edward J; Lagore, Russell L; DelaBarre, Lance; Vaughan, J Thomas; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Adriany, Gregor; Metzger, Gregory J

    2017-01-01

    To explore the potential of performing body imaging at 10.5 Tesla (T) compared with 7.0T through evaluating the transmit/receive performance of similarly configured dipole antenna arrays. Fractionated dipole antenna elements for 10.5T body imaging were designed and evaluated using numerical simulations. Transmit performance of antenna arrays inside the prostate, kidneys and heart were investigated and compared with those at 7.0T using both phase-only radiofrequency (RF) shimming and multi-spoke pulses. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) comparisons were also performed. A 10-channel antenna array was constructed to image the abdomen of a swine at 10.5T. Numerical methods were validated with phantom studies at both field strengths. Similar power efficiencies were observed inside target organs with phase-only shimming, but RF nonuniformity was significantly higher at 10.5T. Spokes RF pulses allowed similar transmit performance with accompanying local specific absorption rate increases of 25-90% compared with 7.0T. Relative SNR gains inside the target anatomies were calculated to be >two-fold higher at 10.5T, and 2.2-fold SNR gain was measured in a phantom. Gradient echo and fast spin echo imaging demonstrated the feasibility of body imaging at 10.5T with the designed array. While comparable power efficiencies can be achieved using dipole antenna arrays with static shimming at 10.5T; increasing RF nonuniformities underscore the need for efficient, robust, and safe parallel transmission methods. Magn Reson Med 77:434-443, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Evaluation of body image and self-esteem in patients with external fixation devices: a Turkish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükyilmaz, Funda; Sendir, Merdiye; Salmond, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study aimed to describe the body image and self-esteem of patients with external fixation devices. Fifty patients with external fixation devices who came for follow-up to the Ilizarov Outpatient Clinic of a university hospital in Turkey were included in this study. Data were collected by using a Demographic Questionnaire Form, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), and Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The perceived body image (197.58 +/- 25.14) and self-esteem (65.28 +/- 17.97) of the patients with external fixation devices were in the moderate range. There was no significant correlation between body image and self-esteem. Self-esteem was correlated with one's perception of whether external fixation impacted one's appearance and whether one wanted to avoid being seen by certain individuals because of the appearance of the external fixator. The study highlighted that body image disturbance and threats to self-esteem are not universal with the use of external fixation and need to be assessed individually.

  1. PET scan perfusion imaging in the Prader-Willi syndrome: new insights into the psychiatric and social disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantoulan, C.; Payoux, P.; Mantoulan, C.; Diene, G.; Glattard, M.; Molinas, C.; Tauber, M.; Payoux, P.; Sevely, A.; Glattard, M.; Roge, B.; Molinas, C.; Tauber, M.; Zilbovicius, M.; Celsis, P.; Celsis, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare multisystem genetic disease, leads to severe disabilities, such as morbid obesity, endocrine dysfunctions, psychiatric disorders, and social disturbances. We explored the whole brain of patients with PWS to detect abnormalities that might explain the behavioral and social disturbances, as well as the psychiatric disorders of these patients. Nine patients with PWS (six males, three females; mean age 16.4 years) underwent a positron emission tomography (PET) scan with H(2)(15)O as a tracer to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The images were compared with those acquired from nine controls (six males, three females; mean age 21.2 years). A morphologic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was also performed in PWS patients, and their cognitive and behavioral skills were assessed with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III and the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL). The MRI images showed no evident anatomic abnormalities, whereas PET scans revealed hypo-perfused brain regions in PWS patients compared with controls, particularly in the anterior cingulum and superior temporal regions. We observed a significant relationship (P≤0.05) between rCBF in the hypo-perfused regions and CBCL scores. The functional consequences of these perfusion abnormalities in specific brain regions might explain the behavioral and social problems observed in these individuals. (authors)

  2. My body looks like that girl's : Body mass index modulates brain activity during body image self-reflection among young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in

  3. Con-forming bodies:the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients’ bodies play a part in producing scans within acce...

