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Sample records for body gamma irradiated

  1. Employment of whole-body. gamma. -irradiation in chronic lymphoid leukemia and malignant lymphomas

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    Danilova, N.B.; Baranov, A.E.; Khrushchev, V.G.; Grammatikati, V.S.; Murav' eva, L.I.; Strashnenko, E.S.

    1982-11-01

    There are presented data showing that whole-body therapeutic ..gamma..-irradiation is an effective method of treatment of chronic lymphoid leukosis and lymphomas. Rapid lymphopenic effect, satisfactory diminution of lymph nodes and spleen sizes testify to the effect. The necessity of further investigation of the treatment method is underlined. It is of interest to trace the fate of lymphocyte subpopulations in the course and after treatment. The urgency of working out a most rational scheme for whole-body therapeutic irradiation and for investigating indications for local irradiation of various groups of lymphatic nodes is indicated.

  2. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

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    Bassant, M.H.; Touchard, F.; Court, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee)

    1981-07-06

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures.

  3. Caffeine protects mice against whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation

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    George, K.C.; Hebbar, S.A.; Kale, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. [Biosciences Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    1999-06-01

    Administration of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a major component of coffee, to Swiss mice at doses of 80 or 100 mg/kg body weight 60 min prior to whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation (7.5 Gy) resulted in the survival of 70 and 63% of animals, respectively, at the above doses in contrast to absolutely no survivors (LD-100/25 days) in the group exposed to radiation alone. Pre-treatment with a lower concentration of caffeine (50 mg/kg) did not confer any radioprotection. The protection exerted by caffeine (80 mg/kg), however, was reduced from 70 to 50% if administered 30 min prior to irradiation. The trend statistics reveal that a dose of 80 mg/kg administered 60 min before whole-body exposure to 7.5 Gy is optimal for maximal radioprotection. However, caffeine (80 mg/kg) administered within 3 min after irradiation offered no protection. While there is documentation in the literature that caffeine is an antioxidant and radioprotector against the toxic pathway of radiation damage in a wide range of cells and organisms, this is the first report demonstrating unequivocally its potent radioprotective action in terms of survival of lethally whole-body irradiated mice. (author)

  4. Dose calculation method with 60-cobalt gamma rays in total body irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Scaff, L A M

    2001-01-01

    Physical factors associated to total body irradiation using sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays beams, were studied in order to develop a calculation method of the dose distribution that could be reproduced in any radiotherapy center with good precision. The method is based on considering total body irradiation as a large and irregular field with heterogeneities. To calculate doses, or doses rates, of each area of interest (head, thorax, thigh, etc.), scattered radiation is determined. It was observed that if dismagnified fields were considered to calculate the scattered radiation, the resulting values could be applied on a projection to the real size to obtain the values for dose rate calculations. In a parallel work it was determined the variation of the dose rate in the air, for the distance of treatment, and for points out of the central axis. This confirm that the use of the inverse square law is not valid. An attenuation curve for a broad beam was also determined in order to allow the use of absorbers. In this wo...

  5. Blood-brain barrier permeability after gamma whole-body irradiation: an in vivo microdialysis study

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    Diserbo, M.; Agin, A.; Lamproglou, I.; Mauris, J.; Staali, F.; Multon, E.; Amourette, C

    2002-07-01

    The effects of total-body irradiation on the permeability of rat striatal blood-brain barrier (BBB) to [{sup 3}H]{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid (AIBA) and [{sup 14}C] sucrose were investigated using the microdialysis technique. Seven days, 3 and 6 weeks, and 3, 5, and 8 months after gamma exposure at a dose of 4.5 Gy, no modification of the permeability to both [{sup 3}H]AIBA and [{sup 14}C] sucrose was observed. But, in the course of the initial syndrome, we observed a significant but transient increase in the BBB permeability to the two markers between 3 and 17 h after exposure. A secondary transient 'opening' of the BBB to [{sup 14}C] sucrose was noticed about 28 h following irradiation without the corresponding increase in BBB permeability to [{sup 3}H]AIBA. On the contrary, the transport of [{sup 3}H]AIBA through the BBB was decreased between 33 and 47 h postradiation. In conclusion, our experiments showed early modifications of BBB permeability after a moderate-dose whole-body exposure. Confirmation of these results with other tracers, in another experimental model or in humans, would have clinical applications for designing appropriate pharmacotherapy in radiotherapy and treatment of accidental overexposure. (author)

  6. Whole-body. gamma. -irradiation in the treatment of hemoblastoses in man

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    Shishkova, T.V.; Danilova, N.B.; Khrushchev, V.G.; Grammatikati, V.S.

    1982-11-01

    An analysis of foreign literature on treatment acute leukoses with irradiation and transplantation of allogenic bone marrow is given. It is shown that whole-body irradiation used to increase treatment efficiency of man hemoblastosis are widely applied nowadays abroad. Bone marrow transplantation including compulsory whole-body irradiation with 10 Gy is the only practicable attempt to eradicate leukosis. Whole-body irradiation unlike chemotherapy provides more durable survival rate without recurrence; it doesn't require hospitalization and continuity of treatment following the general course; it doesn't produce toxic complications.

  7. Erythropoiesis in mice exposed to continuous whole body irradiation of gamma-rays

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    Joshima, Hisamasa; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Matsushita, Satoru; Kashima, Masatoshi

    1988-09-01

    The erythropoietic effects of continuous ..gamma..-irradiation with a daily regime of 0.029, 0.083 and 0.374 Gy were studied in mice. Irradiation was performed with /sup 137/Cs ..gamma..-rays for 22 hr/day. The length of irradiation time varied from 3 to 112 days. Erythropoiesis was investigated on the basis of clearance of /sup 59/Fe from the circulation and of incorporation of /sup 59/Fe into circulating erythrocytes and erythropoietic tissue. A chemical method for the separation of heme and nonheme iron-containing fractions was employed to examine the uptake of /sup 59/Fe into both the heme and nonheme iron fractions. Daily exposure to 0.029 and 0.083 Gy caused no significant changes in erythropoiesis. Daily exposure to 0.374 Gy caused some significant changes in erythropoiesis. On day 7 of continuous irradiation, the amount of /sup 59/Fe incorporated into erythrocytes decreased, but the values returned to normal on day 14 and 28 of continuous irradiation, indicating recovery within erythropoietic tissues at earlier time. On day 56, depressed incorporation of /sup 59/Fe into erythrocytes with normal rate of disappearance of /sup 59/Fe from the circulation and increased heme level of /sup 59/Fe in the femoral marrow were observed. Results observed on day 56 may suggest the possibility of ineffective erythropoiesis during the continuous irradiation. On day 112, some mice showed almost the same changes in erythropoiesis as those mice exposed to acute X-rays radiation.

  8. A Comparison of Molecular and Histopathological Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton- or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Hamilton, Stanley; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    There are many consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment which can adversely affect the health of a crew member. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) involving nausea and vomiting, damage to radio-sensitive tissue such as the blood forming organs and gastrointestinal tract, and cancer are some of these negative effects. The space radiation environment is ample with protons and contains gamma rays as well. Little knowledge exists to this point, however, regarding the effects of protons on mammalian systems; conversely several studies have been performed observing the effects of gamma rays on different animal models. For the research presented here, we wish to compare our previous work looking at whole-body exposure to protons using a mouse model to our studies of mice experiencing whole-body exposure to gamma rays as part of the radio-adaptive response. Radio-adaptation is a well-documented phenomenon in which cells exposed to a priming low dose of radiation prior to a higher dose display a reduction in endpoints like chromosomal aberrations, cell death, micronucleus formation, and more when compared to their counterparts receiving high dose-irradiation only. Our group has recently completed a radio-adaptive experiment with C57BL/6 mice. For both this study and the preceding proton research, the gastrointestinal tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation and the isolated small intestinal tissue was fixed in formalin for histopathological examination or snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA isolation. Histopathologic observation of the tissue using standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest doses of 0.1 Gy of protons and 0.05 Gy of gamma rays, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. A smaller percentage of crypts showed 3 or more apoptotic lesions in animals that received 6 Gy of gamma-irradiation compared to mice

  9. Effect of whole body proton or gamma irradiation on genetic damage and hematological variables

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    Shim, Ji-Young; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Yi, Jae Youn; Kang, Chang-Mo; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    For the purpose of cancer therapy or spaceflight with mission or simple trip, a considerable concern about the absorbed amount of radiation and its deleterious effect on physiological system, if any, has been increased. Many efforts have been dedicated to estimate the risk, however, there is very little known about the spectrum of radiations during the flight through arctic zone as well as the effects of low-dose radiation. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of proton or gamma-irradiation at a recommended dose limit of occupational (20mGy per year) and the standardized radio-therapeutic fraction dose (2Gy) on gastro-intestinal damages, peripheral hematology, and the frequency of micronuclei formation.

  10. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

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    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  11. 3-aminobenzamide, a poly (ADP ribose) polymerase inhibitor, enhances wound healing in whole body gamma irradiated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamoly, Tarek; El-Denshary, Ezzeddin S; Saad, Shokry Mohamed; El-Ghazaly, Mona A

    2015-09-01

    The custom use of radiotherapy was found to participate in the development of chronic unhealed wounds. In general, exposure to gamma radiation stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that eventually leads to damaging effect. Conversely, overexpression of a nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme (PARP) after oxidative insult extremely brings about cellular injury due to excessive consumption of NAD and ATP. Here, we dedicated our study to investigate the role of 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a PARP inhibitor, on pregamma irradiated wounds. Two full-thickness (6 mm diameter) wounds were created on the dorsum of Swiss albino mouse. The progression of wound contraction was monitored by capturing daily photo images. Exposure to gamma radiation (6Gy) exacerbated the normal healing of excisional wounds. Remarkably, topical application of 3-AB cream (50 µM) revealed a marked acceleration in the rate of wound contraction. Likewise, PARP inhibition ameliorated the unbalanced oxidative/nitrosative status of granulated skin tissues. Such effect was significantly revealed by the correction of the reduced antioxidant capacity and the enhanced lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and myeloperoxidase contents. Moreover, application of 3-AB modified the cutaneous nitrite content throughout healing process. Conversely, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines were down-regulated by PARP inhibition. The mitochondrial ATP content showed a lower consumption rate on 3-AB-treated wound bed as well. In parallel, the mRNA expressions of Sirt-1 and acyl-COA oxidase-2 (ACOX-2) were up-regulated; whom functions control the mitochondrial ATP synthesis and lipid metabolism. The current data suggested that inhibition of PARP-1 enzyme may accelerate the delayed wound healing in whole body gamma irradiated mice by early modifying the oxidative stress as well as the inflammatory response.

  12. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals

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    Sara Aly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic activity and the toxicity of ketorolac in normal and fractionated (1.5 Gy/day/4 days γ-irradiated animals. Determination of brain serotonin content and serum prostaglandin level were also undertaken. The analgesic activity was tested using formalin test, at three dose levels (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg after 1 and 7 days post radiation exposure. LD50 determinations and assessment of liver and kidney function tests were performed. Our results indicated marked analgesic effects on the early and late phases of nociception. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation increased brain serotonin content. The acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 of normal animals. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation induced an elevation of gastric mucin content, urea and BUN levels on the 1st day post irradiation, whereas, albumin level was lowered and globulin level was elevated after 7 days post irradiation. Depending on this study the dose of ketorolac used for treating cancer patients addressed to radiotherapy should be reduced, however, this requires further clinical confirmation.

  13. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: II. Hematological variables and cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, D. S.; Pecaut, M. J.; Miller, G. M.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of part II of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma-radiation on circulating blood cells, functional characteristics of splenocytes, and cytokine expression after whole-body irradiation at varying total doses and at low- and high-dose-rates (LDR, HDR). Young adult C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were irradiated with either 1 cGy/min or 80 cGy/min photons from a 60Co source to cumulative doses of 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy. The animals were euthanized at 4 days post-exposure for in vitro assays. Significant dose- (but not dose-rate-) dependent decreases were observed in erythrocyte and blood leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion by activated spleen cells when compared to sham-irradiated controls (p < 0.05). Basal proliferation of leukocytes in the blood and spleen increased significantly with increasing dose (p < 0.05). Significant dose rate effects were observed only in thrombocyte counts. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and splenocyte secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were not affected by either the dose or dose rate of radiation. The data demonstrate that the responses of blood and spleen were largely dependent upon the total dose of radiation employed and that an 80-fold difference in the dose rate was not a significant factor in the great majority of measurements.

  14. Differential effects of whole-body {gamma}-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

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    Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-05-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist) and {beta}-endorphin (an {epsilon}-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, {gamma}-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a {delta}-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and {beta}-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or {beta}-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by {beta}-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of {mu}- and {epsilon}-opioid receptors to {gamma}-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  15. Gemstone dedicated gamma irradiation development

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    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: nminoru@ipen.br; prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to its poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator constructed in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations, were performed. With the definitive optimized irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. This work presents some optimization parameters and the expected performance of the irradiator. (author)

  16. Differential androgenesis in gamma irradiated mice

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    Kim, Jihyang; Yoon, Yongdal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The Leydig cells of the testis account for at least 75% of the total testosterone produced in the normal adult male. Whereas the production of estrogen from androgen is catalyzed by aromatase cytochrome P450, which is found in many tissues, including gonad, brain, adipose tissue, bone, and heart. The gamma-irradiation causes the impairment of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male mice. The present study was performed to analyze changes in testosterone concentrations and expression of steroidogenic enzyme of mice after whole body gamma-irradiation. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were irradiated with 6.5 or 10 Gy. At days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 after irradiation, testes were removed and processed for paraffin sections and isolation of mRNA. We calculated the gonad index from body and testis weight, and checked the testis volume. Hormonal analysis was performed by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum and intratesticular fluid. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression kinetics of the apoptotic gene and the cytochrome P450 aromatase gene after irradiation. In gamma-irradiated mice, the body weight reduced in comparison to that of the control group. Therefore, gonad indices increased. The testosterone concentrations in serum and intratesticular fluid were significantly reduced. RT- PCR data represented that the expression of Fas, Fas ligand, and aromatase cytochrome P450 showed the specific patterns against control groups. These results indicated that gamma- irradiation of adult mice induced the alteration of androgenesis and suggested that might counteract the spermatogenesis.

  17. Acute effects of whole body gamma irradiation on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the pig; Effets aigus d'une irradiation corps entier sur la secretion pancreatique exocrine chez le porc

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    Monti, P.; Scanff, P.; Joubert, C.; Vergnet, M.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DPRH/SRBE, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2004-06-01

    Reports on radiation damage to the pancreas deal essentially with long-term morphological changes with few data on pancreatic exocrine function. The aim of this work was to study the acute effects of whole body irradiation on volume and enzyme activities in the pancreatic juice. A whole body gamma irradiation (6 Gy) was investigated in pigs with continuous sampling of pancreatic juice before and after exposure via an indwelling catheter in the pancreatic duct. For each sample collected, total protein concentration and enzyme activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, lipase and amylase were determined. Pancreatic juice volume was monitored during all periods of collection. The volume of pancreatic juice secreted daily decreased one day after irradiation and remained lower than the control values over the experimental period. Total proteins secreted in the pancreatic juice and total activities of pancreatic enzymes were reduced similarly. On the other hand, only specific activities of elastase and lipase were affected by irradiation. Whole body gamma irradiation resulted in a rapid and marked decrease of exocrine pancreatic secretion, in terms of volume as well as secreted enzymes. This may contribute in part to the intestinal manifestations of the acute and/or late radiation syndrome. (author)

  18. Thyroxine clearance in rats within the first month after the single whole-body {gamma} - irradiation at a dose of 10Gy

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    Pryadko, Kirill A. [Institute of Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of acute whole-body {gamma} -irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy on thyroxine (T{sub 4}) plasma clearance rate (PCR) and thyroidal and blood T4 concentration ([T{sub 4}]) were examined within one month after exposure. The PCR values were measured using the bolus injection, single-compartmental approach. To eliminate the influence of radiation-induced anorexia animals were fasting for two days before the pharmacokinetic experiments. Hormone concentrations in blood and in thyroid tissue were measured by RIA. Throughout the observation period, PCR was elevated in irradiated rats with maximum at day 4 after exposure (0.56{+-}0.04 vs. 0.36{+-}0.03 ml/h100 gbw, P<0.001). [T{sub 4}] in blood was not significantly different from that in control animals. Thyroidal [T{sub 4}] was significantly decreased in irradiated animals 4 days after exposure (151.8{+-}21.7 vs. 258.8{+-}29.9 pmol/mg protein, P<0.01) and gradually increased after day 9. 10 Gy {gamma} -irradiation causes the intensification of T{sub 4} metabolism without the pronounced changes in concentration. Presumably, at early terms the rising local demand in O{sub 4} can not be compensated with the existing level of production. Alterations in the intensity of T{sub 4} metabolism are evident at least one month after exposure but they may not be detected without taking into account kinetic data.

  19. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

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    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  20. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

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    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  1. IMMUNE TOLERANCE INDUCED BY GAMMA-RAY IRRADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练燕; 王延江; 粟永萍; 冉新泽; 艾国平; 刘晓宏; 郭朝华; 程天民

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To detect the existence of immune tolerance induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Methods: Peritoneal cells were harvested from mice subjected to 5 Gy 60Co gamma-ray total body irradiation at 3d, 7d, 15d and 30d, then their counts, morphological changes and IL-12 gene expression were investigated. Results: After irradiation, the peritoneal cells were sharply reduced, the cell morphology shifted from round-like to polymorphic and fusiform with some processes, expression of IL-12 p35 was seriously suppressed, while that of IL-12 p40 greatly enhanced. Conclusion: Our data highly suggest that the gamma-ray irradiation could potentially induce dendritic cell (DC) commitment and immune tolerance.

  2. Radiation effects on rat testes. VIII. Kinetic properties of hydrolases following partial body gamma irradiation of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G S; Bawa, S R

    1975-05-01

    Kinetic properties such as Michaelis constant (Km), maximum velocity (Vmax), temperature coefficient (Q10) and energy of activation (Ea) for hydrolysis of adenosine-5'-phosphate at pH 9.5 and sodium pyrophosphate at pH 8.35 by normal and radiated testes supernatants have been described. Kinetic parameters are related to respective phosphohydrolases (phosphatases). (1) Km values for 5'nucleotidase and inorganic pyrophosphatase of normal testis were determined as 1.25 X 10(-3)M and 0.81 X 10(-3)M respectively; (II) Vmax correspond to 318 mug P/15 min and 430 mug P/15 min for 100 mg tissue respectively; (III) Q10 for 5 nucleotidase is 1.7 and for inorganic pyrophosphatase is 4.2 at a temperature 10-30degreesC; (IV) Ea for hydrolysis of AMP and sodium pyrophosphate were calculated by Arrhenius plots as 17000 and 9000 cal/mol. (V) Km values for irradiated enzymes are similar to the control values suggesting that the binding capacities of these enzymes with their substrates remain unaffected after radiation; (VI) Vmax for radiated enzymes correspond to a value of 500 mug P/100 mg tissue/15 min for 5'nucleotidase and 118 mug P/100 mug tissue/15 min for inorganic pyrophosphatase; (VII) 110 for 5'nucleotidase is 2.2 and inorganic pyrophosphatase 1.16 at 10-30degreesC; (VIII) Ea for irradiated 5'nucleotidase is comparable to those of normal rats whereas for inorganic pyrophosphatase Ea is moderately declined. The observed changes have been related to the different types of metabolic activity in germinal and nongerminal cells of testes.

  3. Dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica

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    Kaur, Navjeet [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Mohan, E-mail: mohansinghphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Lakhwant [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Awasthi, A.M. [Thermodynamics Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452001 (India); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The present article reports the effect of gamma irradiation on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of muscovite mica. • Dielectric and electrical relaxations have been analyzed in the framework of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and Cole–Cole formalisms. • The frequency dependent electrical conductivity has been rationalized using Johnsher’s universal power law. • The experimentally measured electric modulus and conductivity data have been fitted using Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation function. - Abstract: In the present research, the dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated muscovite mica was studied in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz–10 MHz and temperature range of 653–853 K, using the dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. The dielectric constants (ϵ′ and ϵ′′) are found to be high for gamma irradiated muscovite mica as compared to the pristine sample. The frequency dependence of the imaginary part of complex electric modulus (M′′) and dc conductivity data conforms Arrhenius law with single value of activation energy for pristine sample and two values of activation energy for gamma irradiated mica sample. The experimentally assessed electric modulus and conductivity information have been interpreted by the Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation explanation. Using the Cole–Cole framework, an analysis of real and imaginary characters of the electric modulus for pristine and gamma irradiated sample was executed which reflects the non-Debye relaxation mechanism.

  4. Effect of acute whole-body neutron gamma irradiation on the dopamine neuronal uptake-sites; Effets d`une irradiation globale aigue a preponderance neutron sur le transporteur de capture neuronale de la dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Mahfoudi, H.; Lambert, F.; Burckhart, M.F.; Fatome, M. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-12-31

    The effects of (neutron-gamma) irradiation on the dopamine uptake sites distribution were investigated, using quantitative autoradiography. Brain ares examined are striatum, lateral septum, substantia nigra, gyrus dentatus, ventral tegmental area, interfascicular nu and antero-ventral thalamic nu. Three hours after exposure at the dose of 4 Gy, a decrease (- 33 %) of dopamine uptake sites was observed in the gyrus dentatus. (authors)

  5. Gamma irradiation effects in W films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claro, Luiz H. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil) and Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei (Brazil); Santos, Ingrid A. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Cassia F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

  6. Antibiotic radioprotection of mice exposed to supralethal whole-body irradiation independent of antibacterial activity. [Gamma radiation, streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, gentamycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastromarino, A.; Wilson, R.

    1976-11-01

    Oral administration of streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, or gentamicin to specific pathogen-free C57 x Af mice in their drinking water (4 mg/ml) for 2 weeks before supralethal whole-body irradiation very significantly prolonged their mean survival times (8.2 to 8.9 days vs 6.9 for controls) to values which exceed those reported for germ-free mice (7.3 days). The total fecal concentrations of aerobes and anaerobes were reduced by kanamycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Streptomycin reduced the anaerobes significantly, but not the aerobes. Unlike germ-free mice, these antibiotic-treated mice did excrete free bile acids, products of bacterial action. Oral antibiotic treatment was ineffective in altering the transit time of the intestinal mucosal cells. Previously reported studies had indicated a correlation between decreased transit time and increased survival after irradiation. No significant correlation between mean survival time after irradiation and mucosal transit time was observed. The data demonstrate that certain antibiotics alter the character of the intestinal bacterial flora and increase protection against supralethal doses of whole-body irradiation. It is concluded that the mechanisms of radioresistance in antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice are different and that in both groups radioresistance is the result of more than elimination of postirradiation infection.

  7. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Forcino, C.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT{sub 2} receptor sites. (author) 72 refs.

  8. ESR identification of gamma-irradiated albendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Seyda

    2010-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of pharmaceuticals is a well-established technology. In the present work, the spectroscopic and kinetic features of the radicals induced in gamma-irradiated solid albendazole samples is investigated at different temperatures in the dose range of 3-34 kGy by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiation with gamma radiation produced two different radical species in albendazole. They were fairly stable at room temperature but relatively unstable above room temperature, giving rise to an unresolved ESR spectrum consisting of three resonance peaks centered at g=2.0057. Decay activation energies of the contributing radical species were calculated to be 47.8 (±13.5) and 50.5 (±9.7) kJ/mol using the signal intensity decay data derived from annealing studies performed at high temperatures. A linear function of the applied dose was found to best describe the experimental dose-response data. Albendazole does not present the characteristics of good dosimetric materials. However, the discrimination of irradiated albendazole from its unirradiated form was possible even 6 months after storage in normal conditions. Based on these findings, it is concluded that albendazole and albendazole-containing drugs can be safely sterilized by gamma radiation and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring their radiosterilization.

  9. Stability of {gamma}-Irradiated Carmine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosentino, Helio M.; Del Mastro, Nelida L. [IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Center of Radiation Technology; Fontenele, Rinaldo S. [Mackenzie Presbiterian Univ. Barueri, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food irradiation is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were irradiated in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494{eta}m show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples irradiated with 4 and 32kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against {gamma}-irradiation.

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on deteriorated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Monti, Michela; Piantanida, Giovanna; Sodo, Armida

    2016-08-01

    Even though gamma radiation application, also at the minimum dosage required for disinfection, causes depolymerization and degradation of the paper substrate, recently published papers seemed, instead, to suggest that γ-rays application could be envisaged in some conditions for Cultural Heritage original documents and books. In some of the published papers, the possible application of γ-rays was evaluated mainly by using mechanical tests that scarcely reflect the chemical modifications induced in the cellulosic support. In the present article the effect of low dosage γ-irradiation on cellulosic substrates was studied and monitored applying different techniques: colorimetry, spectroscopic measurements, carbonyl content and average viscometric degree of polymerization. Two different papers were investigated, a non-sized, non-filled cotton paper, and a commercial permanent paper. To simulate a real deteriorated document, which could need γ-rays irradiation, some samples were submitted to a hydrolysis treatment. We developed a treatment based on the exposition of paper to hydrochloric acid vapors, avoiding any contact of the samples with water. This method induces a degradation similar to that observed on original documents. The samples were then irradiated with 3 kGy γ-rays at a 5258 Gy/h rate. The aforementioned analyses were performed on the samples just irradiated and after artificial ageing. All tests showed negative effects of gamma irradiation on paper. Non-irradiated paper preserves better its appearance and chemical properties both in the short term and after ageing, while the irradiated samples show appreciable color change and higher oxidation extent. Since the Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario is responsible for the choice of all restoration treatments that could be applied on library and archival materials under the protection of the Italian State (http://www.icpal.beniculturali.it/allegati/DM-7

  11. Hybridizability of gamma-irradiated lactic dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.

    1976-03-01

    The hybridizabilities of the gamma-irradiated chicken heart and pig muscle lactic dehydrogenases were estimated by hybridizing the irradiated enzymes with the unirradiated pig heart lactic dehydrogenase. The disc gel electrophoretic patterns of the inter- and intraspecific hybrids showed that the LDH activity of the pig heart isozyme band increased as a function of dose. This observation was analyzed upon the binomial redistribution pattern of the recombined subunits. The result shows that the hybridizabilities of both the chicken heart and pig muscle isozymes decreased along with the loss of catalytic activity and the release from substrate inhibition. The titration of free SH groups of the irradiated chicken isozyme suggested that the unfolding of the peptide chain destroyed the specific tertiary structure needed for the binding of subunits. (auth)

  12. Influence of gamma ray irradiation on metakaolin based sodium geopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertin, D., E-mail: david.lambertin@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SPDE/LP2C, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Boher, C. [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SPDE/LP2C, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Dannoux-Papin, A. [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SPDE/LCFI, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Galliez, K.; Rooses, A.; Frizon, F. [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SPDE/LP2C, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2013-11-15

    Effects of gamma irradiation on metakaolin based Na-geopolymer have been investigated by external irradiation. The experiments were carried out in a gamma irradiator with {sup 60}Co sources up to 1000 kGy. Various Na-geopolymer with three H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O ratios have been studied in terms of hydrogen radiolytic yield. The results show that hydrogen production increases linearly with water content. Gamma irradiation effects on Na-geopolymer microstructure have been investigated with porosity measurements and X-ray pair distribution function analysis. A change of pore size distribution and a structural relaxation have been found after gamma ray irradiation.

  13. Influence of gamma ray irradiation on metakaolin based sodium geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertin, D.; Boher, C.; Dannoux-Papin, A.; Galliez, K.; Rooses, A.; Frizon, F.

    2013-11-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on metakaolin based Na-geopolymer have been investigated by external irradiation. The experiments were carried out in a gamma irradiator with 60Co sources up to 1000 kGy. Various Na-geopolymer with three H2O/Na2O ratios have been studied in terms of hydrogen radiolytic yield. The results show that hydrogen production increases linearly with water content. Gamma irradiation effects on Na-geopolymer microstructure have been investigated with porosity measurements and X-ray pair distribution function analysis. A change of pore size distribution and a structural relaxation have been found after gamma ray irradiation.

  14. Radicals in {gamma}-irradiated wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeva, N.N.; Sadova, S.F.; Sharpatyi, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Radicals were identified in wool fiber {gamma}-irradiated at 77 K by EPR: products of reaction of an electron e and H atom with amino acid residues and a polypeptide chain, and their partial yields at 77 K and the reactivity scale of e with respect to the individual fragments of the protein molecule were determined: [RSSR]: [>C=O{sub p.b.}]:[NH{sub 3}{sup +}-R]:[aromatic ring] = 4:3: > 1:1. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON EPDM ELASTOMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.

    2011-09-22

    Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas to compare their radiation stability. Stainless steel containers having rupture disks were designed for this task. After 130 MRad dose of cobalt-60 radiation in the SRNL Gamma Irradiation Facility, a significant amount of gas was created by radiolysis; however the composition indicated by mass spectroscopy indicated an unexpected increase in the total amount deuterium in both formulations. The irradiated samples retained their ductility in a bend test. No change of sample weight, dimensions, or density was observed. No change of the glass transition temperature as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis was observed, and most of the other dynamic mechanical properties remained unchanged. There appeared to be an increase in the storage modulus of the irradiated samples containing the UV stabilizer above the glass transition, which may indicate hardening of the material by radiation damage. Polymeric materials become damaged by exposure over time to ionizing radiation. Despite the limited lifetime, polymers have unique engineering material properties and polymers continue to be used in tritium handling systems. In tritium handling systems, polymers are employed mainly in joining applications such as valve sealing surfaces (eg. Stem tips, valve packing, and O-rings). Because of the continued need to employ polymers in tritium systems, over the past several years, programs at the Savannah River National Laboratory have been studying the effect of tritium on various polymers of interest. In these studies, samples of materials of interest to the SRS Tritium Facilities (ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon{reg_sign}), Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide, and the elastomer

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on Korean traditional multicolored paintwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Kim, Dae-Woon; Choi, Jong-il; Chung, Yong-Jae; Kang, Dai-Ill; Hoon Kim, Gwang; Son, Kwang-Tae; Park, Hae-Jun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2015-10-01

    Gamma irradiation can destroy fungi and insects involved in the bio-deterioration of organic cultural heritages. However, this irradiation procedure can alter optical and structural properties of historical pigments used in wooden cultural heritage paintings. The crystal structure and color centers of these paintings must be maintained after application of the irradiation procedure. In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on Korean traditional multicolored paintwork (Dancheong) for the preservation of wooden cultural heritages. The main pigments in Korean traditional wooden cultural heritages, Sukganju (Hematite; Fe2O3), Jangdan (Minium; Pb3O4), Whangyun (Crocoite; PbCrO4), and Jidang (Rutile; TiO2), were irradiated by gamma radiation at doses of 1, 5, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, changes in Commision Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color values (L*, a*, b*) were measured using the color difference meter, and their structural changes were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The slightly change in less than 1 dE* unit by gamma irradiation was observed, and structural changes in the Dancheong were stable after exposure to 20 kGy gamma irradiation. In addition, gamma irradiation could be applied to painted wooden cultural properties from the Korean Temple. Based on the color values, gamma irradiation of 20 kGy did not affect the Dancheong and stability was maintained for five months. In addition, the fungicidal and insecticidal effect by less than 5 kGy gamma irradiation was conformed. Therefore, the optical and structural properties of Dancheong were maintained after gamma irradiation, which suggested that gamma irradiation can be used for the preservation of wooden cultural heritages painted with Dancheong.

  17. Time-course of micronucleated erythrocytes in response to whole-body gamma irradiation in a model mammalian species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolich, Igor I; Savina, Natalya V; Ryabokon, Nadezhda I

    2011-01-01

    The time course of the formation of micronucleated polychromatic (MNPCEs) and normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNCEs) in the bone marrow of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber), a model mouse-like species, was studied using the standard micronucleus test at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 hr following whole-body acute γ-irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Based on the existing literature on laboratory mice, it was suggested that such a dose will not have significant effect on erythroid cell proliferation in the bank vole and hence on the time course of the rise of micronucleated cells. In total, ∼905,000 polychromatic (PCEs) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) from 82 adult bank voles were analyzed. Although the mean frequencies of MNNCEs were too low to allow for the correct assessment of their time course, an analysis of PCEs showed an increasing rate of MNPCE appearance at 6 hr that reached a maximum at 18-24 hr after irradiation and subsequently decreased. Because the kinetics of MNPCEs reflects the process of erythropoiesis, the current results regarding the time points of appearance of radiation-induced MNPCEs provide the first information on the prolongation of one of the terminal stages of erythrocyte formation in bank vole specimens, namely the stage of maturation of PCEs from erythroblasts. Moreover, the observed time-course data, as well as the low-background frequencies of MNPCEs and characteristic level of PCEs response to radiation, showed similarities between the two model species: bank vole (this study) and laboratory mice (literature data).

  18. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear], e-mail: laaterre@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    The recording of gamma-ray spectra along an irradiated fuel rod allows the fission products to be qualitatively and quantitatively examined. Among all nondestructive examinations performed on irradiated fuel rods by gamma-ray spectroscopy, the most comprehensive one is the average burnup measurement, which is quantitative. Moreover, burnup measurements by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy are less time-consuming and waste-generating than burnup measurements by radiochemical, destructive methods. This work presents the theoretical foundations and experimental techniques necessary to measure, using nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the average burnup of irradiated fuel rods in a laboratory equipped with hot cells. (author)

  19. SU-E-T-366: Estimation of Whole Body Dose From Cranial Irradiation From C and Perfexion Series Gamma Knife Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S [Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleaveland, OH (United States); Andersen, A; Lulu, B; Das, I [Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleaveland, OH (United States); Cheng, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Leksell Gamma Knife (GK) B & C series contains 201 Cobalt-60 sources with a helmet. The new model, Perfexion uses 192 Cobalt-60 sources without a helmet; using IRIS system for collimation and stereotactic guidance to deliver SRS to brain tumors. Relative dose to extracranial organs at risk (OARs) is measured in phantom in this study for Perfexion and C-series GK. Materials & Methods: Measurements were performed in a Rando anthropomorphic phantom on both systems using a large ion chamber (Keithley-175) for each collimator. The Keithley-175 cc ion chamber was sandwiched between phantom slices at various locations in the phantom to correspond to different extracranial OARs (thyroid, heart, kidney, ovary and testis, etc.) The dose measurement was repeated with OSL detectors for each position and collimator. Results: A large variation is observed in the normalized dose between these two systems. The dose beyond the housing falls off exponentially for Perfexion. Dose beyond the C-series GK housing falls off exponentially from 0–20cm then remains relatively constant from 20–40cm and again falls off with distance but less rapidly. The variation of extracranial dose with distance for each collimator is found to be parallel to each other for both systems. Conclusion: Whole body dose is found to vary significantly between these systems. It is important to measure the extracranial dose, especially for young patients. It is estimated that dose falls off exponentially from the GK housing and is about 1% for large collimators at 75 cm. The dose is two-orders of magnitude smaller for the 4mm collimator. However, this small dose for patient may be significant radiologically.

  20. Degradation of microcystin by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.B. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zheng, Z. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: zzheng@nju.edu.cn; Yang, G.J. [State Power Environmental Protection Research Institute, Nanjing 210031 (China); Zhao, Y.F. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2007-09-21

    The radiolysis of microcystins by gamma irradiation and effects of additives were studied. The degradation value of microcystin-LR was 98.8% at the dose of 8 kGy, while all microcystin-RR could be removed at 5 kGy. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as additives could enhance the degradation efficiency of microcystins. Furthermore, the increase of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} would result in the increase of the degradation efficiencies. However, the addition of Triton X-100, NaNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 2} inhibited the degradation value of microcystins. The effects of additives were more obvious when the lower doses were selected.

  1. Degradation of microcystin by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. B.; Zheng, Z.; Yang, G. J.; Zhao, Y. F.

    2007-09-01

    The radiolysis of microcystins by gamma irradiation and effects of additives were studied. The degradation value of microcystin-LR was 98.8% at the dose of 8 kGy, while all microcystin-RR could be removed at 5 kGy. Na 2CO 3 and H 2O 2 as additives could enhance the degradation efficiency of microcystins. Furthermore, the increase of Na 2CO 3 would result in the increase of the degradation efficiencies. However, the addition of Triton X-100, NaNO 3 and NaNO 2 inhibited the degradation value of microcystins. The effects of additives were more obvious when the lower doses were selected.

  2. Caffeine degradation in water by gamma irradiation, ozonation and ozonation/gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torun Murat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of caffeine were treated with ozone and gamma irradiation. The amounts of remaining caffeine were determined after solid phase extraction as a function of absorbed dose and ozonation time. In addition to this, some important parameters such as inorganic ions, chemical oxygen demand (COD dissolved oxygen and total acidity changes were followed. Caffeine (50 ppm is found to be completely decomposed at 3.0 kGy and 1.2 kGy doses in the absence of H2O2 and in 1.20 mM H2O2 solutions, respectively. In the case of gamma irradiation after ozonation, 50 ppm caffeine was removed at 0.2 kGy when the solution was ozonized for 100 s at a rate of 10 g O3 h-1 in 400 mL 50 ppm paracetamol solution.

  3. Grafting of a LLDPE using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catari, E. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela); Albano, C. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela) and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica (Venezuela)]. E-mail: calbano@ivic.ve; Karam, A. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela)]. E-mail: akaram@quimica.ivic.ve; Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); Silva, P. [Centro de Fisica, Laboratorio de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela); Gonzalez, J. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

    2005-07-01

    In this investigation, the grafting of a commercial linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with different concentrations of diethyl maleate (DEM, 5 and 15 wt.%) was carried out at different absorbed doses from a cobalt-60 source of gamma rays (0, 15, 30, 50, 100, 200 kGy). This process was performed in a decalin solution at 10% w/v to obtain a homogeneous dispersion of the monomer into the polyethylene matrix. The grafting degree was estimated by means of FTIR using a calibration curve reported in literature. Thermal properties of the functional polymers were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Melt flow index (MFI) values were also taken. The results found indicate that the grafting degree increases as the concentration of DEM in the reaction mixture and the absorbed doses are increased upto 100 kGy, as expected. However, the behavior at higher doses is attributed to secondary reactions such as long-chain branching and/or crosslinking, which are faster than radical reactions responsible for the grafting of the DEM onto the polymeric chain. This fact was ascertained by the decrease of the MFI values as the applied irradiation was increased, irrespective of the quantity of DEM used in the grafting reaction. Therefore, in order to obtain a high grafting degree, the absorbed dose should be estimated carefully. Initial degradation temperatures of the grafted PEs decreased when the gamma irradiation dose was higher than 100 kGy. This indicates that the thermal stability decreases as higher doses are applied to the material, which is associated to branching and crosslinking. The grafting degree never exceeded 0.3 mol%, which demonstrates the low efficiency of the functionalization procedure here presented.

  4. Radioprotective effects of Cordyceps sinensis extracts on {gamma}-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu [Wongwang Health Science College, Iri (Korea, Republic of); Kim, On Joong; Kim, Jae Young [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Effect of single intraperitoneal administration of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) extract at 24 hour before whole-body {gamma} - irradiation on the survival ratio, body weight, organ weight changes and serum metabolites in the irradiated mice were investigated. The single pre-administration of Cs extract increased the 40-day survival ration of irradiated mice from 66.7 percent to 83.4 percent. The administration of Cs extract completely prevented weight reductions of spleen and thymus produced by {gamma} - irradiation (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Similar but somewhat less radioprotective effect was also found in the testis of the Cs treated mice. The administration of Cs inhibited the serum hyperglycemia produced by irradiation on the day 7th(P < 0.01). However, it did not influence the serum cholesterol and protein levels on the days examined. The present study is the first report regarding Cs which was tested and found to be radioprotective. (Author)

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of fucoidan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Gu Lee, Sung; Jong Han, Se; Cho, Minho; Cheon Lee, Pyung

    2014-07-01

    The change of molecular structure of fucoidan by gamma irradiation was analyzed by spectral and chemical methods. Fucoidan samples with different molecular weights of 85, 30, 15, and 7 kDa were prepared by radiation degradation of 217 kDa fucoidan. In the molecular weight analysis, the polydispersity decreased by gamma radiation because of further degradation of higher weight molecules. Ultraviolet absorption and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were carried out to define the changes of the functional groups in fucoidan by gamma irradiation. Carboxyl groups and carbon double bonds increased by gamma irradiation; however, sulfate content remained unchanged. The granular fissures were observed from scanning electron microscopy in gamma-irradiated fucoidan.

  6. Effect of a non lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalographic activities of the adult rabbit; Effets d'une irradiation gamma globale non letale sur les activites electroencephalograpiques spontanees et evoquees du lapin adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The whole of the experimental methods described (animal preparation, achievement of a precise physiological technique, dosimetry, biological information processing) allowed us to follow the changes for 15 days in the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalogram activities of rabbits submitted to a non-lethal 400 rads whole-body gamma-irradiation. Behavioural troubles, changes in the arousal state and the spontaneous electrical activity of the neo-cortex and hippocampus were noticed constantly together with an enhanced cortical excitability, and the appearance of elements of the paroxystic series sometimes in contrast with a general decrease in amplitude. After a visual stimulus the general morphology of evoked activities at the level of the primary visual areas and hippocampus was unchanged, but enhanced latencies and delays, less systematic modifications in amplitudes seemed to show out a direct effect of radiations on the nervous system and sensorial activities; these troubles seemed to occur independently from the basic electrical activity. As a whole, the changes observed were usually transitory and varied with each individual. Finally an assumption is made to explain the mechanism of arousal troubles and the general evolution of spontaneous electrical activity in the brain. (author) [French] 'L'ensemble des methodes experimentales decrites (preparation des animaux, mise au point d'une technique physiologique precise, dosimetrie, traitement de l'information biologique) a permis de suivre, pendant 15 jours, chez le lapin soumis a une irradiation gamma globale non letale de 400 rads, les modifications des activites electroencephaliques spontanees et evoquees. De facon constante, on note des troubles du comportement, des modifications de la vigilance et de l'activite electrique spontanee du neo-cortex et de l'hippocampe, ainsi qu'une augmentation de l'excitabilite corticale, l'apparition d'elements de la serie

  7. Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tetouan pilot station, Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri, Loubna, E-mail: dloubna78@hotmail.co [Pole d' excellence Regional, Centre des Etudes Environnementales Mediterraneennes, Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquee et Sciences de l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 416, Tangier (Morocco); Station d' Ionization de Boukhalef, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Tangier (Morocco); Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed [Station d' Ionization de Boukhalef, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Tangier (Morocco); Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad [Pole d' excellence Regional, Centre des Etudes Environnementales Mediterraneennes, Laboratoire de Biologie Appliquee et Sciences de l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 416, Tangier (Morocco)

    2010-04-15

    The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co{sup 60} gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

  8. Late effects of gamma irradiation: the muscular fibrosis. Irradiation gamma et effets tardifs: la fibrose musculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaix, J.L.; Daburon, F.; Martin, M.; Remy, J. (Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (FR). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire)

    1990-06-01

    This study was performed on an experimental porcine model of acute local gamma irradiation to simulate accidents which occurred among humans. It enabled us to determine the development and the physiopathological characteristics of the fibrous tissue which developed in skeletal muscle. In the first month after irradiation, the strong inflammatory reaction which initiated the radiation induced fibrosis was characterized by edema as visualized on MRI imaging and X rays computed tomography and by acute phase reactant proteins changes, associated with elevations of local and general temperatures in irradiated animals. At the margin of the irradiated tissue myofibroblasts isolated among collagen bundles or grouped in nodullary reinforcements, are seen associated with intense capillary neogenesis. Several months after irradiation normal skeletal muscle was replaced by atrophic fibrosis delimited by an inflammatory perifibrotic tissue. The muscular fibrosis was characterized by a high density of myofibroblasts and by an inflammatory distribution pattern of collagen types I, III, IV, laminin, fibronectin and fibrinogen as visualized by immunohistochemical methods. Biochemical results showed an increase in collagen content and synthesis in fibrotic tissue whereas the cells in the perifibrotic zone synthesized more non collagenous proteins as compared with the normal muscle. The contributions of granulation tissue, cellular mediators and inhibition of muscular regeneration in the persistence of the invasive character of the muscular radiation induced fibrosis are discussed.

  9. EPR study on gamma-irradiated fruits dehydrated via osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-06-15

    The shape and time stability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of non- and {gamma}-irradiated papaya, melon, cherry and fig samples dehydrated via osmosis are reported. It is shown that non-irradiated samples are generally EPR silent whereas {gamma}-irradiated exhibit 'sugar-like' EPR spectra. The recorded EPR spectra are monitored for a period of 7 months after irradiation (stored at low humidity and in the dark). The results suggest longer period of unambiguous identification of the radiation processing of osmose dehydrated fruits. Therefore, the Protocol EN 13708,2001 issued by CEN is fully applicable for the studied fruit samples.

  10. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Tien, C. Le

    2004-09-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  11. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesla, K. E-mail: kciesla@orange.ichtj.waw.pl; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Le Tien, C

    2004-10-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and {beta}-sheets, in particular from increase of {beta}-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  12. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  13. Thermoluminescence and dielectric response of gamma irradiated muscovite mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Sukhnandan, E-mail: sukhnandanphy@gmail.com; Singh, Surinder, E-mail: sukhnandanphy@gmail.com; Singh, Lakhwant, E-mail: sukhnandanphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005 (India); Lochab, S. P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The effect of gamma radiation dose on the thermoluminescence (TL) and dielectric properties of muscovite mica was studied. TL glow curves exhibited a single peak around 141 {sup 0}C and its activation energy was estimated to be about 0.89 eV. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity have been calculated in both pristine and gamma irradiated samples. These dielectric parameters have been studied as a function of irradiation dose.

  14. Effect of bifidobacteria implantation on the survival time of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, T.; Onoue, M.; Mutai, M. (Yakult Institute for Microbiological Research)

    1980-01-01

    Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing.

  15. Results on Neutron and Gamma Irradiation of Electrolytic Tilmeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Fernando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrate, J.; Valdivieso, P.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.

    2004-07-01

    We report on irradiation studies done to a sample of high precision electrolytic tiltmeters with gamma-rays, up to a maximum dose of 150 kGy, an neutrons, up to a maximum fluence 1.5x10''14 cm''2. The effect of the irradiation on their performance is discussed. (Author) 19 refs.

  16. Respiration rate of gamma irradiation carnation cut flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Wiendl, Frederico Maximiliano [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Todoriki, Setsuko; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Haysahi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    The present paper presents the CO{sub 2} production of the carnation cut flowers gamma-irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy. The cut flowers were soaked in preservative solutions, containing germicides or germicides plus 2% sucrose. The irradiation did not change the CO{sub 2} production and did not cause any visible flower damage. The sucrose exogenous supply extended the vase-life of both irradiated and non-irradiated carnations. These results indicated that Nora carnation cut flower can be irradiated with 750 Gy without commercial viability loss and that it is possible to use the radiation to disinfect this fresh product. (author)

  17. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( Pproducts by gamma irradiation.

  18. Modelling a gamma irradiation process using the Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gabriela A.; Pereira, Marcio T., E-mail: gas@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In gamma irradiation service it is of great importance the evaluation of absorbed dose in order to guarantee the service quality. When physical structure and human resources are not available for performing dosimetry in each product irradiated, the appliance of mathematic models may be a solution. Through this, the prediction of the delivered dose in a specific product, irradiated in a specific position and during a certain period of time becomes possible, if validated with dosimetry tests. At the gamma irradiation facility of CDTN, equipped with a Cobalt-60 source, the Monte Carlo method was applied to perform simulations of products irradiations and the results were compared with Fricke dosimeters irradiated under the same conditions of the simulations. The first obtained results showed applicability of this method, with a linear relation between simulation and experimental results. (author)

  19. Degradation of epoxy coatings under gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouani, F.; Zahra, Y.; Fayolle, B.; Kuntz, M.; Verdu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Epoxy networks based on Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and cured with Jeffamine® (POPA) or polyamidoamine (PAA) were gamma irradiated at 25 °C in air. Dose rates of 50, 200 or 2000 Gy h-1 for doses up 100 kGy were used. Structural changes were monitored by IR spectrophotometry, DSC and sol-gel analysis. Both networks display some common features: for I≥200 Gy h-1, reaction products grow proportionally to time and the rate is a decreasing function of dose rate. The simplest explanation is that peroxy radicals are the main precursors of these products (in the dose rate domain under study), through a unimolecular rearrangement of which an hypothetical mechanism is proposed. DGEBA-POPA are more reactive then DGEBA-PAA networks (according to IR criteria), that can be attributed to the high reactivity of tertiary CH bands in polyoxypropylene segments. The oxidation of these sites leads to methyl ketones. A simple kinetic model in which methyl ketones result from rearrangements of tertiary peroxyls and from tertiary alkoxyls was proposed. It leads to an expression of the radiochemical yield of methyl ketones (G(MK)) of the form G(MK)=a+bI where a and b are parameters depending of elementary rate constants. Experimental G(MK) values are reasonably well fitted by this equation. In DGEBA-PAA networks, a wide variety of oxidation products, among which amides predominate, can be observed. In these networks, chain scissions predominate over crosslinking, whereas a slight predominance of crosslinking was observed, at least for the lowest dose rate, in DGEBA-POPA.

