Sample records for body fluids implications

  1. Body fluid identification in forensics

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    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*


    Full Text Available At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of amolecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling orDNA methylation detection has been recently proposed tosupplant conventional body fluid identification methods.Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentiallymethylated regions which are specific to forensically relevantbody fluids have been identified, and their specificities andsensitivities have been tested using various samples. In thisreview, we provide an overview of the present knowledge andthe most recent developments in forensic body fluididentification and discuss its possible practical application toforensic casework.

  2. Proteomics of body fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.M. Dekker (Lennard)


    textabstractIn this thesis we present newly developed methods for biomarker discovery. We applied these methods to discover biomarkers of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from breast cancer patients and in serum from patients with prostate cancer. Early diagnos

  3. Suction blister fluid as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins. (United States)

    Kool, Jeroen; Reubsaet, Léon; Wesseldijk, Feikje; Maravilha, Raquel T; Pinkse, Martijn W; D'Santos, Clive S; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Zijlstra, Freek J; Heck, Albert J R


    Early diagnosis is important for effective disease management. Measurement of biomarkers present at the local level of the skin could be advantageous in facilitating the diagnostic process. The analysis of the proteome of suction blister fluid, representative for the interstitial fluid of the skin, is therefore a desirable first step in the search for potential biomarkers involved in biological pathways of particular diseases. Here, we describe a global analysis of the suction blister fluid proteome as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins. The suction blister fluid proteome was compared with a serum proteome analyzed using identical protocols. By using stringent criteria allowing less than 1% false positive identifications, we were able to detect, using identical experimental conditions and amount of starting material, 401 proteins in suction blister fluid and 240 proteins in serum. As a major result of our analysis we construct a prejudiced list of 34 proteins, relatively highly and uniquely detected in suction blister fluid as compared to serum, with established and putative characteristics as biomarkers. We conclude that suction blister fluid might potentially serve as a good alternative biomarker body fluid for diseases that involve the skin.

  4. Molecular tumor-diagnostics in body fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacques Benno de


    Tumor-derived nucleic acids are frequently present in body fluids (e.g. urine, blood, sputum, stool, bile, and cerebrospinal fluid) that had contact with malignant or premalignant tissues. Detection of this mutant DNA or quantification of aberrant gene expression may offer new noninvasive methods fo

  5. Formation of Apatite in Simulated Body Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Dong-hui; XU Zheng; LI Shi-pu; YAN Yu-hua


    It is confirmed that the essential condition for glasses and glass-ceramics to bond to living bone is the formation of an apatite layer on their surfaces in the body. It is proposed that a hydrated silica formed on the surfaces of these materials in the body plays an important role in forming the surface apatite layer, which has noi been proved yet. It is shown experimentally that a pure hydrated silica gel can induce the apatite formation on its surface in a simulated body fluid when its starting pH is increased from 7.2 to 7.4.

  6. Fluid Flows driven by Oscillating Body Force

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    Vladimirov, V A


    In this note we consider general formulation of Euler's equations for an inviscid incompressible homogeneous fluid with an oscillating body force. Our aim is to derive the averaged equations for these flows with the help of two-timing method. Our main result is the general and simple form of the equation describing the averaged flows, which are derived without making any additional assumptions. The presented results can have many interesting applications.

  7. Body fluid identification by integrated analysis of DNA methylation and body fluid-specific microbial DNA. (United States)

    Choi, Ajin; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young


    Identification of body fluids found at crime scenes provides important information that can support a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. Previous studies have reported that DNA methylation analysis at several tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) enables successful identification of semen, and the detection of certain bacterial DNA can allow for identification of saliva and vaginal fluid. In the present study, a method for detecting bacterial DNA was integrated into a previously reported multiplex methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme-polymerase chain reaction. The developed multiplex PCR was modified by the addition of a new semen-specific marker and by including amplicons for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of saliva- and vaginal fluid-specific bacteria to improve the efficacy to detect a specific type of body fluid. Using the developed multiplex system, semen was distinguishable by unmethylation at the USP49, DACT1, and PFN3 tDMRs and by hypermethylation at L81528, and saliva could be identified by detection of saliva-specific bacteria, Veillonella atypica and/or Streptococcus salivarius. Additionally, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood were differentiated from other body fluids by hypomethylation at the PFN3 tDMR and the presence of vaginal fluid-specific bacteria, Lactobacillus crispatus and/or Lactobacillus gasseri. Because the developed multiplex system uses the same biological source of DNA for individual identification profiling and simultaneously analyses various types of body fluid in one PCR reaction, this method will facilitate more efficient body fluid identification in forensic casework.

  8. Contact with hospital syringes containing body fluids: implications for medical waste management regulation Jeringas en contacto con sangre y fluidos corporales utilizadas en el hospital: implicaciones para el manejo de desechos hospitalarios


    Patricia Volkow; Bénédicte Jacquemin; Diana Vilar-Compte; José Ramón Castillo


    OBJECTIVE: To determine amount of syringes used in the hospital and extent of contact with blood and body fluids of these syringes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center for one week; syringes were classified into the following four categories according to use: a) contained blood; b) contained other body fluids (urine, gastric secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, wound drainage); c) used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic intravenous (IV) tu...

  9. Molecular Graphics of Convex Body Fluids. (United States)

    Gabriel, Adrian T; Meyer, Timm; Germano, Guido


    Coarse-grained modeling of molecular fluids is often based on nonspherical convex rigid bodies like ellipsoids or spherocylinders representing rodlike or platelike molecules or groups of atoms, with site-site interaction potentials depending both on the distance among the particles and the relative orientation. In this category of potentials, the Gay-Berne family has been studied most extensively. However, conventional molecular graphics programs are not designed to visualize such objects. Usually the basic units are atoms displayed as spheres or as vertices in a graph. Atomic aggregates can be highlighted through an increasing amount of stylized representations, e.g., Richardson ribbon diagrams for the secondary structure of proteins, Connolly molecular surfaces, density maps, etc., but ellipsoids and spherocylinders are generally missing, especially as elementary simulation units. We fill this gap providing and discussing a customized OpenGL-based program for the interactive, rendered representation of large ensembles of convex bodies, useful especially in liquid crystal research. We pay particular attention to the performance issues for typical system sizes in this field. The code is distributed as open source.

  10. Body drop into a fluid tank and dynamic loads calculation

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    Komarov Aleksandr Andreevich


    Full Text Available The theory of a body striking a fluid began intensively developing due to the tasks of hydroplanes landing. For the recent years the study of a stroke and submersion of bodies into fluid became even more current. We face them in the process of strength calculation of ship hulls and other structures in modern technology. These tasks solution represents great mathematical difficulty even in case of the mentioned simplifications. These difficulties emerge due to the unsteady character of fluid motion in case of body submersion, and also jet and spray phenomena, which lead to discontinuous motions. On the basis of G.V. Logvinovich’s concept the problem of loads determination with consideration for air gap is solved for both a body and reservoir enclosing structures when a body falls into a fluid. Numerical method is based on the decay of an arbitrary discontinuity.

  11. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

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    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.


    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  12. Gamble and Darrow: pathfinders in body fluid physiology and fluid therapy for children, 1914-1964. (United States)

    Holliday, M A


    The development of body fluid physiology and fluid therapy in pediatrics has special importance in the history of medicine because this development introduced physiology into clinical practice. James Gamble and Dan Darrow were leaders in this enterprise. Gamble was part of the group John Howland attracted to Johns Hopkins to establish the first organized program for clinical investigators in pediatrics. This group initiated fluid therapy as effective treatment for diarrheal dehydration and, led by Gamble, developed the discipline of body fluid physiology. Gamble was the first to describe the nature of extracellular fluid (ECF) to clinicians, using the new terminology for characterizing electrolytes in solution. In doing so, he became the teacher of body fluid physiology to a generation of medical students. Inexplicably, in his later years he failed to adopt yet newer terminology defining cations, anions, and acid-base status. This failure compromised his legacy. Dan Darrow extended our understanding of how body fluids react to hyper- and hyponatremia and to potassium deficiency. He was the first to add potassium to parenteral fluid therapy. In doing so, he broadened clinicians' understanding of body fluids but changed the emphasis of fluid therapy from rapid ECF restoration to replacement of estimated deficits. Unfortunately, this change in concept, taught by his successors as deficit therapy, slowed the adoption of oral rehydration therapy for treating diarrheal dehydration. The lapses noted for each of these men, now seen in hindsight, pale in comparison to their contributions. Pediatrics, medicine, and surgery are all indebted to the research of each, which emphasized the value of basic physiology in clinical practice.

  13. [Body fluids during 120-day anti-orthostatic hypokinesia]. (United States)

    Lobachik, V I; Zhidkov, V V; Abrosimov, S V


    Body fluid variations were examined during 120-day antiorthostatic (-5 degrees) hypokinesia in 21 test subjects, 9 of which comprised a control group (Group 1). The remaining 12 subjects formed three groups (four subjects each) who received drugs to normalize mineral and lipid metabolism (Group 2), or performed specially developed exercises (Group 3), or were on the combined treatment (Group 4). Total body water (TBW), intracellular fluid volume (IFV), extracellular fluid volume (EFV), and EFV composition were measured by nuclear physical methods. Measurements were taken prior to exposure, on head-down tilt days 1, 60 and 120, and on recovery day 15. Body composition and K40 content were investigated before and after head-down tilt. The controls showed body dehydration that began on tilt day 1 at the expense of vascular fluid and continued by day 60 at the expense of interstitial fluid and by day 120 at the expense of IFV. Group 2 subjects exhibited variations that were similar to those of controls. Group 3 subjects were in better shape due to the beneficial effect of exercise which diminished as head-down tilt continued. In the recovery period the above changes regressed.

  14. Body Fluid Degradomics and Characterization of Basic N-Terminome. (United States)

    Sabino, F; Hermes, O; Auf dem Keller, U


    Rapid improvements in instrumentation and data analysis make mass spectrometry-based proteomics the method of choice for global characterization of proteomes and discovery of protein-based biomarkers. On the contrary to tissue biopsies, body fluids-e.g., blood, wound fluid, urine, and saliva-are noninvasive and easy to collect and process. However, they are very complex and present high dynamic ranges of protein concentrations, rendering direct shotgun proteomics analysis as inefficient for identification of low-abundance proteins in these specimens. Sample prefractionation, immunoaffinity depletion of highly abundant proteins, and enrichment of posttranslational modifications (PTM) are common strategies for proteome simplification of body fluids. Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) relatively deplete high-abundance proteins by binding equimolar amounts of protein species in the sample and provide an elegant species-independent alternative to immunoaffinity-based approaches. By cleaving target proteins, proteases catalyze an irreversible PTM, whereby uncontrolled proteolysis is associated with many diseases. Thus, proteolytic events represent powerful indicators for disease progression and their specific identification in body fluids holds great promises for establishment of novel biomarkers. Quantitative N-terminal enrichment strategies, such as terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS) detect protease-generated neo-N-termini with high specificity and increase coverage of low-abundance proteins by inherent proteome simplification. In this chapter, we describe a protocol that combines the CPLL technology with iTRAQ-based TAILS to systematically characterize the basic N-terminome of body fluid proteomes and its alterations in disease conditions that we have successfully applied to explore the wound fluid degradome at multiple time points after skin injury.

  15. Pattern Formation Around Interacting Bodies in Rotating Fluids

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    Karl B(U)HLER


    The interaction of bodies like spheres and disks in rotating fluids leads to novel flow structures. The primary swirling flow in circumferential direction is superimposed by a secondary motion in the meridional plane. The flow is visualized by introducing ink through a hole in the center of the axes and distributed radially in the central plane between the interacting bodies. The flow structure depends on the shape of the bodies, their geometrical arrangement and the Reynolds number given by the rotational speed. The observed flow structures gave rise to further investigations with PIV-measurements and numerical simulations.

  16. Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease in body fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Various innovative diagnostic methods for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been developed in view of the increasing preva-lence and consequences of later-life dementia. Biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood for AD are primarily based on the detection of components derived from amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Published reports on CSF and blood biomarkers in AD indicate that although biomarkers in body fluids may be utilized in the clinical diagnosis of AD, there are no specific markers that permit accurate and reliable diagnosis of early-stage AD or the monitoring of disease pro-gression.

  17. Contact with hospital syringes containing body fluids: implications for medical waste management regulation Jeringas en contacto con sangre y fluidos corporales utilizadas en el hospital: implicaciones para el manejo de desechos hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Volkow


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine amount of syringes used in the hospital and extent of contact with blood and body fluids of these syringes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center for one week; syringes were classified into the following four categories according to use: a contained blood; b contained other body fluids (urine, gastric secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, wound drainage; c used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic intravenous (IV tubes, and d for intramuscular (IM, subcutaneous (SC, or intradermic (ID injections. RESULTS: A total of 7 157 plastic disposable syringes was used; 1 227 (17% contained blood during use, 346 (4.8%, other body fluids, 5 257 (73% were used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic IV lines, and 327 (4.5% were utilized for IM, SC, or ID injections. An estimated 369 140 syringes used annually, or eight syringes per patient per in-hospital day. All syringes were disposed of as regulated medical waste, in observance of the law. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to review recommendations for medical waste management by both international agencies and local governments, based on scientific data and a cost-benefit analysis, to prevent resource waste and further environmental damage.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar el número de jeringas que se utilizan en el hospital y calcular cuántas de éstas entran en contacto con sangre o fluidos corporales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo una encuesta del uso de jeringas en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención durante toda una semana. Se clasificaron, de acuerdo con el uso que se les dio, en cuatro categorías: a aspiración de sangre, b otros fluidos corporales (orina, secreción gástrica, líquido cefalorraquídeo, drenaje de herida, etcétera, c uso exclusivo para diluir medicamentos y administrarlos a través de tubos de terapia intravenosa, d para aplicación de inyecciones intramusculares (IM, subcutáneas (SC o

  18. Regulation of body fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations in spaceflight (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Krauhs, J. M.; Leach, C. S.


    Despite a number of difficulties in performing experiments during weightlessness, a great deal of information has been obtained concerning the effects of spaceflight on the regulation of body fluid and electrolytes. Many paradoxes and questions remain, however. Although body mass, extracellular fluid volume, and plasma volume are reduced during spaceflight and remain so at landing, the changes in total body water are comparatively small. Serum or plasma sodium and osmolality have generally been unchanged or reduced during the spaceflight, and fluid intake is substantially reduced, especially during the first of flight. The diuresis that was predicted to be caused by weightlessness, has only rarely been observed as an increased urine volume. What has been well established by now, is the occurrence of a relative diuresis, where fluid intake decreases more than urine volume does. Urinary excretion of electrolytes has been variable during spaceflight, but retention of fluid and electrolytes at landing has been consistently observed. The glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated during the SLS missions, and water and electrolyte loading tests have indicated that renal function is altered during readaptation to Earth's gravity. Endocrine control of fluid volumes and electrolyte concentrations may be altered during weightlessness, but levels of hormones in body fluids do not conform to predictions based on early hypotheses. Antidiuretic hormone is not suppressed, though its level is highly variable and its secretion may be affected by space motion sickness and environmental factors. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone are generally elevated at landing, consistent with sodium retention, but inflight levels have been variable. Salt intake may be an important factor influencing the levels of these hormones. The circadian rhythm of cortisol has undoubtedly contributed to its variability, and little is known yet about the influence of spaceflight on circadian

  19. Renal renin secretion as regulator of body fluid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Isaksson, Gustaf L; Stubbe, Jane;


    intake, but the specific pathways involved and the relations between them are not well defined. In animals, renin secretion is a log-linear function of sodium intake. Close associations exist between sodium intake, total body sodium, extracellular fluid volume, and blood volume. Plasma volume increases...... by about 1.5 mL/mmol increase in daily sodium intake. Several lines of evidence indicate that central blood volume may vary substantially without measurable changes in arterial blood pressure. At least five intertwining feedback loops of renin regulation are identifiable based on controlled variables......The renin-angiotensin system is essential for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. This review focuses on the homeostatic regulation of the secretion of active renin in the kidney, primarily in humans. Under physiological conditions, renin secretion is determined mainly by sodium...

  20. Dielectric properties of porcine glands, gonads and body fluids. (United States)

    Peyman, A; Gabriel, C


    Dielectric properties of porcine glandular tissues and gonads (in vivo) and body fluids (in vitro) have been obtained in the frequency range of 50 MHz to 20 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a two term Cole-Cole expression. The data presented complement the available dielectric properties of tissues in the literature and can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of people to electromagnetic fields.

  1. A refractometry-based glucose analysis of body fluids. (United States)

    Zirk, Kai; Poetzschke, Harald


    In principle, refractometry appears to be a suitable method for the measurement of glucose concentrations in body fluids (such as blood and the intercellular fluid), even though the refractive index of the measured samples, as an additive property, is not specific. But, if certain conditions are fulfilled, the glucose content can be calculated using the refractive index in combination with values from a further measurement. This study describes the determination of the glucose content using refractometry in human blood serum derivates, which were selected - due to their ready availability - to be used as a model for interstitial fluid. Refractometry of body fluids requires the elimination of disturbing components from the measurement sample. First of all, a homogenous fluid (i.e. consisting of one phase) is required, so that all cells and components in suspension need to be separated out. Furthermore, certain dissolved macromolecular components which are known to disturb the measurement process must also be removed. In human serum samples which had been ultrafiltrated with a range of ultrafilters of different pore sizes, a comparative evaluation showed that only ultrafiltration through a filter with a separation limit of between 3 and 30kDa resulted in maximal reduction of the refractive index (compared to native serum), whereas ultrafilters with greater separation limits did not. The total content of osmotically active solutes (the tonicity) also exerts a clear influence. However, exemplary measurements in blood plasma fluid from one volunteer showed that the electrical conductivity is (without an additive component) directly proportional to the osmolality: physiological changes in the state of body hydration (hyperhydration and dehydration) do not lead to any considerable changes in the relation between ionised and uncharged solute particles, but instead result in a sufficiently clear dilution or concentration of the blood fluid's low molecular components. This

  2. Geometry-induced Casimir suspension of oblate bodies in fluids. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Reid, M T Homer; Intravaia, Francesco; Woolf, Alexander; Dalvit, Diego A R; Capasso, Federico; Johnson, Steven G


    We predict that a low-permittivity oblate body (disk-shaped object) above a thin metal substrate (plate with a hole) immersed in a fluid of intermediate permittivity will experience a metastable equilibrium (restoring force) near the center of the hole. Stability is the result of a geometry-induced transition in the sign of the force, from repulsive to attractive, that occurs as the disk approaches the hole--in planar or nearly planar geometries, the same material combination yields a repulsive force at all separations, in accordance with the Dzyaloshinskiĭ-Lifshitz-Pitaevskiĭ condition of fluid-induced repulsion between planar bodies. We explore the stability of the system with respect to rotations and lateral translations of the disks and demonstrate interesting transitions (bifurcations) in the rotational stability of the disks as a function of their size. Finally, we consider the reciprocal situation in which the disk-plate materials are interchanged and find that in this case the system also exhibits metastability. The forces in the system are sufficiently large to be observed in experiments and should enable measurements based on the diffusion dynamics of the suspended bodies.

  3. Many-Body Effects on the Thermodynamics of Fluids, Mixtures, and Nanoconfined Fluids. (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome


    Using expanded Wang-Landau simulations, we show that taking into account the many-body interactions results in sharp changes in the grand-canonical partition functions of single-component systems, binary mixtures, and nanoconfined fluids. The many-body contribution, modeled with a 3-body Axilrod-Teller-Muto term, results in shifts toward higher chemical potentials of the phase transitions from low-density phases to high-density phases and accounts for deviations of more than, e.g., 20% of the value of the partition function for a single-component liquid. Using the statistical mechanics formalism, we analyze how this contribution has a strong impact on some properties (e.g., pressure, coexisting densities, and enthalpy) and a moderate impact on others (e.g., Gibbs or Helmholtz free energies). We also characterize the effect of the 3-body terms on adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamic properties, thereby providing a full picture of the effect of the 3-body contribution on the thermodynamics of nanoconfined fluids.

  4. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  5. Fluids in human bodies and biomineralization – parallels to global water resources and reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skinner, H. Catherine W.; King, Helen


    The amount of surface freshwaters on Earth is remarkably small considering the human population needing drinking water to survive and to ensure water in their bodies is at that very important locale where cells operate, the transcellular fluid. Like the fluid in and on the planet, body fluid is high

  6. Standard biobanking conditions prevent evaporation of body fluid samples. (United States)

    Willemse, Eline A J; Koel-Simmelink, Marleen J A; Durieux-Lu, Sisi; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Teunissen, Charlotte E


    Pre-analytical variation in biobanking procedures, e.g., long-term storage, could confound biomarker outcomes. We investigated evaporation in various body fluids at different storage temperatures and storage durations. Biobank sample tubes (Sarstedt 72.694.007) filled with water in different volumes (50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500μl) were stored at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, room temperature (RT)) for 4.5years and weighed at regular intervals. Next, saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF were stored in different volumes (50, 250, 500, 1000μl) at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, RT) for 2years. An extra set of CSF was stored in tubes with safe-lock cap (Eppendorf 0030 120.086) instead of a screw cap with o-ring. No evaporation of water stored in biobanking tubes at -80°C or -20°C occurred over 4.5years. Storage of saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF at -80°C or -20°C, monitored over 2years, protected these samples from evaporation too. At 4°C, evaporation was minor, approximately 1.5% (50μl) or 0% (1ml) yearly, where at RT it ranged from 38% (50μl) to 2% (1ml). Differences were observed neither between different body fluids, nor between tube caps. Our data provide support for long-term biobanking conform current biobanking guidelines, encouraging retrospective use of clinical cohorts.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics Demonstration of Rigid Bodies in Motion (United States)

    Camarena, Ernesto; Vu, Bruce T.


    The Design Analysis Branch (NE-Ml) at the Kennedy Space Center has not had the ability to accurately couple Rigid Body Dynamics (RBD) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). OVERFLOW-D is a flow solver that has been developed by NASA to have the capability to analyze and simulate dynamic motions with up to six Degrees of Freedom (6-DOF). Two simulations were prepared over the course of the internship to demonstrate 6DOF motion of rigid bodies under aerodynamic loading. The geometries in the simulations were based on a conceptual Space Launch System (SLS). The first simulation that was prepared and computed was the motion of a Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) as it separates from its core stage. To reduce computational time during the development of the simulation, only half of the physical domain with respect to the symmetry plane was simulated. Then a full solution was prepared and computed. The second simulation was a model of the SLS as it departs from a launch pad under a 20 knot crosswind. This simulation was reduced to Two Dimensions (2D) to reduce both preparation and computation time. By allowing 2-DOF for translations and 1-DOF for rotation, the simulation predicted unrealistic rotation. The simulation was then constrained to only allow translations.

  8. Current Applications of Chromatographic Methods in the Study of Human Body Fluids for Diagnosing Disorders. (United States)

    Jóźwik, Jagoda; Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna


    Currently, analysis of various human body fluids is one of the most essential and promising approaches to enable the discovery of biomarkers or pathophysiological mechanisms for disorders and diseases. Analysis of these fluids is challenging due to their complex composition and unique characteristics. Development of new analytical methods in this field has made it possible to analyze body fluids with higher selectivity, sensitivity, and precision. The composition and concentration of analytes in body fluids are most often determined by chromatography-based techniques. There is no doubt that proper use of knowledge that comes from a better understanding of the role of body fluids requires the cooperation of scientists of diverse specializations, including analytical chemists, biologists, and physicians. This article summarizes current knowledge about the application of different chromatographic methods in analyses of a wide range of compounds in human body fluids in order to diagnose certain diseases and disorders.

  9. Corrosion and tribocorrosion of hafnium in simulated body fluids. (United States)

    Rituerto Sin, J; Neville, A; Emami, N


    Hafnium is a passive metal with good biocompatibility and osteogenesis, however, little is known about its resistance to wear and corrosion in biological environments. The corrosion and tribocorrosion behavior of hafnium and commercially pure (CP) titanium in simulated body fluids were investigated using electrochemical techniques. Cyclic polarization scans and open circuit potential measurements were performed in 0.9% NaCl solution and 25% bovine calf serum solution to assess the effect of organic species on the corrosion behavior of the metal. A pin-on-plate configuration tribometer and a three electrode electrochemical cell were integrated to investigate the tribocorrosion performance of the studied materials. The results showed that hafnium has good corrosion resistance. The corrosion density currents measured in its passive state were lower than those measured in the case of CP titanium; however, it showed a higher tendency to suffer from localized corrosion, which was more acute when imperfections were present on the surface. The electrochemical breakdown of the oxide layer was retarded in the presence of proteins. Tribocorrosion tests showed that hafnium has the ability to quickly repassivate after the oxide layer was damaged; however, it showed higher volumetric loss than CP titanium in equivalent wear-corrosion conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1157-1164, 2014.

  10. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is a body fluid biomarker for glial pathology in human disease. (United States)

    Petzold, Axel


    This review on the role of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as a biomarker for astroglial pathology in neurological diseases provides background to protein synthesis, assembly, function and degeneration. Qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques for the investigation of human tissue and biological fluid samples are discussed including partial lack of parallelism and multiplexing capabilities. Pathological implications are reviewed in view of immunocytochemical, cell-culture and genetic findings. Particular emphasis is given to neurodegeneration related to autoimmune astrocytopathies and to genetic gain of function mutations. The current literature on body fluid levels of GFAP in human disease is summarised and illustrated by disease specific meta-analyses. In addition to the role of GFAP as a diagnostic biomarker for chronic disease, there are important data on the prognostic value for acute conditions. The published evidence permits to classify the dominant GFAP signatures in biological fluids. This classification may serve as a template for supporting diagnostic criteria of autoimmune astrocytopathies, monitoring disease progression in toxic gain of function mutations, clinical treatment trials (secondary outcome and toxicity biomarker) and provide prognostic information in neurocritical care if used within well defined time-frames.

  11. Influence of Brownian Diffusion on Levitation of Bodies in Magnetic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bashtovoi


    Full Text Available The present work deals with experimental investigation of the levitation of magnetic and non-magnetic bodies in a magnetic fluid when essentially influenced by Brownian diffusion of magnetic particles in it. It is established that the point of levitation of bodies in a magnetic fluid varies with time.

  12. A DLM/FD method for fluid/flexible-body interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Zhaosheng


    In this study, we extended the distributed-Lagrange-multiplier/fictitious-domain (DLM/FD) formulation of Glowinski et al. [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 25 (1999) 755] for the fluid/rigid-body interactions to deal with the fluid/flexible-body interactions by replacing Newton’s equations of motion for the

  13. Evaluation of Human Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee


    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Because the etiologic agents of these infections are abundant in nature, their isolation from biopsy material or sterile body fluids is needed to document infection. This review evaluates and discusses different human body fluids used to diagnose fungal infections.

  14. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids (United States)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.


    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  15. The detection and discrimination of human body fluids using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Orphanou, Charlotte-Maria; Walton-Williams, Laura; Mountain, Harry; Cassella, John


    Blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions are the main human body fluids encountered at crime scenes. Currently presumptive tests are routinely utilised to indicate the presence of body fluids, although these are often subject to false positives and limited to particular body fluids. Over the last decade more sensitive and specific body fluid identification methods have been explored, such as mRNA analysis and proteomics, although these are not yet appropriate for routine application. This research investigated the application of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for the detection and discrimination of human blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. The results demonstrated that ATR FT-IR spectroscopy can detect and distinguish between these body fluids based on the unique spectral pattern, combination of peaks and peak frequencies corresponding to the macromolecule groups common within biological material. Comparisons with known abundant proteins relevant to each body fluid were also analysed to enable specific peaks to be attributed to the relevant protein components, which further reinforced the discrimination and identification of each body fluid. Overall, this preliminary research has demonstrated the potential for ATR FT-IR spectroscopy to be utilised in the routine confirmatory screening of biological evidence due to its quick and robust application within forensic science.

  16. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens in body fluids, using specific antibody-coated staphylococci. (United States)

    Suksanong, M; Dajani, A S


    Protein A-rich staphylococci coated with Haemophilus influenzae type b antiserum agglutinate specifically with homologous bacterial cells or with cell-free supernatant fluids of cultures of the organism. Antibody-coated staphylococci were used to detect soluble antigens in body fluids of patients infected with H. influenzae type b. Cerebrospinal fluid from 36 cases of meningitis caused by this orgainsm showed positive coagglutination tests in 86% of patients prior to initiation of therapy. Antigens could be detected in 46% of sterile cerebrospinal fluid specimens obtained from the same cases 1 to 10 days after therapy. Soluble antigens were also detectable in sera (58%) and urine specimens (67%) of patients with H. influenzae type b septicemia, when such specimens were tested within 10 days of onset of illness. No antigen could be detected in body fluids beyond 10 days. The coagglutination test was positive in 57% of all body fluids examined; contercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE) was positive in only 27%. All specimens positive by CCIE were also positive by coagglutination. No false-positive reactions were noted by either test in body fluids from controls. The coagglutination test is simple, specific, and more sensitive than the CCIE method and could be a valuable tool for detecting antigens in body fluids of patients with various infections.

  17. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer


    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  18. Modelling of fluid-structure interaction with multiphase viscous flows using an immersed-body method (United States)

    Yang, P.; Xiang, J.; Fang, F.; Pavlidis, D.; Latham, J.-P.; Pain, C. C.


    An immersed-body method is developed here to model fluid-structure interaction for multiphase viscous flows. It does this by coupling a finite element multiphase fluid model and a combined finite-discrete element solid model. A coupling term containing the fluid stresses is introduced within a thin shell mesh surrounding the solid surface. The thin shell mesh acts as a numerical delta function in order to help apply the solid-fluid boundary conditions. When used with an advanced interface capturing method, the immersed-body method has the capability to solve problems with fluid-solid interfaces in the presence of multiphase fluid-fluid interfaces. Importantly, the solid-fluid coupling terms are treated implicitly to enable larger time steps to be used. This two-way coupling method has been validated by three numerical test cases: a free falling cylinder in a fluid at rest, elastic membrane and a collapsing column of water moving an initially stationary solid square. A fourth simulation example is of a water-air interface with a floating solid square being moved around by complex hydrodynamic flows including wave breaking. The results show that the immersed-body method is an effective approach for two-way solid-fluid coupling in multiphase viscous flows.

  19. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science. (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung


    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science.

  20. Bioassay of body fluids, experiment M073. [biochemical changes caused by space flight conditions (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.


    Body fluids were assayed in this experiment to demonstrate changes which might have occurred during the 56-day chamber study in fluid and electrolyte balance, in regulation of calcium metabolism, in overall physiological and emotional adaptation to the environment, and in regulation of metabolic processes.

  1. Messenger RNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification: research and applications. (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Su-hua; Di, Zhou; Zhao, Shu-min; Li, Cheng-tao


    Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. However, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time consumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Recently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profiling, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibility with current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review, we provided an overview of the present knowledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possible practical application to forensic casework.

  2. Quantitative body fluid proteomics in medicine - A focus on minimal invasiveness. (United States)

    Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő; Márkus, Bernadett; Deák, Eszter; Csutak, Adrienne; Tőzsér, József


    Identification of new biomarkers specific for various pathological conditions is an important field in medical sciences. Body fluids have emerging potential in biomarker studies especially those which are continuously available and can be collected by non-invasive means. Changes in the protein composition of body fluids such as tears, saliva, sweat, etc. may provide information on both local and systemic conditions of medical relevance. In this review, our aim is to discuss the quantitative proteomics techniques used in biomarker studies, and to present advances in quantitative body fluid proteomics of non-invasively collectable body fluids with relevance to biomarker identification. The advantages and limitations of the widely used quantitative proteomics techniques are also presented. Based on the reviewed literature, we suggest an ideal pipeline for body fluid analyses aiming at biomarkers discoveries: starting from identification of biomarker candidates by shotgun quantitative proteomics or protein arrays, through verification of potential biomarkers by targeted mass spectrometry, to the antibody-based validation of biomarkers. The importance of body fluids as a rich source of biomarkers is discussed.

  3. Messenger RNA Profiling for Forensic Body Fluid Identifica-tion:Research and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; ZHANG Su-hua; ZHOU Di; ZHAO Shu-min; LI Cheng-tao


    Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link betw een sample donors and actual criminal acts. How ev-er, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time con-sumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Re-cently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP ) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profil-ing, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibilitywith current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review ,we provided an overview of the present know ledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possi-ble practical application to forensic casew ork.

  4. Genome-wide methylation profiling and a multiplex construction for the identification of body fluids using epigenetic markers. (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; An, Ja Hyun; Jung, Sang-Eun; Oh, Yu Na; Lee, Eun Young; Choi, Ajin; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin


    The identification of body fluids found at crime scenes can contribute to solving crimes by providing important insights into crime scene reconstruction. In the present study, body fluid-specific epigenetic marker candidates were identified from genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of 42 body fluid samples including blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. A total of 64 CpG sites were selected as body fluid-specific marker candidates by having more than 20% discrepancy in DNA methylation status between a certain type of body fluid and other types of body fluids and to have methylation or unmethylation pattern only in a particular type of body fluid. From further locus-specific methylation analysis in additional samples, 1 to 3 CpG sites were selected for each body fluid. Then, a multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction was constructed to analyze methylation status of 8 body fluid-specific CpG sites. The developed multiplex reaction positively identifies blood, saliva, semen and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ in one reaction, and produces successful DNA methylation profiles in aged or mixed samples. Although it remains to be investigated whether this approach is more sensitive, more practical than RNA- or peptide-based assays and whether it can be successfully applied to forensic casework, the results of the present study will be useful for the forensic investigators dealing with body fluid samples.

  5. Potential forensic application of DNA methylation profiling to body fluid identification. (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Park, Myung Jin; Choi, Ajin; An, Ja Hyun; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin


    DNA analysis of various body fluid stains at crime scenes facilitates the identification of individuals but does not currently determine the type and origin of the biological material. Recent advances in whole genome epigenetic analysis indicate that chromosome pieces called tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) show different DNA methylation profiles according to the type of cell or tissue. We examined the potential of tissue-specific differential DNA methylation for body fluid identification. Five tDMRs for the genes DACT1, USP49, HOXA4, PFN3, and PRMT2 were selected, and DNA methylation profiles for these tDMRs were produced by bisulfite sequencing using pooled DNA from blood, saliva, semen, menstrual blood, and vaginal fluid. The tDMRs for DACT1 and USP49 showed semen-specific hypomethylation, and the tDMRs for HOXA4, PFN3, and PRMT2 displayed varying degrees of methylation according to the type of body fluid. Preliminary tests using methylation-specific PCR for the DACT1 and USP49 tDMRs showed that these two markers could be used successfully to identify semen samples including sperm cells. Body fluid-specific differential DNA methylation may be a promising indicator for body fluid identification. Because DNA methylation profiling uses the same biological source of DNA for individual identification profiling, the determination of more body fluid-specific tDMRs and the development of convenient tDMR analysis methods will facilitate the broad implementation of body fluid identification in forensic casework.

  6. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies (United States)

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra


    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  7. Chaos and Integrability in Ideal Body-Fluid Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby


    of additional conserved quantities is discussed. A survey of the integrable motions of the system is given. Integrability is demonstrated explicitly by exploiting conservation laws to devise reduced phase space coordinates in which the orbits of the system are the contours of an energy landscape. The existence...... of relative equilibria, their stability, and the qualitatively dierent kinds of motion is studied analytically and numerically. We then perform small parametric perturbations destroying the symmetry or conservation law that makes the system integrable. The emergence of chaos in the system is diagnosed......, no assumptions are made on the body shape or on its internal mass distribution. There may also be an arbitrary and constant circulation around the body. The governing equations reduce to an autonomous set of coupled ODEs for the vortex positions and the body position and orientation. The form of these equations...

  8. Position feedback control of a nonmagnetic body levitated in magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H; Nam, Y J; Park, M K [Graduate School, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Yamane, R [Kokushikan University, Tokyo 154-8515 (Japan)], E-mail:


    This paper is concerned with the position feedback control of a magnetic fluid actuator which is characterized by the passive levitation of a nonmagnetic body immersed in a magnetic fluid under magnetic fields. First of all, the magnetic fluid actuator is designed based on the ferrohydrostatic relation. After manufacturing the actuator, its static and dynamic characteristics are investigated experimentally. With the aid of the dynamic governing relation obtained experimentally and the proportional-derivative controller, the position tracking control of the actuator is carried out both theoretically and experimentally. As a result, the applicability of the proposed magnetic fluid actuator to various engineering devices is verified.

  9. Correlations between Different Heavy Metals in Diverse Body Fluids: Studies of Human Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón


    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that exposure to heavy metals may impair male reproduction. To measure the effect produced by low doses of heavy metals on semen parameters, it is necessary to clarify in which body fluids those measurements must be performed. Sixty-one men attending infertility clinics participated in our study. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury were measured in whole blood, blood plasma, and seminal plasma using spectroanalytical and electrochemical methods. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. For statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlations, mean comparison tests, and discriminant analysis were calculated. Significant correlations between the measured concentrations of the three heavy metals in the same biological fluids were observed. However, no similar relationship was seen when comparing the concentrations in different body fluids of the same metal. According to our results and previous publications, seminal plasma might be the best body fluid for assessing impairment of human semen parameters.

  10. Disorders of body fluids, sodium and potassium in chronic renal failure. (United States)

    Mitch, W E; Wilcox, C S


    A stable volume and composition of extracellular fluid are essential for normal functioning of the body. Since the kidney is primarily responsible for regulating extracellular fluid, loss of kidney function should have catastrophic consequences. Fortunately, even with loss of more than 90 percent of renal function, a remarkable capacity to regulate body fluid volumes and sodium and potassium persists. Nevertheless, this capacity is limited to chronic renal disease and this has important consequences for clinical management of these patients. How can sodium and potassium homeostasis be assessed? Methods for evaluating the steady-state regulation of sodium include measurement of body fluids and their distribution in different compartments and measurement of exchangeable and intracellular sodium. Short-term regulation of body sodium can be assessed from measurement of sodium balance during changes in dietary salt. Potassium is predominantly contained within cells and thus the assessment of its regulation requires special emphasis on measurement of steady-state body stores and potassium distribution across cell membranes. However, the methods used to make all of these measurements require assumptions that may not hold in the altered state of uremia. This raises problems in interpretation requiring critical analysis before conclusions can be made regarding sodium and potassium homeostasis in patients with chronic renal failure. This review focuses on abnormalities of body fluids, sodium and potassium in patients with creatinine clearances of less than 20 ml/min due to chronic renal failure and the impact of conservative therapy, dialysis and renal transplantation on these patients.

  11. Effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on body fluid distribution in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Jensen, Martin Bach; Frandsen, E.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) in catabolic patients we examined the impact of GH on body fluid distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing elective abdominal surgery. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Twenty-four patients (14 female, 10 male...... at day -2 and at day 7, and body composition was estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance. Changes in body weight and fluid balance were recorded and hence intracellular volume was assessed. RESULTS: During placebo treatment body weight decreased 4.3 +/- 0.6 kg; during GH treatment body.......05). Plasma renin and aldosterone remained unchanged in both study groups. CONCLUSION: Body weight, plasma volume and intracellular volume is preserved during GH treatment in catabolic patients and ECV is increased. From a therapeutic point of view these effects may be desirable under conditions of surgical...

  12. Survey of 800+ datasets from human tissue and body fluid reveals XenomiRs are likely artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Wenjing; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner; Holm, Anja


    the main bloodstream (such as brain and cerebro-spinal fluids). Interestingly, the majority (81%) of body fluid xenomiRs stem from rodents, which are rare human dietary contributions, but common laboratory animals. Body fluid samples from the same studies tend to group together when clustered by xenomi...

  13. Control of fluid-containing rotating rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Gurchenkov, Anatoly A


    This book is devoted to the study of the dynamics of rotating bodies with cavities containing liquid. Two basic classes of motions are analyzed: rotation and libration. Cases of complete and partial filling of cavities with ideal liquid and complete filling with viscous liquid are treated. The volume presents a method for obtaining relations between angular velocities perpendicular to main rotation and external force momentums, which are treated as control. The developed models and methods of solving dynamical problems as well as numerical methods for solving problems of optimal control can be

  14. Guidelines for uniform reporting of body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Khalil, Michael


    of studies. This guideline by the BioMS-eu consortium is aimed at setting a standard for the reporting of future body fluid biomarker research studies in neurologic disorders. We anticipate that following these guidelines will help to accelerate the selection of biomarkers for clinical development.......OBJECTIVE: The aim of these guidelines is to make the process of reporting body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders more uniform and transparent, in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. Although biomarkers have been around for decades......-point uniform reporting format ranging from introduction, materials and methods, through to results and discussion. Each item is discussed in detail in the guidance report. CONCLUSIONS: To enhance the future development of body fluid biomarkers, it will be important to standardize the reporting...

  15. Methylation Markers for the Identification of Body Fluids and Tissues from Forensic Trace Evidence. (United States)

    Forat, Sophia; Huettel, Bruno; Reinhardt, Richard; Fimmers, Rolf; Haidl, Gerhard; Denschlag, Dominik; Olek, Klaus


    The identification of body fluids is an essential tool for clarifying the course of events at a criminal site. The analytical problem is the fact that the biological material has been very often exposed to detrimental exogenous influences. Thereby, the molecular substrates used for the identification of the traces may become degraded. So far, most protocols utilize cell specific proteins or RNAs. Instead of measuring these more sensitive compounds this paper describes the application of the differential DNA-methylation. As a result of two genome wide screenings with the Illumina HumanMethylation BeadChips 27 and 450k we identified 150 candidate loci revealing differential methylation with regard to the body fluids venous blood, menstrual blood, vaginal fluid, saliva and sperm. Among them we selected 9 loci as the most promising markers. For the final determination of the methylation degree we applied the SNuPE-method. Because the degree of methylation might be modified by various endogenous and exogenous factors, we tested each marker with approximately 100 samples of each target fluid in a validation study. The stability of the detection procedure is proved in various simulated forensic surroundings according to standardized conditions. We studied the potential influence of 12 relatively common tumors on the methylation of the 9 markers. For this purpose the target fluids of 34 patients have been analysed. Only the cervix carcinoma might have an remarkable effect because impairing the signal of both vaginal markers. Using the Illumina MiSeq device we tested the potential influence of cis acting sequence variants on the methylation degree of the 9 markers in the specific body fluid DNA of 50 individuals. For 4 marker loci we observed such an influence either by sole SNPs or haplotypes. The identification of each target fluid is possible in arbitrary mixtures with the remaining four body fluids. The sensitivity of the individual body fluid tests is in the same range

  16. Dynamic analysis of a floating body in the fluid by using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Chul Woong; Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Kyung Chang [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper describes a method for the prediction of behavior of a floating-type structure using an experiment and numerical analysis according to the various marine conditions. The sloshing simulation is considered to verify the behavior of fluid. The fluid is expressed by a set of particles, the motion of fluid is calculated by using SPH (Smoothed particle hydrodynamics). Numerical results are compared with experiments. A wave tank and linear shaker are used in order to express the sloshing environment. Monaghan boundary force is employed to calculate the interacting force between fluid and boundary. Four wave periods are used to consider the various marine conditions in the fluid-structure interacting simulation. The longitudinal motion of a floating body is compared to each other. As a result, the solution of numerical analysis shows the similar tendency compared to the experiment results.

  17. Effect of lower-body positive pressure on postural fluid shifts in men (United States)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Kravik, S. E.; Greenleaf, J. E.


    The effect of the lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) on the orthostatic fluid and protein shifts were investigated in five men during combined tilt-table/antigravity suit inflation and deflation experiments. Changes in the mass densities of venous blood and plasma were measured and the values were used to calculate the densities of erythrocytes, whole-body blood, and shifted fluid. It was found that the application of 60 mm Hg LBPP during 60-deg head-up tilt prevented about half of the postural hemoconcentration occurring during passive head-up tilt.

  18. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Sikirzhytski


    Full Text Available Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence.

  19. Corrosion behavior of Mg and Mg-Zn alloys in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jia-cheng; WU Sha; QIAO Li-ying; WANG Yong


    The corrosion behavior of Mg and Mg-Zn in simulated body fluid was studied.The mass loss of pure Mg,Mg-Zn-Zr and Mg-Zn-Zr-Y in simulated body fluid was measured using photovoltaic scale meter.Corrosion rate was determined through electrochemical tests.Finally,the corrosion mechanism was tbermodynamically studied.The results show that the corrosion rate decreases with the lapse of time for both pure Mg and Mg alloys.The purer the alloy,the borer the corrosion resistance exhibits.The corrosion behavior of Mg alloy is improved by the addition of trace Y.

  20. Many-fluid Onsager density functional theories for orientational ordering in mixtures of anisotropic hard-body fluids. (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, George; Varga, Szabolcs


    The extension of Onsager's second-virial theory [L. Onsager, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 51, 627 (1949)] for the orientational ordering of hard rods to mixtures of nonspherical hard bodies with finite length-to-breadth ratios is examined using the decoupling approximations of Parsons [Phys. Rev. A 19, 1225 (1979)] and Lee [J. Chem. Phys. 86, 6567 (1987); 89, 7036 (1988)]. Invariably the extension of the Parsons-Lee (PL) theory to mixtures has in the past involved a van der Waals one-fluid treatment in which the properties of the mixture are approximated by those of a reference one-component hard-sphere fluid with an effective diameter which depends on the composition of the mixture and the molecular parameters of the various components; commonly this is achieved by equating the molecular volumes of the effective hard sphere and of the components in the mixture and is referred to as the PL theory of mixtures. It is well known that a one-fluid treatment is not the most appropriate for the description of the thermodynamic properties of isotropic fluids, and inadequacies are often rectified with a many-fluid (MF) theory. Here, we examine MF theories which are developed from the virial theorem and the virial expansion of the Helmholtz free energy of anisotropic fluid mixtures. The use of the decoupling approximation of the pair distribution function at the level of a multicomponent hard-sphere reference system leads to our MF Parsons (MFP) theory of anisotropic mixtures. Alternatively the mapping of the virial coefficients of the hard-body mixtures onto those of equivalent hard-sphere systems leads to our MF Lee (MFL) theory. The description of the isotropic-nematic phase behavior of binary mixtures of hard Gaussian overlap particles is used to assess the adequacy of the four different theories, namely, the original second-virial theory of Onsager, the usual PL one-fluid theory, and the MF theories based on the Lee (MFL) and Parsons (MFP) approaches. A comparison with the

  1. Survey of 800+ datasets from human tissue and body fluid reveals XenomiRs are likely artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Wenjing; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner; Holm, Anja;


    -study in the field, surveying the presence and abundances of cross-species miRNAs (xenomiRs) in 824 sequencing datasets from various human tissues and body fluids. We find that xenomiRs are commonly present in tissues (17%) and body fluids (69%), however the abundances are low, comprising 0.001% of host human mi......RNA counts. Further, we do not detect a significant enrichment of xenomiRs in sequencing data originating from tissues and body fluids that are exposed to dietary intake (such as liver). Likewise, there is no significant depletion of xenomiRs in tissues and body fluids that are relatively separated from...

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Overnight Body Fluid Shift before and after Hemodialysis (United States)

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Mihalache, Alexandra; Pruijm, Menno; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Cornette, Françoise; Bassi, Isabelle; Haba Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël


    Background and objectives Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fluid overload may promote obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ESRD through an overnight fluid shift from the legs to the neck soft tissues. Body fluid shift and severity of obstructive sleep apnea before and after hemodialysis were compared in patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Seventeen patients with hemodialysis and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were included. Polysomnographies were performed the night before and after hemodialysis to assess obstructive sleep apnea, and bioimpedance was used to measure fluid overload and leg fluid volume. Results The mean overnight rostral fluid shift was 1.27±0.41 L prehemodialysis; it correlated positively with fluid overload volume (r=0.39; P=0.02) and was significantly lower posthemodialysis (0.78±0.38 L; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index before and after hemodialysis (46.8±22.0 versus 42.1±18.6 per hour; P=0.21), but obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly lower posthemodialysis (−10.1±10.8 per hour) in the group of 12 patients, with a concomitant reduction of fluid overload compared with participants without change in fluid overload (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index +8.2±16.1 per hour; P<0.01). A lower fluid overload after hemodialysis was significantly correlated (r=0.49; P=0.04) with a lower obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. Fluid overload—assessed by bioimpedance—was the best predictor of the change in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index observed after hemodialysis (standardized r=−0.68; P=0.01) in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions Fluid overload influences overnight rostral fluid shift and obstructive sleep apnea severity in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Although no benefit of hemodialysis on obstructive sleep apnea severity

  3. Analysis of acoustic scattering from fluid bodies using a multipoint source model. (United States)

    Boag, A; Leviatan, Y


    A moment-method solution is presented for the problem of acoustic scattering from homogeneous fluid bodies. It uses fictitious isotropic point sources to simulate both the field scattered by the body and the field inside the body and, in turn, point-matches the continuity conditions for the normal component of the velocity and for the pressure across the surface of the body. The procedure is simple to execute and is general in that bodies of arbitrary smooth shape can be handled effectively. Perfectly rigid bodies are treated as reduced cases of the general procedure. Results are given and compared with available analytic solutions, which demonstrate the very good performance of the procedure.

  4. Changes in body fluid compartments on re-induction to high altitude and effect of diuretics (United States)

    Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Tyagi, A. K.; Bhagat, Maj J. K.; Parshad, R.; Divekar, H. M.


    Studies were carried out in 29 healthy young adults in the Indian Army stationed in the plains and posted at an elevation of 3500 m for more than 6 months. After exposure to a low elevation in Delhi (260 m) for 3 weeks they were reinduced to a height of 3500 m. The subjects were divided into three groups, each of which was treated with either placebo or acetazolamide or spironolactone. The drug treatment was started immediately after their landing at high altitude and continued for 2 days only. Total body water, extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid, plasma volume, blood pH, PaO2, PaCO2 and blood viscosity were determined on exposure at Delhi and on re-induction to high altitude. Plasma volume was increased after the descent from high altitude and remained high for up to 21 day's study. This increased plasma volume may have some significance in the pathogenesis of pulmonary oedema. Total body water and intracellular fluid content were increased at 260 m elevation, while extracellular fluid decreased. On re-induction there was a decrease in total body water with no change in the extracellular fluid content.

  5. Pegmatite Fluids of Different Origins and Their Implications for Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆麟; 杨荣勇; 等


    Characteristics of ore-forming fluids as inferred from detailed studies of inclusions indicate that pegmatites may have different origins.For example,the granitic pegmatite at Mufushan is originated from magma differentiation at 1100-200℃,while the No.3 Pegmatite Vein in Xinjiang may owe its origin to a pegmatitic magma produced via metamorphic anatexis at 1140-200℃.Pegmatite fluids of the above two types are a melt-liquid system and may evolve into a solid-melt or solid-liquid system that would have a critical bearing on metasomatism and intergranular solutions.The Minxi pegmatite,on the oter hand,resulted from metamorphic differentiation,with its fluid(formed at 400-180℃)exhibiting many features of metamorphism.Pegmatites of different origins are distributed in tectonic units of different characters and are different bot in the nature of ore-foming fluid and in the source of ore-metals.This concept of polygene launches a challenge to the traditional belief that pegmatite is exclusively originated from magma differentiation and may be helphfou for the establishment of a new theory of pegmatite genesis.

  6. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christel Hougård; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben;


    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of miRN...

  7. Lecture notes on: Electrical theory behind the measurement of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    The lecture notes describe how body fluid volumes can be measured/estimated using the technique bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The opening chapters assume little or none technical/mathematical knowledge and can hopefully be read by anyone interested in the techneque. Later chapters become more...

  8. Modification-specific proteomic analysis of glycoproteins in human body fluids by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Hägglund, Per; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard


    -glycosylated proteins in body fluids and other complex samples. An approach for identification of N-glycosylated proteins and mapping of their glycosylation sites is described. In this approach, glycoproteins are initially selectively purified by lectin chromatography. Following tryptic digestion, glycopeptides...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩荣; 郭丽霞; 李季; 符佳; 胡玲香


    Because of no exact name about obesity in traditional Chinese medicine, clinically there have no unified syndrome types about obesity. The present paper uses the original syndrome differentiation of body fluid and selects classical acupuncture and moxibustion prescriptions to treat obesity, which is conducive to further systematizing classical acupuncture and moxibustion prescriptions and providing sufficient basis for clinical popularization.

  10. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben;


    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of mi...

  11. Comparative study of the biodegradability of porous silicon films in simulated body fluid. (United States)

    Peckham, J; Andrews, G T


    The biodegradability of oxidized microporous, mesoporous and macroporous silicon films in a simulated body fluid with ion concentrations similar to those found in human blood plasma were studied using gravimetry. Film dissolution rates were determined by periodically weighing the samples after removal from the fluid. The dissolution rates for microporous silicon were found to be higher than those for mesoporous silicon of comparable porosity. The dissolution rate of macroporous silicon was much lower than that for either microporous or mesoporous silicon. This is attributed to the fact that its specific surface area is much lower than that of microporous and mesoporous silicon. Using an equation adapted from [Surf. Sci. Lett. 306 (1994), L550-L554], the dissolution rate of porous silicon in simulated body fluid can be estimated if the film thickness and specific surface area are known.

  12. Fluid and salt supplementation effect on body hydration and electrolyte homeostasis during bed rest and ambulation (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai A.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.


    Bed rest (BR) induces significant urinary and blood electrolyte changes, but little is known about the effect of fluid and salt supplements (FSS) on catabolism, hydration and electrolytes. The aim was to measure the effect of FSS on catabolism, body hydration and electrolytes during BR. Studies were done during 7 days of a pre-bed rest period and during 30 days of a rigorous bed rest period. Thirty male athletes aged, 24.6±7.6 years were chosen as subjects. They were divided into three groups: unsupplemented ambulatory control subjects (UACS), unsupplemented bed rested subjects (UBRS) and supplemented bed rested subjects (SBRS). The UBRS and SBRS groups were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 30 days. The SBRS daily took 30 ml water per kg body weight and 0.1 sodium chloride per kg body weight. Plasma sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels, urinary Na, K, Ca and Mg excretion, plasma osmolality, plasma protein level, whole blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) level increased significantly ( p≤0.05), while plasma volume (PV), body weight, body fat, peak oxygen uptake, food and fluid intake decreased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the UBRS group when compared with the SBRS and UACS groups. In contrast, plasma and urinary electrolytes, osmolality, protein level, whole blood Hct and Hb level decreased significantly ( p≤0.05), while PV, fluid intake, body weight and peak oxygen uptake increased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the SBRS group when compared with the UBRS group. The measured parameters did not change significantly in the UACS group when compared with their baseline control values. The data indicate that FSS stabilizes electrolytes and body hydration during BR, while BR alone induces significant changes in electrolytes and body hydration. We conclude that FSS may be used to prevent catabolism and normalize body hydration status and electrolyte values during BR.

  13. Handling and storage of human body fluids for analysis of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuana Yuana


    Full Text Available Because procedures of handling and storage of body fluids affect numbers and composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs, standardization is important to ensure reliable and comparable measurements of EVs in a clinical environment. We aimed to develop standard protocols for handling and storage of human body fluids for EV analysis. Conditions such as centrifugation, single freeze–thaw cycle, effect of time delay between blood collection and plasma preparation and storage were investigated. Plasma is the most commonly studied body fluid in EV research. We mainly focused on EVs originating from platelets and erythrocytes and investigated the behaviour of these 2 types of EVs independently as well as in plasma samples of healthy subjects. EVs in urine and saliva were also studied for comparison. All samples were analysed simultaneously before and after freeze–thawing by resistive pulse sensing, nanoparticle tracking analysis, conventional flow cytometry (FCM and transmission (scanning electron microscopy. Our main finding is that the effect of centrifugation markedly depends on the cellular origin of EVs. Whereas erythrocyte EVs remain present as single EVs after centrifugation, platelet EVs form aggregates, which affect their measured concentration in plasma. Single erythrocyte and platelet EVs are present mainly in the range of 100–200 nm, far below the lower limit of what can be measured by conventional FCM. Furthermore, the effects of single freeze–thaw cycle, time delay between blood collection and plasma preparation up to 1 hour and storage up to 1 year are insignificant (p>0.05 on the measured concentration and diameter of EVs from erythrocyte and platelet concentrates and EVs in plasma, urine and saliva. In conclusion, in standard protocols for EV studies, centrifugation to isolate EVs from collected body fluids should be avoided. Freezing and storage of collected body fluids, albeit their insignificant effects, should be performed

  14. Uranium(VI) Binding Forms in Selected Human Body Fluids: Thermodynamic Calculations versus Spectroscopic Measurements. (United States)

    Osman, Alfatih A A; Geipel, Gerhard; Barkleit, Astrid; Bernhard, Gert


    Human exposure to uranium increasingly becomes a subject of interest in many scientific disciplines such as environmental medicine, toxicology, and radiation protection. Knowledge about uranium chemical binding forms(speciation) in human body fluids can be of great importance to understand not only its biokinetics but also its relevance in risk assessment and in designing decorporation therapy in the case of accidental overexposure. In this study, thermodynamic calculations of uranium speciation in relevant simulated and original body fluids were compared with spectroscopic data after ex-situ uranium addition. For the first time, experimental data on U(VI) speciation in body fluids (saliva, sweat, urine) was obtained by means of cryogenic time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (cryo-TRLFS) at 153 K. By using the time dependency of fluorescence decay and the band positions of the emission spectra, various uranyl complexes were demonstrated in the studied samples. The variations of the body fluids in terms of chemical composition, pH, and ionic strength resulted in different binding forms of U(VI). The speciation of U(VI) in saliva and in urine was affected by the presence of bioorganic ligands, whereas in sweat, the distribution depends mainly on inorganic ligands. We also elucidated the role of biological buffers, i.e., phosphate (H(2)PO(4−)/HPO(4)(2−)) on U(VI) distribution, and the system Ca(2+)/UO(2)(2+)/PO(4)(3−) was discussed in detail in both saliva and urine. The theoretical speciation calculations of the main U(VI) species in the investigated body fluids were significantly consistent with the spectroscopic data. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy showed success and reliability for direct determination of U(VI) in such biological matrices with the possibility for further improvement.

  15. Continuity and internal properties of Gulf Coast sandstones and their implications for geopressured fluid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Tyler, N.


    The intrinsic properties of the genetic sandstone units that typify many geopressured geothermal aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Gulf Coast region were systematically investigated classified, and differentiated. The following topics are coverd: structural and stratigraphic limits of sandstone reservoirs, characteristics and dimensions of Gulf Coast sandstones; fault-compartment areas; comparison of production and geologic estimates of aquifer fluid volume; geologic setting and reservoir characteristics, Wells of Opportunity; internal properties of sandstones; and implications for geopressured fluid production. (MHR)

  16. Thermal responses and body fluid balance of competitive male swimmers during a training session. (United States)

    Soler, Reynaldo; Echegaray, Marcos; Rivera, Miguel A


    Thermoregulatory and body fluid balance (BFB) responses of competitive swimmers were studied during a typical interval training session under natural field conditions. Subjects were 9 males (18.0 +/- 1.7 years; VO(2)max = 3.8 +/- 0.9 L x min(-1)) who covered 9,000 m in 180 minutes in an outdoor pool (mean water temperature = 26.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C; mean wet bulb globe temperature = 29.8 +/- 2.8 degrees C). Mean body weight (BWt) decreased by 1.8 +/- 0.5 kg (P WI) (0.1 +/- 0.2 kg) did not maintain BFB (-0.5 kg per hour) and plasma volume decreased 10.7 +/- 5.4%. During a typical training session, swimmers experienced significant body fluid losses, and WI was not enough to prevent involuntary dehydration. The magnitude of the fluid losses (2.5% of BWt) was sufficient to compromise convective thermoregulation because of the decreased plasma volume. Hence, to prevent involuntary dehydration, swimmers should be encouraged to consume an amount of fluids that equals losses throughout the training sessions.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A left-to-right shunt is accompanied by an increased plasma and blood volume. Since this is likely realized through renin/aldosterone-mediated salt and water retention, other body fluid compartments may be changed too. Therefore, we studied blood volume and body fluid compartments by a single-inject

  18. Exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in human body fluids. A short review. (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Latiff, Aishah A; Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Rosma, Ahmad


    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed.

