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Sample records for body fluids implications

  1. Persistence of Ebola virus in various body fluids during convalescence: evidence and implications for disease transmission and control

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Chughtai; Barnes, M; MacIntyre, C R

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to review the current evidence regarding the persistence of Ebola virus (EBOV) in various body fluids during convalescence and discuss its implication on disease transmission and control. We conducted a systematic review and searched articles from Medline and EMBASE using key words. We included studies that examined the persistence of EBOV in various body fluids during the convalescent phase. Twelve studies examined the persistence of EBOV in body fluids, wit...

  2. Persistence of Ebola virus in various body fluids during convalescence: evidence and implications for disease transmission and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, A A; Barnes, M; Macintyre, C R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current evidence regarding the persistence of Ebola virus (EBOV) in various body fluids during convalescence and discuss its implication on disease transmission and control. We conducted a systematic review and searched articles from Medline and EMBASE using key words. We included studies that examined the persistence of EBOV in various body fluids during the convalescent phase. Twelve studies examined the persistence of EBOV in body fluids, with around 800 specimens tested in total. Available evidence suggests that EBOV can persist in some body fluids after clinical recovery and clearance of virus from the blood. EBOV has been isolated from semen, aqueous humor, urine and breast milk 82, 63, 26 and 15 days after onset of illness, respectively. Viral RNA has been detectable in semen (day 272), aqueous humor (day 63), sweat (day 40), urine (day 30), vaginal secretions (day 33), conjunctival fluid (day 22), faeces (day 19) and breast milk (day 17). Given high case fatality and uncertainties around the transmission characteristics, patients should be considered potentially infectious for a period of time after immediate clinical recovery. Patients and their immediate contacts should be informed about these risks. Convalescent patients may need to abstain from sex for at least 9 months or should use condoms until their semen tests are negative. Breastfeeding should be avoided during the convalescent phase. There is a need for more research on persistence, and a uniform approach to infection control guidelines in convalescence. PMID:26808232

  3. Body fluid identification in forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-01-01

    At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. The...

  4. Body fluid identification in forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of amolecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling orDNA methylation detection has been recently proposed tosupplant conventional body fluid identification methods.Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentiallymethylated regions which are specific to forensically relevantbody fluids have been identified, and their specificities andsensitivities have been tested using various samples. In thisreview, we provide an overview of the present knowledge andthe most recent developments in forensic body fluididentification and discuss its possible practical application toforensic casework.

  5. Molecular tumor-diagnostics in body fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacques Benno de

    2000-01-01

    Tumor-derived nucleic acids are frequently present in body fluids (e.g. urine, blood, sputum, stool, bile, and cerebrospinal fluid) that had contact with malignant or premalignant tissues. Detection of this mutant DNA or quantification of aberrant gene expression may offer new noninvasive methods fo

  6. Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    G Sadigh; Bahadori, M.

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids is an important hazard for health care workers, which places them at a high risk for blood-borne infections including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus and results in psychological and emotional stresses. Several preventive measures have been proposed including pre-exposure (e.g., education, use of standard precautions, use of needle protective devices, and vaccination) and post-exposure (e.g., post-exposure pr...

  7. Fluid Flows driven by Oscillating Body Force

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, V A

    2016-01-01

    In this note we consider general formulation of Euler's equations for an inviscid incompressible homogeneous fluid with an oscillating body force. Our aim is to derive the averaged equations for these flows with the help of two-timing method. Our main result is the general and simple form of the equation describing the averaged flows, which are derived without making any additional assumptions. The presented results can have many interesting applications.

  8. Implications of an ultramafic body in a basalt-dominated oceanic hydrothermal system on the vent fluid composition and on processes within sediments overlying a hydrothermal discharge zone: results of reactive-transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt-Epping, P.; Diamond, L. W.

    2009-04-01

    We use 2D reactive transport simulations to assess the hydraulic, thermal and chemical implications of an ultramafic body of lherzolitic composition within a basalt-dominated oceanic hydrothermal system. The simulations are fully coupled and hence account for the progressive serpentinization and the associated porosity/permeability reduction of the model lherzolite over time. We focus on the chemical fingerprints that reveal the presence of the ultramafic body at depth and that may be detected by direct seafloor exploration. These are the vent fluid composition and the porewater and mineral alteration within the rock column overlying a hydrothermal discharge zone. We compare ocean crust sections with and without sedimentary cover. Simulations suggest that the boundary between the basalt and the lherzolite constitutes a sharp reaction front. The type and distribution of alteration phases that form at the reaction front are a result of fluid flow across the basalt-lherzolite interface and thus are determined by the geometry and rate of hydrothermal fluid flow. Consequently, observations of the occurrence and extent of alteration phases, such as Fe-rich chlorite in the lherzolite or of rodingitization of the basalt, may be interpreted in terms of the reactive-transport model to reconstruct paleo-fluid flow in the permeable oceanic basement. The alteration of the lherzolite produces a fluid that is strongly reducing and depleted in silica. The most important chemical indicator of this rock-water interaction is an elevated H2 concentration. Under reducing (i.e. SO4-2 and CO2 free) conditions the enrichment in H2 is proportional to the extent of reaction between the fluid and the ultramafic rock. Under these conditions H2 behaves conservatively and the fluid remains enriched in H2 even though the concentration of all other major aqueous species is quickly buffered to new values when the fluid subsequently passes through basalt. This produces a vent fluid which is

  9. The Motion Of A Deformable Body In - Bounded Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hamiltonian formalism for the motion of a deformable body in an inviscid irrotational fluid is generalized for the case of the motion in a bounded fluid. We found that the presence of the boundaries in a liquid leads to the chaotization of the body's motion. The ('memory' effect connected with a free surface boundary condition is also accounted for

  10. Body Fluid Identification Using mRNA Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Amy D; Haas, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    RNA analysis is a valuable tool for the identification of the forensically relevant body fluids, saliva, blood, menstrual blood, cervicovaginal fluid, and semen. Multiple human mRNA and bacterial RNA markers have been identified for each of these body fluids. RNA and DNA can be coextracted from the same portion of a sample and RNA markers for different body fluids can be multiplexed in a single PCR, thereby maximizing the number of analyses that can be performed with limited sample material. PMID:27259728

  11. Determination of trace elements in body fluids by XRF spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray emission spectroscopy is used for trace element analysis of body fluids. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and XRF setup are described for the analysis of blood serum and amniotic fluid samples for different gravidity stages. The comparison between the distribution of these elements in amniotic fluid and serum is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  12. Body drop into a fluid tank and dynamic loads calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov Aleksandr Andreevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theory of a body striking a fluid began intensively developing due to the tasks of hydroplanes landing. For the recent years the study of a stroke and submersion of bodies into fluid became even more current. We face them in the process of strength calculation of ship hulls and other structures in modern technology. These tasks solution represents great mathematical difficulty even in case of the mentioned simplifications. These difficulties emerge due to the unsteady character of fluid motion in case of body submersion, and also jet and spray phenomena, which lead to discontinuous motions. On the basis of G.V. Logvinovich’s concept the problem of loads determination with consideration for air gap is solved for both a body and reservoir enclosing structures when a body falls into a fluid. Numerical method is based on the decay of an arbitrary discontinuity.

  13. Body fluid volumes in rats with mestranol-induced hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because estrogens have been reported to produce sodium retention, this study investigated the possibility that hypertension in rats resulting from the ingestion of an estrogen used as an oral contraceptive could be due to increases in body fluid volumes. Female rats were given feed containing mestranol for 1, 3, and 6 mo; control rats were given the feed without mestranol. The mestranol-treated rats had higher arterial pressures than the controls only after 6 mo of treatment. Plasma volume, extracellular fluid volume, and total body water were measured in each rat by the distribution volumes of radioiodinated serum albumin, 32SO4, and tritiated water, respectively. The body fluid volumes, expressed per 100 g of body weight, were not different between the mestranol-treated rats and their controls at any of the three treatment times. Due to differences in body weight and lean body mass between the mestranol-treated and the control rats, these volumes also were expressed per 100 g of lean body mass. Again, no differences were observed between the mestranol-treated rats and the control rats for any of these body fluid compartments at any of the treatment times. These studies, therefore, were unable to provide evidence that increases in body fluid volumes contributed to the elevated arterial pressure in this rat model of oral contraceptive hypertension

  14. Forensic body fluid identification: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Harbison, SallyAnn

    2016-01-01

    SA Harbison, RI Fleming Forensic Biology, Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd, Mt Albert Science Centre, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: Body fluid identification is a key component in the forensic scientists' tool box and has been carried out both at the crime scene and in the laboratory for many years. Historically, methods relied on (bio) chemical-based tests, many of which lacked specificity. In this review, current technologies for identifying body fluids are des...

  15. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  16. Steady Fall of a Rigid Body in Viscous Fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, 2005 - (Příhoda, J.; Kozel, K.), s. 77-80 ISBN 80-85918-92-7. [Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics. Prague (CZ), 25.02.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Fetal development of regulatory mechanisms for body fluid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of body fluids is critical to health and the development of diseases. Although quite a few review papers have shown that several mechanisms, including hormonal and behavioral regulation, play an important role in body fluid homeostasis in adults, there is limited information on the development of regulatory mechanisms for fetal body fluid balance. Hormonal, renal, and behavioral control of body fluids function to some extent in utero. Hormonal mechanisms including the renin-angiotensin system, aldosterone, and vasopressin are involved in modifying fetal renal excretion, reabsorption of sodium and water, and regulation of vascular volume. In utero behavioral changes, such as fetal swallowing, have been suggested to be early functional development in response to dipsogens. Since diseases, such as hypertension, can be traced to fetal origin, it is important to understand the development of fetal regulatory mechanisms for body fluid homeostasis in this early stage of life. This review focuses on fetal hormonal, behavioral, and renal development related to regulation of body fluids in utero.

  18. Fluid sign in the treated bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study are to describe non-healing in the treated vertebral body after percutaneous vertebroplasty and analyze the influence of vacuum cleft, location, and severity of collapse on the development of nonunion cement. Of 208 patients (266 treated vertebral bodies) who were treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty from September 2002 to May 2006, 23 patients (41 treated levels) with residual or recurrent pain underwent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Retrospective chart review with analysis of preoperative and postoperative MRIs were performed in these 23 patients. In the 41 treated vertebral bodies, 22 of 41 bodies had vacuum cleft found in the preoperative MRI study. Eight of the 22 treated vertebral bodies with preoperative vacuum clefts were found to have fluid between the interface of cement and the residual bone in the collapsed vertebral bodies on follow-up MRI. The adjacent discs of these treated vertebral bodies were upward/downward displaced. The endplate of the adjacent vertebral body exhibited fibrotic change. Treated bodies with vacuum clefts and level A location (T9, T11, T12, and L1) had higher probability of developing nonunion of the cement with statistical significance. The probability of nonunion cement in severe collapsed bodies might be higher than that of union cement in mild collapsed ones, but was not statistically significant. Fluid sign in the treated body represents unhealed bone-cement interface. The location of the treated vertebral body and existence of vacuum cleft in the treated bodies may be important factors influencing the nonunion of cement. (orig.)

  19. Fluid sign in the treated bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chao-Chun [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, College of Health Care, Taichung (China); Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Department of Medical Imaging, Hualien (China); Yen, Pao-Sheng [Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Department of Medical Imaging, Hualien (China); Wen, Shu-Hui [Tzu Chi University, Department of Public Health, Hualien (China)

    2008-11-15

    The aims of this study are to describe non-healing in the treated vertebral body after percutaneous vertebroplasty and analyze the influence of vacuum cleft, location, and severity of collapse on the development of nonunion cement. Of 208 patients (266 treated vertebral bodies) who were treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty from September 2002 to May 2006, 23 patients (41 treated levels) with residual or recurrent pain underwent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Retrospective chart review with analysis of preoperative and postoperative MRIs were performed in these 23 patients. In the 41 treated vertebral bodies, 22 of 41 bodies had vacuum cleft found in the preoperative MRI study. Eight of the 22 treated vertebral bodies with preoperative vacuum clefts were found to have fluid between the interface of cement and the residual bone in the collapsed vertebral bodies on follow-up MRI. The adjacent discs of these treated vertebral bodies were upward/downward displaced. The endplate of the adjacent vertebral body exhibited fibrotic change. Treated bodies with vacuum clefts and level A location (T9, T11, T12, and L1) had higher probability of developing nonunion of the cement with statistical significance. The probability of nonunion cement in severe collapsed bodies might be higher than that of union cement in mild collapsed ones, but was not statistically significant. Fluid sign in the treated body represents unhealed bone-cement interface. The location of the treated vertebral body and existence of vacuum cleft in the treated bodies may be important factors influencing the nonunion of cement. (orig.)

  20. Renal renin secretion as regulator of body fluid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Isaksson, Gustaf L; Stubbe, Jane;

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is essential for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. This review focuses on the homeostatic regulation of the secretion of active renin in the kidney, primarily in humans. Under physiological conditions, renin secretion is determined mainly by sodium...

  1. Stationarity of extremum entropy fluid bodies in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Joshua S.

    2015-09-01

    We consider perfect fluid bodies (‘stars’) in general relativity that are axisymmetric, asymptotically flat, and that admit a maximal hypersurface. We show that configurations that extremize the total entropy at fixed ADM mass, ADM angular momentum, and total particle number are stationary with circular flow. For such stars, this establishes that thermodynamic equilibrium implies dynamic equilibrium.

  2. [Determination of body fluid based on analysis of nucleic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabečná, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Recent methodological approaches of molecular genetics allow isolation of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from negligible forensic samples. Analysis of these molecules may be used not only for individual identification based on DNA profiling but also for the detection of origin of the body fluid which (alone or in mixture with other body fluids) forms the examined biological trace. Such an examination can contribute to the evaluation of procedural, technical and tactical value of the trace. Molecular genetic approaches discussed in the review offer new possibilities in comparison with traditional spectrum of chemical, immunological and spectroscopic tests especially with regard to the interpretation of mixtures of biological fluids and to the confirmatory character of the tests. Approaches based on reverse transcription of tissue specific mRNA and their subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragmentation analysis are applicable on samples containing minimal amounts of biological material. Methods for body fluid discrimination based on examination of microRNA in samples provided so far confusing results therefore further development in this field is needed. The examination of tissue specific methylation of nucleotides in selected gene sequences seems to represent a promising enrichment of the methodological spectrum. The detection of DNA sequences of tissue related bacteria has been established and it provides satisfactory results mainly in combination with above mentioned methodological approaches. PMID:26419517

  3. Contact with hospital syringes containing body fluids: implications for medical waste management regulation Jeringas en contacto con sangre y fluidos corporales utilizadas en el hospital: implicaciones para el manejo de desechos hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Volkow

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine amount of syringes used in the hospital and extent of contact with blood and body fluids of these syringes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center for one week; syringes were classified into the following four categories according to use: a contained blood; b contained other body fluids (urine, gastric secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, wound drainage; c used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic intravenous (IV tubes, and d for intramuscular (IM, subcutaneous (SC, or intradermic (ID injections. RESULTS: A total of 7 157 plastic disposable syringes was used; 1 227 (17% contained blood during use, 346 (4.8%, other body fluids, 5 257 (73% were used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic IV lines, and 327 (4.5% were utilized for IM, SC, or ID injections. An estimated 369 140 syringes used annually, or eight syringes per patient per in-hospital day. All syringes were disposed of as regulated medical waste, in observance of the law. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to review recommendations for medical waste management by both international agencies and local governments, based on scientific data and a cost-benefit analysis, to prevent resource waste and further environmental damage.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar el número de jeringas que se utilizan en el hospital y calcular cuántas de éstas entran en contacto con sangre o fluidos corporales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo una encuesta del uso de jeringas en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención durante toda una semana. Se clasificaron, de acuerdo con el uso que se les dio, en cuatro categorías: a aspiración de sangre, b otros fluidos corporales (orina, secreción gástrica, líquido cefalorraquídeo, drenaje de herida, etcétera, c uso exclusivo para diluir medicamentos y administrarlos a través de tubos de terapia intravenosa, d para aplicación de inyecciones intramusculares (IM, subcutáneas (SC o

  4. Regulation of body fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations in spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Krauhs, J. M.; Leach, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Despite a number of difficulties in performing experiments during weightlessness, a great deal of information has been obtained concerning the effects of spaceflight on the regulation of body fluid and electrolytes. Many paradoxes and questions remain, however. Although body mass, extracellular fluid volume, and plasma volume are reduced during spaceflight and remain so at landing, the changes in total body water are comparatively small. Serum or plasma sodium and osmolality have generally been unchanged or reduced during the spaceflight, and fluid intake is substantially reduced, especially during the first of flight. The diuresis that was predicted to be caused by weightlessness, has only rarely been observed as an increased urine volume. What has been well established by now, is the occurrence of a relative diuresis, where fluid intake decreases more than urine volume does. Urinary excretion of electrolytes has been variable during spaceflight, but retention of fluid and electrolytes at landing has been consistently observed. The glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated during the SLS missions, and water and electrolyte loading tests have indicated that renal function is altered during readaptation to Earth's gravity. Endocrine control of fluid volumes and electrolyte concentrations may be altered during weightlessness, but levels of hormones in body fluids do not conform to predictions based on early hypotheses. Antidiuretic hormone is not suppressed, though its level is highly variable and its secretion may be affected by space motion sickness and environmental factors. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone are generally elevated at landing, consistent with sodium retention, but inflight levels have been variable. Salt intake may be an important factor influencing the levels of these hormones. The circadian rhythm of cortisol has undoubtedly contributed to its variability, and little is known yet about the influence of spaceflight on circadian

  5. Tidal dissipation in rotating fluid bodies: a simplified model

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2009-01-01

    We study the tidal forcing, propagation and dissipation of linear inertial waves in a rotating fluid body. The intentionally simplified model involves a perfectly rigid core surrounded by a deep ocean consisting of a homogeneous incompressible fluid. Centrifugal effects are neglected, but the Coriolis force is considered in full, and dissipation occurs through viscous or frictional forces. The dissipation rate exhibits a complicated dependence on the tidal frequency and generally increases with the size of the core. In certain intervals of frequency, efficient dissipation is found to occur even for very small values of the coefficient of viscosity or friction. We discuss the results with reference to wave attractors, critical latitudes and other features of the propagation of inertial waves within the fluid, and comment on their relevance for tidal dissipation in planets and stars.

  6. Theoretical treatment of fluid flow for accelerating bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Gledhill, Irvy M.A.; Roohani, Hamed; Forsberg, Karl; Eliasson, Peter; Skews, Beric M.; Nordström, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Most computational fluid dynamics simulations are, at present, performed in a body-fixed frame, for aeronautical purposes. With the advent of sharp manoeuvre, which may lead to transient effects originating in the acceleration of the centre of mass, there is a need to have a consistent formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations in an arbitrarily moving frame. These expressions should be in a form that allows terms to be transformed between non-inertial and inertial frames and includes gravity...