  20. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV 60Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  1. Degradation of crosslinked polyethylene in water by gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsuro; Takano, Tadao; Takayama, Shigeru; Ito, Masayuki; Narisawa, Ikuo

    2002-02-01

    The degradation of crosslinked polyethylene by gamma-irradiation in water was studied. Change in the physical properties and the growth of carbonyl group after irradiation showed a good correlation. The degradation observed at 80°C is the least, and that at 60°C is the severest. The distribution of the oxidized layer in the sample was measured and was also calculated from the diffusion model using the observed parameters. Comparison of both results suggest that some products caused by gamma-irradiation of water supress the degradation of XLPE at 80°C.

  2. Systematic fabrication of chitosan nanoparticle by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasanphan, Wanvimol, E-mail: wanvimol.p@ku.ac.t [Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Rimdusit, Pakjira; Choofong, Surakarn [Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Piroonpan, Thananchai; Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai [The Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-10-15

    The present investigation is mainly focused on the systematic preparation of chitosan nanoparticle in the potential range 1-100 nm using {gamma}-ray irradiation. The effect of irradiation conditions in terms of physical form of chitosan, i.e. flake, colloidal and acidic solution, and {gamma}-ray dose was studied. The molecular weights of chitosan were 10, 25, and >1000 times reduced when irradiated with the {gamma}-ray dose as high as 100 kGy in Chi-flake, Chi-colloid, and Chi-acid, respectively. The particle size reduced to 70 nm after being irradiated to only 10 kGy {gamma}-rays and it showed a tendency to decrease when the {gamma}-ray doses were increased. The {gamma}-rays effectively induced the reduction of chitosan particle size to <100 nm with narrow size distribution. The effective size reduction was particularly observed in Chi-colloid. Heterogeneous chemical conjugation of deoxycholic acid onto 10 kGy irradiated Chi-colloid resulted in narrow particle size as small as 50 nm.

  3. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  4. Neutron and gamma irradiation effects on power semiconductor switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, G. E.; Frasca, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance characteristics of high power semiconductor switches subjected to high levels of neutron fluence and gamma dose must be known by the designer of the power conditioning, control and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. Location and the allowable shielding mass budget will determine the level of radiation tolerance required by the switches to meet performance and reliability requirements. Neutron and gamma ray interactions with semiconductor materials and how these interactions affect the electrical and switching characteristics of solid state power switches is discussed. The experimental measurement system and radiation facilities are described. Experimental data showing the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on the performance characteristics are given for power-type NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), and Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). BJTs show a rapid decrease in gain, blocking voltage, and storage time for neutron irradiation, and MOSFETs show a rapid decrease in the gate threshold voltage for gamma irradiation.

  5. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread.

  6. Investigation on the effects of gamma irradiation on bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, M.S.; Braz, D.; Motta, L.M.G., E-mail: Laura@coc.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Leite, L.F.M., E-mail: leniml@petrobras.com.br [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/RJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil has more than 218,000 km of asphalt-paved highways. Bitumen is a generic term for natural or manufactured black or dark-colored solid, semisolid, or viscous cementitious materials that are composed mainly of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (90-95%). Several papers have shown that the irradiation process has changed the mechanical behavior in some polymers. This work aims to analyze the behavior of Brazilian irradiated Bitumen (CAP 50-70). In order to provide a preliminary evaluation, bitumen samples and cylindrical specimens of asphaltic mixture were tested. The bitumen samples were irradiated 0.1 to 300 kGy, and asphaltic mixture specimen was irradiated 5 to 300 kGy. The cylindrical asphaltic mixture specimen of 10.16 cm diameter used in this study was molded using an asphalt-aggregate mixture. The specimens were irradiated in LIN/UFRJ/Brazil using a Gamma cell Co{sup 60} source of gamma irradiation with an applied dose rate of 29.7 Gy/min. After irradiated, the bitumen samples were subjected to penetration test and the asphaltic mixtures were subjected to indirect tensile strength test (diametral compression) for determination of the resilient modulus, according to ASTM method D 4123. The results of these experiments for each dose were compared with the control (nonirradiated). As expected, the penetration results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) decreases with increasing of irradiation dose for bitumen samples and the resilient modulus results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) increases with increasing of irradiation dose for asphaltic mixture. (author)

  7. EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON EPDM ELASTOMERS (REVISION 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.

    2013-09-13

    Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas to compare their radiation stability. Stainless steel containers having rupture disks were designed for this task. After 130 MRad dose of cobalt-60 radiation in the SRNL Gamma Irradiation Facility, a significant amount of gas was created by radiolysis; however the composition indicated by mass spectroscopy indicated an unexpected increase in the total amount deuterium in both formulations. The irradiated samples retained their ductility in a bend test. No change of sample weight, dimensions, or density was observed. No change of the glass transition temperature as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis was observed, and most of the other dynamic mechanical properties remained unchanged. There appeared to be an increase in the storage modulus of the irradiated samples containing the UV stabilizer above the glass transition, which may indicate hardening of the material by radiation damage. Revision 1 adds a comparison with results of a study of tritium exposed EPDM. The amount of gas produced by the gamma irradiation was found to be equivalent to about 280 days exposure to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere. The glass transition temperature of the tritium exposed EPDM rose about 10°C. over 280 days, while no glass transition temperature change was observed for gamma irradiated EPDM. This means that gamma irradiation in deuterium cannot be used as a surrogate for tritium exposure.

  8. Technical Safety Requirements for the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF)

    CERN Document Server

    Mahn, J A E M J G

    2003-01-01

    This document provides the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Sandia National Laboratories Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). The TSR is a compilation of requirements that define the conditions, the safe boundaries, and the administrative controls necessary to ensure the safe operation of a nuclear facility and to reduce the potential risk to the public and facility workers from uncontrolled releases of radioactive or other hazardous materials. These requirements constitute an agreement between DOE and Sandia National Laboratories management regarding the safe operation of the Gamma Irradiation Facility.

  9. Immobilization of cobalt in collapsed non-irradiated and {gamma}-irradiated X zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico) and Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lima@xanum.uam.mx; Bosch, Pedro [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bulbulian, Silvia [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-02-15

    Cobalt exchanged X zeolites were gamma irradiated and heated until the zeolite structure collapsed. Heating destroys the zeolite network as found by X-ray-diffraction and {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectroscopy. Gamma irradiation treatment diminished the collapsing temperature of zeolite. Cobalt leaching from crystalline and amorphized zeolites was verified by ion exchange with NaCl solution. Results show that cobalt is not released from the amorphous materials. Furthermore adsorption of xenon and {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy reveal that cobalt ions are heterogeneously distributed in the non irradiated amorphous materials. Gamma irradiation causes the mobility of cobalt in the amorphous materials resulting then in a more homogeneous distribution. Cobalt is, thus, retained safely in the amorphous materials.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on cefotaxime in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegota, H.; Koprowski, M.; Zegota, A. [Technical Univ., Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry

    1995-02-01

    The effect of {gamma}-irradiation on cefotaxime, a member of the third generation of cephalosporins, has been investigated by using different spectroscopic, chromatographic and microbiological analytical methods. Cefotaxime sodium salt was irradiated in dry state in the range of sterilization doses from 5.85 to 46.8 kGy. According to the results obtained, the degree of cefotaxime alterations was lower than 1%, even for the higher radiation dose used. Trace amounts of antibiotic radiolysis products have been found by HPLC. The microbiological assay carried out using E. coli test strain reveal that the activity of irradiated cefotaxime did not decrease. (author).

  11. Thermoluminescence response of gamma-irradiated sesame with mineral dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez L, Y. [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Calle Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Calle Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Cruz Z, E., E-mail: y.r.l@csic.es [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The thermoluminescence (Tl) emission of minerals isolated from Mexican and Indian sesame seeds appear as a good tool to discern between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. According to the X-ray diffraction and environmental scanning microscope, the adhered dust in both samples is mainly composed by different amounts of quartz and feldspars. These mineral phases exhibit (i) enough sensitivity to ionizing radiation inducing good Tl intensity, (ii) high stability of the Tl signal during the storage of the material (i.e. low fading) and (iii) are thermally and chemically stable. Blind tests performed under laboratory conditions, but simulating industrial preservation processes (similar temperature and moisture, and presence of white light), allows to distinguish between 1 KGy gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated samples even 11000 hours (15 months) after the irradiation proceeding. (Author)

  12. Conservation of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. ) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5 krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting.

  13. Radappertization of pancreatin preparations by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quehl, A.; Leuchtenberger, A.; Schalinatus, E. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Bergholz-Rehbruecke. Zentralinstitut fuer Ernaehrung)

    1985-01-01

    The lipase preparation pancreatin was irradiated with doses from 5 to 15 kGy for radappertization. There was a dose-response relationship concerning the number of germs as well as the enzyme activity. As to the germ content a one year storage at 4/sup 0/ C proved to be favorable.

  14. The response characteristics of tetrazolium violet solutions to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emi-Reynolds, G. [Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana)]. E-mail: gemi-reynolds@idngh.com; Kovacs, Andras [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 77, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Fletcher, J.J. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

    2007-08-15

    The dosimetry characteristics of various solutions of tetrazolium violet, TV, (2,5-diphenyl-3-(1-naphthyl)-2H-tetrazolium chloride) to gamma irradiation are reported. The optical absorption spectra of these solutions show peaks between 400 and 600 nm with a shoulder at around 550 nm. The dose response of the optical absorbance values of aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions containing different concentrations of TV was measured in the 250 Gy up to 75 kGy dose range. The formation of formazan product was observed due to radiolytic reduction in both solutions. Its formation was found more pronounced in N{sub 2}-saturated as well as in alkaline solutions. The results indicate that the 1 mM TV solution can be used for food irradiation and medical sterilization dosimetry at gamma irradiation facilities.

  15. The response characteristics of tetrazolium violet solutions to gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emi-Reynolds, G.; Kovács, András; Fletcher, J. J.

    2007-08-01

    The dosimetry characteristics of various solutions of tetrazolium violet, TV, (2,5-diphenyl-3-(1-naphthyl)-2H-tetrazolium chloride) to gamma irradiation are reported. The optical absorption spectra of these solutions show peaks between 400 and 600 nm with a shoulder at around 550 nm. The dose response of the optical absorbance values of aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions containing different concentrations of TV was measured in the 250 Gy up to 75 kGy dose range. The formation of formazan product was observed due to radiolytic reduction in both solutions. Its formation was found more pronounced in N 2-saturated as well as in alkaline solutions. The results indicate that the 1 mM TV solution can be used for food irradiation and medical sterilization dosimetry at gamma irradiation facilities.

  16. Prenatal exposure to gamma/neutron irradiation: Sensorimotor alterations and paradoxical effects on learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cicco, D.; Antal, S.; Ammassari-Teule, M. (Istituto di Psicobiologia e Psicofarmacologia del CNR, Rome (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice.

  17. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580185 (Korea, Republic of); Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608737 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Jeong [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju 660759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duk-Jin [Division of Food Engineering and Nutrition, Daegu University, Daegu 712714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gwang Hoon [Department of Biology, Kongju National University, Chungnam 314701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  18. Gamma-irradiation enhances transgene expression in leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecque, R; Saudemont, A; Wickham, T J; Gonzalez, R; Hetuin, D; Fenaux, P; Quesnel, B

    2003-02-01

    The majority of immunotherapy-based gene therapy protocols consist of ex vivo gene transfer in tumor cells. To prevent further in vivo growth, modified cells must be irradiated before reinjection into patients. The present study examines the effects of gamma-irradiation on transgene expression in transduced leukemic cells. Human and murine leukemic cells were transfected with retroviral vectors or plasmids carrying beta-galactosidase, GM-CSF or CD80 genes. Fresh leukemic cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were transfected with AdZ.F(pK7) adenoviral vector. gamma-irradiation at various lethal doses enhanced transgene expression in leukemic cell lines and fresh AML cells when the gene of interest was under CMV promoter but not when SV40 promoter was used. Oxidative stress also enhanced transgene expression and both irradiation and oxidative stress effects were inhibited by addition of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a thiol anti-oxidant, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species. Transgene expression was also enhanced in vivo 48 and 120 h after subcutaneous injection of irradiated leukemic cells in syngeneic mice. These results show that a cell vaccine protocol using ex vivo gene transfer of transduced cells might be feasible in acute leukemia even if leukemic cells must be irradiated at lethal doses prior to reinjection to patients.

  19. Thermoluminescence of Simulated Interstellar Matter after Gamma-ray Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, K; Koike, C; Okada, M; Chihara, H

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar matter is known to be strongly irradiated by radiation and several types of cosmic ray particles. Simulated interstellar matter, such as forsterite $\\rm Mg_{2}SiO_{4}$, enstatite $\\rm MgSiO_{3}$ and magnesite $\\rm MgCO_{3}$ has been irradiated with the $\\rm ^{60}Co$ gamma-rays in liquid nitrogen, and also irradiated with fast neutrons at 10 K and 70 K by making use of the low-temperature irradiation facility of Kyoto University Reactor (KUR-LTL. Maximum fast neutron dose is $10^{17}n_f{\\rm /cm^{2}}$). After irradiation, samples are stored in liquid nitrogen for several months to allow the decay of induced radioactivity. We measured the luminescence spectra of the gamma ray irradiated samples during warming to 370K using a spectrophotometer. For the forsterite and magnesite, the spectra exhibit a rather intense peak at about 645 -- 655 nm and 660 nm respectively, whereas luminescence scarcely appeared in olivine sample. The spectra of forsterite is very similar to the ERE of the Red Rectangle.

  20. Gamma irradiation service in Mexico; Servicio de Irradiacion Gamma en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liceaga C, G.; Martinez A, L.; Mendez T, D.; Ortiz A, G.; Olvera G, R. [Departamento del Irradiador Gamma. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In 1980 it was installed in Mexico, on the National Institute of Nuclear Research, an irradiator model J S-6500 of a canadian manufacture. Actually, this is the greatest plant in the Mexican Republic that offers a gamma irradiation process at commercial level to diverse industries. However, seeing that the demand for sterilize those products were not so much as the irradiation capacity it was opted by the incursion in other types of products. During 17 years had been irradiated a great variety of products grouped of the following form: dehydrated foods, disposable products for medical use, cosmetics, medicaments, various. Nowadays the capacity of the irradiator is saturated virtue of it is operated the 24 hours during the 365 days of the year and only its operation is suspended by the preventive and corrective maintenance. However, the fresh food market does not be attended since this irradiator was designed for doses greater than 10 kGy (1.0 Mrad)

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kaisey, M.T. E-mail: istd@uruklink.net; Alwan, A.-K.H.; Mohammad, M.H.; Saeed, A.H

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view.

  2. Variation in electrical properties of gamma irradiated cadmium selenate nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, R.P., E-mail: chauhanrpc@gmail.com; Rana, Pallavi, E-mail: prana.phy@gmail.com; Narula, Chetna; Panchal, Suresh; Choudhary, Ritika

    2016-07-15

    Preparation of low-dimensional materials attracts more and more interest in the last few years, mainly due to the wide field of potential commercial applications ranging from life sciences, medicine and biotechnology to communication and electronics. One-dimensional systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. Nanowires with well controlled morphology and extremely high aspect ratio can be obtained by replicating a nanoporous polymer ion-track membrane with cylindrical pores of controlled dimensions. With this technique, materials can be deposited within the pores of the membrane by electrochemical reduction of the desired ion. In the present study, cadmium selenate nanowires were synthesized potentiostatically via template method. These synthesized nanowires were then exposed to gamma rays by using a {sup 60}Co source at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. Structural, morphological, electrical and elemental characterizations were made in order to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation on the synthesized nanowires. I–V measurements of cadmium selenate nanowires, before and after irradiation were made with the help of Keithley 2400 source meter and Ecopia probe station. A significant change in the electrical conductivity of cadmium selenate nanowires was found after gamma irradiation. The crystallography of the synthesized nanowires was also studied using a Rigaku X-ray diffractrometer equipped with Cu-Kα radiation. XRD patterns of irradiated samples showed no variation in the peak positions or phase change.

  3. Variation in electrical properties of gamma irradiated cadmium selenate nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, R. P.; Rana, Pallavi; Narula, Chetna; Panchal, Suresh; Choudhary, Ritika

    2016-07-01

    Preparation of low-dimensional materials attracts more and more interest in the last few years, mainly due to the wide field of potential commercial applications ranging from life sciences, medicine and biotechnology to communication and electronics. One-dimensional systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. Nanowires with well controlled morphology and extremely high aspect ratio can be obtained by replicating a nanoporous polymer ion-track membrane with cylindrical pores of controlled dimensions. With this technique, materials can be deposited within the pores of the membrane by electrochemical reduction of the desired ion. In the present study, cadmium selenate nanowires were synthesized potentiostatically via template method. These synthesized nanowires were then exposed to gamma rays by using a 60Co source at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. Structural, morphological, electrical and elemental characterizations were made in order to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation on the synthesized nanowires. I-V measurements of cadmium selenate nanowires, before and after irradiation were made with the help of Keithley 2400 source meter and Ecopia probe station. A significant change in the electrical conductivity of cadmium selenate nanowires was found after gamma irradiation. The crystallography of the synthesized nanowires was also studied using a Rigaku X-ray diffractrometer equipped with Cu-Kα radiation. XRD patterns of irradiated samples showed no variation in the peak positions or phase change.

  4. Production of high melt strength polypropylene by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugão, A. B.; Artel, B. W. H.; Yoshiga, A.; Lima, L. F. C. P.; Parra, D. F.; Bueno, J. R.; Liberman, S.; Farrah, M.; Terçariol, W. R.; Otaguro, H.

    2007-11-01

    High melt strength polypropylene (HMS-PP) has been recently developed and introduced in the market by the major international producers of polypropylene. Therefore, BRASKEM, the leading Brazilian PP producer, together with EMBRARAD, the leading Brazilian gamma irradiator, and the IPEN (Institute of Nuclear Energy and Research) worked to develop a national technology for the production of HMS-PP. One of the effective approaches to improve melt strength and extensibility is to add chain branches onto polypropylene backbone using gamma radiation. Branching and grafting result from the radical combinations during irradiation process. Crosslinking and main chain scission in the polymer structure are also obtained during this process. In this work, gamma irradiation technique was used to induce chemical changes in commercial polypropylene with two different monomers, Tri-allyl-isocyanurate (TAIC) and Tri-methylolpropane-trimethacrylate (TMPTMA), with concentration ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 mmol/100 g of polypropylene. These samples were irradiated with a 60Co source at dose of 20 kGy. It used two different methods of HMS-PP processing. The crosslinking of modified polymers was studied by measuring gel content melt flow rate and rheological properties like melt strength and drawability. It was observed that the reaction method and the monomer type have influenced the properties. However, the concentration variation of monomer has no effect.

  5. Gamma-ray Irradiation Induces Useful Morphological Variation in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul SEVER MUTLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. is a widely used warm-season turfgrass species in warmer regions of the world. Gammairradiation has been used to generate useful variations in turfgrass breeding for various morphological traits. The objective of the present study was to measure and determine variations in morphology and turfgrass characteristics of a native drought resistant bermudagrass germplasm irradiated with 70, 90 or 110 Gy using a 60Co source. The stolons containing a single node were irradiated and immediately planted for regeneration in a greenhouse at the Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey. Selected mutants regenerated from the irradiated stolons were clonally propagated and transplanted into plastic pots for further observations of turfgrass characteristics.  Survival rates of stolons exposed to 70, 90 and 110 Gy were 76%, 43% and 17% respectively, 6 weeks after treatment. Dosages of 85 and 57 Gy were determined as LD50 and LD20 for the cuttings, respectively. The linear reduction of survival rate with increasing gamma-rays was highly correlated (r2=0.99. A total of four mutant lines (0.3 % of the irradiated plants showed a distinct dwarfed growth habit. Three of these lines were originated from 70 Gy and one from 110 Gy. These mutant lines exhibited more dwarf growth habit, higher shoot density, finer leaf texture than parental genotype. Mutant lines developed in this study can be used for the development of improved bermudagrass cultivars for landscaping and sports turf.

  6. EPR study on tomatoes before and after gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, L.; Tzvetkova, E. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technology, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg

    2009-09-15

    The results from the EPR studies on fresh, air-dried and lyophilized tomato samples before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation fresh and air-dried tomatoes exhibit one singlet EPR line characterized with common g-factor of 2.0048{+-}0.0005, whereas freeze-dried tomato does not show any EPR spectrum. After irradiation, a typical 'cellulose-like' triplet EPR spectrum appears in all samples, attributed to cellulose free radicals, generated by gamma-irradiation. It consists of intense central line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 and two weak satellite lines separated ca. 3 mT left and right of it. In air-dried and lyophilized tomatoes the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum is superimposed by an additional partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum. Fading measurements of the radiation-induced EPR signals indicate that the intensity of the EPR spectra of air-dried and freeze-dried tomato are reduced to about 50% after 50 days, whereas those of fresh irradiated tomatoes kept at 4 {sup o}C fade completely in 15 days. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of two satellite lines in the EPR 'cellulose-like' spectra of tomato samples can be used for identification of radiation processing.

  7. Quantitative, functional and biochemical alterations in the peritoneal cells of mice exposed to whole-body gamma-irradiation. 1. Changes in cellular protein, adherence properties and enzymatic activities associated with platelet-activating factor formation and inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steel, L.K.; Hughes, H.N.; Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    Changes in total number, differentials, cell protein, adherence properties, acetyl-CoA transferase and acetylhydrolase activities, prostaglandin E/sub 2/ and leukotriene C/sub 4/ production, as well as Ca/sup 2+/ ionophore A23187 stimulation were examined in resident peritoneal cells isolated from mice 2 h to 10 days postexposure to a single dose (7, 10 or 12 Gy) of gamma-radiation. Radiation dose-related reductions in macrophage and lymphocyte numbers and increases in cellular protein and capacity to adhere to plastic surfaces were evident. In vivo irradiation also elevated the activities of acetyltransferase and acetyl-CoA hydrolase (catalysing platelet-activating factor biosynthesis and inactivation, respectively) in adherent and nonadherent peritoneal cells, particularly 3-4 days postexposure. Blood plasma from irradiated animals did not reflect the increased cellular acetyl-hydrolase activity. Prostaglandin E/sub 2/ and leukotriene C/sub 4/ synthesis were elevated postexposure, suggesting increased substrate (arachidonate) availability and increased cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. Ionophore stimulation of enzyme activities and eicosanoid release also differed in irradiated peritoneal cells.

  8. Avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats irradiated with a sublethal dose of gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomášová, Lenka; Smajda, B; Bona, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, whether a sublethal dose of gamma-rays will influence the avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats and whether the response to radiation depends on time of day of its application. Adult male Wistar rats were tested in elevated plus-maze, in hot plate test and in the light/dark box in 4 regular intervals during a day. After two weeks the animals were irradiated with a whole-body dose 6 Gy of gamma-rays. One day after irradiation the animals were repeatedly tested in the same way, as before irradiation. In the plus-maze test an increased level of anxiety was established. The irradiation significantly decreased the locomotor activity of rats, but the extent of exploratory and comfortable behaviour were not altered. After irradiation, an elevated aversion to the thermal stimulus was observed in the hot plate test. The effects of radiation were more pronounced in the light period of the day, than in the dark one. No significant differences in aversion to light were detected after irradiation. The obtained results indicate, that sublethal doses of ionizing radiation can markedly influence the reactivity of animals to adverse stimuli, their motoric activity and emotional status, as well.

  9. X-ray versus gamma irradiation effects on polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croonenborghs, B. [Sterigenics EMEAA, Remylaan 4c box 4, 3018 Leuven (Belgium); Smith, M.A. [Sterigenics International, 10811 Withers Cove Park Drive, Charlotte, NC 28278 (United States); Strain, P. [Sterigenics EMEAA, Remylaan 4c box 4, 3018 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: pstrain@eu.sterigenics.com

    2007-11-15

    Today, the most common methods used for medical device sterilisation are by gaseous ethylene oxide and by electron beam or gamma irradiation. With X-ray sterilisation about to enter the market, its material compatibility needs to be assessed at doses typically encountered during a sterilisation process. This paper reports on a study that compares the effects of exposing different types of plastics that are commonly used in medical devices to {sup 60}Co or to 5 MeV X-rays. The dose rate for both irradiation modalities was of the same order of magnitude. Under these conditions, both types of radiation are found to have similar effects on polymer properties.

  10. Total body irradiation for children with malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuki, Eiichi; Maeno, Toshio; Kamata, Rikisaburo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Mugishima, Hideo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Total body irradiation combined with high dose chemotherapy has been performed just before bone marrow transplantation in 35 children with advanced malignancies, with the object of achieving successful transplantation and improving the prognosis. Simulation was performed as follows: back scatter, flatness, dose accumulation using randophantom and dose distribution using a thermo-luminescence dosimeter and linac-graphy. The standard error of dose distribution was within 10%. In neuroblastoma, of which there were 14 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, the 5-year survival rate was 55%. In leukemia, of which all cases were in the high-risk group (7 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 2 of acute myeloblastic leukemia) the 5-year survival rate was 55%. The 5 cases having first remission survived disease-free while the 4 cases having non-first remission died. In malignant lymphoma (6 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, with bulky mass) the 5-year survival rate was 67%. Four cases with other diagnoses (severe aplastic anemia, and others) all survived. As yet no side effects resulting from total body irradiation have been recognized in our cases, but a longer follow-up period is necessary to observe possible late side effects. (author).

  11. Enhancement of Antioxidant and Isoflavones Concentration in Gamma Irradiated Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris M. Popović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian soybean genotype Ana was gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 2, 4, and 10 kGy in order to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation on isoflavone (genistein, daidzein, and their glycosides genistin and daidzin contents and hydroxyl radical scavenging effect (HRSE. The increase in genistin and daidzin contents as well as antioxidant activities was observed especially at doses of 4 and 10 kGy. Results were also compared with our previous results relating to total phenol content (TPC, DPPH radical scavenger capacity (DPPH RSC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Our results indicated that doses up to 10 kGy improve the antioxidant activities of soybean and also nutritional quality with respect to isoflavone content. All results were analyzed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and autoscaling transformation of data. Significant positive correlations were observed between genistin, daidzin, DPPH RSC, and HRSE.

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on electric characteristics of power diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Renata F.; Santos, Thais C. dos; Pascoalino, Kelly C.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Tobias, Carmen C.B., E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work we presented the preliminary results of a systematic study of direct voltage and cut-off frequency variations of power diodes under different gamma irradiation doses. The samples were irradiated at a gamma facility, {sup 60}Co-Gammacell 220 (dose rate of 2.31 kGy/h), in the Radiation Technology Center (CTR) at IPEN/CNEN-SP. The temperature during exposure was typically 25 deg C. The values of direct voltage and the temporal response of the devices were studied for an accumulated dose of 1350 kGy. The results have shown an improvement of the reverse recovery behavior of this type of diode, as well as a 10% decrease in its direct voltage. (author)

  13. Thermoluminescence glow curve of {gamma}-irradiated calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.D.; Ingotombi, S. [Manipur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1995-07-14

    The trapping parameters, namely the activation energy E, frequency factor s and b order of kinetics of the thermoluminescence (TL) peaks of calcites (brown and colourless varieties) irradiated with 4.08 kGy of {gamma}-rays, are determined using the least-squares curve-fitting technique. The electron lifetime {tau} of the peaks of calcite are calculated in order to estimate the upper limit of their utility in TL dating. (author).

  14. Regeneration of sulfamethoxazole-saturated activated carbon using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been widely used for reclamation and reuse of the effluent of wastewater treatment plant to further remove the emerging contaminants, such as PPCPs in recent years. How to regenerate the exhausted AC effectively and economically is still a challenge. In the present study, the regeneration of AC exhausted with SMX was performed by gamma irradiation to simultaneously recover the spent AC and degrade the pollutants. The results showed that the adsorption of SMX onto AC can be described by the Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption capacity was about 417 mg/g. SMX can be removed rapidly when exposed to gamma irradiation, with the initial concentration of 100 mg/L, more than 99% of SMX was removed at 5.0 kGy, while an extremely high dose (150 kGy) was needed to reach 80% mineralization ratio. The regeneration efficiency was about 21-30% at 50-200 kGy. The absorbed SMX and the intermediates formed during gamma irradiation were released into aqueous solution from AC and mineralized, leading to the partial regeneration of the adsorption capacity of AC. Further studies are needed to optimize the experimental conditions to increase the regeneration efficiency.

  15. Using of AFLP to evaluate gamma-irradiated amaranth mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labajová Mária

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine which of several gamma-irradiated mutants of amaranth Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid are most genetically similar to their non-irradiated control genotypes, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP based analysis. A total of 40 selective primer combinations were used in reported analyses. First analyses of gamma-irradiated amaranth mutant lines were done used the AFLP. In the study, primers with the differentiation ability for all analysed mutant lines are reported. The very specific changes in the mutant lines´ non-coding regions based on AFLP length polymorphism were analysed. Mutant lines of the Ficha cultivar (C15, C26, C27, C82, C236 shared a genetic dissimilarity of 0,11 and their ISSR profiles are more similar to the Ficha than those of K-433 hybrid mutant lines. The K-433 mutant lines (D54, D279, D282 shared genetic dissimilarity of 0,534 but are more distinct to their control plant as a whole, as those of the Ficha mutant lines. Different AFLP fingerprints patters of the mutant lines when compared to the Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid AFLP profiles may be a consequence of the complex response of the intergenic space of mutant lines to the gamma-radiance. Although a genetic polymorphism was detected within accessions, the AFLP markers successfully identified all the accessions. The AFLP results are discussed by a combination of biochemical characteristics of mutant lines and their control genotypes.

  16. Biosensors based on polymer networks formed by gamma irradiation crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, W R

    1993-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers immobilized by gamma irradiation have been investigated as a means of developing electrochemical sensors. Enzyme-based sensors for glucose and lactate have been made by immobilizing glucose oxidase and lactate oxidase, respectively, on platinized graphite electrodes. The enzyme is entrapped in a polymeric network of poly(vinyl alcohol) that is formed by gamma radiation crosslinking. Electrodes coated with poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone) and its corresponding monomer and then crosslinked with gamma radiation show an extraction of catecholamines into the polymer film that enhances the analytical signal for their detection by electrochemical oxidation. Poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) spin-coated on a screen-printed electrochemical cell provides sufficient ionic conductivity for the cell to function as a gas sensor for oxygen, which is detected by reduction at a platinum working electrode.

  17. Radiation resistivity of polyacenaphthylene-grafted polyethylene. [Gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.; Kawase, K.; Yamakita, H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Nagoya (Japan))

    1983-01-01

    Thin poly(ethylene-g-acenaphthylene) films prepared by the vapor-phase grafting method were subjected to the ..gamma..-irradiation in air, and various changes in tensile and structural properties of the film were investigated by comparing with those of the untreated or crosslinked polyethylene film. Polyethylene got to lose its inherent necking property by oxidative degradation and to be brittle-fractured by the irradiation dose less than 100 Mrad in air. The polyacenaphthylene-grafted polyethylenes, however, kept their ductility up to 200 Mrad or more, and the rate of increase in elastic modulus as well as yield strength with the increasing irradiation dose was considerably lower than that of untreated or crosslinked polyethylene. The effect of the grafting extent, and that of the irradiation dose-rate on the fracture energy were also examined. The weight increase of polyethylene due to the oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of carbonyl group which proceeded proportionally with the irradiation dose were remarkably suppressed by the grafting, whereas the double bond formation seemed to be unaffected by it. The grafted film held the original content of gel fraction unchanged during the irradiation in air, but the average molecular weight of the sol fraction decreased gradually.

  18. Chemical investigation of gamma-irradiated saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareena, A V; Variyar, P S; Gholap, A S; Bongirwar, D R

    2001-02-01

    Changes in aroma and coloring properties of saffron (Crocus sativus) after gamma-irradiation at doses of 2.5 and 5 kGy (necessary for microbial decontamination) were investigated. The volatile essential oil constituents responsible for aroma of the spice were isolated by steam distillation and then subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). No significant qualitative changes were observed in these constituents upon irradiation, although a trained sensory panel could detect slight quality deterioration at a dose of 5 kGy. Carotene glucosides that impart color to the spice were isolated by solvent extraction and then subjected to thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractionation of the above pigments into aglycon and glucosides was achieved by using ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. Analysis of these fractions by HPLC revealed a decrease in glucosides and an increase in aglycon content in irradiated samples. The possibility of degradation of pigments during gamma irradiation is discussed.

  19. White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

  20. MOUSE ANTIBODY RESPONSE FOLLOWING REPETITIVE INJECTIONS OF GAMMA-IRRADIATED HUMAN PLACENTA COLLAGENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秉慈; MelvinSpira; 许增禄

    1994-01-01

    Injectable bovine collagen has been used clinically for years.But both the necessity of repeated injections to maintain corrections and the question of adverse allergic reactions developing from the use of a xenogenic collagen have been an area of serious concern.To overoome these adyerse effects,we have developed injectable collagen preparations from human placenta.Gamma irradiation was used for sterilization and crosslinking of the collagen.We observed the mouse immune respose to gamma-irradiated human placenta soluble and insoluble collagen follow-ing multiple injections.After six injections of these materials,no total IgG level increase was found,nor was anti-body specifically directed against human collagen found.Mouse antibody levels were also observed following Zyderm Ⅱ and Zyplast repetitive injections and follow-ing repetitive implantations of coated vicryl and chromic gut.No humoral immune response was found in this het-erologous type system.

  1. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  2. Improvement of saccharification process for bioethanol production from Undaria sp. by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-08-01

    Recently, many research works have reported on improvements to the saccharification process that increase bioethanol production from cellulosic materials. Gamma irradiation has been studied as an effective method for the depolymerization of complex polysaccharides. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on saccharification of Undaria biomass for bioethanol production was investigated. The Undaria biomass was irradiated at doses of 0, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy and then hydrolyzed using sulfuric acid. The effects of gamma irradiation were measured through microscopic analysis to determine morphological changes and concentration of the reducing sugar of hydrolysates. Microscopic images show that gamma irradiation causes structure breakage of the Undaria cell wall. The concentration of reducing sugar of hydrolysates significantly increased as a result of gamma irradiation, with or without acid hydrolysis. These results indicate that the combined method of gamma irradiation with acid hydrolysis can significantly improve the saccharification process for bioethanol production from marine algae materials.

  3. The induction of D-aspartic acid in mouse lens protein by continuous gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamanoi, Itsuro (Chiba Univ. (Japan)); Fujii, Noriko; Muraoka, Shiro; Harada, Kaoru; Joshima, Hisamasa; Ishihara, Takaaki

    1990-08-01

    The irradiation condition to induce the increase of D-aspartic acid (D-Asp), which is detected in aged human and animals, in a short term was studied by continuous low dose irradiation. The results were compared with the effect by a single X-ray irradiation. The continuous gamma-irradiation for 12 months with 83 mGy/day or 29 mGy/day from {sup 137}Cs could induce higher D/L ratio of aspartic acid (Asp) in the lens protein of RFM/MsNrs strain of mice. But the irradiation with 10 mGy/day for 14 months did not show the much increase of D-Asp in the lens protein of mice. In 14.5 months of post-X-irradiation to whole body with 5 Gy, a little higher ratio of D/L Asp was observed in the lens protein of BALB/cA strain of mice. These results indicate that it is possible to obtain the protein containing D-Asp by continuous low dose irradiation in a relatively short period. (author).

  4. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods.

  5. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  6. Improvement of colour strength and colourfastness properties of gamma irradiated cotton using reactive black-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Adeel, Shahid; Nadeem, Raziya; Asghar, Toheed

    2012-03-01

    The dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Reactive Black-5 dye powder has been investigated. The mercerized, bleached and plain weaved cotton fabric was irradiated to different absorbed doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature of dyeing, time of dyeing and pH of dyeing solutions were optimised. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organisation (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It is found that gamma irradiated cotton dyed with Reactive Black-5 has not only improved the colour strength but also enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the behavioral properties of crotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Moreira

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Crotoxin has been detoxified with gamma radiation in order to improve crotalic antiserum production. Nevertheless, present knowledge of the biological characteristics of irradiated crotoxin is insufficient to propose it as an immunizing agent. Crotoxin is known to increase the emotional state of rats and to decrease their exploratory behavior (Moreira EG, Nascimento N, Rosa GJM, Rogero JR and Vassilieff VS (1996 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 29: 629-632. Therefore, we decided 1 to evaluate the effects of crotoxin in the social interaction test, which has been widely used for the evaluation of anxiogenic drugs, and 2 to determine if irradiated crotoxin induces behavioral alterations similar to those of crotoxin in the social interaction, open-field and hole-board tests. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g were used. Crotoxin (100, 250, and 500 µg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 2 h before the social interaction test. Similarly, irradiated crotoxin (2000 Gy gamma radiation from a 60Co source was administered at the doses of 100, 250, and 500 µg/kg for the hole-board test, and at the doses of 1000 and 2500 µg/kg for the open-field and social interaction tests. ANOVA complemented with the Dunnett test was used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Crotoxin decreased the social interaction time (s at the doses of 100, 250 and 500 µg/kg (means ± SEM from 51.6 ± 4.4 to 32.6 ± 3.7, 28.0 ± 3.6 and 31.6 ± 4.4, respectively. Irradiated crotoxin did not induce behavioral alterations. These results indicate that 1 crotoxin may be an anxiogenic compound, and 2 in contrast to crotoxin, irradiated crotoxin was unable to induce behavioral alterations, which makes it a promising compound for the production of crotalic antiserum

  8. Inactivation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Animal Quarantine Service, Yokohama (Japan)); Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1990-10-01

    Radiation inactivation of Infectious Boivne Rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus was investigated by suspending in a commercial preparation medium (c.p.m.) or IBR antibody free serum and irradiated at room temperature or dry ice frozen condition. Normal pooled serum was also analysed by electrophoresis with cellulose acetate membrane after irradiation at frozen and non-frozen condition. The virus inactivation was determined by MDBK cell line which 50 % tissue culture infectious dose (TCID{sub 50}) was calculated by Behrens Kaerber method. D{sub 10} value at non-frozen condition in serum was obtained as 1.1-1.2 kGy and that in c.p.m. was 1.3-1.4 kGy. On the other hand, D{sub 10} value was increased to 3.4-3.6 kGy in serum and 3.9 kGy in c.p.m. at frozen condition. On the irradiation effect of bovine serum, four peaks of albumin, {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}-globulin fraction were obtained from non-irradiation and irradiated serum up to 2 kGy at non-frozen condition by electrophoresis. More than 4 kGy irradiation, the peaks of globulin fractions became not clear and at more than 8 kGy, changed to one large peak. On the other hand, these changes of electrophoretic patterns were not observed even at 30 kGy irradiation in frozen condition. From these results, necessary dose was decided as 20-25 kGy at frozen condition for inactivation of IBR virus in serum. (author).

  9. Views of TAGSI on the effects of gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of irradiated ferritic steel reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, J.F. [School of Engineering, Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); English, C.A. [Materials and Chemistry Consultancy, Nexia Solutions, 168 Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QJ (United Kingdom); Weaver, D.R. [School of Physics, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lidbury, D.P.G. [Serco Assurance, Walton House, 404 The Quadrant, Birchwood Park, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6AT (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    The paper reviews and analyses the effects of gamma irradiation dose on the properties of ferritic steels used in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). It explains factors that affect the embrittlement of a RPV steel induced by combinations of fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and gamma irradiation. TAGSI were asked to consider the effects of gamma irradiation dose on the properties of steels used in reactor pressure vessels. TAGSI endorsed the use of the MCBEND code to calculate gamma fluxes and energetic gamma ray displacement cross-sections calculated using either Baumann or Alexander methods. TAGSI endorsed the calculation of the materials property changes due to an additional gamma dose using trend curves based on empirical correlation to neutron-induced damage (where k {sub {gamma}}{approx}1{+-}0.25)

  10. Analysis of Unstable Chromosome Aberrations for Partial Body Exposures with Gamma Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syaifudin, Mukh [Center for Technology of Radiation Safety and Metrology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Yun, Hyun Jin; Kim, Eun Ju; Kang, Chang Mo [Laboratory of Cytogenetics and Tissue Regeneration, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    Scoring of unstable chromosome aberrations (dicentrics, rings and fragments) in circulating lymphocytes are the most extensively studied biological means for estimating individual exposure to ionizing radiation. The effects of radiation, however, can be significantly different when only portions of the body or an individual organ system are irradiated, such as might occur during the use of radiation for medical treatment, where some problems can arise especially to quantify the fraction of body irradiated. After partial-body exposure, peripheral blood samples contain a mixture of exposed and unexposed lymphocytes, which render the interpretation of the overall aberration frequencies more difficult. In this experiment, peripheral blood samples from four volunteers (two Indonesian and two Korean) were irradiated with 2.0 Gy of gamma rays for simulation of partial-body exposure by mixing irradiated and non-irradiated blood from the same volunteers in proportions of 10-100%. Dose estimates are crucial for risk assessment as well as for clinical planning of treatment of highly exposed victims. The results presented in this experiment concluded that the scoring of chromosome aberration is reliable methodology for investigating exposure to ionizing irradiation, such as partial-body ones. This study constitutes a preliminary step in our process of defining the possibilities of cytological technique for biological dosimetry expertise. Because of the limitations of a number of cases, no clear conclusion could be reached.

  11. Teratological Effects of Gamma-Irradiation during three Gestaional Intervals in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham A. Al-Shaibani, **Nadia, H. Ismail, ***Omaima S. Eissa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work: The present study aimed to evaluate the teratological effects of gamma-irradiation during three intervals of gestation; pre-implantation, organogenesis and fetal periods in rats. Material and methods: Four groups of pregnant rats were used in this study; the first one (GI served as control. The second (GII, third (GIII and fourth (GIV groups were subjected to whole body -radiation at a sub-lethal single dose level of 4 Gy at the third day, 10th day and 14th day of gestation respectively. Pregnant rats were sacrificed at the 20th day of gestation, implantation sites, resorption, embryonic death, fetal death, growth retarded fetuses, external malformations and skeletal malformation were recorded. Results: The results showed that whole body -irradiation caused resorption in the embryos of pregnant rats especially in those exposed during the pre-implantation period than the two other periods. The embryonic and fetal deaths were prominent in the fetuses maternally exposed to whole body -irradiation during the organogenesis period. The highest percentage of growth retarded fetuses was found in fetuses maternally exposed to -rays during the organogenesis period followed by fetuses maternally exposed to -irradiation during the fetal period and then fetuses maternally exposed to -irradiation during the pre-implantation period. The skeletal malformations as a result of -irradiation were mostly represented in less ossification in the skull bones, less ossification in the vertebral centra and wavy ribs. The most affected fetal skeleton was perceptive in GIII (fetuses maternally exposed to -irradiation during the organogenesis period followed by GII and then GIV.

  12. Optical fiber sensor for low dose gamma irradiation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés, Ana I.; Esteban, Ã.`scar; Embid, Miguel

    2016-05-01

    An optical fiber gamma ray detector is presented in this work. It is based on a Terbium doped Gadolinium Oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb) scintillating powder which cover a chemically etched polymer fiber tip. This etching improves the fluorescence gathering by the optical fiber. The final diameter has been selected to fulfill the trade-off between light gathering and mechanical strength. Powder has been encapsulated inside a microtube where the fiber tip is immersed. The sensor has been irradiated with different air Kerma doses up to 2 Gy/h with a 137Cs source, and the spectral distribution of the fluorescence intensity has been recorded in a commercial grade CCD spectrometer. The obtained signal-to-noise ratio is good enough even for low doses, which has allowed to reduce the integration time in the spectrometer. The presented results show the feasibility for using low cost equipment to detect/measure ionizing radiation as gamma rays are.

  13. Influence of irradiation upon few-layered graphene using electron-beams and gamma-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqing; Feng, Yi; Mo, Fei; Qian, Gang; Chen, Yangming; Yu, Dongbo; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xuebin

    2014-07-01

    Few-layered graphene (FLG) is irradiated by electron beams and gamma rays. After 100 keV electron irradiation, the edges of FLG start bending, shrinking, and finally generate gaps and carbon onions due to sputtering and knock-on damage mechanism. When the electron beam energy is increased further to 200 keV, FLG suffers rapid and catastrophic destruction. Unlike electron irradiation, Compton effect is the dominant damage mechanism in gamma irradiation. The irradiation results indicate the crystallinity of FLG decreases first, then restores as increasing irradiation doses, additionally, the ratio (O/C) of FLG surface and the relative content of oxygen groups increases after irradiation.

  14. Modification of ethylene-norbornene copolymer by Gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kačarević-Popović Zorica M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of modifying polyethylene and many other polymers with high energy radiation has led to many useful applications. Due to their new combination of properties and the shortage of experimental data, the radiolysis of a new class of materials, cyclo-olefin copolymers (COC, polymerised from norbornene and ethylene using metallocene catalysts, is of great interest to the study of radiation chemistry and the physics of polymeric systems. Ethylenenorbornene copolymer, pristine and containing an antioxidant were subjected to gamma irradiation in the presence of air and in water. The irradiated copolymer was studied using IR and UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis. The radiation-induced changes in the molecular structure were correlated to changes in the glass transition temperature measured by the DSC method.

  15. Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joongho; Belanger, J.M.R.; Sigouin, M.; Lanthier, J.; Willemot, C.; Pare, J.R.J. (Agriculture Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-03-01

    Chemical constituents were monitored to assess the biochemical and nutritional safety of Panax ginseng powders that were irradiated at doses of 1-10 kGy. Quantitative analysis has shown that the main effective components - saponins - are not altered by {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was not affected by the treatment. Negligible changes were observed in the free carbohydrate contents. Doses of more than 5 kGy caused significant decreases in sulfur-containing amino acids and in tyrosine. At doses of 10 kGy, free amino acids, such as proline and lysine, showed an appreciable increase. The composition in minerals was not altered irrespective of the applied doses.

  16. Dosimetry commissioning of the gamma irradiation facility ``ROBO''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, A.; Moussa, A.; Othman, I.; Alnaal, K.

    1998-06-01

    A product-overlap type gamma irradiation facility with wet storage was put into operation recently in Damascus, Syria and its technical specifications were controlled by dosimetry commissioning experiments and compared to the data specified by the supplier. In the course of this procedure detailed dose mapping using different density products was carried out, and thus the minimum and maximum dose locations within the product boxes were determined. Using these data the plant efficiency and the dose uniformity ratio have been calculated. The dose distribution was also determined vertically along the product carrier. The results were then analyzed with respect to the construction of the facility.

  17. Polymer nanocomposite of laponite RD prepared by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Maria J.A.; Silva, Estefania O.; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes, E-mail: mariajhho@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amato, Valdir S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Divisao de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias

    2012-07-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVAl) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) containing 0-5 wt % of the synthetic laponite RD clay were prepared by gamma irradiation process. The morphology of the nanocomposite hydrogel was observed by characterizations techniques using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The structural properties crosslinking was determined by measuring the crosslink gel content extraction on mesh 500 sizes and swelling kinetics at 22 °C. The results showed that crosslinks have inverse dependence on the clay level in the nanocomposite hydrogels, while swelling shows direct dependence. (author)

  18. Mechanical and thermal properties of castor oil polyurethane bone cement after gamma irradiation;Propriedades mecanicas e termicas de poliuretanas derivadas do oleo de mamona usadas como cimento osseo depois da irradiacao com radiacao gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, E.C. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DF/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Soboll, D.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal Parana (CPGEI/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Chierice, G.O.; Claro Neto, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lepiesnki, C.M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DF/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nascimento, E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DM/UTFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    Polyurethanes from castor oil are being employed as bone cement in medical applications. In this work the thermal and mechanical properties of gamma irradiated polyurethanes derivative from castor oil were investigated by instrumented indentation, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. A slightly increase in hardness is observed only for doses as high as 100 kGy. Thermal analysis indicates stability at human body temperature. The glass transition temperature has small changes after gamma irradiation. (author)

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on the development and reproduction of the greasy cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three substerilizing doses 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were tested against full – grown male and female pupae or against full-grown male or female pupae of Agrotis ipsilon. The results showed that fecundity of irradiated females crossed with irradiated males was decreased by increasing irradiation dose. The decrease in egg – hatchability % and increase in sterility % induced by gamma radiation were found to be positively correlated with the dose level. The parentage of larval and pupal mortality increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 with the increase of used doses. In addition, larval and pupal durations were found to be significantly prolonged as a result of gamma- irradiation treatment. In general, the results obtained indicated that the biological action of gamma irradiation against A. ipsilon larvae was more remarkable when both crossed females and males were irradiated followed by irradiated females crossed with non-irradiated males.