  4. A radiant energy imaging apparatus for examination of a body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    A radiant energy imaging apparatus for obtaining CT scans is described. It employs a rotating unit operative to produce a scanning pencil beam of X-ray radiant energy by use of a mechanical scanning device. This consists of a first collimator which shapes radiation emitted from an X-ray source into a fan-shaped beam of X-rays, and a second collimator comprising a disc-shaped chopper wheel which is rotated through the fan-shaped beam. A single pencil beam is produced and caused to scan through an angle, sufficiently great to embrace a cross section of a body being examined, onto a single detector forming a portion of the rotating unit and located on the side of the body opposite to the X-ray source and mechanical scanning device. In addition to being used as a CT scanner, the system can be used to generate its own localization images and to perform digital radiography on those images and, because of the relative rotation feature, can be employed in this mode of operation to obtain anterior-posterior, lateral or oblique images at any desired angle. (Auth.)

  5. Body image, aging, and identity in women over 50: The Gender and Body Image (GABI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeier, Sara M; Runfola, Cristin D; Sala, Margarita; Gagne, Danielle A; Brownley, Kimberly A; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of 1,849 women over age 50 to capture the thoughts, feelings, and attitudes that women at middle age have about their bodies and the experience of aging. Via an open-ended question online survey, four primary themes emerged: (a) the physical and psychological experience of aging; (b) the injustices, inequities, and challenges of aging; (c) the importance of self-care; and (d) a plea for recognition of the need to maintain a contributory role in society. Results highlight the complexities of women's psychological and physical aspects of aging and point toward important topics worthy of further study in this growing population.

  6. Body image during pregnancy: an evaluation of the suitability of the body attitudes questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available data suggest that body dissatisfaction is common during pregnancy and may even be a precursor to post-natal depression. However, in order to accurately identify at-risk women, it is essential to first establish that body image measures function appropriately in pregnant populations. Our study examines the suitability of the Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ for measuring body dissatisfaction among pregnant women by comparing the psychometric functioning of the BAQ: (1 across key phases of pregnancy, and (2 between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods A total of 176 pregnant women from Melbourne, Victoria filled out a questionnaire battery containing demographic questions and the Body Attitudes Questionnaire at 16, 24, and 32 weeks during pregnancy. A comparison group of 148 non-pregnant women also completed the questionnaire battery at Time 1. Evaluations of the psychometric properties of the BAQ consisted of a series of measurement invariance tests conducted within a structural equation modelling framework. Results Although the internal consistency and factorial validity of the subscales of the BAQ were established across time and also in comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women, measurement invariance tests showed non-invariant item intercepts across pregnancy and also in comparison with the non-pregnant subgroup. Inspection of modification indices revealed a complex, non-uniform pattern of differences in item intercepts across groups. Conclusions Collectively, our findings suggest that comparisons of body dissatisfaction between pregnant and non-pregnant women (at least based on the BAQ are likely to be conflated by differential measurement biases that serve to undermine attempts to accurately assess level of body dissatisfaction. Researchers should be cautious in assessments of body dissatisfaction among pregnant women until a suitable measure has been established for use in this population. Given

  7. Neurocognitive processing of body representations in artistic and photographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Aline; Nassehi, Armin; Bao, Yan; Pöppel, Ernst; Sztrókay, Anikó; Reiser, Maximilian; Fehse, Kai; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2013-02-01