  7. Steady fall of a rigid body in viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 63, Sp. Is. (2005), s. 2113-2119. ISSN 0362-546X. [Invited Talks from the Fourth World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts (WCNA 2004). Orlando, 30.7.2004-7.8.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/02/0684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2005

  8. Theoretical treatment of fluid flow for accelerating bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Irvy M. A.; Roohani, Hamed; Forsberg, Karl; Eliasson, Peter; Skews, Beric W.; Nordström, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Most computational fluid dynamics simulations are, at present, performed in a body-fixed frame, for aeronautical purposes. With the advent of sharp manoeuvre, which may lead to transient effects originating in the acceleration of the centre of mass, there is a need to have a consistent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in an arbitrarily moving frame. These expressions should be in a form that allows terms to be transformed between non-inertial and inertial frames and includes gravity, viscous terms, and linear and angular acceleration. Since no effects of body acceleration appear in the inertial frame Navier-Stokes equations themselves, but only in their boundary conditions, it is useful to investigate acceleration source terms in the non-inertial frame. In this paper, a derivation of the energy equation is provided in addition to the continuity and momentum equations previously published. Relevant dimensionless constants are derived which can be used to obtain an indication of the relative significance of acceleration effects. The necessity for using computational fluid dynamics to capture nonlinear effects remains, and various implementation schemes for accelerating bodies are discussed. This theoretical treatment is intended to provide a foundation for interpretation of aerodynamic effects observed in manoeuvre, particularly for accelerating missiles.

  9. Geometry of the Motion of Ideal Fluids and Rigid Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeev, S G

    2009-01-01

    Arnold pointed out that the Euler equation of incompressible ideal hydrodynamics describes geodesics on the group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms. A simple analogue is the Euler equation for a rigid body, which is the geodesic equation on the rotation group with respect to a metric determined by the moment of inertia. The metric on the group is left-invariant but not right-invariant. We will reduce the geometry of such groups (using techniques popularized by Milnor) to algebra on their tangent space. In particular, the curvature can be expressed as a biquadratic form on the Lie algebra. Arnold's result that motion of incompressible fluids has instabilities (due to the sectional curvature being negative) can be recovered more simply. Surprisingly, such an instability arises in rigid body mechanics as well: the metric on SO(3) corresponding to the moment of inertia of a thin cylinder (coin) has negative sectional curvature in one tangent plane. Both ideal fluids and rigid bodies can be thought of as hamilt...

  10. Tumor interstitial fluid formation, characterization and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The interstitium, situated between the blood and lymph vessels and the cells, consists of a solid or matrix phase and a fluid phase, together constituting the tissue microenvironment. In the present review we focus on the interstitial fluid phase of solid tumors (TIF, i.e. the fluid bathing the tumor and stroma cells, also including immune cells. This is a component of the internal milieu of a solid tumor that has attracted regained attention. Access to this compartment may provide important insight into how tumors develop and how they respond to therapy. TIF is formed by transcapillary filtration, and since fluid is not readily available we discuss available techniques for TIF isolation, results from subsequent characterization and implications of recent findings with respect to transcapillary fluid balance and uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. It has recently been shown that local gradients exist in signaling substances from neoplastic tissue to plasma that may provide new insight into the biology of tumors. The emergence of sensitive proteomic technologies has made the interstitial fluid compartment in general, but that of tumors in particular, a highly valuable source for tissue specific proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates. Potential biomarkers will appear locally at high concentrations in the tissue of interest and will eventually appear in the plasma where they are diluted. Access to fluid that reliably reflects the local microenvironment enables us to identify substances that can be used in early detection and monitoring of disease.

  11. Many-Body Effects on the Thermodynamics of Fluids, Mixtures, and Nanoconfined Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2015-11-10

    Using expanded Wang-Landau simulations, we show that taking into account the many-body interactions results in sharp changes in the grand-canonical partition functions of single-component systems, binary mixtures, and nanoconfined fluids. The many-body contribution, modeled with a 3-body Axilrod-Teller-Muto term, results in shifts toward higher chemical potentials of the phase transitions from low-density phases to high-density phases and accounts for deviations of more than, e.g., 20% of the value of the partition function for a single-component liquid. Using the statistical mechanics formalism, we analyze how this contribution has a strong impact on some properties (e.g., pressure, coexisting densities, and enthalpy) and a moderate impact on others (e.g., Gibbs or Helmholtz free energies). We also characterize the effect of the 3-body terms on adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamic properties, thereby providing a full picture of the effect of the 3-body contribution on the thermodynamics of nanoconfined fluids. PMID:26574329

  12. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  13. Nitric oxide synthase blockade and body fluid volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Balaszczuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition with N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME on body fluid distribution was studied in male Wistar rats weighing 260-340 g. Extracellular, interstitial and intracellular spaces, as well as plasma volume were measured after a three-week treatment with L-NAME (~70 mg/kg per 24 h in drinking water. An increase in extracellular space (16.1 ± 1.1 vs 13.7 ± 0.6 ml/100 g in control group, N = 12, P<0.01, interstitial space (14.0 ± 0.9 vs 9.7 ± 0.6 ml/100 g in control group, P<0.001 and total water (68.7 ± 3.9 vs 59.0 ± 2.9 ml/100 g, P<0.001 was observed in the L-NAME group (N = 8. Plasma volume was lower in L-NAME-treated rats (2.8 ± 0.2 ml/100 g than in the control group (3.6 ± 0.1 ml/100 g, P<0.001. Blood volume was also lower in L-NAME-treated rats (5.2 ± 0.3 ml/100 g than in the control group (7.2 ± 0.3 ml/100 g, P<0.001. The increase in total ratio of kidney wet weight to body weight in the L-NAME group (903 ± 31 vs 773 ± 45 mg/100 g in control group, P<0.01 but not in total kidney water suggests that this experimental hypertension occurs with an increase in renal mass. The fact that the heart weight to body weight ratio and the total heart water remained constant indicates that, despite the presence of high blood pressure, no modification in cardiac mass occurred. These data show that L-NAME-induced hypertension causes alterations in body fluid distribution and in renal mass.

  14. Correlation of lactoferrin with neutrophilic inflammation in body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C A; Fonteles, M G; Barrett, L J; Guerrant, R L

    1995-11-01

    We have reported that lactoferrin, a 77-kDa iron-binding glycoprotein found in secondary neutrophil granules, provides a useful marker of fecal leukocytes in fecal specimens from patients with inflammatory diarrhea (R. L. Guerrant, V. Araujo, E. Soares, K. Kotloff, A. A. M. Lima, W. H. Cooper, and A. G. Lee, J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:1238-1242, 1992). In order to determine the usefulness of this marker of neutrophilic inflammation in different body fluids, we examined blood, gingival swabs, sputum, and saliva using antilactoferrin antibodies (lactoferrin latex agglutination [LFLA]). LFLA titers in whole blood samples were 8,000). While the overlap precludes a useful role in the identification of neutropenia, these data confirm that lactoferrin titers of > 1:100 indeed indicate inflammation in fluid specimens. On quantitative elution of lactoferrin from gingival swabs, all 7 patients with dental plaque had titers of 1:200 to 1:400; 9 of 12 patients with clinical gingivitis had LFLA titers of 1:200 to 1:1,600, while all 7 individuals with healthy gums and teeth and 4 edentulous patients had LFLA titers of or = 1:400 (7 were 1:1,600) while 11 normal saliva samples showed titers of < or = 1:100. Lactoferrin titers in sputum, gingival swabs, and whole blood correlate with the presence of neutrophils or inflammation in these specimens and may offer a convenient rapid test for inflammatory processes. PMID:8574844

  15. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer; Mark Ulbrich; Sebastian Hahne; Steffen Leonhardt

    2011-01-01

    Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free m...

  16. Estimation of Body Fluid Volume by Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Patients with Hyponatremia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Seok; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Hyeoncheol; Han, Byoung Geun; Choi, Seung Ok; Yang, Jae Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Estimation of body fluid volume in hyponatremia is useful for diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making. Physical examination has been generally used to estimate body fluid volume, but it depends on the physician's abilities. Bioimpedance spectroscopy has been suggested to be a reliable method for the estimation of body fluid volume. Therefore, this study investigated whether bioimpedance spectroscopy could replace physical examination in hyponatremia. Materials and Methods The study ...

  17. Corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy in simulated body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaczmarek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Corrosion resistance of an implant alloy is a very important determinant of its biocompatibility. The nature of an environment and surface treatments have a significant influence on corrosion. Most of the knowledge on the corrosion behavior of NiTi is from studies of “standard” corrosion tests. In fact, the knowledge of the corrosion behavior of NiTi inside the body is very limited. The main aim of the research was evaluation of corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy in various simulated body fluids.Design/methodology/approach: The evaluation of the electrochemical behavior of NiTi alloy was realized by recording of anodic polarization curves with the use of the potentiodynamic method. The tests were carried out for differently modified surfaces in diverse simulated body fluids.Findings: Surface condition of a metallic biomaterial determines its corrosion resistance. In the course of the work the good corrosion resistance of all the tested samples (with different surface conditions was observed.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of physicochemical properties of the NiTi alloy. The future research should be focused on selected specific implants specially with respect to their application features.Practical implications: On the basis of the obtained results it can be stated that the suggested surface treatment can be applicable for NiTi alloys due to the increase of the corrosion resistance.Originality/value: The paper presents the influence of various methods of the surface treatment on corrosion resistance of the NiTi alloy. The suggested surface treatment methods can be applied to implants intended for diverse medical applications, especially in cardiology and urology.

  18. Crystallization from a milk-based revised simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A milk-based revised simulated body fluid (milk-rSBF) was prepared by a conventional route but instead of deionized water, all necessary chemicals were dissolved in whole cow's milk (3.2% fat). In order to accelerate crystallization and increase the amount of precipitates, the influence of milk was studied from condensed solutions equal to four times the ionic concentrations of rSBF (4rSBF). The experiments were performed under physiological conditions (solution pH = 7.35-7.40, temperature 37.0 ± 0.2 deg. C, duration 7 days) in a constant-composition double-diffusion device, which provided a slow crystallization under strictly controlled conditions. Similar experiments with 4rSBF but dissolved in deionized water were used as a control. An extra set of experiments with 4rSBF dissolved in deionized water but with an addition of 40 g l-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as another control. The influence of milk appeared to be similar to that of dissolved BSA: some components of milk (presumably albumins and proteins) were found to co-precipitate with calcium phosphates, which had a strong negative influence on both the crystallinity and the crystal sizes of the precipitates. In addition, both milk and BSA strongly inhibited crystallization of calcium phosphates: the precipitates turned out to contain a minor amount of calcium phosphates and a substantial amount of organic phase

  19. Corrosion and tribocorrosion of hafnium in simulated body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto Sin, J; Neville, A; Emami, N

    2014-08-01

    Hafnium is a passive metal with good biocompatibility and osteogenesis, however, little is known about its resistance to wear and corrosion in biological environments. The corrosion and tribocorrosion behavior of hafnium and commercially pure (CP) titanium in simulated body fluids were investigated using electrochemical techniques. Cyclic polarization scans and open circuit potential measurements were performed in 0.9% NaCl solution and 25% bovine calf serum solution to assess the effect of organic species on the corrosion behavior of the metal. A pin-on-plate configuration tribometer and a three electrode electrochemical cell were integrated to investigate the tribocorrosion performance of the studied materials. The results showed that hafnium has good corrosion resistance. The corrosion density currents measured in its passive state were lower than those measured in the case of CP titanium; however, it showed a higher tendency to suffer from localized corrosion, which was more acute when imperfections were present on the surface. The electrochemical breakdown of the oxide layer was retarded in the presence of proteins. Tribocorrosion tests showed that hafnium has the ability to quickly repassivate after the oxide layer was damaged; however, it showed higher volumetric loss than CP titanium in equivalent wear-corrosion conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1157-1164, 2014. PMID:24376175

  20. Radioimmunoassay of drugs in body fluids in a forensic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first article of the volume describes the theory and practice of RIA with particular reference to the analysis of drugs in body fluids in a forensic context. RIA theory is outlined from basic principles but the inherent assumptions are often inapplicable in practice and so the empirical design of an assay is considered in detail. Particular emphasis is given to the development of assays for drugs screening that detect classes of structurally related compounds rather than individual drugs. The preparation of radiolabelled drugs, the synthesis of immunogens for raising anitisera, the production of polyclonal and monoclonal antisera, and methods for separating free and antibody-bound antigens are reviewed. Quality assurance, trouble-shooting and the possible hazards of forensic RIA are discussed, and published RIA methods for drug analysis are tabulated. Many non-isotopic immunoassays have been developed in recent years but are omitted from this account because to date they are less applicable than RIA to samples such as haemolysed blood that are frequently encountered in forensic toxicology. Future progress in forensic drug RIA is likely to be concerned with applying the technique to more compounds, improving the methods for preparing immunogens and radiolabelled drugs, and investigating the use of monoclonal anti-drug antibodies. (orig./MG)

  1. Corrosion resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo steel in simulated body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kajzer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the comparison of corrosion resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel in variouscorrosive media simulating human body fluids.Design/methodology/approach: The corrosion tests were realized by recording of anodic polarization curveswith the use of the potentiodynamic method. The VoltaLab® PGP 201 system for electrochemical tests wasapplied. The tests were carried out in electrolyte simulating urine (pH = 6 ÷ 6.4, Tyrode’s physiological solution(pH = 6.8 ÷ 7.4 and plasma (pH = 7.2 ÷ 7.6 at the temperature of 37±1°C.Findings: Surface condition of metallic biomaterial determines its corrosion resistance. The highest values ofbreakdown potentials are recorded for electropolished and chemically passivated samples tested in artificial urine.The lowest values of anodic current density were recorded for samples tested in Tyrode’s physiological solution.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of physicochemicalproperties of the metallic biomaterial.Practical implications: On the basis of the obtained results it can be stated that stainless steel can be applied inreconstruction surgery, operative cardiology and urology.Originality/value: The paper presents the influence of various corrosive media simulating human body fluidson corrosion resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel.

  2. Body image and HIV: implications for support and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, L

    1998-06-01

    Very little formal research has looked at body image change over the course of HIV illness or assessed the implications of changes for support interactions. There are three main spheres of influence on body image: the physical, psychological and the social. HIV shares some of these aspects with other chronic or fatal illnesses, but has specific elements which are distinctive, such as particular physical manifestations and the negative impact of media, social representations and stigma resulting in a radically altered experience for an HIV-positive body. This paper outlines preliminary findings using a body image measure designed specifically for use in HIV. The results suggest that people with HIV may experience significant feelings of contamination, brought about through internalization of stigma and representations, in addition to physical decline as illness progresses. PMID:9743739

  3. Corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L steel in artificial body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kajzer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the comparison of corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel in various corrosive media such as artificial urine, Tyrode’s physiological solution and artificial plasma.Design/methodology/approach: The tests were carried out on samples of the following surfaces: grinded – average roughness Ra = 0.31 μm and electropolished and chemically passivated average roughness Ra = 0.10 μm. The corrosion tests were realized by recording of anodic polarization curves with the use of the potentiodynamic method. The VoltaLab® PGP 201 system for electrochemical tests was applied. The tests were carried out in electrolyte simulating urine (pH = 6-6.4, Tyrode’s physiological solution (pH = 6.8-7.4 and plasma (pH = 7.2-7.6 at the temperature of 37±1°C.Findings: Surface condition of AISI 316L stainless steel determines its corrosion resistance. The highest values of breakdown potentials were recorded for all electropolished and chemically passivated samples in all simulated body fluids. The highest values of anodic current density were recorded for samples tested in artificial urine, the lowest values were recorded for samples tested in Tyrode’s physiological solution.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of physicochemical properties of the AISI 316L stainless steel.Practical implications: On the basis of the obtained results it can be stated that stainless steel meets the basic biocompatibility criteria and can be applied in reconstruction surgery, operative cardiology and urology.Originality/value: The paper presents the influence of various corrosive media simulating human body fluids on corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel.

  4. Evaluation of Human Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Fungal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Badiee

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Because the etiologic agents of these infections are abundant in nature, their isolation from biopsy material or sterile body fluids is needed to document infection. This review evaluates and discusses different human body fluids used to diagnose fungal infections.

  5. Influence of Brownian Diffusion on Levitation of Bodies in Magnetic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bashtovoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with experimental investigation of the levitation of magnetic and non-magnetic bodies in a magnetic fluid when essentially influenced by Brownian diffusion of magnetic particles in it. It is established that the point of levitation of bodies in a magnetic fluid varies with time.

  6. Influence of Brownian Diffusion on Levitation of Bodies in Magnetic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    V. Bashtovoi; A. Reks; S. Klimovich; А. Motsar; P. Ryapolov; A. Storozhenko; I. Shabanova

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with experimental investigation of the levitation of magnetic and non-magnetic bodies in a magnetic fluid when essentially influenced by Brownian diffusion of magnetic particles in it. It is established that the point of levitation of bodies in a magnetic fluid varies with time.

  7. Effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation behaviour of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that magnesium biodegrades rapidly and non-uniformly during 27 h of immersion in four simulated body fluid solutions containing different concentrations of bicarbonate. The biodegradation rate first decreases and then increases with time. A small amount of bicarbonate in simulated body fluid has an inhibition effect on the Mg dissolution, while an overdose of bicarbonate addition activates the magnesium surface in the simulated body fluid. The interesting phenomena can be interpreted by a surface film model involving precipitation of calcium carbonate and further ionization of bicarbonate in the simulated body fluids, incorporation of calcium, carbonate and phosphate compounds in the surface film, and development of chloride-induced pitting corrosion damage on the magnesium with time

  8. Body fluid MMP-2 as a putative biomarker in metastatic breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    NOH, SEWON; Jung, Jae-Joon; Jung, Minkyu; KIM, KI-HYANG; Lee, Ha-young; WANG, BRANDON; CHO, JOANNA; Kim, Tae Soo; Jeung, Hei-Cheul; Rha, Sun Young

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 as novel biomarkers in the body fluid of patients with metastatic breast cancer. We measured the expression of MMPs in 37 samples of body fluid (10 peritoneal and 27 pleural fluids) from metastatic breast cancer patients between 2000 and 2009. Zymography and ELISA assays were used to determine the cut-off level and to quantify MMP expression from a positive control, HT-1080 conditioned media. MMP express...