  20. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksieva, K., E-mail: katerina_bas@abv.b [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lagunov, O. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimov, K. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, N.D. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-06-15

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048{+-}0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  1. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  2. Steroidogenesis in the testes and the adrenals of adult male rats after. gamma. -irradiation in utero at late pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Keiko; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Inano, Hiroshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1990-02-01

    Pregnant rats were irradiated with 2.1Gy {gamma}-ray of {sup 60}Co at day 20 of gestation. Seventy days after birth, the body weight of the fetally irradiated male pups was significantly lower than the control. The testes, ventral prostates and seminal vesicles were atrophied by irradiation, whereas no decreased weight of the adrenals was observed. Histological examination of the testes of the irradiated rats revealed a complete disappearance of germinal cells. Sertoli cells and Leydig cells appeared normal, and no apparent histological difference was observed in the adrenals between the control and the irradiated rats. Examination of steroidgenesis in testes and adrenals led to the conclusion that irreversible damage was induced in spermatogenesis and androgen production by the fetal irradiation, whereas corticoidogenesis was not affected. (author).

  3. Total body irradiation with a sweeping beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, M.; Chenery, S.G.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for total body irradiation, in which the patient lies in the prone or supine position in the beam of a conventional column mounted 4 MV linear accelerator, is described. A sufficiently large radiation field is obtained by rotating the beam in a vertical plane about the source (i.e., sweeping beam) at a source-to-skin distance of 190 cm on the vertical axis. The variation of the midplane dose is less than +lt. slash-5% in parallel-opposed beams, when attenuators are placed over the region containing the lungs and bolus is employed around the head and legs. The percentage depth dose for the sweeping beam is identical to that of a stationary beam for the same collimator setting and source-to-skin distance. A method for monitoring the dose to the patient by means of a thimble ionization chamber located on the vertical beam axis is outlined. The average dose rates used are between 5 and 10 cGy/min. The design and placement of lung attenuators is simple. The treatment technique with the sweeping beam requires minimal modification of a treatment unit and can be applied on any unit which has a head swivel option.

  4. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  5. New gamma irradiation source at the research reactor Muenchen FRM II; Neue Gamma-Bestrahlungsanlage am Forschungsreaktor Muenchen FRM II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Gerstenberg, H.; Lichtenstein, K.; Tralmer, F.L.; Zill, V.; Neuhaus, I. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (DE). Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II)

    2009-07-01

    The new research reactor FRM II is a high-performance neutron source. A new gamma irradiation line for high-intensity gamma radiation is planned in spent fuel elements including a heating system that will allow irradiation at temperatures up to 150 C. The design concept considers the experimental boundary conditions, i.e. irradiation inhomogeneity and sample temperatures, but also the spent fuel element safety. The neutron flux was measured in two spent fuel elements with decay times of 90 and 450 days, respectively. A significant neutron activation of the irradiation samples can be excluded. The dose rate profile in the spent fuel element was measured with a special measuring device. The irradiation facility will be started in 2009. An first research program concerning microstructure investigations of gamma irradiated rock salt is described.

  6. Stability of vitamin E content of {gamma}-irradiated biscuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br; magtaipina@ig.com.br; Lamardo, Leda C.A. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Quimica Biologica]. E-mail: llamardo@ial.sp.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The technology of food irradiation is seen by the industry as a means of ensuring food safety, since it exposes foods to ionizing radiation that kills insects, moulds and bacteria. The need to eliminate bacterial pathogens from read-to-eat food products must always be balanced with the maintenance of product quality. In addition to determining the effective ionizing radiation doses required for pathogen elimination the effects of irradiation on product chemistry, nutritional value and quality must also been determined. Vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol) is one of the most potent natural lipophilic antioxidants commonly present in the human diet. As it is considered a free radical scavenger there is a growing concern that irradiation might reduce the vitamin E content of food products prepared with ingredients rich in any of the dietary source of the vitamin. This work describes the effects of ionizing radiation on the vitamin E content of some biscuits commercially found in the market. Three lots of biscuits were used. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 source, dose rate of about 3.5 kGy/h at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. For vitamin E determination samples were saponified with ethanolic potassium hydroxide in the presence of pyrogallol, and the tocopherols were extracted with petroleum ether. The absorbance was measured at 520 nm. From the obtained results it is possible to conclude that there was a notorious stability of the vitamin content of the biscuits submitted to gamma-irradiation at the assayed doses. (author)

  7. Polyclonal antibody to ovomucoid determination in gamma irradiated laying eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Lopes, Tatiana G.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP, Piracicaba, SP. Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente) (Brazil)], e-mail: mnharder@cena.usp.br, e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, e-mail: tgglopes@cena.usp.br; Duarte, Keila M.R. [Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ . Nova Odessa), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: keila@iz.sp.gov.br; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.; Savino, Vicente J.M.; Coelho, Antonio A.D. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: vjmsavin@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: aadcoelh@esalq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovomucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in female rabbits immunized with bioconjugated ovomucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA-ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of Co{sup 60}, type Multipurpose, under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8 Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10 KGy; 20 KGy and 30 KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA.s test we can find the egg allergen ovomucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovomucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such rates does not shows changes in that protein, therefore showed some changes in the color and visual viscosity of the egg samples. (author)

  8. Differential effect of melatonin on {gamma}-irradiated ovarian follicles in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K.; Lee, C.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    The present study was performed to obtain evidence of the radioprotective function of melatonin on the ovarian follicles in {gamma}-irradiated immature mice. Three weeks old immature mice were i.p. injected with 10 {mu}g and 100 {mu}g of melatonin dissolved in 100 {mu}l of alcoholic saline. Two hours after the treatments, they were whole-body irradiated with a dose of LD{sub 80(30)} (8.3 Gy). The ovaries were dissected out of the animals at -2, 2, 8, and 14 h after the onset of irradiation and prepared for the histological observation using glutaraldehyde fixation. In terms of morphometry, it was observed that the number of primordial follicles of the irradiation group or the melatonin-treated group was less than that of the control. However, the number of primary, preantral, and early antral follicles was not different from that of the control group. In the group pretreated with 100 {mu}g of melatonin before irradiation, the percentage of normal primordial follicles was significantly higher than that of the irradiation group at any time after irradiation. The high concentration of melatonin also reduced radiation-induced degeneration of the primary follicles at 14 h after irradiation. The pretreatment of 10 {mu}g of melatonin had little of no effect on radiation-induced degeneration of the primordial follicles and of the primary follicles. However it gave a protective effect on the radiation-induced degeneration in the preantral and early antral follicles. From the above results, it is concluded that the exogenous melatonin has different functions depending on the follicular stages, and that the radioprotective effect of exogenous melatonin on follicular degeneration is related to its concentration. (author)

  9. [The radiation-increased synthesis of phytochelatins in roots of gamma-irradiated barley seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilin, I A; Dikarev, V G; Geras'kin, S A

    2004-01-01

    It was shown that gamma-irradiation and cadmium nitrate increased synthesis of phytochelatins in roots of barley seedlings. The stimulation of synthesis of phytochelatins in gamma-irradiated plants was shown for the first time. The results obtained indicate more important role of phytochelatins in intercellular metabolism than heavy-metal-binding.

  10. Development of a new method of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Kazushi (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    A new method of whole body irradiation was developed using a linear accelerator linked to microprocessor. By this modified arc technique, a total body photon irradiation and a total skin electron irradiation were practical for narrow room. Approximative calculations were deviced for dose distribution. Dosimetric results were consistent with those previosly calculated. Local doses in lungs, neck and other areas were easily adjustable with arrangements of pre-set dose rate. In total skin electron irradation, six predeterminated postures and 'make up' irradiation were necessary to dose homogeneity over 'shady area' such as axillae. Clinically, a large arteriovenous malformation in an arm decreased with normalization of plethysmogram after treatment, and remarkable reductions of mycosis fungoides tumor were observed. This new method of total skin electron irradiation and total body photon therapy will clinically expand with the progress of bone marrow transplantation. (author).

  11. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author).

  12. Radioprotective effect of ascorbate in the liver of {gamma}-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yun; Park, Young Soon [Sohae College, Kusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, to determine whether the ascorbate protect against radiation damage and the possible relationship among the radioprotective effects and antioxidant actions, the effects of ascorbate(240 mg/kg, i.p) pretreatment of mice on the survival ratio, splenic weight, major antioxidant enzymes(SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activities, glutathione contents and lipid peroxidation in the liver were examined for 2 weeks after whole-body {gamma}-irradiation(6.5 Gy). The 30-day survival ratio increased from 10% to 47% for mice treated with ascorbate. The ascorbate decreased the extent of loss in splenic weight and stimulated recovery of splenic weight in irradiated mice(p<0.01). On the day of 14 after {gamma}-irradiation, the ascorbate pretreatment produced a slight increase of antioxidant enzymes activities and significantly increased reduced glutathione(GSH) contents(p<0.05) in the liver compared with non-treated group. Pretreatment with the ascorbate significantly decreased GSSG/total GSH ratio(p<0.05) without the change of GSSG in the liver and inhibited the radiation-induced increase in the hepatic malondialdehyde levels(p<0.05). In these results, we found that its radioprotective effect by protecting antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione contents from radiation induced a decrease, and thereby suppressing lipid peroxidation which is induced by free radicals.

  13. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the whitening activity of {beta}-glucan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Sung, Nak Yun; Jung, Pil Moon; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui Hong [Chungnam Naitonal University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    This study evaluated the change in whitening activity of {beta}-glucan by gamma-irradiation. Tyrosinase inhibition was significantly increased in the samples with 30, 50, 10 kGy irradiated {beta}-glucan. Melanin synthesis of irradiated {beta}-glucan was measured from B16BL6 melanoma cell line treated with {alpha}-melanin stimulating hormone. Melanin synthesis was increased in the {alpha}-melanin stimulating hormone added group. However, it was decreased in the groups of 30, 50 and 100 kGy gamma-irradiated {beta}-glucan treated with {alpha}-melanin stimulating hormone. These results indicate that gamma irradiated {beta}-glucan may elevate the whitening activity. Therefore, gamma-irradiated {beta}-glucan could be used for nutraceutical foods in cosmetic industry.

  14. Inactivation of fungal contaminants on Korean traditional cashbox by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, gamma irradiation was applied to decontaminate a Korean cultural artifact, a wooden cashbox stored in local museum. Fungi isolated from the wooden cashbox were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing methods. It was observed that the isolated fungi exhibited high similarity to Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verruculosum, and Trichoderma viride. Each strain was tested for sensitivity to gamma irradiation, and was inactivated by the irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy. The wooden cashbox was thus gamma-irradiated at this dose (5 kGy), and consequently decontaminated. Two months after the irradiation, when the wooden cashbox was retested to detect biological contamination, no fungi were found. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation at a low dose of 5 kGy can be applied for successful decontamination of wooden artifacts.

  15. Optical properties of T-centers under gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Polosan, S; Dragusin, M; Topa, V

    2003-01-01

    Electrolytic coloring of KCl:Pb crystals, leads to formation of negative metal ions with intense emission in the infrared region. These new color centers were named T centers; their most probable configuration could be Pb sub 2 sup 2 sup - , due to the lack of EPR or DCM signals. In order to destroy these structures, the crystals were irradiated with gamma-rays at high doses. The results were the detachment of the electrons from T centers and the appearance of Pb sup 2 sup + - ions. The possibility cannot be excluded of the existence of Pb sup + and Pb sup 0 centers in the samples, because these centers do not exhibit any optical properties on this spectral region. (authors)

  16. The gamma irradiation effects on structural and optical properties of silk fibroin/HPMC blend films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, G. Rajesha; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Gowda, Mahadeva; Shivananda, C. S.; Asha, S.; Byrappa, K.; Sangappa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the structural, chemical and optical properties of gamma irradiated silk fibroin/Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (SF-HPMC) blend films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The results indicate that the gamma radiation did not affect significantly the primary structure of polypeptide arrangement in the blend films. But the optical properties of the blends changed with gamma irradiation dosage.

  17. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. Q{sub {gamma}-H2AX}, an analysis method for partial-body radiation exposure using {gamma}-H2AX in non-human primate lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redon, Christophe E., E-mail: redonc@mail.nih.gov [NIH, NCI, CCR, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Nakamura, Asako J.; Gouliaeva, Ksenia [NIH, NCI, CCR, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Rahman, Arifur; Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Bonner, William M. [NIH, NCI, CCR, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We previously used the {gamma}-H2AX assay as a biodosimeter for total-body irradiation (TBI) exposure ({gamma}-rays) in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model. Utilizing peripheral blood lymphocytes and plucked hairs, we obtained statistically significant {gamma}-H2AX responses days after total-body exposure to 1-8.5 Gy ({sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays at 55 cGy min{sup -1}). Here, we introduce a partial-body exposure analysis method, Q{sub {gamma}-H2AX}, which is based on the number of {gamma}-H2AX foci per damaged cells as evident by having one or more {gamma}-H2AX foci per cell. Results from the rhesus monkey - TBI study were used to establish Q{sub {gamma}-H2AX} dose-response calibration curves to assess acute partial-body exposures. {gamma}-H2AX foci were detected in plucked hairs for several days after in vivo irradiation demonstrating this assay's utility for dose assessment in various body regions. The quantitation of {gamma}-H2AX may provide a robust biodosimeter for analyzing partial-body exposures to ionizing radiation in humans.

  19. High irradiation and ageing properties of resistive Micromegas detectors at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Andreou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Resistive Micromegas have been developed in recent years with the aim of making this technology usable in HEP experiments where the high sparking rate of classical Micromegas is not tolerable. A resistive Micromegas with four layers and an active surface of 0.5 m2 each, has been designed and built at CERN as prototype of the detectors to be used for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment. The detector has been exposed to an intense gamma source of 16 TBq in order to study the effects of ageing and evaluate the detector behavior under high irradiation.

  20. The influence of low temperature on gamma-ray irradiated permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Chul; Cha, Hyun Gil; Kim, Chang Woo; Ji, Eun Sun; Kim, Young Hwan; Kang, Dong In; Kang, Young Soo

    2009-12-01

    The temperature effect on the magnetic property of gamma-ray irradiated Nd-Fe-B and Sr-Ferrite magnets has been investigated. When the permanent magnets are exposed to gamma-ray, it's magnetic and other related properties are declined with degree of dose. The decreased magnetic property by gamma-ray irradiation at low temperature is similar with the result of magnet at high temperature. The temperature effect on the gamma-ray irradiation at exposed moment is also regarded as one of the important parameters for the reduced magnetic properties. The gamma-irradiation at low temperature was carried out at 195 K, and the changed properties of two kinds of magnets before and after gamma-irradiation were comparatively studied. The increased demagnetization of the magnets were studied by Hall probe. And changed Curie temperature and micro-crystal structure of each permanent magnet by gamma-ray irradiation has been also studied. Moreover the strong and broad single line shape of ESR signal in the resonance magnetic field is attributed to unpaired electron of Fe2+ in the sample by the effect of gamma-ray irradiation.

  1. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Biological Properties of a PLGA-PEG-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Shahabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation is able to affect various structural and biological properties of biomaterials In this study, a composite of Hap/PLGA-PEG and their ingredients were submitted to gamma irradiation doses of 25 and 50 KGy. Various properties such as molecular weight (GPC, thermal behavior (DSC, wettability (contact angle, cell viability (MTT assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity were studied for the composites and each of their ingredients. The results showed a decrease in molecular weight of copolymer with no change in the glass transition and melting temperatures after gamma irradiation. In general gamma irradiation can increase the activation energy ΔH of the composites and their ingredients. While gamma irradiation had no effect on the wettability of copolymer samples, there was a significant decrease in contact angle of hydroxyapatite and composites with increase in gamma irradiation dose. This study showed an increase in biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite with gamma irradiation with no significant effect on cell viability in copolymer and composite samples. In spite of the fact that no change occurred in alkaline phosphatase activity of composite samples, results indicated a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity in irradiated hydroxyapatites. These effects on the properties of PLGA-PEG-hydroxyapatite can enhance the composite application as a biomaterial.

  2. Irradiation with low-dose gamma ray enhances tolerance to heat stress in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zheng, Fengxia; Qi, Wencai; Wang, Tianqi; Ma, Lingyu; Qiu, Zongbo; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-06-01

    Gamma irradiation at low doses can stimulate the tolerance to environmental stress in plants. However, the knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying the enhanced tolerance induced by low-dose gamma irradiation is far from fully understood. In this study, to investigate the physiological and molecular mechanisms of heat stress alleviated by low-dose gamma irradiation, the Arabidopsis seeds were exposed to a range of doses before subjected to heat treatment. Our results showed that 50-Gy gamma irradiation maximally promoted seedling growth in response to heat stress. The production rate of superoxide radical and contents of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in the seedlings irradiated with 50-Gy dose under heat stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione (GSH) content and proline level in the gamma-irradiated seedlings were significantly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components related to heat tolerance were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under heat shock. Our results suggest that low-dose gamma irradiation can modulate the physiological responses as well as gene expression related to heat tolerance, thus alleviating the stress damage in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  3. Investigation of solid phase upon {gamma}-irradiation of ferrihydrite-ethanol suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkin, Tanja [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Zadro, Kreso [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Gotic, Marijan, E-mail: gotic@irb.h [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Music, Svetozar [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-07-15

    Ferrihydrite (FH) nanoparticles were synthesised and subjected to {gamma}-irradiation in the form of FH-ethanol suspension. The dose rate of {gamma}-radiation was {approx}16 kGy/h and the samples were irradiated to doses of up to 2590 kGy. {gamma}-irradiation of FH-ethanol suspensions did not cause the transformation of FH to any of the other iron oxide phases. Likewise, neither the Moessbauer and FT-IR spectroscopy nor the quantitative analysis using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy gave any evidence of structural changes of FH upon {gamma}-irradiation. C, H analysis showed that the C concentration in FH gradually increased with dose and was higher in {gamma}-irradiated FH samples than in non-irradiated FH sample. This finding suggested that carbon in FH originated from ethanol degradation. The H concentration in FH gradually increased to the dose of up to 340 kGy and then slightly decreased. Magnetic measurements showed a progressive decrease in magnetisation with an increase in {gamma}-irradiation. The results of magnetic measurements and C, H analysis suggested the carbonisation of FH surface. It was supposed that {gamma}-irradiation of FH-ethanol suspension reductively decomposed ethanol thus generating unsaturated hydrocarbons and acetylides, which in turn formed a conjugate iron complex, thus carbonating the FH surface. The carbonisation of the FH surface prevented FH transformation to other iron oxide phases.

  4. Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acheva, A; Georgieva, R; Rupova, I; Boteva, R [Laboratory Molecular Radiobiology and Epidemiology, National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, 132 Kliment Ohridski blvd, Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Lyng, F [Radiation and Environmental Science Center, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin st, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: anjin_a@mail.bg

    2008-02-01

    There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy.

  5. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated MTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, L.A.A. E-mail: laaterre@net.ipen.br; Zeituni, C.A.; Perrotta, J.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da

    2000-08-11

    The availability of burnup data is an important requirement in any systematic approach to the enhancement of safety, economics and performance of a nuclear research reactor. This work presents the theory and experimental techniques applied to determine, by means of nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the burnup of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the IEA-R1 research reactor. Burnup measurements, based on analysis of spectra that result from collimation and detection of gamma-rays emitted in the decay of radioactive fission products, were performed at the reactor pool area. The measuring system consists of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector together with suitable fast electronics and an on-line microcomputer data acquisition module. In order to achieve absolute burnup values, the detection set (collimator tube+HPGe detector) was previously calibrated in efficiency. The obtained burnup values are compared with ones provided by reactor physics calculations, for three kinds of MTR fuel elements with different cooling times, initial enrichment grades and total number of fuel plates. Both values show good agreement within the experimental error limits.

  6. Some microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of gamma irradiated sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2016-04-15

    The effect on microbial, chemical and sensorial properties of sesame seeds was determined after irradiation and storage. The sesame seeds were analyzed before and after irradiation with 3, 6 and 9 kGy of gamma irradiation, and after 6 and 12 months of storage. The results showed that gamma irradiation had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the moisture, ash and fat content on sesame seeds. While, small differences, but sometimes significant (pTVBN) increased significantly (pTVBN decreased (p0.05) than those of non-irradiated samples.

  7. The effects of gamma-irradiation on some pure aroma compounds of spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, O; Honkanen, E; Kallio, H; Latva-Kala, K; Sjöberg, A M

    1990-09-01

    Chemical changes due to gamma-irradiation were investigated in 11 pure aroma compounds typically found in spices. Samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 10, and 50 kGy. The irradiation source was 60Co. Irradiated samples and unirradiated controls were analyzed by gas chromatography alone and coupled with mass spectrometry. Significant changes due to the irradiation occurred only in (+/-)-linalool and alpha-terpineol, which are typical components of, for example, coriander and bay leaf. Their total amounts decreased by about 4-13% and some minor peaks increased as a result of irradiation. However, different results may be obtained when the spices themselves are irradiated.

  8. A Performance Evaluation of a Notebook PC under a High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Wan Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the performance of a notebook PC under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation test. A notebook PC, which is small and light weight, is generally used as the control unit of a robot system and loaded onto the robot body. Using TEPCO’s CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system data, the gamma ray dose rate before and after a hydrogen explosion in reactor units 1–3 of the Fukushima nuclear power plant was more than 150 Gy/h. To use a notebook PC as the control unit of a robot system entering a reactor building to mitigate the severe accident situation of a nuclear power plant, the performance of the notebook PC under such intense gamma-irradiation fields should be evaluated. Under a similar dose-rate (150 Gy/h gamma ray environment, the performances of different notebook PCs were evaluated. In addition, a simple method for a performance evaluation of a notebook PC under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation test is proposed. Three notebook PCs were tested to verify the method proposed in this paper.

  9. Irradiation effect on enzymatic activity of papain with {sup 60}Co-{gamma} rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Ohashi, Isao; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology

    1998-12-31

    An investigation was made on the durability of enzyme activity against {sup 60}Co-{gamma} irradiation at a dose up to 55 kGy/h using dry powder and aqueous solution of papain preparations on the market. Hybrid materials including bioactive molecules combined with biocompatible synthetic polymers are expected to have biocompatible properties and also biomimetic functions as a component of artificial organs for human body. The activity of papain in an aqueous solution was rapidly decreased at the early stage of irradiation through oxidation of SH group at its active site with active oxygen produced by the irradiation and then, partially recovered since SH group was reproduced in an anoxic state after O{sub 2} consumption in the solution irradiated at a high dose. A usual radiation method for sterilization was found applicable to decontamination of dry and frozen preparations of papain. When suitable conditions for radiation were chosen and N{sub 2} gas was purged to suppress the formation of free radicals, it was possible to keep the enzyme activity at more than 50% of the initial activity after radiation at 30 kGy. (M.N.)

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality characteristics of red color egg powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Nam; Park, Jin Gyu; Han, In Jun; Song, Beom Seok; KIm, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Mi Jung [Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, Anyang Unversity, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    This study was carried out to investigate effects of gamma irradiation on microbiological and quality characteristics of the red color egg powder (RCEP). The control sample was contaminated by microbial levels of 3.16 log CFUg{sup -1} in total aerobic bacteria, but microorganisms in gamma-irradiated samples at above 3.0 kGy were not found at detection limit less than 10{sup 2} CFUg{sup -1}. However, sensory scores and Hunter’s color value of the gamma-irradiated RCEP were decreased depending upon the irradiation dose. The RCEP treated by a combination of the vacuum packaging with gamma irradiation at 3.0 kGy was considered having a microbiological safety and maintaining the sensory quality.

  11. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: setsuko@affrc.go.jp; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Kanamori, Norihito [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio [School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara-city, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kawamoto, Shinichi [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of {beta}-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  12. Study on shelf life extension of papayas irradiated by /sup 60/Co gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M.S.; Chen, M.D.; Lin, C.T.; Fu, Y.K.

    1984-11-01

    Papayas are one of the main fresh fruits in Taiwan area. Papaya fruits were treated with hot water to pasteurize peels followed by /sup 60/Co gamma-ray irradiation to extend the ripening time. The purpose of synergetic methods is to extend the shelf life of papaya fruits. This experiment was carried out by seven treatments, which were: (1) control group, (2) hot water treatment only, (3) hot water treatment with a 25 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (4) hot water treatment with a 50 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (5) hot water treatment with a 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (6) 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation only, and (7) hot water treatment with a 100 krad ..gamma..-irradiation. The items of observation were: surface yellowing, surface decaying, quality of texture, and length of period lasted after irradiation for 50% marketable papayas. The results of this study showed that a shelf-life extension of six days could be obtained for papayas subjected to hot water (50 to 55/sup 0/C) treatment and a 100 krad irradiation. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  14. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical properties of alkali-extracted rice starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Shah, Asima; Gani, Asir; Rather, Sajad Ahmad; Wani, Sajad Mohd.; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Gani, Adil

    2014-06-01

    Starches isolated from two newly released rice varieties (K-322 and K-448) were subject to irradiation at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy doses. Comparative study between native (not irradiated) and irradiated starch samples was carried out to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties due to gamma irradiation. Significant decrease was found in apparent amylose content, pH, swelling power, syneresis, and pasting properties, whereas carboxyl content, water absorption capacity, and transmittance were found to increase with the increase in irradiation dose. Granule morphology of native and irradiated starches under scanning electron microscope revealed that granules were polygonal or irregular in shape. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. X-ray diffraction pattern showed A type of pattern in native as well as irradiated starches.

  16. Critical evaluation of gamma-irradiated serum used as feeder in the culture and demonstration of putative nanobacteria and calcifying nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Martel

    Full Text Available The culture and demonstration of putative nanobacteria (NB and calcifying nanoparticles (CNP from human and animal tissues has relied primarily on the use of a culture supplement consisting of FBS that had been gamma-irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy (gamma-FBS. The use of gamma-FBS is based on the assumption that this sterilized fluid has been rid entirely of any residual NB/CNP, while it continues to promote the slow growth in culture of NB/CNP from human/animal tissues. We show here that gamma-irradiation (5-50 kGy produces extensive dose-dependent serum protein breakdown as demonstrated through UV and visible light spectrophotometry, fluorometry, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and gel electrophoresis. Yet, both gamma-FBS and gamma-irradiated human serum (gamma-HS produce NB/CNP in cell culture conditions that are morphologically and chemically indistinguishable from their normal serum counterparts. Contrary to earlier claims, gamma-FBS does not enhance the formation of NB/CNP from several human body fluids (saliva, urine, ascites, and synovial fluid tested. In the presence of additional precipitating ions, both gamma-irradiated serum (FBS and HS and gamma-irradiated proteins (albumin and fetuin-A retain the inherent dual NB inhibitory and seeding capabilities seen also with their untreated counterparts. By gel electrophoresis, the particles formed from both gamma-FBS and gamma-HS are seen to have assimilated into their scaffold the same smeared protein profiles found in the gamma-irradiated sera. However, their protein compositions as identified by proteomics are virtually identical to those seen with particles formed from untreated serum. Moreover, particles derived from human fluids and cultured in the presence of gamma-FBS contain proteins derived from both gamma-FBS and the human fluid under investigation-a confusing and unprecedented scenario indicating that these particles harbor proteins from both the host tissue and the FBS

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree; Kim, Kwan-Soo; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2008-03-01

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwan-Soo [Research and Development Department, Greenpia Technology, Yeoju 469-811 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-03-15

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  19. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal and rheological properties of grain amaranth starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangli; Kasapis, Stefan; Bao, Jinsong; Corke, Harold

    2009-11-01

    Physical properties of starch from two cultivars of gamma-irradiated grain amaranth with different amylose content were investigated. Pasting viscosities decreased continuously with the increase in dosages of irradiation. Furthermore, different irradiation dosages resulted in modification of the thermal properties and crystallinity of starch. Dynamic oscillation on shear was also employed, temperature and frequency sweeps showed that changes in storage modulus and loss modulus were significant, with Tibet Yellow producing more elastic gels as compared to Hy030 at different irradiation dosages.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal and rheological properties of grain amaranth starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Xiangli [School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Kasapis, Stefan [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Melbourne, Vic 3001 (Australia); Bao Jinsong [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province and Chinese Ministry of Agriculture for Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Huajiachi Campus, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Corke, Harold [School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: hcorke@yahoo.com

    2009-11-15

    Physical properties of starch from two cultivars of gamma-irradiated grain amaranth with different amylose content were investigated. Pasting viscosities decreased continuously with the increase in dosages of irradiation. Furthermore, different irradiation dosages resulted in modification of the thermal properties and crystallinity of starch. Dynamic oscillation on shear was also employed, temperature and frequency sweeps showed that changes in storage modulus and loss modulus were significant, with Tibet Yellow producing more elastic gels as compared to Hy030 at different irradiation dosages.

  2. Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tétouan pilot station, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahri, Loubna; Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed; Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad

    2010-04-01

    The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co 60 gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.

    2011-11-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on DC electrical conductivity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaroop, K.; Somashekarappa, H. M., E-mail: carrtmu@gmail.com [Centre for Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation Technology (CARRT), USIC, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574199, Karnataka (India); Naveen, C. S.; Jayanna, H. S. [Department of PG Studies and Research in Physics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta-577451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India)

    2015-06-24

    The temperature dependent dc electrical conductivity of gamma irradiated Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is presented in this paper. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirms Zn-O stretching vibrations. UV-Visible spectroscopy studies show that the energy band gap (E{sub g}) of the prepared ZnO nanoparticles increases with respect to gamma irradiation dose, which can be related to room temperature dc electrical conductivity. The result shows significant variation in the high temperature dc electrical conductivity of ZnO nanoparticles due to gamma irradiation.

  5. Application of positron annihilation lifetime technique for {gamma}-irradiation stresses study in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A. [Scientific Research Company ' ' Carat' ' , Stryjska str. 20279031 Lviv (Ukraine); Filipecki, J.; Hyla, M. [Physics Institute, Pedagogical University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/1542201 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2002-08-01

    The influence of {gamma}-irradiation on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of As-Ge-S system has been analysed. The correlations between lifetime data, structural features and chemical compositions of glasses have been discussed. The observed lifetime components are connected with bulk positron annihilation and positron annihilation on various native and {gamma}-induced open volume defects. It is concluded that after {gamma}-irradiation of investigated materials the {gamma}-induced microvoids based on S{sub 1}{sup -}, As{sub 2}{sup -}, and Ge{sub 3}{sup -} coordination defects play the major role in positron annihilation processes. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Gamma-ray Albedo of Small Solar System Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, I.V.

    2008-03-25

    We calculate the {gamma}-ray albedo flux from cosmic-ray (CR) interactions with the solid rock and ice in Main Belt asteroids and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) using the Moon as a template. We show that the {gamma}-ray albedo for the Main Belt and KBOs strongly depends on the small-body mass spectrum of each system and may be detectable by the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). If detected, it can be used to derive the mass spectrum of small bodies in the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt and to probe the spectrum of CR nuclei at close-to-interstellar conditions. The orbits of the Main Belt asteroids and KBOs are distributed near the ecliptic, which passes through the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes. Therefore, the {gamma}-ray emission by the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt has to be taken into account when analyzing weak {gamma}-ray sources close to the ecliptic. The asteroid albedo spectrum also exhibits a 511 keV line due to secondary positrons annihilating in the rock. This may be an important and previously unrecognized celestial foreground for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the Galactic 511 keV line emission including the direction of the Galactic center. For details of our calculations and references see [1].

  7. DNA damage response signaling in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells following gamma and carbon beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Somnath [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Narang, Himanshi, E-mail: himinarang@gmail.com [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sarma, Asitikantha [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Krishna, Malini [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-11-01

    Carbon beams (5.16 MeV/u, LET = 290 keV/{mu}m) are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by higher relative biological effectiveness than low LET radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the signaling differences between {gamma}-rays and carbon ion-irradiation. A549 cells were irradiated with 1 Gy carbon or {gamma}-rays. Carbon beam was found to be three times more cytotoxic than {gamma}-rays despite the fact that the numbers of {gamma}-H2AX foci were same. Percentage of cells showing ATM/ATR foci were more with {gamma}-rays however number of foci per cell were more in case of carbon irradiation. Large BRCA1 foci were found in all carbon irradiated cells unlike {gamma}-rays irradiated cells and prosurvival ERK pathway was activated after {gamma}-rays irradiation but not carbon. The noteworthy finding of this study is the early phase apoptosis induction by carbon ions. In the present study in A549 lung adenocarcinoma, authors conclude that despite activation of same repair molecules such as ATM and BRCA1, differences in low and high LET damage responses might be due to their distinct macromolecular complexes rather than their individual activation and the activation of cytoplasmic pathways such as ERK, whether it applies to all the cell lines need to be further explored.

  8. Variation in viscosity and ion conductivity of a polymer–salt complex exposed to gamma irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujata Tarafdar; S K De; Sujit Manna; Udayan De; Pradyot Nanda

    2010-02-01

    We study changes in microstructure and resulting changes in the properties of PEO(1 − )–NH4 ClO4 () samples where = 0.18, when irradiated with gamma doses varying up to 50 kGy. Viscosities of aqueous solutions of the irradiated samples give an idea of the change in molecular weight and show correlation with ion conductivity. On the whole, there is a chain scission on irradiation, though there is evidence of some cross-linking at higher doses. The ion conductivity shows a strong increase for an irradiation of 35 kGy. DSC studies indicate a decrease in crystallinity with gamma dose.

  9. Use of gamma irradiation to prevent aflatoxin B 1 production in smoked dried fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbadu, G. H.

    Smoked dried fish bought from the Nigerian market was inoculated with spores of barAspergillus flavus (U.I. 81) and irradiated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 KGy gamma irradiation. The effect of aflatoxin B 1 production on subsequent incubation for 8 days as stationary cultures was measured. The amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced was found to decrease with increased gamma irradiation dose levels. While the non-irradiated control produced significantly (at 1% level) greater amounts of aflatoxin B 1 as compared to the treated cultures.

  10. Detection of gamma-irradiation effect on DNA and protein using magnetic sensor and cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck-Gun; Song, Hoon; Kishore, M B; Vértesy, G; Lee, Duk-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a magnetic sensor utilizing Planar Hall Resistance (PHR) and cyclic Voltammetry (CV) for detecting the radiation effect was fabricated. Specifically, we applied in parallel a PHR sensor and CV device to monitor the irradiation effect on DNA and protein respectively. Through parallel measurements, we demonstrated that the PHR sensor and CV are sensitive enough to measure irradiation effect. The PHR voltage decreased by magnetic nanobead labeled DNA was slightly recovered after gamma ray irradiation. The behavior of cdk inhibitor protein p21 having a sandwich structure of Au/protein G/Ab/Ag/Ab was checked by monitoring the cyclic Voltammetry signal in analyzing the gamma ray irradiation effect.

  11. Effect of 1.25 MeV gamma irradiation in alpha-phased PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarya, Suveda; Siddhartha [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Department of Applied Science, Ideal Institute of Technology, Govindpuram, Ghaziabad 201003, UP (India); Saha, A. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Center, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Wahab, M.A., E-mail: mawahab.physics@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2009-11-15

    The radiation induced changes taking place in alpha-phased poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films exposed to gamma rays were investigated in correlation with the applied doses. Samples were irradiated in vacuum at room temperature by a 1.25 MeV Co{sup 60} source with the doses in the range of 0-300 kGy. Optical and chemical properties of the irradiated as well as un-irradiated PVDF films were studied using UV-visible and FTIR techniques. Gamma irradiation was found to induce changes vary depending on the radiation dose.

  12. Control of Postharvest Bacterial Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation and its Potential Modes of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rae-Dong Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity against a postharvest bacterial pathogen, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc. Gamma irradiation in a bacteria cell suspension resulted in a dramatic reduction of the viable counts as well as an increase in the amounts of DNA and protein released from the cells. Gamma irradiation showed complete inactivation of Ecc, especially at a dose of 0.6 kGy. In addition, scanning electron microscopy of irradiated cells revealed severe damage on the surface of most bacterial cells. Along with the morphological changes of cells by gamma irradiation, it also affected the membrane integrity in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanisms by which the gamma irradiation decreased the bacterial soft rot can be directly associated with the disruption of the cell membrane of the bacterial pathogen, along with DNA fragmentation, results in dose-dependent cell inactivation. These findings suggest that gamma irradiation has potential as an antibacterial approach to reduce the severity of the soft rot of paprika.

  13. Effect of. gamma. -irradiation in the keeping quality of Nigerian onion cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbaji, A.S.; Ogbadu, G.H.; van Amstel, H. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1981-01-01

    Onion of variety Ds x Ws'78 and Ds'79 harvested 14 days prior to the experiment were treated with 5, 8 and 15 krad doses of ..gamma..-irradiation from a /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-irradiator and stored. Onions were weekly investigated for sprouting and rotting. Chemical analyses were carried out monthly for dry matter, flavour, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and protein. In comparison, a local method of storage was carried out. Irradiation dose of 5-15 krad completely inhibited sprouting throughout the whole storage period. Irradiated bulbs however, showed a higher tendency to rot. In comparison with the control, irradiation did not have any significant effect on dry matter, flavour component and ascorbic acid but the protein content was significantly lower in the irradiated bulbs. The compositional differences found between irradiated and untreated onions seem to be of no nutritional or organoleptic significance. Almost 100% loss was recorded for local storage trial.

  14. Role of gamma irradiation on the natural antioxidants in cumin seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advance Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Mee-Hye [School of Food Science, Eulji University, Seongnam 461-703 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Jeong [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju 660-759 (Korea, Republic of); Srinivasan, Periasamy [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advance Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyung [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States); Park, Hyun Jin [Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung Woo [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advance Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Woon [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advance Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-02-15

    Antioxidants quench oxidation by transferring hydrogen atoms to free radicals. In the present investigation, the effect of gamma irradiation on the natural antioxidants of irradiated cumin was studied. Cumin samples were purchased from retailers and then irradiated in a cobalt-60 irradiator to 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy at ambient temperature. The effect of irradiation on the antioxidant properties of the cumin seed were investigated by evaluating the radical-scavenging effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, determination of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total polyphenol content (TPC) and the antioxidant index by {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) was performed to assess ionization of cumin seeds by gamma irradiation. Irradiation was found to nonsignificantly increase and/or maintain all antioxidant parameters, TPC and the ESR signal intensity was found to be increased in cumin seeds.

  15. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  16. Total body irradiation with a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Olivares, Marina; Léger, Pierre; Larkin, Joe; Freeman, Carolyn R; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-01-01

    While the current trend in radiotherapy is to replace cobalt teletherapy units with more versatile and technologically advanced linear accelerators, there remain some useful applications for older cobalt units. The expansion of our radiotherapy department involved the decommissioning of an isocentric cobalt teletherapy unit and the replacement of a column-mounted 4-MV LINAC that has been used for total body irradiation (TBI). To continue offering TBI treatments, we converted the decommissioned cobalt unit into a dedicated fixed-field total body irradiator and installed it in an existing medium-energy LINAC bunker. This article describes the logistical and dosimetric aspects of bringing a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit into clinical service as a total body irradiator.

  17. Virus inactivation studies using ion beams, electron and gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolko, Eduardo E. [Laboratorio de Polimeros, Grupo Aplicaciones Industriales, Unidad de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Pbro. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon 15, C.P. B1802AYA Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: smolko@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Lombardo, Jorge H. [Biotech S.A., C.P. 1754 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    Known methods of virus inactivation are based on the chemical action of some substances such as acetylethylenimine, betapropiolactone, glycidalaldehyde, formaldehyde, etc. In such a process, the viral suspension should be kept at room or higher temperatures for 24-48 h. Under these conditions, physical and chemical agents act to degrade the virus antigenic proteins. On the contrary with ionizing radiations at low temperatures, the treatment does not cause such degradation allowing the study of different viral functions. In this work, particle ({alpha}, d and ss) and {gamma} irradiations were used for partial and total inactivation of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Rauscher Leukemia Virus (RLV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). Obtention of the D{sub 37} dose from survival curves and the application of the target theory, permitted the determination of molecular weight of the nucleic acid genomes, EBR values and useful information for vaccine preparation. For RLV virus, a two target model of the RNA genome was deduced in accordance with biological information while from data from the literature and our own work on the structure of the scrapie prion, considering the molecular weight obtained by application of the theory, a new model for prion replication is presented, based on a trimer molecule.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on HPMC/ZnO nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Madhukumar, R.; Latha, S.; Gowda, Mahadeva; Shivananda, C. S.; Harish, K. V.; Sangappa, E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore – 574199 (India); Shetty, G. Rajesha [Department of Physics, Government First Grade College, Hiriadka, Udupi – 576113 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The present work looks into the structural and mechanical properties modification in ZnO nanoparticle incorporated Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer films, induced by gamma irradiation. The irradiation process was performed in gamma chamber at room temperature by use of Cobalt-60 source (Average energy of 1.25MeV) at different doses: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy respectively. The changes in structural parameters and mechanical properties in pure and gamma irradiated HPMC/ZnO nanocomposite films have been studied using X-ray scattering (XRD) data and universal testing machine (UTM). It is found that gamma irradiation decreases the structural parameters and improves the mechanical properties of nanocomposite films.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun-Yeob [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Back [Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Cheonan, Chungcheongnam-do 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo-Yong [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ohh, Sang-Jip, E-mail: sjohh@kangwon.ac.k [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with {sup 60}Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 {sup o}C for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher (p<0.05) than those of autoclaved diets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  20. Development of hardened PVF : PMMA polyblend: effect of gamma and electron irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Bajpai; N B Dhagat; R Katare; Pragyesh Agrawal; S C Datt

    2003-06-01

    Specimens of poly(vinyl formal) (PVF) : poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polyblends with different weight percentage ratios were subjected to gamma irradiation (1 to 50 Mrad) and electron irradiation (1 to 20 Mrad). The effect of irradiation on the strength of the blend specimens was studied by measuring the surface microhardness using a Vickers microhardness tester attached to a Carl Zeiss NU 2 Universal research microscope. Significant changes were observed in the Vickers microhardness number, $H_v$. The $H_v$ values of gamma irradiated specimens are found to be higher than the unirradiated specimens indicating an occurrence of radiational crosslinking. The maximum value of $H_v$ is obtained at the gamma radiation dose of 15 Mrad. In case of electron irradiation the radiational crosslinking is found to take place for the blend specimens having lower wt% content of PMMA (0 and 1 wt%) in PVF matrix. On the other hand degradation of polymeric system is observed for the blends having PMMA content more than 1 wt%. The maximum value of $H_v$ is obtained for all the blend specimens at the electron irradiation dose of 8 Mrad. The degree of crosslinking in polyblends due to gamma irradiation is found to be more than electron irradiation. The scissioning mechanism is found to predominate in the polyblend system in case of electron irradiation.

  1. Application of gamma irradiation for the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Ill; Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo [Radiation Research Center for Innovative Technology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheo Run [Dept. of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    This study was conducted to establish the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese with gamma irradiation. Total aerobic bacteria was 2.50 Log CFUg-1 in non-irradiated sample. No viable cells were observed in the gamma-irradiated at 1 kGy and over. D10 value for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in sliced cheddar cheese were 0.64 and 0.54 kGy, respectively. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values were increased as irradiation dose was increased, but there was no significant difference between nonirradiated and irradiated samples at 1 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed there was no significant difference between samples irradiated at 1 kGy and non-irradiated in respect of color, odor, overall acceptability. Theses results indicated that gamma irradiation at 1 kGy was considered to be an effective treatment to ensure the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese with minimal change of sensory, even though further studies should be investigated to reduce the deterioration of sensory quality induced by gamma irradiation.

  2. Postharvest Control of Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena in Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-08-01

    To extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea, we evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation alone or gamma irradiation combined with fumigation on the control of postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused the maximal inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.76 and 0.78 kGy for B. cinerea and M. fructigena, respectively. Inhibition of conidial germination of both fungal pathogens occurred at a greater level at the doses of 0.2 to 1.0 kGy compared with the nontreated control; 0.2 kGy caused 90.5 and 73.9% inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena, respectively. Treatment in vitro with the ecofriendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater effect compared with the nontreated control. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments. Interestingly, when irradiation was combined with fumigation, the percentage of disease inhibition increased more at lower (<0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that the combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on biopolymer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) and bacterial cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jipa, Iuliana Mihaela; Stroescu, Marta [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta, E-mail: stoica.anicuta@gmail.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Dobre, Tanase; Jinga, Sorin [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Chemical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Polizu 1-3, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Zaharescu, Traian [Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, 313 Splaiul Unirii, 030138 Bucharest (Romania)

    2012-05-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper reports the obtaining of composite materials between PVA and BC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite films were {gamma}-irradiated at doses up to 50 kGy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films have a good resistance, being suitable as food packaging materials. - Abstract: Composite materials containing in different ratios poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), bacterial cellulose (BC) and glycerol (G) as plasticizer were obtained and exposed to different {gamma} radiation doses using an irradiator GAMMATOR provided with {sup 137}Cs source. These films successively received up to 50 kGy absorbed doses at a dose rate of 0.4 kGy/h at room temperature. In order to study the chemical and structural changes during {gamma} irradiation, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used. Water vapour permeability (WVP), Hunter colour parameters and hardness were also measured for the irradiated samples. Investigation revealed that WVP was not significantly affected by the irradiation. Colour measurements indicated a slight decrease of pure PVA films transparency and it made clear that all samples became more reddish and yellowish after irradiation. The samples hardness was not affected by the irradiation doses used. However, the results showed no drastic structural or chemical changes of the irradiated samples, which prove, in consequence, a good durability. These composite materials could be used as packaging materials for {gamma} irradiated products.

  4. Influence of gamma irradiation on productivity indices of the edible Emperor moth caterpillar, Cirina forda (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, M O; Fasoranti, J O; Ande, A T; Olayemi, I K

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed at generating baseline information for sustainable genetic improvement of Cirana forda larvae for entomophagy, through the use of gamma irradiation. Eggs of C. forda were irradiated with increasing doses of gamma rays from 0 to 200 Gy and raised through larval instal stages under laboratory conditions. The Body Weight (BW) and Head Capsule Width (HCW) of the larval instar stages were monitored as indices of productivity. Successful larval emergence was recorded for all irradiation doses tested and BW of the 1st and 2nd instar larvae were not significantly (p > 0.05) different between the control and treated groups (range = 0.021 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the 200 Gy treatment to 0.028 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the control group and 0.105 +/- 0.003 g/larva in 20 Gy treatment to 0.172 +/- 0.009 g/larva in the control group, respectively). On the other hand, BW during the 3rd and 4th larval instars were significantly (p < 0.05) lower among the irradiated treatments than control. Pattern of distribution of HCW was different from that of BW; as HCW increased with irradiation dose from 10-50 Gy during the 3rd and 4th larval instars. Also, HCW during the 5th instar larvae among the irradiated treatments (range = 5.256 +/- 0.012 to 5.662 +/- 0.026 mm) were not higher than that of the 6th instar in the control group (6.065 +/- 0.010 mm). These results suggest promising potentials of the use of gamma irradiation in sustainably improving the productivity of C. forda larvae for entomophagy.

  5. Designing attenuators for total-body irradiation using virtual simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, R; Evans, M; Olivares, M; Dyke, L; Podgorsak, E B; Freeman, C R

    2000-01-01

    In total-body photon irradiation, the lungs are the most commonly shielded organ. Lung compensators are often designed by using high-energy portal films. Other organs, such as the kidneys and liver, are poorly visualized in portal films due to their unit-density composition. A computed tomography-based technique to design kidney and liver attenuators involves outlining these organs in a virtual simulation. The position and the shape of the attenuator are then determined from a digitally-reconstructed radiograph. Appropriate attenuator thickness is determined from measured transmission curves. This article provides a summary of this technique for total-body photon irradiation in a 4-MV photon beam.

  6. [Transformation of free radicals of gamma-irradiated enzymes during long-term storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryl'tsev, V V; Virnik, R B; Dovbiĭ, E V; Filatov, V N

    1988-01-01

    The ESR method was used to study free radical processes occurring in gamma-irradiated enzymes upon their long-term storage (up to 4 years) both at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. Simultaneously, studied was the biological activity of gamma-irradiated enzymes subjected to a long-term storage. The immobilization of enzymes on dialdehyde cellulose or polycaproamine was shown to preserve their biological activity during the postirradiation storage.

  7. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiati...

  8. Evaluating the effects of gamma-irradiation for decontamination of medicinal cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Arno eHazekamp

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiati...

  9. Inactivation of RNA Viruses by Gamma Irradiation: A Study on Mitigating Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Effective inactivation of biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogens is vital in order to study these agents safely. Gamma irradiation is a commonly used method for the inactivation of BSL-4 viruses, which among other advantages, facilitates the study of inactivated yet morphologically intact virions. The reported values for susceptibility of viruses to inactivation by gamma irradiation are sometimes inconsistent, likely due to differences in experimental protocols. We analyzed the effects of common...