  19. Nonlinear evolution of tidally forced inertial waves in rotating fluid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Favier, B; Baruteau, C; Ogilvie, G I


    We perform one of the first studies into the nonlinear evolution of tidally excited inertial waves in a uniformly rotating fluid body, exploring a simplified model of the fluid envelope of a planet (or the convective envelope of a solar-type star) subject to the gravitational tidal perturbations of an orbiting companion. Our model contains a perfectly rigid spherical core, which is surrounded by an envelope of incompressible uniform density fluid. The corresponding linear problem was studied in previous papers which this work extends into the nonlinear regime, at moderate Ekman numbers (the ratio of viscous to Coriolis accelerations). By performing high-resolution numerical simulations, using a combination of pseudo-spectral and spectral element methods, we investigate the effects of nonlinearities, which lead to time-dependence of the flow and the corresponding dissipation rate. Angular momentum is deposited non-uniformly, leading to the generation of significant differential rotation in the initially unifor...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei


    The Wave-making characteristics of a moving body in a two-layer fluid with free surface is investigated numerically and experimentally. The numerical analysis is based on the modified layered boundary integral equation system. The wave characteristics on the free surface and interface generated by a moving sphere and an ellipsoid is numerically simulated in both finite depth and infinite depth of lower layer model. The numerical results of the sphere are compared with the analytical results for a dipole with the same velocity in a two-layer fluid of finite depth. The dependence of the wave systems and structures on the characteristic quantities is discussed. Three kinds of measurement techniques are used in model experiments on the internal waves generated by a sphere advancing in a two-layer fluid. The effects of the varying velocity and stratification on the wavelength, wave amplitudes and the maximum half angles of internal waves are analyzed qualitatively.

  1. Diagnostic Relevance of microRNAs in Other Body Fluids Including Urine, Feces, and Saliva. (United States)

    Igaz, Ivan; Igaz, Peter


    Beside blood-borne circulating miRNAs, miRNAs have been identified in other body fluid and excrements including stool, bile, saliva, and urine. Given the direct link of these body fluids to certain organs, their analysis for potential diagnostic miRNA markers is plausible. Several independent findings underline the potential utility of stool-derived miRNAs in the diagnosis of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Given the difficulties in the diagnosis of cholangiocellular cancer, biliary miRNAs might be envisaged as useful markers. Several miRNAs have been identified in the saliva that could be associated with diseases, including tumors of the oral cavity. The urinary pool of miRNAs could be exploited for the diagnosis of urinary tract diseases and some appear to enable early diagnosis. In this chapter, we present findings supporting the potential diagnostic utility of fecal, biliary, salivary, and urinary miRNAs focusing mostly on tumors.

  2. Enrichment methodology to increase the positivity of cultures from body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Valle Daur


    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of etiological agents found in body fluids can be of critical importance for the recovery of patients suffering from potentially-severe infections, which are often followed by serious sequels. Eighty-two samples of different body fluids were analyzed using two different methods: (1 the conventional culture method (agar plating and (2 the enrichment culture technique, using the Bact/Alert® blood culture bottle. The number of positive cultures increased on average from 9.7% to 23.1% with the enrichment culture technique. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria. The enrichment method could provide a more accurate means the identifying etiological agents.

  3. Reflections on the Mechanism of Calcium Phosphate Nucleation on Titanium in Simulated Body Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. T. Cheng


    The results and main findings of studies reported in the literature in relation to the deposition of calcium phosphate on Ti in simulated body fluids are summarized. The effects of the surface hydroxyl groups and the sign of surface charge on the nucleation of calcium phosphate are reviewed. One major controversy among the conclusions of different studies is the order of adsorption of the calcium ions and the phosphate ions in the initial stage of immersion. A simple model based on the amphoteric nature of the hydroxyl groups on Ti is proposed in an attempt to delineate the nucleation process for calcium phosphate on Ti in simulated body fluids. HPO42- ions interact with the hydroxyl groups via ion exchange and/or electrostatic attraction, and Ca2+ ions, via electrostatic attraction only. There is no preferential order of adsorption. Seemingly inconsistent results in different studies possibly arise from different prior treatments of the samples, which affect the adsorption properties.

  4. Exosome levels in human body fluids: A tumor marker by themselves? (United States)

    Cappello, Francesco; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Campanella, Claudia; Bavisotto, Celeste Caruso; Marcilla, Antonio; Properzi, Francesca; Fais, Stefano


    Despite considerable research efforts, the finding of reliable tumor biomarkers remains challenging and unresolved. In recent years a novel diagnostic biomedical tool with high potential has been identified in extracellular nanovesicles or exosomes. They are released by the majority of the cells and contain detailed molecular information on the cell of origin including tumor hallmarks. Exosomes can be isolated from easy accessible body fluids, and most importantly, they can provide several biomarkers, with different levels of specificity. Recent clinical evidence shows that the levels of exosomes released into body fluids may themselves represent a predictive/diagnostic of tumors, discriminating cancer patients from healthy subjects. The aim of this review is to highlight these latest challenging findings to provide novel and groundbreaking ideas for successful tumor early diagnosis and follow-up.

  5. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun;


    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several...... body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of several thousand proteins and the red blood cell proteome has also been analyzed in depth. The liver proteome is represented with 3200 proteins. By employing high resolution MS......:// using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic...

  6. Flat Solitary Waves due to a Submerged Body Moving in a Stratified Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Gang; SU Xiao-Bing; LU Dong-Qiang; YOU Yun-Xiang; DAI Shi-Qiang


    A theoretical model for interaction of a submerged moving body with the conjugate flow in a three-layer fluid is proposed to depict the internal flat solitary wave, which is observed in experiments conducted by the present authors. A set of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations is derived for the interracial displacements. The numerical results indicate that (a) the conjugate flow due to a two-dimensional body moving at the bottom possesses an apparent behaviour with two convex interfaces; (b) the solution satisfying the existence criterion is always unique near the relatively stable state of system. Theoretical analysis is qualitatively consistent with the experimental results obtained.

  7. Wall effect on fluid-structure interactions of a tethered bluff body (United States)

    Sharma, Sumant; Raghav, Vrishank; Komerath, Narayanan; Smith, Marilyn


    Wind tunnel experiments have shown an unexplained amplification of the free motion of a tethered bluff body in a small wind tunnel relative to that in a large wind tunnel. The influence of wall proximity on fluid-structure interaction is explored using a compound pendulum motion in the plane orthogonal to a steady freestream with a doublet model for aerodynamic forces. Wall proximity amplifies a purely symmetric single degree of freedom oscillation with the addition of an out-of-phase force. The success of this simple level of simulation enables progress to develop metrics for unsteady wall interference in dynamic testing of tethered bluff bodies.

  8. Mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates regulate body fluid and acid-base balance


    Peti-Peterdi, János


    Intrarenal control mechanisms play an important role in the maintenance of body fluid and electrolyte balance and pH homeostasis. Recent discoveries of new ion transport and regulatory pathways in the distal nephron and collecting duct system have helped to better our understanding of these critical kidney functions and identified new potential therapeutic targets and approaches. In this issue of the JCI, Tokonami et al. report on the function of an exciting new paracrine mediator, the mitoch...

  9. Self-propulsion of flapping bodies in viscous fluids:Recent advances and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhao Wang; Guowei He; Xing Zhang


    Flapping-powered propulsion is used by many animals to locomote through air or water. Here we review recent experimental and numerical studies on self-propelled mechanical systems powered by a flapping motion. These studies improve our understanding of the mutual interaction between actively flapping bodies and surrounding fluids. The results obtained in these works provide not only new insights into biolocomotion but also useful information for the bio-mimetic design of artificial flyers and swimmers.

  10. Self-propulsion of flapping bodies in viscous fluids: Recent advances and perspectives (United States)

    Wang, Shizhao; He, Guowei; Zhang, Xing


    Flapping-powered propulsion is used by many animals to locomote through air or water. Here we review recent experimental and numerical studies on self-propelled mechanical systems powered by a flapping motion. These studies improve our understanding of the mutual interaction between actively flapping bodies and surrounding fluids. The results obtained in these works provide not only new insights into biolocomotion but also useful information for the biomimetic design of artificial flyers and swimmers.

  11. Role of passive body dynamics in micro-organism swimming in complex fluids (United States)

    Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert


    We investigate the role of passive body dynamics in the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids. Asymptotic analysis and linear theory are used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. The analysis is compared with a computational model of a finite length swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid. Simulations and theory agree quantitatively for small amplitude motions with low fluid elasticity (Deborah number). This may not be surprising as the theory is expected hold in these two regimes. What is more remarkable is that the predicted shape changes match the computational shape changes quantitatively for large amplitudes, even for large Deborah numbers. Shape changes only tell part of the story. Swimming speed depends on other effects as well. We see that shape changes can predict swimming speed well when either the amplitude is small (including large Deborah number) or when the Deborah number is small (including large amplitudes). It is only in the large De AND large amplitude regime where the theory breaks down and swimming speed can no longer be inferred from shape changes alone.

  12. Distribution of microRNA biomarker candidates in solid tissues and body fluids. (United States)

    Fehlmann, Tobias; Ludwig, Nicole; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas


    Small non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs, are discussed as promising biomarkers for a substantial number of human pathologies. A broad understanding in which solid tissues, cell types or body fluids a microRNA is expressed helps also to understand and to improve the suitability of miRNAs as non- or minimally-invasive disease markers. We recently reported the Human miRNA Tissue Atlas ( ) containing 105 miRNA profiles of 31 organs from 2 corpses. We subsequently added miRNA profiles measured by others and us using the same array technology as for the first version of the Human miRNA Tissue Atlas. The latter profiles stem from 163 solid organs including lung, prostate and gastric tissue, from 253 whole blood samples and 66 fractioned blood cell isolates, from body fluids including 72 serum samples, 278 plasma samples, 29 urine samples, and 16 saliva samples and from different collection and storage conditions. While most miRNAs are ubiquitous abundant in solid tissues and whole blood, we also identified miRNAs that are rather specific for tissues. Our web-based repository now hosting 982 full miRNomes all of which are measured by the same microarray technology. The knowledge of these variant abundances of miRNAs in solid tissues, in whole blood and in other body fluids is essential to judge the value of miRNAs as biomarker.

  13. "Low Testosterone Levels in Body Fluids Are Associated With Chronic Periodontitis". (United States)

    Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Malmstrom, Hans; Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Kellesarian, Tammy Varela; Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E


    There is a debate over the association between low testosterone levels in body fluids and the occurrence of chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the present systematic review was to assess whether low testosterone levels in body fluids reflect CP. In order to identify studies relevant to the focus question: "Is there a relationship between low testosterone levels in body fluids and CP?" an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to June 2016 in indexed databases using different keywords: periodontitis, chronic periodontitis, periodontal diseases, testosterone, and gonadal steroid hormones. A total of eight studies were included in the present systematic review. The number of study participants ranged from 24 to 1,838 male individuals with ages ranging from 15 to 95 years. Seven studies measured testosterone levels in serum, two studies in saliva, and one study in gingiva. Four studies reported a negative association between serum testosterone levels and CP. Two studies reported a positive association between decreased testosterone levels in serum and CP. Increased levels of salivary testosterone among patients with CP were reported in one study; whereas one study reported no significant difference in the concentration of salivary testosterone between patients with and without CP. One study identified significant increase in the metabolism of testosterone in the gingiva of patients with CP. Within the limits of the evidence available, the relationship between low testosterone levels and CP remains debatable and further longitudinal studies and control trials are needed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Gang


    This dissertation deals with the internal waves generated by a submerged moving body in stratified fluids by combining theoretical and experimental methods. Our purpose is to provide some scientific evidences for non-acoustic detection of underwater moving bodies based on the principles of dynamics of the internal waves. An approach to velocity potentials obtained by superposing Green's functions of sources and sinks was proposed for Kelvin waves at the free surface or interface in a two-layer fluid. The effects of interacting surface- and internal-wave modes induced by a dipole on the surface divergence field were investigated. A new theoretical model formulating the interaction of a two-dimensional submerged moving body with the conjugate flow in a three-layer fluid was established. An exact solution satisfying the two-dimensional Benjamin-Ono equation was obtained and the vertically propagating properties of the weakly nonlinear long waves were studied by means of the ray theory and WKB method. The above theoretical results are qualitatively consistent with those obtained in the experiments conducted by the author.

  15. Body fluid derived exosomes as a novel template for clinical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Johannes WG


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with a size of 40-100 nm that are released by different cell types from a late endosomal cellular compartment. They can be found in various body fluids including plasma, malignant ascites, urine, amniotic fluid and saliva. Exosomes contain proteins, miRNAs and mRNAs (exosome shuttle RNA, esRNA that could serve as novel platform for diagnosis. Method We isolated exosomes from amniotic fluid, saliva and urine by differential centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Marker proteins were identified by Western blot and FACS analysis after adsorption of exosomes to latex beads. We extracted esRNA from exosomes, carried out RT-PCR, and analyzed amplified products by restriction length polymorphism. Results Exosomes were positive for the marker proteins CD24, CD9, Annexin-1 and Hsp70 and displayed the correct buoyant density and orientation of antigens. In sucrose gradients the exosomal fractions contained esRNA that could be isolated with sufficient quantity for further analysis. EsRNAs were protected in exosomes from enzymatic degradation. Amniotic fluid esRNA served as template for the typing of the CD24 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs52812045. It also allowed sex determination of the fetus based on the detection of the male specific ZFY gene product. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that exosomes from body fluids carry esRNAs which can be analyzed and offers access to the transcriptome of the host organism. The exosomal lipid bilayer protects the genetic information from degradation. As the isolation of exosomes is a minimally invasive procedure, this technique opens new possibilities for diagnostics.

  16. An SV-GMR Needle Sensor-Based Estimation of Volume Density of Magnetic Fluid inside Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Gooneratne


    Full Text Available A spin-valve giant magneto-resistive (SV-GMR sensor of needle-type configuration is reported to estimate the volume density of magnetic fluid inside human body. The magnetic fluid is usually injected into human body to kill cancerous cell using hyperthermia-based treatment. To control the heat treatment, a good knowledge of temperature is very much essential. The SV-GMR-based needle-type sensor is used to measure the magnetic flux density of the magnetic fluid inside the human body from which the temperature is estimated. The needle-type sensor provides a semi-invasive approach of temperature determination.

  17. GANDALF: Graphical Astrophysics code for N-body Dynamics And Lagrangian Fluids (United States)

    Hubber, David; Rosotti, Giovanni


    GANDALF, a successor to SEREN (ascl:1102.010), is a hybrid self-gravitating fluid dynamics and collisional N-body code primarily designed for investigating star formation and planet formation problems. GANDALF uses various implementations of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to perform hydrodynamical simulations of gas clouds undergoing gravitational collapse to form new stars (or other objects), and can perform simulations of pure N-body dynamics using high accuracy N-body integrators, model the intermediate phase of cluster evolution, and provide visualizations via its python interface as well as interactive simulations. Although based on many of the SEREN routines, GANDALF has been largely re-written from scratch in C++ using more optimal algorithms and data structures.

  18. Many-body dipole-induced dipole model for electrorheological fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ji-Ping; Yu Kin-Wah


    Theoretical investigations on electrorheological (ER) fluids usually rely on computer simulations. An initial approach for these studies would be the point-dipole (PD) approximation, which is known to err considerably when the particles approach and finally touch each other due to many-body and multipolar interactions. Thus various works have attempted to go beyond the PD model. Being beyond the PD model, previous attempts have been restricted to either local-field effects only or multipolar effects only, but not both. For instance, we recently proposed a dipoleinduced-dipole (DID) model which is shown to be both more accurate than the PD model and easy to use. This work is necessary because the many-body (local-field) effect is included to put forth the many-body DID model. The results show that the multipolar interactions can indeed be dominant over the dipole interaction, while the local-field effect may yield a correction.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Dong-qiang


    The interaction of laminar flows with free sur face waves generated by submerged bodies in an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth is investigated analytically.The analysis is based on the linearized Navier-Stokes equations for disturbed flows. The kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions are linearized for the small amplitude free-surface waves, and the initial values of the flow are taken to be those of the steady state cases. The submerged bodies are mathematically represented by fundamental singularities of viscous flows. The asymptotic representations for unsteady free-surface waves produced by the Stokeslets and Oseenlets are derived analytically. It is found that the unsteady waves generated by a body consist of steady-state and transient responses.As time tends to infinity, the transient waves vanish due to the presence of a viscous decay factor. Thus. an ultimate steady state can be attained.

  20. Association of Fluid Status and Body Composition with Physical Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Chen, Tzu-Hui; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsiao, Pei-Ni; Kung, Lan-Fang; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Kuo, Mei-Chuan


    Background Impairment of physical function and abnormal body composition are the major presentations in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition and physical function in CKD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 172 of CKD stages 1–5 from February 2013 to September 2013. Handgrip strength (upper extremity muscle endurance), 30-second chair-stand test (lower extremity muscle endurance) and 2-minute step test (cardiorespiratory endurance) were used as indices of physical function. Body composition, including fluid status (extracellular water/total body water, ECW/TBW), lean tissue index (LTI), and fat tissue index (FTI), was measured using a bioimpedance spectroscopy method. Results All patients with high ECW/TBW had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low ECW/TBW (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). CKD patients with high FTI had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low FTI (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). These patients with low LTI had lower handgrip strength than those with high LTI (P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, high ECW/TBW was positively associated with decreased handgrip strength (β = -41.17, P = 0.03) in CKD patients. High FTI was significantly correlated with decreased times of 30-second chair-stand (β = -0.13, P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship between body composition and 2-minute step test. Conclusions Our results show a significant association of impaired upper and lower extremity muscle endurance with high fluid status and fat tissue. Evaluation of body composition may assist in indentifying physical dysfunction earlier in CKD patients. PMID:27798648

  1. Response of a fluid-immersed microcantilever close to a deformable body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R. J.; Lee, T. C.; Cater, J. E. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Bachtiar, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Minton, J. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The importance of hydrodynamics upon the response of a microcantilever immersed in a viscous fluid has been well established [J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 64 (1998); C. A. Eysden and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044908 (2007)]. It has previously been shown that the presence of a nearby rigid planar surface can significantly alter a microcantilever's non-contact response, through microcantilever–surface hydrodynamic interactions [C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, Phys. Fluids 17, 073102 (2005); C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114913 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., J. Fluid Mech. 545, 397426 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050801 (2006).]. In cases where the nearby surface is a finite-sized deformable body, such as in noncontact microrheology measurements, we expect to see further changes in the microcantilever's response. Hence, we here compute the thermal spectra of several microcantilevers in the presence of different compliant samples that have the characteristics of soft biological fibres. Our findings demonstrate that the elastohydrodynamic regime can substantially dictate the extent to which the compliance of a given body is evident in the microcantilever's thermal spectra, and suggest that certain nondimensional quantities should lie within particular, ranges for this to be the case. We expect these findings to be of interest in areas such as Atomic Force Microscopy, microsensing, and non-contact microrheology.

  2. Establishment of optimized ELISA system specific for HLA-G in body fluids. (United States)

    Ouji-Sageshima, N; Geraghty, D E; Ishitani, A; Hatake, K; Ito, T


    Recently, human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) has been a focus in the field of reproductive immunology, tumor progression and transplantation, because of its inhibitory function as ligand to the inhibitory receptors leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) B1 and LILRB2. The HLA-G is expressed in distinct mRNA isoforms, one of which encodes a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) protein, detectable by sandwich ELISA. Therefore, sHLA-G ELISAs have been used as a noninvasive diagnosis system. While a number of sHLA-G-specific ELISAs have been described, our prior studies showed that data obtained by the conventional ELISA system detecting sHLA-G in body fluids was not consistent with the data obtained from immunoprecipitation (IP)/immunoblotting (IB). Therefore, we established an optimized ELISA system described in this report, which yields results consistent with IP/IB analysis. Using this system, we determined sHLA-G protein in amniotic fluids, and found that sHLA-G levels at preterm (∼36 weeks) were clearly higher than those at term (37-41 weeks). These data and supporting experiments showed that the ELISA system we established can be an useful tools for the detection of sHLA-G protein in body fluids than the conventional ELISA system.

  3. The role of body flexibility in stroke enhancements for finite-length undulatory swimmers in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Thomases, Becca


    The role of passive body dynamics on the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids is investigated. Asymptotic analysis of small amplitude motions of a finite-length undulatory swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid is used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. Results from the analysis are compared with numerical simulations, and the small amplitude analysis of shape changes is quantitatively accurate at both small and large amplitudes, even for strongly elastic flows. We compute a stroke-induced swimming speed that accounts for the shape changes, but not additional effects of fluid elasticity. Elastic induced shape changes lead to larger amplitude strokes for sufficiently soft swimmers in a viscoelastic fluid, and these stroke boosts can lead to swimming speed-ups, but we find that additional effects of fluid elasticity generically slow down swimmers. High amplitude strokes in strongly elastic flows lead to a qualitatively different regime in wh...

  4. Metabolic stability of new anticonvulsants in body fluids and organ homogenates. (United States)

    Marszałek, Dorota; Goldnik, Anna; Pluciński, Franciszek; Mazurek, Aleksander P; Jakubiak, Anna; Lis, Ewa; Tazbir, Piotr; Koziorowska, Agnieszka


    The stability as a function of time of compounds with established anticonvulsant activity: picolinic acid benzylamide (Pic-BZA), picolinic acid 2-fluorobenzylamide (Pic-2-F-BZA), picolinic acid 3-fluorobenzylamide (Pic-3-F-BZA), picolinic acid 4-fluorobenzylamide (Pic-4-F-BZA) and picolinic acid 2-methylbenzylamide (Pic-2-Me-BZA) in body fluids and homogenates of body organs were determined after incubation. It was found that they decompose relatively rapidly in liver and kidney and are stable against enzymes present in body fluids and some organs. These results are consistent with the bond strength expressed as total energy of amide bonds (calculated by quantum chemical methods) in the studied anticonvulsants. The calculated values of the amide bond energy are: 199.4 kcal/mol, 200.2 kcal/mol, 207.5 kcal/mol, 208.4 kcal/mol and 198.2 kcal/mol, respectively. The strength of the amide bonds in the studied anticonvulsants correctly reflects their stability in liver or kidney.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING Ping-jian; ZHANG Wen-ping


    A Cartesian grid based on Immersed Boundary Method(IBM),proposed by the present authors,is extended to unstructured grids.The advantages of IBM and Body Fitted Grid(BFG)are taken to enhance the computation efficiency of the fluid structure interaction in a complex domain.There are many methods to generate the BFG,among which the unstructured grid method is the most popular.The concept of Volume Of Solid(VOS)is used to deal with the multi rigid body and fluid interaction.Each body surface is represented by a set of points which can be traced in an anti-clockwise order with the solid area on the left side of surface.An efficient Lagrange point tracking algorithm on the fixed grid is applied to search the moving boundary grid points.This method is verified by low Reynolds number flows in the range from Re =100 to 1 000 in the cavity with a moving lid.The results are in a good agreement with experimental data in literature.Finally,the flow past two moving cylinders is simulated to test the capability of the method.

  6. Body circumferences: clinical implications emerging from a new geometric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Dympna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body volume expands with the positive energy balance associated with the development of adult human obesity and this "growth" is captured by two widely used clinical metrics, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI. Empirical correlations between circumferences, BMI, and related body compartments are frequently reported but fail to provide an important common conceptual foundation that can be related to key clinical observations. A two-phase program was designed to fill this important gap: a geometric model linking body volume with circumferences and BMI was developed and validated in cross-sectional cohorts; and the model was applied to the evaluation of longitudinally monitored subjects during periods of voluntary weight loss. Concepts emerging from the developed model were then used to examine the relations between the evaluated clinical measures and body composition. Methods Two groups of healthy adults (n = 494 and 1499 were included in the cross-sectional model development/testing phase and subjects in two previous weight loss studies were included in the longitudinal model evaluation phase. Five circumferences (arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf; average of sum, C, height (H, BMI, body volume (V; underwater weighing, and the volumes of major body compartments (whole-body magnetic resonance imaging were measured. Results The evaluation of a humanoid geometric model based a cylinder confirmed that V derived from C and H was highly correlated with measured V [R2 both males and females, 0.97; p 0.5. The scaling of individual circumferences to V/H varied, with waist the highest (V/H~0.6 and calf the lowest (V/H~0.3, indicating that the largest and smallest between-subject "growth" with greater body volume occurs in the abdominal area and lower extremities, respectively. A stepwise linear regression model including all five circumferences2 showed that each contributed independently to V/H. These cross

  7. Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method for Simulating Fluid Structure Interaction with Complex 3D Rigid Bodies. (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI

  8. Direct Y-STR amplification of body fluids deposited on commonly found crime scene substrates. (United States)

    Dargay, Amanda; Roy, Reena


    Body fluids detected on commonly found crime scene substrates require extraction, purification and quantitation of DNA prior to amplification and generation of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiles. In this research Y-STR profiles were generated via direct amplification of blood and saliva deposited on 12 different substrates. These included cigarette butts, straws, grass, leaves, woodchips and seven different types of fabric. After depositing either 0.1 μL of blood or 0.5 μL of saliva, each substrate containing the dry body fluid stain was punched using a Harris 1.2 mm micro-punch. Each of these punched substrates, a total of 720 samples, containing minute amount of blood or saliva was either amplified directly without any pre-treatment, or was treated with one of the four washing reagents or buffer. In each of these five experimental groups the substrates containing the body fluid remained in the amplification reagent during the thermal cycling process. Each sample was amplified with the three direct Y-STR amplification kits; AmpFℓSTR(®) Yfiler(®) Direct, Yfiler(®) Plus Amplification Kits and the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System. Complete and concordant Y-STR profiles were successfully obtained from most of these 12 challenging crime scene objects when the stains were analyzed by at least one of the five experimental groups. The reagents and buffer were interchangeable among the three amplification kits, however, pre-treatment with these solutions did not appear to enhance the quality or the number of the full profiles generated with direct amplification. This study demonstrates that blood and saliva deposited on these simulated crime scene objects can be amplified directly.

  9. On the matter of synovial fluid lubrication: implications for Metal-on-Metal hip tribology. (United States)

    Myant, Connor; Cann, Philippa


    Artificial articular joints present an interesting, and difficult, tribological problem. These bearing contacts undergo complex transient loading and multi axes kinematic cycles, over extremely long periods of time (>10 years). Despite extensive research, wear of the bearing surfaces, particularly metal-metal hips, remains a major problem. Comparatively little is known about the prevailing lubrication mechanism in artificial joints which is a serious gap in our knowledge as this determines film formation and hence wear. In this paper we review the accepted lubrication models for artificial hips and present a new concept to explain film formation with synovial fluid. This model, recently proposed by the authors, suggests that interfacial film formation is determined by rheological changes local to the contact and is driven by aggregation of synovial fluid proteins. The implications of this new mechanism for the tribological performance of new implant designs and the effect of patient synovial fluid properties are discussed.

  10. Wearable technology for bio-chemical analysis of body fluids during exercise. (United States)

    Morris, Deirdre; Schazmann, Benjamin; Wu, Yangzhe; Coyle, Shirley; Brady, Sarah; Fay, Cormac; Hayes, Jer; Lau, King Tong; Wallace, Gordon; Diamond, Dermot


    This paper details the development of a textile based fluid handling system with integrated wireless biochemical sensors. Such research represents a new advancement in the area of wearable technologies. The system contains pH, sodium and conductivity sensors. It has been demonstrated during on-body trials that the pH sensor has close agreement with measurements obtained using a reference pH probe. Initial investigations into the sodium and conductivity sensors have shown their suitability for integration into the wearable system. It is thought that applications exist in personal health and sports performance and training.

  11. Corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytically oxidized gamma titanium aluminide alloy in simulated body fluid. (United States)

    Lara Rodriguez, L; Sundaram, P A


    Plasma electrolytic oxidized (PEO) γTiAl alloy samples were electrochemically characterized by open circuit potential (OCP), cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to evaluate their corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid (SBF) in order to gauge their potential for biomedical applications. Experimental results through OCP and cyclic polarization studies demonstrated the protective nature and the beneficial effect of the PEO coatings on γTiAl. The PEO surface increased corrosion resistance of these surface modified alloys. EIS data indicated the presence of an underlying compact oxide layer with surface pores represented by two domes in the Nyquist plots. Electrical equivalent circuits to describe the EIS results are proposed.

  12. Absorption of bacampicillin and ampicillin and penetration into body fluids (skin blister fluid, saliva, tears) in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Simon, C; Malerczyk, V; Klaus, M


    Equimolar doses of bacampicillin, which is rapidly converted to ampicillin in the body by hydrolysis, and ampicillin were administered orally, in the case of ampicillin also by intravenous injection, to 10 healthy subjects (cross-over study). Comparison of the areas under the serum concentrations curves after intravenous and oral administration showed that bacampillin was absorbed to 95% and orally given ampicillin to 35%. The mean peak serum levels (Cmax) after 0.8 g of oral bacampicillin were higher (15.9 microgram/ml) and appeared earlier (tmax 60 min) than after 0.556 g of oral ampicillin (3.2 microgram/ml, tmax 150 min). One and three hours after oral administration skin blister fluid contained four times more ampicillin after doses of bacampicillin than after oral ampicillin. One hour after intravenous injection of ampicillin the skin blister concentrations were 20 times higher than after oral administration of this antibiotic and three to four times higher than after oral administration of bacampicillin. The levels in saliva and tears were also determined and showed similar relationships. Since higher peaks serum levels resulted in higher and longer lasting concentrations in the extravascular space, bacampicillin is to be preferred for oral therapy.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Dong-qiang


    The free-surface waves and the flow field due to a body moving on the surface of an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth were studied analytically. The floating body was modeled as a normal point pressure on the free surface. Based on the Oseen approximation for governing equations and the linearity assumption for boundary conditions, the exact solutions in integral form for the free-surface elevation, the velocities and the pressure were given. By employing Lighthill's two-stage scheme, the asymptotic representations in far field for large Reynolds numbers were derived explicitly. The effect of viscosity on the wave profiles was expressed by an exponential decay factor, which removes the singular behavior predicted by the potential theory.

  14. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of mineral nanoparticles derived from human body fluids and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Chen, Chi-De; Yu, Jau-Song; Young, John D


    Mineralo-protein nanoparticles (NPs) formed spontaneously in the body have been associated with ectopic calcifications seen in atherosclerosis, chronic degenerative diseases, and kidney stone formation. Synthetic NPs are also known to become coated with proteins when they come in contact with body fluids. Identifying the proteins found in NPs should help unravel how NPs are formed in the body and how NPs in general, be they synthetic or naturally formed, interact within the body. Here, we developed a proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography (LC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine the protein composition of carbonate-apatite NPs derived from human body fluids (serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, ascites, pleural effusion, and synovial fluid). LC-MS/MS provided not only an efficient and comprehensive determination of the protein constituents, but also a semiquantitative ranking of the identified proteins. Notably, the identified NP proteins mirrored the protein composition of the contacting body fluids, with albumin, fetuin-A, complement C3, α-1-antitrypsin, prothrombin, and apolipoproteins A1 and B-100 being consistently associated with the particles. Since several coagulation factors, calcification inhibitors, complement proteins, immune regulators, protease inhibitors, and lipid/molecule carriers can all become NP constituents, our results suggest that mineralo-protein complexes may interface with distinct biochemical pathways in the body depending on their protein composition. We propose that LC-MS/MS be used to characterize proteins found in both synthetic and natural NPs.

  15. Modeling the time evolution of the nanoparticle-protein corona in a body fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dell'Orco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles in contact with biological fluids interact with proteins and other biomolecules, thus forming a dynamic corona whose composition varies over time due to continuous protein association and dissociation events. Eventually equilibrium is reached, at which point the continued exchange will not affect the composition of the corona. RESULTS: We developed a simple and effective dynamic model of the nanoparticle protein corona in a body fluid, namely human plasma. The model predicts the time evolution and equilibrium composition of the corona based on affinities, stoichiometries and rate constants. An application to the interaction of human serum albumin, high density lipoprotein (HDL and fibrinogen with 70 nm N-iso-propylacrylamide/N-tert-butylacrylamide copolymer nanoparticles is presented, including novel experimental data for HDL. CONCLUSIONS: The simple model presented here can easily be modified to mimic the interaction of the nanoparticle protein corona with a novel biological fluid or compartment once new data will be available, thus opening novel applications in nanotoxicity and nanomedicine.

  16. Equilibrium theory of fluids in the presence of three-body forces (United States)

    Sinha, S. K.; Ram, J.; Singh, Y.


    Using the functional differentiation and topological reduction technique, we derive effective pair potentials to describe the correlation functions and thermodynamic properties of fluids in the presence of three-body forces. Relations between effective pair potentials derived from different properties are discussed. The pair correlation function is calculated using the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory and the hypernetted chain integral equation perturbation theory, the results are reported for neon, argon and xenon. Monte Carlo simulation is also done for Xe using the effective pair potential. The agreement found between the pair correlation function calculated from the integral equation perturbation theory and Monte Carlo simulation is good. The effect of the triple dipole and dipole-dipole-quadrupole interactions on the structure of fluid is found to be very small except near the first peak. We, however, except the sizable change in the structure factor S( q) for q < 1.0 Å -1. The effect of the three-body interactions on the thermodynamic properties like internal energy and pressure is always measurable.

  17. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Hazry, D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Yaacob, S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others


    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  18. Biomineralization of hydroxyapatite in silver ion-exchanged nanocrystalline ZSM-5 zeolite using simulated body fluid. (United States)

    Kaur, Balwinder; Srivastava, Rajendra; Satpati, Biswarup; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Bishnoi, Mahendra


    Silver ion-exchanged nanocrystalline zeolite (Ag-Nano-ZSM-5) and silver ion-exchanged conventional zeolite (Ag-ZSM-5) were synthesized. Zeolites were incubated in simulated body fluid at 310K for different time periods to grow hydroxyapatite in their matrixes. Significant large amount of hydroxyapatite was grown in Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 matrix after incubation in simulated body fluid when compared to Ag-ZSM-5. The resultant material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, N2-adsorption, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and inductively coupled plasma analysis. Mechanical properties such as compressive modulus, compressive strength, and strain at failure of the parent materials were evaluated. Biocompatibility assays suggested that Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 and hydroxyapatite grown in Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 were compatible and did not impose any toxicity to RAW 264.7 cells macrophase and Caco2 cells suggesting considerable potential for biomedical applications such as bone implants.

  19. Evaluation of single and stack membraneless enzymatic fuel cells based on ethanol in simulated body fluids. (United States)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J; Arjona, N; Moreno-Zuria, A; Ortiz-Ortega, E; Guerra-Balcázar, M; Ledesma-García, J; Arriaga, L G


    The purpose of this work is to evaluate single and double-cell membraneless microfluidic fuel cells (MMFCs) that operate in the presence of simulated body fluids SBF, human serum and blood enriched with ethanol as fuels. The study was performed using the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme immobilised by covalent binding through an array composed of carbon Toray paper as support and a layer of poly(methylene blue)/tetrabutylammonium bromide/Nafion and glutaraldehyde (3D bioanode electrode). The single MMFC was tested in a hybrid microfluidic fuel cell using Pt/C as the cathode. A cell voltage of 1.035V and power density of 3.154mWcm(-2) were observed, which is the highest performance reported to date. The stability and durability were tested through chronoamperometry and polarisation/performance curves obtained at different days, which demonstrated a slow decrease in the power density on day 10 (14%) and day 20 (26%). Additionally, the cell was tested for ethanol oxidation in simulated body fluid (SBF) with ionic composition similar to human blood plasma. Those tests resulted in 0.93V of cell voltage and a power density close to 1.237mWcm(-2). The double cell MMFC (Stack) was tested using serum and human blood enriched with ethanol. The stack operated with blood in a serial connection showed an excellent cell performance (0.716mWcm(-2)), demonstrating the feasibility of employing human blood as energy source.

  20. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Hydroxyapatite-Polyacrylic Acid Composites Under Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana S. Katti


    Full Text Available In this work, we have investigated mechanical response of hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic composites under dry, wet and simulated body fluid conditions. Hydroxyapatite (HAP is mineralized under two conditions; one, in presence of polyacrylic acid (in situ HAP, second, in absence of polyacrylic acid (ex situ HAP. Further, in situ and ex situ HAP are mixed with polyacrylic acid to make HAP/PAAc composites. Interfacial interactions between PAAc and HAP have been studied using photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (PAS-FTIR. The mechanical response of the composites under wet condition is studied by soaking composite samples in simulated body fluid (SBF. Under wet conditions, SBF and water weaken the HAP-HAP interface significantly. PAS-FTIR data suggests that PAAc attaches to HAP through the dissociated carboxylate groups. The water and SBF soaked samples showed creep-like behavior and exhibit large residual strain after unloading. Loading under different strain rates has significant effect on mechanical properties of these composites. Both in situ and ex situ 70:30 composites exhibit highest elastic modulus at strain rate of 0.01 sec-1. XRD study indicates formation of Ca2P2O7 phase in ex situ composite after soaking in SBF and water for 3 hours, whereas in situ composites showed presence of only hydroxyapatite phase after soaking in SBF and water for same duration of time.

  1. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic (United States)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.


    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  2. Differentiation of Body Fluid Stains on Fabrics Using External Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Chemometrics. (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles Fernández; García-Ruiz, Carmen


    Body fluids are evidence of great forensic interest due to the DNA extracted from them, which allows genetic identification of people. This study focuses on the discrimination among semen, vaginal fluid, and urine stains (main fluids in sexual crimes) placed on different colored cotton fabrics by external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with chemometrics. Semen-vaginal fluid mixtures and potential false positive substances commonly found in daily life such as soaps, milk, juices, and lotions were also studied. Results demonstrated that the IR spectral signature obtained for each body fluid allowed its identification and the correct classification of unknown stains by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Interestingly, results proved that these IR spectra did not show any bands due to the color of the fabric and no substance of those present in daily life which were analyzed, provided a false positive.

  3. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging. (United States)

    Wood, Lisa A


    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at:

  4. Mass spectrometry-based cDNA profiling as a potential tool for human body fluid identification. (United States)

    Donfack, Joseph; Wiley, Anissa


    Several mRNA markers have been exhaustively evaluated for the identification of human venous blood, saliva, and semen in forensic genetics. As new candidate human body fluid specific markers are discovered, evaluated, and reported in the scientific literature, there is an increasing trend toward determining the ideal markers for cDNA profiling of body fluids of forensic interest. However, it has not been determined which molecular genetics-based technique(s) should be utilized to assess the performance of these markers. In recent years, only a few confirmatory, mRNA/cDNA-based methods have been evaluated for applications in body fluid identification. The most frequently described methods tested to date include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). However these methods, in particular qPCR, often favor narrow multiplex PCR due to the availability of a limited number of fluorescent dyes/tags. In an attempt to address this technological constraint, this study explored matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for human body fluid identification via cDNA profiling of venous blood, saliva, and semen. Using cDNA samples at 20pg input phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) amounts, body fluid specific markers for the candidate genes were amplified in their corresponding body fluid (i.e., venous blood, saliva, or semen) and absent in the remaining two (100% specificity). The results of this study provide an initial indication that MALDI-TOF MS is a potential fluorescent dye-free alternative method for body fluid identification in forensic casework. However, the inherent issues of low amounts of mRNA, and the damage caused to mRNA by environmental exposures, extraction processes, and storage conditions are important factors that significantly hinder the implementation of cDNA profiling into forensic casework.

  5. A novel application of real-time RT-LAMP for body fluid identification: using HBB detection as the model. (United States)

    Su, Chih-Wen; Li, Chiao-Yun; Lee, James Chun-I; Ji, Dar-Der; Li, Shu-Ying; Daniel, Barbara; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Linacre, Adrian; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei


    We report on a novel application of real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (real-time RT-LAMP) to identify the presence of a specific body fluid using blood as a proof-of-concept model. By comparison with recently developed methods of body fluid identification, the RT-LAMP assay is rapid and requires only one simple heating-block maintained at a single temperature, circumventing the need for dedicated equipment. RNA was extracted from different body fluids (blood, semen, saliva, menstrual blood, sweat, and urine) for use in real-time RT-LAMP reaction. The 18S rRNA locus was used as the internal control and hemoglobin beta (HBB) as the blood-specific marker. Reverse transcription and LAMP reaction were performed in the same tube using a turbidimeter for real-time monitoring the reaction products within a threshold of 60 min. HBB LAMP products were only detected in blood and not in any of the other body fluid, but products from the 18S rRNA gene were detected in all the tested body fluids as expected. The limit of detection was a minimum of 10(-5) ng total RNA for detection of both 18S rRNA and HBB. Augmenting the detection of RT-LAMP products was performed by separation of the products using gel electrophoresis and collecting the fluorescence of calcein. The data collected indicated complete concordance with the body fluid tested regardless of the method of detection used. This is the first application of real-time RT-LAMP to detect body fluid specific RNA and indicates the use of this method in forensic biology.

  6. Fluid force and static symmetry breaking modes of 3D bluff bodies. (United States)

    Cadot, Olivier; Evrard, Antoine; DFA Team


    A cavity at the base of the squareback Ahmed model at Re =6.106 is able to reduce the base suction by 18% and the drag coefficient by 9%, while the flow at the separation remains unaffected. Instantaneous pressure measurements at the body base, fluid force measurements and wake velocity measurements are investigated varying the cavity depth from 0 to 35% of the base height. Due to the reflectional symmetry of the rectangular base, there are two Reflectional Symmetry Breaking (RSB) mirror modes present in the natural wake that switch from one to the other randomly in accordance with the recent findings of Grandemange et al. (2013). It is shown that these modes exhibit an energetic 3D static vortex system close to the base of the body. A sufficiently deep cavity is able to stabilize the wake toward a symmetry preserved wake, thus suppressing the RSB modes and leading to a weaker elliptical toric recirculation. The stabilization can be modeled with a Langevin equation. The plausible mechanism for drag reduction with the base cavity is based on the interaction of the static 3D vortex system of the RSB modes with the base and their suppression by stabilization. There are some strong evidences that this mechanism may be generalized to axisymmetric bodies with base cavity.

  7. Fluid-structure interaction of complex bodies in two-phase flows on locally refined grids (United States)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    Many real-life flow problems in engineering applications involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of arbitrarily complex geometries interacting with free surface flows. Despite the recent significant computational advances, conventional numerical methods are inefficient to resolve the prevailing complex dynamics due to the inherent large disparity of spatial and temporal scales that emerge in the air/water phases of the flow and around rigid bodies. To this end, the new generation 3D, unsteady, unstructured Cartesian incompressible flow solver, developed at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), is integrated with a FSI immersed boundary method and is coupled with the level-set formulation. The predictive capabilities of our method to simulate non-linear free surface phenomena, with low computational cost, are significantly improved by locally refining the computational grid in the vicinity of solid boundaries and around the free surface interface. We simulate three-dimensional complex flows involving complex rigid bodies interacting with a free surface both with prescribed body motion and coupled FSI and we investigate breaking wave events. In all the cases, very good agreement with benchmark data is found. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1509071).

  8. Osteoblast activity on anodized titania nanotubes: effect of simulated body fluid soaking time. (United States)

    Bayram, Cem; Demirbilek, Murat; Calişkan, Nazli; Demirbilek, Melike Erol; Denkbaş, Emir Baki


    Early phase osseointegration is crucial for orthopedic implants. For the improvement of osseointegrative properties of orthopedic implants several surface modification methods such as acid etching, hydroxyapatite (HA) coating and sandblasting can be applied. In this article titanium implants were anodized to possess nanotubular titania structures on the surface. Titania nanotube structures with a 45-50 nm of average inner diameter were obtained and to enhance bioactivity, samples were soaked in 10X simulated body fluid (SBF) for apatite deposition on surface for different time periods (1, 2, 3, 5, 8 hours). Apatitic calcium phosphate deposited surfaces were analyzed with infrared spectrometry and wettability studies. Effect of soaking time on osteoblast cell was investigated by cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity tests and morphological evaluations. As a result, 3 hours of soaking time was found as the optimum time period (p anodized titanium implants however excess and/or uncontrolled HA coating of titania layer limits the bioactive potential of the implant.

  9. Forced convection of power-law fluids flow over a rotating nonisothermal body (United States)

    Kim, H. W.; Essemyi, A. J.


    Presented is an analysis of steady laminar flow of power-law fluids past a rotating body with nonisothermal surfaces. A coordinate transformation combined with the Merk-type series expansion is employed to transform the governing momentum equations into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The equations are numerically integrated to obtain the axial and tangential velocity gradients for determining the friction coefficient. For forced convection, a generalized coordinate transformation is used to analyze the temperature field of the power-law flow. Solutions to the transformed energy equations are obtained in the form of universal functions. The heat transfer coefficients in terms of NuRe(sup 1/(n + 1)) are presented for a rotating sphere. The effects of power-law index, rotation sphere, Prandtl number, and the location of step discontinuity in surface temperature on the local Nusselt number are fully investigated and demonstrated.

  10. Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings onto Carbon/carbon Composites in Simulated Body Fluid (United States)

    Sui, Jin-Ling; Bo, Wu; Hai, Zhou; Cao, Ning; Li, Mu-Sen

    Two types of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings onto carbon/carbon composite (C/C composites) substrates, deposited by plasma spraying technique, were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) in order to determine their behavior in conditions similar to the human blood plasma. Calcium ion concentration, pH value, microstructure, and phase compositions were analyzed. Results demonstrated that both the crystal Ca-P phases or the amorphous HA do dissolve slightly, and the dissolution of CaO phases in SBF was evident after 1 day of soaking. The calcium-ion concentration was decreased and the pH value of SBF was increased with the increasing of the immersing time. The precipitation was mainly composed of HA, which was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron-probe microanalyzer.

  11. Mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates regulate body fluid and acid-base balance. (United States)

    Peti-Peterdi, János


    Intrarenal control mechanisms play an important role in the maintenance of body fluid and electrolyte balance and pH homeostasis. Recent discoveries of new ion transport and regulatory pathways in the distal nephron and collecting duct system have helped to better our understanding of these critical kidney functions and identified new potential therapeutic targets and approaches. In this issue of the JCI, Tokonami et al. report on the function of an exciting new paracrine mediator, the mitochondrial the citric acid(TCA) cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), which via its OXGR1 receptor plays an unexpected, nontraditional role in the adaptive regulation of renal HCO(3⁻) secretion and salt reabsorption.

  12. Casimir micro-sphere diclusters and three-body effects in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, Jaime; McCauley, Alexander P; Johnson, Steven G


    Our previous article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010)] predicted that Casimir forces induced by the material-dispersion properties of certain dielectrics can give rise to stable configurations of objects. This phenomenon was illustrated via a dicluster configuration of non-touching objects consisting of two spheres immersed in a fluid and suspended against gravity above a plate. Here, we examine these predictions from the perspective of a practical experiment and consider the influence of non-additive, three-body, and nonzero-temperature effects on the stability of the two spheres. We conclude that the presence of Brownian motion reduces the set of experimentally realizable silicon/teflon spherical diclusters to those consisting of layered micro-spheres, such as the hollow- core (spherical shells) considered here.

  13. SAPHIR: a physiome core model of body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. (United States)

    Thomas, S Randall; Baconnier, Pierre; Fontecave, Julie; Françoise, Jean-Pierre; Guillaud, François; Hannaert, Patrick; Hernández, Alfredo; Le Rolle, Virginie; Mazière, Pierre; Tahi, Fariza; White, Ronald J


    We present the current state of the development of the SAPHIR project (a Systems Approach for PHysiological Integration of Renal, cardiac and respiratory function). The aim is to provide an open-source multi-resolution modelling environment that will permit, at a practical level, a plug-and-play construction of integrated systems models using lumped-parameter components at the organ/tissue level while also allowing focus on cellular- or molecular-level detailed sub-models embedded in the larger core model. Thus, an in silico exploration of gene-to-organ-to-organism scenarios will be possible, while keeping computation time manageable. As a first prototype implementation in this environment, we describe a core model of human physiology targeting the short- and long-term regulation of blood pressure, body fluids and homeostasis of the major solutes. In tandem with the development of the core models, the project involves database implementation and ontology development.

  14. Pharmacological properties of traditional medicines. XXV. Effects of ephedrine, amygdalin, glycyrrhizin, gypsum and their combinations on body temperature and body fluid. (United States)

    Yuan, D; Komatsu, K; Cui, Z; Kano, Y


    Effects of ephedrine, amygdalin, glycyrrhizin, gypsum and their combinations on body temperature and body fluid were studied in rats using the method developed in our previous reports. Ephedrine significantly increased respiratory evaporative water loss and heat loss in response to a marked elevation of body temperature. There was a small but significant increase in body temperature when amygdalin was orally given rats at a dose of 46.32 mg/kg. Glycyrrhizin and gypsum were unable to affect body temperature. However, gypsum was able to prevent the increased action of ephedrine on body temperature, amygdalin exhibited a preventive tendency to it, and glycyrrhizin did not affect it. The results are in good agreement with classical claims of Makyo-kanseki-to and the related crude drugs in traditional medicine. Moreover, a combination of the four components reproduced the effects of Makyo-kanseki-to on body temperature and body fluid. This report suggests that the co-administration of ephedrine and gypsum is physiologically more desirable than ephedrine alone for dry-type asthmatic patients with a fever. Also, it experimentally supports the clinical efficacy of Makyo-kanseki-to.

  15. A survey of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in physiotherapists in Western Australia. (United States)

    von Guttenberg, Yvonne; Spickett, Jeff


    The aim of this pilot project was to investigate the occurrence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in registered physiotherapists in Western Australia. Surveys were sent to physiotherapists with questions regarding personal background, exposure characteristics, and contributing factors included. Descriptive statistical methods were used to identify the area of practice posing the highest risk of exposure to physiotherapists. The authors found that 56.1% of surveyed physiotherapists recorded one or more exposures within the past 5 years. Work in hospitals was found to carry the highest rate of exposure for the physiotherapy profession. Other areas of practice, including community work, private practice, nursing homes/hostels, and work at sporting events carry comparable but lower risks of exposure. In private practice, 50% of exposures were associated with acupuncture. In nursing homes, 60% of exposures were brought on by exposure to contaminated materials, whereas in the community setting most exposures (64%) were attributed to unpredictable/uncontrollable situations. At sporting events, 90% of all exposures were associated with already existing sources of blood and body fluids (wounds). Within the hospital setting, the 3 dominant immediate causes reported were unpredictable situations (33.3%), existing sources (28.4%), and procedural causes (22.2%). The use of personal protective equipment for prevention of exposure is investigated and discussed. Data collected for this survey were not enough to draw conclusive assumptions regarding hazard management. A repeat of this study on a larger scale may provide physiotherapists with the tools and knowledge to minimize the likelihood of exposure and harm arising from exposure.

  16. Effect of anodization on corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility of Cp-titanium in simulated body fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Singh; B P Singh; Mohan R Wani; Dinesh Kumar; J K Singh; Vakil Singh


    The objective of this investigation is to study the effectiveness of anodized surface of commercial purity titanium (Cp-Ti) on its corrosion behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF) and proliferation of osteoblast cells on it, to assess its potentiality as a process of surface modification in enhancing corrosion resistance and osseointegration of dental implants. Highly ordered nano-porous oxide layer, with nano-sized pores, is developed on the surface of Cp-Ti through electrochemical anodization in the electrolyte of aqueous solution of 0.5% HF at 15 V for 30 min at 24 °C. The nano-porous feature of the anodized surface is characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Pores of some anodized samples are sealed by exposing the anodized surface in boiling water. Corrosion behaviour of the anodized specimen is studied in Ringer’s solution at 30 ± 2 °C, using electrochemical impedance and cyclic polarization technique. Biocompatibility of the anodized surface is accessed using MG63 osteoblast cells. Both corrosion as well as pitting resistance of Cp-Ti in simulated body fluid are found to be highest in the anodized and sealed condition and followed in decreasing order by those of anodized and unanodized ones. Significantly higher MG63 osteoblast cell proliferations are found on the anodized surface than that on the unanodized one. Anodized Cp-Ti develops nano-size surface pores, like that of natural bone. It enhances corrosion and pitting resistance and also the process of osteoblast cell proliferation on Cp-Ti.

  17. Fluid-thermal analysis of aerodynamic heating over spiked blunt body configurations (United States)

    Qin, Qihao; Xu, Jinglei; Guo, Shuai


    When flying at hypersonic speeds, the spiked blunt body is constantly subjected to severe aerodynamic heating. To illustrate the thermal response of different configurations and the relevant flow field variation, a loosely-coupled fluid-thermal analysis is performed in this paper. The Mesh-based parallel Code Coupling Interface (MpCCI) is adopted to implement the data exchange between the fluid solver and the thermal solver. The results indicate that increases in spike diameter and length will result in a sharp decline of the wall temperature along the spike, and the overall heat flux is remarkably reduced to less than 300 W/cm2 with the aerodome mounted at the spike tip. Moreover, the presence and evolution of small vortices within the recirculation zone are observed and proved to be induced by the stagnation effect of reattachment points on the spike. In addition, the drag coefficient of the configuration with a doubled spike length presents a maximum drop of 4.59% due to the elevated wall temperature. And the growing difference of the drag coefficient is further increased during the accelerating process.

  18. Age-related changes in body fluid volumes in young spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Dreele, M.M. (Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (USA))


    The authors have measured total body water (TBW, by dessiccation), extracellular fluid volume (ECF, Na{sub 2}{sup 35}SO{sub 4} space), and plasma volume (PV, radioiodinated serum albumin space) in 5-sec-butyl-5-ethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid and sodium salt (Inactin)-anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats aged 12-60 days. Interstitial fluid volume (ISF) was calculated as ECF minus PV. Changes in TBW, ECF, and ISF were largely a function of age in both strains, which is typical of developing mammals. Further analysis revealed that although these volumes were significantly larger in SHR before 25 days of age, after 30 days no difference existed between the strains. Before 25 days of age, when SHR's TBW was expanded, no weight difference was seen between the strains. However, once TBW was normalized (after 30 days), WKY was significantly heavier than SHR. The ISF volume was preferentially enlarged in SHR, although PV was also periodically greater. ISF normalized at the time when blood pressure becomes significantly higher in SHR, when plasma aldosterone falls to WKY values in SHR and when renal function is approaching adult levels. Thus the return of ECF (ISF) to normal values may be a result of decreased aldosterone-dependent volume retention or to diuresis induced by increasing blood pressure in an animal whose renal function is close to maturity.

  19. Tectonic "short circuit" of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies as a possible mechanism of the earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Andrei


    An alternative earthquake mechanism is proposed. The traditional stress mechanism of fracture formation assigned a support role. As a proximate cause of the earthquake the destruction of the roofs of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies (SHFB) is considered. This collapse may occur due to redistribution of fluid pressure within the system of SHFB connected by cracks (tectonic or other nature). It can cause both shifts of rock blocks contributing to seismic shocks and various effects characteristic of foreshocks and aftershocks.

  20. Control mechanisms of circadian rhythms in body composition: Implications for manned spaceflight (United States)

    Ede, M. C. M.


    The mechanisms that underlie the circadian variations in electrolyte content in body fluid compartments were investigated, and the mechanisms that control the oscillations were studied in order to investigate what effects internal desynchronization in such a system would have during manned space flight. The studies were performed using volunteer human subjects and squirrel monkeys. The intercompartmental distribution of potassium was examined when dietary intake, activity, and posture are held constant throughout each 24-hour day. A net flux of potassium was observed out of the body cell mass during the day and a reverse flux from the extracellular fluid into the body cell mass during the night, counterbalanced by changes in urinary potassium excretion. Experiments with monkeys provided evidence for the synchronization of renal potassium excretion by the rhythm of cortisol secretion with the light-dark cycle. Three models of the circadian timing system were formalized.

  1. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours. (United States)

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  2. MicroRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification obtained from microarray screening and quantitative RT-PCR confirmation. (United States)

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Boersma, Anton W M; Choi, Ying; van Kuijk, Patricia F; Wiemer, Erik A C; Kayser, Manfred


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein coding molecules with important regulatory functions; many have tissue-specific expression patterns. Their very small size in principle makes them less prone to degradation processes, unlike messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which were previously proposed as molecular tools for forensic body fluid identification. To identify suitable miRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification, we first screened total RNA samples derived from saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, and venous and menstrual blood for the expression of 718 human miRNAs using a microarray platform. All body fluids could be easily distinguished from each other on the basis of complete array-based miRNA expression profiles. Results from quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR; TaqMan) assays for microarray candidate markers confirmed strong over-expression in the targeting body fluid of several miRNAs for venous blood and several others for semen. However, no candidate markers from array experiments for other body fluids such as saliva, vaginal secretion, or menstrual blood could be confirmed by RT-PCR. Time-wise degradation of venous blood and semen stains for at least 1 year under lab conditions did not significantly affect the detection sensitivity of the identified miRNA markers. The detection limit of the TaqMan assays tested for selected venous blood and semen miRNA markers required only subpicogram amounts of total RNA per single RT-PCR test, which is considerably less than usually needed for reliable mRNA RT-PCR detection. We therefore propose the application of several stable miRNA markers for the forensic identification of blood stains and several others for semen stain identification, using commercially available TaqMan assays. Additional work remains necessary in search for suitable miRNA markers for other forensically relevant body fluids.