  9. Digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and chemical characteristics of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for routine digoxin determination has been studied with the aim to confirm our previous observation of the presence of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) in serum (plasma) and urine of normal subjects not under digoxin treatment. The sensitivity of the assay was 2.1±0.6 pg/tube and the reproducibility, tested with two different urine pools in terms of digoxin-equivalents (d.e.), was 12.5% (285.6±35.7 pg/ml d.e., n=19) and 20.6% (123.8±25.5 pg/ml d.e., n=19), respectively. The mean DLIS concentration in the blood of 32 normal subjects was 15.6±8.0 pg/ml d.e. (range 0-60 pg/ml d.e.). The mean DLIS concentration in urine of 37 normal subjects (overnight collection) was 160.0±52.3 pg/ml d.e. (range 70-350 pg/ml d.e.), while the mean 24-hour DLIS excretion of 10 normal subjects was 97.3±39.7 ng d.e. Two urine pools were extracted with organic solvents. Good recoveries (80-100%) were obtained with methanol, while poor recoveries were obtained with methylene chloride, hexane and petroleum ether. The present study indicates that DLIS is not a large charged molecule, neither salt, nor fatty acid, which are considered the most frequent non-specific interferences in RIA systems. Urine samples may be more useful for pathophysiological studies on digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids, because of their higher DLIS concentrations (4-10 times the concetration in blood)

  10. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  11. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Vinther, Jeppe; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of mi......RNA in the investigated tissues. We expect that the method can also be used for identification of other miRNAs that can be used for identifying other body fluids and tissues. We also expect that the method can be used for identification of body fluids and tissues in practical forensic genetic case work...

  12. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ionizing radiation in body fluids and serological evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to use ionizing radiation to inactivate HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in human body fluids was studied in an effort to reduce the risk of accidental infection to forensic science laboratory workers. Experiments conducted indicate that an X-ray absorbed dose of 25 krad was required to completely inactivate HIV. This does not alter forensically important constituents such as enzymes and proteins in body fluids. This method of inactivation of HIV cannot be used on body fluids which will be subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing

  13. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  14. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  15. Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Rosenfalck, A M; Frandsen, E;

    1999-01-01

    Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH...... persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults....

  16. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science. PMID:25128690

  17. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Vitali Sikirzhytski; Kelly Virkler; Lednev, Igor K.

    2010-01-01

    Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wave...

  18. Steady fall of a body in viscos compressible fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Penel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2004), s. 137-149. ISSN 0972-0960 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/0854 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * viscous compressible fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  19. Nonlinear evolution of tidally forced inertial waves in rotating fluid bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Favier, B.; Barker, A.J.; Baruteau, C.; Ogilvie, G. I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform one of the first studies into the nonlinear evolution of tidally excited inertial waves in a uniformly rotating fluid body, exploring a simplified model of the fluid envelope of a planet (or the convective envelope of a solar-type star) subject to the gravitational tidal perturbations of an orbiting companion. Our model contains a perfectly rigid spherical core, which is surrounded by an envelope of incompressible uniform density fluid. The corresponding linear problem was studied ...

  20. Messenger RNA Profiling for Forensic Body Fluid Identifica-tion:Research and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; ZHANG Su-hua; ZHOU Di; ZHAO Shu-min; LI Cheng-tao

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link betw een sample donors and actual criminal acts. How ev-er, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time con-sumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Re-cently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP ) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profil-ing, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibilitywith current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review ,we provided an overview of the present know ledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possi-ble practical application to forensic casew ork.

  1. Genome-wide methylation profiling and a multiplex construction for the identification of body fluids using epigenetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; An, Ja Hyun; Jung, Sang-Eun; Oh, Yu Na; Lee, Eun Young; Choi, Ajin; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-07-01

    The identification of body fluids found at crime scenes can contribute to solving crimes by providing important insights into crime scene reconstruction. In the present study, body fluid-specific epigenetic marker candidates were identified from genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of 42 body fluid samples including blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. A total of 64 CpG sites were selected as body fluid-specific marker candidates by having more than 20% discrepancy in DNA methylation status between a certain type of body fluid and other types of body fluids and to have methylation or unmethylation pattern only in a particular type of body fluid. From further locus-specific methylation analysis in additional samples, 1 to 3 CpG sites were selected for each body fluid. Then, a multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction was constructed to analyze methylation status of 8 body fluid-specific CpG sites. The developed multiplex reaction positively identifies blood, saliva, semen and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ in one reaction, and produces successful DNA methylation profiles in aged or mixed samples. Although it remains to be investigated whether this approach is more sensitive, more practical than RNA- or peptide-based assays and whether it can be successfully applied to forensic casework, the results of the present study will be useful for the forensic investigators dealing with body fluid samples. PMID:25796047

  2. Numerical Simulation of the Sedimentation of a Tripole-like Body in an Incompressible Viscous Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, L H.(Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana); Glowinski, R (University of Houston); Pettitt, Bernard M.(University of Houston)

    2002-08-01

    In this note, we discuss the application of a methodology combining distributed Lagrange multiplier based fictitious domain techniques, finite-element approximations and operator splitting, to the numerical simulation of the motion of a tripole-like rigid body falling in a Newtonian incompressible viscous fluid. The motion of the body is driven by the hydrodynamical forces and gravity. The numerical simulation shows that the distribution of mass of this rigid body and added moment of inertia compared to a simple cylinder (circular or elliptic) plays a significant role on the particle-fluid interaction. Apparently, for the parameters examined, the action of the moving rigid body on the fluid is stronger than the hydrodynamic forces acting on the rigid body.

  3. Measurement of body fluid proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, MH; Thompson, EJ

    1982-01-01

    A development of the disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic system of Ornstein and Davis, which has been applied to the analysis of unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid, is described. Modifications to the scanning densitometer have improved the signal:noise ratio of the gel scanning system. Using this technique, we have studied the dye-binding properties of albumin, and of beta- and gamma-globulins, and have shown that reproducible quantification of proteins can be achieved. The advantages of ...

  4. On the identifiability of a rigid body moving in a stationary viscous fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to a geometrical inverse problem associated with a fluid–structure system. More precisely, we consider the interaction between a moving rigid body and a viscous and incompressible fluid. Assuming a low Reynolds regime, the inertial forces can be neglected and, therefore, the fluid motion is modelled by the Stokes system. We first prove the well posedness of the corresponding system. Then we show an identifiability result: with one measure of the Cauchy forces of the fluid on one given part of the boundary and at some positive time, the shape of a convex body and its initial position are identified. (paper)

  5. Correlations between Different Heavy Metals in Diverse Body Fluids: Studies of Human Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that exposure to heavy metals may impair male reproduction. To measure the effect produced by low doses of heavy metals on semen parameters, it is necessary to clarify in which body fluids those measurements must be performed. Sixty-one men attending infertility clinics participated in our study. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury were measured in whole blood, blood plasma, and seminal plasma using spectroanalytical and electrochemical methods. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. For statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlations, mean comparison tests, and discriminant analysis were calculated. Significant correlations between the measured concentrations of the three heavy metals in the same biological fluids were observed. However, no similar relationship was seen when comparing the concentrations in different body fluids of the same metal. According to our results and previous publications, seminal plasma might be the best body fluid for assessing impairment of human semen parameters.

  6. X-ray fluorescence analysis in application for study of human brain tissue and body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin slices of human brain tissue and body fluids were investigated using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Distribution of elements in brain tissue samples was studied using Microbeam X-Ray Fluorescence (MXRF) method. Total Reflection X-Ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis was applied for determination of elemental contens in cerebrospinal fluid, serum and whole blood. The main goal of the study was to optimize analytical procedures for investigation of biomedical specimens using EDXRF method. MXRF method is useful for investigation of P, S, Cl, K, Ca and Fe. Moreover, it can be also applied for distinguishing between white and gray matter of the human brain. Two sample preparation methods were applied in TXRF spectrometry with respect to detection limit. In the first method the body fluids were analysed without any sample preparation. The other measurements were performed for the body fluids digested with nitric acid. For both methods gallium was used as an internal standard. Accuracy of the TXRF method was assessed using Certified Reference Material, A-13 (freeze-dried animal blood). High sensitivity of TXRF and proper sample preparation allowed to detect wide spectrum of elements between Cl and Sr. Faster and easier first sample preparation method allowed to detect elements including volatile ones like Cl or Br whereas digestion of fluids with nitric acid improved the detection limits significantly. Elemental analysis of thin brain tissue samples and body fluids will be applied for study of role of trace elements in selected neurological diseases. (author)

  7. Control of fluid-containing rotating rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Gurchenkov, Anatoly A

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of the dynamics of rotating bodies with cavities containing liquid. Two basic classes of motions are analyzed: rotation and libration. Cases of complete and partial filling of cavities with ideal liquid and complete filling with viscous liquid are treated. The volume presents a method for obtaining relations between angular velocities perpendicular to main rotation and external force momentums, which are treated as control. The developed models and methods of solving dynamical problems as well as numerical methods for solving problems of optimal control can be

  8. Effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on body fluid distribution in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Jensen, Martin Bach; Frandsen, E.;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) in catabolic patients we examined the impact of GH on body fluid distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing elective abdominal surgery. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Twenty-four patients (14 female, 10 male......) aged 19-47 years were in a double-blinded study randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 12) or GH (n = 12) 6 i.u. s.c. twice daily from 2 days before until 7 days after ileo-anal J pouch surgery. Extracellular and plasma volume (ECV, PV) were determined using 82Br and 125I albumin dilution at...... day -2 and at day 7, and body composition was estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance. Changes in body weight and fluid balance were recorded and hence intracellular volume was assessed. RESULTS: During placebo treatment body weight decreased 4.3 +/- 0.6 kg; during GH treatment body...

  9. Towards instantaneous quantitative fluoroimaging drugs determination in body fluids with no added reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Strashnikova, Natalia V.; Gershanik, Arcady P.; Papiashvili, Nona; Khankin, Daniel; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Mark, Shlomo; Kalisky, Yehoshua; Parola, Abraham H

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to develop a simple monitoring technique for rapid, sensitive and quantitative drugs detection in body fluids, with no reagent added and no need for qualified professionals. The user-friendly automatic Fluo-imager will (a) measure the full-range 3D fluorescence map of the inserted fluid sample, (b) determine the chemical nature and concentration of the drugs and (c) transfer the results through internet to the diagnosis center. For these goals the fluorescence measurement dat...

  10. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Sikirzhytski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence.

  11. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Vinther, Jeppe; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of miRNA in the investigated tissues. We expect that the method can also be used for identification of other miRNAs that can be used for identifying other body fluids and tissues. We also expect that the met...

  12. Guidelines for uniform reporting of body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Khalil, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of these guidelines is to make the process of reporting body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders more uniform and transparent, in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. Although biomarkers have been around for decades, there are......-point uniform reporting format ranging from introduction, materials and methods, through to results and discussion. Each item is discussed in detail in the guidance report. CONCLUSIONS: To enhance the future development of body fluid biomarkers, it will be important to standardize the reporting of...

  13. Effect of lower-body positive pressure on postural fluid shifts in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Kravik, S. E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) on the orthostatic fluid and protein shifts were investigated in five men during combined tilt-table/antigravity suit inflation and deflation experiments. Changes in the mass densities of venous blood and plasma were measured and the values were used to calculate the densities of erythrocytes, whole-body blood, and shifted fluid. It was found that the application of 60 mm Hg LBPP during 60-deg head-up tilt prevented about half of the postural hemoconcentration occurring during passive head-up tilt.

  14. Corrosion behavior of coated and uncoated bio implants in SBF(simulated body fluid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical implants used in medical applications are basically the specific type of stainless steel materials. Stainless steel has been used widely and successfully for various types of trauma and orthopedic reconstructions. If an uncoated (bare) stainless steel metal piece is implanted in any part of the body, it will get corrode in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) present inside the human body (a mixture of different salts). To overcome this problem a coating of Titanium Nitride (TiN) was developed on stainless steel bio-implants using physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Both coated and uncoated implants were kept dipped in Simulated Body Fluid for five months. The samples were removed and tested for corrosion life assessment after every fifteen days using weight loss method. (author)

  15. Many-fluid Onsager density functional theories for orientational ordering in mixtures of anisotropic hard-body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, George; Varga, Szabolcs

    2008-10-14

    The extension of Onsager's second-virial theory [L. Onsager, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 51, 627 (1949)] for the orientational ordering of hard rods to mixtures of nonspherical hard bodies with finite length-to-breadth ratios is examined using the decoupling approximations of Parsons [Phys. Rev. A 19, 1225 (1979)] and Lee [J. Chem. Phys. 86, 6567 (1987); 89, 7036 (1988)]. Invariably the extension of the Parsons-Lee (PL) theory to mixtures has in the past involved a van der Waals one-fluid treatment in which the properties of the mixture are approximated by those of a reference one-component hard-sphere fluid with an effective diameter which depends on the composition of the mixture and the molecular parameters of the various components; commonly this is achieved by equating the molecular volumes of the effective hard sphere and of the components in the mixture and is referred to as the PL theory of mixtures. It is well known that a one-fluid treatment is not the most appropriate for the description of the thermodynamic properties of isotropic fluids, and inadequacies are often rectified with a many-fluid (MF) theory. Here, we examine MF theories which are developed from the virial theorem and the virial expansion of the Helmholtz free energy of anisotropic fluid mixtures. The use of the decoupling approximation of the pair distribution function at the level of a multicomponent hard-sphere reference system leads to our MF Parsons (MFP) theory of anisotropic mixtures. Alternatively the mapping of the virial coefficients of the hard-body mixtures onto those of equivalent hard-sphere systems leads to our MF Lee (MFL) theory. The description of the isotropic-nematic phase behavior of binary mixtures of hard Gaussian overlap particles is used to assess the adequacy of the four different theories, namely, the original second-virial theory of Onsager, the usual PL one-fluid theory, and the MF theories based on the Lee (MFL) and Parsons (MFP) approaches. A comparison with the

  16. Fluids, rivers, and vessels: metaphors and body concepts in Mesopotamian gynaecological texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the peculiar disease condition of "locked fluids" found in a number of gynaecological texts from 2(nd) and 1(st) millennium BCE Mesopotamia. To venture an interpretation of the underlying disease concept, the condition of "locked fluids" is first examined in the context of related and contrasting symptoms and female health problems connected to body fluids within the gynaecological corpus. The second part of this article turns to the physiological concepts of the (female) body linked to the disease condition of "locked fluids". The author highlights metaphors and comparisons with objects from daily life and the natural environment, which can be found in medical incantations and therapeutic rituals used to combat gynaecological disorders, as a key to indigenous concepts of physiology. The use of the same metaphors in connection with intestinal disorders points to an intuitive understanding of different processes within the body on the basis of comparisons and equations stemming from daily-life experiences. The last section presents similar notions to the Mesopotamian disease concept of "locked fluids", which are contained in gynaecological treatises of other cultures and times. PMID:24109494

  17. On the steady fall of a body in a compressible fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Penel, P.

    Atheny : WSEAS/IASME, 2005 - (Hassan, I.; Kobasko, N.; Nečasová, Š.), s. 30-35 ISBN 960-8457-33-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/05/0005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : steady fall * compressible fluids * rigid body Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Researchers move closer to understanding chaotic motion of a solid body in a fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2010-01-01

    In a paper appearing in the Feb. 24 issue of the "Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A," Virginia Tech Engineering Science and Mechanics Professor Hassan Aref, and his colleague Johan Roenby at the Technical University of Denmark shed new light on the chaotic motion of a solid body moving through a fluid.

  19. Modification-specific proteomic analysis of glycoproteins in human body fluids by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Hägglund, Per; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2007-01-01

    -glycosylated proteins in body fluids and other complex samples. An approach for identification of N-glycosylated proteins and mapping of their glycosylation sites is described. In this approach, glycoproteins are initially selectively purified by lectin chromatography. Following tryptic digestion, glycopeptides are...

  20. On the linear problem arising from motion of a fluid around a moving rigid body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Wolf, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 2 (2015), s. 241-259. ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : incompressible fluid * rotating rigid body * strong solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/144329

  1. COMMENTS ON TREATMENT OF OBESITY BASED ON SYNDROME DIFFERENTIATION OF BODY FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩荣; 郭丽霞; 李季; 符佳; 胡玲香

    2004-01-01

    Because of no exact name about obesity in traditional Chinese medicine, clinically there have no unified syndrome types about obesity. The present paper uses the original syndrome differentiation of body fluid and selects classical acupuncture and moxibustion prescriptions to treat obesity, which is conducive to further systematizing classical acupuncture and moxibustion prescriptions and providing sufficient basis for clinical popularization.

  2. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT while dogs in group W received warmed (W irrigation fluid (36oC. A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1 pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2 arrival into theatre, (T3 end of surgery and (T4 arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1 and return to the recovery suite (T4 was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58oC (p<0.001 in group RT and 1.53±0.76oC (p<0.001 group W. There was no significant difference between the groups. At the end of surgery (T3 4/19 (21.1% of dogs were hypothermic (<37oC. The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses.

  3. Lecture notes on: Electrical theory behind the measurement of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    The lecture notes describe how body fluid volumes can be measured/estimated using the technique bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The opening chapters assume little or none technical/mathematical knowledge and can hopefully be read by anyone interested in the techneque. Later chapters become more...

  4. Flow Visualization of Internal Waves and Wakes of a Streamlined Body in a Stratified Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Amin A. Bidokhti; Aliakbar Bidokhti

    2016-01-01

    The wake and internal waves of a moving three dimensional (3D) airfoil body in a stratified fluid has been investigated in a large stratified tank with a finite depth using movies of shadowgraphs of the flow fields. Typical Reynolds and Froude numbers of the flow varied between 103 and 104, and 0.3 and 2 respectively. The flows are generated often by towing the body in a uniformly stratified flow, while limited cases are carried out with body stationary and the channel was in recirculating mo...

  5. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM, free fat mass (FFM, lean body mass (LBM and total body fluid (TBF in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90 who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated. Body weight, total body fluid, body fat percentage and fat mass of soccer players were measured by using BIA(Tanita method before and after the matches. Paired t test has been used to compare pretest and posttest values. Pearson's correlation analysis has been used to determine relationship between tests values. Statistically differences has been determined between pre-post body weight and body fat TBF (p<0,01. Also, highly negative correlation has been determined between pre-post body fluide loss percentage differences and pre-post body fat mass percentage differences (r=-,766; p<0,001. Theoretically, body fat loss is expected following weight loss after computation, anything but rising rate of body fat was observed. So it is speculated that bio-electric facing more resistance in the body due to fluid loss. Therefore more body fat calculated. Dehydration should be taken into account for the measurements made by the BIA method, because of changes in body fat percentages. It is suggested that fluid intake of the subjects should be under control before the measurementin the studies.