  10. Modulation of Enzymatic Activities of Dual Functional Peroxiredoxin by Gamma Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Sik; Park, Chul Hong; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Recently, enzymes have frequently been used as catalysts in various bio-industrial, commercial, and pharmaceutical applications, because they are more stable, more efficient, and less toxic than the synthetic catalysts. However, one of their major disadvantages is their low thermostability, which leads the researchers to develop new forms of industrially important enzymes with increased resistance to inactivation and aggregation. This study describes a strategy for modifying the molecular chaperone activity of peroxiredoxin (Prx) by using gamma irradiation. Prxs are a ubiquitous family of antioxidant enzymes. Upon oxidation of their peroxidatic Cys, the molecules undergo a structural conversion from a low-molecular-weight (LMW) species acting as a peroxidase to a high-molecular-weight (HMW) complex functioning as a chaperone. In the present study, we examined the effect of gamma irradiation on PP1084 with respect to its protein structure and enzymatic function. The use of gamma irradiation as a physical treatment can increase the cohesive strength of the protein by forming cross-links. The aims of the present work were (1) to improve the chaperone activity of PP1084 by gamma irradiation, (2) to identify the 'optimal' intensity of gamma irradiation, and (3) to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on protein hydrophobicity as related to chaperone function. Following PP1084 treatment with 30 kGy gamma irradiation, the PP1084 chaperone activity enhanced by about 3-4-fold compared with nonirradiated PP1084, while the peroxidase activity decreased. Ongoing research efforts are addressing the physical modifications of PP1084 protein by gamma irradiation

  11. Behavioural consequences of an 8 Gy total body irradiation in mice: Regulation by interleukin-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, Section Autonome de Radiobiologie Appliquee a la Medecine, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2001-02-01

    The effects of an 8 Gy {gamma} total body irradiation (TBI) on exploration and locomotion activities as well as temperature were studied in C57BL6/J mice. Survival, body weight, and blood cell counts were also assessed in irradiated mice treated with placebo or interleukin (IL)-4. The efficacy of IL-4 treatment on improvement in exploration activity was evaluated. The study was carried out from 3 h to 30 days following exposure. Our results showed a biphasic response to irradiation concerning the exploration activity of mice. Irradiated mice had reduced activity as early as 3 h after exposure, with recovery of activity within 24 h. The exploration activity again decreased 4 days after irradiation and the recovery occurred slowly after day 17. IL-4 ameliorated the exploration status in mice in both phases. The locomotion activity was studied using a telemetry apparatus. A similar pattern to that of the exploration data was observed, with a minimal activity observed between days 13 and 17. A radiation-induced hypothermia was also noticed over the same time period. (author)

  12. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, {alpha}-tocopherol, or {beta}-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO{sub 2} to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams.

  13. PtRu/C Electrocatalysts Prepared Using Gamma and Electron Beam Irradiation for Methanol Electrooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PtRu/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles were prepared in a single step submitting water/2-propanol mixtures containing Pt(IV and Ru(III ions and the carbon support to gamma and electron beam irradiation. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electrooxidation. PtRu/C electrocatalyst can be prepared in few minutes using high dose rate electron beam irradiation while using low dose rate gamma irradiation some hours were necessary to prepare it. The obtained materials showed the face-centered cubic (fcc structure of Pt and Pt alloys with average nanoparticle sizes of around 3 nm. The material prepared using electron beam irradiation was more active for methanol electrooxidation than the material prepared using gamma irradiation.

  14. Comparison of the effects of gamma ray and e-beam irradiation on the quality of minced beef during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Nam; Han, In Jun; Kim, Wang Geun; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Byun, Myung Woo; Hwang, Han Joon; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institte, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Gyu [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was conducted to compare the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of minced beef irradiated with gamma ray of e-beam at the absorbed doses from 5 to 20 kGy. The total bacterial counts of minced beef were decreased depending upon the irradiation doses, but sterilizing effect of gamma irradiation was higher than that of e-beam irradiation. The contents of malondialdegyde of minced beef were increased depending upon irradiation doses as well as storage periods (p< 0.05). Volatile basic nitrogen in minced beef was constantly increased during storage, but the increasing rate were retarded by irradiation. The hunter's color values(L*, a* and b*) of gamma or e-beam irradiated minced beef were decreased as irradiation dose increasing. Meanwhile, the quality changes of gamma irradiated samples were faster than e-beam irradiated samples.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M., E-mail: khaleelchovva@yahoo.co.in [P.G. Department of Botany and Research Centre, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)

    2011-11-15

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents. - Highlights: > Effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa) was studied. > Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. > Curcuminoid content and the volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. > Curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. > No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  16. Immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight {beta}-glucan depolymerized by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Nak-Yun [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Division of Applied Biological Chemistry, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581 (Japan); Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young-Choon [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mee-Ree [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    {beta}-glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many microorganisms and cereals which possess immunomodulatory properties and have been used in the food, cosmetic and medical industry. In our previous study, {beta}-glucan was depolymerized by gamma irradiation and leads to improve the solubility and viscosity. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional properties, mainly immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight {beta}-glucan fragmented by gamma irradiation. The results showed that RAW 264.7 macrophage cell stimulation activities of irradiated {beta}-glucan were higher than that of non-irradiated {beta}-glucan. In addition, the oral administration of gamma-irradiated {beta}-glucan significantly increased the proliferation and cytokine (IFN-{gamma} and IL-2) release of spleen and Peyer's patch cells compared with non-irradiated {beta}-glucan. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be used as an effective method for the production of depolymerized {beta}-glucan improved functional property such as immunomodulatory activity.

  17. Characterization of blends of PP and SBS vulcanized with gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: jjgonza@usb.ve; Albano, C. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela) and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: calbano@ivic.ve; Candal, M.V. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); Ichazo, M.N. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); Hernandez, M. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2005-07-01

    The present work has the objective of analyzing blends of PP with 30 wt% SBS vulcanized with gamma irradiation. In order to do so, SBS was irradiated at 10, 25 and 50 kGy with gamma rays. Results indicate that the gel fraction increases with irradiation dose, varying from 0.3% to 13.0% for the doses employed. Concerning tensile properties, it can be seen that the incorporation of SBS non-irradiated or irradiated decreases Young's modulus, while increasing elongation at break. Respect to thermal studies, it was detected that SBS decreases melting enthalpy of blends, fact that implies a decrease on crystallinity degree, being this effect more noticeable when SBS is irradiated at doses higher than 10 kGy. On the other hand, melting temperature diminishes slightly when adding SBS to PP, but does not show significant variations when SBS is irradiated. PPs MFI decreased with the addition of SBS, being the effect more notorious with irradiation dose. Finally, it can be concluded that SBS can be vulcanized by gamma irradiation, and that the crosslinking degree increases with irradiation dose.

  18. Investigating the embryo/larval toxic and genotoxic effects of {gamma} irradiation on zebrafish eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, O., E-mail: olivier.simon@irsn.fr [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Massarin, S. [Laboratoire de Modelisation Environnementale, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Coppin, F. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Hinton, T.G. [Service d' Etude du Comportement des Radionucleides dans les Ecosystemes, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gilbin, R. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Eggs/larval of freshwater fish (Danio rerio) were exposed to low dose rates of external gamma radiation (from 1 to 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) over a 20-day period, with the objective of testing the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline suggested by the IAEA. The present study examines different endpoints, mortality and hatching time and success of embryos as well as the genotoxicity of {gamma}-irradiations (after 48 h). The 20-day embryo-larval bioassay showed an enhanced larval resistance to starvation after chronic exposure to {gamma} irradiation (from low 1 mGy d{sup -1} to high dose rate 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) and an acceleration in hatching time. Gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage Ito zebrafish egg (40-50% DNA in tail in Comet assay) from the lowest dose rate (1 mGy d{sup -1}). Possible mechanisms of {gamma} radiotoxicity and implications for radioprotection are discussed. - Highlights: > Relevant information on the {gamma} radiation impact on early life stage biota is scarce. > The eggs of zebrafish Danio rerio were selected as biological model. > We test the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline (IAEA). > We observed effects measured at individual levels (starvation, hatching time). > Chronic gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage to zebrafish egg. > {gamma} radiotoxicity mechanisms and implications for radioprotection are discussed.

  19. The Use of Gamma Irradiation in the Sterilization of Streptomyces Colonizing the Tempra Paintings in Ancient Egyptian Tombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Ali SAKR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight out of forty six Streptomyces strains from mural paintings at the Tell Basta and Tanis tombs were exposed to increasing doses (5, 10, 15, 20, 25kGy of gamma irradiation. These strains varied in their resistance profile. S. canarius was the most resistant to gamma irradiation doses, as it was totally eliminated at 25kGy, whereas S. chibaensis and S. albidofuscus resisted to 20kGy and S. ambofaciens resisted 15kGy. The other strains under investigation showed a lower resistance to gamma irradiation. Tricyclazole (5, 7, 10 µg/mL inhibited melanin production after gamma irradiation at doses lower than lethal dose. Gamma irradiation with the previous doses enhanced the chitinease activity of irradiated Streptomyces strains, but S. canarius was the exception. No color change was observed either for pigments or for binding media, after gamma irradiation at the same doses.

  20. Four-body contributions to B -> Xs gamma at NLO

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Tobias; Virto, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing efforts to reduce the perturbative uncertainty in the B -> Xs gamma decay rate have resulted in a theory estimate to NNLO in QCD. However, a few contributions from multi-parton final states which are formally NLO are still unknown. These are parametrically small and included in the estimated error from higher order corrections, but must be computed if one is to claim complete knowledge of the B -> Xs gamma rate to NLO. A major part of these unknown pieces are four-body contributions corresponding to the partonic process b -> s qbar q gamma. We compute these NLO four-body contributions to B -> Xs gamma, and confirm the corresponding tree-level leading-order results. While the NLO contributions arise from tree-level and one-loop Feynman diagrams, the four-body phase-space integrations make the computation non-trivial. The decay rate contains collinear logarithms arising from the mass regularization of collinear divergences. We perform an exhaustive numerical analysis, and find that these contributions a...

  1. Improved calculation of displacements per atom cross section in solids by gamma and electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñera, Ibrahin, E-mail: ipinera@ceaden.edu.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Cruz, Carlos M.; Leyva, Antonio; Abreu, Yamiel; Cabal, Ana E. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Espen, Piet Van; Remortel, Nick Van [University of Antwerp, CGB, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We present a calculation procedure for dpa cross section in solids under irradiation. • Improvement about 10–90% for the gamma irradiation induced dpa cross section. • Improvement about 5–50% for the electron irradiation induced dpa cross section. • More precise results (20–70%) for thin samples irradiated with electrons. - Abstract: Several authors had estimated the displacements per atom cross sections under different approximations and models, including most of the main gamma- and electron-material interaction processes. These previous works used numerical approximation formulas which are applicable for limited energy ranges. We proposed the Monte Carlo assisted Classical Method (MCCM), which relates the established theories about atom displacements to the electron and positron secondary fluence distributions calculated from the Monte Carlo simulation. In this study the MCCM procedure is adapted in order to estimate the displacements per atom cross sections for gamma and electron irradiation. The results obtained through this procedure are compared with previous theoretical calculations. An improvement in about 10–90% for the gamma irradiation induced dpa cross section is observed in our results on regard to the previous evaluations for the studied incident energies. On the other hand, the dpa cross section values produced by irradiation with electrons are improved by our calculations in about 5–50% when compared with the theoretical approximations. When thin samples are irradiated with electrons, more precise results are obtained through the MCCM (in about 20–70%) with respect to the previous studies.

  2. Using gamma irradiation for the recovery of anthocyanins from grape pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayed, N.; Yu, H.-L.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: Monique_Lacroix@iaf.uquebec.ca

    2000-03-01

    This research investigated the effect of gamma irradiation from 0 to 9 kGy, packaging in air or under vacuum, or in combination with other treatments for enhancing anthocyanin extraction from grape pomace. Results indicate that the irradiation at 6 kGy and packaging in the presence of a low concentration of sodium metabisulfite yielded the highest value of anthocyanin extraction. (author)

  3. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the microbial quality of steamed tofu rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qian; Gao, Meixu; Li, Shurong; Wang, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of two kinds of radiation processing, gamma and electron beam (ebeam) irradiation, for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua which were inoculated in pre-sterilised steamed tofu rolls was studied. The corresponding effects of both irradiation types on total bacterial counts (TBCs) in commercial steamed tofu rolls available in the market were also examined. The microbiological results demonstrated that gamma irradiation yielded D10 values of 0.20, 0.24 and 0.22 kGy for S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. innocua, respectively. The respective D10 values for ebeam irradiation were 0.31, 0.35 and 0.27 kGy. Gamma and ebeam irradiation yielded D10 values of 0.48 and 0.43 kGy for total bacterial counts in commercial steamed tofu rolls, respectively. The results suggest that ebeam irradiation has similar effect on decreasing TBCs in steamed tofu rolls, and gamma irradiation is slightly more effective than ebeam irradiation in reducing the populations of pathogenic bacteria. The observed differences in D10-values between them might be due to the significant differences in dose rate applied, and radiation processing of soybean products to improve their microbial quality could be available for other sources of protein.

  4. Application of gamma irradiation in ginseng for both photodegradation of pesticide pentachloronitrobenzene and microbial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Ting; Chung, Hsiao-Ping [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Po-Chow; Lin, I-Hsin [Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fong-In, E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This study investigates the feasibility of using gamma irradiation for photodegradation of a common residual fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), in ginseng, and for microbial decontamination. American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, was subjected to gamma irradiation. PCNB residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Eighty percent of PCNB (100 ppm) in a methanol aqueous solution was degraded by 5 kGy irradiation, and the primary degradation product was pentachloroaniline. Furthermore, contaminated PCNB (3.7 ppm) in ginseng were reduced to 0.2 ppm after 20 kGy irradiation. The IC{sub 50} for treatment of Sclerotium rolfsii with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 2.7 times higher than that for treatment with unirradiated PCNB. The survival rate of mouse fibroblast L929 cells treated with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 12.9% higher than that of L929 cells treated with unirradiated PCNB. Additionally, after 20 kGy irradiation, less than 5% reduction of contents of ginsenoside Rb1 and Re were observed, and amounts of ginsenosides Rc, Rd, and Rg1 were not reduced significantly. The minimal gamma dose for microbial decontamination was 10 kGy. Therefore, gamma irradiation can be used for both PCNB photodegradation and microbial decontamination of ginseng without obvious loses of ginsenoside contents.

  5. Detection of gamma-irradiated peanuts by ESR spectroscopy and GC analysis of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Li, Wei; Li, An; Ming Ha, Yi; Wang, Feng; Li Zhang, Yan

    2011-03-01

    Peanuts were analyzed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC) before and after gamma irradiation. Using European protocols, the validity and effectiveness of these two techniques were compared with regard to sample preparation, sample and solvent consumption and dose-response curves after irradiation. The results showed the possibility of using ESR and GC for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated peanuts. A radiation dose of 0.1 kGy could be detected by ESR but not by GC. The results also indicated that GC is an effective method for qualitative analysis of irradiated peanut, while ESR is suitable for the rapid detection of irradiated peanuts.

  6. Preparation of poly (Vinyl Alcohol) nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Hye [AMOTECH Co., Ltd., Kimpo (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jun Wha; An, Sung Jun; Youn, Min Ho; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Nho, Young Chang [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    PVA nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were prepared by two methods. The first method was electrospinning of irradiated solution. The prepared PVA/AgNO{sub 3} solution was irradiated by gamma-rays. And then the irradiated solution was electrospun. The second method was irradiation of electrospun nanofibers. Nanofibers prepared by electrospinning of unirradiated PVA/AgNO{sub 3} solution. The morphology of the nanofibers was observed with a SEM, TEM. When the irradiated PVA/AgNO{sub 3} solution were electrospun, the average size of the Ag nanoparticles was increased, but their number was decreased.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation and storage time on ostrich meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jouki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study effects of gamma irradiation and storage time on the Appearance and Texture changes of fresh ostrich meat stored at 4˚C were evaluated. Ostrich meat irradiated at 0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Analysis of variance showed that aging of meat affected SF in all treatments. There were significant differences among radiation doses at any of the times. Sensory panel results were in general agreement with the mechanical changes, suggesting that the gamma irradiation at 1.0 kGy had a significant impact on the quality of refrigerated ostrich meat. Air-packaged samples irradiated at 1.0 kGy were acceptable under refrigerated storage for 9 days, compared to 7 and 5 days for non irradiated and samples irradiated at 3.0 kGy, respectively.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.P.; Dhar, D.N.

    1988-06-01

    In vitro and in vivo effects of varying levels of gamma irradiation on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin were studied. Radiation doses of 100 Gy onwards caused a decrease in the viability of protoscoleces in vitro. However, infectivity of protoscoleces was not affected at radiation doses of 300 Gy in golden hamsters and 200 Gy in mice although number and size of cysts developing from infections with irradiated protoscoleces in these animals was small in comparison to cysts developing from infections with normal protoscoleces. Four hundred E. granulosus protoscoleces, normal or 100 Gy irradiated, proved fatal for mice. A significant progressive decline in worm establishment was observed in pups given an infection of E. granulosus protoscoleces exposed to increasing levels of gamma irradiation from 100 to 600 Gy. No worms established in pups infected with protoscoleces irradiated at 400 and 600 Gy, respectively. Worms developing from irradiated infections in pups were stunted and showed developmental abnormalities.

  9. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum (Rud. , 1808) in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Singh, K.S. (Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Izatnagar. Div. of Parasitology)

    1985-03-01

    Infective larvae of Bunostomum trigonocephalum exposed to gamma-irradiation at 60 kr failed to develop in the lamb. At levels of 20 and 40 kr, the infectivity of the larvae was reduced and fewer worms developed with a predominating female population. The worms developing from the irradiated larvae were smaller and the sex organs were ill developed. The females developing from larvae irradiated at 40 kr were functionally sterile with atrophied uterus devoid of eggs.

  10. Gelam Honey Protects against Gamma-Irradiation Damage to Antioxidant Enzymes in Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Makpol; Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku Ahmad; Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof; Nor Fadilah Rajab; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Zakiah Jubri

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam ...

  11. The Reproducing Capacity of Gamma Irradiated Adults of Trogoderma Versicolor (Creutz)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Kawy, F. K. [فايزكمال عبد القوي; Hasaballa, Z. A.

    1993-01-01

    Male and female, Trogoderma versicolor (Creutz.) were irradiated by gamma radiation as newly emerged adults (12-24 hrs. after emergence). Males required higher doses than females to be sterilized and the reproductive inability increased with increasing dose. Doses of 210 and 80 Gray were sufficient to induce almost complete sterility for males and females, respectively. Egg production per female was highest in crosses involving irradiated males as compared with eggs produced from irradiated f...

  12. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yun, Sung Bok

    2010-01-15

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  13. Prevention Effect of Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid on Tissue Damage Induced by Gamma Irradiation as a Natural Cross-Linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaehun; Sung, Nakyun; Kim, Jeongsoo; Jo, Euri; Choi, Jongil; Park, Jongheum; Lee, Juwoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwangwon [Eulji Univ. Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jungkee [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewoon [Jeonbuk Technopark, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study was to determine the prevention effect of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (PGA) on tissue damage induced by gamma irradiation for development of xenograft. PGA (MW 2000 kDa) extracted from permeated soy bean (natto) was used in this study as natural compound, and glutaraldehyde (GA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) were used as a control, chemical based cross-linking agents. GA, EDC and PGA treated porcine tendons were gamma-irradiated at the dose of 30 kGy. Prevention effects against tissue damage were measured as the result of tensile strength, hydroxyproline contents and tissue morphological analysis. Tensile of porcine tendon was remarkably decreased by gamma irradiation, but increased in PGA treated group. Morphological analysis showed that collagen structure was broken by gamma irradiation, but attenuated by PGA treatment. Base on the results, it demonstrated that gamma irradiation can induce severe alteration of porcine tendon, but PGA can effectively improve the tissue damage.

  14. Combined effects of gamma-irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on quality of some spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkin, Celale; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Gunes, Gurbuz; Marriott, Philip J

    2014-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vidgaris L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) in ground form were packaged in either air or 100% N2 and γ-irradiated at 3 different irradiation levels (7kGy, 12kGy, 17kGy). Total viable bacterial count, yeast and mould count, colour, essential oil yield and essential oil composition were determined. Microbial load was not detectable after 12kGy irradiation of all samples. Irradiation resulted in significant changes in colour values of rosemary and black pepper. The discolouration of the irradiated black pepper was lower in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) compared to air packaging. Essential oil yield of irradiated black pepper and cumin was lower in air packaging compared to MAP. Gamma-irradiation generally decreased monoterpenes and increased oxygenated compounds, but the effect was lower in MAP. Overall, spices should be irradiated under an O2-free atmosphere to minimise quality deterioration.

  15. Gamma irradiation of municipal sludge for safe disposal and agricultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Satyendra; Shah, Mahesh R; Sabharwal, Sunil; Sharma, Arun

    2005-01-01

    Gamma radiation was found to be an effective tool for hygienization of municipal wastewater sludge. The sludge received from the primary settling tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant was gamma irradiated using a cobalt-60 source in a sludge hygienization research irradiator. The process parameters were adjusted to effectively eliminate coliform bacteria in the sludge and to prevent their regrowth. Irradiated sludge was found to be free of fecal coliform and could be directly disposed after drying in a landfill or used as manure. It could also be used as a medium for growth of Rhizobium sp for obtaining a bio-fertilizer.

  16. Dosimetry computer module of the gamma irradiator of ININ; Modulo informatico de dosimetria del irradiador gamma del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledezma F, L. E.; Baldomero J, R. [ININ, Gerencia de Sistemas Informaticos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Agis E, K. A., E-mail: luis.ledezma@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Ingenieria, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 50100 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    This work present the technical specifications for the upgrade of the dosimetry module of the computer system of the gamma irradiator of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) whose result allows the integration and consultation of information in industrial dosimetry subject under an outline client-server. (Author)

  17. Modified the optical and electrical properties of CR-39 by gamma ray irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Abdul-Kader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The radiation technique is a useful technology technique to induce suitable modifications of the polymeric materials. In the present work, poly allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector samples were irradiated using different doses (150–950 kGy of gamma ray irradiations. The effect of gamma ray irradiations on the optical and electrical, properties of CR-39 was investigated. The obtained results showed a decrease in the optical energy gap with increasing the gamma dose. Increase in the numbers of carbon atoms (N in a formed cluster with increasing the irradiation dose was observed. Meanwhile, an increase in the Ac conductivity was obtained with increasing the gamma dose. Also, the variation in the dielectric constant and loss with irradiation dose was studied at the room temperature. The results indicate that the gamma ray irradiations in the dose range 150–950 kGy enhance the optical and electrical properties of the CR-39 polymer samples.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and sensory characteristics of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, M

    2007-07-01

    Seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum) were exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20kGy in a (60)Co package irradiator. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Microbial populations on seeds, total and inorganic soluble solids in water extract and sensory properties of the latter were evaluated after 0, 6 and 12 months of storage. Results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the aerobic plate counts of aniseed. Immediately after irradiation, the total soluble solids in an extract of irradiated seeds were greater than those of unirradiated ones. The total soluble solids in an extract of irradiated and un-irradiated seeds increased after 6 and 12 months of storage. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in inorganic soluble solids between the water extract of irradiated and unirradiated aniseeds. Sensory evaluation indicated that gamma irradiation improved sensory characteristics of aniseed water extract tested immediately after irradiation; however, after 12 months of storage, no significant differences (p>0.05) were found in color, taste or flavor between extract of irradiated and unirradiated seeds.

  19. Molecular structure and physicochemical properties of potato and bean starches as affected by gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Liu, Qiang

    2010-08-01

    In this study, potato and bean starches were treated by gamma-irradiation up to 50kGy. Molecular structure and physicochemical properties of irradiated potato and bean starches were investigated. Microscopic observation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and polarized microscope showed that some of potato and bean starch granules were destroyed by gamma-irradiation and the breakage was much greater at a higher dose (50 kGy). Carboxyl content and amylose leaching increased, whereas the swelling factor and apparent amylose content decreased after irradiation in both potato and bean starches. The proportions of short (DP 6-12) and long (DP > or = 37) amylopectin chains as well as average chain length increased with increasing irradiation dose. However, the proportion of DP 13-24 decreased by irradiation. The relative crystallinity, the degree of granule surface order, and gelatinization enthalpy decreased with an increase in irradiation dose. The extent of decrease in potato starch was greater than that in bean starch. The exothermic peak around 90-110 degrees C was observed in DSC thermogram when the potato starch was irradiated at 50 kGy. The pasting viscosity significantly decreased with an increase in irradiation dose. The proportion of slowly digestible starch (SDS) decreased and resistant starch (RS) content increased by irradiation in both potato and bean starches. However, the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) of potato starch increased with increasing irradiation dose, whereas the bean starch showed the opposite trend to potato starch in RDS content.

  20. Preliminary investigations into the bioconversion of gamma irradiated agricultural waste by Pleurotus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedemah, C. M.; Obodai, M.; Sawyerr, L. C.

    1998-06-01

    The application of gamma irradiation for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase their digestibility for rumen animal have been reported in the literature. Gamma irradiation of corn stover in combination with sodium hydroxide for bioconversion of polysaccharide into protein by Pleurotus spp has also been reported. In this study experiments were designed to find out whether gamma radiation could serve both as a decontaminating agent as well as hydrolytic agent of sawdust for the bioconversion of four varieties of Pleurotus spp. Preliminary results indicate that a dose of 20kGy of gamma irradiation increase the yield of Pleurotus eous var ET-8 whilst decreasing the yield of other varieties.

  1. Characterization on the microstructure of gamma-ray irradiated Nd2Fe14B magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Chul; Kim, Young Hwan; Cha, Hyun Gil; Kim, Chang Woo; Ji, Eun Sun; Heo, Jin Kook; Kwon, Hae Woong; Kang, Young Soo

    2009-02-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma-ray irradiation on the microstructure of Nd2Fe14B magnets was investigated with electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermal mechanical analyzer (TMA). When the 60Co gamma-ray with dose from 0 Mrad to 100 Mrad was exposed to Nd2Fel,4B magnet having different sizes at room temperature, the increased demagnetization properties of the Nd2Fe14B magnets were studied by Hall probe. For all samples, changed Curie temperature and micro-crystal structure of Nd2Fe14B magnet by gamma-ray irradiation has been also studied. Moreover the strong and broad single line shaped ESR signal in the resonance magnetic field is attributed to unpaired electron of iron ions in the sample by the effect of gamma-ray irradiation.

  2. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide produced under irradiation as the most important factor in the lethality of gamma-irradiated Paramecium tetraurelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Dupouy, D.; Planel, H. (Laboratoire de Biologie Medicale, 31 - Toulouse (France))

    1982-02-01

    It has been shown that the surviving fraction of ..gamma..-irradiated paramecia is correlated with the residual H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration in the extracellular medium which is strongly dependent on the bacterial concentration, that is, on the enzyme content in the culture medium.

  3. Evaluation of the effects of paederus beetle extract and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Samani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Cervical cancer is a malignancy that is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women throughout the world. Paederus beetle (Paederus fuscipes extract (PBE, contains bioactive compounds such as pederine which has cytotoxic properties and blocks DNA and protein synthesis at very low concentrations. In this investigation we tried to determine the effects co-treatment with PBE and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells. Materials and Methods: The viability of the cells was measured by two methods: MTT and Colony assay. Results: We found that supplementing gamma irradiation therapy with PBE does not increase cell death and it might even interfere with its cytotoxicty at the concentrations below 0.1 ng/ml and the viability for irradiation vs irradiation + PBE was 37%: 60%.   Conclusion: This finding might be due to radioprotective effects of the very low doses of PBE against gamma radiation.

  4. Evaluation of the effects of paederus beetle extract and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Fariba; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Khafri, Soraya; Karimi, Maesoumeh; Akhavan Niaki, Haleh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Cervical cancer is a malignancy that is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women throughout the world. Paederus beetle (Paederus fuscipes) extract (PBE), contains bioactive compounds such as pederine which has cytotoxic properties and blocks DNA and protein synthesis at very low concentrations. In this investigation we tried to determine the effects co-treatment with PBE and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells. Materials and Methods: The viability of the cells was measured by two methods: MTT and Colony assay. Results: We found that supplementing gamma irradiation therapy with PBE does not increase cell death and it might even interfere with its cytotoxicty at the concentrations below 0.1 ng/ml and the viability for irradiation vs irradiation + PBE was 37%: 60%. Conclusion: This finding might be due to radioprotective effects of the very low doses of PBE against gamma radiation. PMID:24904724

  5. Determination the lethal dose of ascaris lumbricoides ova by gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shamma, M A; Sharabi, N

    2002-01-01

    The lethal gamma irradiation dose of ascaris lumbricoides which collected from Damascus Sewage water Plant was determined. Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated with several gamma irradiation doses with (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,...and 1.5 KGy). No morphological changes were observed on the eggs when directly examined microscopically after irradiation. However after two weeks of incubation at 37 degree centigrade the cell contents of the eggs which irradiated with 0.5 KGy and beyond were fragmented and scattered in the whole eggs and no larvae were observed after eight weeks of incubation. It is concluded that the dose 0.5 my be considered as the dose of choice if sewage water is to be treated by gamma rays.

  6. Effect of low dose gamma irradiation on plant and grain nutrition of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupinder, E-mail: bhupindersinghiari@yahoo.co [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Datta, Partha Sarathi [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2010-08-15

    We recently reported the use of low dose gamma irradiation to improve plant vigor, grain development and yield attributes of wheat (). Further, we report here the results of a field experiment conducted to assess the effect of gamma irradiation at 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 kGy on flag leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthetic rate and plant and grain nutritional quality. Gamma irradiation improved plant nutrition but did not improve the nutritional quality of grains particularly relating to micronutrients. Grain carotene, a precursor for vitamin A, was higher in irradiated grains. Low grain micronutrients seem to be caused by a limitation in the source to sink nutrient translocation rather than in the nutrient uptake capacity of the plant root.

  7. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  8. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of gamma and UV irradiation in sanitization of fresh carrot juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Kyung Haeng

    2012-08-01

    As there is no pasteurization procedure for the manufacture of fresh vegetable juice, both industry and consumers have sought a method for improving the storage stability and shelf-life of this category of products. In this study, the effects of commercially available, non-thermal pasteurization processes, such as gamma and UV irradiation, were compared for their efficacy in sanitizing fresh carrot juice (FCJ). FCJ was manufactured, packaged, and gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 3, and 5 kGy. The manufactured FCJ was also passed through 4 UV light lamps at doses of 3.67, 4.69, and 6.50 kGy. The total aerobic bacterial count of the FCJ approached the legal limit (105 CFU/mL) after manufacturing. Both treatments were effective in reducing the number of total aerobic bacteria, and the reduced number was maintained during storage for 7 days. Gamma irradiation was more effective in suppressing microbial growth during storage. When the doses for UV treatment and gamma irradiation were higher, the inactivation effects were higher. The reduction of ascorbic acid content was greater upon gamma irradiation than UV treatment. No difference was found in the contents of flavonoids and polyphenols in FCJ after either treatment. After 3 days of refrigerated storage, the sensory scores of gamma- or UV-irradiated FCJ were superior to those of the control. The results indicate that both non-thermal treatments were effective in improving storage stability and extending shelf-life, but gamma irradiation was slightly better in suppressing microbial growth after treatment.

  10. Mathematical modeling of drug release from bioerodible microparticles: effect of gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisant, N; Siepmann, J; Richard, J; Benoit, J P

    2003-09-01

    Bioerodible polymers used in controlled drug delivery systems, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) undergo radiolytic degradation during gamma-irradiation. In spite of the considerable practical importance, yet only little knowledge is available on the consequences of this sterilization method on the resulting drug release patterns in a quantitative way. The major objectives of the present study were: (i) to monitor the effects of different gamma-irradiation doses on the physicochemical properties of drug-free and drug-loaded, PLGA-based microparticles; (ii) to analyze the obtained experimental results using adequate mathematical models; (iii) to get further insight into the occurring physical and chemical phenomena; and (iv) to relate the applied gamma-irradiation dose in a quantitative way to the resulting drug release rate. 5-Fluorouracil-loaded, PLGA-based microparticles were prepared with an oil-in-water solvent extraction method and exposed to gamma-irradiation doses ranging from 0 to 33 kGy. Size exclusion chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, determination of the actual drug loading and in vitro drug release kinetics were used to study the effects of the gamma-irradiation dose on the physicochemical properties of the microparticles. Two mathematical models-a simplified and a more comprehensive one-were used to analyze the experimental results. The simplified model considers drug diffusion based on Fick's second law for spherical geometry and a Higuchi-like pseudo-steady-state approach. The complex model combines Monte Carlo simulations (describing polymer erosion) with partial differential equations quantifying drug diffusion with time-, position- and direction-dependent diffusivities. Interestingly, exponential relationships between the gamma-irradiation dose and the initial drug diffusivity within the microparticles could be established. Based on this knowledge both models were

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of resin dental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Fucio, Suzana Beatriz Portugal de; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Dental Materials; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Pedriatric Dentistry], e-mail: rmpuppin@fop.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of FluroShield (FS) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB). Four groups were formed: G1-FS + gamma; G2-FS without gamma; G3-CPB + gamma; G4-CPB without gamma. For fluoride release analysis, 12 disks of each material were prepared and covered with nail polish, except for one side (50.4 mm{sup 2} area). G1 and G3 were sterilized with a 14.5 KGy dose at 27 deg C for 24 h, while G2 and G4 (controls) were not sterilized and were maintained under the same time and temperature conditions. Fluoride release measurements were made in duplicate (n=6) by an ion specific electrode. The antibacterial activity of the CPB and FS against Streptococcus mutans after gamma sterilization was evaluated by the agar-disc diffusion method. The diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition was recorded after 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). Gamma sterilization decreased the fluoride release of FS by approximately 50%, while CPB was not affected. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the antibacterial effect of CPB between gamma and non-gamma sterilization groups. FS presented no antibacterial activity. Gamma irradiation decreased the fluoride release of FS, but did not affect the antibacterial activity of the studied materials. (author)

  12. Effects of high dose gamma irradiation on ITO thin film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alyamani, A. [National Nanotechnology Center, King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mustapha, N., E-mail: nazirmustapha@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physics, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, P.O. Box 90950, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-07-29

    Transparent thin-film Indium Tin Oxides (ITO) were prepared on 0.7 mm thick glass substrates using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process with average thickness of 150 nm. The samples were then exposed to high gamma γ radiation doses by {sup 60}Co radioisotope. The films have been irradiated by performing exposure cycles up to 250 kGy total doses at room temperature. The surface structures before and after irradiation were analysed by x-ray diffraction. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was performed on all samples before and after irradiation to investigate any change in the grain sizes, and also in the roughness of the ITO surface. We investigated the influence of γ irradiation on the spectra of transmittance T, in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrum using spectrophotometer measurements. Energy band gap E{sub g} was then calculated from the optical spectra for all ITO films. It was found that the optical band gap values decreased as the radiation dose was increased. To compare the effect of the irradiation on refractive index n and extinction coefficient k properties, additional measurements were done on the ITO samples before and after gamma irradiation using an ellipsometer. The optical constants n and k increased by increasing the irradiation doses. Electrical properties such as resistivity and sheet resistance were measured using the four-point probe method. The good optical, electrical and morphological properties maintained by the ITO films even after being exposed to high gamma irradiation doses, made them very favourable to be used as anodes for solar cells and as protective coatings in space windows. - Highlights: • Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition. • Effects of Gamma irradiation were investigated. • Changes of optical transmission and electrical properties of ITO films were studied. • Intensity of the diffraction peaks and the film's structure changed with increasing irradiation doses.

  13. Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2015-01-15

    The present study evaluated the quality of pistachio oil, as a function of irradiation, to determine the dose level causing undesirable changes to pistachio oil. Physicochemical fatty acid composition, acidity value, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and colour of pistachio oil extracted from samples treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation were determined. Gamma irradiation caused the alteration of fatty acids of pistachio oil which showed a decrease in oleic acid (C18:1) and an increase in linoleic acid (C18:2). All other fatty acids remained unaffected after irradiation. The higher used doses (2 and 3 kGy) decreased acidity value, peroxide value and iodine value, and increased specification number, with no effect on TBA value. Irradiation had a significant effect on colour values of pistachio oil. Parameters L, a and b increased at doses of 1 and 2 kGy.

  14. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension.

  15. Gamma irradiation effects on cyanate ester/epoxy insulation materials for superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jingwen [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Zhixiong, E-mail: zxwu@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Huang, Chuanjun [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Laifeng, E-mail: laifengli@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Irradiation resistance of glass fiber reinforced cyanate ester/epoxy composite was investigated. • The cyanate ester/epoxy resin system has a low viscosity and long pot life. • The T{sub g} of the matrix resin decreased slightly with the increase of irradiation dose. • The ILSS of GFRP composite increased slightly when exposed to 10 MGy of gamma irradiation. - Abstract: Cyanate ester/epoxy resin was used as a cryogenic-grade polymer matrix and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite was manufactured. The processing properties of matrix resin in terms of the isothermal viscosity at 45 °C were investigated. The specimens were exposed with gamma irradiation of 1 MGy, 5 MGy and 10 MGy, respectively. The effect of gamma irradiation on thermal properties and structure of cyanate ester/epoxy matrix was investigated. The interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the composites before and after irradiation were investigated at room temperature, 77 K and 4.2 K. Results showed that cyanate ester/epoxy system had a low viscosity and a long pot life at 45 °C. The glass transition temperature of the matrix resin decreased with the increasing irradiation dose. Moreover, the ILSS of GFRP composite slightly increases after irradiation and toughening mechanism was also discussed.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the hemocyte-mediated immune response of Aedes aegypti against microfilariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, B.M.; Huff, B.M.; Li, J. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the melanotic encapsulation response of Aedes aegypti black eye Liverpool strain against inoculated Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae (mff) was assessed at 1, 2, 3, and 6 days postinoculation (PI). Mosquitoes received 6000 rad from a 137Cs source (Shepard Mark I irradiator) at 3 days postemergence and were inoculated with 15-20 mff 24 hr later. These mosquitoes were compared to nonirradiated controls that also were inoculated with 15-20 mff at 3 days postemergence. The immune response was significantly reduced in irradiated mosquitoes as compared with controls at all days PI. Although the response was significantly inhibited compared with controls, irradiated mosquitoes were still capable of eliciting a response against 69% of recovered mff at 6 days PI. External gamma irradiation did not significantly affect the proliferation of hemocytes associated with the melanotic encapsulation response of A. aegypti. The number of circulating hemocytes increased in irradiated mosquitoes in response to inoculated mff in a manner similar to nonirradiated, inoculated controls. Hemocyte monophenol oxidase activity, however, was significantly reduced in gamma-irradiated mosquitoes at 12 hr PI as compared with controls. The reduced immunological capacity of irradiated mosquitoes might be related to an interference with gene activity required for the synthesis or activation of enzymes that are directly or indirectly involved in the biochemical processes associated with the production of melanotic substances that sequester mff.

  17. Hepatoprotective effects of {gamma}-irradiated caraway essential oils in experimental sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi, F. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box, 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allameh, A. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box, 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: allameha@modares.ac.ir; Khalafi, H. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafihelan, J. [Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Irradiation is an important method of processing herbal drugs, while our understanding of the effects of {gamma}-irradiation on pharmacological properties of seed products such as caraway essential oils is however still very limited. In this study, caraway seeds were irradiated at dose levels of 0, 10 and 25 kGy. After extracting the essential oils, the effects of fresh and {gamma}-irradiated caraway oils (100 mg/kg b.w) on preventing septic-related oxidative liver injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model were investigated by measuring oxidative stress parameters in the liver. CLP operation caused a marked increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity which was readily reversed in rats treated with fresh and irradiated caraway oils. Likewise, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level in the liver was compensated in rats treated with the fresh and irradiated caraway oils. Moreover, liver GSH which was initially depleted due to CLP was recovered by essential oil treatments. The protective role of oils was further confirmed by showing that liver function tests (ALT/AST) as well as histopathological changes following CLP operation were recovered in rats treated with oils from either fresh or irradiated caraway seeds. These data may suggest that {gamma}-irradiation to caraway seeds at 10 and 25 kGy has no influence on the antioxidative properties of caraway essential oils.

  18. On the structural and physicochemical properties of gamma irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiq, Muhammad [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan); Mehmood, Malik Sajjad [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Basic Sciences and Humanities, University of Engineering and Technology, 47050 Taxila (Pakistan); Yasin, Tariq, E-mail: yasintariq@yahoo.com [Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 45650 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-12-16

    This study has been carried to investigate the influence of gamma rays on the structural and physicochemical properties of UHMWPE/silane hybrid. UHMWPE was mixed with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) and compression molded sheets were irradiated at different doses of gamma rays. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of siloxane linkages in hybrids, which were found to be shifted towards lower wave number upon irradiation. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed significant increase in the percentage crystallinity of hybrid upon gamma irradiation, especially at 65 kGy absorbed dose. Scanning electron micrographs showed good consolidation and compaction with no surface defects. Moreover, the rough topography was changed to smooth ripple-like appearance upon γ-irradiation. Thermal analysis revealed that irradiated hybrids exhibited higher onset thermal degradation temperature, peak melting temperature, and crystalline lamellae thickness compared with the water treated hybrid. In addition, the tensile testing confirmed an increase of 41% and 133% in yield strength and Young's modulus in 100 kGy irradiated hybrid respectively than that of water treated hybrid. We hope that the irradiated UHMWPE/silane hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications such as total joint replacements, pickers for textile machinery, lining for coal chutes and dump trucks. - Highlights: • UHMWPE/silane hybrids have been prepared and irradiated using gamma rays. • The structural analysis revealed the formation siloxane linkages in the hybrid. • The crystallinity, thermal stability and mechanical properties of hybrids were improved with irradiation. • The irradiated hybrids can be used in various high-strength applications.

  19. RBE values for colo-rectal injury after caesium 137 gamma-ray and neutron irradiation. 1. Single doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, N.H.A.; Denekamp, J.; Maughan, R.L. (Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (UK). Gray Lab.)

    1983-04-01

    Colo-rectal damage in mice has been assessed after caesium ..gamma.. irradiation and 3 MeV neutrons given as single doses. Several assays were used, including body weight changes, faecal deformity and lethality. Dose response curves were constructed for each assay at times ranging from 10 days to 16 months after irradiation. An initial loss of weight at 10-20 days was presumably related to epithelial denudation, but a dose-dependent weight reduction (compared with controls) persisted over the animals' life span. Mice died progressively after localised pelvic ..gamma.. irradiation; there was no sharp demarcation between an early and late phase of lethal injury. Death resulted from intestinal stricture or stenosis. The time course for lethality was qualitatively different after neutron irradiation, with little progression of damage between 5 and 11 months. Faecal deformity was detectable as a higher proportion of small pellets when the rectum became constricted by fibrosis. No significant faecal deformity was observed before 6 months after which time dose response curves could be obtained. The RBE for early damage (assessed at 1-3 months) was 2.2-2.7, falling to 1.7-1.9 for late damage (determined at 10-15 months) over the range of neutron doses of 7.5-12 Gy.

  20. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, B., E-mail: beatrice.gagnaire@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Cavalié, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Pereira, S. [Neolys Diagnostics, Lyon 69373 (France); Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  1. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, D., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Halide, H., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Kurniawan, D. [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Wahab, A. W. [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Identification of. gamma. -irradiated spices by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Kawamura, Yoko; Saito, Yukio (National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry spectra of white (WP), black (BP) and red (Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescerns L., RP) peppers each had a principal signal with a g-value of 2.0043, and the intensities of the principal signals were increased not only by {gamma}-irradiation but also by heating. Irradiated RP also showed a minor signal -30G from the principal one, and the intensity of the minor signal increased linearly with increasing dose from 10 to 50 kGy. Since the minor signal was observed in RP irradiated at 10 kGy and stored for one year, but did not appear either after heating or after exposure to this signal is unique to {gamma}-irradiated RP and should therefore be useful for the identification of {gamma}-irradiated spices of Capsicum genus, such as paprika and chili pepper. The computer simulation of the ESR spectra suggested that the minor signal should be assigned to methyl radical and the principal signal mainly to a combination of phenoxyl and peroxyl radicals. Such minor signals were found in {gamma}-irradiated allspice and cinnamon among 10 kinds of other spices. (author).

  3. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative UPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated.

  4. Evaluating the effects of gamma-irradiation for decontamination of medicinal cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eHazekamp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative HPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated.

  5. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, D.; Halide, H.; Wahab, A. W.; Kurniawan, D.

    2014-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  6. Gelam Honey Protects against Gamma-Irradiation Damage to Antioxidant Enzymes in Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy of gamma rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Gamma-irradiation was shown to down-regulate SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPx1 gene expressions (p < 0.05. Conversely, HDFs treated with Gelam honey alone showed up-regulation of all genes studied. Similarly, SOD, CAT and GPx enzyme activities in HDFs decreased with gamma-irradiation and increased when cells were treated with Gelam honey (p < 0.05. Furthermore, of the three different stages of study treatment, pre-treatment with Gelam honey caused up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT genes expression and increased the activity of SOD and CAT. As a conclusion, Gelam honey modulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes at gene and protein levels in irradiated HDFs indicating its potential as a radioprotectant agent.

  7. Hepatocyte growth factor protects endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation-induced damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-ying HU; Hai-feng DUAN; Qing-fang LI; Yue-feng YANG; Jin-long CHEN; Li-sheng WANG; Hua WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of HGF on proliferation, apoptosis and migratory ability of human vascular endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation.Methods: ECV304 cells derived from adult human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were irradiated with a single gamma ray dose of 20 Gy. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to detect c-Met protein expression and HGF/c-Met signal pathway. In the HGF-treated groups, ECV304 cells were incubated with HGF (20 or 40 ng/mL) 3 h prior to irradiation. At 48 h post-irradiation, the proliferation of ECV304 cells was measured by MTT assay, the apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry, and the migratory ability of ECV304 cells was measured by transwell chamber assay.Results: c-Met protein is expressed in ECV304 cells and can be activated by HGF. Gamma ray irradiation inhibits proliferation and migration of ECV304 cells in a dose-dependent manner. HGF significantly promoted the proliferation of ECV304 cells, and flow cytom-etry revealed that HGF can inhibit apoptosis of ECV304 cells. Transwell chamber assay also showed that HGF increases migration activity of endothelial cells.Conclusion: HGF may afford protection to vascular endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation-induced damage.

  8. Gamma irradiation effects on the properties of indium zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciun, Doina; Socol, Gabriel [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Le Caër, Sophie [CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/NIMBE UMR 3685/LIONS, Bâtiment 546, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Trinca, Liliana M. [National Institute for Materials Physics, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Galca, Aurelian C. [National Institute for Materials Physics, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Pantelica, Dan; Ionescu, Paul [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Craciun, Valentin, E-mail: valentin.craciun@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, RO-077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

    2016-09-01

    Thin films of amorphous and polycrystalline indium zinc oxide (IZO) having various In/(In + Zn) nominal compositions from 0.3 to 0.9 were grown by the pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature or at 400 °C on oxidized Si and quartz substrates. After deposition, the films were gamma irradiated at doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy under Ar atmosphere. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction investigations could not find measurable changes of the structure after irradiation. Simulations of the X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and diffuse scattering curves acquired from the films showed a small density decrease after irradiation, accompanied by an increase of the thickness and surface roughness. Spectroscopic ellipsometry investigations confirmed the increase of the IZO films' thickness after irradiation, being in agreement with the XRR results. Small changes in the refractive index, most probably caused by changes in the film density were also observed. Four point probe measurements showed very small resistivity increases after irradiation, with the films containing higher In concentration presenting negligible changes. - Highlights: • Amorphous and polycrystalline indium zinc oxide (IZO) films were gamma irradiated. • The gamma radiation does not change the structure of IZO films. • Gamma radiation induces small increases in thickness and roughness of IZO films. • Radiation induced decrease in density was correlated to refractive index decrease.

  9. Systemic lupus erythematosus following total body irradiation for malignant lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, F; Capodicasa, E; Gerli, R; Bertotto, A; Rambotti, P; Grignani, F

    1986-01-01

    A case of a 63-year old man, who developed systemic lupus erythematosus three years after an initial diagnosis of small-cleaved centrofollicular lymphoma is described. The diagnosis of SLE was made on the basis of the accepted "1982 revised criteria for the classification of SLE". The autoimmune disease arose after a cycle of total body irradiation, despite the treatment with combination chemotherapeutic doses such a CVP or COAP or Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, VM-26 and Prednisone. Genetic, immunological and exogenous environmental factors may co-exist and might equally be implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE and malignant lymphoma. However, the onset of SLE after total body irradiation could have been caused by the inactivation of suppressor T lymphocytes, which are known to be sensitive to radiations in vitro.