    Visual art because of its artistic context can be related to the general idea of providing alternative perceptual experiences. However, research examining the neural basis of art beyond the paradigm of beauty has been neglected. This study seeks to determine how the perception of a body in an artwork can be distinguished from the perception of a body in a non-artistic photography. While viewing different body representations in both artworks and photographs, subjects were required to evaluate the appeal of the portrayed persons. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we show that the perception of a body within the context of art leads to a higher activation in the right parietal cortex and the extrastriate cortex bilaterally. Relating this result to concepts from previous research, we suggest that the perception of art is linked to visuo-spatial coding and also motor mapping. In contrast, the higher activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the primary visual cortex during the perception of a body in a non-artistic frame of reference, i.e. in a photograph, can be linked to processes of person evaluation. Possibly, the task to judge the appeal of a person in a photograph might be more daunting and, thus, cause emotional and even moral challenges being reflected in the ventromedial prefrontal activity. Taken together, perceptual experiences within an artistic vs. a non-artistic frame of reference are based on distinct patterns of neuronal activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep paralysis and "the bedroom intruder": the role of the right superior parietal, phantom pain and body image projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2014-12-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common condition occurring either at sleep onset or sleep offset. During SP the sleeper experiences gross motor paralysis while the sensory system is clear. Hypnogogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are common during SP and may involve seeing, hearing, and sensing the presence of menacing intruders in one's bedroom. This "intruder" is often perceived as a shadowy humanoid figure. Supernatural accounts of this hallucinated intruder are common across cultures. In this paper, we postulate that a functional disturbance of the right parietal cortex explains the shadowy nocturnal bedroom intruder hallucination during SP. This hallucination may arise due to a disturbance in the multisensory processing of body and self at the temporoparietal junction. We specifically propose that this perceived intruder is the result of a hallucinated projection of the genetically "hard-wired" body image (homunculus), in the right parietal region; namely, the same circuits that dictate aesthetic and sexual preference of body morphology. One way to test this hypothesis would be to study clinical populations who may have genetically acquired "irregularities" in their internal hard-wired body image in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL); for example, individuals with apotemnophilia or anorexia nervosa. If such individuals experience SP (e.g., induced in a sleep lab), and they hallucinate this shadowy figure, one would predict that they would see humanoid shadows and shapes with body irregularities, mirroring their own internal body image morphology. If correct, our hypothesis will offer a neurological explanation for this nocturnal bedroom intruder that has been a source of controversy, and striking and implausible cultural interpretations throughout history. Indeed, if our proposed hypothesis is tested and corroborated, dissemination of such findings would provide great relief to SP experiencers worldwide and could potentially be used in a therapeutic context

  9. Body after baby: a pilot survey of genital body image and sexual esteem following vaginal birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinski R

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Zielinski,1 Lisa Kane Low,1–3 Abigail R Smith,4 Janis M Miller1,3 1Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Women’s Studies, College of Literature, Science and the Arts, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to determine acceptability of the Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem (VSBE scale for women post childbirth and explore the association between childbirth events and sexual/body esteem.Design: This is a cross-sectional study within the Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery study.Setting: This study was conducted in a community setting.Population: The study was conducted in women post first vaginal birth with birth events that posed risk factors for levator ani muscle tears.Methods: Survey, magnetic resonance images of levator ani, and physical examination were the data collected 8 months postpartum. Birth variables were collected by hospital chart review. Descriptive analysis of VSBE response rates and distribution of responses was conducted. An exploratory analysis of the potential association of demographic, birth, clinical, and magnetic resonance image characteristics with VSBE scores was conducted.Main outcome measures: The outcome measure used in this study is VSBE scale.Results: The majority of participants (97% completed the scale, with responses to most questions skewed toward positive sexual/body esteem, with the exception of sexual enjoyment, where 38% indicated some interference due to genital changes. The scale showed high internal consistency (alpha =0.93. In the exploratory analysis of potential characteristics associated with VSBE, women with episiotomies had lower sexual/body esteem compared to those who did not (median

  10. Patterns of body image concerns in adolescence and early adulthood: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Svenja; Warschburger, Petra

    2018-02-08

    The present study aimed at identifying latent profiles of body image concerns in adolescents and young adults. Subsequently, associations between these profiles and potentially harmful behaviors are examined. Self-report data of 758 male and female adolescents, aged 14 to 22 years, were analyzed. Participants provided demographic and anthropometric data and completed surveys on weight/shape and muscularity concern as well as on disturbed eating behaviors and dysfunctional exercise. Latent profile analyses of weight/shape concern and muscularity concern were performed separately for each gender. The analyses indicated three-class solutions in men and women. In both genders, the inconspicuous class, characterized by small amounts of weight/shape and muscularity concerns, was the largest one (86% in men, 68% in women). Whereas 10% of the men and 23% of the women were assigned to the borderline class, 4% of the men and 8% of the women formed the conspicuous class (marked weight/shape and muscularity concerns). Between genders, the degrees of muscularity concern differed in the borderline and inconspicuous classes, while the degrees of weight/shape concern differed in the inconspicuous class only. The comparable degrees of weight/shape and muscularity concerns in men and women in the affected classes underline the relevance of both aspects in both genders. Classes could be distinguished by harmful behaviors, like restrained eating or emotional exercise, proving the clinical significance of body image concerns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. BodiMojo: Efficacy of a Mobile-Based Intervention in Improving Body Image and Self-Compassion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Donovan, Elizabeth; Cousineau, Tara; Yates, Kayla; McGowan, Kayla; Cook, Elizabeth; Lowy, Alice S; Franko, Debra L