  3. Evolutionary development of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid composition and regulation: an open research field with implications for brain development and function. (United States)

    Bueno, David; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi


    Within the consolidated field of evolutionary development, there is emerging research on evolutionary aspects of central nervous system development and its implications for adult brain structure and function, including behaviour. The central nervous system is one of the most intriguing systems in complex metazoans, as it controls all body and mind functions. Its failure is responsible for a number of severe and largely incurable diseases, including neurological and neurodegenerative ones. Moreover, the evolution of the nervous system is thought to be a critical step in the adaptive radiation of vertebrates. Brain formation is initiated early during development. Most embryological, genetic and evolutionary studies have focused on brain neurogenesis and regionalisation, including the formation and function of organising centres, and the comparison of homolog gene expression and function among model organisms from different taxa. The architecture of the vertebrate brain primordium also reveals the existence of connected internal cavities, the cephalic vesicles, which in fetuses and adults become the ventricular system of the brain. During embryonic and fetal development, brain cavities and ventricles are filled with a complex, protein-rich fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, CSF has not been widely analysed from either an embryological or evolutionary perspective. Recently, it has been demonstrated in higher vertebrates that embryonic cerebrospinal fluid has key functions in delivering diffusible signals and nutrients to the developing brain, thus contributing to the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells, and to the expansion and patterning of the brain. Moreover, it has been shown that the composition and homeostasis of CSF are tightly controlled in a time-dependent manner from the closure of the anterior neuropore, just before the initiation of primary neurogenesis, up to the formation of functional choroid plexuses. In

  4. [A comparative analysis of occupational risk in industry employees based on concentrations of some elements in teeth and body fluids]. (United States)

    Poczatek, Michał; Machoy, Zygmunt; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz


    Work safety and hygiene is a set of basic measures to protect workers from the negative effects of manufacturing processes. So far, numerous procedures for assessment of occupational health risk have been described. We measured the concentrations of some elements in teeth and body fluids of employees working in three different industries with an established production profile: Zakłady Naprawcze Taboru Kolejowego (repairs of rail vehicles), Philips Lighting Poland (production of lighting systems) and Metalplast (build ing furbishing factory). Different technologies were in place at each of these plants. Basing on laboratory analyses, the risk of exposure to chemical substances was evaluated. The study material included 100 extracted teeth, as well as body fluid samples (saliva, urine and blood) collected during routine health checks. Whenever possible, concentrations of the following elements were measured: calcium, magnesium, fluorine, phosphorus in the form of phosphates, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead. Metal elements were measured spectrophotometrically (ASA), fluorine with an ion-selective electrode, and phosphates with a colorimetric method. We found that concentrations of the elements in teeth and body fluids differed depending on the industry. For teeth, statistically significant differences applied to magnesium, phosphates, zinc, sodium, and potassium. In body fluids, statistically significant differences were found for calcium (blood and urine), magnesium (blood, urine and saliva), zinc (blood, urine and saliva), iron, lead and copper (urine). In conclusion, our findings may be helpful for monitoring safety at work in industrial plants.

  5. Exposure to and precautions for blood and body fluids among workers in the funeral home franchises of Fort Worth, Texas. (United States)

    Nwanyanwu, O C; Tabasuri, T H; Harris, G R


    In 1982 the Centers for Disease Control published a set of recommendations and measures to protect persons working in health care settings or performing mortician services from possible exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus. This study of a number of funeral homes in the Fort Worth area was designed to determine the level of exposure of funeral home workers to blood and other body fluids and also to assess existing protective measures and practices in the industry. Workers in 22 funeral home franchises were surveyed with a predesigned questionnaire. Eighty-five responses from 20 of the 22 establishments were received. All 85 respondents admitted exposure of varying degrees to blood and body fluids. Sixty persons (70%) admitted heavy exposure, that is, frequent splashes. Analysis of the responses showed that 81 of 85 (95.3%) persons consistently wore gloves while performing tasks that might expose them to blood or other body fluids. Of the 60 persons who were heavily exposed, 43 wore long-sleeved gowns, 27 wore waterproof aprons, 17 surgical masks, and 15 goggles. The study further revealed that 52.9% (45/85) of the respondents had sustained accidental cuts or puncture wounds on the job. In light of these findings it is important to target educational efforts to persons in this industry to help them minimize their risks of infection with blood and body fluid borne infections.

  6. Newton's Investigation of the Resistance to Moving Bodies in Continuous Fluids and the Nature of "Frontier Science" (United States)

    Gauld, Colin F.


    Newton's experiments into the resistance which fluids offer to moving bodies provide some insight into the way he related theory and experiment. His theory demonstrates a way of thought typical of 17th century physics and his experiments are simple enough to be replicated by present day students. Newton's investigations using pendulums were…

  7. Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation after whole bisulfitome amplification of a minute amount of DNA from body fluids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaissiere, T.; Cuenin, C.; Paliwal, A.; Vineis, P.; Hoek, G.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Airoldi, L.; Dunning, A.; Garte, S.; Malaveille, C.; Overvad, K.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Linseisen, J.; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Trichopoulous, D.; Kaladidi, A.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Kumle, M.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Martinez, C.; Dorronsoro, M.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C.; Quiros, J.R.; Berglund, B.; Janzon, L.; Jarvholm, B.; Day, N.E.; Key, T.J.; Saracci, R.; Kaaks, R.; Riboli, E.; Hainaut, P.; Herceg, Z.


    Cell-free circulating DNA isolated from the plasma of individuals with cancer has been shown to harbor cancer-associated changes in DNA methylation, and thus it represents an attractive target for biomarker discovery. However, the reliable detection of DNA methylation changes in body fluids has prov

  8. Biomimetic fabrication of calcium phosphate/chitosan nanohybrid composite in modified simulated body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Park


    Full Text Available In this study, nucleation and growth of bone-like hydroxyapatite (HAp mineral in modified simulated body fluids (m-SBF were induced on chitosan (CS substrates, which were prepared by spin coating of chitosan on Ti substrate. The m-SBF showed a two fold increase in the concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions compared to SBF, and the post-NaOH treatment provided stabilization of the coatings. The calcium phosphate/chitosan composite prepared in m-SBF showed homogeneous distribution of approximately 350 nm-sized spherical clusters composed of octacalcium phosphate (OCP; Ca8H2(PO46·5H2O crystalline structure. Chitosan provided a control over the size of calcium phosphate prepared by immersion in m-SBF, and post-NaOH treatment supported the binding of calcium phosphate compound on the Ti surface. Post-NaOH treatment increased hydrophilicity and crystallinity of carbonate apatite, which increased its potential for biomedical application.

  9. Corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca amorphous alloys with Nd addition in simulated body fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Chunling; Xiao Tongna; Li Yongyan; Wang Zhifeng; Liu Li; Xiong Hanqing; Zhao Weimin


    The effects of Nd addition on corrosion behavior of Mg66Zn30Ca4 amorphous al oys in simulated body fluids (SBF) were studied in this paper. Electrochemical properties of the samples before and after corrosion were determined. Surface morphologies of samples after immersion in SBF at 37 ºC for different times were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that the corrosion resistance of Mg-based al oys in SBF is improved with the addition of Nd element. The electrochemical properties indicate that microal oying Nd element to the al oys leads to an ennoblement in the open circuit potentials of the al oys and a decrease in the anodic current density in SBF, especial y for the Mg66-xZn30Ca4Ndx al oys with Nd content of 1.0at.%-1.5at.%. It was observed that the surface morphologies of the al oys immersed in SBF change with the Nd addition. A flake-like structure paral el to the al oy substrate formed on the surface of 1.0at.% Nd-containing al oy immersed in SBF for 7 days improves the corrosion resistance of the amorphous al oys by blocking the corrosion liquid from attacking the al oys.

  10. Corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca amorphous alloys with Nd addition in simulated body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Chunling


    Full Text Available The effects of Nd addition on corrosion behavior of Mg66Zn30Ca4 amorphous alloys in simulated body fluids (SBF were studied in this paper. Electrochemical properties of the samples before and after corrosion were determined. Surface morphologies of samples after immersion in SBF at 37 篊 for different times were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results show that the corrosion resistance of Mg-based alloys in SBF is improved with the addition of Nd element. The electrochemical properties indicate that microalloying Nd element to the alloys leads to an ennoblement in the open circuit potentials of the alloys and a decrease in the anodic current density in SBF, especially for the Mg66-xZn30Ca4Ndx alloys with Nd content of 1.0at.%-1.5at.%. It was observed that the surface morphologies of the alloys immersed in SBF change with the Nd addition. A flake-like structure parallel to the alloy substrate formed on the surface of 1.0at.% Nd-containing alloy immersed in SBF for 7 days improves the corrosion resistance of the amorphous alloys by blocking the corrosion liquid from attacking the alloys.

  11. Hydroxyapatite-Coated Magnesium-Based Biodegradable Alloy: Cold Spray Deposition and Simulated Body Fluid Studies (United States)

    Noorakma, Abdullah C. W.; Zuhailawati, Hussain; Aishvarya, V.; Dhindaw, B. K.


    A simple modified cold spray process in which the substrate of AZ51 alloys were preheated to 400 °C and sprayed with hydroxyapatite (HAP) using high pressure cold air nozzle spray was designed to get biocompatible coatings of the order of 20-30 μm thickness. The coatings had an average modulus of 9 GPa. The biodegradation behavior of HAP-coated samples was tested by studying with simulated body fluid (SBF). The coating was characterized by FESEM microanalysis. ICPOES analysis was carried out for the SBF solution to know the change in ion concentrations. Control samples showed no aluminum corrosion but heavy Mg corrosion. On the HAP-coated alloy samples, HAP coatings started dissolving after 1 day but showed signs of regeneration after 10 days of holding. All through the testing period while the HAP coating got eroded, the surface of the sample got deposited with different apatite-like compounds and the phase changed with course from DCPD to β-TCP and β-TCMP. The HAP-coated samples clearly improved the biodegradability of Mg alloy, attributed to the dissolution and re-precipitation of apatite showed by the coatings as compared to the control samples.

  12. Earth rotation prevents exact solid body rotation of fluids in the laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Boisson, J; Moisy, F; Cortet, P -P


    We report direct evidence of a secondary flow excited by the Earth rotation in a water-filled spherical container spinning at constant rotation rate. This so-called {\\it tilt-over flow} essentially consists in a rotation around an axis which is slightly tilted with respect to the rotation axis of the sphere. In the astrophysical context, it corresponds to the flow in the liquid cores of planets forced by precession of the planet rotation axis, and it has been proposed to contribute to the generation of planetary magnetic fields. We detect this weak secondary flow using a particle image velocimetry system mounted in the rotating frame. This secondary flow consists in a weak rotation, thousand times smaller than the sphere rotation, around a horizontal axis which is stationary in the laboratory frame. Its amplitude and orientation are in quantitative agreement with the theory of the tilt-over flow excited by precession. These results show that setting a fluid in a perfect solid body rotation in a laboratory exp...

  13. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Okamoto, Masami [Advanced Polymeric Nanostructured Materials Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)


    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH{sup +} and CaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +}. The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF.

  14. 1H NMR metabolite fingerprinting as a new tool for body fluid identification in forensic science. (United States)

    Scano, Paola; Locci, Emanuela; Noto, Antonio; Navarra, Gabriele; Murgia, Federica; Lussu, Milena; Barberini, Luigi; Atzori, Luigi; De Giorgio, Fabio; Rosa, Maria Francesca; d'Aloja, Ernesto


    In this feasibility study, we propose, for the first time, (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with mathematical strategies as a valid tool for body fluid (BF) trace identification in forensic science. In order to assess the ability of this approach to identify traces composed either by a single or by two different BFs, samples of blood, urine, saliva, and semen were collected from different donors, and binary mixtures were prepared. (1)H NMR analyses were carried out for all samples. Spectral data of the whole set were firstly submitted to unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA); it showed that samples of the same BF cluster well on the basis of their characterizing molecular components and that mixtures exhibit intermediate characteristics among BF typologies. Furthermore, samples were divided into a training set and a test set. An average NMR spectral profile for each typology of BF was obtained from the training set and validated as representative of each BF class. Finally, a fitting procedure, based on a system of linear equations with the four obtained average spectral profiles, was applied to the test set and the mixture samples; it showed that BFs can be unambiguously identified, even as components of a mixture. The successful use of this mathematical procedure has the advantage, in forensics, of overcoming bias due to the analyst's personal judgment. We therefore propose this combined approach as a valid, fast, and non-destructive tool for addressing the challenges in the identification of composite traces in forensics.

  15. A study of apatite formation on natural nano-hydroxyapatite/ chitosan composite in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-bin FAN; Xiao-ying L(U)


    This study is focused on the ability of apatite formation on the surface of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan (CH) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) in vitro. At first, natural nano-HA was prepared according to a wet-bailing method and the composite was prepared by combining the natural nano-hydroxyapatite and chit-osan, and then in vitro biomineralization test of natural nano-HA/CH composite was carried out in standard SBF. Subsequently, the quantity of the weight of the particles formed on the composite surface in SBF was measured by analytical balance, and the morphology change on the surface of the composite was observed by a scanning elec-tron microscope (SEM). Lastly, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) was used to investigate the chemical components of the particles formed on the nat-ural nano-HA/CH composite surface in SBF. The result of quantity assessment shows that the weight of the com-posite increased with the increase of soaking time. The SEM image shows that the particles were gradually formed on natural nano-HA/CH composite surface, and the FTIR spectrum of the particles on composite surface confirms that these particles were carbonate apatite. This study indicates that the nano-HA/CH composite has a good ability for apatite formation in SBF, which predicts the bone-inducing ability of natural nano-HA/CH com-posite in vivo.

  16. Surface Behavior of Bioactive Glass of Si-Na-Ca-P System in Simulated Body Fluid (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Dang, Xing; Bao, Ruiliang; Yao, Liang

    Glass of the Si-Na-Ca-P system has been synthesized by normal melting and annealing technique. The obtained glass powders and annealed blocks were showed to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of glasses were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), it showed that the glass transformation temperature (Tg) was 556.3°C. The behavior of annealed glass discs in simulated body fluid solution (SBF) was studied in polyethylene containers at a constant temperature of 37°C for different time up to 14 days. The changes in the surface morphology and composition were observed by electronic probe microanalyzer (EPMA) associated with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Glass surface changed quickly as soon as immersion took place, and after longer soaking time, it showed different superimposed internal and external layers, which were identified as SiO2-rich and CaO-P2O5-rich layers, and on the external layer, spherical particles were also discovered.

  17. The porosity and roughness of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đošić Marija S.


    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate coatings were electrochemically deposited on titanium from the aqueous solution of Ca(NO32 and NH4H2PO4 with the current density of 10 mA cm-2 for deposition time of 15 min. The obtained brushite coatings, (CaHPO4·2H2O, were converted to hydroxyapatite (HA by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF for 2, 7 and 14 days. The brushite and hydroxyapatite coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. It was shown that the increase in soaking time increases the porosity, roughness and crystallite domain size of HA coatings and decreases the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume, while does not affect the HA mean pore area. The calcium and phosphorus ions concentrations in SBF were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively and the mechanism of HA growth based on dissolution-precipitation was proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019, br. III 45015 i br. OI 72004

  18. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, Miodrag [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D. [Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mišković-Stanković, Vesna [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  19. Study of Nickel Ion Release in Simulated Body Fluid from C+-IMPLANTED Nickel Titanium Alloy (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad Ahsan; Murtaza, G.; Saadat, Shahzad; Zaheer, Zeeshan; Shahnawaz, Muhammad; Uddin, Muhammad K. H.; Ahmad, Riaz


    Nickel ion release from NiTi shape memory alloy is an issue for biomedical applications. This study was planned to study the effect of C+ implantation on nickel ion release and affinity of calcium phosphate precipitation on NiTi alloy. Four annealed samples are chosen for the present study; three samples with oxidation layer and the fourth without oxidation layer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveal amorphization with ion implantation. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) result shows insignificant increase in Ni release in simulated body fluid (SBF) and calcium phosphate precipitation up to 8×1013ions/cm2. Then Nickel contents show a sharp increase for greater ion doses. Corrosion potential decreases by increasing the dose but all the samples passivate after the same interval of time and at the same level of VSCE in ringer lactate solution. Hardness of samples initially increases at greater rate (up to 8×1013ions/cm2) and then increases with lesser rate. It is found that 8×1013ions/cm2 (≈1014) is a safer limit of implantation on NiTi alloy, this limit gives us lesser ion release, better hardness and reasonable hydroxyapatite incubation affinity.

  20. Mineralization behavior and interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composite implants in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yanxuan; Zheng Yudong; Huang Xiaoshan; Xi Tingfei; Han Dongfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin Xiaodan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Song Wenhui, E-mail:, E-mail: [Wolfson Center for Materials Processing, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)


    Due to the non-bioactivity and poor conjunction performance of present cartilage prostheses, the main work here is to develop the bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel articular cartilage/bone (BG-PVA/bone) composite implants. The essential criterion for a biomaterial to bond with living bone is well-matched mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In vitro studies on the formation of a surface layer of carbonate hydroxyl apatite (HCA) and the corresponding variation of the properties of biomaterials are imperative for their clinical application. In this paper, the mineralization behavior and variation of the interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composites were studied in vitro by using simulated body fluid (SBF). The mineralization and HCA layer formed on the interface between the BG-PVA hydrogel and bone in SBF could provide the composites with bioactivity and firmer combination. The compression property, shear strength and interface morphology of BG-PVA/bone composite implants varying with the immersion time in SBF were characterized. Also, the influence laws of the immersion time, content of BG in the composites and aperture of bones to the mineralization behavior and interface properties were investigated. The good mineralization behavior and enhanced conjunction performance of BG-PVA/bone composites demonstrated that this kind of composite implant might be more appropriate cartilage replacements.

  1. In vitro bioactivity of 3D Ti-mesh with bioceramic coatings in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yi


    Full Text Available 3D Ti-mesh has been coated with bioceramics under different coating conditions, such as material compositions and micro-porosity, using a dip casting method. Hydroxyapatite (HA, micro-HA particles (HAp, a bioglass (BG and their different mixtures together with polymer additives were used to control HA-coating microstructures. Layered composites with the following coating-to-substrate designs, such as BG/Ti, HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti, were fabricated. The bioactivity of these coated composites and the uncoated Ti-mesh substrate was then investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF. The Ti-mesh substrate and BG/Ti composite did not induce biomimetic apatite deposition when they were immersed in SBF for the selected BG, a pressable dental ceramic, used in this study. After seven days in SBF, an apatite layer was formed on both HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti composites. The difference is the apatite layer on the HAp + BG/BG/Ti composite was rougher and contained more micro-pores, while the apatite layer on the HA + BG/BG/Ti composite was dense and smooth. The formation of biomimetic apatite, being more bioresorbable, is favored for bone regeneration.

  2. Analysis of bacterial-surface-specific antibodies in body fluids using bacterial flow cytometry. (United States)

    Moor, Kathrin; Fadlallah, Jehane; Toska, Albulena; Sterlin, Delphine; Balmer, Maria L; Macpherson, Andrew J; Gorochov, Guy; Larsen, Martin; Slack, Emma


    Antibacterial antibody responses that target surfaces of live bacteria or secreted toxins are likely to be relevant in controlling bacterial pathogenesis. The ability to specifically quantify bacterial-surface-binding antibodies is therefore highly attractive as a quantitative correlate of immune protection. Here, binding of antibodies from various body fluids to pure-cultured live bacteria is made visible with fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibodies and measured by flow cytometry. We indicate the necessary controls for excluding nonspecific binding and also demonstrate a cross-adsorption technique for determining the extent of cross-reactivity. This technique has numerous advantages over standard ELISA and western blotting techniques because of its independence from scaffold binding, exclusion of cross-reactive elements from lysed bacteria and ability to visualize bacterial subpopulations. In addition, less than 10(5) bacteria and less than 10 μg of antibody are required per sample. The technique requires 3-4 h of hands-on experimentation and analysis. Moreover, it can be combined with automation and mutliplexing for high-throughput applications.

  3. Fabrication of Titanium/Fluorapatite Composites and In Vitro Behavior in Simulated Body Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hezhou Ye; Xing Yang Liu; Hanping Hong


    Titanium/fluorapatite (Ti/FA) composites with various FA additions were fabricated by powder metallurgy.The decomposition of FA during sintering was accelerated by the presence of Ti.The main reaction products of FA and Ti were identified as CaO,Ti phosphides,and CaTiO3.The addition of FA significantly inhibited the densification of Ti.The in vitro bioactivity of the composites was evaluated in a simulated body fluid (SBF).After immersion into the SBF,all the Ti/FA composites induced nucleation and growth of bone-like carbonated apatite on the surface.Co-precipitation of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 was also detected on the surface of the composite with high FA addition at an early stage of immersion.Furthermore,the release of fluorine ions from the composite was confirmed,which could promote bone regeneration and retard the formation of caries in the biological environment.The in vitro behavior was attributed to multiple factors,including the surface conditions and the constituents of the composite.The results demonstrated that the Ti/FA composites were bioactive in nature even with a low FA addition and they could introduce the benefit of fluorine ions in the service.

  4. Fluid Shifts: Otoacoustical Emission Changes in Response to Posture and Lower Body Negative Pressure (United States)

    Melgoza, R.; Kemp, D.; Ebert, D.; Danielson, R.; Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.


    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the NASA Fluid Shifts Study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Due to the invasive nature of direct measures of ICP, a noninvasive technique of monitoring ICP is desired for use during spaceflight. The phase angle and amplitude of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been shown to be sensitive to posture change and ICP (1, 2), therefore use of OAEs is an attractive option. OAEs are low-level sounds produced by the sensory cells of the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation. These sounds travel peripherally from the cochlea, through the oval window, to the ear canal where they can be recorded. OAE transmission is sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the oval window, occurring as a result of changes in cochlear pressure. Increased stiffness of the oval window largely affects the transmission of sound from the cochlea at frequencies between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. OAEs can be self-recorded in the laboratory or on the ISS using a handheld device. Our primary objectives regarding OAE measures in this experiment were to 1) validate this method during preflight testing of each crewmember (while sitting, supine and in head-down tilt position), and 2) determine if OAE measures (and presumably ICP) are responsive to lower body negative pressure and to spaceflight. METHODS: Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded preflight using the Otoport Advance OAE system (Otodynamics Ltd., Hatfield, UK). Data were collected in four conditions (seated


    Field, C W


    In sections of control and normal skin, the nuclei of the epithelial cells were often indented by the cell protoplasm, giving them an appearance similar to those indented by Mallory's bodies. It would seem that if these bodies of Mallory's were protozoa they would have been found in the sections from both the living and the dead skin of scarlet-fever and measles, as they were present in the blister fluid. Their absence is certainly more suggestive of a degeneration than of a protozoon. This view is also borne out by the fact that they were not found immediately after death, but were present in another specimen from the same case removed twenty-four hours later. It would seem probable also that the bodies found in the blister fluid were the products of degeneration and cytolytic activity, because they were found in the antitoxin rashes as well as in the cases of scarlet-fever and measles. The histological changes in the skin of these two diseases leads us to expect the presence of cytolytic products both in the blister fluid and in the sections. It certainly cannot be stated that none of these bodies is a protozoön, but it can be positively stated that a great majority of them arise from degenerating cells; and in many cases, I think, it is not possible to differentiate a degeneration from a protozoön by the study of its morphology and staining reactions. The bodies present in blister fluid resemble very closely those granular bodies found in blood under certain conditions, and seen in vaccine lymph and in emulsions of tissues and in exudates. I think, therefore, that they are for the most part, if not wholly, products of degenerating tissue cells and of leucocytes, and within certain limits specific to scarlet-fever and measles.

  6. Ultrastructure of the intercalated body, a novel organelle associated with fluid forming cells in the organ of Corti. (United States)

    Sobkowicz, H M; Holy, J; Scott, G L


    The intercalated body is a newly discovered organelle in the inner and outer spiral sulcus cells of the mouse organ of Corti. The organelle was found in the cochleas of 14-day and older intact mice and in organs in culture of corresponding ages. The organelle consists of a stack of interconnected cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and of membrane bound rodlets that are intercalated between, and run parallel to, the cisternae. The cisternal membranes are predominantly smooth, but some may display ribosomes. Most rodlets are from 1 to 2 microns long, about 0.1 micron wide, and contain electron dense material. Mitochondria are commonly associated with or incorporated into the organelle. Some electron micrographs suggest that the rodlets may originate from modified mitochondria. It is our impression that the formation of the organelle begins with the apposition of cisternae and mitochondria. Cisternal-associated mitochondria appear to constrict, elongate, and lose their inner membranes. In both the intact animal and in culture, the cells of the inner and outer spiral sulci display microvilli, apical junctional complexes, lateral intercellular spaces containing interdigitating cell processes, and appear to be involved in fluid formation. Moreover, in culture, the cells of inner and outer spiral sulci as well as some cells proliferating in the outgrowth zone participate in fluid formation, producing large fluid pockets. All these cells commonly contain intercalated bodies. It is possible that in the intact animal, as in culture, intercalated bodies may play a role in fluid regulation in the immediate vicinity of the hair cells.

  7. A unified mathematical framework and an adaptive numerical method for fluid-structure interaction with rigid, deforming, and elastic bodies (United States)

    Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Bale, Rahul; Griffith, Boyce E.; Patankar, Neelesh A.


    Many problems of interest in biological fluid mechanics involve interactions between fluids and solids that require the coupled solution of momentum equations for both the fluid and the solid. In this work, we develop a mathematical framework and an adaptive numerical method for such fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems in which the structure may be rigid, deforming, or elastic. We employ an immersed boundary (IB) formulation of the problem that permits us to avoid body conforming discretizations and to use fast Cartesian grid solvers. Rigidity and deformational kinematic constraints are imposed using a formulation based on distributed Lagrange multipliers, and a conventional IB method is used to describe the elasticity of the immersed body. We use Cartesian grid adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to discretize the equations of motion and thereby obtain a solution methodology that efficiently captures thin boundary layers at fluid-solid interfaces as well as flow structures shed from such interfaces. This adaptive methodology is validated for several benchmark problems in two and three spatial dimensions. In addition, we use this scheme to simulate free swimming, including the maneuvering of a two-dimensional model eel and a three-dimensional model of the weakly electric black ghost knifefish.

  8. A collaborative European exercise on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and interpretation of DNA and RNA results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berge, M; Carracedo, A; Gomes, I;


    The European Forensic Genetics Network of Excellence (EUROFORGEN-NoE) undertook a collaborative project on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and the interpretation of the resulting RNA and DNA data. Although both body fluids and skin are composed of a variety of cell types with different function...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐刚; 任文敏


    An Arnoldi's method with new iteration pattern, which was designed for solving a large unsymmetric eigenvalue problem introduced by displacement-pressure FE (Finite Element) pattern of a fluid-structure interaction system, was adopted here to get the dynamic characteristics of the semi-submerged body. The new iteration pattern could be used efficiently to obtain the Arnoldi's vectors in the shift-frequency technique, which was used for the zero-frequency problem. Numerical example showed that the fluid-structure interaction is one of the important factors to the dynamic characteristics of large semi-submerged thin-walled structures.

  10. Oral factors affecting titanium elution and corrosion: an in vitro study using simulated body fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Suito

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Ti, which is biocompatible and resistant to corrosion, is widely used for dental implants, particularly in patients allergic to other materials. However, numerous studies have reported on Ti allergy and the in vitro corrosion of Ti. This study investigated the conditions that promote the elution of Ti ions from Ti implants. METHODS: Specimens of commercially pure Ti, pure nickel, a magnetic alloy, and a gold alloy were tested. Each specimen was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF whose pH value was controlled (2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.4, and 9.0 using either hydrochloric or lactic acid. The parameters investigated were the following: duration of immersion, pH of the SBF, contact with a dissimilar metal, and mechanical stimulus. The amounts of Ti ions eluted were measured using a polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Eluted Ti ions were detected after 24 h (pH of 2.0 and 3.0 and after 48 h (pH of 9.0. However, even after 4 weeks, eluted Ti ions were not detected in SBF solutions with pH values of 5.0 and 7.4. Ti elution was affected by immersion time, pH, acid type, mechanical stimulus, and contact with a dissimilar metal. Elution of Ti ions in a Candida albicans culture medium was observed after 72 h. SIGNIFICANCE: Elution of Ti ions in the SBF was influenced by its pH and by crevice corrosion. The results of this study elucidate the conditions that lead to the elution of Ti ions in humans, which results in implant corrosion and Ti allergy.

  11. Developments in FTICR-MS and Its Potential for Body Fluid Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Nicolardi


    Full Text Available Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS is the method of choice for measurements that require ultra-high resolution. The establishment of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR MS, the availability of biomolecular ionization techniques and the introduction of the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer have widened the number of FTMS-applications enormously. One recent example involves clinical proteomics using FTICR-MS to discover and validate protein biomarker signatures in body fluids such as serum or plasma. These biological samples are highly complex in terms of the type and number of components, their concentration range, and the structural identity of each species, and thus require extensive sample cleanup and chromatographic separation procedures. Clearly, such an elaborate and multi-step sample preparation process hampers high-throughput analysis of large clinical cohorts. A final MS read-out at ultra-high resolution enables the analysis of a more complex sample and can thus simplify upfront fractionations. To this end, FTICR-MS offers superior ultra-high resolving power with accurate and precise mass-to-charge ratio (m/z measurement of a high number of peptides and small proteins (up to 20 kDa at isotopic resolution over a wide mass range, and furthermore includes a wide variety of fragmentation strategies to characterize protein sequence and structure, including post-translational modifications (PTMs. In our laboratory, we have successfully applied FTICR “next-generation” peptide profiles with the purpose of cancer disease classifications. Here we will review a number of developments and innovations in FTICR-MS that have resulted in robust and routine procedures aiming for ultra-high resolution signatures of clinical samples, exemplified with state-of-the-art examples for serum and saliva.

  12. Developments in FTICR-MS and Its Potential for Body Fluid Signatures. (United States)

    Nicolardi, Simone; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M


    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is the method of choice for measurements that require ultra-high resolution. The establishment of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, the availability of biomolecular ionization techniques and the introduction of the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer have widened the number of FTMS-applications enormously. One recent example involves clinical proteomics using FTICR-MS to discover and validate protein biomarker signatures in body fluids such as serum or plasma. These biological samples are highly complex in terms of the type and number of components, their concentration range, and the structural identity of each species, and thus require extensive sample cleanup and chromatographic separation procedures. Clearly, such an elaborate and multi-step sample preparation process hampers high-throughput analysis of large clinical cohorts. A final MS read-out at ultra-high resolution enables the analysis of a more complex sample and can thus simplify upfront fractionations. To this end, FTICR-MS offers superior ultra-high resolving power with accurate and precise mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) measurement of a high number of peptides and small proteins (up to 20 kDa) at isotopic resolution over a wide mass range, and furthermore includes a wide variety of fragmentation strategies to characterize protein sequence and structure, including post-translational modifications (PTMs). In our laboratory, we have successfully applied FTICR "next-generation" peptide profiles with the purpose of cancer disease classifications. Here we will review a number of developments and innovations in FTICR-MS that have resulted in robust and routine procedures aiming for ultra-high resolution signatures of clinical samples, exemplified with state-of-the-art examples for serum and saliva.

  13. Partitioning of halogens between mantle minerals and aqueous fluids: implications for the fluid flow regime in subduction zones (United States)

    Bernini, Diego; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Dolejš, David; Keppler, Hans


    We have performed phase equilibrium experiments in the system forsterite-enstatite-pyrope-H2O with MgCl2 or MgF2 at 1,100 °C and 2.6 GPa to constrain the solubility of halogens in the peridotite mineral assemblage and the fluid-mineral partition coefficients. The chlorine solubility in forsterite, enstatite and in pyrope is very low, 2.1-3.9 and 4.0-11.4 ppm, respectively, and it is independent of the fluid salinity (0.3-30 wt% Cl), suggesting that some intrinsic saturation limit in the crystal is reached already at very low chlorine concentrations. Chlorine is therefore exceedingly incompatible in upper-mantle minerals. The fluorine solubility is 170-336 ppm in enstatite and 510-1,110 ppm in pyrope, again independent of fluid salinity. Forsterite dissolves 1,750-1,900 ppm up to a fluid salinity of 1.6 wt% F. At higher fluorine contents in the system, forsterite is replaced by the minerals of the humite group. The lower solubility of chlorine by three orders of magnitude when compared to fluorine is consistent with increasing lattice strain. Fluid-mineral partition coefficients are 100-102 for fluorine and 103-105 for chlorine. Since the latter values are orders of magnitude higher than those for hydroxyl partitioning, fluid flow from the subducting slab through the mantle wedge will lead to an efficient sequestration of H2O into the nominally anhydrous minerals in the wedge, whereas chlorine becomes enriched in the residual fluid. Simple mass balance calculations reveal that rock-fluid ratios of up to >3,000 are required to produce the elevated Cl/H2O ratios observed in some primitive arc magmas. Accordingly, fluid flow from the subducted slab into the zone of melting in the mantle wedge does not only occur rapidly in narrow channels, but at least in some subduction zones, fluid pervasively infiltrates the mantle peridotite and interacts with a large volume of the mantle wedge. Together with the Cl/H2O ratios of primitive arc magmas, our data therefore constrain

  14. The Near Wake of Bluff Bodies in Stratified Fluids and the Emergence of Late Wake Characteristics (United States)


    Kundu and Ira Cohen. Fluid Mechanics , Third Edition. Elsevier Inc., 2004. [27] S. Lee. A numerical study of the unsteady wake behind a sphere in a...found in the stratified fluid flows is the existence of the standing lee wave, which is a laminar mechanism . Above a Reynolds number of 2000, it is...computational cost to both model the proper fluid mechanics on the sphere and reproduce the far-wake is prohibitively expensive with current

  15. Comparative analysis of amniotic fluid lamellar body count and foam stability test as indices of fetal lung maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjevac Nemanja


    Full Text Available Introduction. Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn caused by the fetal lung immaturity is a very serious clinical problem. Different tests of prenatal analysis of amniotic fluid, such as lamellar body count and Clements’ test, are available for predicting the fetal lung maturity. Material and methods. A prospective clinical study was conducted on amniotic fluid samples from 2005 to 2006. The amniotic fluid samples were obtained at the gestational age of 30 to 42 weeks and collected by vaginal amniotomy, amniotomy during Caesarean section and 72 hours before the delivery by amniocentesis. A haematology analyzer (Nikon-Kohden® was used to determine the lamellar body counts. Clements’ test involved adding an equal volume of 96% ethanol to the multiple amniotic fluid volume (1:2, 1:4, 1:16, 1:32, followed by shaking and noting the presence of ring of bubbles. After the delivery, we compared the lamellar body count results and Clements’ test and the outcome of pregnancies, primarily the development of respiratory distress syndrome. The most specific lamellar body cutoffs for maturity and immaturity were determined according to receiver operating characteristic curves. Results and Discussion. Out of 232 amniotic fluid samples which were tested, 112 samples were collected after vaginal amniotomy, 88 during the Caesarean delivery and 32 samples by amniocentesis. The overall incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 14.6%. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify cutoff points for the test. We found that both tests are good screening tests for predicting the fetal lung maturity with the area under the curve of 0.782 in Clements’ test and 0.751 in the lamellar body count. Clements’ cutoff 2 with sensitivity of 67.6% and specificity of 72.2%, proved best in the prediction of the fetal lung maturity. The lamellar body count cutoff of 42x10³/μl had the sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 64.6% in predicting

  16. Identification of Mushroom body miniature, a zinc-finger protein implicated in brain development of Drosophila (United States)

    Raabe, Thomas; Clemens-Richter, Susanne; Twardzik, Thomas; Ebert, Anselm; Gramlich, Gertrud; Heisenberg, Martin


    The mushroom bodies are bilaterally arranged structures in the protocerebrum of Drosophila and most other insect species. Mutants with altered mushroom body structure have been instrumental not only in establishing their role in distinct behavioral functions but also in identifying the molecular pathways that control mushroom body development. The mushroom body miniature1 (mbm1) mutation results in grossly reduced mushroom bodies and odor learning deficits in females. With a survey of genomic rescue constructs, we have pinpointed mbm1 to a single transcription unit and identified a single nucleotide exchange in the 5′ untranslated region of the corresponding transcript resulting in a reduced expression of the protein. The most obvious feature of the Mbm protein is a pair of C2HC zinc fingers, implicating a function of the protein in binding nucleic acids. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that expression of the Mbm protein is not restricted to the mushroom bodies. BrdUrd labeling experiments indicate a function of Mbm in neuronal precursor cell proliferation. PMID:15375215

  17. Electrochemical behaviour of Ti-Ni SMA and Co-Cr alloys in dynamic Tyrode's simulated body fluid. (United States)

    Liang, Chenghao; Zheng, Runfen; Huang, Naibao; Wu, Bo


    The electrochemical behaviour of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy and Co-Cr alloys were investigated in dynamic Tyrode's simulated body fluid on a Model CP6 Potentiostat/Galvanostat. The results indicated that, for all alloys, the anodic dissolution and the pitting sensitivity increased with the flow rate of the Tyrode's solution increasing while the open-circuit potentials and pitting corrosion potentials decreased with the Tyrode's solution increasing. Pitting corrosion of Ti-Ni alloy was easier than Co-Cr alloys. Since the solution's flow enhanced oxygen transform and made it easy to reach the surface of electrodes, the plateau of oxygen diffusion control was diminished. All these indicated that the cathodic reduction and the corrosion reaction, which was controlled by the electrochemical mass transport process, were all accelerated in dynamic Tyrode's simulated body fluid.

  18. Gravothermal collapse of isolated self-interacting dark matter haloes: N-body simulation versus the fluid model

    CERN Document Server

    Koda, Jun


    Self-Interacting Dark Matter (SIDM) is a collisional form of cold dark matter (CDM), originally proposed to solve problems that arose when the collisionless CDM theory of structure formation was compared with observations of galaxies on small scales. The quantitative impact of the proposed elastic collisions on structure formation has been estimated previously by Monte Carlo N-body simulations and by a conducting fluid model, with apparently diverging results. To improve this situation, we make direct comparisons between new Monte Carlo N-body simulations and solutions of the conducting fluid model, for isolated SIDM haloes of fixed mass. This allows us to separate cleanly the effects of gravothermal relaxation from those of continuous mass accretion in an expanding background universe. When these two methods are previously applied to halo formation with cosmological boundary conditions, they disagreed by an order of magnitude about the size of the scattering cross section required to solve the so-called 'cus...

  19. Non-invasive assessment of static scatterer concentration in phantom body fluids using laser speckle contrast analysis technique (United States)

    Jayanthy, A. K.; Sujatha, N.; Ramasubba Reddy, M.


    An adequate amount of supply of blood to the body organs is essential for the optimum survival and function of the cells. The Red Blood Cells (RBC) which are the most abundant cells of the blood transports hemoglobin which in turn carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. And hence its concentration in blood is an important factor. In this paper, we are presenting LAser Speckle Contrast Analysis (LASCA) as a tool for analyzing RBC concentration. Preliminary results obtained using body fluid such as blood mimicking phantoms are presented here. The technique described provides a non-contact, non-scanning and whole field method for assessing RBC concentration non-invasively.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; YOU Yun-xiang; MIAO Guo-ping; ZHAO Feng; ZHANG Jun


    This paper is concerned with the waves generated by a 3-D body advancing beneath the free surface with constant speed in a two-layer fluid of finite depth. By applying Green's theorem, a layered integral equation system based on the Rankine source for the perturbed velocity potential generated by the moving body was derived with the potential flow theory. A four-node isoparametric element method was used to treat with the solution of the layered integral equation system. The surface and interface waves generated by a moving ball were calculated numerically. The results were compared with the analytical results for a moving source with constant velocity.

  1. Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene. (United States)

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K


    Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence to forensic investigators. They contain valuable DNA evidence which can identify a suspect or victim as well as exonerate an innocent individual. The first step of identifying a particular body fluid is highly important since the nature of the fluid is itself very informative to the investigation, and the destructive nature of a screening test must be considered when only a small amount of material is available. The ability to characterize an unknown stain at the scene of the crime without having to wait for results from a laboratory is another very critical step in the development of forensic body fluid analysis. Driven by the importance for forensic applications, body fluid identification methods have been extensively developed in recent years. The systematic analysis of these new developments is vital for forensic investigators to be continuously educated on possible superior techniques. Significant advances in laser technology and the development of novel light detectors have dramatically improved spectroscopic methods for molecular characterization over the last decade. The application of this novel biospectroscopy for forensic purposes opens new and exciting opportunities for the development of on-field, non-destructive, confirmatory methods for body fluid identification at a crime scene. In addition, the biospectroscopy methods are universally applicable to all body fluids unlike the majority of current techniques which are valid for individual fluids only. This article analyzes the current methods being used to identify body fluid stains including blood, semen, saliva, vaginal fluid, urine, and sweat, and also focuses on new techniques that have been developed in the last 5-6 years. In addition, the potential of new biospectroscopic techniques based on Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy is evaluated for rapid, confirmatory, non-destructive identification of a body


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aklis


    Full Text Available Salah satu pengembangan dalam suatu mobil adalah desain bodi mobil. Desain mobil tidak hanya ditinjau dari factor estetika (keindahan, namun juga berdasarkan bentuk keaerodinamisan bodinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan pola aliran, koefisien drag (CD dan koefisien lift (CL pada bodi mobil ESEMKA RAJAWALI standar dengan bodi mobil ESEMKA RAJAWALI modifikasi.      Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan merubah geometri sudut kap dengan kaca bodi mobil standar dengan sudut 156o menjadi 165o, dan merubah bemper depan yang memiliki sudut 90o menjadi 65o. Desain pembuatan bodi mobil menggunakan software solidworks 2014. Dan disimulasikan menggunakan CFD pada software Ansys 15.0      Dari hasil simulasi CFD didapatkan perbedaan pola aliran dan nilai-nilai tekanan pada bodi mobil masing-masing bodi mobil. Berdasarkan hasil simulasi perhitungan coefficient drag dan coefficient lift pada bodi mobil ESEMKA RAJAWALI modifikasi lebih kecil dari bodi mobil ESEMKA RAJAWALI standar.

  3. 从气血津液看人体脏腑的整体性%From the blood and body fluids to see the integrity of human body organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳石; 李月红


    The production, distribution and excretion of qi blood essence fluid are collaborative completed by various organs of human body together. In the process, each organ has its unique physiological function, but every function can not be independently finished by an individual organ, which needs assistance of other zang-fu viscera and qi blood essence fluid support. The physiological activities of the zang-fu viscera are the transformation process of the qi blood essence fluid, thus each viscera constitutes a qi blood essence fluid as the core of the whole function, which embodies the integrity of human viscera.%气血津液的化生、输布和排泄是由人体各脏腑协同完成的,在这一过程中,每一脏腑都具有其独特的生理功能,但每项功能都不是某一脏腑能够独立完成的,而是在其他脏腑的协助和气血津液的濡养下完成的,各脏腑的生理活动其实就是气血津液的运行变换过程,由此可见各个脏腑构成了一个以气血津液为核心的功能整体,体现了人体脏腑的整体性。

  4. Simultaneous analysis of micro-RNA and DNA for determining the body fluid origin of DNA profiles. (United States)

    van der Meer, Donny; Uchimoto, Mari L; Williams, Graham


    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) can be specifically expressed in forensically relevant body fluids such as blood or saliva. The aim of the study was to develop a simultaneous extraction and analysis protocol that allows for the acquisition of a DNA profile and the identity of the body fluid using a single process. DNA and micro-RNA were extracted from blood and saliva before undergoing a cDNA synthesis step by using stem-loop reverse transcription PCR. The resulting extracts containing DNA and cDNA synthesized from body fluid-specific miRNA markers then underwent standard STR analysis using a modified ABI AmpFℓSTR(®) NGM SElect™ kit. In all samples, a full DNA profile was obtained along with additional peaks corresponding to the miRNA marker targeted. In all cases, blood samples profiled exhibited a peak indicating the presence of the blood-specific miRNA marker and the saliva sample profiled exhibited a peak indicating the presence of the saliva-specific miRNA marker.

  5. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): Patterns and implications (United States)

    Estes, J.A.; Lindberg, D.R.; Wray, C.


    Kelps and other fleshy macroalgae - dominant reef-inhabiting organisms in cool - seasmay have radiated extensively following late Cenozoic polar cooling, thus triggering a chain of evolutionary change in the trophic ecology of nearshore temperate ecosystems. We explore this hypothesis through an analysis of body size in the abalones (Gastropoda; Haliotidae), a widely distributed group in modern oceans that displays a broad range of body sizes and contains fossil representatives from the late Cretaceous (60-75 Ma). Geographic analysis of maximum shell length in living abalones showed that small-bodied species, while most common in the Tropics, have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas large-bodied species occur exclusively in cold-water ecosystems dominated by kelps and other macroalgae. The phylogeography of body size evolution in extant abalones was assessed by constructing a molecular phylogeny in a mix of large and small species obtained from different regions of the world. This analysis demonstrates that small body size is the plesiomorphic state and largeness has likely arisen at least twice. Finally, we compiled data on shell length from the fossil record to determine how (slowly or suddenly) and when large body size arose in the abalones. These data indicate that large body size appears suddenly at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Our findings support the view that fleshy-algal dominated ecosystems radiated rapidly in the coastal oceans with the onset of the most recent glacial age. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications of this change. ?? 2005 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

  6. A Biodegradation Study of SBA-15 Microparticles in Simulated Body Fluid and in Vivo. (United States)

    Choi, Youngjin; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Jung Heon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jaeyun


    Mesoporous silica has received considerable attention as a drug delivery vehicle because of its large surface area and large pore volume for loading drugs and large biomolecules. Recently, mesoporous silica microparticles have shown potential as a three-dimensional vaccine platform for modulating dendritic cells via spontaneous assembly of microparticles in a specific region after subcutaneous injection. For further in vivo applications, the biodegradation behavior of mesoporous silica microparticles must be studied and known. Until now, most biodegradation studies have focused on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs); here, we report the biodegradation of hexagonally ordered mesoporous silica, SBA-15, with micrometer-sized lengths (∼32 μm with a high aspect ratio). The degradation of SBA-15 microparticles was investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in mice by analyzing the structural change over time. SBA-15 microparticles were found to degrade in SBF and in vivo. The erosion of SBA-15 under biological conditions led to a loss of the hysteresis loop in the nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm and fingerprint peaks in small-angle X-ray scattering, specifically indicating a degradation of ordered mesoporous structure. Via comparison to previous results of degradation of MSNs in SBF, SBA-15 microparticles degraded faster than MCM-41 nanoparticles presumably because SBA-15 microparticles have a pore size (∼8 nm) and a pore volume larger than those of MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The surface functional groups, the residual amounts of organic templates, and the hydrothermal treatment during the synthesis could affect the rate of degradation of SBA-15. In in vivo testing, previous studies focused on the evaluation of toxicity of mesoporous silica particles in various organs. In contrast, we studied the change in the physical properties of SBA-15 microparticles depending on the duration after subcutaneous injection. The pristine SBA-15 microparticles injected

  7. Usefulness of ultrasound examination in the evaluation of a neonate’s body fluid status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kieliszczyk


    Full Text Available Appropriate hydration is a very important prognostic factor for the patient’s health. Ultrasonographic assessment of hydration status is rarely used in pediatric medicine and it is not used at all in neonates due to the fact that no reference values have been established for this age group. The aim of the paper was to establish reference values for neonates. Material and methods: The study included 50 neonates from two hospitals in the Lower Silesia region of Poland; 25 of them were healthy patients (full-term newborns with no perinatal complications and 25 were sick patients (newborns with heart defects such as ostium secundum atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, permanent foramen ovale and patent ductus arteriosus as well as newborns with neonatal jaundice or pneumonia that occurred during the first days of life. The ultrasound scans were conducted during the first days of the children’s life. For every child inferior vena cava diameter was measured in the substernal area, longitudinal plane, M-mode in two respiratory phases: inhalation and exhalation. In addition, abdominal aorta diameter was determined (substernal area, transverse plane. Results: The study demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the calculated inferior vena cava collapsibility index between both groups. Two other indices included the ratio of the inferior vena cava diameter during the expiratory phase to the diameter of the aorta and the ratio of the inferior vena cava diameter during the inspiratory phase to the diameter of the aorta; a statistically significant difference between both groups was found only for the measurements in the inspiratory phase. Conclusions: Based on the study results normal ranges for hydration indices in neonates were established. The need for the measurement of the abovementioned parameters in the inspiratory phase was determined. In addition, the usefulness of the ultrasound examination for the evaluation of body

  8. Degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanocomposite in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liuyun, Jiang, E-mail: [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chengdong, Xiong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Lixin, Jiang; Lijuan, Xu [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Graduated School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)


    Graphical abstract: In this manuscript, we initiated a systematic study to investigate the effect of HA on thermal properties, inner structure, reduction of mechanical strength, surface morphology and the surface deposit of n-HA/PLGA composite with respect to the soaking time. The results showed that n-HA played an important role in improving the degradation behavior of n-HA/PLGA composite, which can accelerate the degradation of n-HA/PLGA composite and endow it with bioactivity, after n-HA was detached from PLGA during the degradation, so that n-HA/PLGA composite may have a more promising prospect of the clinical application than pure PLGA as bone fracture internal fixation materials, and the results would be of reference significance to predict the in vivo degradation and biological properties. - Highlights: • Effect of n-HA on degradation behavior of n-HA/PLGA composite was investigated. • Degradation behaviors of n-HA/PLGA and PLGA were carried out in SBF for 6 months. • Viscosity, thermal properties, inner structure and bending strength were tested. • n-HA can accelerate the degradation and endows it with bioactivity. - Abstract: To investigate the effect of hydroxyapatite(HA) on the degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (HA/PLGA) nanocomposite, the degradation experiment of n-HA/PLGA composite and pure PLGA were carried out by soaking in simulated body fluid(SBF) at 37 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. The change of intrinsic viscosity, thermal properties, inner structure, bending strength reduction, surface morphology and the surface deposit of n-HA/PLGA composite and pure PLGA with respect to the soaking time were investigated by means of UbbeloHde Viscometer, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope(SEM), electromechanical universal tester, a conventional camera and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that n-HA played an important role in improving the degradation behavior of n

  9. Analysis and Design Tools for Fluid-Structure Interaction with Multi-Body Flexible Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this proposal (Phases I and II) is to develop a robust and accurate solver for fluid-structure interaction computations capable of...

  10. Osmotic relations of the coelomic fluid and body wall tissues in Arenicola marina subjected to salinity change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Spaargaren, D.H.


    . In the body wall extracts, however, NPS accounts for at least one third of the osmotic concentration and for most of the substantial non-electrolyte fraction. There is no evidence from coelomic NPS measurements for extrusion of cellular amino acids during adaptation to lowered salinity. In diluted sea water...... nitrogenous organic molecules (ninhydrin-positive substances, NPS) in the body wall tissues and in the coelomic fluid of specimens of Arenicola in response to sudden changes in salinity. The coelomic solutes consist almost entirely of electrolytes and the osmotic contribution of NPS is essentially negligible...... the concentrations of the different solutes (including NPS) decrease by approximately similar rates and proportions, indicating responses to a common factor, such as tissue hydration. The concentration of chloride in the body wall tissues, however, showed distinctly greater decreases than that of other solutes...

  11. Self-propulsion of a body with rigid surface and variable coefficient of lift in a perfect fluid (United States)

    Ramodanov, Sergey M.; Tenenev, Valentin A.; Treschev, Dmitry V.


    We study the system of a 2D rigid body moving in an unbounded volume of incompressible, vortex-free perfect fluid which is at rest at infinity. The body is equipped with a gyrostat and a so-called Flettner rotor. Due to the latter the body is subject to a lifting force (Magnus effect). The rotational velocities of the gyrostat and the rotor are assumed to be known functions of time (control inputs). The equations of motion are presented in the form of the Kirchhoff equations. The integrals of motion are given in the case of piecewise continuous control. Using these integrals we obtain a (reduced) system of first-order differential equations on the configuration space. Then an optimal control problem for several types of the inputs is solved using genetic algorithms.

  12. Fluorescent adduct formation with terbium: a novel strategy for transferrin glycoform identification in human body fluids and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin HPLC method validation. (United States)

    Sorio, Daniela; De Palo, Elio Franco; Bertaso, Anna; Bortolotti, Federica; Tagliaro, Franco


    This paper puts forward a new method for the transferrin (Tf) glycoform analysis in body fluids that involves the formation of a transferrin-terbium fluorescent adduct (TfFluo). The key idea is to validate the analytical procedure for carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), a traditional biochemical serum marker to identify chronic alcohol abuse. Terbium added to a human body-fluid sample produced TfFluo. Anion exchange HPLC technique, with fluorescence detection (λ exc 298 nm and λ em 550 nm), permitted clear separation and identification of Tf glycoform peaks without any interfering signals, allowing selective Tf sialoforms analysis in human serum and body fluids (cadaveric blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and dried blood spots) hampered for routine test. Serum samples (n = 78) were analyzed by both traditional absorbance (Abs) and fluorescence (Fl) HPLC methods and CDT% levels demonstrated a significant correlation (p body fluid analysis. Its sensitivity and absence of interferences extend clinical applications being reliable for CDT assay on body fluids usually not suitable for routine test. Graphical Abstract The formation of a transferrin-terbium fluorescent adduct can be used to analyze the transferrin glycoforms. The HPLC method for carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT%) measurement was validated and employed to determine the levels in different body fluids.

  13. Tides in rotating barotropic fluid bodies: the contribution of inertial waves and the role of internal structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I


    We discuss the linear response to low-frequency tidal forcing of fluid bodies that are slowly and uniformly rotating, are neutrally stratified and may contain a solid or fluid core. This problem may be regarded as a simplified model of astrophysical tides in convective regions of stars and giant planets. The response can be separated into non-wavelike and wavelike parts, where the former is related instantaneously to the tidal potential and the latter may involve resonances or other singularities. The imaginary part of the potential Love number of the body, which is directly related to the rates of energy and angular momentum exchange in the tidal interaction and to the rate of dissipation of energy, may have a complicated dependence on the tidal frequency. However, a certain frequency-average of this quantity is independent of the dissipative properties of the fluid and can be determined by means of an impulse calculation. The result is a strongly increasing function of the size of the core when the tidal po...

  14. Neural representations and the cortical body matrix: implications for sports medicine and future directions. (United States)

    Wallwork, Sarah B; Bellan, Valeria; Catley, Mark J; Moseley, G Lorimer


    Neural representations, or neurotags, refer to the idea that networks of brain cells, distributed across multiple brain areas, work in synergy to produce outputs. The brain can be considered then, a complex array of neurotags, each influencing and being influenced by each other. The output of some neurotags act on other systems, for example, movement, or on consciousness, for example, pain. This concept of neurotags has sparked a new body of research into pain and rehabilitation. We draw on this research and the concept of a cortical body matrix-a network of representations that subserves the regulation and protection of the body and the space around it-to suggest important implications for rehabilitation of sports injury and for sports performance. Protective behaviours associated with pain have been reinterpreted in light of these conceptual models. With a particular focus on rehabilitation of the injured athlete, this review presents the theoretical underpinnings of the cortical body matrix and its application within the sporting context. Therapeutic approaches based on these ideas are discussed and the efficacy of the most tested approaches is addressed. By integrating current thought in pain and cognitive neuroscience related to sports rehabilitation, recommendations for clinical practice and future research are suggested.

  15. Fluid and electrolyte control systems in the human body: A study report (United States)

    White, R. J.


    Research in the area of modeling of the fluid and electrolyte system is briefly reviewed and a model of this system, which is adequate for a basic description of the requisite physiological processes, is presented. The use of this model as an individual subsystem model and as a component of a more complete human model is discussed.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A sensitive and selective HPLC method was developed for the quantification of the neuromuscular blocking agent rocuronium and its putative metabolites (the 17-desacetyl derivative and the N-desallyl derivative of rocuronium) in plasma, urine, bile, tissue homogenates and stoma fluid. Samples were pr

  17. Evidence for impact induced pressure gradients on the Allende CV3 parent body: Consequences for fluid and volatile transport (United States)

    Tait, Alastair W.; Fisher, Kent R.; Srinivasan, Poorna; Simon, Justin I.


    Carbonaceous chondrites, such as those associated with the Vigarano (CV) parent body, exhibit a diverse range of oxidative/reduced alteration mineralogy (McSween, 1977). Although fluids are often cited as the medium by which this occurs (Rubin, 2012), a mechanism to explain how this fluid migrates, and why some meteorite subtypes from the same planetary body are more oxidized than others remains elusive. In our study we examined a slab of the well-known Allende (CV3OxA) meteorite. Using several petrological techniques (e.g., Fry's and Flinn) and Computerized Tomography (CT) we discover it exhibits a strong penetrative planar fabric, resulting from strain partitioning among its major components: Calcium-Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) (64.5%CT) > matrix (21.5%Fry) > chondrules (17.6%CT). In addition to the planar fabric, we found a strong lineation defined by the alignment of the maximum elongation of flattened particles interpreted to have developed by an impact event. The existence of a lineation could either be non-coaxial deformation, or the result of a mechanically heterogeneous target material. In the later case it could have formed due to discontinuous patches of sub-surface ice and/or fabrics developed through prior impact compaction (MacPherson and Krot, 2014), which would have encouraged preferential flow within the target material immediately following the impact, compacting pore spaces. We suggest that structurally controlled movement of alteration fluids in the asteroid parent body along pressure gradients contributed to the formation of secondary minerals, which may have ultimately lead to the different oxidized subtypes.

  18. Massive barite deposits in the convergent margin off Peru: Implications for fluid circulation within subduction zones (United States)

    Aquilina, L.; Dia, A. N.; Boulègue, J.; Bourgois, J.; Fouillac, A. M.


    The convergent margin of Peru, characterized by an extensional tectonic regime and the lack of a well-developed accretionary prism, has been investigated by a deep-sea submersible during the Nautiperc cruise (March-April, 1991). This allowed the collection of fluid samples, soft sediments, and barite concretions in the vicinity of biological communities associated with fluid steps. Major and trace element contents as well as strontium, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur isotopic compositions have been measured on fluid and/or solid samples to constrain the nature and origin of fluid circulating in this extensional tectonic context. Chemical variations with respect to bottom seawater composition have been recorded in the fluid samples and suggest the presence of a nonlocal component in the fluid expelled at the seafloor. The major variations correspond to elevations of the Cl, Na, and the Ba contents as well as the 87Sr /86Sr ratios. This is interpreted as the expulsion of a radiogenic, continent-related (basinal brine and/or meteoric water) fluid. Massive barite concretions have been collected at the seafloor in two areas of major fluid venting. The radiogenic signature (strontium isotopic composition) of the barite concretions implies that they are related to the nonlocal deep fluid component identified in the fluid samples. Furthermore, it is shown that these barite deposits testify to a hot, short, and intensive fluid circulation event. Compared to subduction zones that exhibit venting fluid with a strong oceanic water signature, the nature and origin of venting fluid along the subduction zone of Peru are different. The extensional tectonic regime of the Peru continental margin, locally associated with a dense E-W trending fault network, is an agent which may help to drain continent-related fluid as deep as the subduction scarp at the trench-slope boundary.

  19. In Vitro Corrosion Study of Friction Stir Processed WE43 Magnesium Alloy in a Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genghua Cao


    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of friction stir processing (FSP WE43 alloy in a simulated body fluid (SBF was investigated. Micro-galvanic corrosion was the dominated corrosion behavior, and the corrosion resistance of FSP WE43 alloy was improved compared to the cast counterpart. Furthermore, due to the fine-grained and homogeneous microstructure, uniform corrosion morphology was observed on FSP WE43 alloy. According to the tensile properties of specimens with different immersion time intervals, FSP WE43 alloy shows better performance to maintain the mechanical integrity in SBF as compared to the as-cast alloy.