  6. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  7. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, E. B.; Ulbricht, L.; Krueger, E.; Romaneli, E. F. R.; Souza, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  8. Risk factors for meconium stained amniotic fluid and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Sundaram

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Meconium stained amniotic fluid is associated with a higher incidence of operative deliveries resulting in an increased maternal morbidity. It is also associated with an increased neonatal morbidity due to birth asphyxia and respiratory depression at birth and a significant risk of neonatal mortality due to meconium aspiration syndrome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2503-2506

  9. Numerical implication of Riemann problem theory for fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Riemann problem plays an important role in understanding the wave structure of fluid flow. It is also crucial step in some numerical algorithms for accurately and efficiently computing fluid flow; Godunov method, random choice method, and from tracking method. The standard wave structure consists of shock and rarefaction waves. Due to physical effects such as phase transitions, which often are indistinguishable from numerical errors in an equation of state, anomalkous waves may occur, ''rarefaction shocks'', split waves, and composites. The anomalous waves may appear in numerical calculations as waves smeared out by either too much artificial viscosity or insufficient resolution. In addition, the equation of state may lead to instabilities of fluid flow. Since these anomalous effects due to the equation of state occur for the continuum equations, they can be expected to occur for all computational algorithms. The equation of state may be characterized by three dimensionless variables: the adiabatic exponent γ, the Grueneisen coefficient Γ, and the fundamental derivative G. The fluid flow anomalies occur when inequalities relating these variables are violated. 18 refs

  10. Locomotion and control of a self-propelled shape-changing body in a perfect fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chambrion, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in studying some issues relating to the general problem of locomotion by shape- changes in a two dimensional perfect fluis. Our results are two folds: first we introduce a rigorous model for a weighted self-propelled swimming body - one specificity of this model being that the number of the body's deformations degrees of freedom is infinite. The dynamic of the coupled system fluid-body is driven by the so-called Euler-Lagrange equations: a system of ODEs allowing to compute the rigid motion of the body with respect to its prescribed shape-changes. Second, we prove controllability results for this model using powerful tools of geometric control theory. For instance, we show that the body can follow (approximately) any prescribed trajectory while undergoing (approximately) any prescribed shape-changes (this surprising phenomenon will be called Moonwalking). Most of our theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  11. Continuity and internal properties of Gulf Coast sandstones and their implications for geopressured fluid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Tyler, N.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic properties of the genetic sandstone units that typify many geopressured geothermal aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Gulf Coast region were systematically investigated classified, and differentiated. The following topics are coverd: structural and stratigraphic limits of sandstone reservoirs, characteristics and dimensions of Gulf Coast sandstones; fault-compartment areas; comparison of production and geologic estimates of aquifer fluid volume; geologic setting and reservoir characteristics, Wells of Opportunity; internal properties of sandstones; and implications for geopressured fluid production. (MHR)

  12. Strongly coupled dynamics of fluids and rigid-body systems with the immersed boundary projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2015-08-01

    A strong coupling algorithm is presented for simulating the dynamic interactions between incompressible viscous flows and rigid-body systems in both two- and three-dimensional problems. In this work, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. Dynamical equations for arbitrary rigid-body systems are also developed. The proposed coupling method attempts to unify the treatment of constraints in the fluid and structure-the incompressibility of the fluid, the linkages in the rigid-body system, and the conditions at the interface-through the use of Lagrange multipliers. The resulting partitioned system of equations is solved with a simple relaxation scheme, based on an identification of virtual inertia from the fluid. The scheme achieves convergence in only 2 to 5 iterations per time step for a wide variety of mass ratios. The formulation requires that only a subset of the discrete fluid equations be solved in each iteration. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including a falling cylinder, flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of many linked plates in a free stream, and passive pivoting of a finite aspect ratio plate under the influence of gravity in a free stream. The results from the current method are compared with previous experimental and numerical results and good agreement is achieved.

  13. H2-rich fluids from serpentinization: Geochemical and biotic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sleep, N. H.; Meibom, A.; Fridriksson, Th.; Coleman, R.G.; Bird, D. K.

    2004-01-01

    Metamorphic hydration and oxidation of ultramafic rocks produces serpentinites, composed of serpentine group minerals and varying amounts of brucite, magnetite, and/or FeNi alloys. These minerals buffer metamorphic fluids to extremely reducing conditions that are capable of producing hydrogen gas. Awaruite, FeNi3, forms early in this process when the serpentinite minerals are Fe-rich. Olivine with the current mantle Fe/Mg ratio was oxidized during serpentinization after the Moon-forming impac...

  14. Measurement of net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport and effective vascular compliance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Gaffney, F. A.; Schneider, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport (TFT) between the circulation and the interstitial (extravascular) space may be calculated as: IV - deltaPV - UV - IL, where IV=infused or ingested volume (when applicable), deltaPV = change in plasma volume, UV=urine volume, and IL=insensible loss. RESULTS: Infusion of 30 mL/kg isotonic saline over 25 minutes increased supine TFT from a basal capillary reabsorption of -106+/-24 mL/h (mean+/-SE) to a net filtration of 1,229+/-124 mL/h. One hour after infusion, reabsorption of -236+/-102 mL/h was seen, and control reabsorption levels returned by 3 hours. Four hours of 30 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP) elicited no net TFT, probably because of upper body reabsorptive compensation for lower body capillary filtration. When ingestion of 1 L of isotonic saline accompanied LBNP, filtration of 145+/-10 mL/h occurred. Reabsorption of extravascular fluid into the circulation always followed LBNP. CONCLUSION: Application of this technique could aid understanding of physiologic conditions, experimental interventions, disease states, and therapies that cause or are influenced by fluid shifts between intravascular and interstitial compartments.

  15. Collisional drift fluid equations and implications for drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effects of which are extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter law is important in relation to charge separation and the resulting electric fields, which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial to the stability behaviour, it will be discussed by means of an example. New collisional multi-species drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields, in a transparent way, conservation of energy and total angular momentum and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The only restriction involved is the validity of the drift approximation; in particular, there are no assumptions restricting the geometry of the system. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in the drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. However, their relation to the ideal equations also implies a relation to the ideal Lagrangian, which can be used to advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. Tv(x) = constant. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theory; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. (author)

  16. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its concentration in body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares after repeated intragastric administration

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Aric R.; Haines, Gregory R.; Brown, Murray P.; Gronwall, Ronald; Merritt, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its distribution within the body fluids and endometrium of 6 mares were studied after intragastric (IG) administration of 5 individual doses. Difloxacin concentrations were serially measured in serum, urine, peritoneal fluid, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and endometrium over 120 h. Bacterial susceptibility to difloxacin was determined for 174 equine pathogens over a 7-month period. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 2.25 ± 0.70 μg/mL at 3.12 ± 2....

  17. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun;

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several...... body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of several thousand proteins and the red blood cell proteome has also been analyzed in depth. The liver proteome is represented with 3200 proteins. By employing high resolution MS and......://www.mapuproteome.com using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic...

  18. Cell-free microRNAs in blood and other body fluids, as cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Quintero, Blanca

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum, plasma and other body fluids has yielded an invaluable potential source of non-invasive biomarkers for cancer and other non-malignant diseases. miRNAs in the blood and other body fluids are highly stable in biological samples and are resistant to environmental conditions, such as freezing, thawing or enzymatic degradation, which makes them convenient as potential biomarkers. In addition, they are more easily sampled than tissue miRNAs. Altered levels of cell-free miRNAs have been found in every type of cancer analysed, and increasing evidence indicates that they may participate in carcinogenesis by acting as cell-to-cell signalling molecules. This review summarizes the biological characteristics and mechanisms of release of cell-free miRNAs that make them promising candidates as non-invasive biomarkers of cancer. PMID:27218664

  19. Enrichment methodology to increase the positivity of cultures from body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Valle Daur

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of etiological agents found in body fluids can be of critical importance for the recovery of patients suffering from potentially-severe infections, which are often followed by serious sequels. Eighty-two samples of different body fluids were analyzed using two different methods: (1 the conventional culture method (agar plating and (2 the enrichment culture technique, using the Bact/Alert® blood culture bottle. The number of positive cultures increased on average from 9.7% to 23.1% with the enrichment culture technique. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria. The enrichment method could provide a more accurate means the identifying etiological agents.

  20. Reflections on the Mechanism of Calcium Phosphate Nucleation on Titanium in Simulated Body Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. T. Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The results and main findings of studies reported in the literature in relation to the deposition of calcium phosphate on Ti in simulated body fluids are summarized. The effects of the surface hydroxyl groups and the sign of surface charge on the nucleation of calcium phosphate are reviewed. One major controversy among the conclusions of different studies is the order of adsorption of the calcium ions and the phosphate ions in the initial stage of immersion. A simple model based on the amphoteric nature of the hydroxyl groups on Ti is proposed in an attempt to delineate the nucleation process for calcium phosphate on Ti in simulated body fluids. HPO42- ions interact with the hydroxyl groups via ion exchange and/or electrostatic attraction, and Ca2+ ions, via electrostatic attraction only. There is no preferential order of adsorption. Seemingly inconsistent results in different studies possibly arise from different prior treatments of the samples, which affect the adsorption properties.

  1. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet; VAN, Ali; Yücel

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM), free fat mass (FFM), lean body mass (LBM) and total body fluid (TBF) in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid) loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90) who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated....

  2. On the long-time behaviour of a rigid body immersed in a viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Nečasová, Šárka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2011), s. 59-66. ISSN 0003-6811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917; GA AV ČR IAA100190804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : rigid body * viscous fluid * Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2011 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036811003735964

  3. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy for the assessment of body fluid volumes of term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of fluid volume in neonates by a noninvasive, inexpensive, and fast method can contribute significantly to increase the quality of neonatal care. The objective of the present study was to calibrate an acquisition system and software to estimate the bioelectrical impedance parameters obtained by a method of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy based on step response and to develop specific equations for the neonatal population to determine body fluid compartments. Bioelectric impedance measurements were performed by a laboratory homemade instrument. The volumes were estimated in a clinical study on 30 full-term neonates at four different times during the first month of life. During the first 24 hours of life the total body water, extracellular water and intracellular water were 2.09 ± 0.25, 1.20 ± 0.19, and 0.90 ± 0.25 liters, respectively. By the 48th hour they were 1.87 ± 0.27, 1.08 ± 0.17, and 0.79 ± 0.21 liters, respectively. On the 10th day they were 2.02 ± 0.25, 1.29 ± 0.21, and 0.72 ± 0.14 liters, respectively, and after 1 month they were 2.34 ± 0.27, 1.62 ± 0.20, and 0.72 ± 0.13 liters, respectively. The behavior of the estimated volume was correlated with neonatal body weight changes, leading to a better interpretation of such changes. In conclusion, this study indicates the feasibility of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy as a method to help fluid administration in intensive care neonatal units, and also contribute to the development of new equations to estimate neonatal body fluid contents.

  4. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl- Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl- Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl- in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl- homeostasis vi...

  5. Altered Visual Adaptation to Body Shape in Eating Disorders: Implications for Body Image Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Harald M; Rickmeyer, Constanze; Hummel, Dennis; Ernst, Mareike; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that after adapting to a thin body, healthy participants (HP) perceive pictures of their own bodies as being fatter and vice versa. This aftereffect might contribute to the development of perceptual body image disturbances in eating disorders (ED).In the present study, HP and ED completed a behavioral experiment to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to thin or fat body pictures. After adapting to a thin body, HP judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. ED only showed such an adaptation effect when they adapted to fat body pictures.The reported results indicate a relationship between body image distortion in ED and visual body image adaptation. It can be suspected that due to a pre-existing, long-lasting adaptation to thin body shapes in ED, an additional visual adaption to thin body shapes cannot be induced. Hence this pre-existing adaptation to thin body shapes could induce perceptual body image distortions in ED. PMID:26921409

  6. Apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer in simulated body fluid: effects of phosphate group content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Ryo; Shirosaki, Yuki; Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2016-10-01

    Phosphate groups on materials surfaces are known to contribute to apatite formation upon exposure of the materials in simulated body fluid and improved affinity of the materials for osteoblast-like cells. Typically, polymers containing phosphate groups are organic matrices consisting of apatite-polymer composites prepared by biomimetic process using simulated body fluid. Ca(2+) incorporation into the polymer accelerates apatite formation in simulated body fluid owing because of increase in the supersaturation degree, with respect to apatite in simulated body fluid, owing to Ca(2+) release from the polymer. However, the effects of phosphate content on the Ca(2+) release and apatite-forming abilities of copolymers in simulated body fluid are rather elusive. In this study, a phosphate-containing copolymer prepared from vinylphosphonic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate was examined. The release of Ca(2+) in Tris-NaCl buffer and simulated body fluid increased as the additive amount of vinylphosphonic acid increased. However, apatite formation was suppressed as the phosphate groups content increased despite the enhanced release of Ca(2+) from the polymer. This phenomenon was reflected by changes in the surface zeta potential. Thus, it was concluded that the apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-triethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer treated with CaCl2 solution was governed by surface state rather than Ca(2+) release in simulated body fluid. PMID:27585911

  7. GANDALF: Graphical Astrophysics code for N-body Dynamics And Lagrangian Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubber, David; Rosotti, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    GANDALF, a successor to SEREN (ascl:1102.010), is a hybrid self-gravitating fluid dynamics and collisional N-body code primarily designed for investigating star formation and planet formation problems. GANDALF uses various implementations of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to perform hydrodynamical simulations of gas clouds undergoing gravitational collapse to form new stars (or other objects), and can perform simulations of pure N-body dynamics using high accuracy N-body integrators, model the intermediate phase of cluster evolution, and provide visualizations via its python interface as well as interactive simulations. Although based on many of the SEREN routines, GANDALF has been largely re-written from scratch in C++ using more optimal algorithms and data structures.

  8. Flow Visualization of Internal Waves and Wakes of a Streamlined Body in a Stratified Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin A. Bidokhti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wake and internal waves of a moving three dimensional (3D airfoil body in a stratified fluid has been investigated in a large stratified tank with a finite depth using movies of shadowgraphs of the flow fields. Typical Reynolds and Froude numbers of the flow varied between 103 and 104, and 0.3 and 2 respectively. The flows are generated often by towing the body in a uniformly stratified flow, while limited cases are carried out with body stationary and the channel was in recirculating mode. For some experiments the density profile had a stepped like shape. The wake flow is often consisted of internal waves including random and coherent ones. Distortion of density fields was also observed ahead and above the body in cases where the Froude number was subcritical. Results show that as the Froude number (Fr=U/Nh, where U is the body relative velocity, N is buoyancy frequency and h is the thickness of the body is increased, the flow undergoes from a subcritical narrow wake (for Fr1. Typical wavelength of the exited internal waves is increased with Fr, as the theory predicts. The wake of the flow for Fr>1.4 appeared to collapse and some internal waves emission from it could be observed. Usually two types of internal waves, namely random small scale and large scale, more regular waves are observed.

  9. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjevac Jovana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondition for a good lung function after birth. Lamellar bodies are a form of stored surfactant, and their count in the amniotic fluid can be determined simply by a standard hematology analyzer. The method of determining lamellar body count has found an important place in prenatal diagnostics and is recommended as an initial method of a ”cascade” procedure of testing fetal lung maturity. However, considering the importance of procedure of sample collection, storage and centrifugation, which can significantly affect the results obtained for the lung maturity, the amniotic fluid samples must be absolutely free of contamination with blood, meconium, mucus, bacteria and leucocytes.

  10. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnjevac, Jovana; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondition for a good lung function after birth. Lamellar bodies are a form of stored surfactant, and their count in the amniotic fluid can be determined simply by a standard hematology analyzer. The method of determining lamellar body count has found an important place in prenatal diagnostics and is recommended as an initial method of a "cascade" procedure of testing fetal lung maturity. However, considering the importance of procedure of sample collection, storage and centrifugation, which can significantly affect the results obtained for the lung maturity, the amniotic fluid samples must be absolutely free of contamination with blood, meconium, mucus, bacteria and leucocytes. PMID:21443154

  11. Modelling Fault Zone Evolution: Implications for fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, H.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2009-04-01

    Flow simulation models are of major interest to many industries including hydrocarbon, nuclear waste, sequestering of carbon dioxide and mining. One of the major uncertainties in these models is in predicting the permeability of faults, principally in the detailed structure of the fault zone. Studying the detailed structure of a fault zone is difficult because of the inaccessible nature of sub-surface faults and also because of their highly complex nature; fault zones show a high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity i.e. the properties of the fault change as you move along the fault, they also change with time. It is well understood that faults influence fluid flow characteristics. They may act as a conduit or a barrier or even as both by blocking flow across the fault while promoting flow along it. Controls on fault hydraulic properties include cementation, stress field orientation, fault zone components and fault zone geometry. Within brittle rocks, such as granite, fracture networks are limited but provide the dominant pathway for flow within this rock type. Research at the EU's Soultz-sous-Forệt Hot Dry Rock test site [Evans et al., 2005] showed that 95% of flow into the borehole was associated with a single fault zone at 3490m depth, and that 10 open fractures account for the majority of flow within the zone. These data underline the critical role of faults in deep flow systems and the importance of achieving a predictive understanding of fault hydraulic properties. To improve estimates of fault zone permeability, it is important to understand the underlying hydro-mechanical processes of fault zone formation. In this research, we explore the spatial and temporal evolution of fault zones in brittle rock through development and application of a 2D hydro-mechanical finite element model, MOPEDZ. The authors have previously presented numerical simulations of the development of fault linkage structures from two or three pre-existing joints, the results of

  12. On the Motion of a Small Light Body Immersed in a Two Dimensional Incompressible Perfect Fluid with Vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Olivier; Lacave, Christophe; Sueur, Franck

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we consider the motion of a rigid body immersed in a two dimensional unbounded incompressible perfect fluid with vorticity. We prove that when the body shrinks to a massless pointwise particle with fixed circulation, the "fluid+rigid body" system converges to the vortex-wave system introduced by Marchioro and Pulvirenti (Mathematical theory of incompressible nonviscous fluids. Applied Mathematical Sciences 96, Springer-Verlag, 1994). This extends both the paper (Glass et al. Bull Soc Math France 142(3):489-536, 2014) where the case of a solid tending to a massive pointwise particle was tackled and the paper (Glass et al. Dynamics of a point vortex as limits of a shrinking solid in an irrotational fluid, 2014) where the massless case was considered but in a bounded cavity filled with an irrotational fluid.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and distribution of voriconazole in body fluids of dogs after repeated oral dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemetayer, J D; Dowling, P M; Taylor, S M; Papich, M G

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole and its concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), aqueous humor, and synovial fluid in five healthy dogs following once daily oral dose of 6 mg/kg for 2 weeks. Body fluid and plasma drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mild to moderate gastrointestinal adverse effects were seen. The mean AUC0-24 : minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio was 15.23 for a chosen MIC of 1 μg/mL, which is lower than the recommended target of 20-25 and also lower than previously reported in dogs, perhaps reflecting induction of metabolizing enzymes by multiple dosing. Voriconazole concentrations in the CSF, aqueous humor, and synovial fluid were only 13-30% the concurrent plasma concentration, which is lower than previously reported in other species. Results of this study suggest that twice daily, administration may be necessary to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in dogs but further studies are warranted. PMID:25691353

  14. Development of Managers' Emotional Competencies: Mind-Body Training Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruicic, Dusan; Benton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to research about the effect of mind-body training on the development of emotional competencies of managers. Design/methodology/approach: Quasi-experimental design, i.e. before and after (test-retest). Findings: Results showed that the experimental group, after training, achieved around 15 per cent higher scores compared…

  15. Circulating MicroRNAs as Promising Biomarkers in Forensic Body Fluids Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Enache, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. Currently, it is possible to genotype all types of biological traces or micro-traces containing nucleated cells if they are not entirely destroyed, chemically or bacterial. The DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples, but due to the recent advances in molecular genetics, other biomarkers have been proposed to be used in forensic identifications, such as: messenger RNA(mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and DNA methylation. MicroRNAs are part of a class of small, non-coding RNAs that contain 19 - 23 nucleotides. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of biochemical mechanisms, cell proliferation and other cellular mechanisms in the human body. The level of microRNAs in blood and other body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat) increases as a consequence of altered pathophysiological mechanisms and tissue insult. Moreover, the stability and specificity of microRNAs make them ideal candidates for circulating biomarkers in forensic bioanalytical procedures. In this review, we want to present a brief overview of biogenesis, functions, and applications of miRNAs in the identification of forensic body fluids. PMID:26554231

  16. NUMERICAL METHOD FOR MULTI-BODY FLUID INTERACTION BASED ON IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING Ping-jian; ZHANG Wen-ping

    2011-01-01

    A Cartesian grid based on Immersed Boundary Method(IBM),proposed by the present authors,is extended to unstructured grids.The advantages of IBM and Body Fitted Grid(BFG)are taken to enhance the computation efficiency of the fluid structure interaction in a complex domain.There are many methods to generate the BFG,among which the unstructured grid method is the most popular.The concept of Volume Of Solid(VOS)is used to deal with the multi rigid body and fluid interaction.Each body surface is represented by a set of points which can be traced in an anti-clockwise order with the solid area on the left side of surface.An efficient Lagrange point tracking algorithm on the fixed grid is applied to search the moving boundary grid points.This method is verified by low Reynolds number flows in the range from Re =100 to 1 000 in the cavity with a moving lid.The results are in a good agreement with experimental data in literature.Finally,the flow past two moving cylinders is simulated to test the capability of the method.