    2018-01-18

    Mobile interventions promoting positive body image are lacking. This study presents a randomized controlled evaluation of BodiMojo, a mobile application (app) intervention grounded in self-compassion to promote positive body image. A sample of 274 adolescents, mean (SD) age = 18.36 (1.34) years, 74% female, were allocated to a control group or used BodiMojo for 6 weeks. Appearance esteem, body image flexibility, appearance comparison, mood, and self-compassion were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. Significant time by group interactions emerged for appearance esteem and self-compassion, with appearance esteem and self-compassion increasing in the intervention relative to the control group. These findings provide preliminary support for BodiMojo, a cost-effective mobile app for positive body image.

  12. Imagem corporal e bailarinas profissionais Body image of professional ballet dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Nogueira Haas

    2010-06-01

    classical dancers of different countries will be identified. This is a descriptive research. The sample was composed of 15 professional adult ballet dancers and 16 jazz dancers from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, and nine professional adult dancers working in New York, United States. The instrument used to assess the level of satisfaction with body image was the Body Shape Questionnaire - BSQ, which measures the degree of concern with the body shape, self-depreciation due to physical appearance and the feeling of being overweight. Data were analyzed with the statistical program SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test and ANOVA test were applied for data comparison and p < 0.05 values were considered significant. The findings show that the dancers, regardless of their modality of choice, present levels of dissatisfaction and distortion of their body image. There were no statistically significant differences (p = 0.96 in the three groups evaluated. In conclusion, studies about body image in risk groups are important for the identification of serious disturbs in concomitance with eating disorders, which bring deleterious consequences to the health of dancers.

  13. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerbeeck, S.F.L. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: stephen.vm@rad-vanmeerbeeck.be; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Janssens, S.; Mortier, G. [Department of Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one

  14. Restoring Body Image After Cancer (ReBIC): Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplen, Mary Jane; Wong, Jiahui; Warner, Ellen; Toner, Brenda

    2018-03-10

    Purpose This study aimed to test a group psychosocial intervention focused on improving disturbances of body image (BI), sexual functioning, and quality of life in breast cancer (BC) survivors. Methods A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an 8-week group intervention in women after BC treatment. The manual-based intervention combined two powerful ingredients: expressive guided-imagery exercises integrated within a model of group-therapy principles. The intervention facilitates exploration of identity, the development of new self-schemas, and personal growth. In addition, the intervention included an educational component on the social and cultural factors affecting women's self-esteem and BI. The control condition included standard care plus educational reading materials. One hundred ninety-four BC survivors who had expressed concerns about negative BI and/or difficulties with sexual functioning participated in the study; 131 were randomly assigned to the intervention, and 63 were assigned to the control condition. Participants were followed for 1 year. Results Women in the intervention group reported significantly less concern/distress about body appearance ( P < .01), decreased body stigma ( P < .01), and lower level of BC-related concerns ( P < .01), compared with women in the control group. BC-related quality of life was also better in the intervention group compared with the control group at the 1-year follow-up ( P < .01). There was no statistically significant group difference in sexual functioning. Conclusion Restoring Body Image After Cancer (ReBIC), a group intervention using guided imagery within a group-therapy approach, is an effective method for addressing BI-related concerns and quality of life post-BC. The manual-based intervention can be easily adapted to both cancer centers and primary care settings.

  15. Factors Associated With Body Image Perception Among Brazilian Students From Low Human Development Index Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Thábyta Silva; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; de Almeida, Paulo César; Martins, Mariana Cavalcante; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual factors associated with body image perception in a sample of adolescents from schools in low Human Development Index areas in Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 609 boys and 573 girls (aged 11-17 years). Body image perception (nine-silhouettes scale) and sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual variables were included. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. Most boys (76.9%) and girls (77.5%) were dissatisfied with their body image. Body mass index status and healthy body image evaluation were significantly associated with body image dissatisfaction in both boys and girls ( p < .001), and daily fruit consumption was associated with body image dissatisfaction only in boys ( p = .035). Education and health care focused on body image can pay special attention to young people from vulnerable areas with unhealthy nutritional status and focus on strategies that enable improving the perception of a healthy body and a healthy diet.