  20. Fluid Redistribution and Heart Rate in Humans During Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.


    Gravity creates blood pressure gradients which redistribute body fluids towards the feet. Positive G(z) centrifugation and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have been proposed to simulate these and other effects of gravity during long-term existence in microgravity. We hypothesized that the magnitude of upper-to-lower body fluid redistribution would increase according to the following order: short-arm centrifugation (SAC), long-arm centrifugation (LAC), head-up tilt (HUT), and LBNP. To test this hypothesis, we employed strain gauge plethysmography of the neck, thigh and calf during HUT and supine SAC and LAC up to lG(z) at the feet, and during supine LBNP to 100 mm Hg. Supine 100 mm Hg LBNP generates footward force and produces transmural blood pressures in the foot approximately equal to 1 G(z) (90 deg) HUT. Heart rate was measured via cardiotachometry. Control measurements were made while supine. SAC and LAC elicited similar increases in thigh volume at 1 G(z) (2.3 +/- 0.4 and 2.1 +/- 0.1%, respectively; mean +/- se, n greater than or equal to 7). At 100 mm Hg LBNP, thigh volume increased (3.4 +/- 0.3%) significantly more than during l G(z) centrifugation (p less than 0.05). Surprisingly, due to a paradoxical 0.6% reduction of thigh volume between 0.8 and 1.0 G(z) HUT, thigh volume was increased only 0.6 +/- 0.3% at 1 G(z) HUT. The calf demonstrated similar, although less definitive, responses to the various gravitational stimuli. Neck volume tended to decrease less during HUT than during the other stimuli. Heart rate increased similarly during HUT (18 +/- 2 beats/min) and LAC (12 +/- 2 beats/min), and exhibited still greater elevation during LBNP (29 +/- 4 beats/min), yet did not increase during SAC. These results suggest upright posture activates mechanisms that counteract footward fluid redistribution which are not activated during supine applications of simulated gravity. LAC more closely approximated effects of normal gravity (HUT) than LBNP. Therefore

  1. Bone-like apatite formation on HA/316L stainless steel composite surface in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; CHEN Jian; ZOU Jian-peng; WAN Qian; ZHOU Zhong-cheng; RUAN Jian-ming


    HA/316L stainless steel(316L SS) biocomposites were prepared by hot-pressing technique. The formation of bone-like apatite on the biocomposite surfaces in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by digital pH meter, plasma emission spectrometer, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray energy spectrometer(EDX). The results indicate that the pH value in SBF varies slightly during the immersion. It is a dynamic process of dissolution-precipitation for the formation of apatite on the surface. With prolonging immersion time, Ca and P ion concentrations increase gradually, and then approach equilibrium. The bone-like apatite layer forms on the composites surface, which possesses benign bioactivity and favorable biocompatibility and achieves osseointegration, and can provide firm fixation between HA60/316L SS composite implants and human body bone.

  2. [Nutrition and fluid management in palliative medicine: do food and drink keep body and soul together?]. (United States)

    Gaser, E; Meissner, W


    Induction, implementation and continuation of an invasive nutrition or fluid administration in patients with advanced, life-limiting illnesses is an often controversial but also very emotionally discussed topic. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge based mainly on the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines and is intended as a simple guide for clinical practice. In the early phase of disease the induction of an invasive food and fluid administration may be indicated in order to prevent undernutrition and cachexia, to enhance compliance with anti-tumor treatment, to control some adverse effects of anti-tumor therapy and to improve the quality of life. If oral or enteral feeding is possible this should be preferred. Patients in the final stage of a disease rarely suffer from hunger or thirst. In this phase of the disease other things, such as monitoring of patients and relatives play a much more important role.

  3. Simulation of the fluid-structure-interaction of steam generator tubes and bluff bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehlert, Karl [ANSYS, Inc. (United States)], E-mail:; Webb, Stephen [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Schowalter, David; Holmes, William; Chilka, Amarvir; Reuss, Steve [ANSYS, Inc. (United States)


    The accuracy of computational fluid dynamics in simulating the cross-flow around a steam generator and the feasibility of a full scale coupled CFD/FEA fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) analysis is examined through successive validations. The study begins with a comparison between experiment and computation of flow within a stationary tube bank. Results from the simulation of an individual tube experiencing two-degree-of-freedom flow-induced vibration (at a Reynolds number of 3800) are then shown to compare favorably to experimental results. Finally, free vibration of a single cantilevered hydrofoil is simulated with comparison of mean square acceleration at resonant and non-resonant velocities, respectively. The magnitudes and frequencies of vibration are shown to be accurately captured.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of inflammatory immune mediators of the intraocular fluid aspirated from the foldable capsular vitreous body filled-eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijuan Wang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the level of human inflammatory immune mediators in the intraocular fluid aspirated from foldable capsular vitreous body (FCVB filled-eyes during FCVB removal surgery, 3 months after implantation. METHODS: 8 samples of intra-FCVB fluids (n = 8 were collected from 8 FCVB filled patients in our previous FCVB exploratory clinical trial. The intra-FCVB fluids were aspirated from the FCVB filled-eyes during the FCVB removal surgeries at the third month. For the control groups, the vitreous fluids were collected from patients with idiopathic macular hole (n = 9 or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n = 6 during pars plana vitrectomy. A multiplex immunoassay was used to determine levels of 9 cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ and VEGF in these samples. The VEGF level of some intra-FCVB fluids (n = 6 were re-tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: In the intra-FCVB fluids, 9 cytokines concentrations of most samples (n = 5 measured by Multiplex immunoassay showed low values, except for Patient 02, 06, and 09. The VEGF concentrations of some intra-FCVB fluids (n = 6 tested by ELISA were in accordance with Multiplex immunoassay results. For all eight patients (n = 8, the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and VEGF were slightly higher as compared to the idiopathic macular hole control group. While, the concentrations of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 were not statistically significant different compared with the idiopathic macular hole control samples. Most cytokines concentrations (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ, VEGF were not statistically significant different compared to the rhegmatogenous retinal detachment control group except IL-1β. CONCLUSIONS: The FCVB had sufficient porosity to allow cytokines to pass through. This study first discovered that the FCVB possesses favorable permeability of proteins in the human eye.

  5. Body fluid alterations during head-down bed rest in men at moderate altitude (United States)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Roach, R. C.; Selland, M. A.; Scotto, P.; Luft, F. C.; Luft, U. C.


    To determine the effects of hypoxia on fluid balance responses to simulated zero-gravity, measurements were made in six subjects before and during -5 deg continuous head-down bed rest (HDBR) over 8 d at 10,678 ft. The same subjects were studied again at this altitude without HDBR as a control (CON) using a cross-over design. During this time, they maintained normal upright day-time activities, sleeping in the horizontal position at night. Fluid balance changes during HDBR in hypoxia were more pronounced than similar measurements previously reported from HDBR studies at sea level. Plasma volume loss was slightly greater and the diuresis and natriuresis were doubled in magnitude as compared to previous studies in normoxia and sustained for 4 d during hypoxia. These changes were associated with an immediate but transient rise in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to day 4 of 140 percent in HDBR and 41 percent in CON (p less than 0.005), followed by a decline towards baseline. Differences were less striking between HDBR and CON for plasma antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone, which were transiently reduced by HDBR. Plasma catecholamines showed a similar pattern to ANP in both HDBR and CON, suggesting that elevated ANP and catecholamines together accounted for the enhanced fluid shifts with HDBR during hypoxia.

  6. Trapping non-wettable fluid in porous rock: Implication to CO2 sequestration (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Yun, T.


    The residual saturation of CO2 mainly determines the effective storage capacity in geological formation whereas its transport and fate are dominated by fluid properties and pore characteristics. This experimental study evaluates the relative permeability of brine and non-wettable fluids in Berea sandstone. The surrogate fluids representing CO2 are continuously injected into the brine-saturated sandstone and the effluent is simultaneously separated to measure the residual volume. The variables under consideration include the viscosity and surface tension of injected fluids, porosity, anisotropy of rock, and injection pressure and the residual saturation of non-wettable fluids is quantified based on the proposed variables. Results highlight that the storage capacity can be readily modulated and maximized by controlling the cyclic injection, initial saturation of non-wettable fluids, and injection pressure.

  7. Electrochemical characterization of AISI 316L stainless steel in contact with simulated body fluid under infection conditions. (United States)

    López, Danián Alejandro; Durán, Alicia; Ceré, Silvia Marcela


    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are among the most frequently used materials in orthopaedic surgery. In industrialized countries, stainless steel devices are used only for temporary implants due to their lower corrosion resistance in physiologic media when compared to other alloys. However, due to economical reasons, the use of stainless steel alloys for permanent implants is very common in developing countries. The implantation of foreign bodies is sometimes necessary in the modern medical practice. However, the complex interactions between the host and the can implant weaken the local immune system, increasing the risk of infections. Therefore, it is necessary to further study these materials as well as the characteristics of the superficial film formed in physiologic media in infection conditions in order to control their potential toxicity due to the release of metallic ions in the human body. This work presents a study of the superficial composition and the corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel and the influence of its main alloying elements when they are exposed to an acidic solution that simulates the change of pH that occurs when an infection develops. Aerated simulated body fluid (SBF) was employed as working solution at 37 degrees C. The pH was adjusted to 7.25 and 4 in order to reproduce normal body and disease state respectively. Corrosion resistance was measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves.

  8. Pathophysiology and clinical implications of peroperative fluid management in elective surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine


    amounts of fluid caused adverse physiologic effects in healthy volunteers indicates that addition of the surgical trauma per se increases fluid requirements. Volume kinetic analysis applied 4 hours postoperatively was not able to detect the presence of either overhydration or hypovolemia regardless...... preparation leads to functional hypovolemia and the deficits should be corrected, in particular in elderly patients, where preoperative intravenous fluid substitution of approximately 2-3 liters crystalloid is recommended. We did not find thoracic epidural anesthesia to be accompanied by intravascular fluid...

  9. Body fluid volumes measurements by impedance: A review of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) methods. (United States)

    Jaffrin, Michel Y; Morel, Hélène


    This paper reviews various bioimpedance methods permitting to measure non-invasively, extracellular, intracellular and total body water (TBW) and compares BIA methods based on empirical equations of the wrist-ankle resistance or impedance at 50 kHz, height and weight with BIS methods which rely on an electrical model of tissues and resistances measured at zero and infinite frequencies. In order to compare these methods, impedance measurements were made with a multifrequency Xitron 4200 impedance meter on 57 healthy subjects which had undergone simultaneously a Dual X-ray absorptiometry examination (DXA), in order to estimate their TBW from their fat-free-mass. Extracellular (ECW) and TBW volumes were calculated for these subjects using the original BIS method and modifications of Matthie[Matthie JR. Second generation mixture theory equation for estimating intracellular water using bioimpedance spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 2005;99:780-1], Jaffrin et al. [Jaffrin MY, Fenech M, Moreno MV, Kieffer R. Total body water measurement by a modification of the bioimpédance spectroscopy method. Med Bio Eng Comput 2006;44:873-82], Moissl et al. [Moissl UM, Wabel P, Chamney PW, Bosaeus I, Levin NW, et al. Body fluid volume determination via body composition spectroscopy in health and disease. Physiol Meas 2006;27:921-33] and their TBW resistivities were compared and discussed. ECW volumes were calculated by BIA methods of Sergi et al. [Sergi G, Bussolotto M, Perini P, Calliari I, et al. Accuracy of bioelectrical bioimpedance analysis for the assessment of extracellular space in healthy subjects and in fluid retention states. Ann Nutr Metab 1994;38(3):158-65] and Hannan et al. [Hannan WJ, Cowen SJ, Fearon KC, Plester CE, Falconer JS, Richardson RA. Evaluation of multi-frequency bio-impedance analysis for the assessment of extracellular and total body water in surgical patients. Clin Sci 1994;86:479-85] and TBW volumes by BIA methods of Kushner and Schoeller [Kushner RF

  10. Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons (United States)

    Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.


    Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and

  11. A heterogeneous system based on GPU and multi-core CPU for real-time fluid and rigid body simulation (United States)

    da Silva Junior, José Ricardo; Gonzalez Clua, Esteban W.; Montenegro, Anselmo; Lage, Marcos; Dreux, Marcelo de Andrade; Joselli, Mark; Pagliosa, Paulo A.; Kuryla, Christine Lucille


    Computational fluid dynamics in simulation has become an important field not only for physics and engineering areas but also for simulation, computer graphics, virtual reality and even video game development. Many efficient models have been developed over the years, but when many contact interactions must be processed, most models present difficulties or cannot achieve real-time results when executed. The advent of parallel computing has enabled the development of many strategies for accelerating the simulations. Our work proposes a new system which uses some successful algorithms already proposed, as well as a data structure organisation based on a heterogeneous architecture using CPUs and GPUs, in order to process the simulation of the interaction of fluids and rigid bodies. This successfully results in a two-way interaction between them and their surrounding objects. As far as we know, this is the first work that presents a computational collaborative environment which makes use of two different paradigms of hardware architecture for this specific kind of problem. Since our method achieves real-time results, it is suitable for virtual reality, simulation and video game fluid simulation problems.

  12. Process for determining the concentration of benzodiazepines in a body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braestrup, C.; Squires, R.F.


    A process for determining the concentration of benzodiazepines in a body liquid comprising the steps of contacting freeze-dried brain tissue with tritium labelled flunitrazepam to bond labelled flunitrazepam to receptor sites of the brain tissue, determining the concentration of labelled flunitrazepam of the brain tissue, incubating the brain tissue containing labelled flunitrazepam with a sample of body liquid containing benzodiazepine, the concentration of which is to be determined, to induce displacement of labelled flunitrazepam from said brain tissue, determining the concentration of labelled flunitrazepam bonded to the brain tissue after establishing equilibrium conditions and determining the concentration of benzodiazepine in the body liquid based on the change of concentration of labelled flunitrazepam induced by benzodiazepine contained in the sample.

  13. Synthesis of sol-gel derived glass powder and in vitro bioactivity property tested in simulated body fluid (United States)

    Fadzli, S. A. Syed Nuzul; Roslinda, S.; Zainuddin, Firuz; Ismail, Hamisah


    The objective of this study is to determine the apatite forming ability of sol-gel derived glass based on chemical composition 50%(SiO2)-40%(CaO)-10%(PO4) by examine the reacted sample surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). The glass was synthesized via an acid catalyzed low temperature sol-gel route, dried, crushed and uniaxial pressed into pellets before finally heated at 600°C to maintain the amorphous nature and to obtain stabilized glass pellets. The bioactivity test of the glass was carried out in vitro by soaking the pellets into simulated body fluid (SBF) for various times up to 14 days. It was revealed that apatite-like structures were rapidly formed on the surface of the glass showed by the glass surface was totally covered with these crystallized apatite within the first 24 hours of immersion. The formation of crystallized carbonated apatite (HCA) was proved within the first 24 hours of immersion via XRD, FTIR and FE-SEM analysis method. Increased in immersion time period to 14 days was significantly effects in enlargement of the apatite particle sizes and transformation these apatite into a typical coral-like apatite structures.

  14. Emotion-on-a-chip (EOC): evolution of biochip technology to measure human emotion using body fluids. (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Hwang, Yoosun; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Jung, Hyo-Il


    Recent developments in nano/micro technology have made it possible to construct small-scale sensing chips for the analysis of biological markers such as nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, and cells. Although biochip technology for the diagnosis of severe physiological diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) has been extensively studied, biochips for the monitoring of human emotions such as stress, fear, depression, and sorrow have not yet been introduced, and the development of such a biochip is in its infancy. Emotion science (or affective engineering) is a rapidly expanding engineering/scientific discipline that has a major impact on human society. The growing interest in the integration of emotion science and engineering is a result of the recent trend of merging various academic fields. In this paper we discuss the potential importance of biochip technology in which human emotion can be precisely measured in real time using body fluids such as blood, saliva, urine, or sweat. We call these biochips emotion-on-a-chip (EOC). The EOC system consists of four parts: (1) collection of body fluids, (2) separation of emotional markers, (3) detection of optical or electrical signals, and (4) display of results. These techniques provide new opportunities to precisely investigate human emotion. Future developments in EOC techniques will combine social and natural sciences to expand their scope of study.

  15. Reducing occupational risk for blood and body fluid exposure among home care aides: an intervention effectiveness study. (United States)

    Amuwo, Shakirudeen; Lipscomb, Jane; McPhaul, Kathleen; Sokas, Rosemary K


    The purpose of this quasi-experimental pretest/posttest research study was to examine the effectiveness of an intervention designed through a participatory process to reduce blood and body fluid exposure among home care aides. Employer A, the intervention site, was a large agency with approximately 1,200 unionized home care aides. Employer B, the comparison group, was a medium-sized agency with approximately 200 home care aides. The intervention was developed in partnership with labor and management and included a 1-day educational session utilizing peer educators and active learning methods to increase awareness about the risks for occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among home care aides and a follow-up session introducing materials to facilitate communication with clients about safe sharps disposal. Self-administered preintervention and postintervention questionnaires identifying knowledge about and self-reported practices to reduce bloodborne pathogen exposure were completed in person during mandatory training sessions 18 months apart. Home care aides in the intervention group for whom the preintervention and postintervention questionnaires could be directly matched reported an increase in their clients' use of proper sharps containers (31.9% pre to 52.2% post; p = .033). At follow-up, the intervention group as a whole also reported increased use of sharps containers among their clients when compared to controls (p = .041).

  16. Effect of Body Acceleration on Pulsatile Flow of Micropolar Fluid through an Irregular Arterial Stenosis (United States)

    Abdullah, Ilyani; Amin, Norsarahaida


    The present study deals with the effect of body acceleration together with surface irregularities on blood flow in artery. Prolonged exposure to high level unintended acceleration may cause serious health problems in the cardiovascular system. The situations like riding in vehicles, flying in airplanes and fast body movements during sport activities can lead to the impairment of certain physiological functions. A micropolar model of blood flow through an irregular arterial stenosis is considered. The governing equations involving unsteady nonlinear two-dimensional partial differential equations are solved employing finite difference scheme. Computational results on the velocity profiles and the flow characteristics are presented.

  17. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard


    A database ( containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...

  18. Centre of Gravity Plethysmography--A Means of Detecting Mass Transfer of Fluid within the Body. (United States)

    Buck, Michael


    Describes the monitoring of the redistribution of blood by using a technique which detects changes in the center of gravity of the body. Provides information about the principles and application, construction of apparatus, operating routines, and use of the computer as a recorder. Includes suggested investigations, demonstrations, and diagrams.…

  19. Pathophysiology and clinical implications of peroperative fluid management in elective surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine


    amounts of fluid caused adverse physiologic effects in healthy volunteers indicates that addition of the surgical trauma per se increases fluid requirements. Volume kinetic analysis applied 4 hours postoperatively was not able to detect the presence of either overhydration or hypovolemia regardless...

  20. Quantification of the cerebrospinal fluid from a new whole body MRI sequence (United States)

    Lebret, Alain; Petit, Eric; Durning, Bruno; Hodel, Jérôme; Rahmouni, Alain; Decq, Philippe


    Our work aims to develop a biomechanical model of hydrocephalus both intended to perform clinical research and to assist the neurosurgeon in diagnosis decisions. Recently, we have defined a new MR imaging sequence based on SPACE (Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrast using different flip-angle Evolution). On these images, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) appears as a homogeneous hypersignal. Therefore such images are suitable for segmentation and for volume assessment of the CSF. In this paper we present a fully automatic 3D segmentation of such SPACE MRI sequences. We choose a topological approach considering that CSF can be modeled as a simply connected object (i.e. a filled sphere). First an initial object which must be strictly included in the CSF and homotopic to a filled sphere, is determined by using a moment-preserving thresholding. Then a priority function based on an Euclidean distance map is computed in order to control the thickening process that adds "simple points" to the initial thresholded object. A point is called simple if its addition or its suppression does not result in change of topology neither for the object, nor for the background. The method is validated by measuring fluid volume of brain phantoms and by comparing our volume assessments on clinical data to those derived from a segmentation controlled by expert physicians. Then we show that a distinction between pathological cases and healthy adult people can be achieved by a linear discriminant analysis on volumes of the ventricular and intracranial subarachnoid spaces.

  1. Influence of successive badminton matches on muscle strength, power, and body-fluid balance in elite players. (United States)

    Abian-Vicen, Javier; Castanedo, Adrián; Abian, Pablo; Gonzalez-Millan, Cristina; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan


    The aim was to analyze the influence of competitive round on muscle strength, body-fluid balance, and renal function in elite badminton players during a real competition. Body mass, jump height during a countermovement jump, handgrip force, and urine samples were obtained from 13 elite badminton players (6 men and 7 women) before and after the 2nd-round and quarterfinal matches of the national Spanish badminton championship. Sweat rate was determined by using prematch-to-postmatch body-mass change and by weighing individually labeled fluid bottles. Sweat rates were 1.04 ± 0.62 and 0.98 ± 0.43 L/h, while rehydration rate was 0.69 ± 0.26 and 0.91 ± 0.52 L/h for the 2nd round and quarterfinals, respectively. Thus, dehydration was 0.47% ± 1.03% after the 2nd round and 0.23% ± 0.43% after the quarterfinals. There were no differences in prematch-to-postmatch jump height, but jump height was reduced from 37.51 ± 8.83 cm after the 2nd-round game to 34.82 ± 7.37 cm after the quarterfinals (P badminton competition were effective to prevent dehydration. A badminton match did not affect jump height or handgrip force, but jump height was progressively reduced by the competitive round. Badminton players' renal responses reflected diminished renal flux due to the high-intensity nature of this racket sport.

  2. Alpha-synuclein in peripheral tissues and body fluids as a biomarker for Parkinson's disease - a systematic review. (United States)

    Malek, N; Swallow, D; Grosset, K A; Anichtchik, O; Spillantini, M; Grosset, D G


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is neuropathologically characterized as an alpha-synucleinopathy. Alpha-synuclein-containing inclusions are stained as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in the brain, which are the pathological hallmark of PD. However, alpha-synuclein-containing inclusions in PD are not restricted to the central nervous system, but are also found in peripheral tissues. Alpha-synuclein levels can also be measured in body fluids. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of available evidence to determine the utility of alpha-synuclein as a peripheral biomarker of PD. We searched PubMed (1948 to 26 May 2013), Embase (1974 to 26 May 2013), the Cochrane Library (up to 26 May 2013), LILACS (up to 26 May 2013) and CINAHL (up to 26 May 2013) for the studies of alpha-synuclein in peripheral tissues or body fluids in PD. A total of 49 studies fulfilled the search criteria. Peripheral tissues such as colonic mucosa showed a sensitivity of 42-90% and a specificity of 100%; submandibular salivary glands showed sensitivity and specificity of 100%; skin biopsy showed 19% sensitivity and 80% specificity in detecting alpha-synuclein pathology. CSF alpha-synuclein had 71-94% sensitivity and 25-53% specificity for distinguishing PD from controls. Plasma alpha-synuclein had 48-53% sensitivity and 69-85% specificity. Neither plasma nor CSF alpha-synuclein is presently a reliable marker of PD. This differs from alpha-synuclein in solid tissue samples of the enteric and autonomic nervous system, which offer some potential as a surrogate marker of brain synucleinopathy.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of drag and convective heat transfer of individual body segments for different cyclist positions. (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan


    This study aims at investigating drag and convective heat transfer for cyclists at a high spatial resolution. Such an increased spatial resolution, when combined with flow-field data, can increase insight in drag reduction mechanisms and in the thermo-physiological response of cyclists related to heat stress and hygrothermal performance of clothing. Computational fluid dynamics (steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) is used to evaluate the drag and convective heat transfer of 19 body segments of a cyclist for three different cyclist positions. The influence of wind speed on the drag is analysed, indicating a pronounced Reynolds number dependency on the drag, where more streamlined positions show a dependency up to higher Reynolds numbers. The drag and convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) of the body segments and the entire cyclist are compared for all positions at racing speeds, showing high drag values for the head, legs and arms and high CHTCs for the legs, arms, hands and feet. The drag areas of individual body segments differ markedly for different cyclist positions whereas the convective heat losses of the body segments are found to be less sensitive to the position. CHTC-wind speed correlations are derived, in which the power-law exponent does not differ significantly for the individual body segments for all positions, where an average value of 0.84 is found. Similar CFD studies can be performed to assess drag and CHTCs at a higher spatial resolution for applications in other sport disciplines, bicycle equipment design or to assess convective moisture transfer.

  4. Angiogenin expression in burn blister fluid: implications for its role in burn wound neovascularization. (United States)

    Pan, Shin-Chen; Wu, Li-Wha; Chen, Chung-Lin; Shieh, Shyh-Jou; Chiu, Haw-Yen


    Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) wound fluids have a greater propensity for establishing neovascularization than did superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) wound fluids in our previous study. To investigate the factors responsible for this activity, cytokine array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to perform an expression analysis of angiogenic factors in burn fluid. Although present in approximately equal amounts in both SPTB and DPTB blister fluids from burn patients, angiogenin does appear to be involved in the ability of DPTB blister fluid to promote neovascularization in vitro and in vivo. Angiogenin alone was sufficient to induce endothelial differentiation of circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) without vascular endothelial growth factor A involvement. In addition, angiogenin was positively associated with CAC differentiation in the burn blister fluid. Blocking the effect of angiogenin in burn blister fluids resulted in a significant reduction of endothelial cell proliferation, CAC differentiation, and new blood vessels formation in vivo. Moreover, immunohistochemistry revealed that high angiogenin expression colocalizes with high vascularity in human burn wounds at day 7, further supporting our hypothesis that angiogenin is involved in burn wound neovascularization.

  5. Compositions of Upper Mantle Fluids Beneath Eastern China:Implications for Mantle Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Mingjie; WANG Xianbin; LIU Gang; ZHANG Tongwei; BO Wenrui


    The composition of gases trapped in olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in lherzolite xenoliths collected from different locations in eastern China has been measured by the vacuum stepped-heating mass spectrometry.These xenoliths are hosted in alkali basalts and considered as residues of partial melting of the upper mantle, and may contain evidence of mantle evolution. The results show that various kinds of fluid inclusions in lherzolite xenoliths have been released at distinct times, which could be related to different stages of mantle evolution. In general, primitive fluids of the upper mantle (PFUM) beneath eastern China are dominated by H2, CO2 and CO, and are characterized by high contents of H2 and reduced gases. The compositions of PFUM are highly variable and related to tectonic settings. CO, CO2 and H2 are the main components of the PFUM beneath cratons; the PFUM in the mantle enriched in potassic metasomatism in the northern part of northeastern China has a high content of H2, while CO2 and SO2 are the dominant components of the PFUM in the Su-Lu-Wan (Jiangsu-Shandong-Anhui) region, where recycled crustal fluids were mixed with deeper mantle components. There are several fluids with distinct compositions beneath eastern China, such as primitive fluids of upper mantle (CO, CO2 and H2), partial melting fluids (CO2 and CO) and metasomatic fluids mixed with recycled crustal fluids (CO2, N2, 8O2 and CH4) etc. Fluids of the upper mantle beneath the North China craton are different from that of the South China craton in total gases and chemical compositions: the contents of the reduced gases of the PFUM in the NCC are higher than those in the SCC.

  6. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R.


    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the “ideal” images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass – variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear “normal” before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia). PMID:28071712

  7. A stable fluid-structure-interaction solver for low-density rigid bodies using the immersed boundary projection method

    CERN Document Server

    Lācis, Uǧis; Bagheri, Shervin


    Dispersion of low-density rigid particles with complex geometries is ubiquitous in both natural and industrial environments. We show that while explicit methods for coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and Newton's equations of motion are often sufficient to solve for the motion of cylindrical particles with low density ratios, for more complex particles - such as a body with a protrusion - they become unstable. We present an implicit formulation of the coupling between rigid body dynamics and fluid dynamics within the framework of the immersed boundary projection method. Similar to previous work on this method, the resulting matrix equation in the present approach is solved using a block-LU decomposition. Each step of the block-LU decomposition is modified to incorporate the rigid body dynamics. We show that our method achieves second-order accuracy in space and first-order in time (third-order for practical settings), only with a small additional computational cost to the original method. Our...

  8. Osmotic/ionic status of body fluids in the euryhaline cephalopod suggest possible parallel evolution of osmoregulation. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Ogawa, Satoshi; Nishiyama, Yudai; Akada, Chiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Watanabe, Taro; Minakata, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Hirotaka


    Acclimation from marine to dilute environments constitutes among the dramatic evolutionary transitions in the history of life. Such adaptations have evolved in multiple lineages, but studies of the blood/hemolymph homeostasis mechanisms are limited to those using evolutionarily advanced Deuterostome (chordates) and Ecdysozoa (crustaceans). Here, we examined hemolymph homeostasis in the advanced Lophotrochozoa/mollusc, the other unexplored taxa, and its possible regulation by the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily peptides known to be implicated in fluid homeostasis in Chordata and Arthropoda. The hemolymph osmotic and ionic status in the euryhaline cephalopod (Octopus ocellatus) following transfer from 30-ppt normal seawater to 20 ppt salinity indicate hyperosmo- and hyperionoregulatory abilities for more than 1 week, as in crustaceans and teleost fish. While ventilation frequency decreased by 1 day, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, which has been generally implicated in ion transport, was induced in two of the eight posterior gills after 1 week. In addition, the octopuses were intravenously injected with 1 or 100 ng/g octopressin or cephalotocin, which are Octopus vasopressin/oxytocin orthologs. After 1 day, octopressin, but not cephalotocin, decreased the hemolymph osmolality and Ca concentrations, as well as urinary Na concentrations. These data provide evidence for possible parallel evolution in hyperionoregulatory mechanisms and coordination by conserved peptides.

  9. Fabrication of nanotube arrays on commercially pure titanium and their apatite-forming ability in a simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Yu-Chen [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ho, Wen-Fu, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    In this study, we investigated self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes that were grown using anodization of commercially pure titanium at 5 V or 10 V in NH{sub 4}F/NaCl electrolyte. The nanotube arrays were annealed at 450 °C for 3 h to convert the amorphous nanotubes to anatase and then they were immersed in simulated body fluid at 37 °C for 0.5, 1, and 14 days. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the apatite-formation abilities of anodized Ti nanotubes with different tube diameters and lengths. The nanotubes that formed on the surfaces of Ti were examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. When the anodizing potential was increased from 5 V to 10 V, the pore diameter of the nanotube increased from approximately 24–30 nm to 35–53 nm, and the tube length increased from approximately 590 nm to 730 nm. In vitro testing of the heat-treated nanotube arrays indicated that Ca-P formation occurred after only 1 day of immersion in simulated body fluid. This result was particularly apparent in the samples that were anodized at 10 V. It was also found that the thickness of the Ca-P layer increases as the applied potential for anodized c.p. Ti increases. The average thickness of the Ca-P layer on Ti that was anodized at 5 V and 10 V was approximately 170 nm and 190 nm, respectively, after immersion in simulated body fluid for 14 days. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotube on Ti surface was formed by anodic oxidation in a NaCl/NH{sub 4}F solution. • TiO{sub 2} layers show a tube length of 590 nm and 730 nm at 5 V and 10 V, respectively. • After soaking in SBF, Ca-P layer completely covered the entire nanotubular surfaces. • The Ca-P layer was thicker on the Ti surface anodized at 10 V.

  10. Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids: new postexposure prophylaxis recommendations. United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (United States)

    Cuny, E; Carpenter, W M


    Dental health care professionals continue to suffer exposure incidents from instruments contaminated with blood and/or body fluids from patients. Each of these cases requires that a rigid protocol be followed for their evaluation. New information regarding the risk factors for HIV-seroconversion following an exposure incident have been identified. Recent data has demonstrated that a 79 percent reduction in disease transmission may be possible with a new combination drug therapy. The anti-retroviral drugs included in this new regimen are now standard in the management of occupational exposure to HIV. Several factors set dentistry apart from other health care occupations, and these differences appear to have an effect on the risks associated with occupational exposures. This article explores these risk factors and the new recommendations for postexposure care.

  11. [Risk of hepatitis B infection in Peruvian medical students following occupational exposure to blood and body fluids]. (United States)

    Díaz Martínez, Luis Alfonso; Cadena Afanador, Laura del Pilar


    An anonymous, self-administered and voluntary survey was performed on medical students participating in the 17th International Scientific Meeting of the Latin American Federation of Scientific Societies of Medical Students, which took place in Lima, on October 2002. A total of 198 students responded, 150 of them were Peruvian. The results showed that 46.7% of these students have been exposed, at least once during the first nine months of 2002, to blood or body fluids; 29.4% of these cases were high risk expositions and none of these accidents were properly examined. Only 35.4% of the students surveyed reported having complete Hepatitis B vaccination. The high incidence of biological accidents among Peruvian students, added to the low degree of Hepatitis B vaccination and to the lack of adequate post-exposure care, places Peruvian medical students in high risk for acquiring Hepatitis B.

  12. The accuracy of body mass prediction for elderly specimens: Implications for paleoanthropology and legal medicine. (United States)

    Chevalier, Tony; Lefèvre, Philippe; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Beauthier, Jean-Pol


    Different practices in paleoanthropology and legal medicine raise questions concerning the robustness of body mass (BM) prediction. Integrating personal identification from body mass estimation with skeleton is not a classic approach in legal medicine. The originality of our study is the use of an elderly sample in order to push prediction methods to their limits and to discuss about implications in paleoanthropology and legal medicine. The aim is to observe the accuracy of BM prediction in relation to the body mass index (BMI, index of classification) using five femoral head (FH) methods and one shaft (FSH) method. The sample is composed of 41 dry femurs obtained from dissection where age (c. 82 years) and gender are known, and weight (c. 59.5 kg) and height are measured upon admission to the body leg service. We show that the estimation of the mean BM of the elderly sample is not significantly different to the real mean BM when the appropriate formula is used for the femoral head diameter. In fact, the best prediction is obtained with the McHenry formula (1992), which was based on a sample with an equivalent average mass to that of our sample. In comparison, external shaft diameters, which are known to be more influenced by mechanical stimuli than femoral head diameters, yield less satisfactory results with the McHenry formula (1992) for shaft diameters. Based on all the methods used and the distinctive selected sample, overestimation (always observed with the different femoral head methods) can be restricted to 1.1%. The observed overestimation with the shaft method can be restricted to 7%. However, the estimation of individual BM is much less reliable. The BMI has a strong impact on the accuracy of individual BM prediction, and is unquestionably more reliable for individuals with normal BMI (9.6% vs 16.7% for the best prediction error). In this case, the FH method is also the better predictive method but not if we integrate the total sample (i.e., the FSH

  13. Fluid inclusions in carbonado diamond_Implication to the crystal growth environment (United States)

    Kagi, H.; Ishibashi, H.; Sakurai, H.; Ohfuji, H.


    Diamond is a unique geological material carrying inside fluid and solid inclusions which are pristine witnesses of diamond crystallization media. Carbonado is natural polycrystalline diamond whose origin is still under hot depate. Our previous study on Central African carbonado reported the presence of fluid inclusions and high residual pressure in the diamond [1]. These results suggested that C-O-H mantle fluid was trapped in the carbonado sample and carbonado had grown in the volatile-rich environment in the mantle. However, it was unclear that the fluid inclusions in carbonado existed inside of diamond grains or in the grain boundaries. In this study, we precisely investigated the location of fluid inclusions from spectroscopic measurements and TEM observations. A carbonado grain with hundreds of micrometer in diameter was heated incrementally at temperatures from 700 to 1100°C under vacuum. After heating at each temperature condition, infrared absorption spectra were measured. Dehydration of hydrous minerals were observed with increasing temperature. In contrast, absorption bands assignable to liquid water were observed up to 950°C right before graphitization occurred. This observation strongly suggests that the fluid was trapped inside of diamond grains. For obtaining direct evidence of fluid inclusion existing inside of a diamond grain, we conducted TEM observations on an FIB-fabricated thin foil of carbonado. We found a void in the carbonado sample. The void was surrounded by (111) equivalent crystal faces. The octahedral void controlled by crystal habit of host diamond strongly suggests that the void is the negative crystal of diamond. The existence of negative crystal of diamond indicates that the fluid equilibrated with surrounding diamond crystals. Moreover, it was found that the grain boundary of the polished carbonado sample was in zig-zag texture. The detailed EBSD analyses on the grain boundary indicated that the grain boundary corresponded to the

  14. A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth (United States)

    Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel


    Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].

  15. Electroanalytical and surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in cells and body fluids. (United States)

    Yang, Minghui; Yi, Xinyao; Wang, Jianxiu; Zhou, Feimeng


    Cancer and neurological disorders are two leading causes of human death. Their early diagnoses will either greatly improve the survival rate or facilitate effective treatments or modalities. Detection of biomarkers in body fluids and some tissues (e.g., blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluids) is relatively non-invasive and provides useful chemical and biological information that is complementary to tomographic imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and X-ray computed tomography). Recent years have witnessed the contributions from and potential applications of bioanalytical methods for early detection of major diseases. In this review, we survey some recent developments of electroanalytical (as a representative label-based technique) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) (as a representative label-free technique) biosensors for detection of biomarkers relevant to etiologies of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While breast cancer is representative of cancers of complexity (multiple biomarkers, false positives from tomographic scans, and a need for more effective early diagnostic methods), AD is the most prevalent neurological disorder that is also linked to multiple biomarkers. Both electroanalytical and SPR-based sensors have attractive features of sensitivity, portability, obviation of large sample volumes, and capability of multiplexed detection. Various sensing protocols developed in the past five years are reviewed, demonstrating the feasibility of both techniques for diagnostic purposes. Problems inherent in these two techniques that must be overcome before being clinically viable are also discussed.

  16. A Numerical Study on Water Waves Generated by A Submerged Moving Body in A Two-Layer Fluid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jia-Zhen; NG Chiu-On; ZHANG Dao-Hua


    This is a numerical study on the time development of surface waves generated by a submerged body moving steadily in a two-layer fluid system, in which a layer of water is underlain by a layer of viscous mud. The fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations are solved on FLUENT with the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) multiphase scheme in order to simulate the free surface waves as well as the water-mud interface waves as functions of time. The numerical model is validated by mimick-ing a reported experiment in a one-layer system before it is applied to a two-layer system, it is found that the presence of bottom mud in a water layer can lead to large viscous damping of the surface waves. For the investigation of the problem systematically, the effects of the Froude number and the mud layer thickness, density and viscosity relative to those of water are evaluated and discussed in detail.

  17. Multi-elemental analysis of jet engine lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids and their implication in aircraft air quality incidents. (United States)

    van Netten, C


    The flight crews of aircraft often report symptoms including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision and tingling in legs and arms. Many of these incidents have been traced to contamination of cabin air with lubricating oil, as well as hydraulic fluid, constituents. Considering that these air contaminants are often subjected to temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C, a large number of different exposures can be expected. Although the reported symptoms are most consistent with exposures to volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and the organophosphate constituents in these oils and fluids, the involvement of these agents has not been clearly demonstrated. Possible exposure to toxic elements, such as lead, mercury, thallium and others, have not been ruled out. In order to assess the potential of exposure to toxic elements a multi-elemental analysis was done on two hydraulic fluids and three lubricating oils which have been implicated in a number of air quality incidents. A secondary objective was to establish if the multi-elemental concentrations of the fluids tested are different enough to allow such an analysis to be used as a possible method of identifying the source of exposure that might have been present during aircraft air quality incidents. No significant concentrations of toxic elements were identified in any of the oils or hydraulic fluids. The elemental compositions of the samples were different enough to be used for identification purposes and the measurement of only three elements was able to achieve this. Whether these findings have an application, in aircraft air quality incident investigations, needs to be established with further studies.

  18. Non-Darcy Free Convection of Power-Law Fluids Over a Two-Dimensional Body Embedded in a Porous Medium

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    A boundary layer analysis was presented to study the non-Darcy-free convection of a power-law fluid over a non-isothermal two-dimensional body embedded in a porous medium. The Ostwald-de Waele power-law model was used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. Similarity solutions were obtained with variations in surface temperature or surface heat flux. In view of the fact that most of the non-Newtonian fluids have large Prandtl numbers, this study was directed toward such fluids. The effects of the porous medium parameters, k1 and k2, body shape parameter, m, and surface thermal variations parameter, p, as well as the power-law index, n, were examined. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Chlorine isotope geochemistry of Icelandic thermal fluids: Implications for geothermal system behavior at divergent plate boundaries (United States)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Barnes, Jaime D.


    The chlorine isotope composition of thermal fluids from Iceland were measured in order to evaluate the source of chlorine and possible chlorine isotope fractionation in geothermal systems at divergent plate boundaries. The geothermal systems studied have a wide range of reservoir temperatures from 40 to 437 °C and in-situ pH of 6.15 to 7.15. Chlorine concentrations range from 5.2 to 171 ppm and δ37 Cl values are -0.3 to + 2.1 ‰ (n = 38). The δ37 Cl values of the thermal fluids are interpreted to reflect the source of the chlorine in the fluids. Geothermal processes such as secondary mineral formation, aqueous and vapor speciation and boiling were found to have minimal effects on the δ37 Cl values. However, further work is needed on incorporation of Cl into secondary minerals and its effect on Cl isotope fractionation. Results of isotope geochemical modeling demonstrate that the range of δ37 Cl values documented in the natural thermal fluids can be explained by leaching of the basaltic rocks by meteoric source water under geothermal conditions. Magmatic gas partitioning may also contribute to the source of Cl in some cases. The range of δ37 Cl values of the fluids result mainly from the large range of δ37 Cl values observed for Icelandic basalts, which range from -0.6 to + 1.2 ‰.

  20. Experimental Observations of Multiscale Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Behavior: Implications in Volcanic Systems (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Spina, L.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.


    We have investigated the dynamics of Newtonian fluids with viscosities (10-1000 Pa s; corresponding to mafic to intermediate silicate melts) during slow decompression, in a Plexiglas shock tube. As an analogue fluid we used silicon oil saturated with Argon gas for 72 hours. Slow decompression, dropping from 10 MPa to ambient pressure, acts as the excitation mechanism, initiating several processes with their own distinct timescales. The evolution of this multi-timescale phenomenon generates complex non-stationary microseismic signals, which have been recorded with 7 high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit. Correlation analysis of these time series with the associated high-speed imaging enables characterization of distinct phases of the dynamics of these viscous fluids and the extraction of the time and the frequency characteristics of the individual processes. We have identified fluid-solid elastic interaction, degassing, fluid mass expansion and flow, bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, foam building and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are sequentially coupled in time, occur within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution in space. Their coexistence and interactions constitute the stress field and driving forces that determine the dynamics of the system. Our observations point to the great potential of this experimental approach in the understanding of volcanic processes and volcanic seismicity.

  1. Seismic chimneys in the Southern Viking Graben - Implications for palaeo fluid migration and overpressure evolution (United States)

    Karstens, Jens; Berndt, Christian


    Detailed understanding of natural fluid migration systems is essential to minimize risks during hydrocarbon exploration and to evaluate the long-term efficiency of the subsurface storage of waste water and gas from hydrocarbon production as well as CO2. The Southern Viking Graben (SVG) hosts numerous focused fluid flow structures in the shallow (pipes. Seismic pipes are known to form large clusters. Seismic chimneys have so far been described as solitary structures. Here, we show that the study area in the SVG hosts more than 46 large-scale vertical chimney structures, which can be divided in three categories implying different formation processes. Our analysis reveals that seal-weakening, formation-wide overpressure and the presence of free gas are required to initiate the formation of vertical fluid conduits in the SVG. The presence of numerous vertical fluid conduits implies inter-stratigraphic hydraulic connectivity, which significantly affects the migration of fluids in the subsurface. Chimney structures are important for understanding the transfer of pore pressure anomalies to the shallow parts of the basin.

  2. LABILE IRON IN CELLS AND BODY FLUIDS . Physiology, Pathology and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ioav Cabantchik


    Full Text Available In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower µM range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (that renders iron essentially non-labile, in systemic iron overload (IO, the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma transferrin approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of iron overload, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in iv iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI following parenteral iron

  3. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Vietnamese: Implications for the Diagnosis of Obesity


    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q.; Nguyen, Mai T. T.; Nguyen, Tuan V


    Background The burden of obesity in Vietnam has not been well defined because there is a lack of reference data for percent body fat (PBF) in Asians. This study sought to define the relationship between PBF and body mass index (BMI) in the Vietnamese population. Methods The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation that involved 1217 individuals of Vietnamese background (862 women) aged 20 years and older (average age 47 yr) who were randomly selected from the general ...

  4. The three-step process of self-objectification: potential implications for adolescents' body consciousness during sexual activity. (United States)

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven


    A three-wave panel study with intervals of six months was conducted to examine the relationships between internalization of appearance ideals, body surveillance, valuing appearance over competence, and body consciousness during sexual activity among 238 Belgian adolescents who had engaged in sexual intercourse. Consistent with predictions, structural equation modeling indicated that greater internalization of appearance ideals at Wave 1 contributed to increased body surveillance and valuing appearance over competence at Wave 2. Body surveillance at Wave 2 and internalization at Wave 1 predicted higher body consciousness during sexual activity at Wave 3. Gender did not moderate these results, as model paths were similar in strength for girls and boys. These results further implicate the consequences of internalizing sociocultural practices that objectify boys and girls regarding adolescents' initial sexual experiences.

  5. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Techniques: Implications and Opportunities for Fluid Dynamics Research (United States)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Green, Lawrence L.


    A challenge for the fluid dynamics community is to adapt to and exploit the trend towards greater multidisciplinary focus in research and technology. The past decade has witnessed substantial growth in the research field of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). MDO is a methodology for the design of complex engineering systems and subsystems that coherently exploits the synergism of mutually interacting phenomena. As evidenced by the papers, which appear in the biannual AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposia on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, the MDO technical community focuses on vehicle and system design issues. This paper provides an overview of the MDO technology field from a fluid dynamics perspective, giving emphasis to suggestions of specific applications of recent MDO technologies that can enhance fluid dynamics research itself across the spectrum, from basic flow physics to full configuration aerodynamics.

  6. Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotope Fractionation in Body Fluid Compartments of Dairy Cattle According to Season, Farm, Breed, and Reproductive Stage (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Petrera, Francesca; Capelletti, Maurizio; Dal Prà, Aldo; Bontempo, Luana; Tonon, Agostino; Camin, Federica


    Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow) of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese) were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H) and O (18O/16O) were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk) and 0.7848 (urine-plasma) for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk) and 0.9602 (plasma-milk) for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water. PMID:25996911

  7. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian


    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  8. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid (United States)

    Johnson, Ian; Akari, Khalid; Liu, Huinan


    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone-implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications.

  9. Structure, corrosion behavior and mechanical property of a novel poly(vinyl alcohol) composite in simulated body fluid. (United States)

    Li, Juan; Suo, Jinping; Zou, Peng; Jia, Lintao; Wang, Shifang


    The data for long-term drug-delivery systems are scarce compared to the short-term systems because the required research efforts are more time-consuming. In this study, we report a novel cross-linked composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing cupric ions for long-term delivery, which is helpful for contraception and trace element balance in the human body. The composition, corrosion products, crystal structure, chemical structure and mechanical stability of the composite, after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for one year, were studied by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and mechanical testing. The results show that no other new elements, such as P, Cl and Ca, appear on the surface of the composite and no Cu(2)O was formed after immersion in SBF for one year. The effectiveness of copper can be greatly improved and the side-effects caused by these compounds might also be eliminated. Furthermore, this novel composite exhibits long-term mechanical stability in SBF. The present in vitro long-term data suggest that this novel copper-containing composite may serve as a substitute for conventional materials of copper-containing intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs) and as a carrier for controlled-release material in a variety of other applications.

  10. Finite element approach to study the behavior of fluid distribution in the dermal regions of human body due to thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Khanday


    Full Text Available The human body is a complex structure where the balance of mass and heat transport in all tissues is necessary for its normal functioning. The stabilities of intracellular and extracellular fluids are important physiological factors responsible for homoeostasis. To estimate the effects of thermal stress on the behavior of extracellular fluid concentration in human dermal regions, a mathematical model based on diffusion equation along with appropriate boundary conditions has been formulated. Atmospheric temperature, evaporation rate, moisture concentration and other factors affecting the fluid concentration were taken into account. The variational finite element approach has been employed to solve the model and the results were interpreted graphically.

  11. OncomiR detection in circulating body fluids: a PDMS microdevice perspective. (United States)

    Potrich, Cristina; Vaghi, Valentina; Lunelli, Lorenzo; Pasquardini, Laura; Santini, Gaia Cecilia; Ottone, Chiara; Quaglio, Marzia; Cocuzza, Matteo; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Ferracin, Manuela; Negrini, Massimo; Tiberio, Paola; De Sanctis, Veronica; Bertorelli, Roberto; Pederzolli, Cecilia


    There is an increasing interest in circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential minimally invasive diagnostic biomarkers in oncology. Considerable efforts are being made in the development of lab-on-a-chip devices for biomedical applications to purify and detect miRNAs from biological fluids. Here, we report the development of an innovative polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based parallel device whose internal surface can opportunely be functionalized with positively charged 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) alone or mixed with two different neutral poly(ethylene glycol) silanes (PEG-s). The differently functionalized internal surfaces of the PDMS chip were characterized with s-SDTB (sulfosuccinimidyl-4-o-(4,4-dimethoxytrityl) butyrate) and the portion of the surface able to adsorb a synthetic fluorescently labeled miRNA was determined. Interestingly, the adsorbed miRNA (both synthetic and cell supernatant-derived) was found mainly on the bottom surface of the chip and could be reverse transcribed into cDNA directly on the same PDMS chip used for its purification, saving hours with respect to the use of standard purification kits. We identified 0.1% APTES/0.9% PEG-silane as the most efficient PDMS functionalization to capture both synthetic and extracellular miRNA. Moreover, the amount of captured miRNA was increased by treating the cell supernatant with a commercially available lysis buffer for RNA extraction. We assessed that the available miRNA binding sites on the functionalized surface were efficiently saturated with only one incubation, shortening the time and greatly simplifying the protocol for miRNA purification from biological samples. Finally, the extracellular miRNA purification efficiency of the PDMS functionalized multichip determined via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was confirmed by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) quantification. This work shows an innovative, rapid and easy to use microdevice for the purification and reverse

  12. MicroRNAs transported by exosomes in body fluids as mediators of intercellular communication in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salido-Guadarrama I


    Full Text Available Iván Salido-Guadarrama,1 Sandra Romero-Cordoba,1 Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,2 Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda,1 Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes1 1Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Institute of Genomics Medicine, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico Abstract: Cancer-cell communication is an important and complex process, achieved through a diversity of mechanisms that allows tumor cells to mold and influence their environment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated indicating that cells communicate via the release and delivery of microRNAs (miRNAs packed into tumor-released (TR exosomes. Understanding the role and mode of action of miRNAs from TR exosomes is of paramount importance in the field of cancer biomarker discovery and for the development of new biomedical applications for cancer therapeutics. In this review, we focus on miRNAs secreted via TR exosomes, which by acting in a paracrine or endocrine manner, facilitate a diversity of signaling mechanisms between cancer cells. We address their contribution as signaling molecules, to the establishment, maintenance, and enhancement of the tumor microenvironment and the metastatic niche in cancer. Finally, we address the potential role of these molecules as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and prognosis and their impact as a biomedical tool in cancer therapeutics. Keywords: tumor cells, multivesicular bodies, interference RNA, biomarkers and therapeutics

  13. Facile semi-automated forensic body fluid identification by multiplex solution hybridization of NanoString® barcode probes to specific mRNA targets. (United States)

    Danaher, Patrick; White, Robin Lynn; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack


    A DNA profile from the perpetrator does not reveal, per se, the circumstances by which it was transferred. Body fluid identification by mRNA profiling may allow extraction of contextual 'activity level' information from forensic samples. Here we describe the development of a prototype multiplex digital gene expression (DGE) method for forensic body fluid/tissue identification based upon solution hybridization of color-coded NanoString(®) probes to 23 mRNA targets. The method identifies peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin. We showed that a simple 5 min room temperature cellular lysis protocol gave equivalent results to standard RNA isolation from the same source material, greatly enhancing the ease-of-use of this method in forensic sample processing. We first describe a model for gene expression in a sample from a single body fluid and then extend that model to mixtures of body fluids. We then describe calculation of maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of body fluid quantities in a sample, and we describe the use of likelihood ratios to test for the presence of each body fluid in a sample. Known single source samples of blood, semen, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin all demonstrated the expected tissue-specific gene expression for at least two of the chosen biomarkers. Saliva samples were more problematic, with their previously identified characteristic genes exhibiting poor specificity. Nonetheless the most specific saliva biomarker, HTN3, was expressed at a higher level in saliva than in any of the other tissues. Crucially, our algorithm produced zero false positives across this study's 89 unique samples. As a preliminary indication of the ability of the method to discern admixtures of body fluids, five mixtures were prepared. The identities of the component fluids were evident from the gene expression profiles of four of the five mixtures. Further optimization of the biomarker 'CodeSet' will be required

  14. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis. (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E


    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections.

  15. Role of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, C.A.F.; Andrade-Franzé, G.M.F.; De Paula, P.M.; De Luca, L.A. Jr.; Menani, J.V. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)


    Central α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α{sub 2}-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α{sub 2}-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion.

  16. Fluorian garnets from the host rocks of the Skaergaard intrusion: implications for metamorphic fluid composition (United States)

    Manning, C.E.; Bird, D.K.


    Zoned, silica-deficient, calcic garnets containing up to 5 mol% F substitution for O formed during contact metamorphism of basalts by the Skaergaard intrusion in East Greenland. Fluorian calcic garnets occur as a retrograde alteration of prograde wollastonite and clinopyroxene that fills vesicles and vugs in lavas 30-70 m from the intrusion. The F content of garnet is extremely sensitive to minor changes in fluid composition. The calculations show that a decrease in pH or an increase in log aF- of 0.3 at constant pressure and temperature will decrease the F concentration in garnet from 5 to 0 mol%. The results of this study show that fluorian hydrous grandites provide a mineralogical record of the activities of F species in coexisting metamorphic and hydrothermal fluids. -from Authors

  17. Heterogeneous mantle anisotropy and fluid upwelling: implication for generation of the 1891 Nobi earthquake (United States)

    Iidaka, Takashi; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro


    The 1891 Nobi earthquake was the largest historic intraplate earthquake in Japan. The rupture origin corresponds to a zone of high strain rate inferred from geodetic data. To understand the geologic setting of this event, we deployed temporary seismic stations in the area. Shear-wave splitting analysis was performed using data from temporary and permanent seismic stations, revealing significant lateral variations in polarization directions. Polarization directions of NE-SW, ESE-WNW, and ENE-WSW were observed in the northeastern, central, and southwestern parts of the study area, respectively. The NE-SW- and ENE-WSW-aligned polarizations are consistent with the subduction directions of the Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate, respectively; thus, shear-wave splitting in the northeastern and southwestern regions of the study area is likely caused by mantle wedge anisotropy, a consequence of mantle flow caused by the subducting oceanic slabs. However, the ESE-WNW orientations observed in the central Chubu Region are inconsistent with the subduction direction of either slab. Regions of low seismic velocity and low resistivity have been reported in the inferred position of the mantle wedge; these heterogeneities are thought to be caused by fluid rising from the dehydrated oceanic slabs. Thus, the ESE-WNW polarization in central Chubu could be a consequence of structural heterogeneities created by fluid to the crust from the mantle. The presence of crustal fluid is closely related to weakening, and the faults responsible for the 1891 Nobi earthquake are located just above the anisotropic region. Because fluids in the crust weaken the surrounding rock, this could explain the occurrence of the 1891 Nobi earthquake.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Hg and As Minerals in Fluid Inclusions from the Williams Mine, Hemlo, and Their Genetic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Hemlo mineralization is enigmatic compared to general Archean lode gold deposits based on the fact that it is characterized by an exotic mineralogy containing elements such as As, Hg, Sb, Ba, V and Mo. The genetic concepts range from syngenetic to epigenetic types of mineralization. This reconnaissance study was designed to examine the relationship of Hg-As minerals with respect to fluid inclusions in the Williams mine (formerly known as the Page Williams mine) covering the A and C ore zones.

  19. Differences Between the Concentrations in Rabbit Body Fluid of Berberine Hydrochloride,Chlorogenic Acid,Baicalin,and Their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; HUANG Hui-ling; ZHANG Shuang; LU Ping; HU Ge; SUO Zhan-wei; JIANG Dai-xun; MU Xiang


    To explore the relationship between the heat-clearing and detoxicating functions and the bacteriostatic actions of berberine hydrochloride (Ber.H),chlorogenic acid (Chlo.A),and baicalin (Bai),their concentrations in rabbit body fluid were compared with their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs).Their concentrations in rabbit blood and tissue fluid were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography,and their MICs to Escherichia coli were determined by tube dilution method.The results showed that the peak concentrations of Ber.H,Chlo.A,and Bai in rabbit blood were 3.2,5.03,and 7.63 μg mL-1,and in rabbit tissue fluid were 0.12,0.11,and 0.12 μg mL-1,respectively.Their MICs to E.coli were,respectively,1.0×103,3.75×103,and 6.75×103 μg mL-1,which were far higher than the concentrations in rabbit body fluids.This study indicates that Ber.H,Chlo.A,and Bai have weak bacteriostatic actions and do not reach their effective inhibitory concentrations in rabbit body fluids,and their heat-clearing and detoxicating functions are independent on the bacteriostatic actions.

  20. Biochemical Technology Program progress report for the period January 1--June 30, 1976. [Centrifugal analyzers and advanced analytical systems for blood and body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Burtis, C.A.; Scott, C.D. (comps.)


    This document, which covers the period January 1-June 30, 1976, describes progress in the following areas: (1) advanced analytical techniques for the clinical laboratory, (2) fast clinical analyzers, (3) development of a miniaturized analytical clinical laboratory system, (4) centrifugal fast analyzers for animal toxicological studies, and (5) chemical profile of body fluids.

  1. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus. Revised Edition. (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    This Maryland resource manual provides local education agencies with guidelines on how to handle body fluids to prevent the transmission of diseases, especially Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting. The first section summarizes the reasons for development of the manual. The second section summarizes…

  2. Late Diagenetic Cements in the Murray Formation, Gale Crater, Mars: Implications for Postdepositional Fluid Flow (United States)

    Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R. E.; Van Beek, J.; Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Thompson, L. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Schieber, J.


    The Murray formation in its type section at Pahrump Hills, consists of approximately 14 meters of recessive-weathering mudstone interbedded with decimeter-scale cross-bedded sandstone in the upper portions of the exposed section. Mudstone textures vary from massive, to poorly laminated, to well laminated. Unusual 3-dimensional crystal clusters and dendrites occur in the lowermost part of the section and are erosionally resistant with respect to the host rock. Crystal clusters consist of elongate lathes that occur within individual blocks of the fractured substrate. Individual lathes show tabular morphologies with a pseudo-rectangular cross-section and the three dimensional morphology of the crystal clusters cross-cut host rock lamination with little or no deformation. Dendritic structures are typically larger and show predominantly planar growth aligned with bedding planes. Individual lathes within the dendrites are elongate and pseudo-rectangular in cross-section. Unlike crystal clusters, dendritic morphologies appear to nucleate at bedrock fractures and near mineralized veins. Here we show evidence that crystal clusters and dendrites are post-depositional, potentially burial diagenetic features. Association of features with through-going fractures suggests that fractures may have been a primary transport pathway for ions responsible for dendrite growth. Even where dendrites do not occur, enhanced cementation suggests that fluids permeated the rock matrix. We suggest that growth of clusters proceeded as inter-particle crystal growth, wherein mineral growth within inter-particle spaces resulted in cementation and porosity loss, with little further effect on the rock matrix. Crystal clusters and dendrites are most likely to form when mineral saturation states are highest, for instance with initial intrusion of fracture-borne fluids and mixing with ambient pore fluids, and thus emphasize the importance of fractures in ion transport during late diagenesis.