  10. Melatonin may play a role in modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression levels to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, Mehran [Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Faculty of Paramedicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mihandoost, Ehsan, E-mail: mihandoost.e@gmail.com [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, Alireza [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepehrizadeh, Zargham [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazzaz, Javad Tavakkoly [Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazi-khansari, Mahmoud [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The close relationship between free radicals effects and apoptosis process has been proved. Melatonin has been reported as a direct free radical scavenger. We investigated the capability of melatonin in the modification of radiation-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-associated upstream regulators expression in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 8 Gy at a dose rate of 101 cGy/min with or without melatonin pretreatments at different concentrations of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into eight groups of control, irradiation-only, vehicle-only, vehicle plus irradiation, 10 mg/kg melatonin alone, 10 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation, 100 mg/kg melatonin alone and 100 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation. Rats were given an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of melatonin or the same volume of vehicle alone 1 h prior to irradiation. Blood samples were taken 4, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation for evaluation of flow cytometric analysis of apoptotic lymphocytes using Annexin V/PI assay and measurement of bax and bcl-2 expression using quantitative real-time PCR (RT{sup 2}qPCR). Irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation showed an increase in the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes significantly different from control group (P < 0.01), while melatonin pretreatments in a dose-dependent manner reduced it as compared with the irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation groups (P < 0.01) in all time points. This reduced apoptosis by melatonin was related to the downregulation of bax, upregulation of bcl-2, and therefore reduction of bax/bcl-2 ratio. Our results suggest that melatonin in these doses may provide modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression as well as bax/bcl-2 ratio to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis.

  11. Detection of garlic gamma-irradiated by assay comet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Miranda, Enrique F. Prieto; Carro, Sandra; Iglesias Enrique, Isora; Matos, Wilberto [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)], e-mail: damaris@ceaden.edu.cu

    2009-07-01

    The garlic samples were irradiated in a facility with {sup 60}Co sources, at absorbed dose values of 0-0,15 kGy. The detection method utilized for the identification of the irradiated garlic was biological comet assay. The samples were classified post-irradiation several times. The irradiated samples showed high strand breaks of DNA exhibiting comets of several forms, while the not irradiated and lower dose samples showed a behavior like round shape and light comets. Significant differences were found for higher absorbed dose values at 0.06 kGy, this absorbed dose value is corresponding with the applied dose value at this food in order to avoid the germination. (author)

  12. Effectiveness of thermoluminescence analysis to detect low quantity of gamma-irradiated component in non-irradiated mushroom powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Kashif [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Ahn, Jae-Jun [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Jo, Deokjo [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho, E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Gamma-irradiated (0–10 kGy) dried mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) powders were mixed at different ratios (1–10%) in the non-irradiated samples and investigated using photostimulated-luminescence (PSL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The PSL results were negative for all samples at 1% mixing ratio, whereas intermediate results were observed for the samples containing 5% or 10% irradiated component with the exception (positive) of 10% mixing of 10 kGy-irradiated sample. The ESR analysis showed the presence of crystalline sugar radicals in the irradiated samples but the radiation-specific spectral features were absent in the mixed samples. TL analysis showed the radiation-specific TL glow curves; however, the complicated results were observed at 1% mixing of 2 and 5 kGy-irradiated samples, which required careful evaluations to draw the final conclusion about the irradiation status of the samples. TL ratios could only confirm the results of samples with 5% and 10% mixing of 10 kGy, and 10% mixing of 5 kGy-irradiated components. SEM-EDX analysis showed that feldspar and quartz were major contaminating minerals, responsible for the radiation-specific luminescence characteristics. -- Highlights: ► Detection of irradiated food is important to enforce the applied regulations. ► The effectiveness of TL analysis was investigated to detect irradiated component. ► The TL results were compared with those from PSL and ESR analysis. ► TL analysis was most effective to characterize the irradiation status of samples. ► SEM-EDX analysis showed feldspar and quartz as the main source of TL properties.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on commercial eggs experimentally inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, I. G.; Trejo, R. M.; Sanchez, R. E.; Ceniceros, R. M.; Luna, Q. P.; Zazua, P.; Hargis, B. M.

    1995-02-01

    Using intact, fresh shell eggs, inoculated with 10 8 colony-forming units (cfu) of S. enteritidis, the effect of three doses of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic population and physical characteristics (Haugh units and yolk color) of the eggs was determinated. Penetration test area was picked at random just off the air cell of each egg. Aluminum cylinders were attached to the egg surface with a rim of molten paraffin, and 10 8S. enteritidis was then applied to inoculate the egg. Eggs were then irradiated within 2 hours using a Cobalt-60 gamma source at either 1, 2, or 3 kGy. A second set of inoculated, non-irradiated was used as controls. Following irradiation, eggs were maintained at 4°C for 42 hours prior culture. Irradiation with 1 kGy resulted in a significant (P < .05), 3.9 log reduction in detectable S. enteritidis in the shell and a higly significant (P < .025) 95% reduction in detectable S. enteritidis in the internal shell membranes. Irradiation of eggs with either 2 or 3 kGy reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels in both the shell and internal membranes. However, irradiation at either 1, 2 or 3 kGy resulted in a significant (P <- .05) decrease (approximately 50%) in Haugh units. Additionally, irradiation of intact shell eggs at 2 or 3 Kgy significantly (P ≤ .05) reduced yolk color regardless of the level of irradiation exposure implemented. This data indicates that gamma irradiation of intact raw eggs is effective in reducing (1 kGy) or eliminating (2 or more kGy) S. enteritidis contamination. However, each of the levels of irradiation used in the present experiments caused marked reduction of selected measures of egg quality.

  14. Gemstone enhancing dedicated gamma irradiator development; Desenvolvimento de irradiador gama dedicado ao beneficiamento de pedras preciosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson Minoru

    2006-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to it's poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator raised in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations were performed. With the definitive irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. (author)

  15. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Salles Vasconcelos Henriques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control; irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  17. Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.; Othman, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Influence of gamma irradiation and storage on the microbial load, chemical and sensory quality of chicken kabab was investigated. Chicken kabab was treated with 0, 2, 4 or 6 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. Treated and untreated samples were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 °C). Microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken kabab were evaluated at 0-5 months of storage. Gamma irradiation decreased the microbial load and increased the shelf-life of chicken kabab. Irradiation did not influence the major constituents of chicken kabab (moisture, protein and fats). No significant differences ( p>0.05) were observed for total acidity between non-irradiated (control) and irradiated chicken kabab. Thiobarbitric acid (TBA) values (expressed as mg malonaldehyde (MDA)/kg chicken kabab) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) in chicken kabab were not affected by the irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated samples.

  18. Effect of mercerization and gamma irradiation on the dyeing behaviour of cotton using stilbene based direct dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Adeel, Shahid; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Irshad, Misbah; Abbas, Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    The dyeing behaviour of mercerized and gamma irradiated cotton fabric using stilbene based direct dye has been investigated. The fabric was treated with different concentrations of alkali to optimize the mercerization. The optimum mercerized cotton fabric was irradiated to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature, time of dyeing, pH of dyeing solutions and salt concentration were optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It was found that mercerized and irradiated cotton have not only improved the colour strength but enhanced the rating of fastness properties also.

  19. Developmental inhibition of gamma irradiation on the peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jihoon; Ahn, Jun-Young; Sik Lee, Seung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing irradiation is a useful technique for disinfestation under plant quarantine as well as post-harvest management. Effects of gamma irradiation treatment were tested on different developmental events of Carposina sasakii, which is a serious pest of various orchard crops. Apple fruits infested by C. sasakii were irradiated by gamma rays ranging from 0 to 300 Gy. Inhibition rates were determined on behavioral events related to development, including larval exit from apples, cocoon formation, adult eclosion, and oviposition. Failure rates of all these developmental events increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Rates of larval exit from apples and cocoon formation decreased to 13.2% and 1.7%, respectively, at 300 Gy. However, the adult eclosion rate decreased to 5.4% at 100 Gy and was completely inhibited at doses greater than 150 Gy. LD99 values for the inhibition of cocoon formation and adult emergence was estimated into 313.4 and 191.0 Gy. Furthermore, adults developed from irradiated larvae completely failed to lay eggs. Thus, irradiation of infested apples at doses of 200 Gy and higher completely inhibited the next generation of C. sasakii. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation treatment would be a promising technique for the control of C. sasakii.

  20. Chlorogenic acid was specifically induced among phenolic compounds in centipedegrass by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Byung Chul; Barampuram, Shyamkumar; Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Centipedegrass is a warm season turfgrass in the world. Chlorogenic acid (CA) is one of the important compounds present in the leaf of centipedegrass and already known as an antioxidant, CA has become a key resistance against insect pests and bacteria pathogens of agricultural and horticultural plants during seedlling stage. Furthermore, CA is accumulated by abiotic stress such as an UV irradiation. In present study, we investigated enhancement of the level of CA upon gamma irradiation in centipedegrass. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data analysis showed an approximately increasing of the CA levels from among the irradiated samples. However, plants irradiated at 50 Gy showed a constant increase in the CA level (0.0066 to 0.114 mg ml{sup -1} and 0.0258 to 0.2211 mg ml{sup -1}, respectively) from 3{sup rd} to 15{sup th} day among one and three month irradiated plants compared to control. The present study, indicates an increase in the CA level upon gamma irradiation, suggests strategy for conferment of strong resistance on seedling stage plants by gamma irradiation as simplicity and cheaply method.

  1. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the properties of calendered cord fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytaç, Ayşe; Deniz, Veli; Şen, Murat; Hegazy, El-Sayed; Güven, Olgun

    2010-03-01

    The effects of gamma and e-beam irradiation on mechanical and structural properties of nylon 66 (Ny 66), nylon 6 (Ny 6) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics used in tyres were investigated. The untreated (greige), treated cords and calendered fabrics were irradiated at different doses. It is found that the effects of high energy irradiation on greige, treated cords and calendered fabrics are similar. No protective effect of compounds used in calendering was observed against radiation-induced oxidative degradation. The deterioration effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties is much higher than that of e-beam irradiation for all types of samples. Limiting viscosity numbers of both gamma and e-beam irradiated nylon 6 and nylon 66 cords were found to decrease with increasing dose. It is concluded that PET calendered fabric has higher resistance to ionizing radiation. Ny 6 and Ny 66 calendered fabrics are more sensitive even at low doses. Therefore, the effects of high energy irradiation on tyre cords have to be taken into consideration during tyre design reinforced with particularly Ny fabrics if pre-vulcanization with high energy radiation is to be applied.

  2. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the properties of calendered cord fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytac, Ayse [Kocaeli University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey); Deniz, Veli, E-mail: vdeniz@kocaeli.edu.t [Kocaeli University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey); Sen, Murat [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey); Hegazy, El-Sayed [The National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Cairo (Egypt); Gueven, Olgun [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    The effects of gamma and e-beam irradiation on mechanical and structural properties of nylon 66 (Ny 66), nylon 6 (Ny 6) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics used in tyres were investigated. The untreated (greige), treated cords and calendered fabrics were irradiated at different doses. It is found that the effects of high energy irradiation on greige, treated cords and calendered fabrics are similar. No protective effect of compounds used in calendering was observed against radiation-induced oxidative degradation. The deterioration effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties is much higher than that of e-beam irradiation for all types of samples. Limiting viscosity numbers of both gamma and e-beam irradiated nylon 6 and nylon 66 cords were found to decrease with increasing dose. It is concluded that PET calendered fabric has higher resistance to ionizing radiation. Ny 6 and Ny 66 calendered fabrics are more sensitive even at low doses. Therefore, the effects of high energy irradiation on tyre cords have to be taken into consideration during tyre design reinforced with particularly Ny fabrics if pre-vulcanization with high energy radiation is to be applied.

  3. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Potentiates Secondary Exposure to Gamma Rays or Protons in Thyroid Tissue Analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Lora M

    2006-05-25

    We have utilized our unique bioreactor model to produce three-dimensional thyroid tissue analogs that we believe better represent the effects of radiation in vivo than two-dimensional cultures. Our thyroid model has been characterized at multiple levels, including: cell-cell exchanges (bystander), signal transduction, functional changes and modulation of gene expression. We have significant preliminary data on structural, functional, signal transduction and gene expression responses from acute exposures at high doses (50-1000 rads) of gamma, protons and iron (Green et al., 2001a; 2001b; 2002a; 2002b; 2005). More recently, we used our DOE funding (ending Feb 06) to characterize the pattern of radiation modulated gene expression in rat thyroid tissue analogs using low-dose/low-dose rate radiation, plus/minus acute challenge exposures. Findings from these studies show that the low-dose/low-dose rate “priming” exposures to radiation invoked changes in gene expression profiles that varied with dose and time. The thyrocytes transitioned to a “primed” state, so that when the tissue analogs were challenged with an acute exposure to radiation they had a muted response (or an increased resistance) to cytopathological changes relative to “un-primed” cells. We measured dramatic differences in the primed tissue analogs, showing that our original hypothesis was correct: that low dose gamma irradiation will potentiate the repair/adaptation response to a secondary exposure. Implications from these findings are that risk assessments based on classical in vitro tissue culture assays will overestimate risk, and that low dose rate priming results in a reduced response in gene expression to a secondary challenge exposure, which implies that a priming dose provides enhanced protection to thyroid cells grown as tissue analogs. If we can determine that the effects of radiation on our tissue analogs more closely resemble the effects of radiation in vivo, then we can better

  4. Livestock wastewater treatment by zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Ryul; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo [Radiation Research Center for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Livestock wastewater containing high concentrations of organic matters and ammonia-nitrogen has been known as one of the recalcitrant wastewater. It is difficult to treat by conventional wastewater treatment techniques. This study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation treatment of livestock wastewater. The removal efficiencies of SCOD{sub Cr} and NH3-N were significantly enhanced by gamma-ray irradiation after zeolite ion exchange as a pre-treatment. However, the effects of zeolite particle size on the SCOD{sub Cr} and NH{sub 3}-N removal efficiencies were insignificant. These results indicate that the combined process of zeolite ion exchange and gamma-ray irradiation has potential for the treatment of livestock wastewater.

  5. Influence of {gamma}-irradiation on the optical properties of nanocrystalline tin phthalocyanine thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Nahass, M.M., E-mail: prof_nahhas@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Atta, A.A.; El-Shazly, E.A.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Faidah, A.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Hendi, A.A. [Department of Physics, Girl' s College of Education, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-10-15

    SnPc in powder and thin film forms were found to be polycrystalline with monoclinic lattice. The morphological and structural properties of the obtained SnPc films were characterized from electron scanning micrographs and X-ray diffraction patterns. In the {gamma}-irradiated film the formed agglomeration increased the crystallite size. The refractive index, n, and the absorption index, k, were obtained from spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range 200-2500 nm. {gamma}-Irradiation films shifted the transmission edge toward lower wavelength and increase the optical energy gap value. According to the analysis of dispersion curves, the dielectric constants and dispersion parameters were obtained. The absorption analysis performed indicated indirect allowed electronic transitions and the optical energy band gap 2.84 and 2.63 eV for the as-deposited and the {gamma}-irradiated films, respectively.

  6. Functionalization and magnetization of carbon nanotubes using Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Fu, M. J.; Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, F. H.; Chen, K. Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used in the biological and biomedical fields as biosensors, drug delivery systems, etc., which makes research into processes for manufacturing modified CNTs quite important. In this paper, Co-60 gamma irradiation is shown to be an effective tool for fabricating functionalized and magnetized CNTs. After the Co-60 gamma irradiation, the presence of carboxylic functional groups on the CNT walls was confirmed by their Fourier transform infrared spectra, and the presence of Fe3O4 was verified by the X-ray diffraction patterns. The functionalized and magnetized CNTs produced using Co-60 gamma irradiation have excellent dispersion properties. The techniques for functionalizing and magnetizing CNTs are introduced in this paper, and applications of the modified CNTs will be reported after more data are gathered.

  7. The effects of gamma irradiation on neutron displacement sensitivity of lateral PNP bipolar transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chenhui, E-mail: wangchenhui@nint.ac.cn; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yan; Jin, Xiaoming; Yang, Shanchao; Qi, Chao

    2016-09-21

    The effects of gamma irradiation on neutron displacement sensitivity of four types of lateral PNP bipolar transistors (LPNPs) with different neutral base widths, emitter widths and the doping concentrations of the epitaxial base region are studied. The physical mechanisms of the effects are explored by defect analysis using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) techniques and numerical simulations of recombination process in the base region of the lateral PNP bipolar transistors, and are verified by the experiments on gate-controlled lateral PNP bipolar transistors (GCLPNPs) manufactured in the identical commercial bipolar process with different gate bias voltage. The results indicate that gamma irradiation increases neutron displacement damage sensitivity of lateral PNP bipolar transistors and the mechanism of this phenomenon is that positive charge induced by gamma irradiation enhances the recombination process in the defects induced by neutrons in the base region, leading to larger recombination component of base current and greater gain degradation.

  8. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Marco; Denis, Josiane; Grenier, Nancy; Arvers, Philippe; Foucher, Barbara; Desangles, François; Martigne, Patrick; Chaussard, Hervé; Drouet, Michel; Abend, Michael; Hérodin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI) and partial-body irradiation (PBI) to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims). To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18) were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI) or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI). More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6) and PBI (n = 12), for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  9. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valente

    Full Text Available In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI and partial-body irradiation (PBI to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims. To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18 were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI. More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6 and PBI (n = 12, for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  10. Metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis selection using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, Franco C.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: fbonetti@usp.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia

    2005-07-01

    Leishmania spp. causes a spectrum of human diseases, ranging from self-healing skin lesions to severe and lethal visceral disease. In previous work we demonstrated that the protein and nucleic acid metabolism and oxidative respiration were severely affected by irradiation, in a dose response way, but a small but representative fractions are relatively radio resistant, surviving after 800 Gy of {sup 60}Co irradiation. The best explanation could be a selection of metacyclic promastigotes. In these forms, the G0 state allows the adequate correction of DNA repair after the irradiation insult. In this work, we are looking for the ideal radiation dose to select the higher proportion of metacyclic forms of L.. (L.) amazonensis in culture. Parasites were grown in RPMI 1640 medium, plus 20% fetal calf serum, than they were irradiated with different doses ranging between 25 and 400 Gy. Parasites irradiated at 400 Gy infected, proportionally, more cells than parasites irradiated at other doses. To confirm this metacyclogenesis, a complement lysis assay was performed with 5, 10 and 20% of male guinea pig blood serum at 20 deg C for 3 hours, and parasites counted. Guinea pig serum a 10% promotes more lysis, with 200 Gy irradiated parasites being less affected, probably due to metacyclic selection. These preliminary results suggests that the ionizing radiation, specially between 200 and 400 Gy, could be a alternative tool for the selection of metacyclic forms of Leishmania amazonensis in culture. (a0011uth.

  11. Development of system for product tracking and data acquisition of data irradiation process in large gamma irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Jose R., E-mail: joseroberto.soares@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie. Escola de Engenharia. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rela, Paulo R.; Costa, Fabio E., E-mail: prela@ipen.br, E-mail: fecosta@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The sterilization of medical care products using ionizing radiation is a consolidated technique. In Brazil there are in operation gamma irradiators with capacity between 0.37 PBq (10kCi) 185 PBq (5 MCi) using radioisotopes {sup 60}Co as radiation source. The developed work provides an accurate control and data acquisition for the application of good manufacturing practices during all phases of an irradiation process, required by the standards of ANVISA, technical ISO and IAEA recommendations for the treatment of foods and medical products. All the steps involved in the irradiation treatment are mapped into process flow (work flow), where each agent (participant) has its systematized tasks. The automatic data process acquisition using wireless ZigBee technology, monitoring and control, are based on a set of tools (free software licenses) integrated by a network of efficient communication, including the use of Web resources. Using the Gamma Irradiator Multipurpose IPEN/CNEN-SP all the development was performed to be applied in irradiators' facilities operating in industrial scale. The system enables a complete traceability of the process, in real time, for any participant and also the storage of the corresponding records to be audited. (author)

  12. Monte Carlo Calculations for Neutron and Gamma Radiation Fields on a Fast Neutron Irradiation Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A.; Ramalho, A.; Gonçalves, I. C.; Fernandes, A.; Barradas, N.; Marques, J. G.; Prata, J.; Chaussy, Ch.

    We used the Monte Carlo program MCNP to calculate the neutron and gamma fluxes on a fast neutron irradiation facility being installed on the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI). The purpose of this facility is to provide a fast neutron beam for irradiation of electronic circuits. The gamma dose should be minimized. This is achieved by placing a lead shield preceded by a thin layer of boral. A fast neutron flux of the order of 109 n/cm2s is expected at the exit of the tube, while the gamma radiation is kept below 20 Gy/h. We will present results of the neutron and gamma doses for several locations along the tube and different thickness of the lead shield. We found that the neutron beam is very collimated at the end of the tube with a dominant component on the fast region.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on cefotaxime in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żegota, Henryk; Koprowski, Marek; Zegota, Alicja

    1995-02-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation on cefotaxime, a member of the third generation of cephalosporins, has been investigated by using different spectroscopic, chromatographic and microbiological analytical methods. Cefotaxime sodium salt was irradiated in dry state in the range of sterilization doses from 5.85 to 46.8 kGy. According to the results obtained, the degree of cefotaxime alteration was lower than 1%, even for the higher radiation dose used. Trace amounts of antibiotic radiolysis products have been found by HPLC. The microbiological assay carried out using E. coli test strain reveal that the activity of irradiated cefotaxime did not decrease.

  14. A comparative study of the hydrolysis of gamma irradiated lignocelluloses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Betiku

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high-dose irradiation as a pretreatment method on two common lignocellulosic materials; hardwood (Khaya senegalensis and softwood (Triplochiton scleroxylon were investigated by assessing the potential of cellulase enzyme derived from Aspergillus flavus Linn isolate NSPR 101 to hydrolyse the materials. The irradiation strongly affected the materials, causing the enzymatic hydrolysis to increase by more than 3 fold. Maximum digestibility occurred in softwood at 40kGy dosage of irradiation, while in hardwood it was at 90kGy dosage. The results also showed that, at the same dosage levels (p < 0.05, hardwood was hydrolysed significantly better compared to the softwood.

  15. Utilization of {gamma}-irradiation technique on plant mutation breeding and plant growth regulation in Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    During about 30-years, we have developed {gamma}-irradiation technique and breeding back pruning method for the study of mutation breeding of ornamental plants. As a result, we have made a wide variety of new mutant lines in chrysanthemum, narcissus, begonia rex, begonia iron cross, winter daphne, zelkova, sweet-scented oleander, abelia, kobus, and have obtained 7 plant patents. By the use of {gamma}-irradiation to plant mutation breeding, we often observed that plants irradiated by low dose of {gamma}-rays showed superior or inferior growth than the of non-irradiated plants. Now, we established the irradiation conditions of {gamma}-rays for mutation breeding and growth of regulation in narcissus, tulip, Enkianthus perulatus Schneid., komatsuna, moyashi, african violet. In most cases, irradiation dose rate is suggested to be a more important factor to induce plant growth regulators than irradiation dose. (author)

  16. Sensory acceptability of squid rings gamma irradiated for shelf-life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of extending the shelf-life of a squid product by gamma irradiation was analyzed. Illex argentinus rings were irradiated at 4 and 8 kGy; and stored at 4±1 °C during 77 days. No mesophilic bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were detected in irradiated rings during storage. Psychrotrophic bacteria were significantly reduced by irradiation; their counts were fitted to a growth model which was further used for shelf-life estimations: 3 and 27 days for 0 and 4 kGy, respectively. Initially, non-irradiated as well as irradiated rings had very good sensory scores. The overall acceptability of 4 and 8 kGy rings did not decrease during 27 and 64 days, respectively, while control samples spoiled after 3 days. A radiation dose range for squid rings preservation was defined, which attained the technological shelf-life extension objective, without impairing sensory quality.

  17. Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun [Hallym University, Kangwon (Korea); Lee, Cherl Ho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jung Hee [Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to beefs (0-5 kGy) and porks (0-30 kGy) for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity and four-week oral toxicity. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. In the study of rat hepatocarcinogenesis, the consumption of gamma irradiated beef and pork not only does not affect the formation of lipid peroxide and membrane stability but also has a possibility to inhibit hepatocarcinogenesis. Also, the consumption of {gamma} - irradiated beef and pork does not affect antioxidative defense system. In the study of the biological safety of korean red pepper, no difference was found on microbial growth between pepper extract alone or irradiated pepper extract. In the preservation study of korean traditional rice-cake(garedok), irradiation dose below 10kGy had no influence on typical sensory characteristics. The shelf-life in rice-cakes with different conditions was the longest on 10kGy treatment than 5kGy. In investigation of the consumer attitude toward irradiated foods, the main reason for the concern about irradiated foods is that compounds in the products formed by irradiation. Therefore, regulatory authorities must be encouraged to permit the sale of irradiated items when wholesomeness is established. (author). 94 refs.,31 figs., 62 tabs.

  18. Determination of fatty acid composition of {gamma}-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gecgel, Umit, E-mail: ugecgel@nku.edu.t [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  19. Characterization of LWRS Hybrid SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Fuel Cladding after Gamma Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabella J van Rooyen

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the gamma irradiation tests conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was to obtain a better understanding of chemical interactions and potential changes in microstructural properties of a mock-up hybrid nuclear fuel cladding rodlet design (unfueled) in a simulated PWR water environment under irradiation conditions. The hybrid fuel rodlet design is being investigated under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program for further development and testing of one of the possible advanced LWR nuclear fuel cladding designs. The gamma irradiation tests were performed in preparation for neutron irradiation tests planned for a silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic matrix composite (CMC) zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) hybrid fuel rodlet that may be tested in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) if the design is selected for further development and testing

  20. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation-alkaline pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules.

  1. Sterilization of ready-to-cook Bibimbap by combined treatment with gamma irradiation for space food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Nam; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Han, In-Jun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Bibimbap, Korean traditional cooked rice mixed with various kinds of vegetables, together with mushrooms and a ground meat, and seasoned with red pepper paste, was developed as a ready-to-cook food by combined treatment with irradiation for the use in space. By gamma irradiation of 25 kGy, the total aerobic bacteria of Bibimbap that was initial by 6.3 log CFU/g decreased to below detection limit, but its sensory qualities were drastically decreased. To enhance the sensory quality, the effects of antioxidant in Bibimbap were evaluated. A treatment with 0.1% of vitamin C, vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiated at 25 kGy and -70 °C showed higher sensory scores than only the irradiation process. This result indicates that the radiation technology may be useful to produce a variety of space foods with high quality of taste and flavor, when combined with other methods.

  2. Spectroscopy of a Gamma Irradiated Poly(Acrylic Acid)-Clotrimazole System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Todica; C.V.Pop; Luciana Udrescu; Traian Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A poly(acrylic acid)-clotrimazole system,gamma irradiated at different doses,is investigated by Raman spectroscopy.Modifications of the spectrum of the polymeric matrix appear for doses of radiation greater than 333 Gy,whereas the spectrum of clotrimazole remains unaffected at these doses of radiation.These changes correlate with modification of the vibration modes of COOH and CH2 groups of a polymeric matrix after irradiation.%A poly(acrylic acid)-clotrimazole system, gamma irradiated at different doses, is investigated by Raman spec-troscopy. Modifications of the spectrum of the polymeric matrix appear for doses of radiation greater than 333 Gy, whereas the spectrum of clotrimazole remains unaffected at these doses of radiation. These changes correlate with modification of the vibration modes of COOH and CH2 groups of a polymeric matrix after irradiation.

  3. Effect of Gamma and electron beam irradiation on PAN-carbon fiber composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, R.; Kasaei, H.; Hajihashemi, M.; Daneshvari, V.; Emamalizadeh, M.; Kasaei, M.H., E-mail: rvzreza@gmail.com [Materials Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Isfahan, I. R. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irradiation on structural, mechanical and thermal properties of PAN- carbon fiber composite. The overall applied doses were 250, 500, 750, and 1000 kGy. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Tensile strength test was conducted in order to measure mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural behavior. Thermal behavior of the samples was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that by increasing gamma and electron doses the thermal behavior of the composite indicated higher decomposition degree as a function of the temperature. Electron irradiated carbon fiber surfaces are relatively smoothed than that virgin fibers. Bulges after gamma treatment were decreased and surface was unrough. (author)

  4. Determination of dosimetric and kinetic features of gamma irradiated solid calcium ascorbate dihydrate using ESR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, H.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on solid calcium ascorbate dihydrate were studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiated samples were found to present two specific ESR lines with shoulder at low and high magnetic field sides. Structural and kinetic features of the radicalic species responsible for experimental ESR spectrum were explored through the variations of the signal intensities with applied microwave power, variable temperature, high-temperature annealing and room temperature storage time studies. Dosimetric potential of the sample was also determined using spectrum area and measured signal intensity measurements. It was concluded that three radicals with different spectroscopic and kinetic features were produced upon gamma irradiation.

  5. Cesium leaching from {gamma}-irradiated CsA and CsX zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Enrique [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, A. P. 55-532, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: lima@xanum.uam.mx; Ibarra, Ilich A.; Lara, Victor [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, A. P. 55-532, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bosch, Pedro [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, A. P. 70-360, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bulbulian, Silvia [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, 11801 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    The present study discusses the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on Cs{sup +}-exchanged X and A zeolites. The incorporation of Cs{sup +} ions into A and X zeolites was performed using three different cesium salts (chloride, nitrate or acetate). Cs{sup +} ions immobilized into the vitrified zeolites by thermal treatment are located in different sites of the zeolite networks. It is found that {gamma}-irradiation favors cesium retention depending on the cesium precursor salt used in the cationic exchange step.

  6. Effectiveness of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the microbiological population of three types of paprika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, S.L.; Gimenez, J.L.; Sanchez, F.M.; Romojaro, F.

    The effectiveness of ethylene oxide and the gamma irradiation sterilizing treatments on the microbiological population was studied in three types of Spanish paprika, stored in a cold chamber (4/sup 0/C) and at room temperature (16-38.8/sup 0/C) over an experimental period of 285 days. The controlled microorganisms were: mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, sulfite reducing anaerobes, yeasts, molds, and Salmonella. The presence of aflatoxins was also studied. The results showed that both sterilizing treatments reduced the microbiological population to below the permissible levels recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Food. Nevertheless, it was interesting that the gamma irradiation treatment was more effective.

  7. Use of Lead (II) Sulfide Nanoparticles as Stabilizer for PMMA Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia,Olga Pinheiro; Albuquerque,Marília Cordeiro Carneiro de; Aquino, Kátia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo,Patricia Lopes Barros; Araujo,Elmo Silvano de

    2015-01-01

    Lead (II) sulfide (PbS) were synthesized by sonochemical method and crystals with cubic structure exhibit aggregated nanoparticles with size in the range of 50-100 nm. Commercial Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing the PbS nanoparticles (PbS-NP) exposed to gamma irradiation were investigated and both the viscosity-average molar mass (Mv) and degradation index (DI) values were measured. Ours results showed decreases in molar mass when the systems were gamma irradiated, i. e., random sc...

  8. Retrieval of gamma cell 220 irradiator isodose curves with MCNP simulations and experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Grynberg, S.E.; Ferreira, A.V.; Belo, L.C.M.; Squair, P.L.; Ribeiro, M.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sousa, R.V.; Sebastiao, R.C.O. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-03-15

    Gamma irradiator facilities can be used in a wide range of applications such as biological and chemical researches, sterilization of medical devices and products. Dose mapping must be performed in these equipment in order to establish plant operational parameters, as dose uniformity, source utilization efficiency and maximum and minimum dose positions. The isodoses curves are measured using dosimeters or computer simulations. This work evaluates the absorbed dose in the CDTN/CNEN Gamma Cell Irradiation Facility, using the Monte Carlo N-Particles (MCNP) code. (author)

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on physical characteristics of Jordanian durum wheat and quality of semolina and lasagna products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzeh, F.S. [Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Queen-Rania, Amman (Jordan)], E-mail: firasazzeh@yahoo.com; Amr, A.S. [Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Queen-Rania, Amman (Jordan)

    2009-09-15

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using varying gamma irradiation doses on the physiochemical and rheological properties of semolina and its products. Ash, protein and water content were not influenced with gamma irradiation, while falling number and fungi counts decreased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation adversely affected wet gluten at 5 kGy dose. Dough stability was deteriorated vigorously with increasing irradiation dose. Sensory evaluation showed that lasagna produced from 0.25- and 1 kGy-irradiated semolina did not show any significant differences as compared with the control sample.

  10. Detection of gamma irradiated pepper and papain by chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Abdus; Delincée, H.; Diehl, J. F.

    Chemiluminescence (CL) measurements of black pepper and of papain using luminol and lucigenin reactions were studied. Effects of grinding, irradiation (5-20 kGy) and particle size (750-140 μm) on CL of pepper, and of irradiation (10-30 kGy) on CL of papain, were investigated. All the tested treatments affected the luminescence response in both the luminol and lucigenin reactions; however, the pattern of changes in each case, was inconsistent. Optimum pepper size for maximum luminescence was 560 μm, and optimum irradiation doses were >15 kGy for pepper and >20 kGy for papain. Chemiluminescence may possibly be used as an indicator or irradiation treatment for pepper and papain at a dose of 10 kGy or higher, but further research is needed to establish the reliability of this method.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of plastic bottle sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Ali, Yasir; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    In this article, the effects of gamma irradiation on the optical and structural properties of plastic bottle sheets have been studied. Bottle sheets were exposed with 1.25 MeV 60Co γ-ray's source at various dose levels within the range from 0 to 670 kGy. The changes so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. UV-Vis spectra show the peaks, their shifting and broadening as a result of gamma irradiation. With increasing γ-dose, the values of the direct and indirect band gap are found to be decreased. These results are in good agreement with the corresponding results published previously for polyethylene terephthalate polymer. We also calculated numbers of carbon atoms per conjugation length. The X-ray diffraction spectra exhibited an increase in peak intensity after gamma irradiation. Furthermore, the percentage crystallinity and crystallite size for pristine and irradiated sample have been calculated. It has been found that both crystallinity and crystallite size increase due to irradiation. In addition, interchain distances, micro strain, inter planar distance, dislocation density and distortion parameters were calculated. The analysis revealed there is the significant decrease in micro strain, dislocation density and distortion parameters with an increase of gamma dose, which is in line with the crystallinity calculation. Moreover, Interchain and Interplanar distances were marginally changed. These results demonstrated the applicability of sheets as a cost-effective dosimeter.

  12. Gamma-ray irradiation tests of CMOS sensors used in imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello Salvatore G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologically-enhanced electronic image sensors are used in various fields as diagnostic techniques in medicine or space applications. In the latter case the devices can be exposed to intense radiation fluxes over time which may impair the functioning of the same equipment. In this paper we report the results of gamma-ray irradiation tests on CMOS image sensors simulating the space radiation over a long time period. Gamma-ray irradiation tests were carried out by means of IGS-3 gamma irradiation facility of Palermo University, based on 60Co sources with different activities. To reduce the dose rate and realize a narrow gamma-ray beam, a lead-collimation system was purposely built. It permits to have dose rate values less than 10 mGy/s and to irradiate CMOS Image Sensors during operation. The total ionizing dose to CMOS image sensors was monitored in-situ, during irradiation, up to 1000 Gy and images were acquired every 25 Gy. At the end of the tests, the sensors continued to operate despite a background noise and some pixels were completely saturated. These effects, however, involve isolated pixels and therefore, should not affect the image quality.

  13. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation on a commercial polycyclooctene I. Thermal and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Huete, N.; Laza, J. M.; Cuevas, J. M.; Vilas, J. L.; Bilbao, E.; León, L. M.

    2014-09-01

    A gamma radiation process for modification of commercial polymers is a widely applied technique to promote new physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation originates free radicals able to induce chain scission or recombination of radicals, which induces annihilation, branching or crosslinking processes. The aim of this work is to research the structural, thermal and mechanical changes induced on a commercial polycyclooctene (PCO) when it is irradiated with a gamma source of 60Co at different doses (25-200 kGy). After gamma irradiation, gel content was determined by Soxhlet extraction in cyclohexane. Furthermore, thermal properties were evaluated before and after Soxhlet extraction by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), as well as mechanical properties were measured by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA). The results showed the variations of the properties depending on the irradiation dose. Finally, a first approach to evaluate qualitatively the shape memory behaviour of all irradiated PCO samples was performed by a visually monitoring shape recovery process.

  14. The use of gamma-irradiation and ultraviolet-irradiation in the preparation of human melanoma cells for use in autologous whole-cell vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denlinger Chadrick E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cancer vaccines incorporating autologous tumor cells carry a risk of implantation and subsequent metastasis of viable tumor cells into the patient who is being treated. Despite the fact that the melanoma cell preparations used in a recent vaccine trial (Mel37 were gamma-irradiated (200 Gy, approximately 25% of the preparations failed quality control release criteria which required that the irradiated cells incorporate 3H-thymidine at no more than 5% the level seen in the non-irradiated cells. We have, therefore, investigated ultraviolet (UV-irradiation as a possible adjunct to, or replacement for gamma-irradiation. Methods Melanoma cells were gamma- and/or UV-irradiated. 3H-thymidine uptake was used to assess proliferation of the treated and untreated cells. Caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation were measured as indicators of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis was used to assess antigen expression. Results UV-irradiation, either alone or in combination with gamma-irradiation, proved to be extremely effective in controlling the proliferation of melanoma cells. In contrast to gamma-irradiation, UV-irradiation was also capable of inducing significant levels of apoptosis. UV-irradiation, but not gamma-irradiation, was associated with the loss of tyrosinase expression. Neither form of radiation affected the expression of gp100, MART-1/MelanA, or S100. Conclusion These results indicate that UV-irradiation may increase the safety of autologous melanoma vaccines, although it may do so at the expense of altering the antigenic profile of the irradiated tumor cells.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of azo acrylates grafted onto polyethylene terephthalate by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucio, Emilio [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: ebucio@nucelares.unam.mx; Skewes, Phill [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Burillo, Guillermina [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were grafted with acryloyl chloride by gamma irradiation, and the grafted films were reacted with Disperse Red 1 or 4-phenylazophenol. The films where characterized by atomic force microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, FTIR-ATR, light polarized microscopy, elemental analysis and UV spectroscopy. The surface of the films was homogeneous, and the dye underwent trans to cis photoreaction, whereby the red films became colorless by the irradiation of UV light at room temperature.

  16. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae "inside the eggs" were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber blends

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Moustafa; Rania Mounir; A.A. El Miligy; Maysa A. Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Blends of natural rubber (NR) with styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with varying ratios have been prepared. Vulcanization of the prepared blends has been induced by irradiation of gamma rays with varying doses up to 250 kGy. Mechanical properties, namely tensile strength, tensile modulus at 100% elongation, elongation at break have been followed up as a function of irradiation dose as well as blend composition. Physical properties, namely gel fraction and swelling number have been followed up u...

  18. Polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk and emulsion by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Andrea C.; Mori, Manoel N.; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo G.

    2004-09-01

    The vinyl acetate polymerization to produce poly(vinyl acetate) was carried out in bulk and emulsion using a 60Co gamma irradiator Gammacell-220 type. The irradiation was carried out in a dose rate of 5.25 and 5.30 kGy/h, respectively. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out.

  19. Restricting the ageing degradation of the mechanical properties of gamma irradiated UHMWPE using MWCNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Sreekanth, P S; Kanagaraj, S

    2013-05-01

    Property degradation of the medical grade polymers after gamma irradiation is the primary concern that limits longevity of them. Though the conventional antioxidant material helps to reduce the degradation but it limits the degree of crosslinking of the polymer. The objective of the present work is to study the influence of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on restricting the degradation of mechanical properties of medical grade ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) after its irradiation. UHMWPE was reinforced by chemically treated MWCNTs at different concentrations such as 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt%. The test samples were then subjected to Co⁶⁰ gamma irradiation with an integral dose of 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy in air. The mechanical properties of irradiated samples were evaluated within 10 days, 60 and 120 days after irradiation. It was observed that the mechanical properties of virgin UHMWPE and nanocomposites were enhanced immediately after irradiation but they were found to be reduced at later stages. It was also observed that the presence of MWCNTs limited the ageing degradation of the mechanical properties of UHMWPE. Raman spectroscopic and TEM studies confirmed the formation of irradiation induced defects on the MWCNTs. Electron spin resonance studies showed that the relative radical intensity of virgin UHWMPE was reduced significantly with an increase of MWCNTs concentration confirming the radical scavenging ability of them. It is concluded that MWCNTs restricted the ageing degradation of irradiated UHMWPE.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on commercial eggs experimentally inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, I.G.; Trejo, R.M.; Sanchez, R.E.; Ceniceros, R.M. [D.P.A. Aves, F.M.V.Z. (Mexico); Luna, Q.P.; Zazua, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Hargis, B.M. [Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Using intact, fresh shell eggs, inoculated with 10{sup 8} colony-forming units (cfu) of S. enteritidis, the effect of three doses of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic population and physical characteristics (Haugh units and yolk color) of the eggs was determined. Irradiation with 1 kGy resulted in a significant (P {<=} .05), 3.9 log reduction in detectable S. enteritidis in the shell and highly significant (P {<=} .025) 95% reduction in detectable S. enteritidis in the internal shell membranes. Irradiation of eggs with either 2 or 3 kGy reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels in both the shell and internal membranes. However, irradiation at either 1, 2 or 3 kGy resulted in a significant (P {<=} .05) decrease (approximately 50%) in Haugh units. Additionally, irradiation of intact shell eggs at 2 or 3 kGy significantly (P {<=} .05) reduced yolk color regardless of the level of irradiation exposure implemented. This data indicates that gamma irradiation of intact raw eggs is effective in reducing (1 kGy) or eliminating (2 or more kGy) S. enteritidis contamination. However, each of the levels of irradiation used in the present experiments caused marked reduction of selected measures of egg quality. (Author).

  1. Biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in response to gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Effat Fahmy; Gabr, Mahmoud Ali; Moussa, Helal Ragab; El-Shaer, Enas Ali; Ismaiel, Mostafa M S

    2017-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a blue-green alga, rich with bioactive components and nutrients. To evaluate effect of gamma irradiation, A. platensis was exposed to different doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5kGy. The data showed that the phenolic and proline contents significantly increased with the increase of gamma irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy, above which a reduction was observed. The soluble proteins and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated by all tested irradiation doses. Furthermore, the vitamins (A, K and B group) and mineral contents (N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) were stimulated by the irradiation doses compared with the control. The activities of some N-assimilating and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased with the irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy. This study suggests the possible use of gamma irradiation as a stimulatory agent to raise the nutritive value and antioxidant activity of A. platensis.

  2. Microbiological, sensorial and chemical quality of gamma irradiated pistachio nut (Pistacia vera l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation and storage period on quality retention of raw pistachio nut. Var. Halebi. Kernel of the pistachio nuts were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated nuts were kept at room temperature for 12 months. Used doses of irradiation significantly reduced the total bacterial plate counts (TBPCs and total fungal counts up to undetectable level (less than 10 CFU g-1. Irradiation doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation seem to be suitable for post-harvest sanitation and decontamination treatment, without significant changes in the sensorial properties (texture, odor, color and taste, chemical quality (free fatty acids and pH value or in contents of moisture, proteins, sugars, lipid, and ash, with respect to the control samples. The highest used dose (3kGy slightly decreased the fatty acid content and pH value, and treatment with higher doses (2 and 3 kGy significantly increased the total volatile nitrogen TVN.

  3. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in black pepper and red pepper by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Sung, Hye-Jung; Kim, Sung-Youn; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-17

    This study evaluated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in black pepper (Piper nigrum) and red pepper (dried Capsicum annuum). Black pepper and red pepper inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation in the range of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy, and color change was evaluated after treatment. Pathogen populations decreased with increasing treatment doses. A gamma irradiation dose of 5 kGy decreased E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium populations >4.4 to >5.2 log CFU/g in black pepper without causing color change. Similarly, 5 kGy of gamma irradiation yielded reduction of 3.8 to >5.2 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in red pepper. During gamma irradiation treatment, L*, a* and b* values of red pepper were not significantly changed except for 297 μm to 420 μm size red pepper treated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Based on the D-value of pathogens in black pepper and red pepper, S. Typhimurium showed more resistant to gamma irradiation than did E. coli O157:H7. These results show that gamma irradiation has potential as a non-thermal process for inactivating foodborne pathogens in spices with minimal color changes.

  4. Armor: An {alpha}{beta}{gamma} assembly for irradiated fuel analysis; Armor: Chaine {alpha}{beta}{gamma} pour l'analyse des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraud, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-15

    The assembly ARMOR which was built with a view to carrying out research on irradiated fuels consists of an {alpha}{beta}{gamma} enclosure made up of 11 cells in line. After a general description of the assembly in its present form, the various functions are reviewed: introduction of the samples, chemical de-canning, dissolution of the irradiated uranium pellets, preparation of solutions for mass spectrometric analyses, disposal of the effluents and of the solid waste. The assembly-has been working since 1961. During the 5 to 6 years operation, various improvements have been made and a certain number of observations have been collected concerning the work. (author) [French] Construite en vue de repondre a un programme d'etudes de combustibles Irradies, la chaine Armor est une enceinte {alpha}{beta}{gamma} composee de 11 cellules en ligne. Apres une description generale de la chaine dans son etat actuel, les differentes fonctions sont passees en revue: entree des echantillons, degainage chimique, dissolution des pastilles d'uranium irradie, preparation des solutions pour les analyses par spectrometrie de masse, rejet des effluents et des dechets solides. La chaine est en service depuis 1961. Au cours des cinq a six annees d'exploitation, differentes ameliorations ont ete apportees et un ensemble d'observations sur le travail a ete recueilli. (auteur)

  5. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 4. Analysis of piperine and its isomers by reversed phase HPLC and effect of gamma irradiation on isomerization of piperine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Ochiai, Junko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-11-01

    A separation method for piperine and its isomers (isopiperine, isochavicine and chavicine) was investigated. These isomers were produced from piperine with irradiation. This reaction is photochemical isomerization. Piperine and its isomers were separated on a reversed phase C/sub 8/ (LiChrospher 300 RP-8 10 um 0.4 I.D. x 0.4 cm and LiChrosorb RP-8 SelectB 0.4 I.D. x 25 cm) column with a mixture of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water and 75% acetonitrile-0.1% TFA in water (92 : 8) and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. By this method, four peaks derivded from piperine and its isomers were recognized. Piperine was identified by addition of piperine as a internal standard. Unknown peaks were fractionated by chromatography on the column for NMR structural identification. Isochavicine was identified by NMR. And the other peaks were presumed by the fact that chavicine dose not produce from piperine with mild irradiation condition. In contrast of photochemical isomerization, the effect of gamma irradiation on isomerization of piperine was investigated by HPLC analysis. Gamma irradiation had no effect on the isomerization of piperine.

  6. Systematic fabrication of chitosan nanoparticle by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanphan, Wanvimol; Rimdusit, Pakjira; Choofong, Surakarn; Piroonpan, Thananchai; Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai

    2010-10-01

    The present investigation is mainly focused on the systematic preparation of chitosan nanoparticle in the potential range 1-100 nm using γ-ray irradiation. The effect of irradiation conditions in terms of physical form of chitosan, i.e. flake, colloidal and acidic solution, and γ-ray dose was studied. The molecular weights of chitosan were 10, 25, and >1000 times reduced when irradiated with the γ-ray dose as high as 100 kGy in Chi-flake, Chi-colloid, and Chi-acid, respectively. The particle size reduced to 70 nm after being irradiated to only 10 kGy γ-rays and it showed a tendency to decrease when the γ-ray doses were increased. The γ-rays effectively induced the reduction of chitosan particle size to <100 nm with narrow size distribution. The effective size reduction was particularly observed in Chi-colloid. Heterogeneous chemical conjugation of deoxycholic acid onto 10 kGy irradiated Chi-colloid resulted in narrow particle size as small as 50 nm.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joog-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2007-11-15

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, {alpha}-pinene, camphene, {alpha}-limonene, {beta}-eudesmol, {alpha}-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as {beta}-eudesmol, {alpha}-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  8. Beneficial effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Uzun, Cengiz; Mahlous, Mohamed; Güven, Olgun

    2007-12-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan was studied. Chitin from crab shells was irradiated up to 20 kGy and N-deacetylated in aqueous NaOH solution (40% and 60% w/w) at 60 and 100 °C for 60 min. The degree of N-deacetylation (DD) of non-irradiated and irradiated samples was determined by IR-band ratio method. It was found that higher extent of N-deacetylation was achieved for the chitin samples irradiated up to 20 kGy doses as compared to non-irradiated chitin. The DD values of chitin, prepared from non-irradiated and 20 kGy irradiated chitins by N-deacetylation at 60 °C with 40% NaOH for 60 min, were found to be 38% and 60%, respectively. The increase in DD by irradiation was interpreted as a result of reduction in molecular weight of chitin. Low dose irradiation of chitin has provided the possibility of its N-deacetylation into chitosan at much milder reaction conditions.