  16. The Relationship Between Body Image and Domains of Sexual Functioning Among Heterosexual, Emerging Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Quinn-Nilas, MA

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest important linkages between body image and sexual functioning constructs and indicates that interventions to improve body image could have concomitant benefits related to sexual experience.

  17. Hubungan Antara Body Image Dan Self-esteem Pada Dewasa Awal Tuna Daksa

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Dahlia Nur Permata

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini meneliti mengenai pengaruh body image terhadap selfesteem pada dewasa awal tuna daksa. Hipotesis pada penelitian ini adalah adanya hubungan positif antara body image dan self-esteem pada dewasa awal tuna daksa. Semakin positif body image maka semakin tinggi self-esteem yang dimiliki, begitu juga sebaliknya, semakin negatif body image maka semakin rendah self-esteem yang dimiliki. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 30 dewasa awal tuna daksa yang memiliki cacat tubuh seteleh kelahiran. D...

  18. Body Image v kontextu soudobé společnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Rolínek, Igor

    2008-01-01

    The thesis focuses on body image - defines the main characteristics of this area, describes cultural influences and body image history and explains basic quantitative values (Body Mass Index, Waist Hip Ratio, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis). Furthemore the thesis deals with media influence on body ideal formation process, especially in gay subculture. The research part explores recent situation of body image in gay subculture compared with heterosexual males. This section includes the conte...

  19. Testing a dissonance body image intervention among young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2014-02-01

    Body image and eating disorder interventions based on cognitive dissonance have been shown to be effective among girls and women aged 14 and above. This article reports a preliminary examination of whether a dissonance intervention is also effective when delivered in a school setting to 12- and 13-year-old girls in the United Kingdom. Girls (N = 106, mean age = 12.07 years, SD = .27) were allocated to the intervention condition or a waitlist control. In contrast to the control group, girls in the intervention condition reported significant reductions in body dissatisfaction and internalization of a thin body ideal post-intervention. There was no significant change in self-reported dietary restraint for either condition. In addition, compared with the control group, girls in the intervention condition showed increased resilience to negative media effects 1-month post-intervention. Results suggests that dissonance based programs can reduce body dissatisfaction, internalization and negative media effects among a younger group of girls than previously examined and in a United Kingdom school setting. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Three-dimensional imaging of atomic four-body processes

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M; Fischer, D; Kollmus, H; Madison, D H; Jones, S; Ullrich, J

    2003-01-01

    To understand the physical processes that occur in nature we need to obtain a solid concept about the 'fundamental' forces acting between pairs of elementary particles. it is also necessary to describe the temporal and spatial evolution of many mutually interacting particles under the influence of these forces. This latter step, known as the few-body problem, remains an important unsolved problem in physics. Experiments involving atomic collisions represent a useful testing ground for studying the few-body problem. For the single ionization of a helium atom by charged particle impact, kinematically complete experiments have been performed since 1969. The theoretical analysis of such experiments was thought to yield a complete picture of the basic features of the collision process, at least for large collision energies. These conclusions are, however, almost exclusively based on studies of restricted electron-emission geometries. We report three- dimensional images of the complete electron emission pattern for...

  1. Impact of the media on adolescent body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Claire V; Sunday, Suzanne R; Becker, Anne E

    2005-07-01

    The mass media have become a powerful force throughout the world and strongly influence how people see themselves and others. This is particularly true for adolescents. This article discusses how the media affect body image and self-esteem and why the media seem to have such strong effects on adolescents. The differences in responses to the media in adolescents of different ethnic, racial, and cultural backgrounds are discussed. Although this article focuses primarily on teenage girls, the data for adolescent boys is reviewed as well. Finally, this article discusses possible ways to help adolescents become more active viewers of the media and help prevent the decrease in body esteem that so often occurs during adolescence.