  3. In vitro biomineralization of a novel hydroxyapatite/superhydrophilic multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite using simulated body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Marcele Florencio; Brazil, Tayra Rodrigues; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira, E-mail: [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D,/NANOBIO/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Nanotecnologia Biomedica; Soares, Luis Eduardo Silva [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D/LEVB/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomdica; Corat, Evaldo Jose [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa Espacial (LAS/INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Sensores e Materiais


    Nano biomaterials based on superhydrophilic vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} ) are promising for their properties and bone tissue biocompatibility. VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) aim to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of this new nanocomposite due to its resemblance to bone matrix structure. This study aimed to produce in vitro biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites using simulated body fluid (SBF) with two different pHs (6.10 and 7.40) during 7 days to obtain a new surface design with higher crystallinity and better morphology of nHAp/VAMWCANT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites. The objective is to obtain biomineralized nano biomaterials to enable its applicability as 'scaffold' to cellular support and consequent bone tissue formation, accelerating the osseointegration. Layer densification has been achieved due to polycrystalline nano apatites deposition on surface and between the biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites, without any heat treatment. Therefore, through its characteristics and properties these nanocomposite applications can be considered extremely viable for acceleration of in vivo regenerative processes. (author)

  4. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of silver doped hydroxyapatite coating in simulated body fluid used as corrosive agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković-Stanković Vesna


    Full Text Available Titanium is a key biomedical material due its good biocompatibility, mechanical properties and corrosion stability, but infections of the implantation site still pose serious threat. One approach to prevent infection is to improve antimicrobial ability of the coating material. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag/HAP nanoparticles were synthesized by new modified precipitation method. The synthesized powder was used for preparation of Ag/HAP coating on titanium by electrophoretic deposition. The coating was characterized in terms of phase composition and structure by Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD; surface morphology and chemical composition was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Research focused on evaluation of the corrosion behaviour of Ag/HAP coating in simulated body fluid (SBF at 37 ºC during prolonged immersion time by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Silver doped HAP coating provided good corrosion protection in SBF solution. [Acknowledgements. This research was financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, contracts No. III 45019 and by National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC. Dr Ana Jankovic was financed by the FP7 Nanotech FTM Grant Agreement 245916

  5. Glucose sensing in transdermal body fluid collected under continuous vacuum pressure via micropores in the stratum corneum. (United States)

    Gebhart, Suzanne; Faupel, Mark; Fowler, Richard; Kapsner, Candis; Lincoln, Daniel; McGee, Valarie; Pasqua, John; Steed, Leigh; Wangsness, Michael; Xu, Fan; Vanstory, Madeleine


    Application of continuous vacuum pressure on skin perforated with tiny micropores created by a focused beam from a low-cost laser system can result in access to a clear, transdermal body fluid (TDF) for the continuous measurement of glucose in vivo. Two clinical studies were performed to assess the feasibility of this approach. In the first study, 56 diabetic subjects were porated on either the arm or abdomen, and glucose was measured in their TDF using a custom assay system contained in a patch that was affixed to the skin above the poration site. The continuous readings of glucose in TDF were compared with fingerstick blood measured every half-hour over a 2-day period, resulting in 1,167 paired data points that yielded a correlation of 0.8745 with 97.75% of the readings in the Clarke Error Grid A and B zones. In a second study, 187 diabetic and 65 nondiabetic subjects had glucose measurements from their TDF made using a commercially available glucose strip and meter. A total of 4,059 data pairs (discrete TDF and capillary blood) were collected over a 2-day period, resulting in a correlation of 0.946 with 99% of the readings in the Clarke Error Grid A and B zones. These studies indicate that TDF drawn through micropores in the stratum corneum of the skin potentially can provide a lesser invasive and continuous method of measuring glucose in diabetic individuals.

  6. Separation of oxalate, formate and glycolate in human body fluid samples by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection. (United States)

    Kubáň, Petr; Ďurč, Pavol; Bittová, Miroslava; Foret, František


    A new method for rapid determination of toxic metabolites after methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication - oxalate, formate and glycolate in various body fluid samples (blood serum, saliva, urine, exhaled breath condensate) by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection was developed. A selective separation of the three target analytes from other constituents present in the analyzed biological matrices was achieved in less than 6min in a fused silica capillary of 25μm I.D. using an electrolyte comprising 50mM l-histidine and 50mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid at pH 6.1. The only sample preparation was dilution with deionized water. The limits of detection were 0.4, 0.6 and 1.3μM and limits of quantitation 1.3, 1.9 and 4.2μM for oxalate, formate and glycolate, respectively. The method provides a simple and rapid diagnostic test in suspected intoxication and is able to distinguish the ingested liquid, based on its metabolite trace. The method presents a fast screening tool that can be applicable in clinical practice.

  7. Ascaris lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid induces a partially activated dendritic cell phenotype with Th2 promoting ability in vivo. (United States)

    Dowling, David J; Noone, Cariosa M; Adams, Paul N; Vukman, Krisztina V; Molloy, Sile F; Forde, Jessica; Asaolu, Samuel; O'Neill, Sandra M


    Dendritic cells (DCs) matured with helminth-derived molecules that promote Th2 immune responses do not follow conventional definitions of DC maturation processes. While a number of models of DC maturation by Th2 stimuli are postulated, further studies are required if we are to clearly define DC maturation processes that lead to Th2 immune responses. In this study, we examine the interaction of Th2-inducing molecules from the parasitic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides with the maturation processes and function of DCs. Here we show that murine bone marrow-derived DCs are partially matured by A. lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid (ABF) as characterised by the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) but no enhanced expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)-14, T-cell co-stimulatory markers CD80, CD86, CD40, OX40L and major histocompatibility complex class II was observed. Despite these phenotypic characteristics, ABF-stimulated DCs displayed the functional hallmarks of fully matured cells, enhancing DC phagocytosis and promoting Th2-type responses in skin-draining lymph node cells in vivo. ABF activated Th2-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and nuclear factor-kB intracellular signalling pathways independently of toll-like receptor 4. Taken together, we believe this is the first paper to demonstrate A. lumbricoides murine DC-Th cell-driven responses shedding further light on DC maturation processes by helminth antigens.

  8. Corrosion mechanism of micro-arc oxidation treated biocompatible AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li


    Full Text Available The rapid degradation of magnesium (Mg based alloys has prevented their further use in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention, and therefore it is essential to investigate the corrosion mechanism for improving the corrosion resistance of these alloys. In this work, the effect of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation (MAO with different voltages were carried out to obtain biocompatible ceramic coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy. The effects of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of MAO samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF were studied systematically. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffractometer (XRD were employed to characterize the morphologies and phase compositions of coating before and after corrosion. The results showed that corrosion resistance of the MAO coating obtained at 250 V was better than the others in SBF. The dense layer of MAO coating and the corrosion precipitation were the key factors for corrosion behavior. The corrosion of precipitation Mg(OH2 and the calcium phosphate (Ca–P minerals on the surface of MAO coatings could enhance their corrosion resistance effectively. In addition, the mechanism of MAO coated Mg alloys was proposed.

  9. Corrosion mechanism of micro-arc oxidation treated biocompatible AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Lia; Fang Lu; Honglong Li; Wenjun Zhu; Haobo Pan; Guoxin Tand; Yonghua Lao; Chengyun Ning; Guoxin Ni


    The rapid degradation of magnesium (Mg) based alloys has prevented their further use in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention, and therefore it is essential to investigate the corrosion mechanism for improving the corrosion resistance of these alloys. In this work, the effect of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with different voltages were carried out to obtain biocompatible ceramic coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy. The effects of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of MAO samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied systematically. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the morphologies and phase compositions of coating before and after corrosion. The results showed that corrosion resistance of the MAO coating obtained at 250 V was better than the others in SBF. The dense layer of MAO coating and the corrosion precipitation were the key factors for corrosion behavior. The corrosion of precipitation Mg(OH)2 and the calcium phosphate (Ca–P) minerals on the surface of MAO coatings could enhance their corrosion resistance effectively. In addition, the mechanism of MAO coated Mg alloys was proposed.

  10. Prediction of osteoconductive activity of modified potassium fluorrichterite glass-ceramics by immersion in simulated body fluid. (United States)

    Bhakta, Shashwat; Pattanayak, Deepak K; Takadama, Hiroaki; Kokubo, Tadashi; Miller, Cheryl A; Mirsaneh, Mehdi; Reaney, Ian M; Brook, Ian; van Noort, Richard; Hatton, Paul V


    Potassium fluorrichterite (KNaCaMg(5)Si(8)O(22)F(2)) glass-ceramics were modified by either increasing the concentration of calcium (GC5) or by the addition of P(2)O(5) (GP2). The stoichiometric composition (GST), GC5 and GP2 were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) along with 45S5-type bioglass as a control. After immersion, surface analyses were performed using thin-film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier-transform infrared (reflection) spectroscopy (FT-IR). All compositions showed the formation of a calcium phosphate rich surface layer in SBF; GST, GP2 and the bioglass control within 7 days of immersion and GC5 after 14 days. It was concluded that all compositions were likely to be osteoconductive in vivo, with GP2 providing the best performance in terms of the combination of rapid formation of the surface layer and superior mechanical properties. This glass-ceramic system has potential as a load bearing bioceramic for fabrication of medical devices intended for skeletal tissue repair.

  11. Granulocytes of sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 body fluid contain and release cytolysins forming plaques of lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Parisi


    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most poisonous animals. The exact composition of cnidarian bioactive molecules is not known in detail, but little is known on the cells that produce the toxins. Here we have shown that the presence of cytolysins is not exclusive of nematocysts. A plaque-forming assay was carried out with cell populations extracted from the percoled body fluid showed for the first time that anthozoan granulocytes are able to form plaque of lysis. We have partitioned the total population of free cells into three distinct discrete bands by discontinuous Percoll gradient, and we have identified six small different types cells: morular granulocytes; cells with large or small peripherical granules, granulocytes with irregular shape containing blue and red granules, cells showing one fine red granule of uniform size and, finally, cells with elongated shape and small dispersed granules. Cell lysate of each cellular band resulted cytolytic toward different erythrocytes types. SDS page analysis of the lysate cell fraction showed a predominant of 20 kDa that corresponds to the weight of the cytolytic equinatoxin. The nature of equinatoxins-related activity was demonstrated by inhibition experiments using bovine sphingomyelin.

  12. Measurement of deoxyribonuclease I activity in human tissues and body fluids by a single radial enzyme-diffusion method. (United States)

    Nadano, D; Yasuda, T; Kishi, K


    In the single radial enzyme-diffusion (SRED) method for assay of deoxyribonuclease I, a precisely measured volume of the enzyme solution is dispensed into a circular well in an agarose gel layer in which DNA and ethidium bromide are uniformly distributed. A circular dark zone is formed as the enzyme diffuses from the well radially into the gel and digests substrate DNA. The diameter of the dark circle of hydrolyzed DNA increases in size with time and correlates linearly with the amount of enzyme applied to the well. Thus, the SRED can be used for quantitation of deoxyribonuclease I with a limit of detection of 2 x 10(-6) unit. This corresponds to 1 pg of purified urine deoxyribonuclease I. We measured the deoxyribonuclease I activity of 17 different human tissues and body fluids from healthy donors. Urine samples showed the greatest activity, 6.0 +/- 2.2 kilo-units/g protein (mean +/- SD). Serum deoxyribonuclease I activity was 4.4 +/- 1.8 units/L.

  13. Hydrothermal calcium modification of 316L stainless steel and its apatite forming ability in simulated body fluid. (United States)

    Valanezahad, Alireza; Ishikawa, Kunio; Tsuru, Kanji; Maruta, Michito; Matsuya, Shigeki


    To understand the feasibility of calcium (Ca) modification of type 316L stainless steel (316L SS) surface using hydrothermal treatment, 316L SS plates were treated hydrothermally in calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that the surface of 316L SS plate was modified with Ca after hydrothermal treatment at 200°C. And the immobilized Ca increased with CaCl(2) concentration. However no Ca-modification was occurred for 316L SS plates treated at 100°C. When Ca-modified 316L SS plate was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma, low crystalline apatite was precipitated on its surface whereas no precipitate was observed on non Ca-modified 316L SS. The results obtained in the present study indicated that hydrothermal treatment at 200°C in CaCl(2) solution is useful for Ca-modification of 316L SS, and Ca-modification plays important role for apatite precipitation in SBF.

  14. Cyclic delamination behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates in simulated body fluid. (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu


    This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF.

  15. Biomineralization behavior of a vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer added with polymerization accelerator in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Hamai


    Full Text Available Apatite-polymer composites have been evaluated in terms of its potential application as bone substitutes. Biomimetic processes using simulated body fluid (SBF are well-known methods for preparation of such composites. They are reliant on specific functional groups to induce the heterogeneous apatite nucleation and phosphate groups possess good apatite-forming ability in SBF. Improving the degree of polymerization is important for obtaining phosphate-containing polymers, because the release of significant quantities of monomer or low molecular weight polymers can lead to suppression of the apatite formation. To date, there have been very few studies pertaining to the effect of adding a polymerization accelerator to the polymerization reaction involved in the formation of these composite materials under physiological conditions. In this study, we have prepared a copolymer from triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA in the presence of different amounts of sodium p-toluenesulfinate (p-TSS as a polymerization accelerator. The effects of p-TSS on the chemical durability and apatite formation of the copolymers were investigated in SBF. The addition of 0.1–1.0 wt% of p-TSS was effective for suppressing the dissolution of the copolymers in SBF, whereas larger amount had a detrimental effect. A calcium polyvinylphosphate instead of the apatite was precipitated in SBF.

  16. Role of Microvascular Tone and Extracellular Matrix Contraction in the Regulation of Interstitial Fluid: Implications for Aortic Dissection. (United States)

    Mallat, Ziad; Tedgui, Alain; Henrion, Daniel


    The pathophysiology of aortic dissection is poorly understood, and its risk is resistant to medical treatment. Most studies have focused on a proposed pathogenic role of transforming growth factor-β in Marfan disease and related thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections. However, clinical testing of this concept using angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to block transforming growth factor-β signaling fell short of promise. Genetic mutations that predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections affect components of the extracellular matrix and proteins involved in cellular force generation. Thus, a role for dysfunctional mechanosensing in abnormal aortic wall remodeling is emerging. However, how abnormal mechanosensing leads to aortic dissection remains a mystery. Here, we review current knowledge about the regulation of interstitial fluid dynamics and myogenic tone and propose that alteration in contractile force reduces vascular tone in the microcirculation (here, aortic vasa vasorum) and leads to elevations of blood flow, transmural pressure, and fluid flux into the surrounding aortic media. Furthermore, reduced contractile force in medial smooth muscle cells coupled with alteration of structural components of the extracellular matrix limits extracellular matrix contraction, further promoting the formation of intramural edema, a critical step in the initiation of aortic dissection. The concept is supported by several pathophysiological and clinical observations. A direct implication of this concept is that drugs that lower blood pressure and limit interstitial fluid accumulation while preserving or increasing microvascular tone would limit the risk of dissection. In contrast, drugs that substantially lower microvascular tone would be ineffective or may accelerate the disease and precipitate aortic dissection.

  17. Deformation band clusters on Mars and implications for subsurface fluid flow (United States)

    Okubo, C.H.; Schultz, R.A.; Chan, M.A.; Komatsu, G.


    High-resolution imagery reveals unprecedented lines of evidence for the presence of deformation band clusters in layered sedimentary deposits in the equatorial region of Mars. Deformation bands are a class of geologic structural discontinuity that is a precursor to faults in clastic rocks and soils. Clusters of deformation bands, consisting of many hundreds of individual subparallel bands, can act as important structural controls on subsurface fluid flow in terrestrial reservoirs, and evidence of diagenetic processes is often preserved along them. Deformation band clusters are identified on Mars based on characteristic meter-scale architectures and geologic context as observed in data from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera. The identification of deformation band clusters on Mars is a key to investigating the migration of fluids between surface and subsurface reservoirs in the planet's vast sedimentary deposits. Similar to terrestrial examples, evidence of diagenesis in the form of light- and dark-toned discoloration and wall-rock induration is recorded along many of the deformation band clusters on Mars. Therefore, these structures are important sites for future exploration and investigations into the geologic history of water and water-related processes on Mars. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  18. Perturbation of geothermal reservoirs to fluids stimulation: numerical modelling and implication on induced seismicity. (United States)

    Carlino, Stefano; De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Tramelli, Anna; Somma, Renato


    Fluid withdrawal and injection into the crust produces changes in the local stress field and pore pressure, involving different rock volumes depending on the injection flow rate and duration as well as on the medium permeability. This process is in different cases correlated to induced seismicity. In the case of geothermal power plants (e.g. fluids withdrawal and in several case withdrawal/reinjection) this correlation is vague and sometimes not well constrained by experimental data. We report here a set of simulations of withdrawal, injection and withdrawal-reinjection-cycles from/in the same geothermal reservoirs, by using the numerical code TOUGH2®. The simulations are applied to conceptual models of different geothermal reservoirs already published in previous works, whose main difference is in the permeability features and the depth of wells (Soultz, France; Campi Flegrei caldera and Ischia island, Italy). The numerical simulations are aimed to compare the time growth of perturbed volumes obtained with withdrawal reinjection cycle to those obtained during simple withdrawal or injection, using the same flow rates. Our results clearly point out that reinjection is much less critical than simple injection or withdrawal, because the perturbed volumes are remarkably small and, moreover, remain constant over the simulated time, of whatever duration. This fact reduces significantly the potential of the seismicity induced by pressure variation into the reservoirs.

  19. Turbulence in nearly incompressible fluids: density spectrum, flows, correlations and implication to the interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dastgeer


    Full Text Available Interstellar scintillation and angular radio wave broadening measurements show that interstellar and solar wind (electron density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k-5/3 power spectrum extending over many decades in wavenumber space. The ubiquity of the Kolmogorov-like interstellar medium (ISM density spectrum led to an explanation based on coupling incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD fluctuations to density fluctuations through a 'pseudosound' relation within the context of 'nearly incompressible' (NI hydrodynamics (HD and MHD models. The NI theory provides a fundamentally different explanation for the observed ISM density spectrum in that the density fluctuations can be a consequence of passive scalar convection due to background incompressible fluctuations. The theory further predicts generation of long-scale structures and various correlations between the density, temperature and the (magneto acoustic as well as convective pressure fluctuations in the compressible ISM fluids in different thermal regimes that are determined purely by the thermal fluctuation level. In this paper, we present the results of our two dimensional nonlinear fluid simulations, exploring various nonlinear aspects that lead to inertial range ISM turbulence within the context of a NI hydrodymanics model. In qualitative agreement with the NI predictions and the in-situ observations, we find that i the density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like spectrum via a passive convection in the field of the background incompressible fluctuations, ii the compressible ISM fluctuations form long scale flows and structures, and iii the density and the temperature fluctuations are anti-correlated.

  20. Noble gases in gas shales : Implications for gas retention and circulating fluids. (United States)

    Basu, Sudeshna; Jones, Adrian; Verchovsky, Alexander


    Gas shales from three cores of Haynesville-Bossier formation have been analysed simultaneously for carbon, nitrogen and noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xe) to constrain their source compositions and identify signatures associated with high gas retention. Ten samples from varying depths of 11785 to 12223 feet from each core, retrieved from their centres, have been combusted from 200-1200°C in incremental steps of 100°C, using 5 - 10 mg of each sample. Typically, Xe is released at 200°C and is largely adsorbed, observed in two of the three cores. The third core lacked any measureable Xe. High 40Ar/36Ar ratio up to 8000, is associated with peak release of nitrogen with distinctive isotopic signature, related to breakdown of clay minerals at 500°C. He and Ne are also mostly released at the same temperature step and predominantly hosted in the pore spaces of the organic matter associated with the clay. He may be produced from the uranium related to the organic matter. The enrichment factors of noble gases defined as (iX/36Ar)sample/(iX/36Ar)air where iX denotes any noble gas isotope, show Ne and Xe enrichment observed commonly in sedimentary rocks including shales (Podosek et al., 1980; Bernatowicz et al., 1984). This can be related to interaction of the shales with circulating fluids and diffusive separation of gases (Torgersen and Kennedy, 1999), implying the possibility of loss of gases from these shales. Interaction with circulating fluids (e.g. crustal fluids) have been further confirmed using 20Ne/N2, 36Ar/N2 and 4He/N2 ratios. Deviations of measured 4He/40Ar* (where 40Ar* represents radiogenic 40Ar after correcting for contribution from atmospheric Ar) from expected values has been used to monitor gas loss by degassing. Bernatowicz, T., Podosek, F.A., Honda, M., Kramer, F.E., 1984. The Atmospheric Inventory of Xenon and Noble Gases in Shales: The Plastic Bag Experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research 89, 4597-4611. Podosek, F.A., Honda, M., Ozima, M., 1980

  1. Body fluid and tissue analysis using filter paper sampling support prior to LC-MS/MS: application to fatal overdose with colchicine. (United States)

    Lauer, Estelle; Widmer, Christèle; Versace, François; Staub, Christian; Mangin, Patrice; Sabatasso, Sara; Augsburger, Marc; Déglon, Julien


    Because of the various matrices available for forensic investigations, the development of versatile analytical approaches allowing the simultaneous determination of drugs is challenging. The aim of this work was to assess a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) platform allowing the rapid quantification of colchicine in body fluids and tissues collected in the context of a fatal overdose. For this purpose, filter paper was used as a sampling support and was associated with an automated 96-well plate extraction performed by the LC autosampler itself. The developed method features a 7-min total run time including automated filter paper extraction (2 min) and chromatographic separation (5 min). The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum regardless of the matrix analyzed. This platform was fully validated for dried blood spots (DBS) in the toxic concentration range of colchicine. The DBS calibration curve was applied successfully to quantification in all other matrices (body fluids and tissues) except for bile, where an excessive matrix effect was found. The distribution of colchicine for a fatal overdose case was reported as follows: peripheral blood, 29 ng/ml; urine, 94 ng/ml; vitreous humour and cerebrospinal fluid, paper is usually employed for DBS, we report here the extension of this alternative sampling support to the analysis of other body fluids and tissues. The developed platform represents a rapid and versatile approach for drug determination in multiple forensic media.

  2. A 3D, fully Eulerian, VOF-based solver to study the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid bodies using the fictitious domain method (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi


    We present a three-dimensional (3D) and fully Eulerian approach to capturing the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid structures by using the fictitious domain and volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods. The solid bodies can have arbitrarily complex geometry and can pierce the fluid-fluid interface, forming contact lines. The three-phase interfaces are resolved and reconstructed by using a VOF-based methodology. Then, a consistent scheme is employed for transporting mass and momentum, allowing for simulations of three-phase flows of large density ratios. The Eulerian approach significantly simplifies numerical resolution of the kinematics of rigid bodies of complex geometry and with six degrees of freedom. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is computed using the fictitious domain method. The methodology was developed in a message passing interface (MPI) parallel framework accelerated with graphics processing units (GPUs). The computationally intensive solution of the pressure Poisson equation is ported to GPUs, while the remaining calculations are performed on CPUs. The performance and accuracy of the methodology are assessed using an array of test cases, focusing individually on the flow solver and the FSI in surface-piercing configurations. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology in simulations of the ocean wave energy converters is presented.

  3. Multifunctional liposomes interact with Abeta in human biological fluids: Therapeutic implications for Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Conti, Elisa; Gregori, Maria; Radice, Isabella; Da Re, Fulvio; Grana, Denise; Re, Francesca; Salvati, Elisa; Masserini, Massimo; Ferrarese, Carlo; Zoia, Chiara Paola; Tremolizzo, Lucio


    The accumulation of extracellular amyloid beta (Abeta42) both in brain and in cerebral vessels characterizes Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Recently, the possibility to functionalize nanoparticles (NPs) surface with Abeta42 binding molecules, making them suitable tools for reducing Abeta42 burden has been shown effective in models of AD. Aim of this work consisted in proving that NPs might be effective in sequestering Abeta42 in biological fluids, such as CSF and plasma. This demonstration is extremely important considering that these Abeta42 pools are in continuum with the brain parenchyma with drainage of Abeta from interstitial brain tissue to blood vessel and plasma. In this work, liposomes (LIP) were functionalized as previously shown in order to promote high-affinity Abeta binding, i.e., either with, phosphatidic acid (PA), or a modified Apolipoprotein E-derived peptide (mApo), or with a curcumin derivative (TREG); Abeta42 levels were determined by ELISA in CSF and plasma samples. mApo-PA-LIP (25 and 250 μM) mildly albeit significantly sequestered Abeta42 proteins in CSF samples obtained from healthy subjects (p < 0.01). Analogously a significant binding (∼20%) of Abeta42 (p < 0.001) was demonstrated following exposure to all functionalized liposomes in plasma samples obtained from selected AD or Down's syndrome patients expressing high levels of Abeta42. The same results were obtained by quantifying Abeta42 content after removal of liposome-bound Abeta by using gel filtration chromatography or ultracentrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. In conclusion, we demonstrate that functionalized liposomes significantly sequester Abeta42 in human biological fluids. These data may be critical for future in vivo administration tests using NPs for promoting sink effect.

  4. Body fluids, circadian blood pressure and plasma renin during growth hormone administration: a placebo-controlled study with two growth hormone doses in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Frandsen, Erik


    Abstract Side effects that can be related to fluid retention are common during the initial phases of growth hormone (GH) administration. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in body fluid compartments, diurnal blood pressure and plasma renin concentration during GH administration...... of treatment a significant increase in renin (p = 0.03) was observed. Mean diurnal blood pressure levels remained unchanged, whereas mean diurnal heart rate (min-1) increased significantly (placebo, 75 +/- 3.6; 3 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.2; 6 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.7; p

  5. Three-scale model of single bone osteon modelled as double-porous fluid saturated body: Study of influence of micro/meso-structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turjanicová J.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the multiscale description of a single osteon of cortical bones. The cortical bone tissue is modeled as a double-porous medium decomposed into the solid matrix and the fluid saturated canals. The resulting homogenized model describes deformation of such medium in response to a static loading by external forces and to an injection of slightly compressible fluid. Three numerical examples are presented, showing the influence of selected lower-scales geometrical features on the macroscopic body behavior.

  6. Microstructural Rearrangements and their Rheological Implications in a Model Thixotropic Elastoviscoplastic Fluid (United States)

    Jamali, Safa; McKinley, Gareth H.; Armstrong, Robert C.


    We identify the sequence of microstructural changes that characterize the evolution of an attractive particulate gel under flow and discuss their implications on macroscopic rheology. Dissipative particle dynamics is used to monitor shear-driven evolution of a fabric tensor constructed from the ensemble spatial configuration of individual attractive constituents within the gel. By decomposing this tensor into isotropic and nonisotropic components we show that the average coordination number correlates directly with the flow curve of the shear stress versus shear rate, consistent with theoretical predictions for attractive systems. We show that the evolution in nonisotropic local particle rearrangements are primarily responsible for stress overshoots (strain-hardening) at the inception of steady shear flow and also lead, at larger times and longer scales, to microstructural localization phenomena such as shear banding flow-induced structure formation in the vorticity direction.

  7. Microstructural rearrangements and their rheological implications in a model Thixotropic Elasto-Visco-Plastic (TEVP) fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Jamali, Safa; Armstrong, Robert C


    We identify the sequence of microstructural changes that characterize the evolution of an attractive particulate gel under flow and discuss their implications on macroscopic rheology. Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is used to monitor shear-driven evolution of a fabric tensor constructed from the ensemble spatial configuration of individual attractive constituents within the gel. By decomposing this tensor into isotropic and non-isotropic components we show that the average coordination number correlates directly with the flow curve of the shear stress vs. shear rate, consistent with theoretical predictions for attractive systems. We show that the evolution in non-isotropic local particle rearrangements are primarily responsible for stress overshoots (strain-hardening) at the inception of steady shear flow and also lead, at larger times and longer scales, to microstructural localization phenomena such as shear banding flow-induced structure formation in the vorticity direction.

  8. Regime transition in electromechanical fluid atomization and implications to analyte ionization for mass spectrometric analysis. (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G


    The physical processes governing the transition from purely mechanical ejection to electromechanical ejection to electrospraying are investigated through complementary scaling analysis and optical visualization. Experimental characterization and visualization are performed with the ultrasonically-driven array of micromachined ultrasonic electrospray (AMUSE) ion source to decouple the electrical and mechanical fields. A new dimensionless parameter, the Fenn number, is introduced to define a transition between the spray regimes, in terms of its dependence on the characteristic Strouhal number for the ejection process. A fundamental relationship between the Fenn and Strouhal numbers is theoretically derived and confirmed experimentally in spraying liquid electrolytes of different ionic strength subjected to a varying magnitude electric field. This relationship and the basic understanding of the charged droplet generation physics have direct implications on the optimal ionization efficiency and mass spectrometric response for different types of analytes.

  9. Simulated body fluid and water absorption effects on poly(methyl methacrylate/hydroxyapatite denture base composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/hydroxyapatite (HA composite has potential application in denture base materials. The denture base materials should exhibit good mechanical properties and dimensional stability in moist environment. Silane coupling agent [3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy silane (γ-MPS] was used to treat the HA fillers in order to enhance the interfacial interaction between the PMMA and HA. In this research, the kinetics and effects of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF and water absorption on the flexural properties of PMMA/HA composites were studied for an immersion duration of 2 months. The mathematical treatment used in analyzing the data was the single free phase model of diffusion, which assumed Fickian diffusion and utilized Fick’s second law of diffusion. The kinetics of water absorption of the PMMA/HA composites conformed to Fickian law behavior, whereby the initial moisture absorption follows a linear relationship between the percentage gain at any time t and t1/2, followed by saturation. It was found that the equilibrium moisture content and the diffusion coefficient are depending on the concentration of γ-MPS in PMMA/5HA composites. The reduction of equilibrium moisture content of PMMA/5HA is due to the hydrophobic behavior of γ-MPS and compatibility of PMMA with HA. The retention ability in flexural modulus and strength of PMMA/HA composites upon subjected towater absorption are considerably good. The reduction of flexural strength of the PMMA/HA composites after water absorption and SBF absorption could be attributed to the plasticizing effect of water molecules.

  10. Frequency of hepatitis B immunity and occupational exposures to body fluids among Brazilian medical students at a public university. (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques de; Pontes, João Paulo Jordão


    In the present study the frequencies of immunity against hepatitis B (HB) and of potentially contaminating accidents among medical students of a Brazilian public university were evaluated. Of all the 400 students who should have been immunized, 303 (75.7%), 66.3% of whom were women, answered an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Serum anti-HBs were determined in 205 of them and titers ≥ 10 UI/L were considered to be protective. A total of 86.8% of students had received three doses of HB vaccine. The frequency of immunity among women (96.4%) was higher (p = 0.04) than that among men (87.7%). Among those who did not have immunity, 12/13 (92.3%) had been vaccinated before entering medical school. Only 11% of the students with complete vaccination had previously verified serological response to the vaccine. A total of 23.6% reported having been somehow exposed to blood or secretions. Among final-year students, this frequency was 45.0%, being similar among men (47.8%) and women (43.2%). Of all these accidents, 57.7% were due to body fluids coming in contact with mucosa and 42.3% due to cut and puncture accidents. The results from this study show that: 1) the frequency of immunity against HB is high among the evaluated medical students, although verification of response to vaccination is not a concern for them; 2) anti-HBs titers should be verified after complete vaccination and on a regular basis, especially by men; and 3) the frequency of potentially contaminating accidents is high.

  11. Occupational Exposure to Blood and Other Body Fluids Among Healthcare Workers in Three Teaching Hospitals, Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Healthcare workers (HCWs regularly face the risk of exposure to sharp injuries and splashes as an occupational hazard, which presents a major risk for acquiring blood-borne infectious agents. Objectives This study aimed to determine the occurrence of needlestick injuries (NSIs and other high-risk occupational exposures to blood and body fluids (BBFs among HCWs in three teaching hospitals affiliated with the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2013 to December 2014. Information on self-reported incidents, circumstances surrounding occupational exposure, and post-exposure management were collected from an ongoing surveillance system. Descriptive statistics and chi square tests were used for data analysis. Results A total of 236 incidents of occupational exposure were registered during the study period. Nurses (82, 34.7% were most frequently exposed to BBFs, followed by physicians (57, 24.2%. Two hundred and nineteen (92.8% of the personnel sustained NSIs, and 17 (7.2% had splashes to mucus membranes. The incidents were most frequently reported from the internal medicine ward (19.1% followed by the operating theater (17.1%. Subjects with splashes to mucus membranes were more likely to postpone seeking medical advice following exposure, as compared with needlestick cases (23.5% versus 5%, P < 0.016. A significantly greater proportion of pediatric and emergency department staff were found to delay post-exposure measures (P < 0.040. Conclusions The relatively high prevalence of percutaneous injuries and splashes in this study emphasized the importance of improved prevention strategies, better hospital surveillance for occupational exposure, and enhanced training of healthcare workers.

  12. Optimization of a Biomimetic Apatite Nanoparticle Delivery System for Non-viral Gene Transfection---a Simulated Body Fluid Approach (United States)

    Das, Debobrato

    Current methods for gene delivery utilize nanocarriers such as liposomes and viral vectors that may produce in vivo toxicity, immunogenicity, or mutagenesis. Moreover, these common high-cost systems have a low efficacy of gene-vehicle transport across the cell plasma membrane followed by inadequate release and weak intracellular stability of the genetic sequence. Thus, this study aims to maximize gene transfection while minimizing cytotoxicity by utilizing supersaturated blood-plasma ions derived from simulated body fluids (SBF). With favorable electrostatic interactions to create biocompatible calcium-phosphate nanoparticles (NPs) derived from biomimetic apatite (BA), results suggest that the SBF system, though naturally sensitive to reaction conditions, after optimization can serve as a tunable and versatile platform for the delivery of various types of nucleic acids. From a systematic exploration of the effects of nucleation pH, incubation temperature, and time on transfection efficiency, the study proposes distinct characteristic trends in SBF BA-NP morphology, cellular uptake, cell viability, and gene modulation. Specifically, with aggressive nucleation and growth of BA-NPs in solution (observed via scanning electron microscopy), the ensuing microenvironment imposes a more toxic cellular interaction (indicated by alamarBlue and BCA assays), limiting particle uptake (fluorescence experiments) and subsequent gene knockdown (quantitative loss of function assays). Controlled precipitation of BA-NPs function to increase particle accessibility by surrounding cells, and subsequently enhance uptake and transfection efficiency. By closely examining such trends, an optimal fabrication condition of pH 6.5-37C can be observed where particle growth is more tamed and less chaotic, providing improved, favorable cellular interactions that increase cell uptake and consequently maximize gene transfection, without compromising cellular viability.

  13. Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration (United States)

    Miller, Q. R.; Schaef, T.; Thompson, C.; Loring, J. S.; Windisch, C. F.; Bowden, M. E.; Arey, B. W.; McGrail, P.


    Global climate change is viewed by many as an anthropogenic phenomenon that could be mitigated through a combination of conservation efforts, alternative energy sources, and the development of technologies capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Continued increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected over the next decade, due to developing nations and growing populations. One economically favorable option for managing CO2 involves subsurface storage in deep basalt formations. The silicate minerals and glassy mesostasis basalt components act as metal cation sources, reacting with the CO2 to form carbonate minerals. Most prior work on mineral reactivity in geologic carbon sequestration settings involves only aqueous dominated reactions. However, in most sequestration scenarios, injected CO2 will reside as a buoyant fluid in contact with the sealing formation (caprock) and slowly become water bearing. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet scCO2. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) in order to gain insight into reaction processes. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by two novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the scCO2 resulted in increased carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy and indirectly with 18O isotopic labeling techniques (Raman spectroscopy). The thin water films were determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes in wet scCO2. Even in extreme low water conditions, the IR technique detected the formation of

  14. Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva: Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid. (United States)

    Esser, Diederik; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; de Vries, Marcel P; Weening, Desiree; Vonk, Roel J; Roelofsen, Han


    Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh whole saliva with and without inhibitors of proteases and bacterial metabolism followed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI) analyses. Protein composition was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) fractionation of saliva proteins followed by digestion of excised bands and identification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results show that rapid protein degradation occurs within 30 minutes after sample collection. Degradation starts already during collection. Protease inhibitors partly prevented degradation while inhibition of bacterial metabolism did not affect degradation. Three stable degradation products of 2937 Da, 3370 Da and 4132 Da were discovered which can be used as markers to monitor sample quality. Saliva proteome analyses revealed 218 proteins of which 84 can also be found in blood plasma. Based on a comparison with seven other proteomics studies on whole saliva we identified 83 new saliva proteins. We conclude that saliva is a promising diagnostic fluid when precautions are taken towards protein breakdown.

  15. Along-Fault Deformation Partitioning of NW Haiti:Implication on Fluid Transfer (United States)

    Ellouz, N.; Hamon, Y.; Deschamps, R.; Schmitz, J.; Battani, A.; Leroy, S. D.; Monplaisir, R.; Ruffine, L.


    The area of Western Haiti located in between two major fault systems, the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF) and Ciabao-Oriente Septentrional fault system has been surveyed during the 2012 and 2013 Haiti-SIS cruises. From seismic interpretation and mapping the two bordering transform faults systems, EPGF (to the South) and Oriente-Septentrional (to the North), we document the deformation partitioning and the fault segmentation at different scales. A common tectonic evolution has been registered in S. Eastern Cuba and Western Hispaniola (Haiti area), up to early Miocene times. From the effective Hispaniola-Cuba separation at Oligocene/Miocene transition times, left lateral strike-slip motion was registered along large crustal faults cross-cutting different domains versus time. Rooted on these crustal/lithospheric discontinuties tectonic stress is also released on secondary fault systems where both deep and basin, even meteoric fluids may migrate. Sedimentation processes and sequence deposition have been also analyzed both offshore and onshore in the same area showing the strong tectonic-sedimentation processes interaction. A tentative calendar of this deformation, coupled with Present-Day evaluation of the draining areas along Septentrional fault, Transhaitian Ranges and Gonave Bay will be presented on regional seismic profiles and cross-sections.

  16. Monodispersed magnetite nanoparticles optimized for magnetic fluid hyperthermia: Implications in biological systems (United States)

    Khandhar, Amit P.; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Krishnan, Kannan M.


    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs) are suitable materials for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH), provided their size is carefully tailored to the applied alternating magnetic field (AMF) frequency. Since aqueous synthesis routes produce polydisperse MNPs that are not tailored for any specific AMF frequency, we have developed a comprehensive protocol for synthesizing highly monodispersed MNPs in organic solvents, specifically tailored for our field conditions (f = 376 kHz, H0 = 13.4 kA/m) and subsequently transferred them to water using a biocompatible amphiphilic polymer. These MNPs (σavg. = 0.175) show truly size-dependent heating rates, indicated by a sharp peak in the specific loss power (SLP, W/g Fe3O4) for 16 nm (diameter) particles. For broader size distributions (σavg. = 0.266), we observe a 30% drop in overall SLP. Furthermore, heating measurements in biological medium [Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum] show a significant drop for SLP (˜30% reduction in 16 nm MNPs). Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements show particle hydrodynamic size increases over time once dispersed in DMEM, indicating particle agglomeration. Since the effective magnetic relaxation time of MNPs is determined by fractional contribution of the Neel (independent of hydrodynamic size) and Brownian (dependent on hydrodynamic size) components, we conclude that agglomeration in biological medium modifies the Brownian contribution and thus the net heating capacity of MNPs.

  17. Structural control on uranium mineralization in South China: Implications for fluid flow in continental strike-slip faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jianwei(李建威); ZHOU; Meifu(周美夫); LI; Xianfu(李先福); FU; Zhaoren(傅昭仁); LI; Zijin(李紫金)


    South China is the most important uranium producer in the country. Much of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geology of this area was dominated by NNE-trending intracontinental strike-slip faulting that resulted from oblique subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate underneath the eastern China continent. This strike-slip fault system was characterized by transpression in the early-mid Jurassic and by transtension from the latest Jurassic through Cretaceous to early Tertiary. Most uranium ore deposits in South China are strictly fault-hosted and associated with mid-late Mesozoic granitic intrusions and volcanic rocks, which formed under transpression and transtension regimes, respectively. Various data demonstrate that the NNE-trending strike-slip faults have played critical roles in the formation and distribution of hydrothermal uranium deposits. Extensive geochronological studies show that a majority of uranium deposits in South China formed during the time period of 140-40 Ma with peak ages between 87-48 Ma, coinciding well with the time interval of transtension. However, hydrothermal uranium deposits are not uniformly distributed along individual strike-slip fault. The most important ore-hosting segments are pull-apart stepovers, splay structures, extensional strike-slip duplexes, releasing bends and fault intersections. This non-uniform distribution of ore occurrences in individual fault zone reflects localization of hydrothermal fluids within those segments that were highly dilational and thus extremely permeable. The unique geometric patterns and structural styles of strike-slip faults may have facilitated mixing of deeply derived and near-surface fluids, as evidenced by stable isotopic data from many uranium deposits in South China. The identification of fault segments favorable for uranium mineralization in South China is important for understanding the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits within continental strike-slip faults, and therefore has great implications for

  18. Early impact event and fluid activity on H chondrite parent body registered in the Pułtusk meteorite (United States)

    Krzesinska, Agata


    in the mineral, forming complex, patchy compositional zoning. Formation of vein-like metal accumulations in the Pułtusk requires impact activity, since under static conditions metal would have formed isolated patches or globules, rather than veins. The impact event must have affected warm parent body in its early evolution, what resulted in slow cooling. Association of phosphate minerals with metal accumulations suggests that they were also formed in response to impact activity. The most likely source of phosphorous to form merrillite was oxidation of P from metal alloys. Merrillite was magmatic rather than metamorphic in origin, whereas apatite overgrowing it was probably formed by interaction between merrillite and a halogen-rich residual fluid or vapor derived from an impact melt. References: [1] Ciesla F.J. et al., 2013. MaPS 48: 2559-2576. [2] Swindle T.D. et al., 2009. MaPS 44: 747-762. [3] Wittmann A. et al., 2010. JGR 115: E07009. [4] Ruzicka A. et al., 2005. MaPS 40: 261-295. [5] Ruzicka A., 2014. Chem der Erde 74: 3-48. [6] Krzesińska A., 2011. Meteorites 1: 3-12.

  19. Subaqueous shrinkage cracks in the Sheepbed mudstone: Implications for early fluid diagenesis, Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Siebach, K. L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Kah, L. C.; Stack, K. M.; Malin, M.; Léveillé, R.; Sumner, D. Y.


    The Sheepbed mudstone, Yellowknife Bay formation, Gale crater, represents an ancient lakebed now exhumed and exposed on the Martian surface. The mudstone has four diagenetic textures, including a suite of early diagenetic nodules, hollow nodules, and raised ridges and later diagenetic light-toned veins that crosscut those features. In this study, we describe the distribution and characteristics of the raised ridges, a network of short spindle-shaped cracks that crosscut bedding, do not form polygonal networks, and contain two to four layers of isopachous, erosion-resistant cement. The cracks have a clustered distribution within the Sheepbed member and transition laterally into concentrations of nodules and hollow nodules, suggesting that these features formed penecontemporaneously. Because of the erosion-resistant nature of the crack fills, their three-dimensional structure can be observed. Cracks that transition from subvertical to subhorizontal orientations suggest that the cracks formed within the sediment rather than at the surface. This observation and comparison to terrestrial analogs indicate that these are syneresis cracks—cracks that formed subaqueously. Syneresis cracks form by salinity changes that cause sediment contraction, mechanical shaking of sediment, or gas production within the sediment. Examination of diagenetic features within the Sheepbed mudstone favors a gas production mechanism, which has been shown to create a variety of diagenetic morphologies comparable to the raised ridges and hollow nodules. The crack morphology and the isopachous, layered cement fill show that the cracks were filled in the phreatic zone and that the Sheepbed mudstone remained fluid saturated after deposition and through early burial and lithification.

  20. Lemna minor tolerance to metal-working fluid residues: implications for rhizoremediation. (United States)

    Grijalbo, L; Becerril, J M; Barrutia, O; Gutierrez-Mañero, J; Lucas Garcia, J A


    For the first time in the literature, duckweed (Lemna minor) tolerance (alone or in combination with a consortium of bacteria) to spent metal-working fluid (MWF) was assessed, together with its capacity to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of this residue. In a preliminary study, L. minor response to pre-treated MWF residue (ptMWF) and vacuum-distilled MWF water (MWFw) was tested. Plants were able to grow in both residues at different COD levels tested (up to 2300 mg·l(-1) ), showing few toxicity symptoms (mainly growth inhibition). Plant response to MWFw was more regular and dose responsive than when exposed to ptMWF. Moreover, COD reduction was less significant in ptMWF. Thus, based on these preliminary results, a second study was conducted using MWFw to test the effectiveness of inoculation with a bacterial consortium isolated from a membrane bioreactor fed with the same residue. After 5 days of exposure, COD in solutions containing inoculated plants was significantly lower than in non-inoculated ones. Moreover, inoculation reduced β+γ-tocopherol levels in MWFw-exposed plants, suggesting pollutant imposed stress was reduced. We therefore conclude from that L. minor is highly tolerant to spent MWF residues and that this species can be very useful, together with the appropriate bacterial consortium, in reducing COD of this residue under local legislation limits and thus minimise its potential environmental impact. Interestingly, the lipophilic antioxidant tocopherol (especially the sum of β+γ isomers) proved to be an effective plant biomarker of pollution.

  1. Two-Dimensional Self-Propelled Fish Motion in Medium:An Integrated Method for Deforming Body Dynamics and Unsteady Fluid Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; Wu Guan-Hao; YU Yong-Liang; TONG Bing-Gang


    We present(1)the dynamical equations of deforming body and(2)an integrated method for deforming body dynamics and unsteady fluid dynamics,to investigate a modelled freely serf-propelled fish.The theoretical model and practical method is applicable for studies on the general mechanics of animal locomotion such as flying in air and swimming in water,particularly of free self-propulsion.The present results behave more credibly than the previous numerical studies and are close to the experimental results,and the aligned vortices pattern is discovered in cruising swimming.

  2. Development of highly sensitive and specific mRNA multiplex system (XCYR1) for forensic human body fluids and tissues identification. (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Xie, Jianhui; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Huaigu; Ping, Yuan; Chen, Liankang; Gu, Lihua; Hu, Wei; Bi, Gang; Ge, Jianye; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Ziqin


    The identification of human body fluids or tissues through mRNA-based profiling is very useful for forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown mRNA biomarkers are effective to identify the origin of biological samples. In this study, we selected 16 tissue specific biomarkers to evaluate their specificities and sensitivities for human body fluids and tissues identification, including porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), hemoglobin beta (HBB) and Glycophorin A (GLY) for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4) and human beta defensin 1(HBD1) for vaginal secretion, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 11 (MMP7 and MMP11) for menstrual blood, keratin 4(KRT4) for oral mucosa, loricrin (LOR) and cystatin 6 (CST6) for skin, histatin 3(HTN3) for saliva, statherin (STATH) for nasal secretion, dermcidin (DCD) for sweat and uromodulin (UMOD) for urine. The above mentioned ten common forensic body fluids or tissues were used in the evaluation. Based on the evaluation, a reverse transcription (RT) PCR multiplex assay, XCYR1, which includes 12 biomarkers (i.e., HBB, GLY, HTN3, PRM2, KRT4, MMP11, MUC4, DCD, UMOD, MMP7, TGM4, and STATH) and 2 housekeeping genes [i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and 18SrRNA], was developed. This assay was further validated with real casework samples and mock samples (with both single source and mixture) and it was approved that XCYR1 is effective to identify common body fluids or tissues (i.e., circulatory blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood, oral mucosa, nasal secretion, sweat and urine) in forensic casework samples.

  3. Host mediators in gingival crevicular fluid: implications for the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. (United States)

    Lamster, I B; Novak, M J


    During the past few years, a considerable number of studies have examined different aspects of the host response in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), including the relationship of specific markers to the active phases of periodontal disease. Various indicators of the acute inflammatory response (the lysosomal enzymes beta-glucuronidase and collagenase, the cytoplasmic enzyme aspartate aminotransferase, and the arachidonic acid metabolite PGE2) have been shown to be associated with clinical attachment loss in chronic adult periodontitis in man and experimental periodontitis in animal models. In contrast, the relationship of indicators of the humoral immune response in GCF to active periodontal disease is equivocal. Furthermore, a number of indicators of the cellular immune response have been identified recently in GCF (i.e., Interleukin-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), but their relationship to active phases of periodontal disease have not been studied. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) is the cellular hallmark of acute inflammation. Evidence from the GCF studies suggests that hyperreactivity of these cells plays a critical role in the active phases of some forms of periodontal disease. Metabolic activation of PMN can be associated with a number of potentially destructive reactions. The major effector mechanism for tissue destruction that can be specifically identified with the PMN is the synergistic effect of the release of PMN proteases and the generation of reactive oxygen metabolites by these cells. Priming of the PMN, where the PMN response is enhanced by agents that do not initiate the response, may be an important mechanism for PMN activation in the crevicular environment; for example, cytokines such as IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, and lipopolysaccharides released from subgingival Gram-negative bacteria, can serve this function. The hypothesis proposed here argues that in addition to the severe forms of periodontal disease that have been

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid glucose and lactate: age-specific reference values and implications for clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmina G Leen

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis is an important tool in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological disorders, but reference ranges for CSF glucose, CSF/plasma glucose ratio and CSF lactate based on studies with large numbers of CSF samples are not available. Our aim was to define age-specific reference values. In 1993 The Nijmegen Observational CSF Study was started. Results of all CSF samples that were analyzed between 1993 and 2008 at our laboratory were systematically collected and stored in our computerized database. After exclusion of CSF samples with an unknown or elevated erythrocyte count, an elevated leucocyte count, elevated concentrations of bilirubin, free hemoglobin, or total protein 9,036 CSF samples were further studied for CSF glucose (n = 8,871, CSF/plasma glucose ratio (n = 4,516 and CSF lactate values (n = 7,614. CSF glucose, CSF/plasma glucose ratio and CSF lactate were age-, but not sex dependent. Age-specific reference ranges were defined as 5-95(th percentile ranges. CSF glucose 5(th percentile values ranged from 1.8 to 2.9 mmol/L and 95(th percentile values from 3.8 to 5.6 mmol/L. CSF/plasma glucose ratio 5(th percentile values ranged from 0.41 to 0.53 and 95(th percentile values from 0.82 to 1.19. CSF lactate 5(th percentile values ranged from 0.88 to 1.41 mmol/L and 95(th percentile values from 2.00 to 2.71 mmol/L. Reference ranges for all three parameters were widest in neonates and narrowest in toddlers, with lower and upper limits increasing with age. These reference values allow a reliable interpretation of CSF results in everyday clinical practice. Furthermore, hypoglycemia was associated with an increased CSF/plasma glucose ratio, whereas hyperglycemia did not affect the CSF/plasma glucose ratio.

  5. Ca-carbonate in the Orgueil (CI) carbonaceous chondrite: Mineralogy, microstructure and implications for parent body history (United States)

    Lee, Martin R.; Nicholson, Kirsty


    The Orgueil CI carbonaceous chondrite is a breccia and some of its constituent clasts contain Ca-carbonate grains whose mineralogy is undetermined, but may yield new information on the history of its asteroidal or cometary parent body. Characterisation of one such clast shows that in addition to Ca-carbonate it contains magnetite, olivine and orthopyroxene grains that are supported within a finely crystalline saponite-serpentine-ferrihydrite groundmass. The Ca-carbonate grains are typically rounded, less than 10 μm in diameter, and backscatter Kikuchi patterns identify all those analysed as calcite. Electron backscatter diffraction orientation contrast maps show that most calcites have sub-μm sized e-twins, some of which are cut by corroded grain margins. These microstructures demonstrate that the clast experienced very mild shock during aqueous alteration and probably accompanying impact 'gardening' of the parent body regolith. The sample studied hosts several other millimeter sized clasts and a fine grained clastic matrix that are free of Ca-carbonate, olivine and orthopyroxene although can contain apatite, dolomite and pyrrhotite. Within one of these clasts is a network of phyllosilicate-magnetite veins that are inferred to have acted as fluid flow conduits during parent body aqueous alteration. Sulphur-rich reaction rims within the same clast are likely to have formed during post-fall remobilization and crystallization of pre-terrestrial sulphates. This study provides good evidence for alteration of the CI carbonaceous chondrites in a dynamic parent body regolith.

  6. Fluid retention associated with imatinib treatment in patients with gastroenterol stromal: Quantitative radiologic assessment and implications for management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Shinagare, Atul B.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Ramaiya, Nikihil H. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Pyo, Jun Hee [The Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston (United States)


    We aimed to describe radiologic signs and time-course of imatinib-associated fluid retention (FR) in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and its implications for management. In this Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study of 403 patients with GIST treated with imatinib, 15 patients with imaging findings of FR were identified by screening radiology reports, followed by manual confirmation. Subcutaneous edema, ascites, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion were graded on a four-point scale on CT scans; total score was the sum of these four scores. The most common radiologic sign of FR was subcutaneous edema (15/15, 100%), followed by ascites (12/15, 80%), pleural effusion (11/15, 73%), and pericardial effusion (6/15, 40%) at the time of maximum FR. Two distinct types of FR were observed: 1) acute/progressive FR, characterized by acute aggravation of FR and rapid improvement after management, 2) intermittent/steady FR, characterized by occasional or persistent mild FR. Acute/progressive FR always occurred early after drug initiation/dose escalation (median 1.9 month, range 0.3-4.0 months), while intermittent/steady FR occurred at any time. Compared to intermittent/steady FR, acute/progressive FR was severe (median score, 5 vs. 2.5, p = 0.002), and often required drug-cessation/dose-reduction. Two distinct types (acute/progressive and intermittent/steady FR) of imatinib-associated FR are observed and each type requires different management.

  7. Self-compassion in the face of shame and body image dissatisfaction: implications for eating disorders. (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Cristiana


    The current study examines the role of self-compassion in face of shame and body image dissatisfaction, in 102 female eating disorders' patients, and 123 women from general population. Self-compassion was negatively associated with external shame, general psychopathology, and eating disorders' symptomatology. In women from the general population increased external shame predicted drive for thinness partially through lower self-compassion; also, body image dissatisfaction directly predicted drive for thinness. However, in the patients' sample increased shame and body image dissatisfaction predicted increased drive for thinness through decreased self-compassion. These results highlight the importance of the affiliative emotion dimensions of self-compassion in face of external shame, body image dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, emphasising the relevance of cultivating a self-compassionate relationship in eating disorders' patients.

  8. The production of knowledge related to body and beauty: implications for physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liege Monique Filgueiras da Silva


    Full Text Available The text it is a part of a research Masters, held at the Graduate Program in Education of UFRN. To this end, we considered the relationship between the meanings of body and beauty products analyzed and identified in the models of beauty in Physical Education. This research is qualitative in nature, and content analysis for data processing. The corpus of analysis consisted of eight papers in the area of Physical Education, published in the Bank of Capes Thesis from 2004 to 2008, selected from the subject body and beauty. It was observed that the understanding of body and beauty in the area has been re-signified, which represents the development that has occurred in the tract of the body of knowledge and beauty.

  9. Mind-body therapies: evidence and implications in advanced oncology practice. (United States)

    Mayden, Kelley D


    The idea that thoughts and emotions influence health outcomes is an ancient concept that was initially abandoned by Western medicine researchers. Today, researchers are showing a renewed interest in the interactions of the mind and body and the role these interactions play in disease formation and recovery. Complementary and alternative interventions, such as mind-body therapies, are increasingly being used by cancer survivors for disease prevention, immune system enhancement, and symptom control. Traditional training has not been structured to provide advanced practitioners with an in-depth knowledge of the clinical applications of mind-body therapies. The aim of this article is to acquaint the reader with common mind-body modalities (meditation/mindfulness-based stress reduction, relaxation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, hypnosis, biofeedback, music therapy, art therapy, support groups, and aromatherapy) and to examine important evidence in support of or against their clinical application.

  10. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution. (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R


    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

  11. Micro-topography and reactivity of implant surfaces: an in vitro study in simulated body fluid (SBF). (United States)

    Gandolfi, M G; Taddei, P; Siboni, F; Perrotti, V; Iezzi, G; Piattelli, A; Prati, C


    The creation of micro-textured dental implant surfaces possessing a stimulating activity represents a challenge in implant dentistry; particularly, the formation of a thin, biologically active, calcium-phosphate layer on their surface could help to strengthen the bond to the surrounding bone. The aim of the present study was to characterize in terms of macrostructure, micro-topography and reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), the surface of titanium (Ti) implants blasted with TiO2 particles, acid etched with hydrofluoric acid, and activated with Ca and Mg-containing nanoparticles. Sandblasted and acid-etched implants were analyzed by ESEM-EDX (environmental scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray system) to study the micromorphology of the surface and to perform elemental X-ray microanalysis (microchemical analyses) and element mapping. ESEM-EDX analyses were performed at time 0 and after a 28-day soaking period in SBF Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) following ISO 23317 (implants for surgery—in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of implant materials). Microchemical analyses (weight % and atomic %) and element mapping were carried out to evaluate the relative element content, element distribution, and calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) atomic ratio. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the possible presence of impurities due to manufacturing and to investigate the phases formed upon HBSS soaking. Micro-morphological analyses showed a micro-textured, highly rough surface with microgrooves. Microchemical analyses showed compositional differences among the apical, middle, and distal thirds. The micro-Raman analyses of the as-received implant showed the presence of amorphous Ti oxide and traces of anatase, calcite, and a carbonaceous material derived from the decomposition of an organic component of lipidic nature (presumably used as lubricant). A uniform layer of Ca-poor calcium phosphates (CaPs) (Ca/P ratio <1.47) was observed after

  12. New body mass estimates of British Pleistocene wolves: Palaeoenvironmental implications and competitive interactions (United States)

    Flower, L. O. H.


    Body mass was reconstructed for early Middle Pleistocene Canis mosbachensis and late Middle to Late Pleistocene Canis lupus from key assemblages in Britain, to explore the presence of temporal size variability and whether size fluctuations were related to changes in climate and environment or to differences in Pleistocene carnivore community structure. Using the well-known body mass predictor of lower carnassial (m1) tooth length, combined with an extant canid dataset incorporating 25 species, least squares regression was used to assess allometric scaling prior to modelling the relationship between body mass and m1 length, producing a new predictive equation of Pleistocene canid body mass. The medium-sized C. mosbachensis had relatively stable body mass, with remarkable consistency in size compared to populations in the late Early Pleistocene of Europe. Periodical fluctuations in climatic conditions had a minimal effect on C. mosbachensis size over time, with the terrestrial connection between Britain and mainland Europe at this time key in promoting body mass stability by enabling movement away from less favourable conditions and to follow prey into refugia. Overall changes in carnivore guild structure were of minimal influence to C. mosbachensis in Britain, as the continued predominance of larger carnivores, in particular a larger canid, effectively constrained C. mosbachensis. In contrast, the body mass of larger-sized C. lupus was highly temporally varied, with an increasing size trend evident into the Devensian. Similar body size in the penultimate interglacial (MIS 7) and Middle Devensian (MIS 3) populations likely reflects palaeoenvironmental similarity and comparable carnivore community and prey spectrums, with larger predators effectively constraining C. lupus. However, the severely cold conditions of the Early Devensian (MIS 5a) may have caused a Bergmannian response in wolves, leading to their comparatively much larger size, with C. lupus further

  13. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme (United States)

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig


    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  14. The media's impact on body image: Implications for prevention and treatment


    Shaw, J.; Waller, G.


    Recent research has demonstrated that media images of “ideal” female models have an impact upon women's body image, leading to dissatisfaction and perceptual distortion. The evidence for this link between media presentation and body image distortion is reviewed, and theoretical models are advanced to explain the link. In particular, women's use of social comparison in establishing their self-concept seems to be an important psychological construct in understanding the impact of the media upon...