  17. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in different body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for measurement of human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in nanogram quantities has been developed. The sensitivity of the assay now permits examination of the inhibitor content of various body fluids, wherein other methods exhibit serious shortcomings. In healthy blood donors the serum level was 8.1μg/l. In patients with acute pancreatitis levels as high as 320μg/l have been measured, and patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed an elevated inhibitor level in serum immediately after the examination without any clinical signs of disease, the highest registered value being 128μg/l. In peritoneal lavage fluid from patients with severe acute pancreatitis levels of 5-304μg/l have been measured. In urine the inhibitor level is about 14μg/l in healthy persons. The urine from one patient with proteinuria of glomerulo-tubular type contained 380μg/l. (orig.)

  18. Computation of some thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of fluid oxygen using two-body and three-body intermolecular potentials from molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Comparison between our molecular dynamics simulated results of reduced pressure (P*) and experimental data at T* = 1 (122 K) at different reduced densities (ρ*) using different two-body and three-body intermolecular potentials. It is shown that the three-body potential of Hauschild and Prausnitz gives better accordance with the experiment than other potentials. - Abstract: We have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to obtain pressure, internal energy, radial distribution function, and self-diffusion coefficient of fluid oxygen using effective two-site Lennard-Jones (2SLJ) and two-body Hartree-Fock dispersion (HFD)-like potentials. To take higher-body forces into account, we have used three-body potentials of Hauschild and Prausnitz [T. Hauschild, J.M. Prausnitz, Molec. Simul. 11 (1993) 177] and Miyano [Y. Miyano, Fluid Phase Equilib. 104 (1995) 71] with the two-body HFD-like potential. We have also considered the spin correction in our simulation which improved our energy results. The significance of this work is that the three-body potential of Hauschild and Prausnitz extended as a function of density and temperature and can be used with the HFD-like potential to improve the prediction of the pressures of fluid oxygen without requiring an expensive three-body calculation. The molecular dynamics simulation of oxygen has been also used to determine a new equation of state.

  19. Solid-Phase Extraction Strategies to Surmount Body Fluid Sample Complexity in High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Marco R. Bladergroen; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2015-01-01

    For large-scale and standardized applications in mass spectrometry- (MS-) based proteomics automation of each step is essential. Here we present high-throughput sample preparation solutions for balancing the speed of current MS-acquisitions and the time needed for analytical workup of body fluids. The discussed workflows reduce body fluid sample complexity and apply for both bottom-up proteomics experiments and top-down protein characterization approaches. Various sample preparation methods t...

  20. Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method for Simulating Fluid Structure Interaction with Complex 3D Rigid Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-08-10

    The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI

  1. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h

  2. In-vitro evaluation of corrosion resistance of nitrogen ion implanted titanium simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and its alloy Ti6Al4V enjoy widespread use in various biomedical applications because of favourable local tissue response, higher corrosion resistance and fatigue strength than the stainless steels and cobalt-chromium alloy previously used. The study reported in this paper aims to optimize the conditions of nitrogen ion implantation on commercially pure titanium and to correlate the implantation parameters to the corrosion resistance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyse surface concentration and the implantation processes. An improvement in the electrochemical behaviour of the passive film was shown to occur with nitrogen ion implantation on titanium, in simulated body fluids. (UK)

  3. Characterisation of body fluid specific microRNA markers by capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Graham; Uchimoto, Mari L.; Coult, Natalie; World, Damien; Beasley, Emma; Avenell, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of RNA molecules for the purpose of body fluid identification is currently a major field in forensic genetics; with a great deal of effort going towards the analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA). There is also some effort with targeting microRNA (miRNA) which is a more stable RNA molecule than mRNA; due to its short size and role in RNA interference. Most research into forensic miRNA analysis is based around quantitative PCR (qPCR). No substantial research has yet been carried...

  4. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Chengyun [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)], E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn; Cheng Haimei [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Zhu Wenjun [Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Yin Zhaoyi [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Chen Hao [Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Zheng Huade; Lei Shumei; Yin Shiheng [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Tan Guoxin [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h.

  5. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Chengyun; Cheng, Haimei; Zhu, Wenjun; Yin, Zhaoyi; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Huade; Lei, Shumei; Yin, Shiheng; Tan, Guoxin

    2008-11-01

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h.

  6. Hydraulic fracture characterization resulting from low-viscosity fluid injection: Implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbey, T. J.; Zhou, X.

    2013-12-01

    ceases propagating, with the former always occurring before the latter. These times are very different for different fluids. Both fluid compressibility and viscosity are important in the behavior of fracture propagation with viscosity being the most important property. Viscosity can greatly affect the magnitude of hydraulic conductivity and the value of the leak-off coefficient. This study has important implications for CO2 sequestration.

  7. Fluid status in peritoneal dialysis patients: the European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM study cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Biesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. METHODS: We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. RESULTS: Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R² of the model = 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia.

  8. FREE-SURFACE WAVES AND FAR WAKES GENERATED BY A FLOATING BODY IN A VISCOUS FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Dong-qiang

    2003-01-01

    The free-surface waves and the flow field due to a body moving on the surface of an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth were studied analytically. The floating body was modeled as a normal point pressure on the free surface. Based on the Oseen approximation for governing equations and the linearity assumption for boundary conditions, the exact solutions in integral form for the free-surface elevation, the velocities and the pressure were given. By employing Lighthill's two-stage scheme, the asymptotic representations in far field for large Reynolds numbers were derived explicitly. The effect of viscosity on the wave profiles was expressed by an exponential decay factor, which removes the singular behavior predicted by the potential theory.

  9. Simulated body-fluid tests and electrochemical investigations on biocompatibility of metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the in-vitro and electrochemical investigations of four metallic glasses (MGs) for finding potential MG-based bio-materials. The simulation body-fluid Hanks solution is utilized for testing the corrosion resistance of MGs, and microorganisms of Escherichia coli are used in testing the bio-toxicity. In addition, a simple cyclic voltammetry method is used for rapid verification of the potential electrochemical responses. It is found that the Zr-based MG can sustain in the body-fluid, exhibiting the best corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability. The microbiologic test shows that E. coli can grow on the surface of the Zr-based metallic glass, confirming the low cell toxicity of this Zr-based MG. Highlights: ► Vanadium is added in Cu–Zr–Al alloy to induce B2-CuZr formation. ► The more induced B2-CuZr phase can improve compressive plasticity. ► The plasticity improvement might be caused by B2 phase dynamic coarsening.

  10. Identification of misfolded proteins in body fluids for the diagnosis of prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Francesca; Pocchiari, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion diseases are fatal rare neurodegenerative disorders affecting man and animals and caused by a transmissible infectious agent. TSE diseases are characterized by spongiform brain lesions with neuronal loss and the abnormal deposition in the CNS, and to less extent in other tissues, of an insoluble and protease resistant form of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), named PrP(TSE). In man, TSE diseases affect usually people over 60 years of age with no evident disease-associated risk factors. In some cases, however, TSE diseases are unequivocally linked to infectious episodes related to the use of prion-contaminated medicines, medical devices, or meat products as in the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Clinical signs occur months or years after infection, and during this silent period PrP(TSE), the only reliable marker of infection, is not easily measurable in blood or other accessible tissues or body fluids causing public health concerns. To overcome the limit of PrP(TSE) detection, several highly sensitive assays have been developed, but attempts to apply these techniques to blood of infected hosts have been unsuccessful or not yet validated. An update on the latest advances for the detection of misfolded prion protein in body fluids is provided. PMID:24027585

  11. Generation of a novel transgenic rat model for tracing extracellular vesicles in body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Aya; Kawamata, Masaki; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Katsuda, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Hisae; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Naoki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Tamai, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in the transfer of biomolecules between cells. To elucidate the intercellular transfer fate of EVs in vivo, we generated a new transgenic (Tg) rat model using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human CD63. CD63 protein is highly enriched on EV membranes via trafficking into late endosomes and is often used as an EV marker. The new Tg rat line in which human CD63-GFP is under control of the CAG promoter exhibited high expression of GFP in various body tissues. Exogenous human CD63-GFP was detected on EVs isolated from three body fluids of the Tg rats: blood serum, breast milk and amniotic fluid. In vitro culture allowed transfer of serum-derived CD63-GFP EVs into recipient rat embryonic fibroblasts, where the EVs localized in endocytic organelles. These results suggested that this Tg rat model should provide significant information for understanding the intercellular transfer and/or mother-child transfer of EVs in vivo. PMID:27539050

  12. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  13. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity

  14. Modeling the time evolution of the nanoparticle-protein corona in a body fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dell'Orco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles in contact with biological fluids interact with proteins and other biomolecules, thus forming a dynamic corona whose composition varies over time due to continuous protein association and dissociation events. Eventually equilibrium is reached, at which point the continued exchange will not affect the composition of the corona. RESULTS: We developed a simple and effective dynamic model of the nanoparticle protein corona in a body fluid, namely human plasma. The model predicts the time evolution and equilibrium composition of the corona based on affinities, stoichiometries and rate constants. An application to the interaction of human serum albumin, high density lipoprotein (HDL and fibrinogen with 70 nm N-iso-propylacrylamide/N-tert-butylacrylamide copolymer nanoparticles is presented, including novel experimental data for HDL. CONCLUSIONS: The simple model presented here can easily be modified to mimic the interaction of the nanoparticle protein corona with a novel biological fluid or compartment once new data will be available, thus opening novel applications in nanotoxicity and nanomedicine.

  15. Cardiovascular and Body Fluid Adjustments During Bed Rest and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Although a few scientific bed rest (BR) studies were conducted soon after World War II, advent of the space program provided impetus for utilizing prolonged (days-months) BR, which employed the horizontal or 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) body positions, to simulate responses of healthy people to microgravity. Shorter (hours) HDT protocols were used to study initial mechanisms of the acclimation-deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness) syndromes. Of the major physiological factors modified during BR, reduced force on bones, ligaments, and muscles, and greatly reduced hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, the latter: which involves shifts of blood from the lower extremities into the upper body, increase in central venous pressure, and diuresis, appears to be the initial stimulus for acclimation. Increase in central venous pressure occurs in subjects during weightless parabolic flight, but not in astronauts early during orbital flight. But significant reduction in total body water (hypohydration) and plasma volume (hypovolemia) occurs in subjects during both BR and microgravity. Response of interstitial fluid volume is not as clear, It has been reported to increase during BR, and it may have increased in Skylab II and IV astronauts. Reduction of total body water, and greater proportional reduction of extracellular volume, indicates increased cellular volume which may contribute to inflight cephalic edema. Cerebral pressure abates after a few days of HDT, but not during flight. accompanied by normal (eugravity) blood constituent concentrations suggesting some degree of acclimation had occurred. But during reentry, with moderately increased +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration and gravitational force, the microgravity "euhydration" becomes functional progressive dehydration contributing to the general reentry syndrome (GRS) which, upon landing the Shuttle, can and often results in gastrointestinal distress, disorientation, vertigo, fatigue, and

  16. Potential implications of the objectification of women's bodies for women's sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Rachel M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2009-03-01

    The present study tested a sociocultural model of women's sexual satisfaction grounded in Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). One hundred and one college women attending university in the UK completed measures of media internalization, body surveillance, body shame, sexual self-esteem, and sexual satisfaction. Consistent with predictions, the results of a path analysis indicated that greater internalization of appearance ideals from media sources leads to more body surveillance, which leads to higher body shame and lower sexual self-esteem, which, in turn, predicts less sexual satisfaction (only reached marginal significance for sexual self-esteem). In addition, body surveillance and body shame directly predicted sexual satisfaction. These results further implicate the sociocultural practices that objectify women in the disruption of women's experiences of sexual satisfaction. PMID:19233750

  17. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  18. Casimir micro-sphere diclusters and three-body effects in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, Jaime; McCauley, Alexander P; Johnson, Steven G

    2010-01-01

    Our previous article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010)] predicted that Casimir forces induced by the material-dispersion properties of certain dielectrics can give rise to stable configurations of objects. This phenomenon was illustrated via a dicluster configuration of non-touching objects consisting of two spheres immersed in a fluid and suspended against gravity above a plate. Here, we examine these predictions from the perspective of a practical experiment and consider the influence of non-additive, three-body, and nonzero-temperature effects on the stability of the two spheres. We conclude that the presence of Brownian motion reduces the set of experimentally realizable silicon/teflon spherical diclusters to those consisting of layered micro-spheres, such as the hollow- core (spherical shells) considered here.

  19. Silica enhanced formation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadjadi, M.S., E-mail: m.s.sadjad@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, H.R. [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meskinfam, M. [Department of Chemistry, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Shahid Beheshti, Eveen Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} We report on fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in silica-containing simulated body fluid solution at 37 deg. C. {yields} Bioactivity and biodegradability of TCP precursor have been confirmed by the dissolution of TCP and formation of a bone like layer of new HA nanoparticles outside of the precursor after 24 h soaking in SBF solution. {yields} Successive nucleation and formation of tiny hexagonal HA nanoplates and nanorods have been confirmed by TEM results after 24 h soaking of TCP in silica-containing BSF solution. - Abstract: The chemical modification of implant (prosthesis) surfaces is being investigated worldwide for improving the fixation of orthopaedic and dental implants. The main goal in this surface modification approach is to achieve a faster bone growth and chemical bonding of the implant to the newly generated and/or remodeled bone. In this work, we report fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in simulated body fluid (SBF, inorganic components of human blood plasma) solutions at 37 deg. C, using calcium phosphate (TCP) and sodium silicate as precursors. Characterization and chemical analysis of the synthesized powders were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated enhanced nucleation and formation of bone like layer of HA nanocrystals at the surface of TCP nanoparticles and occurrence of HA nanocrystals during 24 h soaking of TCP in SBF solution containing silica ions. The average size of a nanoparticle, using Scherrer formula, was found to be 18.2 nm.

  20. Effect of anodization on corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility of Cp-titanium in simulated body fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Singh; B P Singh; Mohan R Wani; Dinesh Kumar; J K Singh; Vakil Singh

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to study the effectiveness of anodized surface of commercial purity titanium (Cp-Ti) on its corrosion behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF) and proliferation of osteoblast cells on it, to assess its potentiality as a process of surface modification in enhancing corrosion resistance and osseointegration of dental implants. Highly ordered nano-porous oxide layer, with nano-sized pores, is developed on the surface of Cp-Ti through electrochemical anodization in the electrolyte of aqueous solution of 0.5% HF at 15 V for 30 min at 24 °C. The nano-porous feature of the anodized surface is characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Pores of some anodized samples are sealed by exposing the anodized surface in boiling water. Corrosion behaviour of the anodized specimen is studied in Ringer’s solution at 30 ± 2 °C, using electrochemical impedance and cyclic polarization technique. Biocompatibility of the anodized surface is accessed using MG63 osteoblast cells. Both corrosion as well as pitting resistance of Cp-Ti in simulated body fluid are found to be highest in the anodized and sealed condition and followed in decreasing order by those of anodized and unanodized ones. Significantly higher MG63 osteoblast cell proliferations are found on the anodized surface than that on the unanodized one. Anodized Cp-Ti develops nano-size surface pores, like that of natural bone. It enhances corrosion and pitting resistance and also the process of osteoblast cell proliferation on Cp-Ti.

  1. Silica enhanced formation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We report on fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in silica-containing simulated body fluid solution at 37 deg. C. → Bioactivity and biodegradability of TCP precursor have been confirmed by the dissolution of TCP and formation of a bone like layer of new HA nanoparticles outside of the precursor after 24 h soaking in SBF solution. → Successive nucleation and formation of tiny hexagonal HA nanoplates and nanorods have been confirmed by TEM results after 24 h soaking of TCP in silica-containing BSF solution. - Abstract: The chemical modification of implant (prosthesis) surfaces is being investigated worldwide for improving the fixation of orthopaedic and dental implants. The main goal in this surface modification approach is to achieve a faster bone growth and chemical bonding of the implant to the newly generated and/or remodeled bone. In this work, we report fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in simulated body fluid (SBF, inorganic components of human blood plasma) solutions at 37 deg. C, using calcium phosphate (TCP) and sodium silicate as precursors. Characterization and chemical analysis of the synthesized powders were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated enhanced nucleation and formation of bone like layer of HA nanocrystals at the surface of TCP nanoparticles and occurrence of HA nanocrystals during 24 h soaking of TCP in SBF solution containing silica ions. The average size of a nanoparticle, using Scherrer formula, was found to be 18.2 nm.

  2. Differentiation of five body fluids from forensic samples by expression analysis of four microRNAs using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Eva; Reinke, Ann-Kathrin; Courts, Cornelius

    2016-05-01

    Applying molecular genetic approaches for the identification of forensically relevant body fluids, which often yield crucial information for the reconstruction of a potential crime, is a current topic of forensic research. Due to their body fluid specific expression patterns and stability against degradation, microRNAs (miRNA) emerged as a promising molecular species, with a range of candidate markers published. The analysis of miRNA via quantitative Real-Time PCR, however, should be based on a relevant strategy of normalization of non-biological variances to deliver reliable and biologically meaningful results. The herein presented work is the as yet most comprehensive study of forensic body fluid identification via miRNA expression analysis based on a thoroughly validated qPCR procedure and unbiased statistical decision making to identify single source samples. PMID:26878708

  3. Tectonic "short circuit" of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies as a possible mechanism of the earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    An alternative earthquake mechanism is proposed. The traditional stress mechanism of fracture formation assigned a support role. As a proximate cause of the earthquake the destruction of the roofs of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies (SHFB) is considered. This collapse may occur due to redistribution of fluid pressure within the system of SHFB connected by cracks (tectonic or other nature). It can cause both shifts of rock blocks contributing to seismic shocks and various effects characteristic of foreshocks and aftershocks.