  2. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to

  3. Body-image dissatisfaction is strongly associated with chronic dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenström, Tom; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Josefsson, Kim; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma S A; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Heinonen, Erkki; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2013-09-05

    Individual depressive symptoms may contribute to the risk of chronic depression. This study aimed to explore which symptoms predict chronic dysphoria, a hallmark of depression. 1057 participants from the population-based Young Finns study were examined for four times during a 16-year period. Those with a modified Beck's Depression Inventory score in the upper third at all four screenings were considered to have chronic dysphoria (n=135). Participants with only one high depression score formed the reference group of transient dysphoria (n=179). Individual items of the Inventory were analyzed in terms of their association with dysphoria status and chronicity, controlling for potential confounding factors, such as personality assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Body-image dissatisfaction was strongly associated with chronically elevated dysphoria (Bonferroni-corrected p=0.006). The degree of body-image dissatisfaction was associated with the probability for chronic dysphoria in a dose-response manner, with the estimated probability ranging from 0.01 to 0.60 as a function of item response. The association remained after adjustments for a wide range of personality characteristics. The study relied on self-reports of mood and personality, and lacked information on external opinion on participants appearances. The requirement of full time-series data may have resulted in attrition-related bias. Body-image dissatisfaction was a strong predictor of chronic depression characterized by dysphoria. This finding suggests that dysfunctional attitude towards oneself might represent a potentially important target for cognitive therapies and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phase-contrast imaging for body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huajie; Hu, Renfang; Wali, Faiz; Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Shenghao; Gu, Yonggang; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for human body composition measurement, especially for the bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. The proposed method, using the absorption and differential phase information retrieved from X-ray grating-based interferometer (XGBI) to measure the BMD, has potential to replace dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which is currently widely used for body composition measurement. The DEXA method employs two absorption images acquired at two different X-ray spectra (high energy and low energy) to calculate the human body composition. In this paper, a new method to calculate BMD using a single X-ray measurement is proposed. XGBI is a relatively new X-ray technique that provides absorption, phase and scattering information simultaneously using a single X-ray spectrum. With the absorption and differential phase information retrieved from XGBI, BMD can be measured using only one single X-ray spectrum. Numerical simulations are performed with a body phantom of bone (Cortical, ICRU-44) surrounded by soft tissue (Soft, ICRU-44). BMD is calculated with both the DEXA method and the proposed method. Results show that BMD can be measured accurately with the proposed method; moreover, better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is obtained compared to DEXA. With the proposed method, BMD can be measured with XGBI setup. Further, the proposed method can be realized using current X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) apparatus without any hardware modification, suggesting that this technique can be a promising supplementary function to current XPCI equipment. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Body image in patients with mental disorders : Characteristics, associations with diagnosis and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Aerts, Liza C; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A

    Objective: Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety

  6. Body Image in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury During Inpatient Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diemen, Tijn; van Leeuwen, Christel; van Nes, Ilse; Geertzen, Jan; Post, Marcel

    Objectives: (1) To investigate the course of body image in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) during their first inpatient rehabilitation stay; and (2) to explore the association between demographic and injury-related variables and body image and the association between body image and

  7. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka L; Ertel, Karen A; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996-2014) for English language studies of (1) depression, (2) body image, and (3) pregnancy or postpartum. In total, 19 studies matched these criteria. Cross-sectional studies consistently found a positive association between body image dissatisfaction and perinatal depression. Prospective cohort studies found that body image dissatisfaction predicted incident prenatal and postpartum depression; findings were consistent across different aspects of body image and various pregnancy and postpartum time periods. Prospective studies that examined the reverse association found that depression influenced the onset of some aspects of body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy, but few evaluated the postpartum onset of body image dissatisfaction. The majority of studies found that body image dissatisfaction is consistently but weakly associated with the onset of prenatal and postpartum depression. Findings were less consistent for the association between perinatal depression and subsequent body image dissatisfaction. While published studies provide a foundation for understanding these issues, methodologically rigorous studies that capture the perinatal variation in depression and body image via instruments validated in pregnant women, consistently adjust for important confounders, and include ethnically diverse populations will further elucidate this association.

  8. The Politics and Economics of Body Image and Sexuality in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body image is internal and external. It is seen by ourselves and by others. Social body image constructs seem to be built on what is deemed to be beautiful within our cultural contexts, which in turn is perceived as valuable and in turn has higher social standing because everyone else looks up to it. The politics of body image ...