  15. Considering the effect of stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis of blood and saliva specific microRNA markers upon mixed body fluid stains. (United States)

    Uchimoto, Mari L; Beasley, Emma; Coult, Natalie; Omelia, Emma J; World, Damian; Williams, Graham


    Forensic RNA analysis is gathering pace with reports of messenger RNA analysis being used in case work, and with microRNA being increasingly researched. Such techniques address a fundamental issue in body fluid identification, namely increased specificity over existing chemical tests, and the incorporation of additional body fluids such as vaginal material. The use of RNA analysis will be of particular value to sex offences, where there can be a mixture of multiple body fluids from different people. The aim of this study was to determine whether microRNA based body fluid identification tests can be applied to mixed body fluid samples. Blood and saliva were acquired from volunteers and underwent total RNA extraction. Mixed samples were prepared using a range of ratios from 1:1 to 10:1. Each mixed sample then underwent a blood-saliva differentiation test developed in-house, which includes stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis. Aliquots following mixture preparation also underwent standard STR analysis, utilising Quantiplex and Next Generation Multiplex kits. Data relating to the development of an in-house blood-saliva differentiation test is presented, in which it has been demonstrated that such a test has a lower limit of detection than the enzymatic equivalent. It has been shown that not only is it possible to determine the presence of more than one body fluid, it is also possible to determine the major body fluid contributor as well as the minor contributor.

  16. Fluid and diet patterns associated with weight cycling and changes in body composition assessed by continuous monitoring throughout a college wrestling season. (United States)

    Lingor, Ryan J; Olson, Amy


    This study examined the methods used to meet certification weight for wrestling and to measure the changes in body composition during 1 season for Division III college wrestlers. Nine college wrestlers completed this study. Body composition was analyzed by underwater weighing (UWW) and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance before and throughout the competitive season. Hydration status was measured by urine osmolality (Uosm) and urine specific gravity (Usg). Nutritional intake was measured for 2 1-week periods, once at the beginning and again near the end of the season. Subjects' fat-free mass (FFM) increased an average of 1.8 kg, whereas fat mass (FM) decreased 2.2 kg as indicated by UWW from the beginning to the end of the season. Wrestlers on average cycled their weight 3.4 kg (4.7% of body weight) per week. The majority of wrestlers cut weight by reducing calories and restricting fluids starting 2 days before the competition. Uosm and body weights on Friday suggested that for wrestlers to achieve the necessary weight loss by dehydration to "make weight" for a Saturday meet, wrestlers would approach a 5% level of dehydration. No loss of FFM because of weight cycling (WC) was evident to achieve competitive weight. Most wrestlers significantly restricted fluids and caloric intake in the 48 hours before weigh-in.

  17. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation. (United States)

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D


    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight.

  18. A moving-least-squares immersed boundary method for simulating the fluid-structure interaction of elastic bodies with arbitrary thickness (United States)

    de Tullio, M. D.; Pascazio, G.


    A versatile numerical method is presented to predict the fluid-structure interaction of bodies with arbitrary thickness immersed in an incompressible fluid, with the aim of simulating different biological engineering applications. A direct-forcing immersed boundary method is adopted, based on a moving-least-squares approach to reconstruct the solution in the vicinity of the immersed surface. A simple spring-network model is considered for describing the dynamics of deformable structures, so as to easily model and simulate different biological systems that not always may be described by simple continuum models, without affecting the computational time and simplicity of the overall method. The fluid and structures are coupled in a strong way, in order to avoid instabilities related to large accelerations of the bodies. The effectiveness of the method is validated by means of several test cases involving: rigid bodies, either falling in a quiescent fluid, fluttering or tumbling, or transported by a shear flow; infinitely thin elastic structures with mass, such as a two-dimensional flexible filament and, concerning three-dimensional cases, a flapping flag and an inverted flag in a free stream; finally, a three-dimensional model of a bio-prosthetic aortic valve opening and closing under a pulsatile flowrate. A very good agreement is obtained in all the cases, comparing with available experimental data and numerical results obtained by different methods. In particular, the method is shown to be second-order accurate by means of a mesh-refinement study. Moreover, it is able to provide results comparable with those of sharp direct-forcing approaches, and can manage high pressure differences across the surface, still obtaining very smooth hydrodynamic forces.

  19. Describing the motion of a body with an elliptical cross section in a viscous uncompressible fluid by model equations reconstructed from data processing (United States)

    Borisov, A. V.; Kuznetsov, S. P.; Mamaev, I. S.; Tenenev, V. A.


    From analysis of time series obtained on the numerical solution of a plane problem on the motion of a body with an elliptic cross section under the action of gravity force in an incompressible viscous fluid, a system of ordinary differential equations approximately describing the dynamics of the body is reconstructed. To this end, coefficients responsible for the added mass, the force caused by the circulation of the velocity field, and the resisting force are found by the least square adjustment. The agreement between the finitedimensional description and the simulation on the basis of the Navier-Stokes equations is illustrated by images of attractors in regular and chaotic modes. The coefficients found make it possible to estimate the actual contribution of different effects to the dynamics of the body.

  20. Fatty acids and small organic compounds bind to mineralo-organic nanoparticles derived from human body fluids as revealed by metabolomic analysis. (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Young, John D


    Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a "protein corona" that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an "organic corona" containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body.

  1. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A


    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  2. Fluid inclusions and biomarkers in the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district; implications for the fluid-flow and thermal history of the Illinois Basin (United States)

    Rowan, E. Lanier; Goldhaber, Martin B.


    The Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district is hosted by Ordovician carbonate rocks at the northern margin of the Illinois Basin. Fluid inclusion temperature measurements on Early Permian sphalerite ore from the district are predominantly between 90?C and I50?C. These temperatures are greater than can be explained by their reconstructed burial depth, which was a maximum of approximately 1 km at the time of mineralization. In contrast to the temperatures of mineral formation derived from fluid inclusions, biomarker maturities in the Upper Mississippi Valley district give an estimate of total thermal exposure integrated over time. Temperatures from fluid inclusions trapped during ore genesis with biomarker maturities were combined to construct an estimate of the district's overall thermal history and, by inference, the late Paleozoic thermal and hydrologic history of the Illinois Basin. Circulation of groundwater through regional aquifers, given sufficient flow rates, can redistribute heat from deep in a sedimentary basin to its shallower margins. Evidence for regional-scale circulation of fluids is provided by paleomagnetic studies, regionally correlated zoned dolomite, fluid inclusions, and thermal maturity of organic matter. Evidence for igneous acti vity contemporaneous with mineralization in the vicinity of the Upper Mississippi Valley district is absent. Regional fluid and heat circulation is the most likely explanation for the elevated fluid inclusion temperatures (relative to maximum estimated burial depth) in the Upper Mississippi Valley district. One plausible driving mechanism and flow path for the ore-forming fluids is groundwater recharge in the late Paleozoic Appalachian-Ouachita mountain belt and northward flow through the Reelfoot rift and the proto- Illinois Basin to the Upper Mississippi Valley district. Warm fluid flowing laterally through Cambrian and Ordovician aquifers would then move vertically upward through the fractures that control

  3. Body cooling and its energetic implications for feeding and diving of tufted ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, JJ; Butler, PJ; Woakes, AJ; Zegwaard, F


    Wintering in a temperate climate with low water temperatures is energetically expensive for diving ducks. The energy costs associated with body cooling due to diving and ingesting large amounts of cold food were measured in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) feeding on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorph

  4. Lifespan, growth rate, and body size across latitude in marine Bivalvia, with implications for Phanerozoic evolution. (United States)

    Moss, David K; Ivany, Linda C; Judd, Emily J; Cummings, Patrick W; Bearden, Claire E; Kim, Woo-Jun; Artruc, Emily G; Driscoll, Jeremy R


    Mean body size in marine animals has increased more than 100-fold since the Cambrian, a discovery that brings to attention the key life-history parameters of lifespan and growth rate that ultimately determine size. Variation in these parameters is not well understood on the planet today, much less in deep time. Here, we present a new global database of maximum reported lifespan and shell growth coupled with body size data for 1 148 populations of marine bivalves and show that (i) lifespan increases, and growth rate decreases, with latitude, both across the group as a whole and within well-sampled species, (ii) growth rate, and hence metabolic rate, correlates inversely with lifespan, and (iii) opposing trends in lifespan and growth combined with high variance obviate any demonstrable pattern in body size with latitude. Our observations suggest that the proposed increase in metabolic activity and demonstrated increase in body size of organisms over the Phanerozoic should be accompanied by a concomitant shift towards faster growth and/or shorter lifespan in marine bivalves. This prediction, testable from the fossil record, may help to explain one of the more fundamental patterns in the evolutionary and ecological history of animal life on this planet.

  5. Effect of successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity on body temperature and cerebrospinal fluid-related index in suppurative meningitis model dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Liu; Guohou He; Yuanyuan Wang; Xueqiang Chen; Qibin Wang


    BACKGROUND: At present, suppurative meningitis is mainly treated through anti-infection with antibiotics, depressing encephalic pressure with mannitol , lowering body temperature with drugs, supporting treatment,etc. However, it takes a long course of treatment and has poor therapeutic effect. Successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity maybe have better effect on suppurative meningitis.OBJECTIVE: We compared the successive irrigation of subbarachnoid cavity with routine therapeutic methods to observe the effect of successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity on the body temperature, cerebrospinal fluid pressure, the number of white blood cell and the level of protein of suppurative meningitis dogs.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Institute of Neuroscience, Taihe Hospital Affiliated to Yunyang Medical College.MATERIALS: Totally 17 healthy adult male Beagle dogs, of common grade, weighing 9 to 10 kg, were involved in the experiment, and raised in the 20 ℃ temperature with relative humidity of 50% for 1 week.They were randomized into 3 groups: normal group (n=5), control group (n=5) and irrigation group (n=6).Artificial cerebrospinal fluid was prepared according to the level of glucose and chloride of cerebrospinal fluid of normal dogs, and then it was sterilized with high pressure.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the experimental animal center of Yunyang Medical College from April to August 2001.① After the dogs were anesthetized,1 mL fresh staphylococcus aureus liquid [(1.5-1.6) ×109 L-1] was injected into medullary cistern to establish suppurative meningitis models.② After models were successfully established, intravenous drip infusion of 1.2 ×106 U/(kg.d), muscular injection of sulday were performed in the control group. The irrigation of subarachnoid meningitis was conducted in the irrigation group besides the routine treatments in the control group: Artificial cerebrospinal fluid was successively injected into

  6. Decrepitation Thermometry and Compositions of Fluid Inclusions of the Damoqujia Gold Deposit,Jiaodong Gold Province,China:Implications for Metallogeny and Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liqiang; Deng Jun; Zhang Jing; Guo Chunying; Gao Bangfei; Gong Qingjie; Wang Qingfei; Jiang Shaoqing; Yu Haijun


    The recently discovered Damoqujia (大磨曲家) gold deposit is a large shear zone-hosted gold deposit of disseminated sulphides located in the north of the Zhaoping (招平) fault zone, Jiaodong (胶东) gold province, China. In order to distinguish the temperature range of cluster inclusions from different mineralization stages and measure their compositions, 16 fluid inclusions and 5 isotopic geochemistry samples were collected for this study. Corresponding to different mineralization stages, the multirange peaks of quartz decrepitation temperature (250-270, 310-360 and 380-430℃(2) indicate that the activity of ore-forming fluids is characterized by multistage. The ore-forming fluids were predominantly of high-temperature fluid system (HTFS) by CO2-rich, and SO2-4-K+ type magmatic fluid during the early stage of mineralization and were subsequently affected by low-temperature fluid system (LTFS) of CH4-rich, and Cl--Na+/Ca2+ type meteoric fluid during the late stage of mineralization. Gold is transferred by Au-HS- complex in the HTFS, and Au-Cl- complex can be more important in the LTFS. The transition of fluids from deeper to shallow environments results in mixing between the HTFS and LTFS, which might be one of the most key reasons for gold precipitation and large-scale mineralization. The ore-forming fluids are characterized by high-temperature, strong-activity, and superimposed mineralization, so that there is a great probability of forming large and rich ore deposit in the Damoqujia gold deposit. The main bodies are preserved and extend toward deeper parts, thereby suggesting a great potential in future.

  7. Fluid Retention Associated with Imatinib Treatment in Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Quantitative Radiologic Assessment and Implications for Management (United States)

    Shinagare, Atul B.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Pyo, Junhee; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Ramaiya, Nikhil H.


    Objective We aimed to describe radiologic signs and time-course of imatinib-associated fluid retention (FR) in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and its implications for management. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study of 403 patients with GIST treated with imatinib, 15 patients with imaging findings of FR were identified by screening radiology reports, followed by manual confirmation. Subcutaneous edema, ascites, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion were graded on a four-point scale on CT scans; total score was the sum of these four scores. Results The most common radiologic sign of FR was subcutaneous edema (15/15, 100%), followed by ascites (12/15, 80%), pleural effusion (11/15, 73%), and pericardial effusion (6/15, 40%) at the time of maximum FR. Two distinct types of FR were observed: 1) acute/progressive FR, characterized by acute aggravation of FR and rapid improvement after management, 2) intermittent/steady FR, characterized by occasional or persistent mild FR. Acute/progressive FR always occurred early after drug initiation/dose escalation (median 1.9 month, range 0.3-4.0 months), while intermittent/steady FR occurred at any time. Compared to intermittent/steady FR, acute/progressive FR was severe (median score, 5 vs. 2.5, p = 0.002), and often required drug-cessation/dose-reduction. Conclusion Two distinct types (acute/progressive and intermittent/steady FR) of imatinib-associated FR are observed and each type requires different management. PMID:25741192

  8. Clinical implications of sulcal enhancement on postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images in patients with acute stroke symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyuk Joon; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byoung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) without diffusion abnormalities is occasionally found in patients with an acute stroke. This study was to determine the prevalence and clinical implications of HARM without diffusion abnormalities. There was a retrospective review of magnetic resonance images 578 patients with acute strokes and identified those who did not have acute infarction lesions, as mapped by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). These patients were classified into an imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups, based on the DWI findings and postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission, 1 day, and 7 days after the event, as well as clinical data and risk factors, were compared between the imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups. Seventy-seven acute stroke patients without any DWI abnormalities were found. There were 63 patients with an imaging-negative stroke (accounting for 10.9% of 578) and 13 patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities (accounting for 2.4% of 578). The NIHSS scores at admission were higher in HARM without diffusion abnormalities group than in the imaging-negative stroke group (median, 4.5 vs. 1.0; p < 0.001), but the scores at 7 days after the event were not significantly different between the two groups (median, 0 vs. 0; p = 1). The patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities were significantly older, compared with patients with an imaging-negative stroke (mean, 73.1 years vs. 55.9 years; p < 0.001). Patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities are older and have similarly favorable short-term neurological outcomes, compared with the patients with imaging-negative stroke.

  9. P- V- T properties of fluids in the system H 2O ± CO 2 ± NaCl: New graphical presentations and implications for fluid inclusion studies (United States)

    Brown, Philip E.; Lamb, William M.


    Understanding the role of fluids in geologic processes requires a knowledge of the P- V- T properties of fluids over a wide range of conditions. Comparisons of several published equations of state with available experimental data for fluids composed of H 2O and CO 2 lead to the conclusion that the hard-sphere modified Redlich-Kwong equation of state of Kerrick and Jacobs (1981) most accurately predicts the P- V- T properties in this binary system. To model the volumetric properties in the H 2OCO 2NaCl system a formulation is presented involving a linear (ideal) interpolation between a pure-CO 2 isochore predicted by the equation of state of Kerrick. and Jacobs (1981) and an H 2O-NaCl isochore predicted by an empirical equation derived from the regression of available P- V- T data for the H 2O-NaCl system. This formulation is applicable over a wide range of temperatures (>350°C) and pressures (2-10 kbars) and is especially suitable for high pressures and low-to-moderate temperatures (fluid densities ≥ 1.0 cm 3). Determination of the appropriate isochore for an H 2OCO 2NaCl fluid inclusion requires (1) the relative salinity (NaCl/H 2O + NaCl), (2) bulk density of the combined gas and liquid CO 2 phases, and (3) volume percent estimate of the aqueous p the total homogenization temperature. The commonly encountered problem of estimating the volume percents of phases in inclusions may be avoided in some applications, and several new P- X(CO 2) diagrams have been constructed and contoured with (a) the solvi in the mixed volatile system and (b) the measured density of the CO 2 phase. The effects of H 2OCO 2 clathrates during microthermometric observations in the laboratory are evaluated and in most instances can be minimized or avoided. Application of these results to fluid inclusion studies have led to improved determinations of (1) pressures and temperatures of fluid entrapment in a variety of geologic settings and (2) pressures and temperatures of

  10. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in the human body: clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wang, G.-J.; Shumay, E.; Telang, F.; Thanos, P.; Alexoff, D.


    Methamphetamine is one of the most toxic of the drugs of abuse, which may reflect its distribution and accumulation in the body. However no studies have measured methamphetamine's organ distribution in the human body. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used in conjunction with [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine to measure its whole-body distribution and bioavailability as assessed by peak uptake (% Dose/cc), rate of clearance (time to reach 50% peak-clearance) and accumulation (area under the curve) in healthy participants (9 Caucasians and 10 African Americans). Methamphetamine distributed through most organs. Highest uptake (whole organ) occurred in lungs (22% Dose; weight {approx}1246 g), liver (23%; weight {approx}1677 g) and intermediate in brain (10%; weight {approx}1600 g). Kidneys also showed high uptake (per/cc basis) (7%; weight 305 g). Methamphetamine's clearance was fastest in heart and lungs (7-16 minutes), slowest in brain, liver and stomach (>75 minutes), and intermediate in kidneys, spleen and pancreas (22-50 minutes). Lung accumulation of [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine was 30% higher for African Americans than Caucasians (p < 0.05) but did not differ in other organs. The high accumulation of methamphetamine, a potent stimulant drug, in most body organs is likely to contribute to the medical complications associated with methamphetamine abuse. In particular, we speculate that methamphetamine's high pulmonary uptake could render this organ vulnerable to infections (tuberculosis) and pathology (pulmonary hypertension). Our preliminary findings of a higher lung accumulation of methamphetamine in African Americans than Caucasians merits further investigation and questions whether it could contribute to the infrequent use of methamphetamine among African Americans.

  11. Effect of Noise and Flow Field Resolution on the Evaluation of Fluid Dynamic Forces on Bodies Using only the Velocity Field and its Derivatives (United States)

    Breda, Maria Cecilia; Krueger, Paul S.


    Determining unsteady fluid dynamic forces on bodies using only measurements of the velocity field and its derivatives is essential in many investigations, including studies of freely swimming or flying animals. In this project, all terms in a control-volume force equation utilizing only the velocity field and its derivatives discussed by Noca et al. (J. Fluids Struct., 13, 551 - 578) will be analyzed with regard to the influence of flow field noise and resolution to determine which terms dominate the error in the computed force and which factor has the greatest effect on the error. Using analytical and computational flow fields for which the lift and drag forces are known, irregularities found in real experimental results including noise and reduced spatial/temporal resolution will be added to assess their effect on the computed forces. Results for several canonical flows will be presented.

  12. Pulsatile flow and heat transfer of a magneto-micropolar fluid through a stenosed artery under the influence of body acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Shit, G C


    With an aim to investigate the effect of externally imposed body acceleration and magnetic field on pulsatile flow of blood through an arterial segment having stenosis is under consideration in this paper. The flow of blood is presented by a unsteady micropolar fluid and the heat transfer characteristics have been taken into account. The non-linear equations that governing the flow are solved numerically using finite difference technique by employing a suitable coordinate transformation. The numerical results have been observed for axial and microrotation component of velocity, fluid acceleration, wall shear stress(WSS), flow resistance, temperature and the volumetric flow rate. It thus turns out that the rate of heat transfer increases with the increase of Hartmann number $H$, while the wall shear stress has a reducing effect on the Hartmann number $H$ and an enhancing effect on microrotation parameter $K$ as well as the constriction height $\\delta$.

  13. Clay mineralogy of the Greenvale Ore Body, Queensland, Australia: Implications for the interpretation of paleoclimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lev, S.; Anderson, K.; Ramirez, B.; Sun, H.; Swank, R.; Yost, D.; Huff, W.; Maynard, J.B. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)


    A 3--5% nickel enriched laterite in the Greenvale Ore Body of Queensland, Australia, is the result of weathering a serpentinized ultramafic intrusion. Variations in solubilities and drainage, typical of laterite deposits, resulted in the formation of three primary zones: (1) the Saprolite zone, (2) the Intermediate zone, and (3) the Limonite zone. Within these zones, clay mineral species with distinct chemistries and/or mineralogies have been identified, including: Ni-rich Smectite, Halloysite, and Palygorskite. Clay minerals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction and SEM. Bulk chemistry was determined by X-ray fluorescence in an attempt to better constrain the chemical conditions at the time of formation of the clay minerals. Results indicate a complex drainage system and history for the Greenvale Ore Body. Based on the distribution of ore grade material, it is apparent that the deposit was initially characterized by fracture controlled drainage. Owing to precipitation of Ni-rich smectite, halloysite, and palygorskite, subsequent alteration of the ore body drainage network and/or local climate can be inferred.

  14. Lipid Bodies: Inflammatory Organelles Implicated in Host-Trypanosoma cruzi Interplay during Innate Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa D'Avila


    Full Text Available The flagellated protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of Chagas' disease, a significant public health issue and still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. Acute Chagas' disease elicits a strong inflammatory response. In order to control the parasite multiplication, cells of the monocytic lineage are highly mobilized. Monocyte differentiation leads to the formation of phagocytosing macrophages, which are strongly activated and direct host defense. A distinguishing feature of Chagas' disease-triggered macrophages is the presence of increased numbers of distinct cytoplasmic organelles termed lipid bodies or lipid droplets. These organelles are actively formed in response to the parasite and are sites for synthesis and storage of inflammatory mediators. This review covers current knowledge on lipid bodies elicited by the acute Chagas' disease within inflammatory macrophages and discusses the role of these organelles in inflammation. The increased knowledge of lipid bodies in pathogenic mechanisms of infections may not only contribute to the understanding of pathogen-host interactions but may also identify new targets for intervention.

  15. Corrosion behavior of Mg-3Zn/bioglass (45S5) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution (United States)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.; Idris, M. S.; Osman, R. A. M.


    Magnesium has emerged as promising materials in biomaterials research due to its good mechanical and physical properties closer to human bones. However, magnesium has poor corrosion resistance to chloride ions that exist in human blood plasma thus preventing its application in biomedical. The addition of zinc and bioglass can reduce magnesium corrosion rate. In this work, the effect of different solution media (Simulated Body Fluid and Phosphate Buffered Saline) to the corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn/bioglass (45S5) composites was investigated. The composites of Mg-3Zn added with 5, 10, 15, 20, 15 and 30 wt. % bioglass were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The composites were prepared by mixing at 140 rpm for 1 hour, pressing at 500 MPa and sintering in an argon environment at a temperature of 450°C for 3 hours. Sintered samples were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) and Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) in order to investigate the corrosion behavior. Samples mass loss was determined after 3 days of immersion. Samples microstructure and corrosion products were analyzed using optical microscope and x-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The results revealed that the samples immersed in the Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) shows lower mass loss compare to the samples immersed in the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for all composition except for Mg-3Zn without bio-glass. The results indicated that the existence of high phosphate ions in PBS has retarded the corrosion rate of composite Mg-3Zn/45S5. The pH value of the PBS solution after immersion showed significant increase between 10.3 and 11.09. Diffraction pattern (XRD) showed the presence of Mg(OH)2 as the major corrosion product for samples immersed in the SBF and PBS solutions. The mass loss of samples decreased with the addition of bio-glass.

  16. Impact of Abdominal Follow-Up Sonography in Trauma Patients Without Abdominal Parenchymal Organ Lesion or Free Intraabdominal Fluid in Whole-Body Computed Tomography. (United States)

    Schneck, Emmanuel; Koch, Christian; Borgards, Mara; Reichert, Martin; Hecker, Andreas; Heiß, Christian; Padberg, Winfried; Alejandre-Lafont, Enrique; Röhrig, Rainer; Krombach, Gabriele Anja; Weigand, Markus; Bernhard, Michael; Roller, Fritz Christian


    Purpose Patients suffering from severe blunt abdominal trauma are challenging because of their need for accurate diagnostic imaging and fast therapeutic action. Whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) is highly sensitive and represents the gold standard in the trauma room diagnostic setting. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact and therapy relevance of abdominal follow-up sonography (AFS) as part of the tertiary trauma survey (TTS) in patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free abdominal fluid in initial WBCT. Materials and Methods All adult patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free intraabdominal fluid in the initial WBCT examination, who received AFS within 24 hours after trauma, were included in this retrospective analysis between January 2008 and December 2011. Results 316 patients were analyzed (ISS 10 ± 8, NISS 13 ± 11) according to the inclusion criteria. Overall, only small amounts of free intraabdominal fluid were detected in AFS in 3 patients (0.9 %) and remained without therapeutic consequence. None of the patients died due to intraabdominal bleeding. Conclusion AFS as part of the TTS did not show additional benefits and had no impact on further treatment in patients without abdominal parenchymal organ lesions or free intraabdominal fluid in the initial WBCT examination. We conclude that AFS is not routinely required but should be performed if indicated on a clinical or laboratory basis because of its fast and less invasive character. Key points  · Seriously injured patients are challenging for medical imaging and treatment.. · Whole-body computed tomography is known for its high accuracy in trauma patients.. · Nonetheless, missed injuries are a major challenge in trauma patients.. · Therefore, follow-up ultrasound is often performed within the tertiary trauma survey.. · Follow-up ultrasound in patients with an inconspicuous abdominal computed tomography scan did not show any

  17. Effect of modifying the information and training structure on the occupational safety of health care workers in exposure to blood and body fluids: A quasi-experimental study. (United States)

    Sarbaz, Masoumeh; Kimiafar, Khalil; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Naderi, HamidReza; Eslami, Saeid


    This study was a quasi-experimental design to assess the effect of a Web-based information system on the occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (BBFs) among health care workers (HCWs). The outcome was the number of exposure incidents with BBFs among HCWs in both hospital A (intervention) and hospital B (control). The findings showed that the implementation of the Web-based information system about infection prevention and control in hospital A decreased exposure incidents with BBFs among the HCWs (P < .001).

  18. Two-phase and three-dimensional simulations of complex fluid-sediment transport down a slope and impacting water bodies (United States)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Kattel, Parameshwari; Kafle, Jeevan; Pokhrel, Puskar R.; Khattri, Khim B.


    We present a technique that simulates transport and flow of a real two-phase fluid (a mixture of fluid and sediment particles) down three-dimensional slopes and channels. This technique combines novel mechanics formulations and modeling into a unified high-resolution framework, providing a unique opportunity to simulate two-phase subearial landslides and debris flows with dynamically changing concentrations of solid particles. This mixture then impacts downslope with particle-laden fluid reservoirs, rivers, fjords, lakes, or oceans. This results in a super tsunami wave in the fluid body, while the submarine debris flow moves along the bathymetry. The same modelling technique can be applied to simulate rock-ice avalanches and turbidity currents with changing physical properties and mechanical responses of the phases that enhances the flow mobility. These results fundamentally advance our present knowledge associated with the complex mechanics and dynamics of multi-phase geophysical mass flows, including the subearial and submarine sediment transport and deposition processes. Our findings contribute significantly to our understanding of mixing and separation between phases, generation and propagation of special solid and fluid structures, and phase-transitions during the flow process. Finally, these results provide new insights into the evolution of morphodynamics of steep mountain slopes and channels. References Pudasaini, S. P. A general two-phase debris flow model. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, F03010, 2012. doi: 10.1029/2011JF002186. Pudasaini, S. P. and Miller, S. A. A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami. American Institute of Physics Proceedings, 1479, 197-200, 2012. doi: 10.1063/1.4756096.

  19. Rowing, the ultimate challenge to the human body - implications for physiological variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, S.; Secher, Niels H.


    Clinical diagnoses depend on a variety of physiological variables but the full range of these variables is seldom known. With the load placed on the human body during competitive rowing, the physiological range for several variables is illustrated. The extreme work produced during rowing...... is explained by the seated position and the associated ability to increase venous return and, thus, cardiac output. This review highlights experimental work on Olympic rowing that presents a unique challenge to the human capacities, including cerebral metabolism, to unprecedented limits, and provides a unique...

  20. Interaction Design for and with the Lived Body: Some Implications of Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanæs, Dag


    In 2001, Paul Dourish proposed the term embodied interaction to describe a new paradigm for interaction design that focuses on the physical, bodily, and social aspects of our interaction with digital technology. Dourish used Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of perception as the theoretical basis...... for his discussion of the bodily nature of embodied interaction. This article extends Dourish’s work to introduce the human-computer interaction community to ideas related to Merleau-Ponty’s concept of the lived body. It also provides a detailed analysis of two related topics: (1) embodied perception...

  1. Inter-worker variability in lower body postures during assembly line work: implications for exposure assessment. (United States)

    Keyserling, W Monroe; Wiggermann, Neal; Werner, Robert A; Gell, Nancy


    This study evaluated inter-worker variability in lower body posture and work activity during highly-structured assembly line work. Data were collected from 79 unique assembly line workstations in an engine manufacturing plant. Because the plant utilized work teams, 4-8 workers rotated through each workstation. At least 30 min of videotape was collected from at least three workers at each workstation. A computer-assisted work sampling procedure randomly selected 200 video "freeze-frames" for each worker. Lower body posture/movement (e.g., sit, stand, walk, etc.) was determined for each frame and used to estimate the percentage of time the worker spent in various postures and activities. Chi-square analyses were performed for each workstation to assess the significance of inter-worker differences. Due to variations in individual work methods, significant differences (p <.05) were found at 57 out of 79 workstations (72%). The greatest differences occurred when workers had the option to choose between standing and sitting (significant in 8 of 8 cases; in extreme examples, sit time ranged between 0-100% on one job, and 6.5-98% on another). Studying a single worker (or "proxy") can contribute to substantial error when estimating exposures in workplace studies of ergonomic stressors, since the proxy may not be representative of all workers who perform the job. Individual measurements are preferable, particularly for jobs where workers have substantial latitude to develop individualized work methods.

  2. Geology and Photometric Variation of Solar System Bodies with Minor Atmospheres: Implications for Solid Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Yuka; Dohm, James; Ohtake, Makiko


    A reasonable basis for future astronomical investigations of exoplanets lies in our best knowledge of the planets and satellites in the Solar System. Solar System bodies exhibit a wide variety of surface environments, even including potential habitable conditions beyond Earth, and it is essential to know how they can be characterized from outside the Solar System. In this study, we provide an overview of geological features of major Solar System solid bodies with minor atmospheres (i.e., the Terrestrial Moon, Mercury, the Galilean moons, and Mars) that affect surface albedo at local to global scale, and we survey how they influence point-source photometry in UV, visible, and near IR (i.e., the reflection-dominant range). We simulate them based on recent mapping products and also compile observed light curves where available. We show a 5-50% peak-to-trough variation amplitude in one spin rotation associated with various geological processes including heterogeneous surface compositions due to igneous activities...

  3. Geology and photometric variation of solar system bodies with minor atmospheres: implications for solid exoplanets. (United States)

    Fujii, Yuka; Kimura, Jun; Dohm, James; Ohtake, Makiko


    A reasonable basis for future astronomical investigations of exoplanets lies in our best knowledge of the planets and satellites in the Solar System. Solar System bodies exhibit a wide variety of surface environments, even including potential habitable conditions beyond Earth, and it is essential to know how they can be characterized from outside the Solar System. In this study, we provide an overview of geological features of major Solar System solid bodies with minor atmospheres (i.e., the terrestrial Moon, Mercury, the Galilean moons, and Mars) that affect surface albedo at local to global scale, and we survey how they influence point-source photometry in the UV/visible/near IR (i.e., the reflection-dominant range). We simulate them based on recent mapping products and also compile observed light curves where available. We show a 5-50% peak-to-trough variation amplitude in one spin rotation associated with various geological processes including heterogeneous surface compositions due to igneous activities, interaction with surrounding energetic particles, and distribution of grained materials. Some indications of these processes are provided by the amplitude and wavelength dependence of variation in combinations of the time-averaged spectra. We also estimate the photometric precision needed to detect their spin rotation rates through periodogram analysis. Our survey illustrates realistic possibilities for inferring the detailed properties of solid exoplanets with future direct imaging observations. Key Words: Planetary environments-Planetary geology-Solar System-Extrasolar terrestrial planets.

  4. Spinning fluids reactor (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert


    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  5. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétan Chevalier


    Full Text Available Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance.

  6. Patient-identified events implicated in the development of body dysmorphic disorder. (United States)

    Weingarden, Hilary; Curley, Erin E; Renshaw, Keith D; Wilhelm, Sabine


    Little is known about the causes of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but researchers have proposed a diathesis-stress model. This study uses a patient-centered approach to identify stressful events to which patients attribute the development of their BDD symptoms. An Internet-recruited sample of 165 adults with BDD participated. A large minority of participants attributed the development of their BDD to a triggering event. Bullying experiences were the most commonly described type of event. Additionally, most events were interpersonal and occurred during grade school or middle school. There were no differences in severity of psychosocial outcomes between participants who did or did not attribute their BDD to a specific triggering event. However, participants who specifically attributed their BDD development to a bullying experience had poorer psychosocial outcomes (i.e., perceived social support, depression severity, functional impairment, quality of life) compared to those who attributed their BDD development to another type of triggering event.

  7. Bone mineral density, body mass index and cigarette smoking among Iranian women: implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Nguyen D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While risk factors of osteoporosis in Western populations have been extensively documented, such a profile has not been well studied in Caucasians of non-European origin. This study was designed to estimate the modifiable distribution and determinants of bone mineral density (BMD among Iranian women in Australia. Methods Ninety women aged 35 years and older completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN using DXA (GE Lunar, WI, USA, and was expressed in g/cm2 as well as T-score. Results In multiple regression analysis, advancing age, lower body mass index (BMI, and smoking were independently associated with LS and FN BMD, with the 3 factors collectively accounting for 30% and 38% variance of LS and FN BMD, respectively. LS and FN BMD in smokers was 8% lower than that in non-smokers. Further analysis of interaction between BMI and smoking revealed that the effect of smoking was only observed in the obese group (p = 0.029 for LSBMD and p = 0.007 for FNBMD, but not in the overweight and normal groups. Using T-scores from two bone sites the prevalence of osteoporosis (T-scores ≤ -2.5 was 3.8% and 26.3% in pre-and post-menopausal women, respectively. Among current smokers, the prevalence was higher (31.3% than that among ex-smokers (28.6% and non-smokers (7.5%. Conclusion These data, for the first time, indicate that apart from advancing age and lower body mass index, cigarette smoking is an important modifiable determinant of bone mineral density in these Caucasians of non-European origin.

  8. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Villa


    Full Text Available Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously.

  9. Surface functionalization of tissue culture polystyrene plates with hydroxyapatite under body fluid conditions and its effect on differentiation behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Iijima, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Ryo; Iizuka, Ayako; Ueno-Yokohata, Hitomi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Hashizume, Mineo


    The surfaces of polystyrene (PS) cell culture plates were functionalized with hydroxyapatite (HAp) under body fluid conditions utilizing protein adsorption layers and a pretreatment with an alternate soaking process (ASP) using solutions containing calcium and phosphate ions. Adsorption layers of human serum albumin (HSA) formed on the surface of each well of commercial 24-well PS plates by solution processes. CaCl2 and K2HPO4 solutions were alternately added to the wells, the plates were incubated to form the precursors, and this was followed by the addition of simulated body fluid (SBF) and a further incubation for 24h. These treatments resulted in the surfaces of the PS cell culture plates being completely covered with bone-like HAp. The coating of PS plates with HAp promoted the adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and maintained cell growth that was as fast as that on tissue culture-treated PS (TCPS) plates. Osteogenic differentiation was greater, whereas adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was less in the culture on HAp-coated PS plates than in that on TCPS plates. The present method is useful for preparing HAp-coated PS plates at clean benches without the need for any expensive apparatus. HAp coated on PS plates by this method was a bone-like apatite with high bioactivity; therefore, the present HAp-coated PS plates are promising materials for assays of bone-related cells in the bone remodeling process.

  10. T Oligo-Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction (TOP-PCR): A Robust Method for the Amplification of Minute DNA Fragments in Body Fluids (United States)

    Nai, Yu-Shin; Chen, Tzu-Han; Huang, Yu-Feng; Midha, Mohit K.; Shiau, Hsin-Chieh; Shen, Chen-Yang; Chen, Chien-Jen; Yu, Alice L.; Chiu, Kuo Ping


    Body fluid DNA sequencing is a powerful noninvasive approach for the diagnosis of genetic defects, infectious agents and diseases. The success relies on the quantity and quality of the DNA samples. However, numerous clinical samples are either at low quantity or of poor quality due to various reasons. To overcome these problems, we have developed T oligo-primed polymerase chain reaction (TOP-PCR) for full-length nonselective amplification of minute quantity of DNA fragments. TOP-PCR adopts homogeneous “half adaptor” (HA), generated by annealing P oligo (carrying a phosphate group at the 5′ end) and T oligo (carrying a T-tail at the 3′ end), for efficient ligation to target DNA and subsequent PCR amplification primed by the T oligo alone. Using DNA samples from body fluids, we demonstrate that TOP-PCR recovers minute DNA fragments and maintains the DNA size profile, while enhancing the major molecular populations. Our results also showed that TOP-PCR is a superior method for detecting apoptosis and outperforms the method adopted by Illumina for DNA amplification. PMID:28094343

  11. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on wear and corrosion behavior of the orthopedic Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Geetha, M., E-mail: [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India); Richard, C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Rheologie EA 2640, Polytech' Tours, 37000 Tours (France); Landoulsi, J. [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, UMR 7197 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie - Paris VI, 4 Place Jussieu, Case 178, F-75252 Paris (France); Ramasawmy, H. [University of Mauritius, Faculty of Engineering, Reduit (Mauritius); Suwas, S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Asokamani, R. [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India)


    We report investigations on the texture, corrosion and wear behavior of ultra-fine grained (UFG) Ti-13Nb-Zr alloy, processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) technique, for biomedical applications. The microstructure obtained was characterized by X-ray line profile analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). We focus on the corrosion resistance and the fretting behavior, the main considerations for such biomaterials, in simulated body fluid. To this end, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the UFG alloy in Hanks solution at 37 Degree-Sign C. The fretting wear behavior was carried out against bearing steel in the same conditions. The roughness of the samples was also measured to examine the effect of topography on the wear behavior of the samples. Our results showed that the ECAE process increases noticeably the performance of the alloy as orthopedic implant. Although no significant difference was observed in the fretting wear behavior, the corrosion resistance of the UFG alloy was found to be higher than the non-treated material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevancy of ECAE process applied to titanium alloy for biomedical applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant improvement of mechanical properties of the surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noticeable increase of the corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid.

  12. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Gao, Ming; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Rongbo; Wang, Wenwei; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Xuedong


    Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on central composite design. Optimal conditions consisted of 945μL acetone extraction solvent, pH 2.1, 4.1min stir time, 5.9g Na2SO4, and 4.0min centrifugation. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (at S/N=3) were 0.12-0.66μgL(-1), the linear range was 0.5-500μgL(-1) and recoveries were 92.6-110.9% for the five FQs extracted from plasma and urine. The proposed method has several advantages, such as easy construction from inexpensive materials, high extraction efficiency, short extraction time, and compatibility with HPLC analysis. Thus, this method shows excellent prospects for sample pretreatment and analysis of FQs in human body fluids.

  13. The effect of Nb addition on mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and metal-ion release of ZrAlCuNi bulk metallic glasses in artificial body fluid. (United States)

    Qiu, C L; Liu, L; Sun, M; Zhang, S M


    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) of Zr(65 - x)Nb(x)- Cu(17.5)Ni(10)Al(7.5) with Nb = 0, 2, and 5 at % were prepared by copper mold casting. Compression tests reveal that the two BMGs containing Nb exhibited superior strength and plasticity to the base alloy. The corrosion behavior of the alloys obtained was investigated in artificial body fluid by electrochemical measurements. It was found that the addition of Nb significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the Zr-based BMG, as indicated by a remarkable increase in corrosion potential and pitting potential. XPS analysis revealed that the passive film formed after anodic polarization was enriched in aluminum oxide and depleted in phosphate ions for the BMGs containing Nb, which accounts for the improvement of corrosion resistance. On the other hand, metal-ion release of different BMGs were determined in PPb (ng/mL) level with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after being immersed in artificial body fluid at 37 degrees C for 20 days. It was found that the addition of Nb considerably reduced the ion release of all kinds of metals of the base system. This is probably attributed to the promoting effect of Nb on a rapid formation of highly protective film.

  14. Hydroxyapatite formation on titania-based materials in a solution mimicking body fluid: Effects of manganese and iron addition in anatase. (United States)

    Shin, Euisup; Kim, Ill Yong; Cho, Sung Baek; Ohtsuki, Chikara


    Hydroxyapatite formation on the surfaces of implanted materials plays an important role in osteoconduction of bone substitutes in bone tissues. Titania hydrogels are known to instigate hydroxyapatite formation in a solution mimicking human blood plasma. To date, the relationship between the surface characteristics of titania and hydroxyapatite formation on its surface remains unclear. In this study, titania powders with varying surface characteristics were prepared by addition of manganese or iron to examine hydroxyapatite formation in a type of simulated body fluid (Kokubo solution). Hydroxyapatite formation was monitored by observation of deposited particles with scale-like morphology on the prepared titania powders. The effect of the titania surface characteristics, i.e., crystal structure, zeta potential, hydroxy group content, and specific surface area, on hydroxyapatite formation was examined. Hydroxyapatite formation was observed on the surface of titania powders that were primarily anatase, and featured a negative zeta potential and low specific surface areas irrespective of the hydroxy group content. High specific surface areas inhibited the formation of hydroxyapatite because calcium and phosphate ions were mostly consumed by adsorption on the titania surface. Thus, these surface characteristics of titania determine its osteoconductivity following exposure to body fluid.

  15. Prolonged history of episodic fluid flow in giant hematite ore bodies: Evidence from in situ U Pb geochronology of hydrothermal xenotime (United States)

    Rasmussen, Birger; Fletcher, Ian R.; Muhling, Janet R.; Thorne, Warren S.; Broadbent, Graeme C.


    Absolute ages for hydrothermal mineralization and fluid flow are critical for understanding the geological processes that concentrate metals in the Earth's crust, yet many ore deposits remain undated because suitable mineral chronometers have not been found. The origin of giant hematite ore deposits, which are hosted in Precambrian banded-iron formations (BIFs), remains contentious. Several models have been formulated based on different sources and timing for the mineralizing fluids; supergene-metamorphic, syn-orogenic, late-orogenic extensional collapse and syn-extensional. Precise geochronology of the ore offers a means of discriminating between these models. In this study, two U-Pb chronometers, xenotime and monazite, have been identified in high-grade hematite ore bodies from the Mount Tom Price mine in the Hamersley Province, northwestern Australia. Both phosphate minerals occur as inclusions within the hematite ore and as coarser crystals intergrown with martite (hematite pseudomorph after magnetite) and microplaty hematite, indicating that the xenotime and monazite precipitated during mineralization. In situ U-Pb dating by ion microprobe indicates that both phosphate minerals grew during multiple discrete events. Our results suggest that ore genesis may have commenced as early as ˜ 2.15 Ga, with subsequent hydrothermal remobilization and/or mineralization at ˜ 2.05 Ga, ˜ 1.84 Ga, ˜ 1.67 Ga, ˜ 1.59 Ga, ˜ 1.54 Ga, ˜ 1.48 Ga and ˜ 0.85 Ga. The location of the ore bodies along ancient fault systems, and the coincidence of at least some of the U-Pb phosphate dates with episodes of tectonothermal activity in the adjacent Proterozoic Capricorn Orogen, implies that fluids were channelled through major structures in the southern Pilbara Craton during discrete phases of tectonic compression and extension. Our results show that the hematite ore bodies formed at sites of repeated focussed hydrothermal fluid flow. In contrast to the aforementioned models, our

  16. Energetic proton irradiation history of the HED parent body regolith and implications for ancient solar activity (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; Garrison, D. H.; Palma, R. L.; Bogard, D. D.


    Previous studies have shown that the Kapoeta howardite, as well as several other meteorites, contain excess concentrations of cosmogenic neon in the darkened, solar-irradiated phase compared to the light, non-irradiated phase. The two explanations offered for the nuclear production of these Ne excesses in the parent body regolith are either from galactic particle (GCR) irradiation or from a greatly enhanced flux of energetic solar protons (SCR), as compared to the recent solar flux. Combining new isotopic data we obtained on acid-etched, separated feldspar from Kapoeta light and dark phases with literature data, we show that the cosmogenic 21Ne /22Ne ratio of light phase feldspar (0.80) is consistent with only GCR irradiation in space for ~3 Myr. However, the 21Ne/22Ne ratio (0.68) derived for irradiation of dark phase feldspar in the Kapoeta regolith indicates that cosmogenic Ne was produced in roughly equal proportions from galactic and solar protons. Considering a simple model of an immature Kapoeta parent body regolith, the duration of this early galactic exposure was only ~3-6 Myr, which would be an upper limit to the solar exposure time of individual grains. Concentrations of cosmogenic 21Ne in pyroxene separates and of cosmogenic 126Xe in both feldspar and pyroxene are consistent with this interpretation. The near-surface irradiation time of individual grains in the Kapoeta regolith probably varied considerably due to regolith mixing to an average GCR irradiation depth of ~10 cm. Because of the very different depth scales for production of solar ~Fe tracks, SCR Ne, and GCR Ne, the actual regolith exposure times for average grains probably differed correspondingly. However, both the SCR 21Ne and solar track ages appear to be longer because of enhanced production by early solar activity. The SCR/GCR production ratio of 21Ne inferred from the Kapoeta data is larger by a at least a factor of 10 and possibly as much as a factor of ~50 compared to recent solar

  17. Cognitive dysfunction in Body Dysmorphic Disorder: New implications for nosological systems & neurobiological models (United States)

    Jefferies-Sewell, K; Chamberlain, SR; Fineberg, NA; Laws, KR


    Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterised by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, newly classified within the DSM-5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder. Materials and Methods Participants with BDD (n=12) and healthy controls (n=16) were tested using a computerised neurocognitive battery investigating attentional set-shifting (Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift Task), decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), motor response-inhibition (Stop-Signal Reaction Time Task) and affective processing (Affective Go-No Go Task). The groups were matched for age, IQ and education. Results In comparison to controls, patients with BDD showed significantly impaired attentional set shifting, abnormal decision-making, impaired response inhibition and greater omission and commission errors on the emotional processing task. Conclusions Despite the modest sample size, our results showed that individuals with BDD performed poorly compared to healthy controls on tests of cognitive flexibility, reward and motor impulsivity and affective processing. Results from separate studies in OCD patients suggest similar cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, these findings are consistent with the re-classification of BDD alongside OCD. These data also hint at additional areas of decision-making abnormalities that might contribute specifically to the psychopathology of BDD. PMID:27899165

  18. Growing up poor: long-term implications for eating patterns and body weight. (United States)

    Olson, Christine M; Bove, Caron F; Miller, Emily O


    This study aimed to understand how poverty-associated food deprivation in childhood contributes to the well-known relationship between low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood and obesity in the adult years. Thirty low-income, rural women with at least one child were followed for over three years with annual semi-structured interviews collecting quantitative and qualitative data. For the quantitative portion, the measures of interest were body mass index (BMI), food insecurity, eating patterns, and SES. For the qualitative portion, text from the interviews was analyzed using the constant comparative method. Growing up in a poor household was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity in adulthood. Experiences of poverty-associated food deprivation in childhood appeared to super-motivate some women to actively avoid food insecurity in adulthood. It also influenced the women's current food preferences. Tremendous excitement accompanied the availability of food after periods of deprivation in both the women and their children. Some women had used food to meet emotional needs in childhood and overeating had become a generalized response to negative emotional states in the adult years. Food deprivation in childhood and associated attitudes and behaviors towards food are one possible mechanism for explaining the association between childhood poverty and adult obesity.

  19. Novel /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for the analysis of. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites in human body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.

    A cannabinoid radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects some of the major 9/-THC metabolites is developed and evaluated for use in forensic science. It incorporates a novel /sup 125/I radiotracer, is sensitive, reliable, relatively quick, and simple to use. The RIA uses a commercially available antiserum and detects a number of cannabinoid metabolites, including 9/-THC-11-oic acid and its glucuronide conjugate in biological fluids. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of blood and urine samples submitted for forensic analysis.

  20. Detached eddy simulation for turbulent fluid-structure interaction of moving bodies using the constraint-based immersed boundary method (United States)

    Nangia, Nishant; Bhalla, Amneet P. S.; Griffith, Boyce E.; Patankar, Neelesh A.


    Flows over bodies of industrial importance often contain both an attached boundary layer region near the structure and a region of massively separated flow near its trailing edge. When simulating these flows with turbulence modeling, the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach is more efficient in the former, whereas large-eddy simulation (LES) is more accurate in the latter. Detached-eddy simulation (DES), based on the Spalart-Allmaras model, is a hybrid method that switches from RANS mode of solution in attached boundary layers to LES in detached flow regions. Simulations of turbulent flows over moving structures on a body-fitted mesh incur an enormous remeshing cost every time step. The constraint-based immersed boundary (cIB) method eliminates this operation by placing the structure on a Cartesian mesh and enforcing a rigidity constraint as an additional forcing in the Navier-Stokes momentum equation. We outline the formulation and development of a parallel DES-cIB method using adaptive mesh refinement. We show preliminary validation results for flows past stationary bodies with both attached and separated boundary layers along with results for turbulent flows past moving bodies. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1324585.

  1. Tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm- and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys in simulated body fluid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T


    Full Text Available Taekyung Lee,1 Eshaan Mathew,2 Santhosh Rajaraman,2 Geetha Manivasagam,2 Ashok Kumar Singh,3 Chong Soo Lee4 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA; 2Centre for Biomaterials Science and Technology, School for Mechanical and Building Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, India; 4Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH, Pohang, Republic of Korea Abstract: Development of submicrocrystalline structure in biomedical alloy such as Ti-13Nb-13Zr (in wt% through warm-rolling process has been found to enhance mechanical properties compared to conventional thermomechanical processing routes including hot-rolling process. The present study investigated the tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-rolled (WR and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys which have not been studied to date. Both tribological and corrosion experiments were carried out in simulated body fluid conditions (Hank’s solution at 37°C based on the fact that the investigated alloys would be used in a human body as orthopedic implants. The WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr demonstrated a submicrocrystalline structure that provided a significant enhancement in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, there was no notable difference in wear resistance between the WR and hot-rolled samples despite the different microstructure and hardness. The present study confirmed the enormous potential of WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr with not only great mechanical properties but also high corrosion resistance in the simulated body fluid. Keywords: titanium alloy, multi-pass caliber-rolling, grain refinement, tribology, corrosion


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Paydar


    Full Text Available Background: Proctitis following prostate cancer radiation therapy is a primary determinant of quality of life (QOL. While previous studies have assessed acute rectal morbidity at 1 month after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT, little data exist on the prevalence and severity of rectal morbidity within the first week following treatment. This study reports the acute bowel morbidity one week following prostate SBRT. Materials and methods: Between May 2013 and August 2014, 103 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 35 to 36.25 Gy in five fractions using robotic SBRT delivered on a prospective clinical trial. Bowel toxicity was graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAEv.4. Bowel QOL was assessed using EPIC-26 questionnaire bowel domain at baseline, one week, one month, and three months. Time-dependent changes in bowel symptoms were statistically compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinically significant change was assessed by the minimally important difference (MID in EPIC score. This was defined as a change of one-half standard deviation (SD from the baseline score. Results: One hundred and three patients with a minimum of three months of follow-up were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of acute grade 2 GI toxicity was 23%. There were no acute ≥ grade 3 bowel toxicities. EPIC bowel summary scores maximally declined at 1 week after SBRT (-13.9, p<0.0001 before returning to baseline at three months after SBRT (+0.03, p=0.94. Prior to treatment, 4.9% of men reported that their bowel bother was a moderate to big problem. This increased to 28.4% (p<0.0001 one week after SBRT and returned to baseline at three months after SBRT (0.0%, p=0.66. Only the bowel summary and bowel bother score declines at 1 week met the MID threshold for clinically significant change. Conclusion: The rate and severity of acute proctitis following prostate SBRT peaked at one week after

  3. A theoretical model of a wake of a body towed in a stratified fluid at large Reynolds and Froude numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Troitskaya


    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to develop a theoretical model describing the evolution of a turbulent wake behind a towed sphere in a stably stratified fluid at large Froude and Reynolds numbers. The wake flow is considered as a quasi two-dimensional (2-D turbulent jet flow whose dynamics is governed by the momentum transfer from the mean flow to a quasi-2-D sinuous mode growing due to hydrodynamic instability. The model employs a quasi-linear approximation to describe this momentum transfer. The model scaling coefficients are defined with the use of available experimental data, and the performance of the model is verified by comparison with the results of a direct numerical simulation of a 2-D turbulent jet flow. The model prediction for the temporal development of the wake axis mean velocity is found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained by Spedding (1997.

  4. Evaluation of the pressure field on a rigid body entering a quiescent fluid through particle image velocimetry (United States)

    Panciroli, Riccardo; Porfiri, Maurizio


    The objective of this work is to verify the accuracy of indirect pressure measurement from particle image velocimetry in water entry problems. The pressure is evaluated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, whose kinematic components are estimated from particle image velocimetry. We focus on the water entry of a rigid wedge, for which we explore variations of the entry velocity. Experimental results are verified through comparison with well-established analytical formulations based on potential flow theory. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of accurately reconstructing the hydrodynamic pressure field over the entire duration of the impact. Along with a thorough experimental validation of the method, we also offer insight into experimentally relevant factors, such as the maximum resolved fluid velocity and the required spatial integration area.

  5. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  6. Vascularization of air sinuses and fat bodies in the head of the Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus: morphological implications on physiology

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    Alex eCostidis


    Full Text Available AbstractCetaceans have long been considered capable of limiting diving-induced nitrogen absorption and subsequent decompression sickness through a series of behavioral, anatomical, and physiological adaptations. Recent studies however suggest that in some situations these adaptive mechanisms might be overcome, resulting in lethal and sublethal injuries. Perhaps most relevant to this discussion is the finding of intravascular gas and fat emboli in mass-stranded beaked whales. Although the source of the gas emboli has as yet to been ascertained, preliminary findings suggest nitrogen is the primary component. Since nitrogen gas embolus formation in divers is linked to nitrogen saturation, it seems premature to dismiss similar pathogenic mechanisms in breath-hold diving cetaceans. Due to the various anatomical adaptations in cetacean lungs, the pulmonary system is thought of as an unlikely site of significant nitrogen absorption. The accessory sinus system on the ventral head of odontocete cetaceans contains a sizeable volume of air that is exposed to the changing hydrostatic pressures during a dive, and is intimately associated with vasculature potentially capable of absorbing nitrogen through its walls. The source of the fat emboli has also remained elusive. Most mammalian fat deposits are considered poorly-vascularized and therefore unlikely sites of intravascular introduction of lipid, although cetacean blubber may not be as poorly vascularized as previously thought. We present new data on the vasculature of air sinuses and acoustic fat bodies in the head of bottlenose dolphins and compare it to published accounts. We show that the mandibular fat bodies and accessory sinus system are associated with extensive venous plexuses and suggest potential physiological and pathological implications.

  7. Rates and Mechanisms of Solidification in Large Magma Bodies: Implications for Melt Extraction in all Tectonic Settings (United States)

    VanTongeren, J. A.


    As is observed in both experiment and theory, in the absence of hydrothermal convection, the majority of magma chamber heat loss occurs via conduction through the roof of the intrusion and into the cold country rock above. The formation of an upper solidification front (or Upper Border Series, UBS), recorded in the rocks both geochemically and texturally, is a natural outcome of the progression of the solidification front from the cold roof to the hot center of the magma chamber. There are, however, a few unique layered mafic intrusions for which little or no UBS exists. In this study, I examine the thermal evolution and crystallization rates of several classic layered intrusions as it is recorded in the extent of the preserved UBS. For those intrusions that have experienced crystallization at the roof, such as the Skaergaard Intrusion, the development of a UBS reduces the temperature gradient at the roof and effectively slows the rate of heat loss from the main magma body. However, for those intrusions that do not have an UBS, such as the Bushveld Complex, the cooling rate is controlled only by the maximum rate of conductive heat loss through the overlying roof rocks, which decreases with time. The implications are two-fold: (1) The relative thickness of the UBS in large intrusions may be the key to quantifying their cooling and solidification rates; and (2) The nature of the magma mush zone near the roof of an intrusion may depend principally on the long-term thermal evolution of the magma body. Particularly at the end stages of crystallization, when the liquids are likely to be highly evolved and high viscosities may inhibit convection, intrusions lacking a well-defined UBS may provide important insights into the mechanics of crystal-liquid separation, melt extraction, and compaction in felsic plutons as well as mafic intrusions. These results are important for long-lived (>500 kyr) or repeatedly replenished magma chambers in all tectonic settings.

  8. Potential fluid biomarkers for pathological brain changes in Alzheimer's disease: Implication for the screening of cognitive frailty (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Sancarlo, Daniele; Greco, Antonio; Yu, Zhuowei


    Cognitive frailty (CF) overlaps with early neuropathological alterations associated with aging-related major neurocognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fluid biomarkers for these pathological brain alterations allow for early diagnosis in the preclinical stages of AD, and for objective prognostic assessments in clinical intervention trials. These biomarkers may also be helpful in the screening of CF. The present study reviewed the literature and identified systematic reviews of cohort studies and other authoritative reports. The selection criteria for potentially suitable fluid biomarkers included: i) Frequent use in studies of fluid-derived markers and ii) evidence of novel measurement techniques for fluid-derived markers. The present study focused on studies that assessed these biomarkers in AD, mild cognitive impairment and non-AD demented subjects. At present, widely used fluid biomarkers include cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β levels. With the development of novel measurement techniques and improvements in understanding regarding the mechanisms underlying aging-related major neurocognitive disorders, numerous novel biomarkers associated with various aspects of AD neuropathology are being explored. These include specific measurements of Aβ oligomer or monomer forms, tau proteins in the peripheral plasma and CSF, and novel markers of synaptic dysfunction, neuronal damage and apoptosis, neuronal activity alteration, neuroinflammation, blood brain barrier dysfunction, oxidative stress, metabolites, mitochondrial function and aberrant lipid metabolism. The proposed panels of fluid biomarkers may be useful in the early diagnosis of AD, prediction of the progression of AD from preclinical stages to the dementia stage, and the differentiation of AD from non-AD dementia. In combination with physical frailty, the present study surmised that these biomarkers may also be used as biomarkers for CF, thus contribute

  9. The Influence of Zn Content on the Corrosion and Wear Performance of Mg-Zn-Ca Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid (United States)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Debao; Zhao, Yue; Jin, Feng; Chen, Minfang


    Mg-Zn-Ca alloy has been attracting increasing attention as a potential biodegradable implant material. In this paper, Mg-3Zn-0.2Ca and Mg-4Zn-0.2Ca alloys were prepared by means of vacuum melting and subsequent hot extrusion process. The influences of Zn content on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion and wear behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied. The results show that with increased Zn content, the grain size and corrosion resistance were decreased, while the mechanical strength and wear resistance were increased, under both dry sliding and SBF-lubricated conditions. For the same Mg-Zn-Ca alloy, the wear loss rate under SBF lubrication was higher than dry sliding condition, indicating a strong corrosion-assisted wear effect of SBF to the Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.