  9. Beneficial effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahtat, Djamel [Algiers Nuclear Research Center, 2 Bd, Frantz Fanon BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Uzun, Cengiz [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: uzun@hacettepe.edu.tr; Mahlous, Mohamed [Algiers Nuclear Research Center, 2 Bd, Frantz Fanon BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Gueven, Olgun [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the N-deacetylation of chitin to form chitosan was studied. Chitin from crab shells was irradiated up to 20 kGy and N-deacetylated in aqueous NaOH solution (40% and 60% w/w) at 60 and 100 deg. C for 60 min. The degree of N-deacetylation (DD) of non-irradiated and irradiated samples was determined by IR-band ratio method. It was found that higher extent of N-deacetylation was achieved for the chitin samples irradiated up to 20 kGy doses as compared to non-irradiated chitin. The DD values of chitin, prepared from non-irradiated and 20 kGy irradiated chitins by N-deacetylation at 60 deg. C with 40% NaOH for 60 min, were found to be 38% and 60%, respectively. The increase in DD by irradiation was interpreted as a result of reduction in molecular weight of chitin. Low dose irradiation of chitin has provided the possibility of its N-deacetylation into chitosan at much milder reaction conditions.

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-11-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, α-pinene, camphene, α-limonene, β-eudesmol, α-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  11. DSC studies of retrogradation and amylose lipid complex transition taking place in gamma irradiated wheat starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, K.; Eliasson, A. C.

    2007-12-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation ( 60Co) with doses of 5-30 kGy on the amylose-lipid complex transition and retrogradation occurring in gels containing ca. 50% and ca. 20% wheat starch was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) during heating-cooling-heating cycles (up to three cycles). Transition of the amylose-lipid complex occurs in all the irradiated samples at a lower temperature as compared to the non-irradiated starch. That effect was larger when the radiation dose was higher. A further thermal treatment causes a decrease of the transition temperature in the irradiated samples, with no effect or increase of that temperature observed for the non-irradiated ones. Irradiation hinders retrogradation taking place in 50% gels but facilitates the process occurring in 20% gels. The differences between the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples are more evident in the every next heating or cooling cycle as well as after storage and in the case of ca. 50% suspensions as compared to ca. 20% suspensions. The results point out to the deterioration of the structure of the complexes formed in the irradiated starch as compared to the non-irradiated one.

  12. Electron beam and gamma ray irradiated polymer electrolyte films: Dielectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raghu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polymer electrolyte films were irradiated with electron beam (EB and Gamma ray (GR at 50 and 150 kGy. The induced chemical changes in films due to irradiations have been confirmed from the Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR spectra. The X-ray Diffractometry (XRD results show that crystallinity decreases by ∼20% in EB and ∼10% in GR irradiated films respectively compared to non-irradiated film. The micro structural arrangement was investigated by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM and the images reveal that there is a substantial improvement in the surface morphology in irradiated films. The real (ε′ and imaginary (ε″ dielectric constant and AC conductivity are found to increase with increase in irradiation dose. Improved dielectric properties and conductivity (1.74 x 10−4 & 1.15 x 10−4 S/cm, respectively, for EB and GR irradiated films at room temperature after irradiation and it confirm that EB and GR irradiation can be simple and effective route to obtaining highly conductive polymer electrolytes. From this study it is confirm that EB is more effectiveness than GR irradiation.

  13. Gamma and electron beam irradiation effects on SiR-EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deepalaxmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM is widely used as Cable Insulation Material (CIM due to its good mechanical strength. Silicone Rubber (SiR is used in high temperature environments due to its good di-electric properties/hydrophobicity. The blending of SiR-EPDM may result in the improvement in their specific properties. The SiR-EPDM blend of equal composition (50:50 was prepared. When such blends are used as Cable Insulation Materials (CIM, they should perform their safety functions throughout their installed life in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP. The CIM will be exposed to Gamma irradiation at the installed locations. The short time accelerated testing was carried out, in order to forecast long-term performance of CIM. Electron beam irradiation is widely used in cable manufacturing industries to improve the performance of the polymeric materials. In the current study, on the purpose to investigate the effect of gamma/electron beam irradiation on the 50–50 composition of SiR-EPDM blend, blend was exposed to 25 Mrad dose of gamma/electron beam irradiation. The electrical and mechanical parameters like Volume Resistivity (VRY, Surface Resistivity (SRY, Tensile Strength (TS, Elongation at Break (EB, Hardness (H of the virgin, gamma/electron beam irradiated blends were determined as per ASTM/IEC standards. The nature of degradation was investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. To determine the elemental composition of the materials at the surface, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX has been done. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis has been done to study the morphological changes. The occurrence of cross-linking is found to be the mechanism for ageing in gamma/electron beam irradiated SiR-EPDM blends.

  14. Evaluation of gamma and neutron irradiation effects on the properties of mica film capacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh Roy; Arun Pandya

    2005-12-01

    We present an investigation of gamma and neutron radiation effects on mica film capacitors from an electrical point of view. We have studied quantitatively the effects of gamma and neutron irradiation on mica film capacitors of thickness, 20 and 40 m (0.7874 and 1.5748 mil) with two different areas, 01 and 04 cm2. The capacitance has been measured at room temperature in the frequency range 100 Hz–10 MHz. Negligible change in the capacitance due to high gamma dose of 60Co, 15 kGy at dose rate 0.25 kGy/h, has been observed. However, appreciable change in the capacitance has been observed due to low doses of fast neutrons (cumulative dose, 115 cGy) with flux ∼ 9.925 × 107 neutrons/cm2 h from 252Cf neutron source of fluence, 2.5 × 107 neutrons/s. We have also observed that the impact of gamma and neutron irradiation is more at frequencies higher than 10 kHz. These results show that the mica capacitors do not show any radiation response below 10 kHz. The study shows the radiation response of mica film capacitors to gamma and fast neutron radiations. Mica capacitors show low gamma radiation response in comparison to fast neutron radiation, because a total dose of kGy order has been given by gamma source and only few cGy dose has been given by fast neutron source.

  15. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  16. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  17. Dental management of patients irradiated for oral cancer. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regezi, J.A.; Courtney, R.M.; Kerr, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    Management of patients irradiated for oral cancer should include consideration of their oral health prior to, and after, radiation therapy. Data from 130 patients, followed for a period of 1 to 10 years, are presented and evaluated. The philosophy of retention and maintenance of as many teeth as possible is supported by this data. Extraction of teeth with severe periodontal disease after irradiation also proves to be a relatively safe operation. Osteoradionecrosis tends to be limited in extent and is generally well tolerated by the patient when treated conservatively. A treatment regimen is presented that significantly reduces the morbidity from therapeutic irradiation of the jaws. A comprehensive dental evaluation and follow-up plan coupled with patient cooperation are instrumental to the success of this program.

  18. Immunological network activation by low-dose rate irradiation. Analysis of cell populations and cell surface molecules in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ina, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Kazuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Low Dose Radiation Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The effects of low-dose rate whole body irradiation on biodefense and immunological systems were investigated using female C57BL/6 (B6) mice. These B6 mice were exposed continuously to {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source in the long-term low-dose rate irradiation facility at CRIEPI for 0 - 12 weeks at a dose rate of 0.95 mGy/hr. In the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood of the irradiated mice, changes in cell populations and cell surface molecules were examined. The cell surface functional molecules (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD45R/B220, ICAM-1, Fas, NK-1.1, CXCR4, and CCR5), and activation molecules (THAM, CD28, CD40, CD44H, CD70, B7-1, B7-2, OX-40 antigen, CTLA-4, CD30 ligand, and CD40 ligand) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells and cell surface CD8 molecule expressions on the CD8{sup +} T cells increased significantly to 120-130% after 3 weeks of the irradiation, compared to non-irradiated control mice. On the other hand, the percentage of CD45R/B220{sup +} CD40{sup +} B cells, which is one of the immunological markers of inflammation, infection, tumor, and autoimmune disease, decreased significantly to 80-90% between the 3rd to 5th week of irradiation. There was no significant difference in other cell population rates and cell surface molecule expression. Furthermore, abnormal T cells bearing mutated T cell receptors induced by high-dose rate irradiation were not observed throughout this study. These results suggest that low-dose rate irradiation activates the immunological status of the whole body. (author)

  19. Total Body Irradiation with Step Translation and Dynamic Field Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Hsing Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a total body irradiation technique that does not require additional devices or sophisticated processes to overcome the space limitation of a small treatment room. The technique aims to deliver a uniform dose to the entire body while keeping the lung dose within the tolerance level. The technique treats the patient lying on the floor anteriorly and posteriorly. For each AP/PA treatment, two complementary fields with dynamic field edges are matched over an overlapped region defined by the marks on the body surface. A compensator, a spoiler, and lung shielding blocks were used during the treatment. Moreover, electron beams were used to further boost the chest wall around the lungs. The technique was validated in a RANDO phantom using GAFCHROMIC films. Dose ratios at different body sites along the midline ranged from 0.945 to 1.076. The dose variation in the AP direction ranged from 96.0% to 104.6%. The dose distribution in the overlapped region ranged from 98.5% to 102.8%. Lateral dose profiles at abdomen and head revealed 109.8% and 111.7% high doses, respectively, at the body edges. The results confirmed that the technique is capable of delivering a uniform dose distribution to the midline of the body in a small treatment room while keeping the lung dose within the tolerance level.

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The, Doan Thi, E-mail: doanthithe@yahoo.com [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh [Agriculture and Forestry University, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2012-01-15

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instarsirradiation, predicted doses for 100% mortality of each different development stage in the above mentioned pattern were 224.6, 241.3, 330.9 and 581.5 Gy, respectively. No survived female adult produced offspring at 200 and 250 Gy. Dose range between 200 and 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of this mealybug. - Highlights: > Gamma Co-60 irradiation as a potential phytosanitary for quarantine treatments. > Reproduction ability of D. neobrevipes has been efficiently inhibited at low dose. > Pattern of tolerance to irradiation was 1st<2nd<3rd instars Doses from 200 to 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of mealybug.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of veal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Veal is a rich nutrient medium that provides a suitable environment for proliferation of veal spoiling microorganisms and common food-borne pathogens. In this study, the effects of irradiation on the veal microbiological quality and half life of minced beef during chilled storage was investigated. Materials and Methods: Twenty samples of minced veal were irradiated with doses of 2, 5, 7, and 10 kGy (Cobalt-60, gamma cell 220 and evaluated for their microbiological quality up to 10 days. Results: The results showed that gamma irradiation reduced the number of microorganisms in all the irradiated minced veal samples, with 2, 5, 7, and 10 kGy (P < 0.01. Moreover, the half life of the samples were increased considerably (P < 0.01. In addition, the results indicated that there was a significant difference in the number of coliformes between untreated and irradiated samples (P < 0.05. While, Staphylococcus aureus could not be detected in the irradiated samples with doses of 7 and 10 kGy. Conclusion: These results indicated that irradiation could be employed as an effective mean to inactivate common food-borne pathogens namely S. aureus and increases the half life of veal.

  2. Optical properties (uv-vis and ftir) of gamma irradiated polymethyl methacrylate (pmma)

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, V N; Jain, Beena

    2016-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) foils has been studied. A new absorption band is observed in the visible spectral range due to color centers induced in the gamma irradiated PMMA. This band shows maximum absorption (low transmission) for 10 kGy irradiation, which decreases and saturates after 50 kGy followed by a further increase at 500 kGy. The FTIR peaks show an increased absorption up to ~100 kGy irradiation, which reverses for higher doses. Broad band absorption is observed in FTIR spectra around 1600 and 3600 cm-1 due to absorption of moisture in the irradiated samples. The reduction in the absorption intensity at 1718 cm-1 in the irradiated PMMA (> 100 kGy) is found associated with the demerization of the carbonyl groups. An initial increase in the absorption of FTIR peaks with increase in the doses of irradiation is due to increased cross linking in the PMMA structure that is induced by the absorption of moisture. The demerization of ...

  3. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosdu, R.E.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Center for Applications of Isotopes and Radiation

    1995-10-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated. (Author).

  4. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chosdu, R.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and Curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated.

  5. Laboratory longevity and competitiveness of Dacus ciliatus Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) following sub-sterilizing gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemny-Lavy, E; Nestel, D; Rempoulakis, P

    2016-06-01

    The effect of a sub-sterilizing gamma radiation dose on Dacus ciliatus adults was investigated to assess the suitability of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as an alternative method to control this pest. Late pupae (48 h prior to adult emergence) from a laboratory strain were irradiated with 120 Gy of gamma rays emitted by a 60Co source. Following adult emergence, the mortality of irradiated and non-irradiated cohorts was recorded. Over a period of 50 days after emergence, no significant negative effects of irradiation upon the longevity of male or female laboratory flies were observed. A laboratory competitiveness study (Fried test), using irradiated laboratory and wild males at a ratio of 3:1 was conducted to assess the ability of irradiated males to reduce the egg hatch rates of a wild population. The overall competitiveness was found to be ca. 0.32, suggesting a reduced, but satisfactory, quality of irradiated laboratory as compared with wild males. Based on the above findings, we calculated and proposed effective male release ratios for field application of SIT against D. ciliatus.

  6. Latent and persistent lethal injury in mouse salivary gland cells following gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T.

    1976-07-01

    Newly synthesized DNA in previously irradiated and isoproterenol-stimulated mouse salivary gland cells was found to be quickly degraded when the stimulation for DNA synthesis was given 10 days after a dose of 1000 rad ..gamma.. radiation. The degradation of the DNA was due to degeneration of acinar cells prior to mitosis. When the stimulation with isoproterenol was given 1 or 3 months after irradiation, DNA degradation in parotids was not detectable. An autoradiographic analysis revealed, however, that about half of the acinar cells labeled with tritiated thymidine were eliminated from irradiated parotids in a few days, even when the stimulation with isoproterenol was given 3 months after irradiation. This indicates that irradiation of mouse salivary gland cells produced latent lethal damage and that this damage is unmasked by the stimulation for DNA synthesis and cell division.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation and moist heat for sterilization on sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingzhang; Yang, Yongwei; Tan, Lili; Yin, Tieying; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Guixue

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides, such as alginates, are already being used as carriers for drug delivery. The physicochemical and biological properties of alginates may be affected via irradiation and thermal treatments. To explore and compare effects of two kinds of sterilization methods, gamma irradiation and moist heat, on sodium alginate (SA), physicochemical and biological properties of SA powder and solutions were investigated after sterilization. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the SA after sterilization. The research showed that 25 kGy gamma ray can effectively sterilize microorganism. Both gamma irradiation and moist heat hardly affect the native pH of SA. Compared to irradiation sterilization, moist heat sterilization showed smaller changes in intrinsic viscosity for all SA samples and lead to less glycosidic bond breaking of SA powders. The moist heat sterilization can cause the main chain scission and double bonds formation of the SA solutions. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that sterilized SA powers and SA solutions treated by gamma ray sterilization can increase the viability of HUVEC. However, SA solutions treated by moist heat sterilization were found to present severe cytotoxicity. The research results may provide interesting future advancements toward the development of SA-based products for biomedical applications.

  8. Gamma spectrometry of irradiated fuel plates; Espectrometria gama em elementos combustiveis tipo placa irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Perrotta, Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia do Nucleo

    1997-10-01

    This work describes the fundamental aspects of a method which uses gamma-ray spectroscopy in order to perform non-destructive burnup measurements in irradiated MTR fuel elements. Experiments based on such method will be conducted at the storage pool area of the IEA-R1 research reactor. Some preliminary results are presented. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Formation of biologically relevant carboxylic acids during the gamma irradiation of acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid with gamma rays produced several carboxylic acids in small yield. Their identification was based on the technique of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Some of these acids are Krebs Cycle intermediates. Their simultaneous formation in experiments simulating the primitive conditions on the earth suggests that metabolic pathways may have had their origin in prebiotic chemical processes.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on thermophysical properties of plasticized starch and starch surfactant films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Watzeels, Nick; Rahier, Hubert

    2014-06-01

    In this work the influence of gamma irradiation on the thermomechanical properties of the films formed in potato starch-glycerol and potato starch-glycerol-surfactant systems were examined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, DMA, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, and the results were correlated to the amount of the volatile fraction in the films.

  11. Enhanced mass transfer during solid-liquid extraction of gamma-irradiated red beetroot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Chetan A. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India); Chethana, S. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India); Rastogi, N.K. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India)]. E-mail: nkrastogi@cftri.com; Raghavarao, K.S.M.S. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India)

    2006-01-15

    The exposure to gamma-irradiation pretreatment increases cell wall permeabilization, resulting in loss of turgor pressure, which led to the increase of extractability of betanin from red beetroot. The degree of extraction of betanin was investigated using gamma irradiation as a pretreatment prior to the solid-liquid extraction process and compared with control beetroot samples. The beetroot subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kGy) and control was dipped in an acetic acid medium (1% v/v) to extract the betanin. The diffusion coefficients for betanin as well as ionic component were estimated considering Fickian diffusion. The results indicated an increase in the diffusion coefficient of betanin (0.302x10{sup -9}-0.463x10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s) and ionic component (0.248x10{sup -9}-0.453x10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s) as the dose rate increased (from 2.5 to 10.0 kGy). The degradation constant was found to increase (0.050-0.079 min{sup -1}) with an increase gamma-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy), indicating lower stability of the betanin as compared to control sample at 65 deg. C.

  12. Total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Andic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation is used in conjunction with chemotherapy as a conditioning regimen in the treatment of many disease such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma prior to the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation. The main purposes of the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation are eradication of the recipient bone marrow and any residual cancer cells, creation of space in the receipient bone marrow for donor hematopoetic stem cells, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of donor stem cells in the case of an allotransplant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 398-410

  13. Strong enhancement of antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 80% of individuals rely on traditional medicines. Among over 400 Aloe species, Aloe vera was the most accepted species for various medical, cosmetic and neutraceutical purposes. Aloe vera (syn.: Aloe barbadensis Miller) was a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Aloeaceae family (subfamily of the Asphodelaceae). It has been reported that Aloe vera extracts were useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. Recent studies have shown that treatment with either Aloe vera crude gel or its extracts, such as acemannan, {beta}-sitosterol, and others, resulted in faster healing of wounds by stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and production of growth factors. Ionizing radiation technology has been developed to improve our daily life such as cancer therapy and sterilizing tool due to its unique feature that could be penetrated biomaterials leading to alter their own physical properties. More recently, many studies have attempted to apply the radiation technology to enhance their biological activities. At present, however, very little was known about whether naturally-occurring phenolic compounds of ethanolic aloe gel extracts that were altered their biological activities by ionizing radiation to serve as antioxidant in the body to reduce ROS produced by the stresses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts, and open insight new possibilities that gamma ray could be a powerful tool for improving its own biological activities

  14. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on leaching of simulated 133Cs+ radionuclides from geopolymer wasteforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning; An, Hao; Cui, Hao; Pan, Yang; Wang, Bing; Mao, Linqiang; Zhai, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Leaching of simulated 133Cs+ radionuclides from geopolymer wasteforms was examined with regard to effects from gamma-ray irradiation. Specifically, the compressive strengths, microstructures, pore structures, and leaching resistance of geopolymer wasteforms before and after irradiation were characterized. The leaching experiments were performed by immersion of wasteforms in deionized water, ground water, and seawater. It was found that gamma rays did not produce significant morphological changes, except for changes in the pore size distribution. The cumulative leaching fraction of all the leachants from the irradiated samples increased relative to the non-radiated samples, particularly during long leaching periods (11-42 days). These results, and those from a mercury intrusion porosimeter analysis, can be attributed to irradiation-induced changes in pore structure. All the leaching indexes were greater than the minimum acceptable value of 6.0 set by the American Nuclear Society Standards committee, which indicated that the fly-ash geopolymers are suitable for radionuclide immobilization. However, the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on the immobilization of radionuclides cannot be ignored.

  15. Environmental application of gamma technology: Update on the Canadian sludge irradiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Fraser, Frank M.

    1993-10-01

    Waste treatment and disposal technologies have recently been subjected to increasing public and regulatory scrutiny. Concern for the environment and a heightened awareness of potential health hazards that could result from insufficient or inappropriate waste handling methods have combined to push waste generators in their search for new treatment alternatives. Gamma technology can offer a new option for the treatment of potentially infectious wastes, including municipal sewage sludge. Sewage sludge contains beneficial plant nutrients and a high organic component that make it ideal as a soil conditioning agent or fertilizer bulking material. It also carries potentially infectious microorganisms which limit opportunities for beneficial recycling of sludges. Gamma irradiation-disinfection of these sludges offers a reliable, fast and efficient method for safe sludge recycling. Nordion International's Market Development Division was created in 1987 as part of a broad corporate reorganization. It was given an exclusive mandate to develop new applications of gamma irradiation technology and markets for these new applications. Nordion has since explored and developed opportunities in food irradiation, pharmaceutical/cosmetic products irradiation, biomedical waste sterilization, airline waste disinfection, and sludge disinfection for recycling. This paper focuses on the last of these -a proposed sludge recycling facility that incorporates a cobalt 60 sludge irradiator.

  16. Antibody response in cattle, sheep and rats to infection with. gamma. -irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, D.L.; Doy, T.G. (Agricultural Research Council, Compton (UK). Inst. for Research on Animal Diseases); Hanna, R.E.B. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK))

    1982-05-01

    Cattle, sheep and rats were infected orally with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica, or with normal metacercariae. The antibody response was monitored in each host to metacercarial tegument (T0), juvenile tegument (T1), adult tegument (T2) and gut antigens. The response was examined at weekly intervals for cattle and sheep throughout 15 weeks of infection and four weeks after infection in rats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody labelling technique. It was found that the irradiated metacercariae engendered a normal humoral response to T0, T1 and gut antigens in all three hosts although the antibody levels were somewhat reduced due to early death or stunting of the flukes. T0 and T1 appeared to be antigenically similar. Antibodies against T2 appeared late in the animals infected with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae and the titres attained were considerably lower than in the controls. The T2 antigen stimulus in the animals given ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae was probably provided by flukes which 'broke through' the developmental barrier imposed by irradiation and which were found alive at autopsy.

  17. High-energy {gamma}-irradiation effect on physical ageing in Ge-Se glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska Str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine); Kozdras, A. [Department of Physics of Opole University of Technology, 75 Ozimska Str., Opole, PL-45370 (Poland); Department of Economy of Academy of Management and Administration in Opole, 18 Niedzialkowski Str., Opole, PL-45085 (Poland); Kozyukhin, S. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of RAS, Leninsky Pr. 31, Moscow 199991 (Russian Federation); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska Str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa, PL-42201 (Poland)], E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua

    2009-09-01

    Effect of Co{sup 60} {gamma}-irradiation on physical ageing in binary Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} glasses (5 {<=} x {<=} 27) is studied using conventional differential scanning calorimetry method. It is shown, that high-energy irradiation leads to additional increase in the glass transition temperature and endothermic peak area near the glass transition region over the one induced by isochronal storage of these glasses at normal conditions. This {gamma}-induced physical ageing is shown to be well-pronounced in Se-rich glasses (x < 20), while only negligible changes are recorded for glasses of 20 {<=} x {<=} 27 compositions. The effect under consideration is supposed to be associated with {gamma}-activated structural relaxation of the glass network towards thermodynamic equilibrium of supercooled liquid.

  18. Thermoluminescent response of aluminium oxide thin films subject to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, A.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Villagran, E.; Gonzalez, P.R

    2006-07-01

    The thermoluminescent (TL) properties of amorphous aluminium oxide thin films (thicknesses as low as 0.3 {mu}m) subjected to gamma (Co-60) irradiation are reported. Aluminium oxide thin films were prepared by laser ablation from an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} target using a Nd: YAG laser with emission at the fundamental line. The films were exposed to gamma radiation (Co-60) in order to study their TL response. Thermoluminescence glow curves exhibited two peaks at 110 and 176 C. The high temperature peak shows good stability and 30% fading in the first 5 days after irradiation. A linear relationship between absorbed dose and the thermoluminescent response for doses span from 150 mGy to 100 Gy was observed. These results suggest that aluminium oxide thin films are suitable for detection and monitoring of gamma radiation. (Author)

  19. Sensitivity of P-Channel MOSFET to X- and Gamma-Ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Pejović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of Al-gate p-channel MOSFETs sensitivity following irradiation using 200 and 280 kV X-ray beams as well as gamma-ray irradiation of 60Co in the dose range from 1 to 5 Gy was performed in this paper. The response followed on the basis of threshold voltage shift and was studied as a function of absorbed dose. It was shown that the most significant change in threshold voltage was in the case of MOSFET irradiation in X-ray fields of 200 kV and when the gate voltage was +5 V. For practical applications in dosimetry, the sensitivity of the investigated MOSFETs was also satisfactory for X-ray tube voltage of 280 kV and for gamma rays. Possible processes in gate oxide caused by radiation and its impact on the response of MOSFETs were also analyzed in this paper.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of zinc chloride containing poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Seok; Kuang, Jia; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Seob Khil, Myung; Nho, Young-Chang

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the characterization of zinc chloride incorporated into a poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel prepared by gamma-ray irradiation was investigated. Zinc chloride powder with different concentrations was dissolved in the PAAc solution, and it was crosslinked with gamma-ray irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as zinc ion concentration and irradiation doses on characteristics of the hydrogel formed were investigated in detail for obtaining an antibacterial wound dressing. In addition, the gel content, pH-sensitive (pH 4 or 7) swelling ratio, and UV-vis absorption spectra of the zinc particles in the hydrogels were characterized. Moreover, antibacterial properties of these new materials against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains were observed on solid growth media. The antibacterial tests indicated that the zinc chloride containing PAAc hydrogels have good antibacterial activity.

  1. Disordering and dissolution of [gamma][prime] precipitates under ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdeau, F.; Camus, E.; Abromeit, C.; Wollenberger, H. (Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH, Glienicker Stragese 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany))

    1994-12-01

    The stability of the [gamma][prime] phase of the nickel-base alloy Nimonic PE16 under irradiation with Ni[sup +] ions of 300-keV energy is studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The disordering of the [gamma][prime] phase could be followed as a function of fluence. The main finding is the observation of weak but measurable superlattice reflections between 0.1 and 1 dpa after irradiation at room temperature. The superlattice reflections disappear in two steps. Their intensities decrease considerably within a fluence of 0.1 dpa, while weak intensities are observed up to a fluence of 1 dpa. These reflections disappear completely after a fluence of 2 dpa. The results are discussed within a model which considers both disordering and dissolution of precipitates under cascade producing irradiation.

  2. Whole body irradiation by high energy electron for mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Kenji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Wakuta, Yuhji; Asada, Keiko; Murai, Nobuko; Watanabe, Katsushi; Takada, Takuo

    1985-02-01

    Five patients with mycosis fungoides were treated with whole body irradiation by high energy electron. They were irradiated by a linear accelerator (ML-15MIII, Mitsubishi Company) with the electron of 8 MeV, using the acrylics decelerator at the window to reduce the electron energy. Source skin distance was 150 cm and three beams with a separation of 60 cm were used. The dose distribution at the skin surface was within homogeneity of +-7.5%. The 2 patients have been alive without evidence of disease for 2 years, and 1 year and half after the treatment, respectively. Three patients were dead; two of the dead were associated with pancytopenia, one irradiated 6 times for 2 years and 4 months and the other 3 times for 2 years. The remaining one patient developed the brain metastasis without skin lesions 6 months later. Our results suggest that mycosis fungoides is curable in infiltrative stage, but not in tumorous stage. Some discussion on the problem of this treatment technique and haematological changes caused by the contaminated X-ray as well as high energy electron were made, reviewing the pertinent literatures on the device to reduce the contaminated X-ray. (author).

  3. Immunohistochemical study on effects of [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation on salivary gland ducts of rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Kazuhiko (Meikai Univ., Sakato, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1992-09-01

    Cytokeratin distribution in salivary glands was detected by use of polyclonal antikeratin antiserum (TK) and monoclonal antibodies (KL 1, RGE 53, and RPN 1164). The salivary glands of male rats received either 17.82 Gy or 27.97 Gy [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation in a single exposure and were then compared immunohistochemically with those of normal rats. Polyclonal anti-keratin antiserum (TK), which reacts with 41-65 KD keratins, stained almost all ducts in normal glands. RPN 1164 (no. 8 keratin) staining was negative in intercalated ducts of normal parotid and submandibular glands, but strongly positive in both striated and excretory ducts of these glands. Monoclonal antibody KL 1 (55-57 KD keratins) and RGE 53 (no. 18 keratin) did not bind to any ductal or acinar epithelia. Only in the sublingual gland were acini positive for TK staining, possibly indicating myoepithelial cells. No effects of [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation were apparent regarding keratin distribution in the intercalated in apical cytoplasm by [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation. Also, in the excretory duct, the basal side of the cells exhibited weakened staining following [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation were the most significant in the parotid and the least in the sublingual gland. Also this reaction depended upon the doses of [sup 60]Co used. The present findings suggested that negative or weakened staining at the basal and perinuclear portions of striated duct cells specifically reflects the primary or secondary cell damage produced by [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation. Since the distribution of cytoskeletal proteins in the cytoplasm reflects certain pathological conditions, immunohistochemical detection of these proteins seem to have a diagnostic value with respect to cellular injury. (J.P.N.) 77 refs.

  4. Disinfection and regrowth potential of bacillus subtilis spores by ozone, ultraviolet rays and gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Yeon; Lee, O Mi; Kim, Tae Hun; Lee, Myun Joo; Yu, Seung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Chlorination has been the most commonly adopted disinfection process for the treatment of drinking water. However, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts were not treated effectively by the common chlorine-based disinfectants. Additionally the regrowth of pathogenic microorganisms is associated with hygienic and aesthetic problems for the consumers of drinking water. Study on alternative disinfection processes such as ozone, UV-C, VUV and gamma irradiation were conducted. Bacillus subtilis spores have been used as a surrogate microorganism for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cyst. Inactivation efficiency by ozone was from 30% to 96% within the range of 5 min to 120 min exposures. Inactivation efficiencies by UV-C and VUV were 95.18%, 95.07% at 30 sec, respectively. Inactivation efficiency at gamma irradiation dose of 2 kGy was 99.4%. Microbial regrowths after ozone, UV-C, VUV and gamma irradiation disinfections were also evaluated for 4 days. Bacillus subtilis spores after ozone treatment for 120 min exposure at the rate of 1.68 mg {center_dot} min{sup -1} showed 96.02% disinfection efficiency and significant microbial regrowth. Bacillus subtilis spores after UV-C (99.25% disinfection efficiency) and VUV (99.67% disinfection efficiency) treatments for 5 min showed gradual regrowth. However, inactivation efficiency of gamma irradiation at dose of 1 kGy was 98.8% and the disinfected sample showed no microbial regrowth for 4 days. Therefore, gamma irradiation is the most effective process for the disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms such as oocysts of protozoan parasites among four disinfection process.

  5. Vacancy Migration and Void Formation in gamma-irradiated Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1976-01-01

    are ascribed to Ps inhibition and conversion by radiation created OH radicals. Heating above −165°C makes both effects disappear in agreement with radiation chemistry results on OH. Heating also increases the longest lifetime up to 11 nsec at −130°C. This is explained as vacancy migration leading to void......Positron annihilation techniques (PAT) have been used to study the effects in ice of γ irradiation at −196°C and of subsequent heating, both in poly‐ and monocrystalline samples. The main effects of irradiation are (1) the appearance in positron lifetime spectra of two long‐lived components (1...... formation. A vacancy migration energy is obtained, Em=0.34±0.07 eV, around three times higher than the previously assumed value. The advantage in this kind of study of using PAT, which are specifically sensitive to vacancy type defects, is pointed out....

  6. Analysis of dark current images of a CMOS camera during gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Náfrádi, Gábor, E-mail: nafradi@reak.bme.hu [INT, BME, EURATOM Association, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Czifrus, Szabolcs, E-mail: czifrus@reak.bme.hu [INT, BME, EURATOM Association, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Kocsis, Gábor, E-mail: kocsis.gabor@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, RMI, EURATOM Association, POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Pór, Gábor, E-mail: por@reak.bme.hu [INT, BME, EURATOM Association, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Szepesi, Tamás, E-mail: szepesi.tamas@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, RMI, EURATOM Association, POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zoletnik, Sándor, E-mail: zoletnik.sandor@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, RMI, EURATOM Association, POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Radiation tolerance of a fast framing CMOS camera EDICAM examined. • We estimate the expected gamma dose and spectrum of EDICAM with MCNP. • We irradiate EDICAM by 23.5 Gy in 70 min in a fission rector. • Dose rate normalised average brightness of frames grows linearly with the dose. • Dose normalised average brightness of frames follows the dose rate time evolution. -- Abstract: We report on the behaviour of the dark current images of the Event Detection Intelligent Camera (EDICAM) when placed into an irradiation field of gamma rays. EDICAM is an intelligent fast framing CMOS camera operating in the visible spectral range, which is designed for the video diagnostic system of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. Monte Carlo calculations were carried out in order to estimate the expected gamma spectrum and dose for an entire year of operation in W7-X. EDICAM was irradiated in a pure gamma field in the Training Reactor of BME with a dose of approximately 23.5 Gy in 1.16 h. During the irradiation, numerous frame series were taken with the camera with exposure times 20 μs, 50 μs, 100 μs, 1 ms, 10 ms, 100 ms. EDICAM withstood the irradiation, but suffered some dynamic range degradation. The behaviour of the dark current images during irradiation is described in detail. We found that the average brightness of dark current images depends on the total ionising dose that the camera is exposed to and the dose rate as well as on the applied exposure times.

  7. Glasses, Coatings, Glues and Gamma-ray Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcala, J.M.; Fernandez, M. G.; Ferrando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J. C. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L. [Universidad de Cantabria. Santander (Spain); Beigveder, J. M.; Genova, I.; Perez, G.; Ruiz, J. A. [CIDA. Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Most of the alignment systems for LHC experiments use optomechanical elements confirming a network of points that are monitored by laser beams. LHC experiments, working at the expected nominal luminosity, will induce an extremely high irradiation. basic components such as glasses, coatings and glues may change and their performance may degrade significantly. We have tested various components and identified some of them that can stand 10 years of LHC operation. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. Modifications in structural, cation distribution and magnetic properties of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated Li-ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, Maheshkumar L. [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E., E-mail: shirsathsagar@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India); Dhage, Vinod N.; Jadhav, K.M. [Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Gamma irradiation induced defects in lithium ferrite. {yields} Modifications in structural and magnetic properties. {yields} Fe{sup 3+} changes to Fe{sup 2+} after gamma irradiation. - Abstract: Polycrystalline samples of Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} ferrite precursor were prepared by conventional standard double sintering ceramic technique and then irradiated with three different doses of {sup 60}Co gamma rays. The crystal structure and phase orientation of the irradiated and unirradiated samples of Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} ferrite was done by using X-ray diffraction technique at room temperature. The lattice parameter of the studied samples increased due to the formation of Fe{sup 2+} ions under the ionizing effect of gamma radiation. The strain in the materials due to the irradiation was calculated from XRD data. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies indicate that the irradiation causes amorphization, especially at the grain boundaries. The cation distribution was calculated from XRD data analysis. By using cation distribution structural parameters such as theoretical lattice constant, ionic radii of available sites and the oxygen parameter 'u' have been calculated. The estimated cation distribution and other structural parameters shows strong influence of gamma rays on polycrystalline Li-ferrite. The magnetic properties of irradiated and unirradiated lithium ferrite were performed by using pulse field hysteresis loop technique at room temperature. Electrical properties such as diffusion coefficient and dielectric properties were carried out with the influence of gamma irradiation. Activation energy of diffusion process decreased after irradiation. The increase of diffusion coefficient with increasing dose rate of gamma irradiation was reinforced by the increase of Fe{sup 2+} ions and the displacement of metal ions from its original sites under the effect of gamma irradiation.

  9. Assessment of population external irradiation doses with consideration of Rospotrebnadzor bodies equipment for monitoring of photon radiation dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides review of equipment and methodology for measurement of photon radiation dose; analysis of possible reasons for considerable deviation between the Russian Federation population annual effective external irradiation doses and the relevant average global value. Data on Rospotrebnadzor bodies dosimetry equipment used for measurement of gamma radiation dose are collected and systematized. Over 60 kinds of dosimeters are used for monitoring of population external irradiation doses. Most of dosimeters used in the country have gas-discharge detectors (Geiger-Mueller counters, minor biochemical annunciators, etc. which have higher total values of own background level and of space radiation response than the modern dosimeters with scintillation detectors. This feature of dosimeters is apparently one of most plausible reasons of a bit overstating assessment of population external irradiation doses. The options for specification of population external irradiation doses assessment are: correction of gamma radiation dose measurement results with consideration of dosimeters own background level and space radiation response, introduction of more up-to-date dosimeters with scintillation detectors, etc. The most promising direction of research in verification of population external irradiation doses assessment is account of dosimetry equipment.

  10. Effects of 2. 0 Gy of /sup 60/Co gamma rays irradiation on rat embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juing-Yi; Satow, Yukio

    1987-01-01

    Pregnant rats of Donryu strain were exposed to a whole-body /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. ray irradiation of a single dose of 2.0 Gy (Dose rate: 0.5 Gy/min) on day 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11 of gestation (sperm day = day 0). The rats were sacrificed on day 18 and the offspring were examined for external and visceral malformations. Malformed embryos occurred between days 7 and 11 with the highest incidence occurring on day 9. Dose with 2.0 Gy increased the rate of resorption or death (52.1 %), in the survivors, caused congenital malformation in a majority of embryos (86.5 %) on day 8 of gestation. There is an increase in malformation (93.3 %) and growth retardation, but no increase in mortality (42.9 %) on day 9 of gestation. Relatively few anomalies resulted from irradiation on day 7 of gestation. The peak day for cardiovascular anomalies occurred on day 9 (88.3 % of all survival embryos) with high levels also occurring on day 8 (86.5 %). Cardiovascular anomalies consisted of VSD, hypoplasia of the pulmonary trunk, coarctation of the aorta, double aortic arch, right aortic arch, riding aorta, complete transposition of the aorta, persistent atrioventricular canal, vascular ring, aberrant right subclavian artery and others. Similar anomalies, but at a lower incidence, were produced by /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. ray at dose levels of 2.0 Gy on day 10 or 11 of gestation. Cases of cleft lip and cleft palate or facial cleft were observed seventeen fetuses on day 9 of gestation (31 %). Exencephaly occurred in nine embryos treated on day 9 (16.1 %) and in one embryos treated on day 10. Tail defects appeared with treatment on day 9 with the latter predominating on day 11. The present study show that maximum resorption (52.1 %) was seen with treatment on day 8 whereas the highest rate of malformation (93.3 %) was observed with treatment on day 9. (J.P.N.).

  11. Dosimetry Formalism and Implementation of a Homogenous Irradiation Protocol to Improve the Accuracy of Small Animal Whole-Body Irradiation Using a 137Cs Irradiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, N Patrik; Chen, Yong; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Guha, Chandan; Tomé, Wolfgang A

    2016-02-01

    Shielded Cs irradiators are routinely used in pre-clinical radiation research to perform in vitro or in vivo investigations. Without appropriate dosimetry and irradiation protocols in place, there can be large uncertainty in the delivered dose of radiation between irradiated subjects that could lead to inaccurate and possibly misleading results. Here, a dosimetric evaluation of the JL Shepard Mark I-68A Cs irradiator and an irradiation technique for whole-body irradiation of small animals that allows one to limit the between subject variation in delivered dose to ±3% are provided. Mathematical simulation techniques and Gafchromic EBT film were used to describe the region within the irradiation cavity with homogeneous dose distribution (100% ± 5%), the dosimetric impact of varying source-to-subject distance, and the variation in attenuation thickness due to turntable rotation. Furthermore, an irradiation protocol and dosimetry formalism that allows calculation of irradiation time for whole-body irradiation of small animals is proposed that is designed to ensure a more consistent dose delivery between irradiated subjects. To compare this protocol with the conventional irradiation protocol suggested by the vendor, high-resolution film dosimetry measurements evaluating the dose difference between irradiation subjects and the dose distribution throughout subjects was performed using phantoms resembling small animals. Based on these results, there can be considerable variation in the delivered dose of > ± 5% using the conventional irradiation protocol for whole-body irradiation doses below 5 Gy. Using the proposed irradiation protocol this variability can be reduced to within ±3% and the dosimetry formalism allows for more accurate calculation of the irradiation time in relation to the intended prescription dose.

  12. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Regeneration Capacity of Mangosteen Nodular Callus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WARID ALI QOSIM

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on regeneration capacity of mangosteed nodular callus. Nodular calli derived from a leaf as explants and cultured on MS medium containing combination of 2.2 µM benzilaminopurin (BAP and 2.27 µM tidiazuron (TDZ. Nodular calli were irradiated with 0 (control 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 Gy doses of gamma irradiation. After the irradiation, the calli were generated on woody plant medium (WPM, supplemented with 1.39 µM polyvinilpirolidon (PVP, 8 g.l-1 agar, 30 g.l-1 sucrose and 2.2 µM BAP concentration. Results showed that the irradiation influence the plant regeneration. Response dose of 50% (RD that could promote the nodular calli of shoot formation was the 25 Gy while that of the shoot number per nodular calli was the 21 Gy. The shoot number irradiated with total dose 5 Gy (9.1 shoot was higher than that of 0 Gy (8.6 shoot.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on essential oils and lipids in spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Nobutada; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1991-11-01

    Seven kinds of spices were irradiated with gamma-rays at the dose of 5 to 80 kGy. Studies of radiation effect on lipids in each spice were carried out by measuring peroxide value (POV), iodine value (IV), acid value (AV) and analysis of gas-chromatography (GC). POV in each spice was gradually increased with increasing absorbed doses. The increase of POV in nutmeg was higher than those of other spices, and it was suggested that those increase of POV values were related to lipid contents in spices. A little increase of IV and AV were also observed as same amount of POV by the irradiation up to 80 kGy. From the GC analysis of lipids in each spice, components were not changed even irradiated up to 50 kGy of gamma-rays. Radiation effect on components of essential oils in each spice were also analyzed by headspace-GC (HS-GC), and any degradation of components were not observed up to 50 kGy of irradiation even analyzed by GC after separation to hydrocarbon and oxygen compounds. On the contrary, essential oils of cloves sterilized by heat treatment were apparently decreased as compared with irradiated and non-irradiated cloves. (author).

  14. Effect of irradiation (gamma rays) on the biology of Eimeria tenella oocysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajwa, R.S.; Gill, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Effect of gamma rays on the biology of the progeny of the irradiated Eimeria tenella oocysts was investigated. The parent inoculum of sporulated oocysts was exposed to 5 to 60 kR (gamma rays). These oocysts were fed to chicks. The oocysts voided by the chicks were collected and sporulated. The sporulation rate, pathogenicity, immunogenicity and reproduction potential of these oocysts--the progeny of the irradiated oocysts--were compared with those of the unirradiated oocysts. It was observed that increase of irradiation dose caused progressive decrease in the pathogenicity of the oocyst suspension. The oocysts exposed to 30 and 40 kR produced only mild infections whereas those exposed to 50 kR and above were noninfective. No difference in pathogenicity, immunogenicity and reproduction potential of unirradiated oocysts and the oocysts progeny of the irradiated oocysts was seen. It was concluded, therefore, that the effect of irradiation was limited to the inoculum exposed to it, and was not transmissible to the progeny of the irradiated oocysts.

  15. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation dose rate on microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; Lacroix, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Laberge, I.; Gagnon, M. (Canadian Irradiation Centre, Laval, PQ (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (2 kGy) and dose rate of irradiation (4.5 and 32.0 kGy/h) on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated during storage at 15 deg C and 90% R.H. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by reduction of gamma irradiation dose rate (4.5 kGy) was observed by measurements of the cap opening, the stipe increase, the cap diameter, the weight loss and the color of the caps. The color was measured in order to evaluate the lightness with the L value measurement and the color changes were measured in terms of lightness, hue and chroma. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases were also evaluated. The irradiation of mushrooms at both dose rates of irradiation was found to be effective in lowering microorganism counts initially and throughout storage and increased the shelf-life by four days. This study also showed that mushrooms exposed to a lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) of irradiation preserve the whiteness and reduce the stripe increase of mushrooms during storage.

  17. Gamma irradiator dose mapping: a Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Rogerio R.; Ribeiro, Mariana A.; Grynberg, Suely E.; Ferreira, Andrea V.; Meira-Belo, Luiz Claudio, E-mail: rrr@cdtn.b, E-mail: marianaalmeida@ufmg.b, E-mail: seg@cdtn.b, E-mail: avf@cdtn.b, E-mail: lcmb@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sousa, Romulo V.; Sebastiao, Rita de C.O., E-mail: romuloverdolin@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: ritacos@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Gamma irradiator facilities can be used in a wide range of applications such as biological and chemical researches, food treatment and sterilization of medical devices and products. Dose mapping must be performed in these equipment in order to establish plant operational parameters, as dose uniformity, source utilization efficiency and maximum and minimum dose positions. The isodoses curves are generally measured using dosimeters distributed throughout the device, and this procedure often consume a large amount of dosimeters, irradiation time and manpower. However, a detailed curve doses identification of the irradiation facility can be performed using Monte Carlo simulation, which reduces significantly the monitoring with dosimeters. The present work evaluates the absorbed dose in the CDTN/CNEN Gammacell Irradiation Facility, using the Monte Carlo N-particles (MCNP) code. The Gammacell 220, serial number 39, was produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and was loaded with sources of {sup 60}Co. Dose measurements using TLD and Fricke dosimeters were also performed to validate the calculations. The good agreement of the results shows that Monte Carlo simulations can be used as a predictive tool of irradiation planning for the CDTN/CNEN Gamma Cell Irradiator. (author)

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on linear low density polyethylene/magnesium hydroxide/sepiolite composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiq, Muhammad [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, PO Box 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Yasin, Tariq, E-mail: yasintariq@yahoo.com [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, PO Box 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-01-15

    Radiation crosslinking is generally used to improve the thermo-mechanical properties of the composites. A study has been carried out to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the thermo-mechanical properties of linear low density polyethylene containing magnesium hydroxide (MH) and sepiolite (SP) as non-halogenated flame retardant additives. The developed composites are irradiated at different doses upto maximum of 150 kGy. Infrared spectra of the irradiated composites reveal the reduction in the intensity of O-H band with increase in the absorbed doses, thus indicates a distinct structural change in MH at higher doses. The thermogravimetric analysis results of unirradiated and composites irradiated at low doses ({<=}75 kGy) show two steps weight loss, which is changed to single step at higher doses with lower thermal stability. The melting temperature (T{sub m}) and crystallization temperature (T{sub c}) of irradiated composites are lowered with irradiation whereas Vicat softening temperature (VST) is increased. The increasing trend in gel content with increase in the absorbed dose confirms the presence of crosslinked network. The mechanical properties, results show significant improvement in the modulus of irradiated composites. The results also confirm that MH gradually loses its OH functionality with irradiation. - Highlights: > We have studied the effect of {gamma} radiation on LLDPE containing Mg(OH){sub 2} and sepiolite. > IR spectra of the irradiated composites show reduction in the intensity of O-H band. > Reduction in OH band show a distinct structural change in Mg(OH){sub 2} at higher doses. > TGA results show two steps weight loss at low doses and one step at higher doses. > These results confirm that MH gradually loses its OH functionality with irradiation.

  20. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  1. The contract facilities for gamma irradiation at Dagneux, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, D.; Kavanagh, M. T.

    CONSERVATOME SA have operated a facility at DAGNEUX near LYON, France since 1961. This operation is among the very first of its kind in the entire world. The process is based on gamma rays from Cobalt 60 of which there are three separate units. In addition there is a small experimental unit using Cesium 137. At present CONSERVATOME is owned by TRANSNUCLEAIRE and EPICEA as principal shareholders and so has the support of the French Atomic Energy Commission. This paper describes the larger D3 unit and reviews some of the products treated at DAGNEUX.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima, E-mail: khattakkf@yahoo.co [Food Science Division, Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar (Pakistan); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom); James Simpson, Thomas [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly (p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima Khattak, Khanzadi; James Simpson, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly ( p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  4. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernel to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.-Y. Chiou, R.

    1996-09-01

    Peanut kernel inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia were gamma irradiated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy using Co60. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of these molds was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 wk incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 μ/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. After storage, at each irradiation level, peroxide content in peanuts stored at -14°C was lower than that in peanuts stored at an ambient temperature. TBA values and CDHP contents of the oil increased with increased irradiation dosage and changed slightly after storage. However, fatty acid contents of the peanut oil varied in a limited range as affected by the irradiation dosage and storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage.