  9. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro‐Silva

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western‐like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern.

  10. Adolescent Girls and Body Image: Influence of Outdoor Adventure on Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Wilson, Susie K.; Roberts, Nina S.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor adventure may improve body image. However, minimal research exists on the effect outdoor adventure has on body image in adolescent girls, a demographic continually plagued by negative body image. In response, this exploratory study considered the influence of one outdoor adventure program in the San Francisco Bay Area. Through…

  11. Explorations in body image care: Peplau and practice knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, B

    1998-06-01

    Practitioners in mental health care have long utilized the work of Hildegard Peplau, both for nursing discourse and for practice. At a time when the role of theory in practice is once more being debated, and when theories are being applied in new contexts, this paper examines the contribution that Peplau's work may have to offer altered body image nursing care. A case study is used to highlight concepts in practice, the paper examining the ways in which Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations complement the other elements of practice knowledge that the nurse uses to assist patients and lay carers alike.

  12. Foreign Body in Duodenum Mimicking a Duplication Cyst on Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya Pratap; Mathur, Vinay; Tanger, Ramesh; Gupta, Arun; Kumar, Ayush

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric age group is most vulnerable for the accidental foreign body (FB) ingestion which may go unnoticed. These patients present with symptoms or complications as a result of FB and may mimic other conditions on various investigations. We describe a 9-month old infant who ingested crystal gel ball and presented with vomiting for a month. On radiological imaging it was interpreted as duplication cyst of the duodenum. At operation, crystal gel ball was retrieved. Our case vindicates importance of keeping various possibilities in mind as differential diagnoses during evaluation and management of surgical ailments such as the duplication cyst of duodenum.

  13. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  14. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Are there differences in the attitudinal body image between adolescent anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuska, J; Kaltiala-Heino, R; Rantanen, P; Koivisto, A M

    2005-06-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is as well a risk factor for eating disorders (ED) and a central feature of ED. The exact nature of body image in adolescent ED is still debated. This study examined attitudinal body image in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), and the association of age, maturational timing, duration of eating disorder, actual weight and general psychological distress with the attitudinal body image in ED. The study group consisted of an outpatient clinical sample of adolescents attending for assessment because of eating disorders. The attitudinal body image of 57 adolescents (girls) aged 14-21 years was studied at the beginning of the treatment. The attitudes to body shape, body size, appearance, tone and femininity were studied by a Likert format scale and by the body dissatisfaction (BD) and drive for thinness scales (DT) from EDI-2 inventory. Bulimics reported more body image dissatisfaction than anorectics. In multivariate analyses BN and higher general psychological distress had strong associations with body image dissatisfaction. Longer duration of ED and earlier menarche were also associated with negative body image. Attitudinal body image differs between adolescent AN and BN. The psychological distress has a great impact on body image in ED, which should be taken into account in assessment and in treatment interventions.

  16. Limited role of body satisfaction and body image self-consciousness in sexual frequency and satisfaction in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoš, Sandra Nakić; Vraneš, Hrvojka Soljačić; Šunjić, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the role of maternal body image and body image self-consciousness in sexual satisfaction and intercourse frequency during pregnancy when controlling for satisfaction with partnership. Pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy (N = 150) participated in the study. Body image was measured by the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS) and Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale (BISC), while relationship satisfaction was measured by different subscales of the Perceived Quality of Marital Relationship (PQMR) Scale. Sexual satisfaction was also measured by one of the subscales of the PQMR (Intimate Relationship). The sexual behavior questionnaire comprised questions about frequency of sexual intercourse, desire, and other aspects of sexual functioning as well as the reasons that might prevent women from having intercourse during pregnancy. Findings suggested that satisfaction with body image and body image self-consciousness were related to sexual satisfaction. Nevertheless, other aspects of partnership, such as communication, appeared to be much more important predictors of sexual satisfaction than body image variables. The best predictor of sexual frequency was fear that intercourse might harm the fetus. Implications for education about sexuality issues in pregnancy are discussed.