  10. Rapid identification and multiple susceptibility testing of pathogens from positive-culture sterile body fluids by a combined MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry and Vitek Susceptibility system

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    Ru Yue Tian


    Full Text Available Infections of the bloodstream, central nervous system, peritoneum, joints and other sterile areas are associated with high morbidity and sequelae risk. Timely initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is crucial to improving patient prognosis. However, standard final identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs are reported 16–48 hours after a positive alert. For a rapid, effective and low-cost diagnosis, we combined matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry with a Vitek AST system, and performed rapid microbial identification (RMI and rapid multiple AST (RMAST on non-duplicated positive body fluid cultures collected from a hospital in Shanghai, China. Sterile body fluid positive culture and blood positive culture caused by Gram negative (GN or polymicrobial were applied to the MALDI–TOF measurement directly. When positive blood culture caused by Gram positive (GP bacteria or yeasts, they were resuspended in 1 ml brain heart infusion for 2h or 4h enrichment, respectively. Regardless of enrichment, the RMI (completed in 40 min per sample accurately identified GN and GP bacteria (98.9% and 87.2%, respectively, fungi (75.7% and anaerobes (94.7%. Dominant species in multiple cultures and bacteria that failed to grow on the routing plates were correctly identified in 81.2% and 100% of cases, respectively. The category agreements of RMAST results, determined in the presence of various antibiotics, were similarly to previous studies. The RMI and RMAST results not only reduce the turnaround time of the patient report by 18–36 hours, but also indicate whether a patient’s antibiotic treatment should be accelerated, ceased or de-escalated, and adjusted the essential drugs modification for an optimised therapy.

  11. Origin of REE-rich ferrocarbonatites in southern Siberia (Russia): implications based on melt and fluid inclusions (United States)

    Prokopyev, Ilya R.; Borisenko, Alexander S.; Borovikov, Andrey A.; Pavlova, Galina G.


    Fe-rich carbonatites with a mineral assemblage of ankerite-calcite or siderite are widespread in southern Siberia, Russia. The siderite carbonatites are associated with F-Ba-Sr-REE mineralization and have a 40Ar/39Ar age of 117.2 ± 1.3 Ma. Melt and fluid inclusions suggest that the carbonatites formed from volatile-rich alkali- and chloride-bearing carbonate melts. Ankerite-calcite carbonatites formed from carbonatite melt at a temperature of more than 790 °C. The ferrocarbonatites (the second phase of carbonatite intrusion) formed from a sulfate-carbonate-chloride fluid phase (brine-melt) at >650 °C and ≥360 MPa. The brine-melt fluid phase had high concentrations of Fe and LREEs. A subsequent hydrothermal overprint contributed to the formation of economically important barite-Sr-fluorite-REE mineralization in polymict siderite breccia.

  12. Correlates of body depilation: an exploratory study into the health implications of body hair reduction and removal among college-aged men. (United States)

    Boroughs, Michael S; Thompson, J Kevin


    Recent studies suggest that body hair may be of increasing importance in men's overall body image. Body depilation is a relatively new area of clinical and research inquiry among men with much of the documented evidence of the phenomenon split between mass media accounts and descriptive scientific investigations. This study was undertaken to further our understanding of this behavior by examining the relationship between depilation and other dimensions of body image in a nonclinical sample. A total of 364 men completed measures assessing self-reported hair growth, body depilation, drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, body dysmorphia, and social comparison. The correlates of body depilation included a drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, and physical appearance social comparison. Significant differences were identified among men who depilate, compared with those who do not, on measures of social comparison and a drive for muscularity. These findings lend support for the idea that body hair, and its reduction or removal, is a key aspect of men's body image that translates into some challenges in assessment and prevention among health care practitioners.

  13. Tribological, electrochemical and tribo-electrochemical characterization of bare and nitrided Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhabosco, T.M., E-mail: [Physics Departament, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Campus Universitario Morro do Cruzeiro/ICEBS/DEFIS/35400-000, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Tamborim, S.M. [Metallurgy Department, Laboratory of Corrosion Research, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500/75/232, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Santos, C.B. dos [Fraunhofer-Institut/IPA Institut fuer Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung, Nobelstrasse 12, Sttutgart 70569 (Germany); Mueller, I.L., E-mail: ilmuller@ufrgs.b [Metallurgy Department, Laboratory of Corrosion Research, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500/75/232, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)


    Research highlights: {yields} Tribocorrosion of bare and nitrided Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid is studied. {yields} The alloy presents great tendency to repassivate when its oxide is damaged by wear. {yields} Nitriding increases Ti6Al4V resistance to wear-corrosion at open circuit potential. {yields} EIS results confirm the improved anticorrosion properties of the nitride layer. {yields} Anodic potentials (+0.4V{sub SCE}) impair tribocorrosion resistance of the alloy. - Abstract: Tribological, electrochemical and tribo-electrochemical behaviour of bare and nitrided Ti6Al4V alloy was studied. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and microhardness profile were used to characterize the nitrided Ti6Al4V. The anticorrosive properties of nitrided Ti6Al4V in phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS), simulating the body environment, were evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Nitriding increased the alloy resistance to corrosion and to dry wear. Resistance to tribocorrosion in PBS at the open circuit potential (OCP) for the nitrided alloy was also significantly increased compared to the bare alloy; nevertheless at an anodic potential this influence became less important.

  14. Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of sAPPα and sAPPβ in Lewy Body and Alzheimer's Disease: Clinical and Neurochemical Correlates

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    Ezra Mulugeta


    Full Text Available We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of the soluble isoforms of amyloid precursor protein (APP; sAPPα sAPPβ and other CSF biomarkers in 107 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, dementia with Lewy body dementia (DLB, Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD, and normal controls (NC using commercial kits. DLB and PDD were combined in a Lewy body dementia group (LBD. No differences were observed in sAPPα and sAPPβ levels between the groups. Significant correlations were observed between sAPPα and sAPPβ and between sAPPβ and Mini-Mental State Examination scores in the total group analysis as well as when LBD and AD groups were analyzed separately. sAPPα and sAPPβ levels correlated with Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42, and Tau in the LBD group. In AD, sAPPα correlated with p-Tau and sAPPβ with Aβ40. The differential association between sAPPα and sAPPβ with Aβ and Tau species between LBD and AD groups suggests a possible relationship with the underlying pathologies in LBD and AD.

  15. Geochemistry of oil in fluid inclusions in a middle Proterozoic igneous intrusion: implications for the source of hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutkiewicz, A. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences; Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Inst. of Marine Science; Volk, H.; George, S.C. [CSIRO Petroleum, North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Ridley, J. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences


    Proterozoic source rocks such as the directly overlying Velkerri Formation and/or the underlying Barney Creek Formation from the McArthur Group. The study has implications for the source of hydrocarbons in non-sedimentary rocks and suggests that fluid inclusions can be used not only to distinguish between biogenic and abiogenic sources of hydrocarbons but also to provide critical information about the composition of the biomass, fluid migration events, and conditions under which hydrocarbons in different geological settings are trapped. (author)

  16. Biomimetic deposition of hydroxyapatite on a synthetic polypeptide with beta sheet structure in a solution mimicking body fluid. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akari; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Ogata, Shin-ichi; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Tanihara, Masao


    Deposition of a hydroxyapatite layer with similar structure to bone mineral is an attractive approach to the fabrication of bioactive coating layers to achieve direct bonding to living bone. To get successful coating of a hydroxyapatite layer on an organic polymer using a biomimetic solution, it is essential to find organic substrates that can effectively induce heterogeneous nucleation of hydroxyapatite after exposure to the body environment. Our previous study showed that sericin, a type of silk protein, has the ability to induce hydroxyapatite nucleation in a biomimetic solution when the sericin has a beta sheet structure. To confirm the effectiveness of the beta sheet structure in hydroxyapatite nucleation, we focused on investigating hydroxyapatite deposition on a synthetic polypeptide with a beta sheet structure in a biomimetic solution. The beta sheet forming polypeptides with and without carboxyl groups, poly(FE)(3)FG, poly(FQ)(3)FG, poly(LE)(3)LG and poly(LQ)(3)LG, were synthesized in this study. All the polypeptides had mainly beta sheet structure. After soaking the polypeptide films in 1.5SBF, which has 1.5 times the inorganic ion concentrations of human blood plasma, hydroxyapatite formed on the surfaces of the polypeptides with carboxyl groups, poly(FE)(3)FG and poly(LE)(3)LG, within 2 days, but not on those without carboxyl groups, poly(FQ)(3)FG and poly(LQ)(3)LG. We confirmed that the beta sheet structure was effective for hydroxyapatite nucleation even in the synthetic polypeptide. This finding is useful for the future design of organic polymers that can effectively induce nucleation of hydroxyapatite.

  17. Polymer films removed from solid surfaces by nanostructured fluids: microscopic mechanism and implications for the conservation of cultural heritage. (United States)

    Raudino, Martina; Selvolini, Giulia; Montis, Costanza; Baglioni, Michele; Bonini, Massimo; Berti, Debora; Baglioni, Piero


    Complex fluids based on amphiphilic formulations are emerging, particularly in the field of conservation of works of art, as effective and safe liquid media for the removal of hydrophobic polymeric coatings. The comprehension of the cleaning mechanism is key to designing tailored fluids for this purpose. However, the interaction between nanostructured fluids and hydrophobic polymer films is still poorly understood. In this study, we show how the combination of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides interesting and complementary insight into this process. We focused on the interaction between an ethyl methacrylate/methyl acrylate 70:30 copolymer film deposited onto a glass surface and a water/nonionic surfactant/2-butanone (MEK) ternary system, with MEK being a good solvent and water being a nonsolvent for the polymer. Our results indicate a synergy between the organic solvent and the surfactant assemblies: MEK rapidly swells the outer layers of the polymer film allowing for the subsequent diffusion of solvent molecules, while the amphiphile decreases the interfacial energy between the polymeric coating and the liquid phase, favoring dewetting and dispersion of swollen polymer droplets in the aqueous phase. The chemical nature of the surfactant and the microstructure of the assemblies determine both the kinetics and the overall efficiency of polymer removal, as assessed by comparing the behavior of similar formulations containing an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS).

  18. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flankhydrothermal fluids: implications for the location and nature of the heatsource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, B.W.; Kennedy, B.M.; Adams, M.C.; Bjornstad, S.C.; Buck, C.


    Fluids have been sampled from 9 wells and 2 fumaroles fromthe East Flank of the Coso hydrothermal system with a view toidentifying, if possible, the location and characteristics of the heatsource inflows into this portion of the geothermal field. Preliminaryresults show that there has been extensive vapor loss in the system, mostprobably in response to production. Wells 38A-9, 51-16 and 83A-16 showthe highest CO2-CO-CH4-H2 chemical equilibration temperatures, rangingbetween 300-340oC, and apart from 38A-9, the values are generally inaccordance with the measured temperatures in the wells. Calculatedtemperatures for the fractionation of 13C between CO2 and CH4 are inexcess of 400oC in fluids from wells 38A-9, 64-16-RD2 and 51A-16,obviously pointing to equilibrium conditions from deeper portions of thereservoir. Given that the predominant reservoir rock lithologies in theCoso system are relatively silicic (granitic to dioritic), the isotopicsignatures appear to reflect convective circulation and equilibrationwithin rocks close to the plastic-brittle transition. 3He/4He signatures,in conjunction with relative volatile abundances in the Coso fluids,point to a possibly altered mantle source for the heat sourcefluids.

  19. Focused fluid flow in the Baiyun Sag, northern South China Sea: implications for the source of gas in hydrate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Duanxin; WU Shiguo; DONG Dongdong; MI Lijun; FU Shaoying; SHI Hesheng


    The origin and migration of natural gas and the accumulation of gas hydrates within the Pearl River Mouth Basin of the northern South China Sea are poorly understood.Based on high-resolution 2D/3D seismic data,three environments of focused fluid flow:gas chinmeys,mud diapirs and active faults have been identified.Widespread gas chimneys that act as important conduits for fluid flow are located below bottom simulating reflections and above basal uplifts.The occurrence and evolution of gas chimneys can be divided into a violent eruptive stage and a quiet seepage stage.For most gas chimneys,the strong eruptions are deduced to have happened during the Dongsha Movement in the latest Miocene,which are observed below Pliocene strata and few active faults develop above the top of the Miocene.The formation pressures of the Baiyun Sag currently are considered to be normal,based on these terms:1) Borehole pressure tests with pressure coefficients of 1.043-1.047; 2) The distribution of gas chimneys is limited to strata older than the Pliocene; 3) Disseminated methane hydrates,rather than fractured hydrates,are found in the hydrate samples; 4) The gas hydrate is mainly charged with biogenic gas rather than thermogenic gas based on the chemical tests from gas hydrates cores.However,periods of quiet focused fluid flow also enable the establishment of good conduits for the migration of abundant biogenic gas and lesser volumes of thermogenic gas.A geological model governing fluid flow has been proposed to interpret the release of overpressure,the migration of fluids and the formation of gas hydrates,in an integrated manner.This model suggests that gas chimneys positioned above basal uplifts were caused by the Dongsha Movement at about 5.5 Ma.Biogenic gas occupies the strata above the base of the middle Miocene and migrates slowly into the gas chimney columns.Some of the biogenic gas and small volumes of thermogenic gas eventually contribute to the formation of the gas

  20. Carbon dioxide and helium in hydrothermal fluids from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, USA: Temporal variability and implications for the release of mantle volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedwick, P.N.; McMurtry, G.M. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Hilton, D.R. (Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)); Goff, F. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States))


    Dissolved CO[sub 2], [delta][sup 13]C, He, and [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He were determined in warm (<30[degrees]C) hydrothermal fluids from Pele's Vents on the summit of Lihi Seamount, Hawaii, collected during DSRV Pisces V dives in August and September 1992. Total dissolved CO[sub 2] and He are highly enriched over ambient seawater, with maximum measured concentrations of 190 mmol/kg C[sub T] and 0.193 [mu]mol/kg He, and correlate linearly with dissolved Si concentration and sample temperature. Carbon dioxide [delta][sup 13]C values range from [minus]5.5 to 1.7% (PDB) and corrected [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He ratios from 21.7 to 27.0 R[sub a], indicating a primary magmatic source for both gases. The high concentrations of these volatiles in the vent waters relative to reported bulk concentrations in Lihi basalts suggest that both gases are most likely introduced into the fluids by direct degassing from a magma body, rather than hydrothermal extraction from the summit laves. Comparison of the [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He ratios of the vent waters with reported values for Loihi basalts suggests that the mantle-derived volatiles in the fluids are variably contaminated by radiogenic He, probably due to assimilation of basement rock by the source magma. Such a mechanism could also be responsible for the range of [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He ratios observed in lavas from Loihi. The data demonstrate remarkable temporal variation in the volatile content of the vent fluids. The authors suggest that these temporal changes reflect progressive degassing from a magmatic intrusion with significant fractionation of CO[sub 2] and He, a process which may also account for the range in C/He ratios of Lihi lavas.

  1. The Inflammatory Marker YKL-40 Is Elevated in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Alzheimer's but Not Parkinson's Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Wennström

    Full Text Available A major difference in the revised diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD is the incorporation of biomarkers to support a clinical diagnosis and allow the identification of preclinical AD due to AD neuropathological processes. However, AD-specific fluid biomarkers which specifically distinguish clinical AD dementia from other dementia disorders are still missing. Here we aimed to evaluate the disease-specificity of increased YKL-40 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from AD patients with mild to moderate dementia (n = 49 versus Parkinson's disease (PD (n = 61 and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB patients (n = 36, and non-demented controls (n = 44. Second we aimed to investigate whether altered YKL-40 levels are associated with CSF levels of other inflammation-associated molecules. When correcting for age, AD patients exhibited 21.3%, 27.7% and 38.8% higher YKL-40 levels compared to non-demented controls (p = 0.0283, DLB (p = 0.0027 and PD patients (p<0.0001. The AD-associated increase in YKL-40 was not associated with CSF P-tau, T-tau or Aβ42. No relationship between increased YKL-40 and levels of the astrocytic marker glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, interleukin-8 (IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 could be identified. Our results confirm previous reports of an age-associated increased in CSF YKL-40 levels and further demonstrate increased CSF YKL-40 in AD patients versus non-demented controls and patients with DLB or PD. The increase in YKL-40 levels in the AD patients was unrelated to the established CSF AD biomarkers and the inflammatory markers GFAP, MCP-1, IP-10 and IL-8, proposing YKL-40 as a marker of yet to be identified AD-related pathological processes.

  2. Extracellular vesicles in blood, milk and body fluids of the female and male urogenital tract and with special regard to reproduction. (United States)

    Foster, B P; Balassa, T; Benen, T D; Dominovic, M; Elmadjian, G K; Florova, V; Fransolet, M D; Kestlerova, A; Kmiecik, G; Kostadinova, I A; Kyvelidou, C; Meggyes, M; Mincheva, M N; Moro, L; Pastuschek, J; Spoldi, V; Wandernoth, P; Weber, M; Toth, B; Markert, U R


    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from almost all cells and tissues. They are able to transport substances (e.g. proteins, RNA or DNA) at higher concentrations than in their environment and may adhere in a receptor-controlled manner to specific cells or tissues in order to release their content into the respective target structure. Blood contains high concentrations of EVs mainly derived from platelets, and, at a smaller amount, from erythrocytes. The female and male reproductive tracts produce EVs which may be associated with fertility or infertility and are released into body fluids and mucosas of the urogenital organs. In this review, the currently relevant detection methods are presented and critically compared. During pregnancy, placenta-derived EVs are dynamically detectable in peripheral blood with changing profiles depending upon progress of pregnancy and different pregnancy-associated pathologies, such as preeclampsia. EVs offer novel non-invasive diagnostic tools which may reflect the situation of the placenta and the foetus. EVs in urine have the potential of reflecting urogenital diseases including cancers of the neighbouring organs. Several methods for detection, quantification and phenotyping of EVs have been established, which include electron microscopy, flow cytometry, ELISA-like methods, Western blotting and analyses based on Brownian motion. This review article summarises the current knowledge about EVs in blood and cord blood, in the different compartments of the male and female reproductive tracts, in trophoblast cells from normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies, in placenta ex vivo perfusate, in the amniotic fluid, and in breast milk, as well as their potential effects on natural killer cells as possible targets.

  3. A genome-wide association study of kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid: implications for psychosis and cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder (United States)

    Sellgren, C M; Kegel, M E; Bergen, S E; Ekman, C J; Olsson, S; Larsson, M; Vawter, M P; Backlund, L; Sullivan, P F; Sklar, P; Smoller, J W; Magnusson, P K E; Hultman, C M; Walther-Jallow, L; Svensson, C I; Lichtenstein, P; Schalling, M; Engberg, G; Erhardt, S; Landén, M


    Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the glia-derived N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) have consistently been implicated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study based on CSF KYNA in bipolar disorder and found support for an association with a common variant within 1p21.3. After replication in an independent cohort, we linked this genetic variant—associated with reduced SNX7 expression—to positive psychotic symptoms and executive function deficits in bipolar disorder. A series of post-mortem brain tissue and in vitro experiments suggested SNX7 downregulation to result in a caspase-8-driven activation of interleukin-1β and a subsequent induction of the brain kynurenine pathway. The current study demonstrates the potential of using biomarkers in genetic studies of psychiatric disorders, and may help to identify novel drug targets in bipolar disorder. PMID:26666201

  4. Nosocomial Infections: Multicenter surveillance of antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative rods isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Poorabbas


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antibiotic resistance is increasing, especially in healthcare-associated infections causing significant public health concerns worldwide. National information is required to make appropriate policies, update list of essential drugs for treatment, and evaluate the effects of intervention strategies. A nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in nosocomial infections was established in Iran in 2008, so that the data obtained through the surveillance would enable us to construct a database.Materials and Methods: Seven major teaching hospitals in Shiraz, Tabriz, Sari, Mashhad, Sanandaj, Ahwaz and Isfahan participated in this study. A total of 858 strains isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids were tested. Identification at the species level was performed with conventional biochemical methods and the API system. Susceptibility tests were done using disk diffusion method. The methicillin-resistance in S. aureus (MRSA was determined by the oxacillin agar screen plate and respective MIC values were assessed using the E-test strips. The confirmatory disk diffusion methods were applied for phenotypic identification of extended-spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL production for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, according to CLSI guidelines.Results: Cultivation and re-identification of the strains yielded 858 isolates, consisting of 224 S. aureus, 148 Klebsiellaspp., 105 Serratia spp., 146 E. coli, 67 Acinetobacter spp., 38 Enterobacter spp., 95 Pseudomonas spp., 71 P.aeruginosa.35 Stenotrophomonas sp., and 8 other organisms. MRSA was detected in 37.5% of the isolates. No vancomycin-resistant or vancomycin-intermediate resistant S. aureus was detected. With the exception of Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas, 85% of the Gram-negative isolates were found to be susceptible in vitro to imipenem. Overall, about 61% of K. pneumoniae and 35% of E. coli isolates were ESBL producing.Conclusion: Multidrug resistant isolates

  5. Healthcare worker adherence to follow-up after occupational exposure to blood and body fluids at a teaching hospital in Brazil. (United States)

    Escudero, Daniela Vieira Silva; Furtado, Guilherme Henrique Campos; Medeiros, Eduardo Alexandrino


    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at a high risk for exposure to pathogens in the workplace. The objective of this study was to evaluate HCW adherence to follow-up after occupational exposure to blood and body fluids at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected from 2102 occupational exposures to blood and body fluids reports, obtained from the Infection Control Division of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina/Hospital São Paulo, in São Paulo, Brazil, occurring between January of 2005 and December of 2011. To evaluate adherence to post-exposure follow-up among the affected HCWs, we took into consideration follow-up visits for serological testing. For HCWs exposed to materials from source patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV), as well as from source patients of unknown serological status, follow-up serological testing was scheduled for 3 and 6 months after the accident. For those exposed to materials from source patients co-infected with HIV and HCV, follow-up evaluations were scheduled for 3, 6, and 12 months after the accident. During the study period, there were 2056 accidental exposures for which data regarding the serology of the source patient were available. Follow-up evaluation of the affected HCW was recommended in 612 (29.8%) of those incidents. After the implementation of a post-exposure protocol involving telephone calls and official letters mailed to the affected HCW, adherence to follow-up increased significantly, from 30.5 to 54.0% (P = 0.028). Adherence was correlated positively with being female (P = 0.009), with the source of the exposure being known (P = 0.026), with the source patient being HIV positive (P = 0.029), and with the HCW having no history of such accidents (P = 0.047). Adherence to the recommended serological testing was better at the evaluation scheduled for 3 months after the exposure

  6. Hg and As Minerals in Fluid Inclusions from the Williams Mine,Hemlo,and Their Genetic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Hemlo mineralization is enigmatic compared to general Archean lode gold deposits based on the fact that is characterized by an exotic mineralogy containing elements such as As,Hg,Sb,Ba,V and Mo.The genetic concepts range from syngenetc to epigenetic types of mineralization.This reconnaissance study was designed to examine the relationshp of Hg-As minerals with respect of fluid inclusions in the Williams mine(formerly known as the Page Williams mine)covering the A and C ore zones.

  7. Simulating Gas-Liquid-Water Partitioning and Fluid Properties of Petroleum under Pressure: Implications for Deep-Sea Blowouts. (United States)

    Gros, Jonas; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Socolofsky, Scott A; Arey, J Samuel


    With the expansion of offshore petroleum extraction, validated models are needed to simulate the behaviors of petroleum compounds released in deep (>100 m) waters. We present a thermodynamic model of the densities, viscosities, and gas-liquid-water partitioning of petroleum mixtures with varying pressure, temperature, and composition based on the Peng-Robinson equation-of-state and the modified Henry's law (Krychevsky-Kasarnovsky equation). The model is applied to Macondo reservoir fluid released during the Deepwater Horizon disaster, represented with 279-280 pseudocomponents, including 131-132 individual compounds. We define >n-C8 pseudocomponents based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) measurements, which enable the modeling of aqueous partitioning for n-C8 to n-C26 fractions not quantified individually. Thermodynamic model predictions are tested against available laboratory data on petroleum liquid densities, gas/liquid volume fractions, and liquid viscosities. We find that the emitted petroleum mixture was ∼29-44% gas and ∼56-71% liquid, after cooling to local conditions near the broken Macondo riser stub (∼153 atm and 4.3 °C). High pressure conditions dramatically favor the aqueous dissolution of C1-C4 hydrocarbons and also influence the buoyancies of bubbles and droplets. Additionally, the simulated densities of emitted petroleum fluids affect previous estimates of the volumetric flow rate of dead oil from the emission source.

  8. Contrasting sediment melt and fluid signatures for magma components in the Aeolian Arc: Implications for numerical modeling of subduction systems (United States)

    Zamboni, Denis; Gazel, Esteban; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Cannatelli, Claudia; Lucchi, Federico; Atlas, Zachary D.; Trela, Jarek; Mazza, Sarah E.; De Vivo, Benedetto


    The complex geodynamic evolution of Aeolian Arc in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea resulted in melts with some of the most pronounced along the arc geochemical variation in incompatible trace elements and radiogenic isotopes worldwide, likely reflecting variations in arc magma source components. Here we elucidate the effects of subducted components on magma sources along different sections of the Aeolian Arc by evaluating systematics of elements depleted in the upper mantle but enriched in the subducting slab, focusing on a new set of B, Be, As, and Li measurements. Based on our new results, we suggest that both hydrous fluids and silicate melts were involved in element transport from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge. Hydrous fluids strongly influence the chemical composition of lavas in the central arc (Salina) while a melt component from subducted sediments probably plays a key role in metasomatic reactions in the mantle wedge below the peripheral islands (Stromboli). We also noted similarities in subducting components between the Aeolian Archipelago, the Phlegrean Fields, and other volcanic arcs/arc segments around the world (e.g., Sunda, Cascades, Mexican Volcanic Belt). We suggest that the presence of melt components in all these locations resulted from an increase in the mantle wedge temperature by inflow of hot asthenospheric material from tears/windows in the slab or from around the edges of the sinking slab.

  9. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto


    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  10. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis [v2; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Hanson


    Full Text Available Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions, IL1F7 (skin, ALAS2 (blood, MMP10 (menstrual blood, HTN3 (saliva and TGM4 (semen.  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green. Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively

  11. Rapid and inexpensive body fluid identification by RNA profiling-based multiplex High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Hanson


    Full Text Available Positive identification of the nature of biological material present on evidentiary items can be crucial for understanding the circumstances surrounding a crime. However, traditional protein-based methods do not permit the identification of all body fluids and tissues, and thus molecular based strategies for the conclusive identification of all forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues need to be developed. Messenger RNA (mRNA profiling is an example of such a molecular-based approach. Current mRNA body fluid identification assays involve capillary electrophoresis (CE or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR platforms, each with its own limitations. Both platforms require the use of expensive fluorescently labeled primers or probes. CE-based assays require separate amplification and detection steps thus increasing the analysis time. For qRT-PCR assays, only 3-4 markers can be included in a single reaction since each requires a different fluorescent dye. To simplify mRNA profiling assays, and reduce the time and cost of analysis, we have developed single- and multiplex body fluid High Resolution Melt (HRM assays for the identification of common forensically relevant biological fluids and tissues. The incorporated biomarkers include IL19 (vaginal secretions, IL1F7 (skin, ALAS2 (blood, MMP10 (menstrual blood, HTN3 (saliva and TGM4 (semen.  The HRM assays require only unlabeled PCR primers and a single saturating intercalating fluorescent dye (Eva Green. Each body-fluid-specific marker can easily be identified by the presence of a distinct melt peak. Usually, HRM assays are used to detect variants or isoforms for a single gene target. However, we have uniquely developed duplex and triplex HRM assays to permit the simultaneous detection of multiple targets per reaction. Here we describe the development and initial performance evaluation of the developed HRM assays. The results demonstrate the potential use of HRM assays for rapid, and relatively

  12. The colors of cometary nuclei—Comparison with other primitive bodies of the Solar System and implications for their origin (United States)

    Lamy, P.; Toth, I.


    We present new color results of cometary nuclei obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) whose superior resolution enables us to accurately isolate the nucleus signals from the surrounding comae. By combining with scrutinized available data obtained with ground-based telescopes, we accumulated a sample of 51 cometary nuclei, 44 ecliptic comets (ECs) and 7 nearly-isotropic comets (NICs) using the nomenclature of Levison [Levison, H.F., 1996. In: Rettig, T.W., Hahn, J.M. (Eds.), Completing the Inventory of the Solar System. In: ASP Conf. Ser., vol. 107, pp. 173-192]. We analyze color distributions and color-color correlations as well as correlations with other physical parameters. We present our compilation of colors of 232 outer Solar System objects—separately considering the different dynamical populations, classical KBOs in low and high-inclination orbits (respectively CKBO-LI and CKBO-HI), resonant KBOs (practically Plutinos), scattered-disk objects (SDOs) and Centaurs—of 12 candidate dead comets, and of 85 Trojans. We perform a systematic analysis of all color distributions, and conclude by synthesizing the implications of the dynamical evolution and of the colors for the origin of the minor bodies of the Solar System. We find that the color distributions are remarkably consistent with the scenarios of the formation of TNOs by Gomes [Gomes, R.S., 2003. Icarus 161, 404-418] generalized by the "Nice" model [Levison, H.F., Morbidelli, A., VanLaerhoven, Ch., Gomes, R., Tsiganis, L., 2008. Icarus 196, 258-273], and of the Trojans by Morbidelli et al. [Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., 2005. Nature 435, 462-465]. The color distributions of the Centaurs are globally similar to those of the CKBO-HI, the Plutinos and the SDOs. However the potential bimodality of their distributions allows to possibly distinguish two groups based on their (B-R) index: Centaur I with (B-R)>1.7 and Centaurs II with (B-R)<1.4. Centaurs I could be composed of

  13. Microstructure and Characteristics of Calcium Phosphate Layers on Bioactive Oxide Surfaces of Air-Sintered Titanium Foams after Immersion in Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Bin Lee


    Full Text Available We propose a simple and low-cost process for the preparation of porous Ti foams through a sponge replication method using single-step air sintering at various temperatures. In this study, the apatite-forming ability of air-sintered Ti samples after 21 days of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF was investigated. The microstructures of the prepared Ca–P deposits were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In contrast to the control sample sintered in vacuum, which was found to have the simple hexagonal α-Ti phase, the air-sintered samples contained only the rutile phase. High intensities of XRD peaks for rutile TiO2 were obtained with samples sintered at 1000 °C. Moreover, the air-sintered Ti samples had a greater apatite-forming ability than that of the Ti sample sintered in vacuum. Ti samples sintered at 900 and 1000 °C had large aggregated spheroidal particles on their surfaces after immersion in SBF for 21 days. Combined XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and TEM results suggest that the calcium phosphate deposited on the rutile TiO2 surfaces consist of carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite instead of octacalcium phosphate.

  14. Corrosion stability and bioactivity in simulated body fluid of silver/hydroxyapatite and silver/hydroxyapatite/lignin coatings on titanium obtained by electrophoretic deposition. (United States)

    Eraković, Sanja; Janković, Ana; Veljović, Djordje; Palcevskis, Eriks; Mitrić, Miodrag; Stevanović, Tatjana; Janaćković, Djordje; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna


    Hydroxyapatite is the most suitable biocompatible material for bone implant coatings. However, its brittleness is a major obstacle, and that is why, recently, research focused on creating composites with various biopolymers. In this study, hydroxyapatite coatings were modified with lignin in order to attain corrosion stability and surface porosity that enables osteogenesis. Incorporating silver, well known for its antimicrobial properties, seemed the best strategy for avoiding possible infections. The silver/hydroxyapatite (Ag/HAP) and silver/hydroxyapatite/lignin (Ag/HAP/Lig) coatings were cathaphoretically deposited on titanium from ethanol suspensions, sintered at 900 °C in Ar, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion stability of electrodeposited coatings was evaluated in vitro in Kokubo's simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Bioactivity was estimated by immersion in SBF to evaluate the formation of hydroxyapatite on the coating surface. A microcrystalline structure of newly formed plate-shaped carbonate-hydroxyapatite was detected after only 7 days, indicating enhanced bioactive behavior. Both coatings had good corrosion stability during a prolonged immersion time. Among the two, the Ag/HAP/Lig coating had a homogeneous surface, less roughness, and low values of contact angle.

  15. Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang


    The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

  16. Effect of material, process parameters, and simulated body fluids on mechanical properties of 13-93 bioactive glass porous constructs made by selective laser sintering. (United States)

    Kolan, Krishna C R; Leu, Ming C; Hilmas, Gregory E; Velez, Mariano


    The effect of particle size distribution, binder content, processing parameters, and sintering schedule on the microstructure and mechanical properties of porous constructs was investigated. The porous constructs were produced by indirect selective laser sintering (SLS) of 13-93 bioactive glass using stearic acid as a polymeric binder. The binder content and d(50) particle size in the feedstock powders were simultaneously reduced from 22 to 12 wt% and from 20 to 11 μm, respectively, to identify the minimum binder content required for the SLS fabrication. An average particle size of ∼16 μm with a binder content of 15 wt% significantly reduced post-processing time and improved mechanical properties. Increasing the laser power and scan speed at the energy density of 1 cal/cm² maintained the feature sharpness of the parts during the fabrication of green parts and could almost double the mechanical properties of the sintered parts. Changes in the heating rates, ranging from 0.1 to 2 °C/min, during the post-processing of the fabricated "green" scaffolds showed that the heating rate significantly affects the densification and mechanical properties of the sintered scaffolds. The compressive strength of the scaffolds manufactured with the optimized parameters varied from 41 MPa, for a scaffold with a porosity of ∼50%, to 157 MPa, for a dense part. The bioactive scaffolds soaked in simulated body fluids for durations up to 6 weeks were used to evaluate the change in mechanical properties in vitro.

  17. Improvement of bio-corrosion resistance for Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses in simulated body fluid by annealing within supercooled liquid region. (United States)

    Huang, C H; Lai, J J; Wei, T Y; Chen, Y H; Wang, X; Kuan, S Y; Huang, J C


    The effects of the nanocrystalline phases on the bio-corrosion behavior of highly bio-friendly Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses in simulated body fluid were investigated, and the findings are compared with our previous observations from the Zr53Cu30Ni9Al8 metallic glasses. The Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses were annealed at temperatures above the glass transition temperature, Tg, with different time periods to result in different degrees of α-Ti nano-phases in the amorphous matrix. The nanocrystallized Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses containing corrosion resistant α-Ti phases exhibited more promising bio-corrosion resistance, due to the superior pitting resistance. This is distinctly different from the previous case of the Zr53Cu30Ni9Al8 metallic glasses with the reactive Zr2Cu phases inducing serious galvanic corrosion and lower bio-corrosion resistance. Thus, whether the fully amorphous or partially crystallized metallic glass would exhibit better bio-corrosion resistance, the answer would depend on the crystallized phase nature.

  18. The effect of Ca/P concentration and temperature of simulated body fluid on the growth of hydroxyapatite coating on alkali-treated 316L stainless steel. (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Huei; Hsu, Yao-Shan; Lin, Shih-Hsun; Sun, Jui-Sheng


    316L-SS is one of the important materials both in orthopaedics and dentistry for bone screw/plate, intra-medullary rod, fixation wire, HIP joint, and knee joint. However, the biocompatibility and bone-bonding ability troubled researches for years. In the study, a simple chemical method was tried so as to establish and induce a bioactive HA layer on the surface of 316L stainless steel. When the metallic substrates treated with 10 M NaOH aqueous solution and subsequently heated at 600 degrees C, a thin sodium chromium oxide layer was formed on the surfaces as the linking layer for HA and 316L-SS. After 316L-SS treated with alkali solution, it would soak into a simulated body fluid with higher concentration of calcium and phosphorous ions to increase the possibility of nucleation of HA. However, the iron oxide and iron chromium oxides were formed on the surface when calcium and phosphorous ions increased. This resulted in loosening the HA layer. When the alkali-treated 316L-SS was soaked into SBF at a temperature of 80 degrees C, it could form a dense and uniform bone-like hydroxyapatite layer on the surface. In the research, the mechanism of the formation of sodium chromium oxide and HA would also be described by the analysis of X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersion spectrophotometer, and Fourier transformation infrared.

  19. [The effect of a simulated inflammation procedure in simulated body fluid on bone-like apatite formation on porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics]. (United States)

    Ji, Jingou; Ran, Junguo; Gou, Li; Wang, Fangfu; Sun, Luwei


    The formation of bone-like apatite on porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics in dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) undergoing a simulated inflammation procedure (pH = 6.5) was investigated in order to study the mechanism of osteoinduction and build a new method to choose biomaterials with better bioactivity. The results showed that the surface of porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics which underwent a simulated inflammation procedure in dynamic SBF was more smooth. The light acidity in the simulated inflammation procedure would dissolve the fine grains and the parts possessing smaller curvature radius on the surface of porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics, which would reduce the bioceramics solubility. Followed in normal SBF (pH = 7.4), the amount of bone-like apatite formed on the porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics was less than that of porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics incubation in normal SBF all along. The results also showed that the amount of bone-like apatite formed on the porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics sintered by a microwave plasma was more than that of porous HA/beta-TCP bioceramics sintered by a conventional furnace.

  20. Fretting wear behaviour of hydroxyapatite-titanium composites in simulated body fluid, supplemented with 5 g l-1 bovine serum albumin (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Biswas, Krishanu; Basu, Bikramjit


    Damaged articulating joints can be repaired or replaced with synthetic biomaterials, which can release wear debris due to articulation, leading to the osteolysis. In a recent work, it has been shown that it is possible to achieve a better combination of flexural strength/fracture toughness as well as in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility properties in spark plasma sintered hydroxyapatite-titanium (HA-Ti) composites. Although hydroxyapatite and titanium are well documented for their good biocompatibility, nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) and titanium (Ti) particles can cause severe toxicity to cells. In order to address this issue, fretting wear study of HA-Ti composites under dry and wet (1× SBF, supplemented with 5 g l-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA)) condition was performed to assess the wear resistance as well as wear debris formation, in vitro. The experimental results reveal one order of magnitude lower wear rate for HA-10 wt% Ti (7.5 × 10-5 mm3 N-1 m-1) composite than monolithic HA (3.9 × 10-4 mm3 N-1 m-1) in simulated body fluid. The difference in the tribological properties has been analyzed in the light of phase assemblages and mechanical properties. Overall, the results suggest the potential use of HA-Ti composites over existing HA-based biocomposites in orthopedic as well as dental applications.

  1. Experimental Measurements of Permeability Evolution During Brittle Deformation of Crystalline Rocks and Implications for Fluid Flow in Fault Zones (United States)

    Mitchell, T.; Faulkner, D.


    Detailed experimental studies of the development of permeability of crustal rock during deformation are essential in helping to understand fault mechanics and constrain larger scale models that predict bulk fluid flow within the crust. The strength, permeability and pore fluid volume evolution of initially intact crystalline rock (Westerly granite and Cerro Cristales granodiorite) under increasing differential load leading to macroscopic failure has been measured in a triaxial deformation apparatus. Experiments were run under pore water pressures of 50 MPa and varying effective pressures from 10 to 50 MPa. Permeability is seen to increase by up to and over two orders of magnitude prior to macroscopic failure, from 3.5 x 10-21 to 9 x 10-19 m2 with the greatest increase seen at lowest effective pressures. Post-failure permeability is shown to be over 3 orders of magnitude higher than initial intact permeabilities, as high as 4 x 10-18 m2, and approaches lower the limit of measurements of in situ bulk crustal permeabilities. Increasing amplitude cyclic loading tests show permeability-stress hysteresis, with high permeabilities maintained as differential stress is reduced. The largest permeability increases are seen between 90-99% of the failure stress. Under hydrothermal conditions without further loading, it is suggested that much of this permeability can be recovered, and pre-macroscopic failure fracture damage may heal relatively faster than post-failure macroscopic fractures. Pre-failure permeabilities are nearly seven to nine orders of magnitude lower than that predicted by some high pressure diffusive models suggesting that microfracture matrix flow cannot dominate, and agrees with inferences that bulk fluid flow and dilatancy must be dominated by larger scale structures, such as macrofractures. It is suggested that the permeability of a highly stressed fault tip process zone in low-permeability crystalline rocks could increase by more than 2 orders of magnitude

  2. Longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media ideal, peer social comparison, and body dissatisfaction: implications for the tripartite influence model. (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J


    Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media-ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction. A sample of 277 Grade 7 school girls (M age = 12.77 years, SD = 0.44) completed measures of internalization of the media ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 8 months, and 14 months. Path analyses indicated that baseline internalization of the media ideal predicted social appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction at 8 months, and social appearance comparison at 8 months predicted body dissatisfaction at 14 months. A reciprocal effect emerged with body dissatisfaction at 8 months predicting internalization of the media ideal at 14 months. The findings inform sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction, suggesting that internalization of the media ideal precedes and predicts appearance comparison and that body image interventions that target internalization of the media ideal, and social appearance comparison as well as body dissatisfaction are likely to be effective.

  3. Origin of arc-like continental basalts: Implications for deep-Earth fluid cycling and tectonic discrimination (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A.; Xu, Bei; Pang, Chong-Jin


    Continental basalts generally display enrichment of fluid-mobile elements and depletion of high-field-strength elements, similar to those that evolved in the subduction environment, but different from oceanic basalts. Based on the continental flood basalt database for six large igneous provinces, together with rift-related basalt data from the Basin and Range Province, this study aimed to test the validity of geochemical tectonic discrimination diagrams in distinguishing arc-like intra-continental basalts from arc basalts and to further investigate the role of deep-Earth water cycling in producing arc-like signatures in large-scale intra-continental basalts. Our evaluation shows that arc-like intra-continental basalts can be distinguished from arc basalts by integrating the following factors: (1) the FeO, MgO, and Al2O3 concentrations of the primary melt; (2) Tisbnd V, Zrsbnd Zr/Y, Zrsbnd Ti, and Ti/Vsbnd Zr/Smsbnd Sr/Nd discrimination diagrams; (3) the coexistence of arc-like and OIB-like subtype basalts within the same province; (4) primitive mantle-normalized trace element distribution patterns. The similarity of enrichment in fluid-mobile elements (Ba, Rb, Sr, U, and K) between arc-like and true arc basalts suggests the importance of water flux melting in producing arc-like signatures in continental basalts. Experimentally determined liquid lines of descent (LLD) imply high magma water concentrations for continental flood basalts (CFBs) and the Basin and Range basalts. Furthermore, estimates based on the Al2O3-LLD method indicates 4.0-5.0 wt% pre-eruptive magma H2O concentration for CFBs and the Basin and Range basalts. The tight relationships between H2O/Ce and Ba/La, Ba/Nb and Rb/Nb based on global arc basalt data were further used to estimate the primary H2O concentrations. With the exception of the Emeishan CFBs (mainly containing 4.0-5.6 wt% H2O), all other CFBs investigated have similar estimated primary H2O contents, with values ranging from 1.0 to 2

  4. Gas Geochemistry of Volcanic and Geothermal Areas in the Kenya Rift: Implications for the Role of Fluids in Continental Rifting (United States)

    Lee, H.; Fischer, T. P.; Ranka, L. S.; Onguso, B.; Kanda, I.; Opiyo-Akech, N.; Sharp, Z. D.; Hilton, D. R.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Muirhead, J.


    The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift and ideal to investigate the processes of rift initiation and the breaking apart of continental lithosphere. Mantle and crust-derived fluids may play a pivotal role in both magmatism and faulting in the EAR. For instance, large quantities of mantle-derived volatiles are emitted at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano [1, 2]. Throughout the EAR, CO2-dominated volatile fluxes are prevalent [3, 4] and often associated with faults (i.e. Rungwe area, Tanzania, [5, 6]). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between volcanism, faulting and the volatile compositions, focusing on the central and southern Kenyan and northern Tanzanian section of the EAR. We report our analysis results for samples obtained during a 2013 field season in Kenya. Gases were sampled at fumaroles and geothermal plants in caldera volcanoes (T=83.1-120.2°C) and springs (T=40-79.6°C and pH 8.5-10) located near volcanoes, intra-rift faults, and a transverse fault (the Kordjya fault, a key fluid source in the Magadi rift) by 4N-NaOH solution-filled and empty Giggenbach bottles. Headspace gases were analyzed by a Gas Chromatograph and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer at the University of New Mexico. Both N2/Ar and N2/He ratios of all gases (35.38-205.31 and 142.92-564,272, respectively) range between air saturated water (ASW, 40 and ≥150,000) and MORB (100-200 and 40-50). In addition, an N2-Ar-He ternary diagram supports that the gases are produced by two component (mantle and air) mixing. Gases in the empty bottles from volcanoes and springs have N2 (90.88-895.99 mmom/mol), CO2 (2.47-681.21 mmom/mol), CH4 (0-214.78 mmom/mol), O2 (4.47-131.12 mmom/mol), H2 (0-35.78 mmom/mol), Ar (0.15-10.65 mmom/mol), He (0-2.21 mmom/mol), and CO (0-0.08 mmom/mol). Although some of the samples show an atmospheric component, CO2 is a major component in most samples, indicating both volcanoes and springs are emitting CO2. Gases from volcanoes are enriched in

  5. Thermodynamic properties of Fe-S alloys from molecular dynamics modeling: Implications for the lunar fluid core (United States)

    Kuskov, Oleg L.; Belashchenko, David K.


    Density and sound velocity of Fe-S liquids for the P-T parameters of the lunar core have not been constrained well. From the analysis of seismic wave travel time, Weber et al. (2011) proposed that the lunar core is composed of iron alloyed with ⩽6 wt% of light elements, such as S. A controversial issue in models of planetary core composition concerns whether Fe-S liquids under high pressure - temperature conditions provide sound velocity and density data, which match the seismic model. Here we report the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of iron-sulfur alloys based on Embedded Atom Model (EAM). The results of calculations include caloric, thermal and elastic properties of Fe-S alloys at concentrations of sulfur 0-18 at.%, temperatures up to 2500 K and pressures up to 14 GPa. The effect of sulfur on the elastic properties of Fe-rich melts is most evident in the notably decreased density with added S content. In the MD simulation, the density and bulk modulus KT of liquid Fe-S decrease with increasing sulfur content, while the bulk modulus KS decreases as a whole but has some fluctuations with increasing sulfur content. The sound velocity increases with increasing pressure, but depends weakly on temperature and the concentration of sulfur. For a fluid Fe-S core of the Moon (∼5 GPa/2000 K) with 6-16 at.% S (3.5-10 wt%), the sound velocity and density may be estimated at the level of 4000 m s-1 and 6.25-7.0 g cm-3. Comparison of thermodynamic calculations with the results of interpretation of seismic observations shows good agreement of P-wave velocities in the liquid outer core, while the core density does not match the seismic models. At such concentrations of sulfur and a density by 20-35% higher than the model seismic density, a radius for the fluid outer core should be less than about 330 km found by Weber et al. because at the specified mass and moment of inertia values of the Moon an increase of the core density leads to a decrease of the core

  6. Longitudinal Relationships among Internalization of the Media Ideal, Peer Social Comparison, and Body Dissatisfaction: Implications for the Tripartite Influence Model (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; McLean, Siân A.; Paxton, Susan J.


    Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal…

  7. Fluid Shifts (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.


    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  8. Imaging cross fault multiphase flow using time resolved high pressure-temperature synchrotron fluid tomography: implications for the geological storage of carbon dioxide within sandstone saline aquifers (United States)

    Seers, Thomas; Andrew, Matthew; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin; Dobson, Kate; Hodgetts, David; Lee, Peter; Menke, Hannah; Singh, Kamaljit; Parsons, Aaron


    Applied shear stresses within high porosity granular rocks result in characteristic deformation responses (rigid grain reorganisation, dilation, isovolumetric strain, grain fracturing and/or crushing) emanating from elevated stress concentrations at grain contacts. The strain localisation features produced by these processes are generically termed as microfaults (also shear bands), which occur as narrow tabular regions of disaggregated, rotated and/or crushed grains. Because the textural priors that favour microfault formation make their host rocks (esp. porous sandstones) conducive to the storage of geo-fluids, such structures are often abundant features within hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers and potential sites of CO2 storage (i.e. sandstone saline aquifers). The porosity collapse which accompanies microfault formation typically results in localised permeability reduction, often encompassing several orders of magnitude. Given that permeability is the key physical parameter that governs fluid circulation in the upper crust, this petrophysical degradation implicates microfaults as being flow impeding structures which may act as major baffles and/or barriers to fluid flow within the subsurface. Such features therefore have the potential to negatively impact upon hydrocarbon production or CO2 injection, making their petrophysical characterisation of considerable interest. Despite their significance, little is known about the pore-scale processes involved in fluid trapping and transfer within microfaults, particularly in the presence of multiphase flow analogous to oil accumulation, production and CO2 injection. With respect to the geological storage of CO2 within sandstone saline aquifers it has been proposed that even fault rocks with relatively low phyllosilicate content or minimal quartz cementation may act as major baffles or barriers to migrating CO2 plume. Alternatively, as ubiquitous intra-reservoir heterogeneities, micro-faults also have the potential to

  9. A candidate approach implicates the secreted Salmonella effector protein SpvB in P-body disassembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eulalio

    Full Text Available P-bodies are dynamic aggregates of RNA and proteins involved in several post-transcriptional regulation processes. P-bodies have been shown to play important roles in regulating viral infection, whereas their interplay with bacterial pathogens, specifically intracellular bacteria that extensively manipulate host cell pathways, remains unknown. Here, we report that Salmonella infection induces P-body disassembly in a cell type-specific manner, and independently of previously characterized pathways such as inhibition of host cell RNA synthesis or microRNA-mediated gene silencing. We show that the Salmonella-induced P-body disassembly depends on the activation of the SPI-2 encoded type 3 secretion system, and that the secreted effector protein SpvB plays a major role in this process. P-body disruption is also induced by the related pathogen, Shigella flexneri, arguing that this might be a new mechanism by which intracellular bacterial pathogens subvert host cell function.

  10. Mediators of the relationship between media literacy and body dissatisfaction in early adolescent girls: implications for prevention. (United States)

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H


    This study examined in young adolescent girls the fit of a theoretical model of the contribution of media literacy to body dissatisfaction via the mediating influences of internalisation of media ideals and appearance comparisons. Female Grade 7 students (N=469) completed self-report assessments of media literacy, internalisation, appearance comparisons, body dissatisfaction, and media exposure. Strong, significant inverse associations between media literacy and body dissatisfaction, internalisation, and appearance comparisons were observed. Path analysis revealed that a slightly modified revision of the model provided a good fit to the data. Specifically, body dissatisfaction was influenced directly by appearance comparisons, internalisation, and body mass index, and indirectly by media literacy and media exposure. Indirect pathways were mediated by appearance comparisons and internalisation. Thus, a relationship between media literacy and eating disorder risk factors was observed. Findings may explain positive outcomes of media literacy interventions in eating disorder prevention.

  11. Breakdown of lawsonite subsequent to peak UHP metamorphism in the Dabie terrane and its implication for fluid activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuping; LI Yiliang; SHU Guiming


    Abundant occurrences of quartz vein withineclogites in the Dabie-Sulu orogen provide us an opportu-nity to study metamorphic fluid flow during subduction andexhumation of continental crust. It is, however, usuallyshort of petrological constraints on pressure and tempera-ture of vein formation. This study focuses on kyanite-quartz veins within low-T/high-P eclogite in the Dabie terrane that contain unique polycrystalline aggregates, interpreted as pseudomorphs after porphyroblasts of lawsonite. Coesite pseudomorphs were found for the first time in garnet from eclogite, resulting in a revised estimate of peak P-T condi-tions at 670℃ and 3.3 GPa for the eclogite. This indicates a stability field at graphite/diamond transition, thus upgrading the HP unit to a UHP unit. Neither foliation texture, undulose extinction of quartz nor coesite were observed in quartz veins, although the peak P-T conditions were estimated the same as that in host eclogite in light of thermodynamic calculation based on mineral assemblage in kyanite-quartz veins. Therefore, the formation of the kyanite-quartz veins as well as the breakdown of lawsonite into the kyanite-quartz-zoisite assemblage took place during exhumation subsequent to the peak UHP conditions. In this regard, the continental subduc-tion not only brought the water of water-bearing mineral such as lawsonite into the deep mantle, but also released the water from the mineral during exhumation.

  12. Thyroid Autoantibodies in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Subjects with and without Thyroid Disease: Implications for Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ilias


    Full Text Available Introduction. Plasma antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg are widely used in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis. No research has compared anti-TPO and anti-Tg both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of healthy individuals vis-à-vis patients with thyroid disease. Methods. We measured anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies in plasma and CSF in nine subjects (mean age ± SD: 73 ± 6 years with hypothyroidism and nine subjects (mean age ± SD: 73 ± 8 years without thyroid disease. Results. The concentration of anti-TPO autoantibodies in CSF was very low compared to plasma in both subjects with thyroid and without thyroid disease (P=0.007. CSF anti-Tg autoantibodies titers were very low compared to the plasma in subjects with thyroid disease (P=0.004, whereas, in subjects without thyroid disease, this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.063. Conclusions. Thyroid autoantibodies levels were low in plasma and CSF; we did not observe any transfer of thyroid autoantibodies from the peripheral blood to the CSF. Therefore, regarding Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, where elevated antithyroid autoantibodies are often measured in blood, it is more likely that thyroiditis and encephalopathy represent nonspecific, but distinct, events of an aggressive immune system.

  13. The Application in Body Armor Based on Shear Thickening Fluid%基于剪切增稠液体防护装甲的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马勇; 陈宏书; 王结良; 张五龙


    This paper has introduced the composition, basic properties and rheological mechanism of the shear thickening fluid (STF), factors affecting STF's theological mechanism and research methods studying STF's theological mechanism are discussed too. Besides, it has explained the preparation of silica and the polyethylene glycol (PEG) / nano-silica particles system in STF, PEG/SiO2 system's thickening mechanism has also been commented. Based on the research on STF, this paper has studied the liquid body armor composed of STF-fabric, excellent protective properties, mechanism of bulletproof and stab-resistant (anti-spike, anti-knife) of STF-fabric have been described, besides, the mechanism of stab-resistant of STF-Kevlar has also been introduced. Next, the paper has introduced drop tower testing and quasi-static testing. And the last part of the paper presents a vision on the future research on the liquid body armor.%综述了剪切增稠液体(ShearThickeningFluid,即STF)的基本性质、组成成分、流变机理,影响STF流变性能的诸多因素以及对STF流变性能的研究方法,介绍了STF中聚乙二醇(PEG)/纳米SiO:颗粒体系和Si02的制备方法,对PEG/SiO。的增稠机理进行了讲解。在对STF研究的基础上,阐述了STF-织物组成的液体防护装甲的优异防护性能、防弹和防刺(防锥、防刀)机理,讲述了STF—Kevlar构成的液体防护装甲及防刺机理,介绍了动态防刺测试和准静态防刺测试,最后对液体防护装甲未来研究方面进行了展望。

  14. In vitro investigation of biodegradable polymeric coating for corrosion resistance of Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Swati, E-mail: [IITB–Monash Research Academy, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Singh Raman, R.K. [Department of Mechanical, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Khanna, A.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)


    A silane-based biodegradable coating was developed and investigated to improve corrosion resistance of an Mg-6Zn-Ca magnesium alloy to delay the biodegradation of the alloy in the physiological environment. Conditions were optimized to develop a stable and uniform hydroxide layer on the alloys surface—known to facilitate silane-substrate adhesion. A composite coating of two silanes, namely, diethylphosphatoethyltriethoxysilane (DEPETES) and bis-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl] tetrasulfide (BTESPT), was developed, by the sol-gel route. Corrosion resistance of the coated alloy was characterized in a modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF), using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The silane coating provided significant and durable corrosion resistance. During the course of this, hydrogen evolution and pH variation, if any, were monitored for both bare and coated alloys. The coating morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and the cross-linking in the coating was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, an important finding was the presence of hydrated magnesium phosphate on the sample that was subjected to immersion in m-SBF for 216 h. Magnesium phosphate is reported to support osteoblast formation and tissue healing. - Highlights: • A silane-based coating was investigated for improving corrosion resistance. • Coating was developed on Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy to delay its biodegradation in m-SBF. • Corrosion resistance was characterized, using polarization and EIS. • The coating morphology was characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD and FTIR. • 1:4 volume ratio of DEPETES:BTESPT showed significant corrosion resistance.

  15. In vitro bioactivity study of TiCaPCO(N) and Ag-doped TiCaPCO(N) films in simulated body fluid. (United States)

    Sukhorukova, I V; Sheveyko, A N; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph V; Levashov, E A; Shtansky, D V


    Bioactivity of multicomponent TiCaPCO(N) and Ag-doped TiCaPCO(N) films was evaluated in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF) and compared with that of bioactive glass Biogran. The first group of films was fabricated by magnetron sputtering of composite TiС0.5 -Ti3 POx -CaO target produced via the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method (TiCaPCON films), after which their surface was implanted with Ag(+) ions to obtain Ag-doped TiCaPCON films. The second group of films was fabricated by pulsed electrospark deposition (PED) using SHS-produced composite TiС0.5 -Ti3 POx -CaO and TiС0.5 -Ti3 POx -CaO-Ag electrodes. After immersion in SBF, the structure and chemistry of surface were well characterized using a combination of various microanalytical techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (both in conventional and grazing incidence mode), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed that the surfaces of the TiCaPCO(N) and Ag-doped TiCaPCO(N) films were bioactive in vitro and induced the formation of an apatite layer during exposure in SBF. In the case of the magnetron-sputtered films, the apatite layer was formed over 14 days, while 28 days were needed to form CaP phase on the surface of PED-modified samples. Various factors (film structure, surface roughness, surface functional groups, surface charge, and composition, supersaturation, and near-surface local supersaturation of SBF) affecting the kinetics of bone-like apatite formation on a bioactive surface are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 193-203, 2017.

  16. Corrosion of Mg-Li Alloy in Solution of Simulating Human Body Fluid%镁锂合金在模拟人体体液中的腐蚀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓梅; 王艳艳; 刘飒


    采用电化学方法研究了镁锂合金在模拟人体体液中的腐蚀行为,采用扫描电镜观察了腐蚀后的表面形貌,并用失重法研究了腐蚀速率。结果表明,镁锂合金的腐蚀属于析氢腐蚀,随腐蚀时间的增加,阳极活性溶解受到抑制。镁锂合金在模拟人体体液中的电化学反应电阻比在pH=7的3.5%NaCl溶液中的电化学反应电阻高20多倍。腐蚀24h后,镁锂合金表面变黑,仍有大面积没有被腐蚀的区域,腐蚀区域内蚀坑数量较多,但腐蚀坑小而浅。%The corrosion behavior of Mg-Li alloy in simulating human body fluid solution was investigated by electrochemical methods. The corrosion morphology was analyzed by SEM, and the average corrosion rate was detected by weight loss method. The results showed that the corrosion of Mg-Li alloy was hydrogen corrosion; with the increase of time, the corrosion of Mg-Li alloy was restricted. The electrochemical reaction resistance was 20 times larger than that of Mg-Li alloy in 3. 5% NaC1 solution of pH= 7. After 24 hours corrosion, there were still many areas not corroded in the surface; the corrosion surface of Mg-Li alloy became black and there were many small and shallow corrosion pits on it.