  4. Determination of reduced sulfur compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography in hydrothermal seawater and body fluids from Riftia pachyptila

    OpenAIRE

    Gru, Cecile; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Legoff, Hélène; Narcon, Sandrine; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Lallier, Francois

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the determination of reduced sulfur compounds in hydrothermal seawater and body fluids from the hydrothermal tube worm Riftia pachyptila. Sulfur is a hey component of the hydrothermal ecosystem based on chemosynthesis, Sulfur compounds were derivatized at pH 8 (4.3 for sulfide in biological fluid) with a fluorescent reagent, monobromobimane, and separated by reverse-phase HPLC. The eluted compounds were detected by spectrofluorimetry. This method allowed: the...

  5. Developed and evaluated a multiplex mRNA profiling system for body fluid identification in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In forensic casework, identification the cellular origin from a biological sample is crucial to the case investigation and reconstruction in crime scene. DNA/RNA co-extraction for STR typing and human body fluids identification has been proposed as an efficient and comprehensive assay for forensic analysis. Several cell-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) markers for identification of the body fluids have been proposed by previous studies. In this study, a novel multiplex mRNA profiling system included 19 markers was developed and performed by reverse transcription endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The multiplex combined 3 housekeeping gene markers and 16 cell-specific markers that have been used to identify five types of human body fluids: peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood. The specificity, sensitivity, stability and detectability of the mixture were explored in our study. Majority of the cell-specific mRNA markers showed high specificity, although cross-reactivity was observed sporadically. Specific profiling for per body fluid was obtained. Moreover, the interpretation guidelines for inference of body fluid types were performed according to the A. Lindenbergh et al. The scoring guidelines can be applied to any RNA multiplex, which was based on six different scoring categories (observed, observed and fits, sporadically observed and fits, not observed, sporadically observed, not reliable, and non-specific due to high input). The simultaneous extraction of DNA showed positive full or partial profiling results of all samples. It demonstrated that the approach of combined STR-profiling and RNA profiling was suitable and reliable to detect the donor and origin of human body fluids in Chinese Han population. PMID:26311108

  6. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    OpenAIRE

    Taymaz Imdat; Aslan Erman; Benim Ali Cemal

    2015-01-01

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is us...

  7. An improved method for quantification of extra domain A-containing cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) in different body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylätupa, S; Mertaniemi, P; Haglund, C; Partanen, P

    1995-01-31

    A quantitative direct enzyme immunoassay for the extra domain A-containing isoform of cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) was established for screening of large series of blood samples and various body fluids of different pH and viscosity. The method is based on the monoclonal antibody DH1 recognizing the extra domain A in cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN). Studies on the effect of dilution of plasma and serum samples in this direct assay indicated that the measured concentration of cFN in the samples greatly depend on the ratio of sample dilution. The linearity of the assay was improved with sample dilution and the optimal dilution was 1:5. Stored diluted samples retained their cFN content at +4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C and -70 degrees C for months in contrast to samples stored undiluted. With this direct EIA the detection limit was 0.05 micrograms/ml and the linear portion of the standard curve could be extended above 30 micrograms/ml. Thus, the cFN concentration of blood samples could be measured reliably without inhibition also in samples with very high concentration of cFN. This is particularly important when measuring blood samples from cancer patients, since these samples may contain more than 20 micrograms/ml EDAcFN. The assay was standardized for blood samples but, due to the possibility of sample dilution, it also enabled reliable quantification of EDAcFN in various other body fluids. Undiluted some of the samples with non-neutral pH (urine, bile) or with high viscosity (seminal plasma) interfered with the assay. In addition to blood samples, the EDAcFN concentration was determined in samples of urine, bile, amniotic fluid, cervicovaginal secretions, seminal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid and saliva. Thereby, this modified method was shown to be applicable to various body fluids. PMID:7758225

  8. Newton's Investigation of the Resistance to Moving Bodies in Continuous Fluids and the Nature of "Frontier Science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Colin F.

    2010-01-01

    Newton's experiments into the resistance which fluids offer to moving bodies provide some insight into the way he related theory and experiment. His theory demonstrates a way of thought typical of 17th century physics and his experiments are simple enough to be replicated by present day students. Newton's investigations using pendulums were…

  9. Exposure to and precautions for blood and body fluids among workers in the funeral home franchises of Fort Worth, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanyanwu, O C; Tabasuri, T H; Harris, G R

    1989-08-01

    In 1982 the Centers for Disease Control published a set of recommendations and measures to protect persons working in health care settings or performing mortician services from possible exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus. This study of a number of funeral homes in the Fort Worth area was designed to determine the level of exposure of funeral home workers to blood and other body fluids and also to assess existing protective measures and practices in the industry. Workers in 22 funeral home franchises were surveyed with a predesigned questionnaire. Eighty-five responses from 20 of the 22 establishments were received. All 85 respondents admitted exposure of varying degrees to blood and body fluids. Sixty persons (70%) admitted heavy exposure, that is, frequent splashes. Analysis of the responses showed that 81 of 85 (95.3%) persons consistently wore gloves while performing tasks that might expose them to blood or other body fluids. Of the 60 persons who were heavily exposed, 43 wore long-sleeved gowns, 27 wore waterproof aprons, 17 surgical masks, and 15 goggles. The study further revealed that 52.9% (45/85) of the respondents had sustained accidental cuts or puncture wounds on the job. In light of these findings it is important to target educational efforts to persons in this industry to help them minimize their risks of infection with blood and body fluid borne infections. PMID:2549820

  10. The porosity and roughness of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đošić Marija S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate coatings were electrochemically deposited on titanium from the aqueous solution of Ca(NO32 and NH4H2PO4 with the current density of 10 mA cm-2 for deposition time of 15 min. The obtained brushite coatings, (CaHPO4·2H2O, were converted to hydroxyapatite (HA by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF for 2, 7 and 14 days. The brushite and hydroxyapatite coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. It was shown that the increase in soaking time increases the porosity, roughness and crystallite domain size of HA coatings and decreases the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume, while does not affect the HA mean pore area. The calcium and phosphorus ions concentrations in SBF were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively and the mechanism of HA growth based on dissolution-precipitation was proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019, br. III 45015 i br. OI 72004

  11. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH+ and CaH2PO4+. The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF

  12. Surface characterization of stainless steel AISI 316 L in contact with simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are often used in orthopedic surgery. In the more developed countries, stainless steel is used only for temporary implants since it does not hold up as well as other alloys to corrosion in a physiological medium. Nevertheless, stainless steel alloys are frequently used for permanent implants in developing countries. Therefore, more knowledge about its reaction to corrosion is needed as well as the characteristics of the surface layer generated in a physiological medium in order to control potential toxicity from the release of metallic ions into the organism. The surface films usually have a different composition and chemical state from the base material. The surface characterization of alloys used in orthopedic surgery should not be underestimated, since it heavily influences the behavior of the implant through the relationship of the surface film-tissue and the possible migration of metallic ions from the base metal to the surrounding tissue. This work presents a study of the surface composition and resistance to the corrosion of stainless steel AISI 316L in simulated body fluid (SBF) aired at pH 7.25 and 37oC. The resistance to the corrosion was studied with an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves (CW)

  13. Study of nanobiomaterial hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid: Formation and growth of apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Pradnya N.; Bahir, Manjushri M.; Mene, Ravindra U.; Mahabole, Megha P. [School of Physical Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded 431606 (India); Khairnar, Rajendra S., E-mail: rk2kin@yahoo.co [School of Physical Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded 431606 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is main mineral component of hard tissues. It is widely used in biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. Nanosized HAp is synthesized by wet chemical process. The synthesized HAp is characterized by XRD, FTIR, AFM and SEM for structural, morphological and functional groups analysis. The Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) is prepared by using chlorides, carbonates, oxides, and sulphates of alkali metals at 37 deg. C. The ion exchange process is carried out to exchange calcium cation by sodium and potassium. The pure HAp and ion exchanged HAp pellets are used as source of nucleating agent for apatite layer formation, in SBF maintained at 37 deg. C using incubator for different periods of time to study the bioactivity. The dielectric study is carried out on incubated pure and ion exchanged HAp pellets. XRD analysis confirms the hexagonal phase of hydroxyapatite. FTIR shows the presence of functional groups. SEM observations reveal that the growth of highly porous apatite layer on HAp surface increases with time. The dielectric constant is found to be in the range 3-12. It is seen that the synthesized HAp bioceramic nano material not only supports the growth of apatite layer but also accelerates the growth onto itself.

  14. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  15. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, Miodrag [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D. [Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mišković-Stanković, Vesna [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  16. Modeling Physiological Systems in the Human Body as Networks of Quasi-1D Fluid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Anne

    2008-11-01

    Extensive research has been done on modeling human physiology. Most of this work has been aimed at developing detailed, three-dimensional models of specific components of physiological systems, such as a cell, a vein, a molecule, or a heart valve. While efforts such as these are invaluable to our understanding of human biology, if we were to construct a global model of human physiology with this level of detail, computing even a nanosecond in this computational being's life would certainly be prohibitively expensive. With this in mind, we derive the Pulsed Flow Equations, a set of coupled one-dimensional partial differential equations, specifically designed to capture two-dimensional viscous, transport, and other effects, and aimed at providing accurate and fast-to-compute global models for physiological systems represented as networks of quasi one-dimensional fluid flows. Our goal is to be able to perform faster-than-real time simulations of global processes in the human body on desktop computers.

  17. Evaluation of commercial kits for dual extraction of DNA and RNA from human body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighardt, Andrew J; Tate, Courtney M; Scott, Kristina A; Harper, Kathryn A; Robertson, James M

    2015-01-01

    STR typing of DNA evidence can identify the donor with a high power of discrimination but cannot identify the tissue origin of a body-fluid stain. Using RNA to attribute a crime scene stain to a particular tissue may aid in reconstruction efforts. With blood from 10 donors, four DNA and RNA coextraction kits were evaluated by measuring yields and STR and mRNA profiles. T tests indicated some significant differences in kit performance. The Zymo Research ZR-Duet(™) kit performed best based on average DNA (41.4 ng) and mRNA (4.07 ng) yields and was the only kit to provide complete DNA/RNA profiles for all samples. The consistency of this kit was challenged by data from additional blood and saliva donors. Further testing is advised before a superior kit is unequivocally chosen. Stand-alone DNA or RNA purification generally offers higher yield, but coextraction may still allow successful STR profiling and tissue source identification. PMID:25284026

  18. Fabrication of Titanium/Fluorapatite Composites and In Vitro Behavior in Simulated Body Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hezhou Ye; Xing Yang Liu; Hanping Hong

    2013-01-01

    Titanium/fluorapatite (Ti/FA) composites with various FA additions were fabricated by powder metallurgy.The decomposition of FA during sintering was accelerated by the presence of Ti.The main reaction products of FA and Ti were identified as CaO,Ti phosphides,and CaTiO3.The addition of FA significantly inhibited the densification of Ti.The in vitro bioactivity of the composites was evaluated in a simulated body fluid (SBF).After immersion into the SBF,all the Ti/FA composites induced nucleation and growth of bone-like carbonated apatite on the surface.Co-precipitation of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 was also detected on the surface of the composite with high FA addition at an early stage of immersion.Furthermore,the release of fluorine ions from the composite was confirmed,which could promote bone regeneration and retard the formation of caries in the biological environment.The in vitro behavior was attributed to multiple factors,including the surface conditions and the constituents of the composite.The results demonstrated that the Ti/FA composites were bioactive in nature even with a low FA addition and they could introduce the benefit of fluorine ions in the service.

  19. Radioenzymatic assay of femtomole concentrations of DOPA in tissues and body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single isotope radioenzymatic procedure for the measurement of DOPA has been developed. The assay combines 0-methylation of DOPA by purified COMT using [3H]SAM as the methyl donor and subsequent purification as the DNFB derivative of 3-0-[methyl-3H]DOPA. The present method is about 100 times more sensitive than currently available DOPA methods. This is due to decreased blank values and increased enzymatic conversion giving transmethylation values of 50% with tissue extracts and values of almost 100% with pure solutions. Although COMT methylates a wide variety of catechol compounds, specificity of the assay is achieved by selective extraction and purification of the final product by tlc. The method has good inter-assay reliability, the coefficient of variation being about 3.5%. This ultramicromethod was used to determine the steady-state concentrations of endogenous DOPA in minute samples of brain areas of the rat. In untreated rats brain DOPA levels varied with the mode of death; the highest levels were found in animals killed by microwave irradiation. Unconjugated DOPA was measured in microlite aliquots of human body fluids. (author)

  20. Biomimetic Coating of Modified Titanium Surfaces with Hydroxyapatite Using Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Nazir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the viability of coating commercially pure titanium (CPTi surfaces, modified via sandblasting and acid etching, with hydroxyapatite (HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings using a simulated body fluid (SBF solution. The samples were immersed in SBF from 3 to 7 days. The morphology and the chemistry of the HA/tricalcium phosphate coating were then analysed. Prior to immersion in SBF, the samples were sandblasted and acid etched to mimic the morphology and roughness of commercially available dental implants. The SBF aided in the formation of crystalline HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings on all the samples. The coatings were uniform and had roughness values higher than the underlying substrate. The highest roughness values for the coatings on the surfaces were obtained at 7 days of immersion in SBF with average Sa values of 2.9 ± 0.2 µm. The presence of HA/tricalcium phosphate on the surfaces was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS, the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR analysis. This study shows that it is possible to obtain an adequate and uniform hydroxyapatite coating on pure titanium substrates in a shorter period of time with characteristics that favour the ultimate goal of implants therapy, that is, osseointegration.

  1. In vitro bioactivity of 3D Ti-mesh with bioceramic coatings in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D Ti-mesh has been coated with bioceramics under different coating conditions, such as material compositions and micro-porosity, using a dip casting method. Hydroxyapatite (HA, micro-HA particles (HAp, a bioglass (BG and their different mixtures together with polymer additives were used to control HA-coating microstructures. Layered composites with the following coating-to-substrate designs, such as BG/Ti, HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti, were fabricated. The bioactivity of these coated composites and the uncoated Ti-mesh substrate was then investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF. The Ti-mesh substrate and BG/Ti composite did not induce biomimetic apatite deposition when they were immersed in SBF for the selected BG, a pressable dental ceramic, used in this study. After seven days in SBF, an apatite layer was formed on both HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti composites. The difference is the apatite layer on the HAp + BG/BG/Ti composite was rougher and contained more micro-pores, while the apatite layer on the HA + BG/BG/Ti composite was dense and smooth. The formation of biomimetic apatite, being more bioresorbable, is favored for bone regeneration.

  2. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Okamoto, Masami [Advanced Polymeric Nanostructured Materials Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-05-22

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH{sup +} and CaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +}. The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF.

  3. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Okamoto, Masami

    2015-05-01

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH+ and C a H2P O4+ . The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF.

  4. Hydroxyapatite-Coated Magnesium-Based Biodegradable Alloy: Cold Spray Deposition and Simulated Body Fluid Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorakma, Abdullah C. W.; Zuhailawati, Hussain; Aishvarya, V.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2013-10-01

    A simple modified cold spray process in which the substrate of AZ51 alloys were preheated to 400 °C and sprayed with hydroxyapatite (HAP) using high pressure cold air nozzle spray was designed to get biocompatible coatings of the order of 20-30 μm thickness. The coatings had an average modulus of 9 GPa. The biodegradation behavior of HAP-coated samples was tested by studying with simulated body fluid (SBF). The coating was characterized by FESEM microanalysis. ICPOES analysis was carried out for the SBF solution to know the change in ion concentrations. Control samples showed no aluminum corrosion but heavy Mg corrosion. On the HAP-coated alloy samples, HAP coatings started dissolving after 1 day but showed signs of regeneration after 10 days of holding. All through the testing period while the HAP coating got eroded, the surface of the sample got deposited with different apatite-like compounds and the phase changed with course from DCPD to β-TCP and β-TCMP. The HAP-coated samples clearly improved the biodegradability of Mg alloy, attributed to the dissolution and re-precipitation of apatite showed by the coatings as compared to the control samples.