  5. Changes in volatile compounds of gamma-irradiated fresh cilantro leaves during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B

    2002-12-18

    Consumption of salsas and dishes containing cilantro has been linked to several recent outbreaks of food-borne illness due to contamination with human pathogens. Ionizing irradiation can effectively eliminate food-borne pathogens from various vegetables including cilantro. However, the effect of irradiation on aroma of fresh cilantro is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of irradiation on volatile compounds of fresh cilantro leaves. Fresh cilantro leaves (Coriandrum sativum L) were irradiated with 0, 1, 2, or 3 kGy gamma radiation and then stored at 3 degrees C up to 14 days. Volatile compounds were extracted using solid-phase microextraction (SPME), followed by gas chromatographic separation and mass spectra detection at 0, 3, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. Most of the volatile compounds identified were aldehydes. Decanal and (E)-2-decenal were the most abundant compounds, accounting for more than 80% of the total amount of identified compounds. The amounts of linalool, dodecanal, and (E)-2-dodecenal in irradiated samples were significantly lower than those in nonirradiated samples at day 14. However, the most abundant compounds [decanal and (E)-2-decenal] were not consistently affected by irradiation. During storage at 3 degrees C, the amount of most aldehydes peaked at 3 days and then decreased afterward. Our results suggest irradiation of fresh cilantro for safety enhancement at doses up to 3 kGy had minimal effect on volatile compounds compared with the losses that occurred during storage.

  6. Protection of negative gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis Z against gamma-ray irradiation by Trolox C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Doi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Fuma, Shoichi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Research Center for Radiation Safety; Hader, D.P. [Biologie der Friedrich-Alexander Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie

    2002-12-01

    The protective effects of Trolox on the inhibition of negative gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis exposed to 200 Gy {sup 60}Co gamma-rays were examined using different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 {mu}M). The orientation precision of the negative gravitaxis was quantified using the r-value. A significant decrease in the r-value was observed in gamma-irradiated samples (0.18+/-0.03) compared to those of non-irradiated samples (0.47+/-0.03). There were no significant changes in the r-value of cells exposed to 200 Gy gamma-rays by the addition of 1 or 10 {mu}M of Trolox. A significant increase (0.19) in the r-value of cells exposed to 200 Gy with 100 {mu}M Trolox was observed. The results indicates that Trolox at a concentration of 100 {mu}M protects negative gravitaxis against {sup 60}Co gamma-ray irradiation at a dose of 200 Gy. It also suggests that the negative gravitaxis of Euglena gracilis is affected by free radicals.(author)

  7. Accumulation efficiency of cancer stem-like cells post {gamma}-ray and proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan Yi; WangWeikang; Fu Qibin; Mei Tao; Wu Jingwen; Li Jia [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang, Gen, E-mail: gen.yang@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Yugang [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) has been proven to be a powerful medical treatment in cancer therapy. Rational and effective use of its killing power depends on understanding IR-mediated responses at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Increasing evidence supports that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) play an important role in tumor regrowth and spread post radiotherapy, for they are resistant to various therapy methods including radiation. Presently, SW620 colon carcinoma monolayer culture cells were irradiated with {gamma}-rays and protons of 2 Gy. Then apoptosis, clonogenic survival and the expression of CD133{sup +} protein were examined. The results showed that there was no significantly difference either on long-term clonogenic survival or on short-term apoptosis ratio. However, compared with {gamma}-rays, irradiation with protons was less efficient to accumulate CSCs at the same dose, although both protons and {gamma}-rays can significantly accumulate the CD133{sup +} CSCs subpopulation. In addition, the results of sphere formation assay also confirmed that proton irradiation is less efficient in CSCs accumulation, suggesting proton irradiation might have higher efficiency in CSCs elimination for cancer radiotherapy.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on hyperthermal composting microorganisms for feasible application in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2013-05-01

    The composting system is the most efficient method for processing organic waste in space; however, the composting activity of microorganisms can be altered by cosmic rays. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation on composting bacteria was investigated. Sequence analyses of amplified 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and amoA genes were used to identify hyperthermal composting microorganisms. The viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly determined using LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera were Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp., and the fungal genera were Metschnikowia bicuspidata and Pichia guilliermondii. Gamma irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy did not significantly alter the microbial population. Furthermore, amylase and cellulase activities were maintained after high-dose gamma irradiation. Our results show that hyperthermal microorganisms can be used to recycle agricultural and fermented material in space stations and other human-inhabiting facilities on the Moon, Mars, and other planets.

  9. Free radicals properties of gamma-irradiated penicillin-derived antibiotics: piperacillin, ampicillin, and crystalline penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Pilawa, Barbara; Koprowski, Robert; Wróbel, Zygmunt; Ptaszkiewicz, Marta; Swakoń, Jan; Olko, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations and properties of free radicals in piperacillin, ampicillin, and crystalline penicillin after gamma irradiation. The radicals were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using an X-band spectrometer (9.3 GHz). Gamma irradiation was performed at a dose of 25 kGy. One- and two-exponential functions were fitted to the experimental data, in order to assess the influence of the antibiotics' storage time on the measured EPR lines. After gamma irradiation, complex EPR lines were recorded confirming the presence of a large number of free radicals formed during the irradiation. For all tested antibiotics, concentrations of free radicals and parameters of EPR spectra changed with storage time. The results obtained demonstrate that concentration of free radicals and other spectroscopic parameters can be used to select the optimal parameters of radiation sterilization of β-lactam antibiotics. The most important parameters are the constants τ (τ (1(A),(I)) and τ (2(A),(I))) and K (K (0(A),(I)), K (1(A),(I)), K (2(A),(I))) of the exponential functions that describe free radicals decay during samples storage.

  10. Adsorption behavior of Am with gamma irradiated Thiacalix[4]arene impregnated silica adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Takahiro [Institute of Research and Innovation (IRI), 1201 Takada, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0861 (Japan)]. E-mail: tkikuchi@iri.or.jp; Suzuki, Kazunori [Institute of Research and Innovation (IRI), 1201 Takada, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0861 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    Thiacalix[4]arene impregnated silica adsorbent which is called CAPS-SO{sub 2}-adsorbent in this paper shows the excellent separative performance of trivalent actinoids, such as Am from the high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) in weak-acid solution. The chemical stability of the adsorbent was investigated under strong irradiation conditions. The amount of dissolved CAPS-SO{sub 2} was only 1% by gamma-ray irradiation at a total dose of 1 MGy. The value of distribution coefficient of Am (Kd{sub Am}) at pH 4 by the adsorbent was constant even the high irradiation dose. Moreover, the separation factor of Am to lanthanoids is kept a high value. It was also found that the value of Kd{sub Am} by the irradiated CAPS-SO{sub 2}-adsorbent increases at pH 2.

  11. Effect of incubation temperatures for inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria after gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakauma, Makoto; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Tada, Mikiro [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    2000-09-01

    Irradiated fresh meat or fishery products have been expected to store and distribute under refrigerated temperature below 10degC. From previous reports, growth of coliform bacteria in these products were suppressed by gamma-irradiation below expected doses obtained at 30-37degC. This research was performed to observe the irradiation effect on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria at different incubation temperatures of 10-40degC on plate agar after irradiation. From this study, D10 values of all strains decreased 17- 45% at 10degC compared with maximum D10 values at 30- 40degC. Radiation sensitivities were related to the ability to grow at low temperatures in which psychrotrophic type E. coli A4-1 indicated most sensitive to radiation, next of Salmonella enteritidis YK-2, E. coli S2, B4 whereas most resistant at Enterobacter agglomerans K3-1. (author)

  12. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the dewaterability of waste activated sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqi; Jiang, Yinghe; Ke, Guojun; Liu, Yingjiu

    2017-01-01

    The effect of gamma-ray irradiation on waste activated sludge (WAS) dewaterability was investigated with irradiation doses of 0-15 kGy. Time to filter (TTF50), specific resistance of filtration (SRF) and water content of sludge cake were measured to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentration and sludge particle size were determined to explain changes in sludge dewaterability. The optimal irradiation dose to obtain the maximum dewaterability characteristics was 1-4 kGy, which generated sludge with optimal disintegration (1.5-4.0%), soluble EPS concentration (590-750 mg/L) and particle size distribution (100-115 μm diameter). The combination of irradiation and cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) addition exhibited minimal synergistic effect on increasing sludge dewatering rate compared with CPAM conditioning alone.

  13. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and phosphine fumigation on the quality of white ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J.-H. J.-H.; Byun, M.-W. M.-W.; Kim, K.-S. K.-S.; Kang, I.-J. I.-J.

    2000-03-01

    The hygienic, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities of white ginseng were monitored during 6 months under accelerated conditions (40°C, 90% r.h.) by observing its microbial populations, disinfestation, and some quality attributes following either gamma irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy or commercial phosphine (PH 3) fumigation. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective for disinfecting the stored samples. Phosphine showed no appreciable decontaminating effects on microorganisms contaminated including coliforms, while 5 kGy irradiation was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of the packed samples. Irradiation at 5 kGy caused negligible changes in physicochemical attributes of the samples, such as ginsenosides, amino acids, fatty acids, and organoleptic properties, whereas phosphine fumigation was found detrimental to sensory flavor ( Pphosphine-, and 2.5-5 kGy-treated samples. Accordingly, irradiation at phosphine fumigation for white ginseng.

  14. Postharvest Disease Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum on Stored Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy), conidial germination was stopped completely resulting in no germ tube formation in C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with the eco-friendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum in comparison with the non-treated control under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments to control postharvest decay on stored apples. Interestingly, when apples were treated with gamma irradiation in combined with fumigation, disease inhibition increased more at lower (< 0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions. PMID:27721696

  15. Postharvest Disease Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum on Stored Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonsu Cheon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy, conidial germination was stopped completely resulting in no germ tube formation in C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with the eco-friendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum in comparison with the non-treated control under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments to control postharvest decay on stored apples. Interestingly, when apples were treated with gamma irradiation in combined with fumigation, disease inhibition increased more at lower (< 0.4 kGy than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions.

  16. Postharvest Disease Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum on Stored Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-10-01

    To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy), conidial germination was stopped completely resulting in no germ tube formation in C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with the eco-friendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum in comparison with the non-treated control under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments to control postharvest decay on stored apples. Interestingly, when apples were treated with gamma irradiation in combined with fumigation, disease inhibition increased more at lower (< 0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions.

  17. Gamma ray irradiation inhibits Plasmodium falciparum multiplication in in vitro culture supplemented with tritium labeled hypoxanthine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARRY NUGROHO EKO SURNIYANTORO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Surniyantoro HNE, Darlina, Nurhayati S, Tetriana D, Syaifudin M. 2015. Gamma ray irradiation inhibits Plasmodium falciparum multiplication in in vitro culture supplemented with tritium labeled hypoxanthine. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 8-13. Malaria remains a major public health threat in the world. Therefore an attempt to create malaria vaccine for supporting the control of disease was taken by attenuating parasites with gamma rays and it was proven effective based on microscopic observation. Objective of this research was to assess the effectiveness of gamma rays to attenuate malaria parasites based on isotopic method. A laboratory strain of P. falciparum (3D7 was in vitro cultured with standard procedure and it was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 150-250 Gy and unirradiated parasites served as control. Twenty four hours after 1-2 µCi of 3H-hypoxanthine was added into culture 100 µl of medium was taken and was repeated at various times, then hypoxanthine incorporation was measured with beta counter. Microscopic observation of parasitemia in culture was also done. The results showed that there was a fluctuation in multiplication of parasites post irradiation mainly in higher dose (more than150 Gy. Irradiated of parasites were more active in incorporate with purine precursor up to 48 hours. Parasites returned to their highest activity at 116 hours after hypoxanthine addition. No significant difference was found among doses of irradiation with p of 0.05. This was quite different with the finding from microscopic observation. It was known that dose of 150 Gy was the most effective dose for inhibiting of the parasite multiplication where some factors affecting these facts.

  18. Androgenesis Induced in Nicotiana alata and the Effect of Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL-FIKI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana alata anthers cultured on different modified media based on MS, MT and N were used to obtain haploid plants through direct and indirect ways. The haploid plants resulting on MS medium ranged from 52% - 80%, on MT medium ranged from 32% - 52% and on N medium ranged from 28% - 44%. Accordingly, the best medium used for haploid induction was MS supplemented with 0.2 mgl-l NAA + 0.5 mgl-l KIN. On the other hand, MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mgl-l NAA + 0.5 mgl-l KIN or 1.0 mgl-l BAP + 0.5 mgl-l NAA were the best mediums for callus induction and plant regeneration, respectively. Morphologically, the leaf size, stem highest and diameter, flower size and diameter, anther length and number were about 67% of the diploid plants growth. Irradiated anthers with doses of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy caused reducing the number of haploid plants with increasing gamma radiation dose. For the haploid plants irradiated with same doses, the mortality percentage of bud survival was increasing with increasing gamma radiation dose. The irradiated callus with doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Gy was affected negatively on growth rate and morphology. Proline content in irradiated plantlets increased with increasing gamma radiation dose. As well, total soluble protein content was increased with gamma irradiation up to 10 Gy. However, the higher doses caused a severe decrease of total soluble proteins. The production of proline and total soluble proteins in haploid plants were 48.6% and 69.5%, respectively comparing with diploid plants.

  19. Microbial analysis and survey test of gamma-irradiated freeze-dried fruits for patient's food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Nam; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kyung-A.; Son, Eun-Joo; Lyu, Eun-Soon

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the microbiological and organoleptic qualities of gamma-irradiated freeze-dried apples, pears, strawberries, pineapples, and grapes, and evaluated the organoleptic acceptability of the sterilized freeze-dried fruits for hospitalized patients. The freeze-dried fruits were gamma-irradiated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 12, and 15 kGy, and their quality was evaluated. Microorganisms were not detected in apples after 1 kGy, in strawberries and pears after 4 kGy, in pineapples after 5 kGy, and in grapes after 12 kGy of gamma irradiation. The overall acceptance score, of the irradiated freeze-dried fruits on a 7-point scale at the sterilization doses was 5.5, 4.2, 4.0, 4.1, and 5.1 points for apples, strawberries, pears, pineapples, and grapes, respectively. The sensory survey of the hospitalized cancer patients (N=102) resulted in scores of 3.8, 3.7, 3.9, 3.9, and 3.7 on a 5-point scale for the gamma-irradiated freeze-dried apples, strawberries, pears, pineapples, and grapes, respectively. The results suggest that freeze-dried fruits can be sterilized with a dose of 5 kGy, except for grapes, which require a dose of 12 kGy, and that the organoleptic quality of the fruits is acceptable to immuno-compromised patients. However, to clarify the microbiological quality and safety of freeze-dried fruits should be verified by plating for both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms.

  20. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  1. Synergistic effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation in bipolar operational amplifier OP07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Liu, E-mail: liuyan@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an 710024 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wei, Chen; Shanchao, Yang; Xiaoming, Jin [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an 710024 (China); Chaohui, He [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-09-21

    This paper presents the synergistic effects in bipolar operational amplifier OP07. The radiation effects are studied by neutron beam, gamma ray, and mixed neutron/gamma ray environments. The characterateristics of the synergistic effects are studied through comparison of different experiment results. The results show that the bipolar operational amplifier OP07 exhibited significant synergistic effects in the mixed neutron and gamma irradiation. The bipolar transistor is identified as the most radiation sensitive unit of the operational amplifier. In this paper, a series of simulations are performed on bipolar transistors in different radiation environments. In the theoretical simulation, the geometric model and calculations based on the Medici toolkit are built to study the radiation effects in bipolar components. The effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation is simulated based on the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects in bipolar transistors. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. The results of the experiments and simulation indicate that the radiation effects in the bipolar devices subjected to mixed neutron and gamma environments is not a simple combination of total ionizing dose (TID) effects and displacement damage. The data suggests that the TID effect could enhance the displacement damage. The synergistic effect should not be neglected in complex radiation environments.

  2. FORMATION BY IRRADIATION OF AN EXPANDED, CELLULAR, POLYMERIC BODY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesby, A.; Ross, M.

    1958-12-01

    The treatment of polymeric esters of methacrylic acid having a softening polnt above 40 icient laborato C to form an expanded cellular mass with a smooth skin is discussed. The disclosed method comprises the steps of subjecting the body at a temperature below the softenpoint to a dose of at least 5 x lO/sup 6/ roentgen of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 source until its average molecular weight is reduced to a value within the range of 3 x lO/sup 5/ to 10/sup 4/, and heating at a temperature within the range of 0 to lO icient laborato C above its softening point to effect expansion.

  3. Fiber-reinforced polymer concrete: Property improvement by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez B, G. [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Km. 12 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, San Cayetano 50200, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Brostow, W. [Laboratory of Advanced Polymers and Optimized Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton TX 76203-5310 (United States)], e-mail: gonzomartinez02@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-07-01

    Polymer concrete (PC) is a particulate composite in which a thermoset resin forms a polymeric matrix and binds inorganic aggregates (dispersed particles of strengthening phases). This in contrast to Portland cement concrete (PCC) in which the binding is a result of interaction of cement with water. Adding polymeric materials to the concrete one can obtain high compressive and flexural strength, high impact and abrasion resistance, lower weight and lower costs. Moreover, PC is a very good repair material for structure elements damaged by trapping water inside the structure and by acid attacks which take place in the PCC. In the present chapter we discuss uses of polymer concrete and the importance of using gamma radiation as a novel technology for manufacturing fiber-reinforced polymer concrete. Our technology is different from the costly and time consuming current procedures such as chemical attack or thermal treatment. (Author)

  4. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  5. Gamma irradiation of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Peerzada R., E-mail: hussainpr@rediffmail.co [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India); Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M. [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India)

    2011-07-15

    The study is aimed at the optimization of gamma irradiation treatment of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes. Sun-dried apricots pre-treated with potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) at 2.5% w/v were procured from progressive apricot grower of district Kargil, Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state. The sun-dried apricots were packed in 250 gauge polyethylene packs and gamma irradiated in the dose range 1.0-3.0 kGy. The gamma irradiated fruit including control was stored under ambient (15{+-}2-25{+-}2 {sup o}C, RH 70-80%) conditions and periodically evaluated for physico-chemical, sensory and microbial quality parameters. Radiation treatment at dose levels of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy proved significantly (p{<=}0.05) beneficial in retention of higher levels of {beta}-carotene, ascorbic acid, total sugars and color values without impairing the taste as perceived by the sensory panel analysists. The above optimized doses retained the {beta}-carotene content of sun-dried apricots to the extent of 71.2% and 72.6% compared to 63.9% in control samples after 18 months of storage. Irradiation treatment facilitated the release of residual sulfur dioxide in KMS pre-treated sun-dried apricots significantly (p{<=}0.05) below the prescribed limit for dried products. During storage, two-fold decrease in sulfur dioxide content was recorded in irradiated samples (3.0 kGy) as compared to 16.9% in control. The above optimized doses besides maintaining the higher overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots resulted in 5 log reductions in microbial load just after irradiation and 1.0 and 1.3 log reductions in yeast and mold and bacterial count after 18 months of ambient storage.

  6. Evaluation of myotoxic activity of Bothropstoxin-1 irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirco, Jessica; Baptista, Janaina A.; Caproni, Priscila; Yoshito, Daniele; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: jessica.mirco@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: janabap@gmail.com, e-mail: pricaproni@hotmail.com, e-mail: daniyoshito@uol.com.br, e-mail: nnascime@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules and has been proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting their immunogenic properties. Snake venoms and their isolated toxins showed structural modifications after gamma radiation process, in aqueous solution, mainly by water radiolysis sub products. Free radical scavengers, such as NaNO{sub 3} and t-butanol, present selective effects on specific radical from water radiolysis. The NaNO{sub 3} has affinity by aqueous electron, while the t-butanol has affinity by hydroxyl radical. At the present work, we have investigated the myotoxic activity of Bothropstoxin-1 (BTHX-1), a K49 phospholipase, present in Bothrops jararacussu crude venom, before and after irradiation process, with or without scavenger substances presence. BTHX-1 was irradiated with 2 kGy of {sup 60}Co gamma rays, in aqueous solution and in the presence of oxygen. BALB/c mice were inoculated with either native or irradiated toxin, with or without scavenger substances. After 3 hours, blood samples were collected and the myotoxic activity was evaluated by LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) release. The muscular tissue damage was directly related to the LDH amounts released. Irradiated Bothropstoxin-1, with or without NaNO{sub 3} substance, caused less damage than their native counterpart. But irradiated toxin, in the presence of t-butanol, was so myotoxic as the native BTHX-1. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications on their structures, but still retaining many of the original biological properties of their native counterparts. Additionally, some scavengers substances can change these gamma radiation effects. (author)

  7. Structure alteration and immunological properties of {sup 60}Co gamma rays irradiated bothropstoxin-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Janaina A.; Yonamine, Camila Myiagui; Caproni, Priscila; Casare, Murilo; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: janabap@gmail.com; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de; Vieira, Daniel Perez; Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia

    2007-07-01

    About 20000 ophidic accidents are registered every year in Brazil. Serum therapy with equine antisera is the only efficient treatment. The venoms employed for immunization are fairly toxic and some venoms present low immunogenicity. Thus, the obtention of modified antigens with lower toxicity and preserved or improved immunogenicity would be useful. These toxins, when submitted to gamma radiation, in aqueous solution, present structural modifications. This occurs due to reactions with the radiolysis products of water. Some scavenger substances, such as NaNO{sub 3} and t-butanol, remove selectively the water radiolysis products. Ionizing radiation has proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting and even increasing their immunogenic properties. However, the immune mechanisms involved in recognition, processing and presentation of irradiated antigens are yet unclear. In the present work, we investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-I (Bthx-1), before and after irradiation, in the presence of selective scavengers. Isogenic mice were immunized with either the native or the irradiated toxin, either with or without scavengers. After three immunizations, serum samples were collected and the antibody titers and isotypes were determined by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay. The antigenic characterization of native and irradiated bothropstoxin-I was performed by Western blot. The detection of expression of murine cytokines (IFN-{gamma} and IL-10) was analyzed by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction). According to our data, irradiation process has promoted structural modifications in the toxin, characterized by higher molecular weight forms of the protein (aggregates and oligomers). Our data also indicate that irradiated toxins, alone or in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, an aqueous electron scavenger, were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin. On the other

  8. Dielectric relaxation study of gamma irradiated oriented low-density polyethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Suljovrujic, E; Kostoski, D

    2003-01-01

    The influence of drawing, gamma irradiation and accelerated aging on the dielectric relaxation of low-density polyethylene has been studied using dielectric loss tangent measurements in the temperature range from 25 to 325 K and in the frequency range from 10 sup 3 to 10 sup 6 Hz. The intensity, position and activation energy of the gamma- and beta-dielectric relaxations were found to be strongly dependent upon the changes in the microstructure of the amorphous phase induced by uniaxial orientation, oxidation and crosslinking.

  9. Effects of. gamma. -irradiation on sulphamerazine, sulphadiazine and sulphamethazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ali, A.K.; Power, D.M. (Salford Univ. (UK))

    1983-01-01

    G(-sulphonamide) values obtained for the radiation degradation in nitrogen-saturated solutions range from 2.7 to 3.2. In nitrous oxide saturated solution G(-sulphonamide) values are 3.4 to 4.8. Accordingly, both e/sup -/sub(aq) and HO radicals contribute to the radiation degradation, with HO attack predominating. Attack by e/sup -/sub(aq) on all three sulphonamides formed sulphanilic acid in different yields. Sulphamerazine degradation resulted in 2-amino-4-methyl pyrimidine formation by scission of the sulphonamide group S-N bond. Similar compounds arose from degradation of sulphadiazine and sulphamethazine. In addition, a phenolic compound was formed during irradiation of the three sulphonamides.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on molecular structure and physicochemical properties of corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H-J; Liu, Q

    2009-06-01

    Carboxyl content and amylose leaching of gamma-irradiated corn starch increased and swelling factor decreased with increasing radiation dose. The apparent amylose content decreased gradually from 28.7% for native starch to 20.9% for 50 kGy irradiated starch. The proportion of short amylopectin branch chains (DP 6 to 12) increased, while the proportion of longer branch chains (DP > or = 37) decreased with increasing radiation dose. The relative crystallinity and the degree of granule surface order decreased from 28.5% and 0.631 in native starch to 26.9% and 0.605 in 50 kGy irradiated starch, respectively. Pasting viscosity and gelatinization temperatures decreased with an increase in radiation dose. At a high dose (50 kGy), melting of amylose-lipid complex in DSC thermogram was not observed. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content slightly decreased up to 10 kGy but increased at 50 kGy. The resistant starch (RS) content slightly decreased at 2 kGy and then increased up to 50 kGy. The slowly digestible starch (SDS) content showed the opposite trend to RS content. Slower irradiation dose rate reduced carboxyl content, swelling factor, and amylose leaching. The apparent amylose content and amylopectin chain length distribution were not significantly affected by dose rate of gamma irradiation. However, the relative crystallinity and gelatinization enthalpy increased with slower dose rate. Slower dose rate decreased RDS and SDS contents, and increased RS content.

  11. Speed Response and Performance Degradation of High Temperature Gamma Irradiated Silicon PIN Photodiodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Naser A. Mohamed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we have been investigated deeply and parametrically the speed response of Si PIN photodiodes employed in high temperature-irradiated environment. The radiation-induced photodiodes defects can modify the initial doping concentrations, creating generation recombination centres and introducing trapping of carriers. Additionally, rate of the lattice defects is thermally activated and reduces for increasing irradiation temperature as a result of annealing of the damage. Nonlinear relations are correlated to investigate the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage dependences of the Si PIN photodiodes, where thermal and gamma irradiation effects are considered over the practical ranges of interest. Both the ambient temperature and the irradiation dose possess sever effects on the electro-optical characteristics and consequently the photo-response time and SNR of Si PIN photodiodes. In this paper, we derive the transient response of a Si PIN photodiode for photogeneration currents, when it is exposed to gamma radiation at high temperature. An exact model is obtained, which may be used to optimize the responsivity and speed of these irradiated devices over wide range of the affecting parameters.

  12. Gamma-irradiation assisted seeded growth of Ag nanoparticles within PVA matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisa, Wael H., E-mail: waeleisa@yahoo.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center (NRC) (Egypt); Abdel-Moneam, Yasser K. [Menoufia University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department (Egypt); Shaaban, Yasser; Abdel-Fattah, Atef A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt); Abou Zeid, Amira M. [Menoufia University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department (Egypt)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Nucleation and growth must be two completely separated steps. {yields} The amount of zerovalent nuclei can be controlled by varying the irradiation dose. {yields} PVA act as physical barrier to inhibit aggregation or the growth of Ag nanoparticles. - Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Ag hybrid nanocomposites have been prepared from polymeric film of PVA and silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}). The silver nanoparticles were generated in PVA matrix by the reduction of silver ions with gamma-irradiation. UV-visible spectra showed a single peak at 422 nm, arising from the surface plasmon absorption of silver nanoparticles. The shifting of surface plasmon resonance peak after irradiation reveals that the gamma irradiation can be used as a size controlling agent for the preparation of silver nanoparticles embedded in PVA film. This result was in good agreement with the result obtained from TEM images. The TEM images showed the narrow size distribution of the obtained Ag nanoparticles with average particle size of 30 nm, which decreased to 17 nm with increasing irradiation dose. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that silver metal was present in face centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. These results clearly indicate that monodispersed silver nanoparticles are embedded homogenously in PVA matrix.

  13. EFFECT OF TIDIAZURON AND DIETHILENTRIAMINE ON GAMMA-IRRADIATED OATS AND TRITICALE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena STOEVA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential modifying effect of the synthetic growth regulators Tidiazuron and poliamine diethilentriamine, applied after gamma-irradiation stress on oats and triticale plants, was studied. Pot vegetative experiments with spring oats, cultivar Hanza 152, and triticale, cultivar 7251, were carried out. The plants were grown under controlled conditions and in the phase of stem extension they were irradiated with Cesium- 137 gamma rays, at a dose rate of 6 Gy (oats, and 4 Gy (triticale, and dose intensity of 2 Gy/min. On the day after the irradiation the plants were sprayed with a radioprotector for the purpose of decreasing the radiation damage. Two types of protectors were tested: tidiazuron and diethilenthriamine. The irradiation of oats and triticale plants in the phase of stem extension caused stress, which was detected by the disorganization of the cardinal physiological processes. The tested synthetic plant growth regulators reduced the negative effect of the irradiation. The peroxidase activity and the lipid peroxidation were reduced, while the plant productivity and the photosynthetic pigments were increased, both photosynthesis and transpiration activation were increased. Independently of the similar effect of both of the substances, polyamine DETA was characterized with a better modifying effect.

  14. Influence of. gamma. -irradiation and ice storage on fat oxidation in three Indian fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadi, S.V.; Venugopal, V. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

    1991-01-01

    The influence of low-dose {gamma}-irradiation (up to 5 kGy) on fat oxidation in skin and flesh fractions of some commercially important fishes (Indian mackerel, white pomfret and seer) during ice storage was examined. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased in both control and irradiated fish particularly in mackerel and seer meat. In mackerel, the TBA values declined towards later part of storage. Pomfret skin, but not mackerel and seer skin, showed radiation-induced oxidation, which increased further during ice storage. (author).

  15. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamma, M. E-mail: atom@sy.net; Al-Adawi, M.A

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae 'inside the eggs' were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  16. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercu, V., E-mail: vbercu@gmail.co [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Negut, C.D., E-mail: dnegut@nipne.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Duliu, O.G., E-mail: duliu@b.astral.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania)

    2010-12-15

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of {gamma}-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel-Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom-Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle-Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom-Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  17. Thermal analysis of polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation composites under outdoor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Luiz G.H.; Oliani, Washington L.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the influence of the clay in the degradation process of the HMSPP.The polypropylene (PP) was irradiated under acetylene atmosphere in gamma irradiation source ({sup 60}Co) to obtain the HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene). Composites of HMSPP were processed in twin-screw extruder with clay Cloisite 20A and Maleic Anhydride (PP-g-MA) as coupling agent. The obtained composites were exposed under outdoor conditions for 6 months. The ageing effects were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA). Chemical oxidation was evaluated by Carbonyl Index (IC) through infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed correlation between carbonyl index and ageing time. (author)

  18. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the foaming behavior of ethylene-co-octene polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachon, C. E-mail: caroline.vachon@nrc.ca; Gendron, R

    2003-04-01

    Ethylene-co-octene polymers containing different branching levels were irradiated in air and under vacuum at 25, 50 and 100 kGy. Gel fraction measurements, thermal analysis and rheology were used to assess the effect of the treatment on polymer structure modifications. The copolymer with 24 wt% octene was shown to be more sensitive to gamma rays and degradation was observed in some cases. Cross-linking in the amorphous phase also occurred as a consequence of irradiation and affected the foaming behavior of these materials.

  19. Mutagenicity studies on alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes. Dominant lethal test in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, T.; Murora, T.; Iwahara, S.; Hashimoto, K. (Food and Drug Safety Center, Kanagawa (Japan). Hatano Research Inst.); Minegishi, A.

    1982-02-01

    Alcohol extracts freshly prepared from gamma-irradiated and unirradiated potatoes were tested for the ability to induce dominant lethals in BDF/sub 1/ mice. Male mice were given 0.5 ml of extract twice a day, p.o., for 7 days and then mated with untreated female mice. Female mice were sacrificed on about the 13th day of pregnancy. No significant difference was observed in the number of living inplants between the group treated with extract prepared from unirradiated potatoes and that treated with the extract from 150 Gy (15 krad) irradiated potatoes.

  20. ESR and optical absorption studies of gamma- and electron-irradiated sugar crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J.C.; Cabrera, B.E.; Calderon, T.; Munoz, P.E.; Adem, E.; Hernandez, A.J.; Boldu, J.L.; Ovalle M.P.; Murrieta, S.H. E-mail: murrieta@fenix.ifisicacu.unam.mx

    2000-05-15

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of the free radicals induced in gamma- or electron-irradiated sugar crystals were performed. The number of radicals increases linearly, pointing out that this material can be used as a dosimeter. The optical absorption studies show the presence of several distinctive bands in the infrared and UV region, whose intensity changes with the irradiation dose. An interpretation of these results in terms of the formation of free radicals and possible crosslinking along the sugar molecular chains is presented.

  1. Gamma-irradiation induced mutagenesis on some microbial strains of interest in food biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdes, O.S. (Inst. of Food Research, Bucharest (Romania)); Ferdes, M. (Inst. of Food Research, Bucharest (Romania)); Dumitru, E. (Inst. of Food Research, Bucharest (Romania)); Mencinicopschi, G. (Inst. of Food Research, Bucharest (Romania))

    1993-01-01

    In this paper there were presented the results concerning gamma-ray effects on some microbial strains which are of interest in food biotechnologies. The irradiations are performed to a Co-60 source, under several condition, at dose rates between 0.1-2.0 kGy/h and in a dose range between 0.1-20.0 kGy. The microbial strains are of Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, Mucor pusillus and Monascus rubens from IFC collection. There were established the survival curves and the optimum irradiation doses for mutagenic effects. There were isolated, analysed and characterised some mutant strains, with better properties in obtaining food enzymes and pigments. (orig.)

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on linear low density polyethylene/magnesium hydroxide/sepiolite composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Muhammad; Yasin, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking is generally used to improve the thermo-mechanical properties of the composites. A study has been carried out to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the thermo-mechanical properties of linear low density polyethylene containing magnesium hydroxide (MH) and sepiolite (SP) as non-halogenated flame retardant additives. The developed composites are irradiated at different doses upto maximum of 150 kGy. Infrared spectra of the irradiated composites reveal the reduction in the intensity of O-H band with increase in the absorbed doses, thus indicates a distinct structural change in MH at higher doses. The thermogravimetric analysis results of unirradiated and composites irradiated at low doses (≤75 kGy) show two steps weight loss, which is changed to single step at higher doses with lower thermal stability. The melting temperature ( Tm) and crystallization temperature ( Tc) of irradiated composites are lowered with irradiation whereas Vicat softening temperature (VST) is increased. The increasing trend in gel content with increase in the absorbed dose confirms the presence of crosslinked network. The mechanical properties, results show significant improvement in the modulus of irradiated composites. The results also confirm that MH gradually loses its OH functionality with irradiation.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Ping; Huang, Shengbin; Gao, Shanshan; Qian, Linmao; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a frequently used treatment for oral cancer. Extensive research has been conducted to detect the mechanical properties of dental hard tissues after irradiation at the macroscale. However, little is known about the influence of irradiation on the tribological properties of enamel at the micro- or nanoscale. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel in relation to prism orientation. Nanoscratch tests, surface profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate the friction behaviour of enamel slabs before and after treatment with identical irradiation procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to analyse the changes in crystallography and chemical composition induced by irradiation. Surface microhardness (SMH) alteration was also evaluated. The results showed that irradiation resulted in different scratch morphologies, friction coefficients and remnant depth and width at different loads. An inferior nanoscratch resistance was observed independent of prism orientation. Moreover, the variation of wear behaviours was closely related to changes in the crystallography, chemical composition and SMH of the enamel. Together, these measures indicated that irradiation had a direct deleterious effect on the wear behaviour of human tooth enamel.

  4. Modifications by {gamma} irradiation of polyethylene at very high molecular weight. Tribological behaviour for orthopedic applications; Modifications par irradiation {gamma} du polyethylene a tres haut poids moleculaire. Comportement tribologique pour des applications orthopediques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaix, N

    2001-07-01

    A new mode of sterilization by vacuum gamma irradiation is studied. This new mode improves significantly the polyethylene behaviour during the study in friction-corrosion against a stainless steel-316L sphere. (N.C.)

  5. Influence of gamma-ray irradiation on Faraday effect of Cu-doped germano-silicate optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngwoong; Ju, Seongmin; Jeong, Seongmook; Jang, Myoung-Jin [Department of Physics and Photon Science, School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Nam-Ho; Jung, Hyun-Kyu [Nuclear Convergence Technology Development Department, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Won-Taek, E-mail: wthan@gist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Photon Science, School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Influence of gamma-ray irradiation on the Faraday effect of the Cu-doped germano-silicate optical fiber was investigated. The Verdet constant of the gamma-ray irradiated optical fiber at 660 nm was measured to be 3.07 rad T{sup −1} m{sup −1}, 1.46 times larger than that of before the irradiation at total dose of 1200 Gy. Cu-related radiation-induced defect centers and Cu metal particles which were reduced from Cu{sup 2+} ions by the irradiation are thought to be responsible for the increase in the Verdet constant of the optical fiber.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on different stages of Fasciola hepatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J.L.; Chiriboga, J.

    1976-04-01

    Fascioliasis or hepatic distomatosis is one of the most widespread liver diseases throughout the world. It is caused by a parasitic worm of the class Trematoda of the phylum Platyhelminthes. This flatworm is commonly known as liver-fluke in the United States and Europe; babosa del higado in Cuba; cucaracha del higado in Puerto Rico; saguaype in Argentina and Chile; pirihuin in Chile; yuta in North Chile, and it is taxonomically classified as Fasciola hepatica. The adult trematode is a common parasite of warm blooded animals especially cattle, sheep, and goats. Alterations in the viability of normal Fasciola hepatica metacercariae as a result of time of storage at 4/sup 0/C were studied by the method of Wikerhauser (1960). A significant decrease in viability was observed only after one hundred days of storage. The in vitro viability of normal metacercariae was compared with that of metacercariae that were exposed to increasing ..gamma.. radiation doses. Two plainly opposite effects observed were: the activation of the excystation process by the lower radiation doses (1.5 and 2.5 Kr), an effect that persisted up to the 14th day post-radiation, and the impairment of the process evidenced on the 14th day in the metacercariae exposed to 3.5 and 5.0 Kr. Correlation between liver damage and the increasing radiation doses to which the metacercariae were exposed was studied up to 34 days after the oral inoculation in rats. (auth)

  7. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-10-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with /sup 60/Co gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of /sup 60/Co radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. We found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents.

  8. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-10-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with /sup 60/CO gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of /sup 60/CO radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. The authors found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents.

  9. {gamma}-irradiation effect on the acoustical properties of zinc lead borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.; Singh, K.; Manupriya; Klare, H.S. [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Rajendran, V.; Gayathri Devi, A.V. [Department of Physics, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Mepco Engineering College (P.O.) 626005, Virudhunagar, Tamil Nadu (India); Narang, S.B. [Department of Electronics and Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2005-11-01

    The effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the acoustical properties of xZnO.2xPbO.(1-3x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses has been studied. Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements have been made before and after {gamma}-irradiation at room temperature in the frequency range 2.25-10 MHz. From the measured density and ultrasonic velocity data, the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and other parameters have been obtained. Changes in the acoustical properties are explained in terms of radiation-induced structural defects and the influence of PbO/ZnO in the glass network structure. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. {sup 17}O NMR investigation of oxidative degradation in polymers under gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALAM,TODD M.; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; ASSINK,ROGER A.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; GILLEN,KENNETH T.

    2000-03-08

    The {gamma}-irradiated-oxidation of pentacontane (C{sub 50}H{sub 102}) and the polymer polyisoprene was investigated as a function of oxidation level using {sup 17}O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that by using {sup 17}O labeled O{sub 2} gas during the {gamma}-irradiation process, details about the oxidative degradation mechanisms can be directly obtained from the analysis of the {sup 17}O NMR spectra. Production of carboxylic acids is the primary oxygen-containing functionality during the oxidation of pentacontane, while ethers and alcohols are the dominant oxidation product observed for polyisoprene. The formation of ester species during the oxidation process is very minor for both materials, with water also being produced in significant amounts during the radiolytic oxidation of polyisoprene. The ability to focus on the oxidative component of the degradation process using {sup 17}O NMR spectroscopy demonstrates the selectivity of this technique over more conventional approaches.

  11. PCC-ring induction in human lymphocytes exposed to gamma and neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamadrid B, A.I.; Garcia L, O. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, La Habana 11300 (Cuba); Delbos, M.; Voisin, P.; Roy, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)]. e-mail: ana@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Dose-effect curves for dose assessment in Gamma and neutron overexposures to high doses are presented in this paper for the first time in literature. The relationships were obtained by plotting the Premature Chromosome Condensation -rings (PCC-R) frequencies in PCC Iymphocytes obtained by chemical induction with Calyculin A in vitro, with radiation doses between 5 to 25 Gy. For the elaboration of these curves 9 676 PCC cells in Gl G2 and M stages were analyzed. The results were fitted to a lineal quadratic model in Gamma irradiation. For neutron irradiation the data was fitted to a lineal quadratic model up to 10 Gy and then a markedly cell cycle arrest and saturation was observed. These curves are of particular interest for victims exposed to doses exceeding 5 Gy where it is always very difficult to estimate a dose using the conventional technique. (Author)

  12. Gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions. [prebiotic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Graff, R. L.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the nonvolatile products. Thin layer chromatography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the gamma-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

  13. Degradation of trimethoprim by gamma irradiation in the presence of persulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglei; Yang, Qi; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-10-01

    The degradation and mineralization of trimethoprim (TMP) by gamma irradiation was investigated in the presence of persulfate (PS). The TMP was degraded at initial concentration of 20 mg/L in aqueous solution with addition of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mM persulfate respectively. The effect of pH values (6.5, 7.5 and 8.5) on TMP degradation was also determined. The experimental results showed that the degradation and mineralization of TMP could be significantly enhanced by persulfate at acidic condition (pH=6.5). Several intermediate products generated during gamma irradiation process through hydroxylation, demethylation and cleavage were identified using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The degradation pathway of TMP was tentatively proposed based on the identification of intermediate products.

  14. Dystrophic changes in extraocular muscles after gamma irradiation in mdx:utrophin(+/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Abby A; Kunz, Matthew D; McLoon, Linda K

    2014-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOM) have a strikingly different disease profile than limb skeletal muscles. It has long been known that they are spared in Duchenne (DMD) and other forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, the cause for this sparing is not understood. We have proposed that differences in myogenic precursor cell properties in EOM maintain normal morphology over the lifetime of individuals with DMD due to either greater proliferative potential or greater resistance to injury. This hypothesis was tested by exposing wild type and mdx:utrophin(+/-) (het) mouse EOM and limb skeletal muscles to 18 Gy gamma irradiation, a dose known to inhibit satellite cell proliferation in limb muscles. As expected, over time het limb skeletal muscles displayed reduced central nucleation mirrored by a reduction in Pax7-positive cells, demonstrating a significant loss in regenerative potential. In contrast, in the first month post-irradiation in the het EOM, myofiber cross-sectional areas first decreased, then increased, but ultimately returned to normal compared to non-irradiated het EOM. Central nucleation significantly increased in the first post-irradiation month, resembling the dystrophic limb phenotype. This correlated with decreased EECD34 stem cells and a concomitant increase and subsequent return to normalcy of both Pax7 and Pitx2-positive cell density. By two months, normal het EOM morphology returned. It appears that irradiation disrupts the normal method of EOM remodeling, which react paradoxically to produce increased numbers of myogenic precursor cells. This suggests that the EOM contain myogenic precursor cell types resistant to 18 Gy gamma irradiation, allowing return to normal morphology 2 months post-irradiation. This supports our hypothesis that ongoing proliferation of specialized regenerative populations in the het EOM actively maintains normal EOM morphology in DMD. Ongoing studies are working to define the differences in the myogenic precursor cells

  15. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Hyun-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  16. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kyung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun-Jin [Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the stability of anthocyanins and shelf-life of various pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighourchi, H; Barzegar, M; Abbasi, S

    2008-10-15

    Food irradiation is a process which exposing food to ionizing radiations and it can improve the safety of food. The pomegranate juice contained considerable anthocyanins and has become a new functional food available for dieting and health. In the present study, the effects of gamma irradiation (0-10kGy) on the stability of anthocyanins and inhibition of microbial growth in pomegranate juice during storage were investigated. Results indicated that the irradiation at all applied doses, significantly reduced total and individual anthocyanins. Moreover, irradiation with higher dosages (3.5-10kGy) had undesirable effect on the total content of anthocyanins. However, irradiation at 2.0kGy had effectively diminished the total bacteria and fungi count and retarding microbial growth during storage. Based on adverse effect of gamma irradiation on ACs content of studied juices, it is not recommended to irradiate pomegranate juice with dosage higher than 2.0kGy.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on bacteriophages used as viral indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebri, Sihem; Hmaied, Fatma; Jofre, Juan; MariemYahya; Mendez, Javier; Barkallah, Insaf; Hamdi, Moktar

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the susceptibility of indicator bacteriophages towards γ-radiation to evaluate their appropriateness as viral indicators for water quality control. The effects of γ-radiation on naturally occurring somatic coliphages, F-specific coliphages and Escherichia coli were examined in raw sewage and sewage sludge. As well, the effects of radiation on bacteriophages ΦX174 and MS2, and E. coli all grown in the laboratory and seeded in distilled water, autoclaved raw sewage and a 1% peptone solution were evaluated. The inactivation of E. coli was fairly similar in all matrices. In contrast, inactivation of bacteriophages was significantly greater in distilled water than in the other matrices. These results showed the great influence of the matrix characteristics on virus inactivation. Somatic coliphages in raw sewage and sewage sludge and ΦX174 in autoclaved sewage were inactivated similarly and were far more resistant than F-specific coliphages, MS2 and E. coli. As well, F-specific RNA bacteriophages in raw sewage and sewage sludge and MS2 in autoclaved sewage were inactivated similarly and were more resistant than E. coli. In contrast, MS2 was more susceptible to γ-radiation than E. coli in distilled water. Our results showed that ΦX174 is a suitable indicator for estimating virus inactivation by γ-irradiation and corroborate the use of somatic coliphages to survey the viral quality of treated water and sludges.

  19. Pathological consequences of chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Miller, A.C.; Ramakrishnan, N. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Fritz, T.E.

    2000-07-01

    The quantitative relationships between the chronic radiation exposure parameters of dose-rate and total dose in relation to associated health risks was examined in dogs. At a dose-rate of 75, 128, and 263 mGy/d the incidence of acute lymphohematopoietic suppression (aplastic anemia) and associated septic complications was 73%, 87%, and 100%, respectively, and it increased in dose-dependent manner. By contrast, at dose-rates below 75 mGy/d, late cancers contributed significantly to the death of relatively long-lived animals, whose mean survival time was 1800 days. Myeloproliferative disease (MPD), mainly myeloid leukemia, was the dominant pathology seen at the higher daily dose-rates (18.8-75 mGy/d). When daily exposure was carried out continuously, the incidence of MPD was quite high. It should be noted that the induction radiation-induced MPD in this study was highly significant, because spontaneous MPD is exceedingly rare in the dog. However, when the daily dose-rate was reduced further or exposure was discontinued, the incidence of MPD declined significantly. At these lower dose-rates, solid tumors contributed heavily to the life-shortening effects of chronic irradiation. The induction and progression of these survival-compromising, late forms of pathology appeared to be driven by the degree of hematopoietic suppression that occurred early during the exposure phase, and in turn by the capacity of hematopoietic system to repair itself, recover, and to accommodate under chronic radiation stress. (K.H.)

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2012-11-01

    Eggs of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller), ranging in age from 1-24 to 73-96 h, were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation ranging from 25-600 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth eggs decreased with increasing age and increased with increasing radiation dose. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 25 Gy and completely prevented at 100 Gy. At the age of 25-48 h, radiation sensitivity was only a little lower; egg hatch at 100 Gy was <1% and at 125 Gy no egg hatch was observed. Egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; egg hatch was 66% at 100 Gy, and 500 Gy did not completely stop egg hatch (<1%). Eggs irradiated a few hours before egg hatch (73-96 h old) were the most resistant; 150 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 600 Gy over 33% of the eggs hatched. When pupation or adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effects of gamma radiation were very severe. In the most resistant age group (73-96 h old), 150 Gy completely prevented pupation and adult emergence and all larvae resulting from eggs irradiated <49 h old died before pupation. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter product during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Three types (A, B, and C) of peanut butter product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65 aw) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation (⁶⁰Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. The inactivation of S. Typhimurium in the 3 types of treated peanut butter product over a 14 day storage period and the influence of storage temperature at 4 (refrigerated) and 25 °C (ambient), and peanut butter product formulation were investigated. Three types of peanut butter product inoculated with S. Typhimurium to a level of ca. 6.6 log CFU/g and subjected to gamma irradiation experienced significant (pbutter product to undetectable levels was 14, 5, and 5 days at 25°C after exposure to 3 kGy for products A, B, and C, respectively, and 7 days at 25 °C following exposure to 2 kGy for product C. During storage at 4 and 25 °C, survival of S. Typhimurium was lowest in product C compared to products A and B. Water activity (a(w)) of peanut butter product was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival. When a(w) is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby decreasing antimicrobial action. Overall, death was more rapid at 25 °C versus 4 °C for all peanut butter products during 14 day storage. Following gamma irradiation, acid values of peanut butter product were not significantly different from the control, and general observations failed to detect changes in color and aroma, even though lightness observed using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0. The use of gamma irradiation has potential in preventing spoilage of post-packaged food by destroying microorganisms and improving the safety and quality of foods without compromising sensory quality.