  17. Development of a new multi-analyte assay for the simultaneous detection of opioids in serum and other body fluids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Eckart, K; Röhrich, J; Breitmeier, D; Ferner, M; Laufenberg-Feldmann, R; Urban, R


    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using electrospray ionization in positive ionization mode was developed for the simultaneous detection of multiple opioid-type drugs in plasma. The presented assay allows the quantitative determination of alfentanil, buprenorphine, codeine, desomorphine, dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, ethylmorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, naloxone, naltrexone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine, pholcodine, piritramide, remifentanil, sufentanil, and tramadol as well as the metabolites 6-monoacetylmorphine, bisnortilidine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, naltrexol, norbuprenorphine, norfentanyl, norpethidine, nortilidine, and O-desmethyltramadol. Serum and blood samples were purified by solid-phase extraction. The analytes were separated on a phenyl-hexyl (100mm) column by formic acid/acetonitrile gradient elution using an UPLC 1290 Infinity coupled with a 6490 Triple Quadrupole mass spectrometer. The limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.6ng/mL and the lower limits of quantification ranged from 0.1 to 2.0ng/mL. The calibration curves were linear between Calibration Levels 1-6 for all 35 substances. Recovery rates ranged between 51 and 88% for all compounds except alfentanil, bisnortilidine, pethidine, and morphine-3-glucuronide. The matrix effect ranged from 86% for ethylmorphine to 105% for desomorphine. Using the validation procedure proposed by the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry, acceptable precision and accuracy data for almost all analytes were obtained. The method was successfully applied to 206 authentic serum samples provided by the palliative and intensive care units of the University Medical Center and the police authorities. Furthermore, a suspected fatal intoxication is demonstrated by an analysis of the sufentanil in post mortem body fluids and tissues.

  18. Metabolic expenditures of lunge feeding rorquals across scale: implications for the evolution of filter feeding and the limits to maximum body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Potvin

    Full Text Available Bulk-filter feeding is an energetically efficient strategy for resource acquisition and assimilation, and facilitates the maintenance of extreme body size as exemplified by baleen whales (Mysticeti and multiple lineages of bony and cartilaginous fishes. Among mysticetes, rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae exhibit an intermittent ram filter feeding mode, lunge feeding, which requires the abandonment of body-streamlining in favor of a high-drag, mouth-open configuration aimed at engulfing a very large amount of prey-laden water. Particularly while lunge feeding on krill (the most widespread prey preference among rorquals, the effort required during engulfment involve short bouts of high-intensity muscle activity that demand high metabolic output. We used computational modeling together with morphological and kinematic data on humpback (Megaptera noveaangliae, fin (Balaenoptera physalus, blue (Balaenoptera musculus and minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whales to estimate engulfment power output in comparison with standard metrics of metabolic rate. The simulations reveal that engulfment metabolism increases across the full body size of the larger rorqual species to nearly 50 times the basal metabolic rate of terrestrial mammals of the same body mass. Moreover, they suggest that the metabolism of the largest body sizes runs with significant oxygen deficits during mouth opening, namely, 20% over maximum VO2 at the size of the largest blue whales, thus requiring significant contributions from anaerobic catabolism during a lunge and significant recovery after a lunge. Our analyses show that engulfment metabolism is also significantly lower for smaller adults, typically one-tenth to one-half VO2|max. These results not only point to a physiological limit on maximum body size in this lineage, but also have major implications for the ontogeny of extant rorquals as well as the evolutionary pathways used by ancestral toothed whales to transition from hunting

  19. Metabolic expenditures of lunge feeding rorquals across scale: implications for the evolution of filter feeding and the limits to maximum body size. (United States)

    Potvin, Jean; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Shadwick, Robert E


    Bulk-filter feeding is an energetically efficient strategy for resource acquisition and assimilation, and facilitates the maintenance of extreme body size as exemplified by baleen whales (Mysticeti) and multiple lineages of bony and cartilaginous fishes. Among mysticetes, rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) exhibit an intermittent ram filter feeding mode, lunge feeding, which requires the abandonment of body-streamlining in favor of a high-drag, mouth-open configuration aimed at engulfing a very large amount of prey-laden water. Particularly while lunge feeding on krill (the most widespread prey preference among rorquals), the effort required during engulfment involve short bouts of high-intensity muscle activity that demand high metabolic output. We used computational modeling together with morphological and kinematic data on humpback (Megaptera noveaangliae), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) whales to estimate engulfment power output in comparison with standard metrics of metabolic rate. The simulations reveal that engulfment metabolism increases across the full body size of the larger rorqual species to nearly 50 times the basal metabolic rate of terrestrial mammals of the same body mass. Moreover, they suggest that the metabolism of the largest body sizes runs with significant oxygen deficits during mouth opening, namely, 20% over maximum VO2 at the size of the largest blue whales, thus requiring significant contributions from anaerobic catabolism during a lunge and significant recovery after a lunge. Our analyses show that engulfment metabolism is also significantly lower for smaller adults, typically one-tenth to one-half VO2|max. These results not only point to a physiological limit on maximum body size in this lineage, but also have major implications for the ontogeny of extant rorquals as well as the evolutionary pathways used by ancestral toothed whales to transition from hunting individual prey

  20. A comparison of ARMS and direct sequencing for EGFR mutation analysis and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors treatment prediction in body fluid samples of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation is strongly associated with the therapeutic effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Nevertheless, tumor tissue that needed for mutation analysis is frequently unavailable. Body fluid was considered to be a feasible substitute for the analysis, but arising problems in clinical practice such as relatively lower mutation rate and poor clinical correlation are not yet fully resolved. Method In this study, 50 patients (32 pleural fluids and 18 plasmas with TKIs therapy experience and with direct sequencing results were selected from 220 patients for further analysis. The EGFR mutation status was re-evaluated by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS, and the clinical outcomes of TKIs were analyzed retrospectively. Results As compared with direct sequencing, 16 positive and 23 negative patients were confirmed by ARMS, and the other 11 former negative patients (6 pleural fluids and 5 plasmas were redefined as positive, with a fairly well clinical outcome (7 PR, 3 SD, and 1 PD. The objective response rate (ORR of positive patients was significant, 81.3% (direct sequencing and 72.7% (ARMS for pleural fluids, and 80% (ARMS for plasma. Notably, even reclassified by ARMS, the ORR for negative patients was still relatively high, 60% for pleural fluids and 46.2% for plasma. Conclusions When using body fluids for EGFR mutation analysis, positive result is consistently a good indicator for TKIs therapy, and the predictive effect was no less than that of tumor tissue, no matter what method was employed. However, even reclassified by ARMS, the correlation between negative results and clinical outcome of TKIs was still unsatisfied. The results indicated that false negative mutation still existed, which may be settled by using method with sensitivity to single DNA molecule or by optimizing the extraction procedure with RNA or CTC to

  1. Unresolved issues in the analysis of F2-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, isofurans, neurofurans, and F2-dihomo-isoprostanes in body fluids and tissue using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Yen, H-C; Wei, H-J; Lin, C-L


    F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) generated from arachidonic acid (AA) have been recognized as the most reliable marker of nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in vivo. F2-IsoPs are initially produced in esterified form on phospholipids, and then released into body fluids in free form. The same mechanism can lead to generation of F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) and F2-dihomo-IsoPs from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and adrenic acid, respectively. In addition, isofurans (IsoFs) and neurofurans (NFs) may be preferentially produced from AA and DHA, respectively, under high oxygen tension. The detection of F2-IsoPs using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) has been widely employed, which is important for human body fluids containing low quantity of free-form F2-IsoPs. F4-NPs have also been detected using GC/NICI-MS, but multiple peaks need to be quantified. In this paper, we summarize the basic workflow of the GC/NICI-MS method for analyzing F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs, and various formats of assays conducted by different groups. We then discuss the feasibility of simultaneous analysis of IsoFs, NFs, and F2-dihomo-IsoPs with F2-IsoPs or F4-NPs. Representative GC chromatograms for analyzing these markers in human body fluids and rat brain tissue are demonstrated. Furthermore, we discuss several factors that may affect the performance of the analysis, such as those related to the sample processing steps, interference from specimens, types of GC liners used, and the addition of electron multiplier voltage in the method setting for the MS detector. Finally, we question the appropriateness of measuring total (free plus esterified) levels of these markers in body fluids.

  2. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of dopamine and epinephrine in human body fluid samples using a glassy carbon electrode modified with nickel oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes within a dihexadecylphosphate film. (United States)

    Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C S; Silva, Tiago A; Vicentini, Fernando C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando


    A simple and highly selective electrochemical method was developed for the single or simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and epinephrine (EP) in human body fluids using a glassy carbon electrode modified with nickel oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes within a dihexadecylphosphate film using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) or differential-pulse voltammetry (DPV). Using DPV with the proposed electrode, a separation of ca. 360 mV between the peak reduction potentials of DA and EP present in binary mixtures was obtained. The analytical curves for the simultaneous determination of dopamine and epinephrine showed an excellent linear response, ranging from 7.0 × 10(-8) to 4.8 × 10(-6) and 3.0 × 10(-7) to 9.5 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) for DA and EP, respectively. The detection limits for the simultaneous determination of DA and EP were 5.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) and 8.2 × 10(-8) mol L(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of these analytes in human body fluid samples of cerebrospinal fluid, human serum and lung fluid.

  3. Discussion About Disease Syndrome of Qi and Blood and Body Fluid from the Viewpoint of Activities of Qi%从气化论气血津液病证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯双双; 张瑜; 张美玉; 靳冬慧; 阚振棣; 鞠静; 庄园; 蒋璐; 杜武勋


    中医学从生理、病因、病理,到辨证、施治,无一不是以气化论为理论根据的,因此,气化论是中医理论体系的真正核心,中医理论本质是气化论.气化作用激发和协调着气、血、津液有形与无形之间的相互变化,维持着各个脏腑官窍的正常活动和机体的整个生命全过程.人体内气、血、津、液的产生、输布、发挥作用等,亦无不有赖于气化.气化有常,则津液流行,气血充盛,五脏安和,疾病不生;气化失常则津液不行,气血衰少,五脏动摇,变生百病;气体终止,则精气竭绝,阴阳离散.在临床上无论治疗气血病证,亦或是津液病证,调理气机、推动气化都是治疗的关键.%All the aspects from physiology,etiology and pathology to therapy based on syndrome differentiation regard theory of activities of qi as theoretical basis,so theory of activities of qi the real core of TCM theory system,and the essence of traditional Chinese medicine theory is theory of activities of qi.Activities of qi stimulate and coordinate the mutual changes between qi and blood and body fluid,maintain the normal activities of viscera and each office and the the body's whole life process.Production,distribution and function of qi and blood and body fluid all depend on activities of qi.The normal activities of qi can make body fluid move smoothly,qi and blood sufficient,the five zang-organs harmonize each other and healthy;Disorder of activities of qi lead to body fluid move unsmoothly,qi and blood insufficient,the five zang-organs in disharmony,and all kinds of diseases;The no movement of qi leads to exhausted essence,yin and yang to separate from each other.In clinical practice,whether treating syndrome of qi-blood disease or syndrome of body fluid,regulating and promoting qi activities are vital.

  4. The Dynamics Of Inner Solar System Bodies With 2.8 < Tj < 3.2 And The Implications For The Origin Of Main-Belt Comets (United States)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Hsieh, Henry H.


    Main-belt comets (MBCs) have attracted a great deal of interest since their identification as a new class of bodies by Hsieh and Jewitt in 2006. Much of this interest is due to the implication that MBC activity is driven by the sublimation of volatile material (presumed to be water ice) presenting these bodies as probable candidates for the delivery of a significant fraction of the Earth’s water. An interesting characteristic of these objects is that while similar to comets, they have comae and dusty tails, they resemble asteroids, dynamically (i.e., their Tisserand numbers with respect to Jupiter, Tj, are larger than 3). The Tisserand parameter is a conserved quantity in the restricted three-body problem, and the Tisserand parameter with respect to Jupiter is frequently used to distinguish between asteroids (Tj>3), which are thought to be stable on Gyr timescales, and comets (Tjfact not as distinct as the common use of the Tisserand parameter would suggest. We studied the dynamical evolution of test particles with Tisserand numbers ranging from 2.8 to 3.2 to explore the behavior of solar system objects (such as MBCs) with Tj values close to the canonical asteroid-comet boundary of 3. We find, as expected, that Tj is not a hard boundary between asteroids and comets, and that we can expect to find objects that are dynamically stable (over the time period of integrations) with Tj3. Dynamical stability can be seen to be a function of not just Tj, but also other orbital elements such as the eccentricity and aphelion distance. We will report on the detailed findings of our analysis and discuss their implications for the origin of MBCs.

  5. Measurement of {sup 40}K as an indicator of body potassium: Implication for diabetes and other disease conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniyan, C.G.; Mohan, G.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Sujata, R.; Haridasan, P.P.; Khan, A.H


    Potassium (K) content in 408 male workers of a rare earths processing plant was estimated using a shadow shield whole body counter. The average K content in the non-vegetarian and vegetarian group was found to be 1.5 g kg{sup -1} and 2.1 g kg{sup -1} respectively. The absorbed dose due to {sup 40}K works out to 0.18 {+-} 0.02 mGy. While the K content was found to be proportional to body build index, it is inversely proportional to slenderness. Body K was maximum in the middle aged group (35-45 y) and minimum in younger and older persons. The correlation of potassium content with some disease patterns were also studied. Diabetes mellitus patients were observed to have low K content of 0.9 {+-} 0.2 g kg{sup -1} and those who suffer from cardiovascular disorders were found to have high K content 2.7 {+-} 0.3 g kg{sup -1}. The studies showed that the depletion of body K content takes place a few years prior to the clinical detection of diabetes and it builds up a few years before the clinical detection of cardiovascular disorders. It is stressed that the medical information is preliminary as the number of subjects studied was not very large. Wider and in depth study by various groups can hopefully strengthen the observation. (author)

  6. Resistance training priming activity improves upper body power output in rugby players: Implications for game day performance. (United States)

    Mason, Billy R J; Argus, Christos K; Norcott, Ben; Ball, Nick


    'Priming' or pre-activation strategies performed in the hours leading into competition have been suggested to improve game day performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effectiveness of a resistance training priming activity on eliciting changes in lower- and upper-body power output, along with perceptual measures. To assess these changes, 13 state level rugby players (aged 18.5 ± 0.5 years) completed a test retest protocol using a counterbalanced crossover design. Perceptual (readiness to perform questionnaire) and performance measures (20 kg counter-movement jump (CMJ), 20 kg bench throw) were completed prior to either a control (rest) or priming activity (four sets of three banded back squats and banded bench press). Following a one hour and 45 minute recovery period, perceptual and performance measures were repeated. Readiness to perform showed no meaningful differences pre and post intervention. Bench throw peak power (8.5 ± 5.8%, 90% confidence limit; ppriming activity when compared to the control trial. CMJ peak power (3.4 ± 4.9%; p>0.05) had a small decrease following the priming activity when compared with the control trial. Therefore, completing a priming activity one hour and 45 minutes prior to competition is recommended to improve upper body power output. However, further research into lower body priming protocols should be conducted before implementing a lower body priming activity prior to competition.

  7. Thermal history of the H-chondrite parent body: Implications for metamorphic grade and accretionary time-scales (United States)

    Monnereau, Marc; Toplis, Michael J.; Baratoux, David; Guignard, Jérémy


    Multiple temperature-age constraints for eight H-chondrite samples have been used to provide insight into the thermal history of their parent-body through combination with numerical models of thermal evolution assuming internal heating by 26Al and conductive cooling. The effect of spreading accretion out over time is the principal focus of this work. A wide range of body size and date of accretion is systematically tested for different values of accretion rate in order to quantify and illustrate the parameter space that is consistent with the available thermo-chronological data. We conclude that the H-chondrite samples considered have a thermal history consistent with a parent body that at some stage had a concentric 'onion-shell' internal structure. That body had a radius no larger than 130 km, and accretion most probably took place over a time interval on the order of 0.0-0.2 Myr, approximately 2 Myr after CAI condensation. In any case, the time interval of accretion is unlikely to have been more than 0.5 Myr supporting evidence in favour of rapid accretion, possibly through reassembly of the fragments of an earlier generation of bodies. Furthermore, the H-chondrites studied here are inferred to have come from a wide depth range within the body where they experienced metamorphism, indicating that preservation of the onion-shell structure is unlikely. The presence of an insulating regolith does not modify this conclusion, as appropriate thermal histories for the three H6 samples considered cannot be reproduced at depths near the surface. Asteroid 6-Hebe may be the parent body of the H-chondrites, but the high bulk density of the latter is difficult to reconcile with a 'rubble-pile' structure of pure H-chondrite material. Finally, optimized thermal histories are used to constrain the temperatures characterizing boundaries between petrological types (800, 1000, and 1140 K for the H3/4, H4/5, and H5/6 boundaries respectively). In detail, the type 6 samples studied

  8. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Ramos

    Full Text Available Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  9. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia. (United States)

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M


    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  10. Gamma spectrometric and magnetic interpretation of Cabaçal copper deposit in Mato Grosso (Brazil): Implications for hydrothermal fluids remobilization (United States)

    Ribeiro, Vanessa Biondo; Mantovani, Marta Silvia Maria


    The Cabaçal Au-Zn-Cu Deposit, Mato Grosso, Brazil, was explored between 1987 and 1991, when 869,279 tons of ore rich in Au and Cu have been extracted. The hydrothermal alteration in the Cabaçal mine suggests a volcanogenic genetic model in which hydrothermal centers generated sericitization, chloritization and silicification alterations at different stages. The hydrothermal alteration affects the radioelements in different ways, generating a characteristic gamma spectrometric signature for the affected area. The eTh/K ratio map evidenced that the hydrothermalized area extends beyond south limits of the Cabaçal gabbro dykes formation, which host Cabaçal and Santa Helena mines. Magnetic data over the region show the same behavior for this formation, indicating that the magnetic source extends in subsurface. This behavior was recovered by the 3D model inverted for the region, which recovered a positive apparent magnetic contrast associated with this body, with an increasing deepness to south. It is possible that the south subsurface portion of the magnetic source may contain economic concentrations of Au remobilized by hydrothermal fluids. However, to confirm this hypothesis it is necessary to develop geochemical and borehole analysis of the area.

  11. Microhabitat and body size effects on heat tolerance: implications for responses to climate change (army ants: Formicidae, Ecitoninae). (United States)

    Baudier, Kaitlin M; Mudd, Abigail E; Erickson, Shayna C; O'Donnell, Sean


    1. Models that predict organismal and population responses to climate change may be improved by considering ecological factors that affect species thermal tolerance. Species differences in microhabitat use can expose animals to diverse thermal selective environments at a given site and may cause sympatric species to evolve different thermal tolerances. 2. We tested the hypothesis that species differences in body size and microhabitat use (above- vs. below-ground activity) would correspond to differences in thermal tolerance (maximum critical temperatures: CTmax ). Thermal buffering effects of soil can reduce exposure to extreme high temperatures for below-ground active species. We predicted larger-bodied individuals and species would have higher CTmax and that species mean CTmax would covary positively with degree of above-ground activity. We used Neotropical army ants (Formicidae: Ecitoninae) as models. Army ants vary in microhabitat use from largely subterranean to largely above-ground active species and are highly size polymorphic. 3. We collected data on above- and below-ground temperatures in habitats used by army ants to test for microhabitat temperature differences, and we conducted CTmax assays for army ant species with varying degrees of surface activity and with different body sizes within and between species. We then tested whether microhabitat use was associated with species differences in CTmax and whether microhabitat was a better predictor of CTmax than body size for species that overlapped in size. 4. Microhabitat use was a highly significant predictor of species' upper thermal tolerance limits, both for raw data and after accounting for the effects of phylogeny. Below-ground species were more thermally sensitive, with lower maximum critical temperatures (CTmax ). The smallest workers within each species were the least heat tolerant, but the magnitude of CTmax change with body size was greater in below-ground species. Species-typical microhabitat

  12. The occurrence of fluor-wagnerite in UHT granulites and its implications towards understanding fluid regimes in the evolution of deep crust: a case study from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India (United States)

    Das, Kaushik; Tomioka, Naotaka; Bose, Sankar; Ando, Jun-ichi; Ohnishi, Ichiro


    We report the occurrence of a rare phosphate mineral, fluor-wagnerite (Mg1.91-1.94Fe0.06-0.07Cafluor-wagnerite can act as an indicator for the presence of F-bearing fluids for rocks with high X Mg and/or fO2. The occurrence of F-rich minerals as monitors for fluid compositions has important implications for the onset of biotite dehydration melting and hence melt production in the deep crust. We propose that fluor-wagnerite can occur as an accessory mineral associated with F-rich fluids in lower-mid crustal rocks, and F in coexisting minerals should be taken into consideration when reconciling the petrogenetic grid of biotite-dehydration melting.

  13. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.


    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  14. A computational analysis of limb and body dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with implications for locomotion, ontogeny, and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Hutchinson

    Full Text Available The large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex underwent remarkable changes during its growth from 6000 kg adults in <20 years. These changes raise fascinating questions about the morphological transformations involved, peak growth rates, and scaling of limb muscle sizes as well as the body's centre of mass that could have influenced ontogenetic changes of locomotion in T. rex. Here we address these questions using three-dimensionally scanned computer models of four large, well-preserved fossil specimens as well as a putative juvenile individual. Furthermore we quantify the variations of estimated body mass, centre of mass and segment dimensions, to characterize inaccuracies in our reconstructions. These inaccuracies include not only subjectivity but also incomplete preservation and inconsistent articulations of museum skeletons. Although those problems cause ambiguity, we conclude that adult T. rex had body masses around 6000-8000 kg, with the largest known specimen ("Sue" perhaps ∼9500 kg. Our results show that during T. rex ontogeny, the torso became longer and heavier whereas the limbs became proportionately shorter and lighter. Our estimates of peak growth rates are about twice as rapid as previous ones but generally support previous methods, despite biases caused by the usage of scale models and equations that underestimate body masses. We tentatively infer that the hindlimb extensor muscles masses, including the large tail muscle M. caudofemoralis longus, may have decreased in their relative size as the centre of mass shifted craniodorsally during T. rex ontogeny. Such ontogenetic changes would have worsened any relative or absolute decline of maximal locomotor performance. Regardless, T. rex probably had hip and thigh muscles relatively larger than any extant animal's. Overall, the limb "antigravity" muscles may have been as large as or even larger than those of ratite birds, which themselves have the most muscular limbs of any living

  15. Swimming strategy and body plan of the world’s largest fish: implications for foraging efficiency and thermoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eMeekan


    Full Text Available The largest animals in the oceans eat prey that are orders of magnitude smaller than themselves, implying strong selection for cost-effective foraging to meet their energy demands. Whale sharks (Rhincodon typus may be especially challenged by warm seas that elevate their metabolism and contain sparse prey resources. Using a combination of biologging and satellite tagging, we show that whale sharks use four strategies to save energy and improve foraging efficiency: 1 fixed, low power swimming, 2 constant low speed swimming, 3 gliding and 4 asymmetrical diving. These strategies increase foraging efficiency by 22 – 32% relative to swimming horizontally and resolve the energy-budget paradox of whale sharks. However, sharks in the open ocean must access food resources that reside in relatively cold waters (up to 20oC cooler than the surface at depths of 250-500 m during the daytime, where long, slow gliding descents, continuous ram ventilation of the gills and filter-feeding could rapidly cool the circulating blood and body tissues. We suggest that whale sharks may overcome this problem through their large size and a specialized body plan that isolates highly vascularized red muscle on the dorsal surface, allowing heat to be retained near the centre of the body within a massive core of white muscle. This could allow a warm-adapted species to maintain enhanced function of organs and sensory systems while exploiting food resources in deep, cool water.

  16. Light-induced disassembly of dusty bodies in inner protoplanetary discs: implications for the formation of planets

    CERN Document Server

    Wurm, Gerhard


    Laboratory experiments show that a solid-state greenhouse effect in combination with thermophoresis can efficiently erode a dust bed in a low-pressure gaseous environment. The surface of an illuminated, light absorbing dusty body is cooler than the dust below the surface (solidstate greenhouse effect). This temperature gradient leads to a directed momentum transfer between gas and dust particles and the dust particles are subject to a force towards the surface(thermophoresis). If the thermophoretic force is stronger than gravity and cohesion, dust particles are ejected. Applied to protoplanetary discs, dusty bodies smaller than several kilometres in size which are closer to a star than about 0.4 au are subject to a rapid and complete disassembly to submillimetre size dust aggregates by this process. While an inward-drifting dusty body is destroyed, the generated dust is not lost for the disc by sublimation or subsequent accretion on to the star but can be reprocessed by photophoresis or radiation pressure. Pl...

  17. Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Body Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Endurance Athletes during The Course of Treadmill Exercise Performed at 30 °C for 90 minute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pense

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on body fluid and electrolyte balancein endurance athletes during the course of treadmill exercise performed at 30C for 90min. 9 elit level male long-distance runnerwere participated to this study (age: x = 18,7 ±1,3 years, height: x = 170,7±5,2 cm, body weight: x = 58,8±6,6 kg, VO2max:63,94±3,04 First, VO2max of the subjects were determined with an incremental treadmill running protocol. In a randomized,double-blind cross over experimental design subjects were tested three times with 3 days intervals (wash out following ingestion of20 of three different mixture of solutions: 1 diluted sports drink with 1.2 glycerol (GS 2 diluted sports drink(SP and 3 aspartame flavored distilled water (WS. Exercise trials were conducted at an exercise intensity of 65% maximal oxygenconsumption (VO2max for 90 min at 30±1.8C and 25-35% relative humidity. Blood and urin samples were collected pre and postfluid ingestion, at the 30th, 60th and 90th min of exercise trials to determine body fluid and electrolyte balance. Data were analyzedusing two-way (treatmentxtime analyses of variance (ANOVA. Significance level was defined as p0.05. Inconclusion, glycerol-induced hyperhydration has no advantage compared to the other solutions ingested on body fluid andelectrolyte balance in endurance athletes during 90 min of treadmill run.

  18. Refrigerating fluids; Fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Refrigerating fluids are experiencing a real revolution since few years. CFCs with their destructive effect on the ozone layer are now prohibited while HCFCs will be progressively eliminated and replaced by HFCs. However, HFCs can contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect. The solutions proposed by thermal engineering professionals consist in the confinement of air-conditioning installations (elimination of recurrent leaks) and in the improvement of installations efficiency. HCFC fluids like the R 22 are still widely used in air-conditioning but they are supposed to be replaced by HFC fluids like the R 134a, the R 407C or the R 410A. This short paper gives a brief presentation of these fluids and of their chemical characteristics. (J.S.)

  19. Pediatric obesity and insulin resistance: chronic disease risk and implications for treatment and prevention beyond body weight modification. (United States)

    Cruz, M L; Shaibi, G Q; Weigensberg, M J; Spruijt-Metz, D; Ball, G D C; Goran, M I


    The study of childhood obesity has continued to grow exponentially in the past decade. This has been driven in part by the increasing prevalence of this problem and the widespread potential effects of increased obesity in childhood on lifelong chronic disease risk. The focus of this review is on recent findings regarding the link between obesity and disease risk during childhood and adolescence. We describe recent reports relating to type 2 diabetes in youth (2), prediabetes (69, 166), metabolic syndrome (33, 35), polycystic ovarian syndrome (77), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (58, 146), and the mediating role of insulin resistance in these conditions. In addition, we review the implications of this research for the design of more effective treatment and prevention strategies that focus more on the improvement of obesity-related metabolic abnormalities and chronic disease risk reduction than on the conventional energy balance approach that focuses on weight management.

  20. Theory for planetary exospheres: III. Radiation pressure effect on the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem and its implication on planetary atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Beth, Arnaud; Toublanc, Dominique; Dandouras, Iannis; Mazelle, Christian


    The planetary exospheres are poorly known in their outer parts, since the neutral densities are low compared with the instruments detection capabilities. The exospheric models are thus often the main source of information at such high altitudes. We present a new way to take into account analytically the additional effect of the stellar radiation pressure on planetary exospheres. In a series of papers, we present with an Hamiltonian approach the effect of the radiation pressure on dynamical trajectories, density profiles and escaping thermal flux. Our work is a generalization of the study by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989). In this third paper, we investigate the effect of the stellar radiation pressure on the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem (CR3BP), called also the photogravitational CR3BP, and its implication on the escape and the stability of planetary exospheres, especially for Hot Jupiters. In particular, we describe the transformation of the equipotentials and the location of the Lagrange points, an...

  1. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Carvajal-Zarrabal


    , and . Only did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to . The opposite occurred in group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The responses were similar to , with the exception of food consumption. In both and groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents.

  2. Physical characteristics of faint meteors by light curve and high-resolution observations, and the implications for parent bodies (United States)

    Subasinghe, Dilini; Campbell-Brown, Margaret D.; Stokan, Edward


    Optical observations of faint meteors (10-7 single body objects) show mostly symmetric light curves, surprisingly, and this indicates that light-curve shape is not an indication of fragility or fragmentation behaviour. Approximately 90 per cent of meteors observed with high-resolution video cameras show some form of fragmentation. Our results also show, unexpectedly, that meteors which show negligible fragmentation are more often on high-inclination orbits (i > 60°) than low-inclination ones. We also find that dynamically asteroidal meteors fragment as often as dynamically cometary meteors, which may suggest mixing in the early Solar system, or contamination between the dynamic groups.

  3. The Effectiveness of Whole Body Cryotherapy Compared to Cold Water Immersion: Implications for Sport and Exercise Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holmes


    Full Text Available Background: Cryotherapy is the process of cooling the body, is typically used therapeutically, and is often used as a method of recovery relative to sport and exercise performance.  The purpose of this review is to compare the current literature on WBC to that of CWI and determine whether WBC provides any additional enhancements for sport and exercise recovery. These include tissue temperature reduction, markers of muscle damage, markers of inflammation, and parasympathetic reactivation. Method: Common methods of cryotherapy include cold water immersion (CWI, ice packs, ice massages, and gel or cooling creams. CWI is the most common method among athletes; however, a new form of cryotherapy, known as whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, has recently emerged.  Since its introduction, WBC has grown in popularity among practitioners and athletes. WBC involves short exposures (generally between 2-4 minutes to very cold air (-100o C to -140o C in a controlled room and setting. Furthermore, many of the studies on WBC were observational and did not contain a control group. Conclusion: Despite its growing popularity, the alleged benefits of WBC are largely based on anecdotal evidence as randomized, clinically-controlled studies regarding its efficacy are limited.  Keywords: cryotherapy, cold water immersion, exercise, recovery, muscle damage, inflammation

  4. Herbivory and body size: allometries of diet quality and gastrointestinal physiology, and implications for herbivore ecology and dinosaur gigantism. (United States)

    Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W H; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen


    Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively) allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM.

  5. Herbivory and body size: allometries of diet quality and gastrointestinal physiology, and implications for herbivore ecology and dinosaur gigantism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Clauss

    Full Text Available Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM.

  6. Dietary Intake, Body Composition and Nutrition Knowledge of Australian Football and Soccer Players: Implications for Sports Nutrition Professionals in Practice. (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina


    Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hour recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and sub-elite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, sub-elite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and sub-elite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > 0.05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and sub-elite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and sub-elite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r(2) = 0.051, p = 0.039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.

  7. Safety implications of high-field MRI: actuation of endogenous magnetic iron oxides in the human body.

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    Jon Dobson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanners have become ubiquitous in hospitals and high-field systems (greater than 3 Tesla are becoming increasingly common. In light of recent European Union moves to limit high-field exposure for those working with MRI scanners, we have evaluated the potential for detrimental cellular effects via nanomagnetic actuation of endogenous iron oxides in the body. METHODOLOGY: Theoretical models and experimental data on the composition and magnetic properties of endogenous iron oxides in human tissue were used to analyze the forces on iron oxide particles. PRINCIPAL FINDING AND CONCLUSIONS: Results show that, even at 9.4 Tesla, forces on these particles are unlikely to disrupt normal cellular function via nanomagnetic actuation.

  8. Substrate profiling of human vaccinia-related kinases identifies coilin, a Cajal body nuclear protein, as a phosphorylation target with neurological implications. (United States)

    Sanz-García, Marta; Vázquez-Cedeira, Marta; Kellerman, Efrat; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Lazo, Pedro A


    Protein phosphorylation by kinases plays a central role in the regulation and coordination of multiple biological processes. In general, knowledge on kinase specificity is restricted to substrates identified in the context of specific cellular responses, but kinases are likely to have multiple additional substrates and be integrated in signaling networks that might be spatially and temporally different, and in which protein complexes and subcellular localization can play an important role. In this report the substrate specificity of atypical human vaccinia-related kinases (VRK1 and VRK2) using a human peptide-array containing 1080 sequences phosphorylated in known signaling pathways has been studied. The two kinases identify a subset of potential peptide targets, all of them result in a consensus sequence composed of at least four basic residues in peptide targets. Linear peptide arrays are therefore a useful approach in the characterization of kinases and substrate identification, which can contribute to delineate the signaling network in which VRK proteins participate. One of these target proteins is coilin; a basic protein located in nuclear Cajal bodies. Coilin is phosphorylated in Ser184 by both VRK1 and VRK2. Coilin colocalizes and interacts with VRK1 in Cajal bodies, but not with the mutant VRK1 (R358X). VRK1 (R358X) is less active than VRK1. Altered regulation of coilin might be implicated in several neurological diseases such as ataxias and spinal muscular atrophies.

  9. Synthetic Base Fluids (United States)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  10. Multi-tracer characterisation of saline groundwater bodies in coastal areas and implications for paleo-hydrology (United States)

    Post, V.; Cook, P. G.; Banks, E.


    In coastal aquifers a wedge of intruded seawater extends inland from the coastline and is separated from the freshwater part of the aquifer by a sloping transition zone. Few studies have provided a detailed characterisation of the chemical composition and the age of groundwater within the wedge. This paper presents the results of a field study from South Australia in which a series of multi-level observation wells were installed in a semi-confined aquifer along a transect that extends 1 km inland from the coast. An unexpected finding was that, apart from intruded seawater, a second saltwater type was present in the form of hypersaline groundwater residing in the bottom part of the aquifer. Using the conservative tracers chloride and the stable isotopes of water, a three-end member mixing model was developed. Age tracers, in particular 14C, revealed that the hypersaline end member is older than the intruded seawater by at least tens of thousands of years. It is postulated that the hypersaline water formed as a result of strong evaporation during a time with dryer climatic conditions than the present, and that the seawater intruded over the hypersaline body when sea level rose during the Holocene. The results of this study testify that the hydrological evolution of coastal areas often lead to much more complex salinity distributions than those based on the classical conception of a coastal aquifer in a steady equilibrium with the present sea level and coastline position.

  11. Cyanobacterial Toxic and Bioactive Peptides in Freshwater Bodies of Greece: Concentrations, Occurrence Patterns, and Implications for Human Health

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    Spyros Gkelis


    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms represent one of the most conspicuous waterborne microbial hazards in aquatic environments mostly due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites, mainly microcystins (MCs. Other bioactive peptides are frequently found in cyanobacterial blooms, yet their concentration and ecological relevance is still unknown. In this paper we studied the presence and concentration of cyanobacterial peptides (microcystins, anabaenopeptins, anabaenopeptilides in 36 Greek freshwater bodies, using HPLC-DAD, ELISA, and PP1IA. Microcystins were found in more than 90% of the samples investigated, indicating that microcystin-producing strains seem to also occur in lakes without blooms. Microcystins MC-RR, MC-LR, and MC-YR were the main toxin constituents of the bloom samples. Anabaenopeptin A and B were predominant in some samples, whereas anabaenopeptolide 90A was the only peptide found in Lake Mikri Prespa. The intracellular concentrations of anabaenopeptins produced by cyanobacterial bloom populations are determined for the first time in this study; the high (>1000 µg·L−1 anabaenopeptin concentration found indicates there may be some impacts, at least on the ecology and the food web structure of the aquatic ecosystems. The maximum intracellular MC values measured in Lakes Kastoria and Pamvotis, exceeding 10,000 µg·L−1, are among the highest reported.

  12. Cyanobacterial Toxic and Bioactive Peptides in Freshwater Bodies of Greece: Concentrations, Occurrence Patterns, and Implications for Human Health. (United States)

    Gkelis, Spyros; Lanaras, Thomas; Sivonen, Kaarina


    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms represent one of the most conspicuous waterborne microbial hazards in aquatic environments mostly due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites, mainly microcystins (MCs). Other bioactive peptides are frequently found in cyanobacterial blooms, yet their concentration and ecological relevance is still unknown. In this paper we studied the presence and concentration of cyanobacterial peptides (microcystins, anabaenopeptins, anabaenopeptilides) in 36 Greek freshwater bodies, using HPLC-DAD, ELISA, and PP1IA. Microcystins were found in more than 90% of the samples investigated, indicating that microcystin-producing strains seem to also occur in lakes without blooms. Microcystins MC-RR, MC-LR, and MC-YR were the main toxin constituents of the bloom samples. Anabaenopeptin A and B were predominant in some samples, whereas anabaenopeptolide 90A was the only peptide found in Lake Mikri Prespa. The intracellular concentrations of anabaenopeptins produced by cyanobacterial bloom populations are determined for the first time in this study; the high (>1000 µg·L(-1)) anabaenopeptin concentration found indicates there may be some impacts, at least on the ecology and the food web structure of the aquatic ecosystems. The maximum intracellular MC values measured in Lakes Kastoria and Pamvotis, exceeding 10,000 µg·L(-1), are among the highest reported.

  13. "Women's bodies are shops": beliefs about transactional sex and implications for understanding gender power and HIV prevention in Tanzania. (United States)

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Fenwick, Angela; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Stones, William


    Although transactional sex has been linked to undesirable sexual health outcomes, there is a lack of clarity as to the meaning of the practice, which appears to extend beyond behaviors related to women's economic circumstances. This article explored the perspectives of parents and unmarried young people on motivations for, and beliefs about, transactional sex in rural Tanzania using an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus groups and 46 in-depth interviews with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/caregivers. Transactional sex was widely accepted by both parents and young people. Male parents equated sexual exchange to buying meat from a butcher and interpreted women's demand for exchange before sex with personal power. Young men referred to transactional sex as the easiest way to get a woman to satisfy their sexual desires while also proving their masculinity. Young women perceived themselves as lucky to be created women as they could exploit their sexuality for pleasure and material gain. They felt men were stupid for paying for "goods" (vagina) they could not take away. Mothers were in agreement with their daughters. Although young women saw exploitation of the female body in positive terms, they were also aware of the health risks but ascribed these to bad luck. Interventions aimed at tackling transactional sex in the interests of women's empowerment and as a strategy for HIV prevention need to understand the cultural beliefs associated with the practice that may make it thrive despite the known risks.

  14. Zinc Determination in Pleural Fluid


    Nazan DEMİR; DEMİR, Yaşar


    In this study, an enzymatic zinc determination method was applied to pleural fluid, the basis of which was the regaining of the activity of apo carbonic anhydrase by the zinc present in the sample. The method was used for pleural fluid zinc determination in order to show the application to body fluids other than serum. For this purpose, pleural fluids were obtained from 20 patients and zinc concentrations were determined. Carbonic anhydrase was purified by affinity chromatography from bovine ...

  15. Fluids preserved in variably altered graphitic pelitic schists in the Dufferin Lake Zone, south-central Athabasca Basin, Canada: implications for graphite loss and uranium deposition (United States)

    Pascal, Marjolaine; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Ansdell, Kevin; Annesley, Irvine R.; Kotzer, Tom; Jiricka, Dan; Cuney, Michel


    The Athabasca Basin (Canada) contains the highest grade unconformity-type uranium deposits in the world. Underlying the Athabasca Group sedimentary rocks of the Dufferin Lake Zone are variably graphitic, pelitic schists (VGPS), altered to chlorite and hematite (Red/Green Zone: RGZ). They were locally bleached near the unconformity during paleoweathering and/or later fluid interaction. Overall, graphite was lost from the RGZ and the bleached zone relative to the original VGPS. Fluid inclusions were examined in different generations of quartz veins, using microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy, to characterize and compare the different fluids that interacted with the RGZ and the VGPS. In the VGPS, CH4-, and N2-rich fluid inclusions, which homogenize into the vapor phase between -100 and -74 °C, and -152 and -125 °C, respectively, and CO2-rich fluid inclusions, homogenizing either into vapor or liquid between 20 and 28 °C, are present. Carbonic fluids could be the result of the breakdown of graphite to CH4 + CO2, whereas N2-rich fluid is interpreted to be the result of breakdown of feldspars/micas to NH4 ++N2. In the RGZ, the presence of fluid inclusions with low ice melting temperature (-38 to -16 °C) reflect the presence of CaCl2, and fluid inclusions with halite daughter minerals that dissolve between 190 and 240 °C indicate the presence of highly saline fluids. These fluids are interpreted to be derived from the Athabasca Basin. The circulation of carbonic fluids and brines occurred during two different events related to different P-T conditions of trapping. The carbonic fluids interacted with basement rocks during retrograde metamorphism of the basement rocks before deposition of the Athabasca Basin, whereas the brines circulated after the deposition of the Athabasca Basin. These latter fluids are similar to brines related to uranium mineralization at McArthur River and thus, in addition to possibly being related to graphite depletion in the RGZ, they could

  16. Influence of age, body weight and body condition score before mating start date on the pubertal rate of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers and implications for subsequent cow performance and profitability. (United States)

    Archbold, H; Shalloo, L; Kennedy, E; Pierce, K M; Buckley, F


    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers before mating start date (MSD) on the rate of puberty, subsequent production and longevity and their implications with regard to farm profitability. Data were available on 871 Holstein-Friesian heifers from 48 herds. BW was recorded electronically and BCS was recorded by a single operator on a scale of 1 to 5. Heifer age was calculated as the number of days from birth to the day of visit. All of the independent variables of interest were grouped into three or four categories. Three age categories (thirtiles), four BW categories (quartiles) and four BCS categories (≤ 2.75, 3.00, 3.25 and ≥ 3.50) were formed. Heifers with an identifiable corpus lutuem (CL) in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs and with a plasma progesterone (P4) concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were classified as pubertal. In addition, heifers without an identifiable CL in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs but with a P4 concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were also classified as pubertal. Age, BW and BCS at MSD were all found to be significantly associated with pubertal rate (P economic analysis undertaken indicated that larger, well-grown heifers will be more profitable because of superior production potential, all else being equal. However, because of the finding of poorer reproductive efficiency in heifers grown to more than 343 kg at MSD, heifers at ∼330 kg at MSD are deemed optimal. This will correspond to mature cow BW of ∼550 kg.

  17. Amniotic fluid (United States)

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  18. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon. (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome


    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si.

  19. Dosimetric Implications of an Injection of Hyaluronic Acid for Preserving the Rectal Wall in Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

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    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Udrescu, Corina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Tanguy, Ronan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Ruffion, Alain [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Sotton, Marie-Pierre [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Devonec, Marian [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Colombel, Marc [Department of Urology, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France)


    Purpose: This study assessed the contribution of ahyaluronic acid (HA) injection between the rectum and the prostate to reducing the dose to the rectal wall in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: As part of a phase 2 study of hypofractionated radiation therapy (62 Gy in 20 fractions), the patients received a transperineal injection of 10 cc HA between the rectum and the prostate. A dosimetric computed tomographic (CT) scan was systematically performed before (CT1) and after (CT2) the injection. Two 9-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy-SBRT plans were optimized for the first 10 patients on both CTs according to 2 dosage levels: 5 × 6.5 Gy (PlanA) and 5 × 8.5 Gy (PlanB). Rectal wall parameters were compared with a dose–volume histogram, and the prostate–rectum separation was measured at 7 levels of the prostate on the center line of the organ. Results: For both plans, the average volume of the rectal wall receiving the 90% isodose line (V90%) was reduced up to 90% after injection. There was no significant difference (P=.32) between doses received by the rectal wall on CT1 and CT2 at the base of the prostate. This variation became significant from the median plane to the apex of the prostate (P=.002). No significant differences were found between PlanA without HA and PlanB with HA for each level of the prostate (P=.77, at the isocenter of the prostate). Conclusions: HA injection significantly reduced the dose to the rectal wall and allowed a dose escalation from 6.5 Gy to 8.5 Gy without increasing the dose to the rectum. A phase 2 study is under way in our department to assess the rate of acute and late rectal toxicities when SBRT (5 × 8.5 Gy) is combined with an injection of HA.

  20. Fluid balance and exercise performance. (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet


    Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators and officials. Prolonged exercise leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and increases in proportion to work rate and environmental temperature and humidity. Sweat rates are highly variable and can exceed 2L.h-1 for prolonged periods in high heat. Since dehydration will impair exercise capacity and can pose a risk to health, the intake of fluid during exercise to offset sweat losses is important. Carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid ingestion during exercise has the dual role of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. The composition of the drinks to be taken will be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water which, in turn depends on the intensity and duration of exercise activity, the ambient temperature, and humidity. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. There is no advantage to fluid intake during exercise of less than 30-minute duration. Complete restoration of fluid balance after exercise is an important part of the recovery process and becomes even more important in hot, humid conditions. If a second bout of exercise has to be performed after a relatively short interval, the speed of rehydration becomes of crucial importance. Rehydration after exercise requires not only replacement of volume losses, but also replacement of some electrolytes, primarily sodium

  1. Association between tobacco use and body mass index in urban Indian population: implications for public health in India

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    Shukla Heema C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index [BMI, weight (kg/height (m2], a measure of relative weight, is a good overall indicator of nutritional status and predictor of overall health. As in many developing countries, the high prevalence of very low BMIs in India represents an important public health risk. Tobacco, smoked in the form of cigarettes or bidis (handmade by rolling a dried rectangular piece of temburni leaf with 0.15–0.25 g of tobacco or chewed, is another important determinant of health. Tobacco use also may exert a strong influence on BMI. Methods The relationship between very low BMI (2 and tobacco use was examined using data from a representative cross-sectional survey of 99,598 adults (40,071 men and 59,527 women carried out in the city of Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay in western India. Participants were men and women aged ≥ 35 years who were residents of the main city of Mumbai. Results All forms of tobacco use were associated with low BMI. The prevalence of low BMI was highest in bidi-smokers (32% compared to 13% in non-users. For smokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were OR = 1.80(1.65 to 1.96 for men and OR = 1.59(1.09 to 2.32 for women, respectively, relative to non-users. For smokeless tobacco and mixed habits (smoking and smokeless tobacco, OR = 1.28(1.19 to 1.38 and OR = 1.83(1.67 to 2.00 for men and OR = 1.50(1.43 to 1.59 and OR = 2.19(1.90 to 3.41 for women, respectively. Conclusion Tobacco use appears to be an independent risk factor for low BMI in this population. We conclude that in such populations tobacco control research and interventions will need to be conducted in concert with nutrition research and interventions in order to improve the overall health status of the population.

  2. Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development. (United States)

    Merchant, Hamid A; McConnell, Emma L; Liu, Fang; Ramaswamy, Chandrasekaran; Kulkarni, Rucha P; Basit, Abdul W; Murdan, Sudaxshina


    Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported human literature. The mean gastric pH (fed ad libitum) was 2.9 and 4.4 in guinea pig and pig, respectively. In contrast, a very low pH (1.6) was recorded in the rabbits. The small intestinal pH was found in the range of 6.4-7.4 in the guinea pigs and rabbits, whereas lower pH (6.1-6.7) was recorded in the pig, which may have consequences for ionisable or pH responsive systems when tested in pig. A relatively lower pH than in the small intestine was found in the caecum (6.0-6.4) and colon (6.1-6.6) of the guinea pig, rabbit and the pig. The water content in the gastrointestinal tract of guinea pig, rabbit and pig was 51g, 153g and 1546g, respectively. When normalized to the body weight, the guinea pig, had larger amounts of water compared to the rabbit and the pig (guinea pig>rabbit>pig); in contrast, a reverse order was found when normalized to per unit length of the gut (guinea pigpig). The lymphoid tissue distribution (lymphoid follicles, Peyer's patches and long strips) along the length of the gut in these animals is presented; in particular, an abundance of lymphoid tissue was found in pig's stomach, small intestine and caecum, and rabbit's appendix. Their ample presence indicated the potential utility of these animal species in oral and colonic vaccination. These differences in the gastrointestinal parameters of the guinea pig, rabbit and pig reiterates the crucial importance of correctly selecting animal models for pre-clinical studies.

  3. Zinc transport in rabbit tissues. Some hormonal aspects of the turnover of zinc in female reproductive organs, liver and body fluids. (United States)

    McIntosh, J E; Lutwak-Mann, C


    1. To investigate the influence of hormonal conditions upon the kinetics of zinc transport, specific radioactivity of (65)Zn was determined in certain tissues and fluids from unmated or pregnant rabbits during the first half of gestation. 2. Compartmental analysis was used to find the simplest mathematical model that simulated satisfactorily tracer behaviour. Models were fitted to experimental results by a numerical procedure using a computer. 3. The kinetics of zinc exchange in most tissues investigated could adequately be described by a three-compartment model, in which total tissue zinc content was divided into a rapidly exchanging pool, with a turnover time of about 1h, and a slowly exchanging pool, the turnover time of which was in liver 15h, in peak-stage corpus luteum 8h, and in the other tissues 30-70h. 4. In rabbit endometrium zinc transport varied with hormonal conditions, the turnover rate being higher in non-pregnant than pregnant endometrium. 5. Uptake of (65)Zn by uterine fluid was slow, and in the free-lying embryos (blastocysts) slower still, in keeping with uterine fluid acting as carrier of zinc into the unimplanted embryos. 6. In placental tissue zinc transport varied with gestational stage. Foetal placenta exchanged zinc with blood plasma four times faster than maternal placenta. In foetuses zinc turnover time and flux equalled that of the slow zinc compartment in foetal placenta. 7. Corpus luteum on days 5-6 of gestation showed peak specific radioactivity and zinc flux values, which exceeded those of all other tissues. 8. In liver the slow zinc compartment had a higher rate of turnover than corresponding compartments in tissues other than peak-stage corpus luteum, but no hormone-dependent changes were observed. 9. Zinc uptake by erythrocytes was the slowest of all examined.

  4. Fat-Free Body Mass but not Fat Mass is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Volume of Cortical Brain Regions Implicated in Autonomic and Homeostatic Regulation (United States)

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan


    Obesity has been associated with alterations of both functional and structural aspects of the human central nervous system. In obese individuals both fat mass (FM; primarily consisting of adipose tissue) and fat-free mass (FFM; all non-adipose tissues) are increased and it remains unknown whether these compartments have separate effects on human brain morphology. We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationships between measures of body composition and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in 76 healthy adults with a wide range of adiposity (24F/52M; age 32.1±8.8y; percentage of body fat [PFAT%] 25.5±10.9%; BMI 29.8±8.9). Faf-free mass index (FFMI kg*m-2) showed negative associations in bilateral temporal regions, the bilateral medial and caudolateral OFC, and the left insula. Fat mass index (FMI kg*m-2) showed similar, but less extensive negative associations within temporal cortical regions and the left caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, negative associations were seen for FMI with GMV of the cerebellum. Associations of FFMI with temporal and medial orbitofrontal GMV appeared to be independent of adiposity. No associations were seen between measures of adiposity (i.e. FM and PFAT) and GMV when adjusted for FFM. The majority of regions that we find associated with FFM have been implicated in the regulation of eating behavior and show extensive projections to central autonomic and homeostatic core structures. These data indicate that not adipose tissue or relative adiposity itself, but obesity related increases in absolute tissue mass and particularly FFM may have a more predominant effect on the human brain. This might be explained by the high metabolic demand of FFM and related increases in total energy needs. PMID:22974975

  5. The composition of fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals from the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb deposits Poland: Genetic and environmental implications (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; Hofstra, A.H.; Emsbo, P.; Kozlowski, A.


    The composition of fluids extracted from ore and gangue sulfide minerals that span most of the paragenesis of the Silesian-Cracow district was determined using a newly developed ion chromatographic (IC) technique. Ionic species determined were Na+, NH+4, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Rb+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Cl-, Br-, F-, I-, PO3-4, CO2-3, HS-, S2O2-3, SO2-4, NO-3, and acetate. Mineral samples included six from the Pomorzany mine and one from the Trzebionka mine which are hosted in the Triassic Muschelkalk Formation, and two samples of drill core from mineralized Upper Devonian strata. Nine paragenetically identifiable sulfide minerals occur throughout the Silesian-Cracow district. These include from earliest to latest: early iron sulfides, granular sphalerite, early galena, light-banded sphalerite, galena, dark-banded sphalerite, iron sulfides, late dark-banded sphalerite with late galena, and late iron sulfides. Seven of the minerals were sampled for fluid inclusion analysis in this study. Only the early iron sulfides and the last galena stage were not sampled. Although the number of analyses are limited to nine samples and two replicates and there is uncertainty about the characteristics of the fluid inclusions analyzed, the data show clear temporal trends in the composition of the fluids that deposited these minerals. Fluid inclusions in minerals deposited later in the paragenesis have significantly more K+, Br-, NH+4, and acetate but less Sr2+ than those deposited earlier in the paragenesis. The later minerals are also characterized by isotopically lighter sulfur and significantly more Tl and As in the solid minerals. The change in ore-fluid chemistry is interpreted to reflect a major change in the hydrologic regime of the district. Apparently, the migrational paths of ore fluids from the Upper Silesian basin changed during ore deposition and the fluids which deposited early minerals reacted with aquifers with very different geochemical characteristics than those that deposited

  6. Non-destructive determination of uranium, thorium and 40K in tobacco and their implication on radiation dose levels to the human body. (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Lara, R; Landsberger, S G


    The naturally occurring radionuclides of (235)U, (238)U and (232)Th and their daughter products are a potential major source of anthropogenic radiation to tobacco smokers. Often overlooked is the presence of (40)K in tobacco and its implication to radiation dose accumulation in the human body. In this study, these three radiation sources have been determined in four typical US cigarettes using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA reactions of (238)U(n,γ)(239)U, (232)Th(n,γ)(233)Th and (41)K(n,γ)(42)K were used to determine (235)U, (238)U and (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The activity of (238)U can easily be determined by epithermal NAA of the (238)U(n,γ)(239)U reaction, and the activity of (235, 234)U can easily be deduced. Using isotopic ratios, the activity due to (40)K was found by the determined concentrations of (41)K (also by epithermal neutrons) in the bulk material. Each gram of total potassium yields 30 Bq of (40)K. The annual effective dose for smokers using 20 cigarettes per day was calculate to be 14.6, 137 and 9 μSv y(-1) for (238,235,) (234)U, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. These values are significantly lower that the dose received from (210)Po except for (232)Th.

  7. Theory for planetary exospheres: III. Radiation pressure effect on the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem and its implication on planetary atmospheres (United States)

    Beth, A.; Garnier, P.; Toublanc, D.; Dandouras, I.; Mazelle, C.


    The planetary exospheres are poorly known in their outer parts, since the neutral densities are low compared with the instruments detection capabilities. The exospheric models are thus often the main source of information at such high altitudes. We present a new way to take into account analytically the additional effect of the stellar radiation pressure on planetary exospheres. In a series of papers, we present with a Hamiltonian approach the effect of the radiation pressure on dynamical trajectories, density profiles and escaping thermal flux. Our work is a generalization of the study by Bishop and Chamberlain [1989] Icarus, 81, 145-163. In this third paper, we investigate the effect of the stellar radiation pressure on the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem (CR3BP), called also the photogravitational CR3BP, and its implication on the escape and the stability of planetary exospheres, especially for hot Jupiters. In particular, we describe the transformation of the equipotentials and the location of the Lagrange points, and we provide a modified equation for the Hill sphere radius that includes the influence of the radiation pressure. Finally, an application to the hot Jupiter HD 209458b and hot Neptune GJ 436b reveals the existence of a blow-off escape regime induced by the stellar radiation pressure.

  8. Experimental investigation of the partitioning of phosphorus between metal and silicate phases - Implications for the earth, moon and eucrite parent body (United States)

    Newsom, H. E.; Drake, M. J.


    An experimental study is reported of the partitioning of Phosphorus between solid metal and basaltic silicate liquid as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity and of the implications for the earth, moon and eucrite parent body (EPB). The relationship established between the partition coefficient and the fugacity is given at 1190 C by log D(P) = -1.12 log fO2 - 15.95 and by log D(P) = -1.53 log fO2 17.73 at 1300 C. The partition coefficient D(P) was determined, and it is found to be consistent with a valence state of 5 for P in the molten silicate. Using the determined coefficient the low P/La ratios of the earth, moon, and eucrites relative to C1 chondrites can be explained. The lowering of the P/La ratio in the eucrites relative to Cl chondrite by a factor of 40 can be explained by partitioning P into 20-25 wt% sulfur-bearing metallic liquid corresponding to 5-25% of the total metal plus silicate system. The low P/La and W/La ratios in the moon may be explained by the partitioning of P and W into metal during formation of a small core by separation of liquid metal from silicate at low degrees of partial melting of the silicates. These observations are consistent with independent formation of the moon and the earth.

  9. Simulation research on fluid field of limited space around the human body%有限空间人体周围流场的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志刚; 崔红力; 管小荣; 张庆华


    As an important content of the research and development of personal health care robot, the contact area, speed and pressure between human skin and circulating water during the process of bath should be taken into consideration, since these parameters have significant impact on the bathing effect. To enhance the effect of auto-bathing and provide research basis for structural design of bath and control strategy of circulating water, the CFD model of the limited space and human body was established based on the statistically significant human size. According to the cycling approach of water flow, and the geometric boundary conditions of bath and human body, the flow field around human body in the bath was dispersed, refining the grid of the flow field around human body. The numerical simulation and computation of three-dimensional flow field, the velocity distribution near the surface of human body and the intake of trace chart under different cycling modes were achieved. The numerical solution of the changing flow field around human body in time and space quantitatively was given, providing reference for structural optimization design and the bathing mode research.%作为个人卫生护理机器人研发的重要内容,在洗浴过程中必须考虑人体皮肤与循环水流的接触面积、速度和压力,因为这些参数对洗浴效果影响较大.为提高自动洗浴效果,为浴槽结构设计和循环水自动控制策略提供研究依据,基于统计意义上的人体尺寸,建立了有限空间和人体的CFD模型.结合水流的循环方式、浴槽和人体的几何边界条件,对浴槽内人体周围的流场进行离散,细化接近人体周围的流场网格.对三维流场进行数值模拟计算,计算出水流不同循环模式作用下,人体近表面的速度分布及各循环模式下进水口的迹线图,在时间和空间上定量给出浴槽内人体周围流场变化的数值解,为结构优化设计和洗浴模式研究提供参考.

  10. Thermal-chemical-mechanical feedback during fluid-rock interactions: Implications for chemical transport and scales of equilibria in the crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutrow, Barbara


    Our research evaluates the hypothesis that feedback amongst thermal-chemical-mechanical processes operative in fluid-rock systems alters the fluid flow dynamics of the system which, in turn, affects chemical transport and temporal and spatial scales of equilibria, thus impacting the resultant mineral textural development of rocks. Our methods include computational experimentation and detailed analyses of fluid-infiltrated rocks from well-characterized terranes. This