  5. Fluid Shifts: Otoacoustical Emission Changes in Response to Posture and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgoza, R.; Kemp, D.; Ebert, D.; Danielson, R.; Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the NASA Fluid Shifts Study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Due to the invasive nature of direct measures of ICP, a noninvasive technique of monitoring ICP is desired for use during spaceflight. The phase angle and amplitude of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been shown to be sensitive to posture change and ICP (1, 2), therefore use of OAEs is an attractive option. OAEs are low-level sounds produced by the sensory cells of the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation. These sounds travel peripherally from the cochlea, through the oval window, to the ear canal where they can be recorded. OAE transmission is sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the oval window, occurring as a result of changes in cochlear pressure. Increased stiffness of the oval window largely affects the transmission of sound from the cochlea at frequencies between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. OAEs can be self-recorded in the laboratory or on the ISS using a handheld device. Our primary objectives regarding OAE measures in this experiment were to 1) validate this method during preflight testing of each crewmember (while sitting, supine and in head-down tilt position), and 2) determine if OAE measures (and presumably ICP) are responsive to lower body negative pressure and to spaceflight. METHODS: Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded preflight using the Otoport Advance OAE system (Otodynamics Ltd., Hatfield, UK). Data were collected in four conditions (seated

  6. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its concentration in body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares after repeated intragastric administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its distribution within the body fluids and endometrium of 6 mares were studied after intragastric (IG) administration of 5 individual doses. Difloxacin concentrations were serially measured in serum, urine, peritoneal fluid, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and endometrium over 120 h. Bacterial susceptibility to difloxacin was determined for 174 equine pathogens over a 7-month period. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 2.25 ± 0.70 μg/mL at 3.12 ± 2.63 h and Cmax after the 5th dose was 2.41 ± 0.86 μg/mL at 97.86 ± 1.45 h. The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was 8.75 ± 2.77 h and area under the serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) was 25.13 ± 8.79 μg h/mL. Highest mean synovial fluid concentration was 1.26 ± 0.49 μg/mL at 100 h. Highest mean peritoneal fluid concentration was 1.50 ± 0.56 μg/mL at 98 h. Highest mean endometrial concentration was 0.78 ± 0.48 μg/g at 97.5 h. Mean cerebrospinal fluid concentration was 0.87 ± 0.52 μg/mL at 99 h. Highest mean urine concentration was 92.05 ± 30.35 μg/mL at 104 h. All isolates of Salmonella spp. and Pasteurella spp. were susceptible. In general, gram-negative organisms were more susceptible than gram-positives. Difloxacin appears to be safe, adequately absorbed, and well distributed to body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares and may be useful in the treatment of susceptible bacterial infections in adult horses. PMID:16187554

  7. The usefulness of in vitro proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for differentiating between abdominal body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vitro proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is useful for distinguishing between abdominal types of fluids. Thirty fluid samples that were obtained from patients who were undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic percutaneous drainage of abdominal fluids were examined in this study. According to their gross appearance and smell, each sample was classified as either purulent fluid (n=12) or non-purulent fluid (n=18). The non-purulent fluids were subdivided into hemorrhagic fluid (n=2), serosanguinous fluid with debris (n=2), and serosanguinous fluid without debris (n=14). In addition, according to the cytologic analysis, each sample was classified as either benign fluid (n=23) or malignant fluid (n=7). A set of humoral pathological examinations that included biochemical analysis and culture of the fluid were performed for all the fluid samples. In vitro 1H MRS was performed by using a 1.5T MR system and a bird cage head coil. MR spectra were obtained by using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) (TR/TE=2000/30 msec) with water suppression. The MR spectra were analyzed on the basis of agreement between a radiologist and a physicist who worked in consensus. The MR spectra obtained from 30 samples could be classified into 8 different patterns, according to the presence of lipid (0.9/1.3 ppm), lactate (1.3 ppm), acetate (1.9 ppm) and succinate (2.4 ppm) peaks. The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids (n=12) were classified as follows: pattern-1 (n=7, 58%), pattern-2 (n=2, 17%), pattern-3 (n=1, 8%), pattern-6 (n=1, 8%) and pattern-8 (n=1, 8%). The MR spectral patterns of the non-purulent fluids (n=18) were classified as follows: pattern-4 (n=1, 6%), pattern-5 (n=5, 28%), pattern-6 (n =1, 6%), pattern-7 (n =3, 17%) and pattern-8 (n=8, 44%). The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids were significantly different from those of the non-purulent fluids (ρ 1H MRS could be useful for differentiating

  8. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl- Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl- Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl- in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl- homeostasis via Cl- transport uptake mechanisms. Previous studies in zebrafish identified Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) 2b-expressing cells in the gills and skin as the major ionocytes responsible for Cl- uptake, similar to distal convoluted tubular cells in mammalian kidney. However, the mechanism by which basolateral ions exit from NCC cells is still unclear. Of the in situ hybridization signals of twelve members of the clc Cl- channel family, only that of clc-2c exhibited an ionocyte pattern in the gill and embryonic skin. Double in situ hybridization/immunocytochemistry confirmed colocalization of apical NCC2b with basolateral CLC-2c. Acclimation to a low Cl- environment increased mRNA expression of both clc-2c and ncc2b, and also the protein expression of CLC-2c in embryos and adult gills. Loss-of-function of clc-2c resulted in a significant decrease in whole body Cl- content in zebrafish embryos, a phenotype similar to that of ncc2b mutants; this finding suggests a role for CLC-2c in Cl- uptake. Translational knockdown of clc-2c stimulated ncc2b mRNA expression and vice versa, revealing cooperation between these two transporters in the context of zebrafish Cl- homeostasis. Further comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish CLC-2c is a fish-specific isoform that diverged from a kidney-predominant homologue, in the same manner as NCC2b and its counterparts (NCCs). Several lines of molecular and cellular physiological evidences demonstrated the cofunctional role

  9. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl(-) Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl(-) Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl(-) in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl(-) homeostasis via Cl(-) transport uptake mechanisms. Previous studies in zebrafish identified Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) 2b-expressing cells in the gills and skin as the major ionocytes responsible for Cl(-) uptake, similar to distal convoluted tubular cells in mammalian kidney. However, the mechanism by which basolateral ions exit from NCC cells is still unclear. Of the in situ hybridization signals of twelve members of the clc Cl(-) channel family, only that of clc-2c exhibited an ionocyte pattern in the gill and embryonic skin. Double in situ hybridization/immunocytochemistry confirmed colocalization of apical NCC2b with basolateral CLC-2c. Acclimation to a low Cl(-) environment increased mRNA expression of both clc-2c and ncc2b, and also the protein expression of CLC-2c in embryos and adult gills. Loss-of-function of clc-2c resulted in a significant decrease in whole body Cl(-) content in zebrafish embryos, a phenotype similar to that of ncc2b mutants; this finding suggests a role for CLC-2c in Cl(-) uptake. Translational knockdown of clc-2c stimulated ncc2b mRNA expression and vice versa, revealing cooperation between these two transporters in the context of zebrafish Cl(-) homeostasis. Further comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish CLC-2c is a fish-specific isoform that diverged from a kidney-predominant homologue, in the same manner as NCC2b and its counterparts (NCCs). Several lines of molecular and cellular physiological evidences demonstrated

  10. Changes of body fluid and hematology in toad and their rehabilitation following intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, H. M.; Boral, M. C.

    1986-06-01

    Three groups of adult male toads were exposed intermittently in a decompression chamber for a daily period of 4 and 8 hours at a time for 6 consecutive days to an “altitude” of 12,000; 18,000 and 24,000 feet (3658; 5486; 7315 m) respectively. Most of the exposed animals were sacrificed immediately after the last exposure, but only a few animals experiencing 8 hours of exposure were sacrificed after a further 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. Eight hours of daily exposure for 6 days causes a decrease of body fluids and an increase of hematological parameters in all the altitude exposed animals compared with to the changes noted in the animals having 4 hours of daily exposure for 6 days at the same altitude levels. The animals that were exposed to pressures equivalent to altitudes of 12,000 and 18,000 feet daily for 8 hours were found to return nearly to their normal body fluids and hematological balance after 16 hours of exposure to normal atmospheric pressure, whereas the animals exposed for a similar period at an equivalent 24,000 feet failed to get back their normal balance of body fluids and hematology after 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. The present experiment shows that the body weight loss and changes of body fluid and hematological parameters in the toad after exposure to simulated high altitude are due not only to dehydration, but suggest that hypoxia may also have a role.

  11. Controlling of dielectric parameters of insulating hydroxyapatite by simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) samples were synthesized under various amounts of citric acid using the sol–gel method. Before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 and 28 days, the structural properties of HAp samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and dielectric measurements. The crystallite size (D) was found to be in the range of 25.17–33.06 nm with the crystallinity percent (XC%) of 69.53–86.09. The lattice parameters of a and c were calculated to be in the ranges of 9.373–9.434 Å and 6.828–6.896 Å, respectively. The morphology of the as-synthesized samples was changed with the amount of citric acid and soaking period in SBF. The Ca/P molar ratios indicated a decrease with increasing immersion time, and Ca-deficiency was observed. The relative permittivity (ε′) and dielectric loss (ε″) were significantly affected by citric acid content and soaking period in SBF. It was seen that the alternating current conductivity (σac) increased with increasing frequency and the σac values changed with increasing soaking period and amount of citric acid. - Highlights: • The crystallite size is in the range of 25.17–33.06 nm. • The Ca/P molar ratio showed a decrease with increasing immersion time. • Citric acid content and soaking period in SBF affect the relative permittivity. • The alternating current conductivity increased with increasing frequency

  12. The usefulness of in vitro proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for differentiating between abdominal body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jeong Won; Shin, Sang Soo; Song, Sang Gook; Seon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Gwang Woo [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Yeon; Lim, Hyo Soon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vitro proton ({sup 1}H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is useful for distinguishing between abdominal types of fluids. Thirty fluid samples that were obtained from patients who were undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic percutaneous drainage of abdominal fluids were examined in this study. According to their gross appearance and smell, each sample was classified as either purulent fluid (n=12) or non-purulent fluid (n=18). The non-purulent fluids were subdivided into hemorrhagic fluid (n=2), serosanguinous fluid with debris (n=2), and serosanguinous fluid without debris (n=14). In addition, according to the cytologic analysis, each sample was classified as either benign fluid (n=23) or malignant fluid (n=7). A set of humoral pathological examinations that included biochemical analysis and culture of the fluid were performed for all the fluid samples. In vitro {sup 1}H MRS was performed by using a 1.5T MR system and a bird cage head coil. MR spectra were obtained by using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) (TR/TE=2000/30 msec) with water suppression. The MR spectra were analyzed on the basis of agreement between a radiologist and a physicist who worked in consensus. The MR spectra obtained from 30 samples could be classified into 8 different patterns, according to the presence of lipid (0.9/1.3 ppm), lactate (1.3 ppm), acetate (1.9 ppm) and succinate (2.4 ppm) peaks. The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids (n=12) were classified as follows: pattern-1 (n=7, 58%), pattern-2 (n=2, 17%), pattern-3 (n=1, 8%), pattern-6 (n=1, 8%) and pattern-8 (n=1, 8%). The MR spectral patterns of the non-purulent fluids (n=18) were classified as follows: pattern-4 (n=1, 6%), pattern-5 (n=5, 28%), pattern-6 (n =1, 6%), pattern-7 (n =3, 17%) and pattern-8 (n=8, 44%). The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids were significantly different from those of the non-purulent fluids ({rho} < .05). The MR spectral patterns

  13. WAVES GENERATED BY A 3D MOVING BODY IN A TWO-LAYER FLUID OF FINITE DEPTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; YOU Yun-xiang; MIAO Guo-ping; ZHAO Feng; ZHANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the waves generated by a 3-D body advancing beneath the free surface with constant speed in a two-layer fluid of finite depth. By applying Green's theorem, a layered integral equation system based on the Rankine source for the perturbed velocity potential generated by the moving body was derived with the potential flow theory. A four-node isoparametric element method was used to treat with the solution of the layered integral equation system. The surface and interface waves generated by a moving ball were calculated numerically. The results were compared with the analytical results for a moving source with constant velocity.

  14. Generalized mapping of multi-body dissipative particle dynamics onto fluid compressibility and the Flory-Huggins theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Safa; Boromand, Arman; Khani, Shaghayegh; Wagner, Jacob; Yamanoi, Mikio; Maia, Joao

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a generalized relation between the fluid compressibility, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), and the simulation parameters in multi-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) is established. This required revisiting the MDPD equation of state previously reported in the literature and developing general relationships between the parameters used in the MDPD model. We derive a relationship to the Flory-Huggins χ parameter for incompressible fluids similar to the work previously done in dissipative particle dynamics by Groot and Warren. The accuracy of this relationship is evaluated using phase separation in small molecules and the solubility of polymers in dilute solvent solutions via monitoring the scaling of the radius of gyration (Rg) for different solvent qualities. Finally, the dynamics of the MDPD fluid is studied with respect to the diffusion coefficient and the zero shear viscosity.

  15. Structure and stability of rapidly rotating fluid bodies in general relativity. III. Beyond the angular velocity peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterworth, E.M.

    1979-07-01

    A method previously described by Butterworth and Ipser for constructing models of rapidly rotating fluid bodies in general relativity is modified to enable construction of solutions whose sources are very highly flattened. In particular, solutions with increasing oblateness and decreasing angular velocity are exhibited. Also, a discussion is given of the possible association of the terminal of relativistic sequences by equatorial shedding and the first secular axisymmetric instability of the Maclaurin spheroids.

  16. Electrochemical Investigations of Polycaprolactone-Coated AZ31 Mg Alloy in Earle's Balance Salt Solution and Conventional Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) coating has been shown to increase the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys when exposed to a simulated body fluid. A PCL dip coating was applied to AZ31 Mg alloy. Samples were immersed in both Earle's Balance Salt Solution (EBSS) and conventional simulated body fluids (c-SBF) up to 14 days. Microscopic morphology, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior changes of PCL coatings against immersion times in EBSS and c-SBF as compared to the uncoated AZ31 substrate. PCL-coated samples demonstrated improved corrosion resistance compared to bare AZ31 in both EBSS and c-SBF, indicating that the PCL coating exhibited good corrosion protection of AZ31 in simulated body fluid. Samples immersed in EBSS showed significantly higher electrochemical impedance values and slower corrosion progression as compared to the samples in c-SBF, because of the decreased chloride content and CO2 buffering mechanism of the EBSS.

  17. The Application of SILAC Mouse in Human Body Fluid Proteomics Analysis Reveals Protein Patterns Associated with IgA Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Body fluid proteome is the most informative proteome from a medical viewpoint. But the lack of accurate quantitation method for complicated body fluid limited its application in disease research and biomarker discovery. To address this problem, we introduced a novel strategy, in which SILAC-labeled mouse serum was used as internal standard for human serum and urine proteome analysis. The SILAC-labeled mouse serum was mixed with human serum and urine, and multidimensional separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (IEF-LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. The shared peptides between two species were quantified by their SILAC pairs, and the human-only peptides were quantified by mouse peptides with coelution. The comparison for the results from two replicate experiments indicated the high repeatability of our strategy. Then the urine from Immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients treated and untreated was compared by this quantitation strategy. Fifty-three peptides were found to be significantly changed between two groups, including both known diagnostic markers for IgAN and novel candidates, such as Complement C3, Albumin, VDBP, ApoA,1 and IGFBP7. In conclusion, we have developed a practical and accurate quantitation strategy for comparison of complicated human body fluid proteome. The results from such strategy could provide potential disease-related biomarkers for evaluation of treatment.

  18. Neural representations and the cortical body matrix: implications for sports medicine and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallwork, Sarah B; Bellan, Valeria; Catley, Mark J; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-08-01

    Neural representations, or neurotags, refer to the idea that networks of brain cells, distributed across multiple brain areas, work in synergy to produce outputs. The brain can be considered then, a complex array of neurotags, each influencing and being influenced by each other. The output of some neurotags act on other systems, for example, movement, or on consciousness, for example, pain. This concept of neurotags has sparked a new body of research into pain and rehabilitation. We draw on this research and the concept of a cortical body matrix-a network of representations that subserves the regulation and protection of the body and the space around it-to suggest important implications for rehabilitation of sports injury and for sports performance. Protective behaviours associated with pain have been reinterpreted in light of these conceptual models. With a particular focus on rehabilitation of the injured athlete, this review presents the theoretical underpinnings of the cortical body matrix and its application within the sporting context. Therapeutic approaches based on these ideas are discussed and the efficacy of the most tested approaches is addressed. By integrating current thought in pain and cognitive neuroscience related to sports rehabilitation, recommendations for clinical practice and future research are suggested. PMID:26682866

  19. A stable fluid-structure-interaction solver for low-density rigid bodies using the immersed boundary projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lācis, Uǧis; Taira, Kunihiko; Bagheri, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of low-density rigid particles with complex geometries is ubiquitous in both natural and industrial environments. We show that while explicit methods for coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and Newton's equations of motion are often sufficient to solve for the motion of cylindrical particles with low density ratios, for more complex particles - such as a body with a protrusion - they become unstable. We present an implicit formulation of the coupling between rigid body dynamics and fluid dynamics within the framework of the immersed boundary projection method. Similarly to previous work on this method, the resulting matrix equation in the present approach is solved using a block-LU decomposition. Each step of the block-LU decomposition is modified to incorporate the rigid body dynamics. We show that our method achieves second-order accuracy in space and first-order in time (third-order for practical settings), only with a small additional computational cost to the original method. Our implicit coupling yields stable solution for density ratios as low as 10-4. We also consider the influence of fictitious fluid located inside the rigid bodies on the accuracy and stability of our method.

  20. Analysis and Design Tools for Fluid-Structure Interaction with Multi-Body Flexible Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this proposal (Phases I and II) is to develop a robust and accurate solver for fluid-structure interaction computations capable of...

  1. General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies: constant linear velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Knopik, Jerzy; Malec, Edward

    2015-01-01

    New rotation laws have been recently found for general-relativistic self-gravitating stationary fluids. It was not clear whether they apply to systems rotating with a constant linear velocity. In this paper we fill this gap. The answer is positive. That means, in particular, that these systems should exhibit the recently discovered general-relativistic weak-field effects within rotating tori: the dynamic anti-dragging and the deviation from the Keplerian motion induced by the fluid selfgravity.

  2. Tides in rotating barotropic fluid bodies: the contribution of inertial waves and the role of internal structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the linear response to low-frequency tidal forcing of fluid bodies that are slowly and uniformly rotating, are neutrally stratified and may contain a solid or fluid core. This problem may be regarded as a simplified model of astrophysical tides in convective regions of stars and giant planets. The response can be separated into non-wavelike and wavelike parts, where the former is related instantaneously to the tidal potential and the latter may involve resonances or other singularities. The imaginary part of the potential Love number of the body, which is directly related to the rates of energy and angular momentum exchange in the tidal interaction and to the rate of dissipation of energy, may have a complicated dependence on the tidal frequency. However, a certain frequency-average of this quantity is independent of the dissipative properties of the fluid and can be determined by means of an impulse calculation. The result is a strongly increasing function of the size of the core when the tidal po...

  3. The Influence of Body Position on Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Gradient and Movement in Cats with Normal and Impaired Craniospinal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoš, Milan; Erceg, Gorislav; Petošić, Antonio; Jurjević, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension. PMID:24748150

  4. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaz Imdat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is used. For obtaining a higher flexibility on the computational grid, interpolation methods are applied, where the information is transferred from the lattice structure to the computational grid by Lagrange interpolation. The flow is investigated for different Reynolds numbers, while keeping the Prandtl number at the constant value of 0.7. The results show how the presence of a triangular prism effects the flow and heat transfer patterns for the steady-state and unsteady-periodic flow regimes. As an assessment of the accuracy of the developed Lattice Boltzmann code, the results are compared with those obtained by a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code. It is observed that the present Lattice Boltzmann code delivers results that are of similar accuracy to the well-established Computational Fluid Dynamics code, with much smaller computational time for the prediction of the unsteady phenomena.

  5. Free convection over a non-isothermal axisymmetric body immersed in a porous medium saturated with an electrically conducting non-Newtonian fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Bagai, Shobha; Nishad, Chandrashekhar

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection over a non-isothermal axisymmetric body under the action of transverse magnetic field. The body is embedded in a porous medium saturated with electrically conducting non-Newtonian power law fluid. In order to obtain similarity solution, it is assumed that the viscosity of the fluid decays exponentially with temperature. The qualitative results are illustrated for a vertical flat plate, horizontal cylinder and sphere.

  6. Clinical Diagnostic Implications of Body Fluid MiRNA in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xiujuan; Chen, Zhiying; Shi, Shaomin; Wang, Xianwen; Wang, Wanli; Li, Ning; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral cancer, predominantly oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), is one of the most leading causes of cancers worldwide. Due to a low 5-year survival rate, highly effective methods for the early detection of OSCC are totally needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as promising biomarkers, can bring insights into tumorigenesis of oral cancers. However, studies on the accuracy of miRNAs detection in OSCC have inconsistent conclusions, leading us to conduct this meta-analysis. The aim of this study ...

  7. Fluid and electrolyte control systems in the human body: A study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Research in the area of modeling of the fluid and electrolyte system is briefly reviewed and a model of this system, which is adequate for a basic description of the requisite physiological processes, is presented. The use of this model as an individual subsystem model and as a component of a more complete human model is discussed.