  17. Examining pain, body image, and depressive symptoms in patients with lymphedema secondary to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Irene; Novy, Diane M; Chang, David W; Cox, Matthew G; Fingeret, Michelle Cororve

    2015-11-01

    Depression and reduced quality of life are often reported in patients with upper-extremity lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment. Little is known about how pain and body image influence depression in patients with lymphedema. The current study examined the association of pain intensity and body integrity beliefs with depressive symptoms and the extent to which body image dissatisfaction mediated these associations. A cross-sectional sample of patients with lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment completed self-report questionnaires of pain, body image, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses and tests of mediation were conducted to examine the associations among the variables of interest. Pain intensity and body integrity beliefs were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Further, body image dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between pain and depressive symptoms, indicating that higher levels of pain led to higher states of body image dissatisfaction, which, in turn, led to greater depressive symptoms. Body image dissatisfaction also mediated the relationship between body integrity beliefs and depressive symptoms, suggesting that greater body integrity beliefs led to higher dissatisfaction with one's body and subsequently to greater depressive symptoms. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that pain intensity and body image are important factors in understanding depressive symptoms in patients with lymphedema. Clinical implications include screening for pain and body image concerns in this population to identify patients who are in distress. Counseling interventions targeting body image dissatisfaction can also be potentially helpful for patients with lymphedema. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Body Image Perceptions of Women Veterans with Military Sexual Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freysteinson, Wyona M; Mellott, Susan; Celia, Tania; Du, Jinlan; Goff, Marilyn; Plescher, Tana; Allam, Zoheb

    2018-04-12

    The researchers were invited to a transitional home for homeless women veterans to help veterans with body image issues. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 12 veterans who perceived they had a physical difference due to military service. Data were obtained in focus groups where the veterans were invited to share stories. Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology guided the study. The research team learned early in the data collection stage that 11 of the 12 participants suffered military sexual trauma (MST). Three structures emerged in the data: (a) to speak up or not to speak, (b) from military pride to shameful anguish, and (c) invisible scars versus visible scars. A phenomenological interpretation of these invisible scars uncovered that viewing self in a mirror was depicted as viewing a stranger. Being with others, including family, was described as wearing a fake face. The phrase I am broken defined intimate relationships which were non-existent or strained. Shame permeated all body image structures. As the veterans listened to each other, they began to see themes in their stories. There was a shared sense of identity and a movement toward greater self-understanding and resolving. In addition to the recommendations the participants had regarding prevention of MST and recovery care of those with MST, implications for research and practice are provided.

  19. Does nutritional status interfere with adolescents' body image perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Karla L; Sousa, Ana L L; Carneiro, Carolina S; Nascente, Flávia M N; Póvoa, Thaís I R; Souza, Weimar K S B; Jardim, Thiago S V; Jardim, Paulo C B V

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' body image (BI) may not match their nutritional status. This study selected representative sample of healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 18 from public and private schools. Anthropometric measures were performed in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI) percentile. The silhouette scale proposed by Childress was used to evaluate BI, making it possible to assess BI satisfaction and BI distortion. The sample was composed of 1168 adolescents with a mean age of 14.7 years; 52.9% were female, 50.9% were fair-skinned, 62.4% had consumed or still consume alcohol and 67% attended public school. Male adolescents presented more overweight and obesity (28.4%) (pbody weight and 82.5% of those underweight wished to gain body weight. BI distortion was identified, since 35% of the adolescents who were underweight did not regard themselves thin, 39.1% of the overweight individuals and 62.1% of the obese did not see themselves in their adequate classifications. Adolescents with overweight/obesity were those who presented higher dissatisfaction with BI, mainly the females. Male individuals presented a greater wish of gaining weight. BI distortion was present in adolescents of all classes of BMI percentile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impressions of female body: representations of women and body-image in the brazilian press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Helena Mazer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the representations of women and bodyimage in the brazilian press and it questions the sexual divisions in the society by the images published in the media. It also presents an iconological analysisof the photographs in six editions of the periodical Folha de São Paulo in 2012, randomly chosen. From a critical theory and analysis it shows that the image of women, which has long been used as merchandise in advertising, is increasingly perceived by print journalism as a decoy for readers. The use of certain female images in the media reinforces stereotypes and builds limits for the understanding of more complex contexts. The hypothesis that the female body-image is used in the press in order to determine positions from recurrent aesthetic patterns can be confirmed. The paper also describes the three main female stereoty