  2. Stability of the GaAs based Hall sensors irradiated by gamma quanta

    OpenAIRE

    Gradoboev, Aleksandr Vasilyevich; Karlova, G. F.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is aimed at investigation of the stability of the GaAsbased Hall sensors (pickups) to irradiation by gamma quanta. The examined objects are the gallium arsenide based Hall sensors manufactured on thin active layers by the methods of vaporphase epitaxy (VPE), molecular beam epitaxy, and ion implantation. Our research methodology involves measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics (VACs) of all sensors for different values of the supply voltage polarity and electron concen...

  3. Evaluation of the effects of paederus beetle extract and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Samani; Ali Shabestani Monfared; Ebrahim Zabihi; Soraya Khafri; Maesoumeh Karimi; Haleh Akhavan Niaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s):Cervical cancer is a malignancy that is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women throughout the world. Paederus beetle (Paederus fuscipes) extract (PBE), contains bioactive compounds such as pederine which has cytotoxic properties and blocks DNA and protein synthesis at very low concentrations. In this investigation we tried to determine the effects co-treatment with PBE and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells. Materials and Methods: The viability of the cells was m...

  4. Test of a MWPC for the LHCb Muon System at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, M; Felici, G; Forti, C; Lanfranchi, G; Rosellini, R; Santoni, M; Saputi, A; Sarti, A; Sciascia, B; Bocci, V; Chiodi, G; Dané, E; Iacoangeli, F; Martellotti, G; Nobrega, R; Pinci, D; Rinaldi, W; Gatta, M

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a test on a MWPC, of the region M3R3 of the LHCb Muon System, at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. This was the first test of a chamber equipped with the final front end electronics. The performance of the chamber was studied with an about 100 GeV muon beam varying, by means of filters, the intensity of the photon flux reaching the detector.

  5. Irradiated-Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA): an integrated system for HTGR coated particle fuel performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kania, M.J.; Valentine, K.H.

    1980-02-01

    The Irradiated-Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA) System, designed and built at ORNL, provides the capability of making statistically accurate failure fraction measurements on irradiated HTGR coated particle fuel. The IMGA records the gamma-ray energy spectra from fuel particles and performs quantitative analyses on these spectra; then, using chemical and physical properties of the gamma emitters it makes a failed-nonfailed decision concerning the ability of the coatings to retain fission products. Actual retention characteristics for the coatings are determined by measuring activity ratios for certain gamma emitters such as /sup 137/Cs//sup 95/Zr and /sup 144/Ce//sup 95/Zr for metallic fission product retention and /sup 134/Cs//sup 137/Cs for an indirect measure of gaseous fission product retention. Data from IMGA (which can be put in the form of n failures observed in N examinations) can be accurately described by the binomial probability distribution model. Using this model, a mathematical relationship between IMGA data (n,N), failure fraction, and confidence level was developed. To determine failure fractions of less than or equal to 1% at confidence levels near 95%, this model dictates that from several hundred to several thousand particles must be examined. The automated particle handler of the IMGA system provides this capability. As a demonstration of failure fraction determination, fuel rod C-3-1 from the OF-2 irradiation capsule was analyzed and failure fraction statistics were applied. Results showed that at the 1% failure fraction level, with a 95% confidence level, the fissile particle batch could not meet requirements; however, the fertile particle exceeded these requirements for the given irradiation temperature and burnup.

  6. Effects of gamma-rays irradiation on OH/sup -/ doped KBr crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scacco, A.; Somma, F. (Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia)

    1983-03-01

    Crystals of undoped and OH/sup -/ doped KBr have been ..gamma..-rays irradiated at room temperature. Colouring curves of doped samples show bleaching effects at high absorbed energy doses. This result is interpreted in terms of a reaction between the OH/sup -/ impurities and the formed F centres which predominates on the enhancement of the colouration due to the excess of anion vacancies induced by the OH/sup -/ defects.

  7. The impact of hyper-gravity and gamma-irradiation on physiology of wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandhya; Vidyasagar, Pandit

    2016-07-01

    Exposing plants to altered gravity and gamma radiation can provide us with a fundamental knowledge of plant behavior in such conditions, since the mechanisms involved in response of plants to these stresses is still unclear. The more we understand these mechanisms the more we can apply this information to take the journey of life beyond the boundaries of earth. Hence many experiments were performed on pre-imbibed wheat seeds (Lok-1 variety), wherein they were exposed to hyper-gravity stress (300g-1500g) and gamma-irradiation (Dose 20Gy-100Gy) separately. After exposure these seeds were grown in normal conditions and their growth, fluorescence parameters, and total proline content were observed on the 5th day of their growth. A gradual decline in overall growth and fluorescence parameters, with increase in hyper-gravity stress value (300g-1500g) or gamma-irradiation dose (20Gy-100Gy) was observed. Interestingly in the hyper-gravity studies a consistent increase in the total proline content was observed only till 1200g but the total proline content deteriorated thereafter for higher 'g' values. On the other hand gamma irradiation studies revealed that the total proline content continuously increased with increase in the gamma radiation dose (20Gy-100Gy). Later, pre-imbibed seeds were exposed to both stresses (combined as hyper-gravity (300g-1500g) + gamma-irradiation (40Gy)) and same parameters were studied revealing that there was comparatively greater decline in overall growth and fluorescence parameters of wheat seedlings. Also the total proline content gradually increased ( from 300g+40Gy-900g+40Gy) with 900g+40Gy stress value having highest value of total proline content but the total proline content decreased subsequently for higher stress values (1200g+40Gy, 1500g+40Gy). Results obtained in the current research showed that exposing pre-imbibed wheat seeds to hyper-gravity stress, gamma radiation or both combined together may affect the proline biosynthesis and

  8. Effects of gamma ray and electron-beam irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Michiko; Miyahara, Makoto [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    An extension of the approval for food irradiation is desired due to the increase in the incidence of food poisoning in the world. One anaerobic (Clostridium perfringens) and four facultatively anaerobic (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis) bacteria irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam (E-beam) were tested in terms of survival on agar under packaging atmosphere. Using pouch pack, effects of two irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were evaluated comparatively. E-beam irradiation was more effective than gamma ray irradiation in decreasing the lethal dose 10% (D{sub 10}) value of B. cereus at 4 deg C, slightly more effective in that of E. coli O157, and similarly effective in that of the other three bacteria at 4 deg C. The gamma irradiation of the bacteria without incubation at 4 deg C before irradiation was more effective than that of the bacteria with incubation overnight at 4 deg C before irradiation in decreasing the D10 values of these bacteria (B. cereus, E. coli O157, and L. monocytogenes). Furthermore, ground beef patties inoculated with bacteria were irradiated with 1 kGy by E-beam (5 MeV) at 4 deg C. The inoculated bacteria in the 1-9 mm beef patties were killed by 1 kGy E-beam irradiation and some bacteria in more than 9 mm beef patties were not killed by the irradiation. (author)

  9. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel [Center for Radiotherapy Research, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada); Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.guillot@usherbrooke.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4, Canada and Center for Radiotherapy Research, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.

  10. Thermal, tensile and rheological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) processed and irradiated by gamma-ray in different atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreto, H. F. R., E-mail: hferreto@ipen.br, E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, A. C. F., E-mail: hferreto@ipen.br, E-mail: ana-feitoza@yahoo.com.br; Parra, D. F., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br, E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br; Lugão, A. B., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br, E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br [Center of Chemistry and Environment, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research - IPEN (Brazil); Gaia, R., E-mail: renan-gaia7@hotmail.com [Faculdades Oswaldo Cruz (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate structural changes of high density polyethylene (HDPE) modified by ionizing radiation (gamma rays) in different atmospheres. The gamma radiation process for modification of commercial polymers is a widely applied technique to promote new physical-chemical and mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation originates free radicals which can induce chain scission or recombination, providing its annihilation, branching or crosslinking. This polymer was irradiated with gamma source of {sup 60}Co at doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy at a dose rate of 5 kGy/h. The changes in molecular structure of HDPE, after gamma irradiations were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile machine and oscillatory rheology. The results showed the variations of the properties depending on the dose at each atmosphere.

  11. Thermal, tensile and rheological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) processed and irradiated by gamma-ray in different atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreto, H. F. R.; Oliveira, A. C. F.; Gaia, R.; Parra, D. F.; Lugão, A. B.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate structural changes of high density polyethylene (HDPE) modified by ionizing radiation (gamma rays) in different atmospheres. The gamma radiation process for modification of commercial polymers is a widely applied technique to promote new physical-chemical and mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation originates free radicals which can induce chain scission or recombination, providing its annihilation, branching or crosslinking. This polymer was irradiated with gamma source of 60Co at doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy at a dose rate of 5 kGy/h. The changes in molecular structure of HDPE, after gamma irradiations were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile machine and oscillatory rheology. The results showed the variations of the properties depending on the dose at each atmosphere.

  12. Measurements of diffusion parameters of methanol on gamma-irradiated polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Pietro P.J.C.G.P.O.; Araujo, Elmo S., E-mail: esa@ufpe.br, E-mail: pietropaolo@ipojuca.ifpe.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Silveira, Leopoldo B.B. da [Highplastic Industria de Plasticos Ltda, Simoes Filho, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Polycarbonate (PC) is an engineering polymer which presents interesting properties such as toughness, light weight and transparency. This material has been used for several important applications including in the medical field. In this particular application, polycarbonate has been exposed frequently to gamma irradiation and to chemical environment that can be able to product significant changes in polymer structure that may lead to future catastrophic fail and rupture. Polymer structural damages induced by gamma irradiation or chemical attack (environment stress cracking) have been studied by several research groups for many years and for many solvent-polymer systems, but few reporters present informations about the simultaneous occurrence of these effects. This present work has the goal to understand the diffusion process of methanol in polycarbonate and to determinate the diffusion parameters on polymer system under 100 kGy of gamma irradiation. Swelling experiments were performed at the samples of polycarbonate divided in two groups: PC-0 (without dose) and PC-100 (with 100 kGy of dose). Diffusion parameters (D) may be measured by slope of the sorption curve for polymers with Fickian behavior. A comparison of the D parameters was made for each set of sample. There were no significant differences on D values of sample groups observed due to the radiation effects. However, stress strain curves obtained show that methanol has great influence on mechanical behavior of PC but the radiation dose don't have significant influence on this mechanical behavior. (author)

  13. Inactivation of RNA Viruses by Gamma Irradiation: A Study on Mitigating Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Adam J; Ames, Joshua; Rennick, Linda J; Duprex, W Paul; Marzi, Andrea; Tonkiss, John; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-07-22

    Effective inactivation of biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogens is vital in order to study these agents safely. Gamma irradiation is a commonly used method for the inactivation of BSL-4 viruses, which among other advantages, facilitates the study of inactivated yet morphologically intact virions. The reported values for susceptibility of viruses to inactivation by gamma irradiation are sometimes inconsistent, likely due to differences in experimental protocols. We analyzed the effects of common sample attributes on the inactivation of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein and green fluorescent protein. Using this surrogate virus, we found that sample volume and protein content of the sample modulated viral inactivation by gamma irradiation but that air volume within the sample container and the addition of external disinfectant surrounding the sample did not. These data identify several factors which alter viral susceptibility to inactivation and highlight the usefulness of lower biosafety level surrogate viruses for such studies. Our results underscore the need to validate inactivation protocols of BSL-4 pathogens using "worst-case scenario" procedures to ensure complete sample inactivation.

  14. Functionalization and magnetization of carbon nanotubes using Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Y.; Fu, M.J.; Tsai, C.Y. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, P.O. BOX 3-27 Longtan, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (R.O.C.) (China); Lin, F.H. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (R.O.C.) (China); Chen, K.Y., E-mail: chenky@iner.gov.tw [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, P.O. BOX 3-27 Longtan, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (R.O.C.) (China)

    2014-10-01

    Functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used in the biological and biomedical fields as biosensors, drug delivery systems, etc., which makes research into processes for manufacturing modified CNTs quite important. In this paper, Co-60 gamma irradiation is shown to be an effective tool for fabricating functionalized and magnetized CNTs. After the Co-60 gamma irradiation, the presence of carboxylic functional groups on the CNT walls was confirmed by their Fourier transform infrared spectra, and the presence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was verified by the X-ray diffraction patterns. The functionalized and magnetized CNTs produced using Co-60 gamma irradiation have excellent dispersion properties. The techniques for functionalizing and magnetizing CNTs are introduced in this paper, and applications of the modified CNTs will be reported after more data are gathered. - Highlights: Dispersion ability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was improved by functionalization. CNTs were easily manipulated by precipitation of magnetic nanoparticles. Our product can be used as versatile biosensor substrate for biomarker screening.

  15. Effect of hydrogen uptake on the electrochemical corrosion of N18 zircaloy under gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Z. Y.; Ling, Y. H.; Bai, Y. K.; Zeng, C.; Wang, S.; Clara, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    It has been well recognized that dramatic hydrogen uptake occurred in zircaloy after kinetic transition and porous structure was observed subsequently due to phase transformation of tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia. Therefore, how hydrogen solute and gamma-induced capillary-embedded hydrolysis influence the corrosion of zircaloy is an intriguing issue. In this work, the effect of hydrogen uptake and gamma irradiation on corrosion of N18 zircaloy was studied. Raman spectra and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to analyse phase structure and surface morphology. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were utilized to qualitatively evaluate the electron transfer properties of the oxide film formed on the zircaloy surface after corrosion. The depth profile and surface chemical states of involving elements were analysed by auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. It was found that hydrogen permeation can decline the integrity and impedance semicircle of the oxide films, the more the hydrogen uptake is; the smaller magnitude of impedance will be. In view of the gamma irradiation, it is demonstrated that it promotes the corrosion rate slightly. Based on the irradiation theory and existing phenomena, the underlying mechanism is proposed.

  16. Inactivation of RNA Viruses by Gamma Irradiation: A Study on Mitigating Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Hume

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective inactivation of biosafety level 4 (BSL-4 pathogens is vital in order to study these agents safely. Gamma irradiation is a commonly used method for the inactivation of BSL-4 viruses, which among other advantages, facilitates the study of inactivated yet morphologically intact virions. The reported values for susceptibility of viruses to inactivation by gamma irradiation are sometimes inconsistent, likely due to differences in experimental protocols. We analyzed the effects of common sample attributes on the inactivation of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein and green fluorescent protein. Using this surrogate virus, we found that sample volume and protein content of the sample modulated viral inactivation by gamma irradiation but that air volume within the sample container and the addition of external disinfectant surrounding the sample did not. These data identify several factors which alter viral susceptibility to inactivation and highlight the usefulness of lower biosafety level surrogate viruses for such studies. Our results underscore the need to validate inactivation protocols of BSL-4 pathogens using “worst-case scenario” procedures to ensure complete sample inactivation.

  17. Thermal behavior of gamma-irradiated low-density polyethylene/paraffin wax blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Saleh M.; Elnahas, H. H.; El-Zahed, H.; Abdeldaym, A.

    2016-05-01

    The thermal properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/paraffin wax blends were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and melt flow index (MFI). Blends of LDPE/wax in ratios of 100/0, 98/2, 96/4, 94/6, 92/8, 90/10 and 85/15 (w/w) were prepared by melt-mixing at the temperature of 150°C. It was found that increasing the wax content more than 15% leads to phase separation. DSC results showed that for all blends both the melting temperature (Tm) and the melting enthalpy (ΔHm) decrease linearly with an increase in wax content. TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of all blends decreases linearly with increasing wax content. No clear correlation was observed between the melting point and thermal stability. Horowitz and Metzger method was used to determine the thermal activation energy (Ea). MFI increased exponentially by increasing the wax content. The effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal behavior of the blends was also investigated at different gamma irradiation doses. Significant correlations were found between the thermal parameters (Tm, ΔHm, T5%, Ea and MFI) and the amount of wax content and gamma irradiation.

  18. Extension shelf life of batte by using hydrocolloids and gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat M. Anwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Batte (is baked french one of the most baked coated most prevalent in the markets after the cake wrapping. Batte exposed generally two types of corruption which is occurring phenomenon of (anti-staling and corruption microbial (molds. In this study produced batte with an attempt to prolong the period of its validity by addition 1.5% hydrocolloids, (which is 0.5% sodium alginate, 0.5% k-carrageenan and 0.5% hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMC to hard wheat flour 72% (HWF to improve materials for mellowness and anti-staling, whereas batte exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 5 kGy to decrease microbial load. Hydrocolloids at 1.5% improved the rheological properties of dough farinogragh and aextensograph parameters. The hydrocolloids increase flexibility, rubber and freshness of batte to 24 days compared to 8 days in control sample. Thiobarbituric acid (T.B.A values at the end of storage at room temperature (ranged to 0.253–0.352 mg malonaldehyde/kg that were less than these mentioned by the Egyptian Standard. Also, gamma irradiation reduced the total bacterial count of batte product. Sensory evaluation of produced batte was done. The addition of 1.5% hydrocolloids and exposed to gamma irradiation had higher freshness and increase shelf-life for 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 days against only 15 days for control sample.

  19. Covalent bonding of collagen on poly(L-lactic acid) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ying E-mail: bea00@keele.ac.uk; Porte, Marie-Christine; Marmey, Pascal; El Haj, Alicia J.; Amedee, Joelle; Baquey, Charles

    2003-06-01

    Surface modification of a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), with an extracellular matrix molecule, collagen, has been carried out by covalent bonding to PLLA via gamma irradiation grafting with poly(acrylic acid) as a coupling agent. The grafting yield increased with the increase of gamma absorbed dose. A grafting yield of more than 7% for collagen type I grafting was obtained at 21 kGy dose. The grafting yield was dose dependent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of proteins on the grafted PLLA. Swelling experiments revealed a crosslinked structure in the grafted polymer, whereas in comparison non-treated PLLA is linear. Localisation of collagen using immunostaining showed high levels of collagen on the grafted PLLA, confirming that the grafted collagen in the PLLA was still biologically active. The presence of collagen epitopes on the surface, i.e. having reactivity of the antibody against collagen on the surface of the grafted PLLA, demonstrated that irradiation may alter the molecular weight of collagen but not the availability of active binding sites. These results indicate that the single-step procedure of grafting by gamma irradiation could provide a simple but efficient technique to modify the biocompatibity of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  20. Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple and orange juice concentrates by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of reconstituted apple and orange juice on reduction of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores by gamma irradiation. Spores of A. acidoterrestris were inoculated into three concentrations of apple (18, 36, and 72 °Brix) and orange (11, 33, and 66 °Brix) juice and subjected to five radiation doses (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy). No significant reductions (P > 0.05) in spores were observed after the 1-kGy treatment for all apple and orange concentrations. Spores in 18, 36, and 72 °Brix apple juice concentrates subjected to 10 kGy were reduced to 4.34, 3.9, and 3.84 log CFU/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed for orange juice. When 10 kGy was applied to 11 °Brix orange juice, populations of spores were reduced by 5 log CFU/ml. The reduction of spores in 33 and 66 °Brix orange juice concentrates exposed to 10-kGy gamma irradiation was 4.54 and 3.85 log CFU/ml, respectively. Juice concentration did not affect (P > 0.05) the number of surviving A. acidoterrestris spores from the same kGy treatment. Gamma irradiation treatment did not change the pH or water activity of the juice (P > 0.05).

  1. Grafting of acrylamide onto kappa-carrageenan via {gamma}-irradiation: Optimization and swelling behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezanejade Bardajee, Ghasem [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourjavadi, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: purjavad@sharif.edu; Sheikh, Nasrin [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Applications Research School, Kargar Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadegh Amini-Fazl, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The Taguchi method, a robust experimental design for optimization, was used for the synthesis of a superabsorbent hydrogel network using {gamma}-rays as an initiator, energy source and crosslinker at the same time. Nine different samples of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared in various conditions from kappa-carrageenan ({kappa}C) and acrylamide by {gamma}-irradiation at room temperature. Considering the results of nine trials and according to analysis of variance (ANOVA), a new experimental condition with the concentrations of {kappa}C and acrylamide 1.5 g and 0.028 mol (2 g in total volume of 50 mL H{sub 2}O), respectively, as well as {gamma}-ray at the optimum total dose (7 kGy) was proposed. After preparing the desired hydrogels according to optimum condition, the swelling behavior of hydrogels in different media was investigated.

  2. Electrical characterization of commercial NPN bipolar junction transistors under neutron and gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Myo Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronics components such as bipolar junction transistors, diodes, etc. which are used in deep space mission are required to be tolerant to extensive exposure to energetic neutrons and ionizing radiation. This paper examines neutron radiation with pneumatic transfer system of TRIGA Mark-II reactor at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The effects of the gamma radiation from Co-60 on silicon NPN bipolar junction transistors is also be examined. Analyses on irradiated transistors were performed in terms of the electrical characteristics such as current gain, collector current and base current. Experimental results showed that the current gain on the devices degraded significantly after neutron and gamma radiations. Neutron radiation can cause displacement damage in the bulk layer of the transistor structure and gamma radiation can induce ionizing damage in the oxide layer of emitter-base depletion layer. The current gain degradation is believed to be governed by the increasing recombination current in the base-emitter depletion region.

  3. Quantitative, functional, and biochemical alterations in the peritoneal cells of mice exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation. 1. Changes in cellular protein, adherence properties, and enzymatic activities associated with platelet-activating factor formation and inactivation, and arachidonate metabolism. Scientific report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steel, L.K.; Hughes, H.N.; Walden, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in total number, differentials, cell protein, adherence properties, acetyltransferase and acetylhydrolase activities, prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C4 production, as well as calcium (2+) ionophore A23187 stimulation were examined in resident peritoneal cells isolated from mice 2h to 10 days postexposure to a single dose (7,10 or 12 Gy) of gamma radiation. Radiation dose-related reductions in macrophage and lymphocyte numbers and increases in cellular protein and capacity to adhere to plastic surfaces were evident. In-vitro irradiation also elevated the activities of acetyltransferase and acetylhydrolase (catalyzing platelet-activating factor biosynthesis and inactivation, respectively) in adherent and nonadherent peritoneal cells, particularly 3-4 days postexposure. Blood plasma from irradiated animals did not reflect the increased cellular acetylhydrolase activity. Prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C4 synthesis were elevated postexposure, suggesting increased substrate (arachidonate) availability and increased cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. Ionospheric stimulation of enzyme activities and eicosanoid release also differed in irradiated peritoneal cells. While the properties of adherence, platelet-activating factor synthesis/inactivation-associated enzyme activities, and eicosanoid production are generally characterized as those of macrophages, lymphocytes or their products may influence or contribute to the observed radiation-induced changes.

  4. CONTRASTING DOSE-RATE EFFECTS OF GAMMA-IRRADIATION ON RAT SALIVARY-GLAND FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VISSINK, A; DOWN, JD; KONINGS, AWT

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Co-60 irradiation delivered at high (HDR) and low (LDR) dose-rates on rat salivary gland function. Total-body irradiation (TBI; total doses 7.5, 10 and 12.5 Gy) was applied from a Co-60 source at dose-rates of 1 cGy/min (LDR) and 40 cGy/min (HD

  5. Effect of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. GR-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, G A; Prakash, L; Devasia, P; Modi, V V

    1988-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. GR-3) in pot cultures have been studied. Compared to plants grown only in soil, shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, total proteins, total soluble sugars, starch and chlorophyll content of plants grown in soil supplemented with unirradiated or gamma-irradiated sludge were found to be significantly increased. Irradiation of sludge significantly stimulated the linear growth of shoot and root systems as well as fresh and dry weights of plants, compared to those grown in soil containing unirradiated sludge. There was also an improvement in the grain yield (weight of seed) when plants were grown in soil supplemented with irradiated sludge. The results obtained suggest that the gamma-irradiated sewage sludge can be beneficially recycled for agricultural uses.

  6. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by {sup 60}CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Gisela A.; Pusceddu, Fabio H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto, E-mail: gisela.martini@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to {sup 60}Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  7. Aging of magnesium stearate under high doses gamma irradiation and oxidative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebeau, D.; Beuvier, L.; Cornaton, M. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miserque, F. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, LECA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tabarant, M. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SEARS, LISL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Esnouf, S. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferry, M., E-mail: muriel.ferry@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Magnesium stearate was radio-oxidized at very high doses using gamma-rays. • H{sub 2} emission was estimated as a function of the integrated dose. • Modifications in the organic solid were followed as a function of the integrated dose. • A non-exhaustive degradation mechanism of magnesium stearate was proposed. - Abstract: In nuclear waste packages conditioning processes, magnesium stearate is widely used because of its high lubricating properties. For safety purposes, the radiolytic degradation of these organic materials has to be better understood to be able to predict their aging in repository conditions. This study reports the radiolytic degradation of magnesium stearate, using gamma-rays at room temperature and under air. Modifications were followed using different analytical tools (XPS, ATR-FTIR, ICP-AES, ATG and mass spectrometry). It has been observed that molecules mainly formed up to 1000 kGy of gamma irradiation dose under radio-oxidation are alkanes, hydroperoxides, double bonds in the aliphatic chain, carboxylates with aliphatic chain shorter than the one of stearate and ketones. At a dose of 4000 kGy, dicarboxylic acids are observed: the formation of these molecules needs a dose of at least 1000 kGy to be created under radio-oxidation. These observations allow us to propose a non-exhaustive degradation mechanism of magnesium stearate under gamma-irradiation at room temperature and under air.

  8. Microspheres of polyester loaded with Holmium-165: effect of gamma irradiation on the polymeric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de; Pires, Geovanna; Lira, Rafael A. de; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Nascimento, Nanci; Melo, Vitor Hugo Soares de, E-mail: mbmazevedo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kodama, Yasko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2011-07-01

    Biodegradable polymers containing radioactive isotopes have potential applications as delivery vehicles of beta radiation to the cancer tumors by brachytherapy. 166-Ho is an example of such radioisotope emitting high-energy beta particles, and also its gamma rays allow nuclear imaging in everywhere is applied. Among the biodegradable polymers, different types of poly(lactide) have been investigated in our laboratory, and poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) was used as substrate to prepare microparticles loaded with holmium acetylacetonate HoAcAc (PLLA-HoAcAc-MP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of these microparticles to gamma radiation. The PLLA-HoAcAc-MP were irradiated in a nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN/CNEN-SP, and their stability studied out with gamma radiation of 25, 50 and 100 kGy doses. MP were characterized before and after irradiation by differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and con focal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Preliminary results showed that gamma radiation did not damage morphologically the prepared PLLA-HoAcAc-MP in the dose range studied, and this procedure may be an important tool for knowing the stabilities of the polymers studied as MP for possible application in brachytherapy. (author)

  9. Application of gamma irradiation for inactivation of three pathogenic bacteria inoculated into meatballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Tuncay; Şukru Demirci, A.; Murat Velioglu, H.; Velioglu, Serap D.; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sagdic, Osman

    2008-09-01

    In this research, the effect of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 33150), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 2392) and Salmonella typhimurium (NRRL 4463) inoculated into Tekirdag meatballs was investigated. The meatball samples were inoculated with pathogens and irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 2.2, 3.2, 4.5 and 5.2 kGy. E. coli O157:H7 count in 1 kGy irradiated meatballs stored in the refrigerator for 7 days was detected to be 4 log cfu/g lower than the count in nonirradiated samples ( pcounts were decreased to 4 log cfu/g after being exposed to irradiation at a dose of 1 kGy. Although it was ineffective on elimination of S. typhimurium, irradiation at a dose of 3.2 kGy reduced E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus counts under detectable values in the meatballs. However, none of the test organisms were detected in the samples after irradiation with 4.5 kGy doses.

  10. Thermoluminescence detection of Korean traditional foods exposed to Gamma and electron-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J. H.; Chung, H. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kang, I. J.

    1998-06-01

    Thermoluminescence(TL) analysis was applied to detect irradiated Korean traditional condiments and soup mixes containing salt(NaCl). These food items, which are commercially irradiated in Korea, showed a consistently high correlation(R 2) between the absorbed doses and the corresponding TL responses. It was proved that table salt played a role as an in-built indicator in TL measurements and its concentration in test samples was proposed as a correction factor for varying conditions of TL measurements. Pre-established threshold values were successfully adopted to identify 167 coded samples of Ramen soup mixes, both non-irradiated and irradiated with gamma and electron-beam energy. The TL intensity of irradiated soup mixes decreased with the lapse of time, but was still distinguishable from that of the non-irradiated samples at the fourth month of ambient storage. Expected estimates of absorbed doses, 2.85 and 4.75 kGv were obtained using a quadratic equation with average values of 1.57 and 4.90 kGy, respectively.

  11. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity.

  12. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation at low doses on the performance of PES ultrafiltration membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Niu, Lixia; Li, Fuzhi; Yu, Suping; Zhao, Xuan; Hu, Hongying

    2016-10-01

    The influence of gamma irradiation on the performance of polyether sulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membrane was investigated at low absorbed doses (0-75 kGy) using a cobalt source. The performance of the UF membranes was tested using low level radioactive wastewater (LLRW) containing three types of surfactants (anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants). The physical and chemical properties of membrane surface were analyzed, and relationships between these properties and separation performance and fouling characteristics were determined. At 10-75 kGy irradiation, there were no significant changes observed in the membrane surface roughness or polymer functional groups, however the contact angle decreased sharply from 92° to ca. 70° at irradiation levels as low as 10 kGy. When membranes were exposed to the surfactant-containing LLRW, the flux decreased more sharply for higher dosed irradiated membranes, while flux in virgin membranes increased during the filtration processes. The study highlights that fouling properties of membrane may be changed due to the changes of surface hydrophilicity at low dose irradiation, while other surface properties and retentions remain stable. Therefore, a membrane fouling test with real or simulated wastewater is recommended to fully evaluate the membrane irradiation resistance.

  13. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle; Efecto de la irradiacion gamma en la hidrolisis acida de cardo exento de pentosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Paz, M. D.; Diaz, A.

    1983-07-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses). At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs.

  14. Mechanism of action for anti-radiation vaccine in reducing the biological impact of high-dose gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after high-dose gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naïve animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which they mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  15. Radioprotective Role of Some Bacteria Belonging to Actinomycetales against Gamma Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Abdel-Shafi1, Tamer M. M. Saad2 *, Abdel-Haliem M. E. F.1, Abdel-Rahman M. A. Ghonemey2, and Gamal Enan1

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. The inadvertent exposure of human from various source of radiation causes ionization of molecules, setting off potentially damaging reactions via free radicals production. Development of radioprotectants and mitigators is the therapeutic approach to ameliorate the negative health impact of radiation exposure. The majority of substances with biological activity used in medicine are produced by actinomycetes and fungi. Aim: the aim of the present study is to evaluate the radioprotective role of the antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Rahman as antioxidant against gamma irradiation that induced some biochemical alterations in rats. Material and Methods: animals were pretreated with antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Ab1 using suitable stomach tube for two weeks prior to radiation exposure. The levels of malondialdhyde (MDA, glutathione content (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (ALT, glutamic aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT activities, also total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL- C were estimated. Results: the results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in the levels of MDA content, ALT, AST, ALP and GGT activities and concentration of TC, TG and LDL-C, meanwhile, showed significant depletion in GSH content and SOD, CAT and GPx activities and HDL-C concentration. Conclusion: it could be concluded that, the administration of the antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Ab1 pre-whole body gamma irradiation resulted in sufficient amelioration against radiation effects on the biochemical aspects examined in the present

  16. Gamma-irradiation effects to posttranslational modification and chaperon function of bovine {alpha}-crystalline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroki, K; Matsumoto, S.; Awakura, M. [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Science, Kyoto (Japan); Fujii, N. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    2001-01-01

    The formation of D-asparate (D-Asp) in {alpha}A-crystallin of the aged human eye and the cataract crystalline lens has been reported. Crystalline lens keeps the transparency by forming {alpha}-crystallin which consists of a high order association of {alpha}A-and {alpha}B-crystallin. Bovine {alpha}-crystallin for investigating a chaperone function which protects the crystalline lens from getting to opaque or disordered agglutination with heat or light, is irradiated by gamma-ray (Co-60) at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kGy, respectively. The irradiated bovine {alpha}-crystallin are analyzed with electrophoresis, gel permeation chromatograph, and UV absorption spectrometer for checking on the agglutination and the isomerization of macromolecules. Oxidation of methionine residues (Met-1) and isomerization of asparagine residues (Asp-151) in the {alpha}A-crystallin are ascertained in molecular levels with reversed phase liquid chromatography. The Met-1 oxidation and the Asp-151 isomerization depend on gamma-irradiation doses. It is thought that OH radical and H radical in water generated by the irradiation lead to the oxidation and the isomerization. Stereoinversion in the {alpha}-crystallin following to such a chemical change are considered to lead to the agglutination of polymer and the reduction of chaperon function. (M. Suetake)

  17. Environmental stress cracking in gamma-irradiated polycarbonate - A diffusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pietro Paolo J. C. de O.; Araújo, Patricia L. B.; da Silveira, Leopoldo B. B.; Araújo, Elmo S.

    2017-01-01

    Polycarbonate (PC) is an engineering polymer which presents interesting properties. This material has been also used in medical devices, which is frequently exposed to gamma radiosterilization and to chemical agents. This may produce significant changes in polymer structure, leading to failure in service. The present work brings about a new approach on environmental stress cracking (ESC) processes elucidation in 100 kGy gamma-irradiated PC, by evaluating the diffusion process of methanol or 2-propanol in test specimens and determining the diffusion parameters on solvent-irradiated polymer systems. A comparison of diffusion parameters for both solvents indicated that methanol has a considerable ESC action on PC, with diffusion parameter of 7.5×10-14±1% m2 s-1 for non-irradiated PC and 7.8×10-14±2.8% m2 s-1 for PC irradiated at 100 kGy. In contrast, 2-propanol did not act as an ESC agent, as it did promote neither swelling nor cracks in the test specimens. These results were confirmed by visual analysis and optical microscopy. Unexpectedly, structural damages evidenced in tensile strength tests suggested that 2-propanol is as aggressive as methanol chemical for PC. Moreover, although some manufacturers indicate the use of 2-propanol as a cleaning product for PC artifacts, such use should be avoided in parts under mechanical stress.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two cultivars of Syrian grapes ( Vitis vinifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    1999-06-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of two local table grape varieties: Baladi and Helwani. The experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996, when both varieties were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy in the first year. In the second year two additional doses were used 0.1 and 0.25 kGy for Helwani and 2.0 and 2.5 kGy for Baladi. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored in a refrigerated room (temperature, 1-2°C). Weight loss, spoilage and total loss were evaluated every 2 and 4 weeks of storage for Baladi and Helwani, respectively. The results have shown that gamma irradiation improved the storability of both varieties. In addition, irradiation prevented molding and prolonged the storage time. The optimum doses for improving the storability were 0.5-1.0 kGy for Helwani and 1.5-2.0 kGy for Baladi, and the storage periods can be extended by 50% using these optimal doses for both varieties.

  19. Removal of garlic-like off-odours from crustacea by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, D.J.; Izzard, M.E. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights); Whitfield, F.B. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, North Ryde (Australia). Div. of Food Research)

    1985-04-01

    The strong garlic-like off-odours associated with the male shovel-nosed lobster (Ibacus peronii) and the royal red prawn (Hymenopenaeus sibogae) have been attributed principally to the presence of the sulphur-containing compound bis-(methylthio)-methane. In the male shovel-nosed lobster the concentration of this compound increases very rapidly following death, and a small number of contaminated crustacea may cause an entire consignment to be condemned. A method for removing this noxious odour was developed which involved gamma-irradiation of the affected crustacea using a cobalt-60 source. Eight lobsters were subjected to gamma-irradiation at a dose rate of 10 kGy an hour; one half of each was given a dose of 25 kGy and the other half a dose of 5 kGy. Results showed that a high dose completely removes the existing off-odour, and also prevents its further formation. With the lower dose the off-odour is not completely removed. A trial using fresh royal red prawns at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy showed irradiation removed all traces of the off-odour, but in those irradiated at the higher dose a slight burnt flavour was noticeable.

  20. Preparation of low molecular weight fucoidan by gamma-irradiation and its anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2013-09-12

    Fucoidan is a marine sulfated polysaccharide with a wide variety of biological activities. Recently, it has been reported that low molecular weight fucoidan has the enhanced antioxidant and anticoagulative activities. However, degradation techniques such as enzymolysis and acid hydrolysis for obtaining low molecular weight fucoidan, have the disadvantages such as narrow substrate specificity and unfavorable hydrolysis of side groups, respectively. In this study, low molecular weight fucoidan was prepared by gamma-irradiation. When fucoidan was gamma-irradiated, the molecular weight rapidly dropped to 38 kDa when the sample was irradiated at 10 kGy, then gradually dropped to 7 kDa without the significant elimination of the sulfate groups. Low molecular weight fucoidan had higher cytotoxicity than native fucoidan in cancer cells, such as AGS, MCF-7, and HepG-2. In addition, low molecular weight fucoidan showed higher inhibitory activity of cell transformation, which resulted in higher anticarcinogenicity. This result suggests that low molecular weight fucoidan with enhanced biological activities can be produced by a simple irradiation method without changing the functional groups.

  1. Lung autophagic response following exposure of mice to whole body irradiation, with and without amifostine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zois, Christos E. [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece); Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kainulainen, Heikki [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Botaitis, Sotirios [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Torvinen, Sira [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Simopoulos, Constantinos [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kortsaris, Alexandros [Department of Biochemistry, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Sivridis, Efthimios [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} We investigated the effect 6 Gy of WBI on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. {yields} Irradiation induces dysfunction of the autophagic machinery in normal lung, characterized by decreased transcription of the LC3A/Beclin-1 mRNA and accumulation of the LC3A, and p62 proteins. {yields} The membrane bound LC3A-II protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction (not in the pellet), contrasting the patterns noted after starvation-induced autophagy. {yields} Administration of amifostine, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings, suggesting protection of the normal autophagic function. -- Abstract: Purpose: The effect of ionizing irradiation on the autophagic response of normal tissues is largely unexplored. Abnormal autophagic function may interfere the protein quality control leading to cell degeneration and dysfunction. This study investigates its effect on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to 6 Gy of whole body {gamma}-radiation and sacrificed at various time points. The expression of MAP1LC3A/LC3A/Atg8, beclin-1, p62/sequestosome-1 and of the Bnip3 proteins was analyzed. Results: Following irradiation, the LC3A-I and LC3A-II protein levels increased significantly at 72 h and 7 days. Strikingly, LC3A-II protein was increased (5.6-fold at 7 days; p < 0.001) only in the cytosolic fraction, but remained unchanged in the membrane fraction. The p62 protein, was significantly increased in both supernatant and pellet fraction (p < 0.001), suggesting an autophagosome turnover deregulation. These findings contrast the patterns of starvation-induced autophagy up-regulation. Beclin-1 levels remained unchanged. The Bnip3 protein was significantly increased at 8 h, but it sharply decreased at 72 h (p < 0.05). Administration of amifostine (200 mg/kg), 30 min before irradiation, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings on blots, suggesting restoration of the normal autophagic function

  2. Development and characterization of biodegradable polymer blends - PHBV/PCL irradiated with gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia da Zona Leste (FATEC-ZL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro Paulo Souza; Casarin, S.A.; Agnelli, J.A.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Souza Junior, O.F. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to develop PHBV biodegradable polymer blends, in a major concentration with PCL, irradiate the pure polymers and blends in two doses of gamma radiation and to analyze the changes in chemical and mechanical properties. The blends used in this study were from natural biodegradable copolymer poly (hydroxybutyrate-valerate) (PHBV) and synthetic biodegradable polymer poly (caprolactone) (PCL 2201) with low molar mass (2,000 g/mol). Several samples were prepared in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder and afterwards, the tensile specimens were injected for the irradiation treatment with 50 kGy to 100 kGy doses and for the mechanical tests. The characterization of the samples before and after the irradiation treatments was performed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical tensile tests. (author)

  3. Characterization and potential applications of gamma irradiated chitosan and its blends with poly(vinyl alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Ijaz; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal; Yasin, Tariq; Huang, Qingrong; Palaparthi, Annie D'Souza

    2014-04-01

    Naturally available chitosan (CHI), of high molecular weight, results in reduced efficiency of these polymers for antibacterial activity. In this regard, irradiation is a widely used method for achieving reduction in molecular weight of polymers, which may improve some of its characteristics. Chitosan was extracted from crab shells and degraded by gamma radiations. Effect of radiation dose on chitosan was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, the irradiated chitosan was blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and crosslinked with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) into membranes. The membranes were found to be smooth, transparent and macroporous in structure, exhibiting high tensile strength (TS: 27-47 MPa) and elongation at break (EB: 292.6-407.3%). The effect of molecular weight of chitosan and chitosan blends on antibacterial activity was determined. Irradiated low molecular weight chitosan and membranes showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

  4. Influence of gamma irradiation on structural, thermal and antibacterial properties of HPMC/ZnO nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Madhukumar, R.; Latha, S.; Shetty, G. Rajesha; Shivananda, C. S.; Chandra, K. Sharath; Sangappa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the structural, thermal and antibacterial properties of HPMC/ZnO nanocomposite films exposed to Cobalt-60 (Average energy: 1.25MeV). The X-ray diffraction study revealed that the crystallite size (L in Å) decreased as irradiation dose increased. The crystallinity (Xc) of the nanocomposites initially increased and at higher doses it was decreased. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites increased up to 50 kGy and after that decreased as the irradiation dose increased. But, HPMC/ZnO nanocomposite films, showed a promising range of antimicrobial activity against tested micro-organisms making nanocomposites suitable for food packing and other biomedical applications.

  5. Effects of gamma-irradiation on frozen shrimps to reduce microbial contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Adulyatham, Pitaya; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Sangthong, Naruemon (Department of Fisheries, Bangkok (Thailand). Fishery Technological Development Div.)

    1989-01-01

    This study presents data on the distribution of microorganisms in six kinds of imported frozen shrimps and the efficacy of {gamma}-irradiation for reduction of total number of bacteria and pathogens. Unpleasant off-odor was clearly detected in the shrimp irradiated at 2.5 kGy at non-frozen state and it became very strong at 10 kGy. On the other hand, off-odor was negligible in the frozen product below 5 kGy, but was clearly detected at 20 kGy. Irradiation up to 50 kGy had no effect on TMA trimethyl (trimethylamine) content of the frozen shrimps, but doses more than 20 kGy increased the TMA content of nonfrozen shrimps. (author).

  6. Electron spin resonance studies on PS, PP and PS/PP blends under gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Jacobo E-mail: reyesj@camelot.rect.ucv.ve; Albano, Carmen E-mail: calbano@ivic.vealbanoc@camelot.rect.ucv.ve; Claro, Marjorie; Moronta, Delfin

    2003-06-01

    Electron spin resonance studies on polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and on 80/20 PS/PP blends with and without compatibilizer (block SBS), at 7.5 wt%, irradiated with gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source at a dose rate of 4.8 kGy/h and at integral irradiation doses of 10, 25, 50, 60, 70, 400, 800 and 1300 kGy in the presence of air and at room temperature are reported. Dependence of resonance line width, Hpp, resonance line shapes, K, and resonance line intensity, Ipp, on the integral dose of irradiation is investigated. Nature of free radicals after 10 days of air storage is discussed.

  7. Gamma and neutron massive irradiation tests of the ATLAS MDT chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meoni, Evelin [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi della Calabria and INFN, Cosenza (Italy)]. E-mail: meoni@fis.unical.it; Branchini, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Roma Tre and INFN Sezione di Roma III, Rome (Italy); Di Luise, Silvestro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Roma Tre and INFN Sezione di Roma III, Rome (Italy); Graziani, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Roma Tre and INFN Sezione di Roma III, Rome (Italy); La Rotonda, Laura [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi della Calabria and INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Mazzotta, Concetta [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi della Calabria and INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Morello, Gianfranco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi della Calabria and INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Passeri, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Roma Tre and INFN Sezione di Roma III, Rome (Italy); Petrucci, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Roma Tre and INFN Sezione di Roma III, Rome (Italy); Policicchio, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi della Calabria and INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Salvatore, Daniela [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi della Calabria and INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Schioppa, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi della Calabria and INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Tonazzo, Alessandra [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Roma Tre and INFN Sezione di Roma III, Rome (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    MDT chambers, the precision tracking system of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, have to operate for 10 years in the harsh LHC background environment mainly due to low energy photons and neutrons. The expected overall maximum count rate is 500Hz/cm{sup 2}. Moreover the upgrades for S-LHC will involve fluxes ten times higher than that at LHC. To study the behavior of MDT chambers under massive irradiation of gammas and neutrons at level of S-LHC, three extensive tests were performed at the ENEA-Casaccia Research Centre Facilities, irradiating several test detectors. The results about the drift properties, gas gain and tracking performances, both at high rates and after massive irradiation, are given.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional components and Cry1Ab protein in the transgenic rice with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis[Transgenic rice; Gamma irradiation; Nutritional components; Cry1Ab protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Dianxing E-mail: dxwu@zju.edu.cn; Ye Qingfu; Wang Zhonghua; Xia Yingwu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the transgenic rice containing a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis were investigated. There was almost no difference in the content of the major nutritional components, i.e. crude protein, crude lipid, eight essential amino acids and total ash between the irradiated grains and the non-irradiated transgenic rice. However, the amounts of Cry1Ab protein and apparent amylose in the irradiated transgenic rice were reduced significantly by the doses higher than 200 Gy. In vivo observation showed that Cry1Ab protein contents also decreased in the fresh leaf tissues of survival seedlings after irradiation with 200 Gy or higher doses and showed inhibition of seedling growth. The results indicate that gamma irradiation might improve the quality of transgenic rice due to removal of the toxic Cry1Ab protein.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the optical properties of UHMWPE (Ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene) polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghuvanshi, S.K., E-mail: sraghu06@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmad, Bashir; Siddhartha [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Department of Applied Science, Sharda University, Plot No. 32-34, Knowledge Park-III, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306 (India); Krishna, J.B.M. [UGC-DAEF Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Center, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Wahab, M.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2012-01-15

    The UV-Visible absorption spectra of virgin and high dose gamma irradiated (up to 2000 kGy) UHMWPE polymer have been studied by using UV-Visible spectrophotometer (JASCO, V-570). The existence of the peaks, their shifting and broadening as a result of gamma irradiation has been observed. In the present work the Urbach energy is calculated by using Urbach edge method. Also the direct and indirect energy band gap in virgin and gamma irradiated UHMWPE polymer has been calculated. The values of indirect energy band gap have been found to be lower than the corresponding values of direct energy band gap. A decrease in the optical energy band gap with increasing gamma irradiation has been discussed on the basis of gamma-irradiation-induced modification in the UHMWPE polymer. The correlation between optical energy band gap and the number of carbon atoms in a cluster with modified Tauc's equation has been discussed in this polymer. We have also observed the color formation which became more and more prominent with increasing dose and at the highest dose the fully transparent sample became completely opaque. Looking at the trend of the absorption curve this polymer can be used as a very good dosimeter for the gamma ray irradiation.

  10. Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Jung, Koo; Lee, Kwang-Youll; Jeong, Je-Yong; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hae-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (pcinerea isolated from naturally-infected postharvest paprika, fungal symptoms were observed in the stem and exocarp of paprika after conidial inoculation. From the sensitivity of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, B. cinerea conidia were fully inactivated by 4 kGy of gamma irradiation (D10 value 0.99 kGy), and were fully inactivated by 50 ppm NaDCC treatment. The fungal symptoms were not detected by the dose-dependent gamma irradiation (>4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (pfruits.

  11. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dwimahyani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation, and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma iradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma.

  12. Potential of recycling gamma-irradiated sewage sludge for use as a fertilizer: a study on chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, G A; Sachidanand, S; Modi, V V

    1989-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in pot cultures have been studied. Compared to plants grown only in soil, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of plants grown in soil supplemented with unirradiated sludge were found to be significantly reduced. This inhibition in growth was found to be nullified when plants were grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge, suggesting that gamma radiation induced inactivation of toxic substance(s) in sludge. The protein content of plants grown in soil supplemented with irradiated sludge was also found to be significantly increased compared to those grown with unirradiated or no sludge, after 45 days. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiated sludge on shoot length, total soluble sugars, starch content and yield of chickpea plants. The results obtained suggest that the sludge tested, and obtained from the digester of a conventional domestic sewage treatment plant, is inhibitory to several growth parameters. Gamma irradiation of sewage resulted in removal of this inhibition. This suggests a possibility of beneficial and safe recycling of gamma-irradiated sludge for agricultural uses.

  13. Total Body Irradiation in the "Hematopoietic" Dose Range Induces Substantial Intestinal Injury in Non-Human Pr