  8. Using of electrodiffusion measurement method for hydrodymanic investigation of bodies moving in fluid under restraint conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berman, V. P.; Fadeichev, V. V.; Vlasák, Pavel

    Kiev: Nacionalnij techničnij universitet Ukraini Kiivskij politechničnij institut, 1998, s. 236-237. [Measurement 98. Kiev (UA), 07.09.1998-10.09.1998] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1076602 Keywords : lift off-force * electrodiffusion method * capsule flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  9. Silane/TiO 2 coating to control the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys in simulated body fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Córdoba, L.C.; Montemor, M.F.; ,; ,

    2016-01-01

    A silane-based coating modified with titanium IV iso-propoxide was developed to slow down the corrosion rate of AZ31 and ZE41 magnesium alloys intended as biodegradable implants materials. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to monitor the corrosion evolution over 7 weeks in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. A homogeneous crack-free 3 μm-thick coating provided corrosion protection for 2 and 3 weeks to the ZE41 and the AZ31, respectively.The corrosion mechanisms and the nature o...

  10. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Strauss, P.; Yernault, J C

    1990-01-01

    Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement (AC) workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. The mean AB concentrations (263 +/- 802 and 842 +/- 2086 AB/ml respectively) for those groups did not differ significantly but were much higher than those found in control groups. Analytical electron microscopy of asbestos body cores showed that in the ...

  11. Fluid Redistribution and Heart Rate in Humans During Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity creates blood pressure gradients which redistribute body fluids towards the feet. Positive G(z) centrifugation and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have been proposed to simulate these and other effects of gravity during long-term existence in microgravity. We hypothesized that the magnitude of upper-to-lower body fluid redistribution would increase according to the following order: short-arm centrifugation (SAC), long-arm centrifugation (LAC), head-up tilt (HUT), and LBNP. To test this hypothesis, we employed strain gauge plethysmography of the neck, thigh and calf during HUT and supine SAC and LAC up to lG(z) at the feet, and during supine LBNP to 100 mm Hg. Supine 100 mm Hg LBNP generates footward force and produces transmural blood pressures in the foot approximately equal to 1 G(z) (90 deg) HUT. Heart rate was measured via cardiotachometry. Control measurements were made while supine. SAC and LAC elicited similar increases in thigh volume at 1 G(z) (2.3 +/- 0.4 and 2.1 +/- 0.1%, respectively; mean +/- se, n greater than or equal to 7). At 100 mm Hg LBNP, thigh volume increased (3.4 +/- 0.3%) significantly more than during l G(z) centrifugation (p less than 0.05). Surprisingly, due to a paradoxical 0.6% reduction of thigh volume between 0.8 and 1.0 G(z) HUT, thigh volume was increased only 0.6 +/- 0.3% at 1 G(z) HUT. The calf demonstrated similar, although less definitive, responses to the various gravitational stimuli. Neck volume tended to decrease less during HUT than during the other stimuli. Heart rate increased similarly during HUT (18 +/- 2 beats/min) and LAC (12 +/- 2 beats/min), and exhibited still greater elevation during LBNP (29 +/- 4 beats/min), yet did not increase during SAC. These results suggest upright posture activates mechanisms that counteract footward fluid redistribution which are not activated during supine applications of simulated gravity. LAC more closely approximated effects of normal gravity (HUT) than LBNP. Therefore

  12. Bone-like apatite formation on HA/316L stainless steel composite surface in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; CHEN Jian; ZOU Jian-peng; WAN Qian; ZHOU Zhong-cheng; RUAN Jian-ming

    2009-01-01

    HA/316L stainless steel(316L SS) biocomposites were prepared by hot-pressing technique. The formation of bone-like apatite on the biocomposite surfaces in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by digital pH meter, plasma emission spectrometer, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray energy spectrometer(EDX). The results indicate that the pH value in SBF varies slightly during the immersion. It is a dynamic process of dissolution-precipitation for the formation of apatite on the surface. With prolonging immersion time, Ca and P ion concentrations increase gradually, and then approach equilibrium. The bone-like apatite layer forms on the composites surface, which possesses benign bioactivity and favorable biocompatibility and achieves osseointegration, and can provide firm fixation between HA60/316L SS composite implants and human body bone.

  13. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count

    OpenAIRE

    Višnjevac Jovana; Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra; Nikolić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondi...

  14. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Corrosion Behavior of Co/CeO2 Nanocomposite Coatings in Simulating Body Fluid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, Lidia

    2013-02-01

    A series of Co/CeO2 (25 nm) nanocomposite coating materials by electrodeposition were successfully prepared containing different cerium oxide composition in the cobalt-plating bath. Stainless steel (304L) was used as support material for nanocomposite coatings. The nano-CeO2 is uniformly incorporated into cobalt matrix, and the effect on surface morphologies was identified by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Codeposition of nano-CeO2 particles with cobalt disturbs the regular surface morphology of the cobalt coatings. It should be noted that the as-prepared Co/CeO2 nanocomposite coatings were found to be much superior in corrosion resistance over those of pure cobalt coatings materials based on a series of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in simulating body fluid solution. With increase in the nano-CeO2 particles concentration in the cobalt electrolyte, it is observed that the corrosion resistance of Co/CeO2 increases. Co/CeO2 nanocomposite coatings have higher polarization resistance as compared with pure cobalt layers in simulating body fluid solution.

  15. Trapping non-wettable fluid in porous rock: Implication to CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Yun, T.

    2013-12-01

    The residual saturation of CO2 mainly determines the effective storage capacity in geological formation whereas its transport and fate are dominated by fluid properties and pore characteristics. This experimental study evaluates the relative permeability of brine and non-wettable fluids in Berea sandstone. The surrogate fluids representing CO2 are continuously injected into the brine-saturated sandstone and the effluent is simultaneously separated to measure the residual volume. The variables under consideration include the viscosity and surface tension of injected fluids, porosity, anisotropy of rock, and injection pressure and the residual saturation of non-wettable fluids is quantified based on the proposed variables. Results highlight that the storage capacity can be readily modulated and maximized by controlling the cyclic injection, initial saturation of non-wettable fluids, and injection pressure.

  16. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...

  17. Pleural mesothelioma and exposure to asbestos: evaluation from work histories and analysis of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue in 131 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, J C; Orlowski, E; Iwatsubo, Y; Billon-Galland, M A; Dufour, G.; Chamming's, S; Archambault, C; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos was evaluated in 131 patients with pleural malignant mesothelioma in the Paris area between 1986 and 1992 using data from a detailed specific questionnaire and light microscopy analysis of the retention of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue. Probable or definite exposure to significant levels of asbestos dust was identified in only 48 (36.6%) subjects, and significant asbestos body counts (above 1 asbestos body/ml in bronchoalveolar lavage flui...

  18. Geochemical characterization of fluids along the Dead Sea Rift: implications for fluids sources and regional geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguaggiato, Claudio; Censi, Paolo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Zuddas, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea Fault where a lateral displacement between the African and Arabian plates occurs is characterized by anomalous heat flux in the northern Israel area close to the border with Syria and Jordan (Shalev et al., 2012). The concentrations of He and CO2, and isotopic composition of He and total dissolved inorganic carbon were studied in cold and thermal waters collected along the Dead Sea Fault, in order to investigate the source of volatiles and their relationship with the tectonic framework of the Dead Sea Fault. The waters with higher temperature (up to 57.2 ° C) are characterized by higher amounts of CO2and helium (up to 55.72 and 1.91*10‑2 cc l‑1, respectively). Helium isotopic data (R/Ra from 0.11 to 2.14) and 4He/20Ne ratios (0.41 - 106.86) show the presence of deep-deriving fluids consisting of a variable mixture of mantle and crust end-members, with the former reaching up to 35%. Carbon isotope signature of total dissolved carbon from hot waters falls within the range of magmatic values, suggesting the delivery of deep-seated CO2. The geographical distribution of helium isotopic data and isotopic carbon (CO2) values coupled with (CO2/3He ratios) indicate a larger contribution of mantle-derived fluids affecting the northern part of the investigated area, where the waters reach the highest temperature and anomalous heat flux was recognized by Shalev et al. (2012). Such occurrence is probably favoured by the peculiar tectonic framework recognized in the northern part of Israel (Segev et al., 2006), including a Moho discontinuity up-rise and/or the presence of a deep fault system coupled with the recent magmatic activity. References: Segev, A., Rybakov, M., Lyakhovsky, V, Hofstetter, A, Tibor, G., Goldshmidt, V., 2006. The structure, isostasy and gravity field of the Levant continental margin and the southeast Mediterranean area. Tectonophysics 425, 137-157. Shalev, E., Lyakhosky, V., Weinstein, Y., Ben-Avraham, Z., 2013. The thermal structure of

  19. Fluids of Pseudo-Hard Bodies: From Simulations to Equations of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rouha, M.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 278, 1-2 (2009), s. 15-19. ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720710; GA AV ČR IAA400720802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : pseudo-hard bodies * virial coefficients * perturbed virial expansion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2009

  20. Paradoxes of body fluid volume regulation in health and disease. A unifying hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrier, R W; Niederberger, M

    1994-01-01

    The body's normal homeostasis is maintained by the integrity of the excretory capacity of the kidneys. In advanced cardiac failure, however, the avidity of the renal sodium and water retention contributes to the occurrence of pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, the kidneys again fail to excrete the amounts of sodium and water ingested, thus leading to ascites and peripheral edema. The signals for this renal retention of sodium and water in a patient...

  1. Standard-free method for body fluid samples such as saliva, sweat, snivel and tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed standard-free methods for PIXE analysis of hair, nail, urine and serum, and they have widely been applied to studies on human exposure to some toxic elements caused by pollution in many countries. Although these samples are known to be quite suited for evaluating human exposure to toxic elements, there is a cause where it is required to quantitatively analyze other samples taken from people. We have examined sweat, saliva, snivel and tear, which are expected to be useful for estimating concentration of various elements in a human body. However, sufficient quantities of them are difficult to be taken from a human body and it is required to establish standard-free methods for these samples. In the present work, standard-free methods for sweat and saliva were established and its accuracy and reproducibility are confirmed. It becomes possible to quantitatively analyze only a drop of sweat and saliva by means of this method. For snivel and tear, potassium concentration is obtained by the internal-standard method for a small-spot sample and the conversion coefficient required for the standard-free method was evaluated. It is found that analyses of these samples give us useful information about some specific elements. As the standard-free methods are free from dryness of samples, which becomes a serious problem in the case where the internal-standard method is applied, it is expected to give more essential information about elemental concentration in a human body. (author)

  2. Pathophysiology and clinical implications of peroperative fluid management in elective surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine

    2010-01-01

    amounts of fluid caused adverse physiologic effects in healthy volunteers indicates that addition of the surgical trauma per se increases fluid requirements. Volume kinetic analysis applied 4 hours postoperatively was not able to detect the presence of either overhydration or hypovolemia regardless of the...

  3. Pathophysiology and clinical implications of peroperative fluid management in elective surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine

    2010-01-01

    preparation leads to functional hypovolemia and the deficits should be corrected, in particular in elderly patients, where preoperative intravenous fluid substitution of approximately 2-3 liters crystalloid is recommended. We did not find thoracic epidural anesthesia to be accompanied by intravascular fluid...

  4. Energy use and implications for efficiency strategies in global fluid-milk processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fluid-milk processing industry around the world processes approximately 60% of total raw milk production to create diverse fresh fluid-milk products. This paper reviews energy usage in existing global fluid-milk markets to identify baseline information that allows comparisons of energy performance of individual plants and systems. In this paper, we analyzed energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on fluid-milk processing across a number of countries and regions. The study has found that the average final energy intensity of individual plants exhibited significant large variations, ranging from 0.2 to 12.6 MJ per kg fluid-milk product across various plants in different countries and regions. In addition, it is observed that while the majority of larger plants tended to exhibit higher energy efficiency, some exceptions existed for smaller plants with higher efficiency. These significant differences have indicated large potential energy-savings opportunities in the sector across many countries. Furthermore, this paper illustrates a positive correlation between implementing energy-monitoring programs and curbing the increasing trend in energy demand per equivalent fluid-milk product over time in the fluid-milk sector, and suggests that developing an energy-benchmarking framework, along with promulgating new policy options should be pursued for improving energy efficiency in global fluid-milk processing industry.

  5. A stable fluid-structure-interaction solver for low-density rigid bodies using the immersed boundary projection method

    CERN Document Server

    Lācis, Uǧis; Bagheri, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion of low-density rigid particles with complex geometries is ubiquitous in both natural and industrial environments. We show that while explicit methods for coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and Newton's equations of motion are often sufficient to solve for the motion of cylindrical particles with low density ratios, for more complex particles - such as a body with a protrusion - they become unstable. We present an implicit formulation of the coupling between rigid body dynamics and fluid dynamics within the framework of the immersed boundary projection method. Similar to previous work on this method, the resulting matrix equation in the present approach is solved using a block-LU decomposition. Each step of the block-LU decomposition is modified to incorporate the rigid body dynamics. We show that our method achieves second-order accuracy in space and first-order in time (third-order for practical settings), only with a small additional computational cost to the original method. Our...

  6. Penetration of cefonicid into human breast milk and various body fluids and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, M A; Wu, Y H; Jacob, L S; Pitkin, D H

    1984-01-01

    A new cephalosporin, cefonicid (1 g), was given intramuscularly to 49 patients 1 hr before they were to undergo surgery and to 10 healthy lactating women. The concentration of cefonicid was assayed by disk agar diffusion with the use of Bacillus subtilis as the test organism. Concentrations of cefonicid in tissue and fluid specimens were obtained. The data demonstrate that within 1 hr of intramuscular injection of cefonicid, effective concentrations of cefonicid in serum and tissue for common microbial pathogens were achieved. This finding suggests that cefonicid would be useful for perioperative prophylaxis in surgical patients. Although the concentration of cefonicid in breast milk was low at 1 hr after injection, more information is needed regarding the subsequent secretion of cefonicid before a conclusive statement can be made concerning the danger of sensitization in infants of nursing mothers. PMID:6522923

  7. Fabrication of nanotube arrays on commercially pure titanium and their apatite-forming ability in a simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Yu-Chen [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ho, Wen-Fu, E-mail: fujii@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, we investigated self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes that were grown using anodization of commercially pure titanium at 5 V or 10 V in NH{sub 4}F/NaCl electrolyte. The nanotube arrays were annealed at 450 °C for 3 h to convert the amorphous nanotubes to anatase and then they were immersed in simulated body fluid at 37 °C for 0.5, 1, and 14 days. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the apatite-formation abilities of anodized Ti nanotubes with different tube diameters and lengths. The nanotubes that formed on the surfaces of Ti were examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. When the anodizing potential was increased from 5 V to 10 V, the pore diameter of the nanotube increased from approximately 24–30 nm to 35–53 nm, and the tube length increased from approximately 590 nm to 730 nm. In vitro testing of the heat-treated nanotube arrays indicated that Ca-P formation occurred after only 1 day of immersion in simulated body fluid. This result was particularly apparent in the samples that were anodized at 10 V. It was also found that the thickness of the Ca-P layer increases as the applied potential for anodized c.p. Ti increases. The average thickness of the Ca-P layer on Ti that was anodized at 5 V and 10 V was approximately 170 nm and 190 nm, respectively, after immersion in simulated body fluid for 14 days. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotube on Ti surface was formed by anodic oxidation in a NaCl/NH{sub 4}F solution. • TiO{sub 2} layers show a tube length of 590 nm and 730 nm at 5 V and 10 V, respectively. • After soaking in SBF, Ca-P layer completely covered the entire nanotubular surfaces. • The Ca-P layer was thicker on the Ti surface anodized at 10 V.

  8. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; del Carmen Bravo, María; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-02-01

    In July 5, 2002 fishermen working in harvesting sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in the Patagonia Chilean fjords were intoxicated by consumption of filter-feeder bivalve Aulacomya ater. After the ingestion of 7-9 ribbed mussel, two fishermen died 3-4 h after shellfish consumption. The forensic examination in both victims did not show pathological abnormalities with the exception of the lungs conditions, crackling to the touch, pulmonary congestion and edema. The toxic mussel sample showed a toxicity measured by mouse bioassay of 8575 microg of STX (saxitoxin) equivalent by 100 g of shellfish meat. Using post-column derivatization HPLC method with fluorescent on line detection was possible to measure mass amount of each paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin yielding individual toxin concentrations. These PSP toxins were identified in the gastric content, body fluids (urine, bile and cerebrospinal fluid) and tissue samples (liver, kidney, lung, stomach, spleen, heart, brain, adrenal glands, pancreas and thyroids glands). The toxin profiles of each body fluid and tissue samples and the amount of each PSP toxin detected are reported. The PSP toxins found in the gastric content, were STX and the gonyautoxins (GTX4, GTX1, GTX5, GTX3 and GTX2) which showed to be the major amount of PSP toxins found in the victims biological samples. The PSP toxin composition in urine and bile showed as major PSP toxins neoSaxitoxin (neoSTX) and GTX4/GTX1 epimers, both STX analogues with an hydroxyl group (-OH) in the N(1) of the tetrahydropurine nucleus. The neoSTX was not present in the gastric content sample, indicating that the oxidation of N(1) in the STX tetrahydropurine nucleus resulted neoSTX, in a similar way that GTX3/GTX2 epimers were transformed in GTX4/GTX1 epimers. Beside this metabolic transformation, also the hydrolysis of carbamoyl group from STX to form its decarbomoyl analogue decarbamoylsaxitoxin was detected in liver, kidney and lung. These two findings show that PSP

  9. Morphogenetic Implications of Peristalsis-Driven Fluid Flow in the Embryonic Lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore K Bokka

    Full Text Available Epithelial organs are almost universally secretory. The lung secretes mucus of extremely variable consistency. In the early prenatal period, the secretions are of largely unknown composition, consistency, and flow rates. In addition to net outflow from secretion, the embryonic lung exhibits transient reversing flows from peristalsis. Airway peristalsis (AP begins as soon as the smooth muscle forms, and persists until birth. Since the prenatal lung is liquid-filled, smooth muscle action can transport fluid far from the immediately adjacent tissues. The sensation of internal fluid flows has been shown to have potent morphogenetic effects, as has the transport of morphogens. We hypothesize that these effects play an important role in lung morphogenesis. To test these hypotheses in a quantitative framework, we analyzed the fluid-structure interactions between embryonic tissues and lumen fluid resulting from peristaltic waves that partially occlude the airway. We found that if the airway is closed, fluid transport is minimal; by contrast, if the trachea is open, shear rates can be very high, particularly at the stenosis. We performed a parametric analysis of flow characteristics' dependence on tissue stiffnesses, smooth muscle force, geometry, and fluid viscosity, and found that most of these relationships are governed by simple ratios. We measured the viscosity of prenatal lung fluid with passive bead microrheology. This paper reports the first measurements of the viscosity of embryonic lung lumen fluid. In the range tested, lumen fluid can be considered Newtonian, with a viscosity of 0.016 ± 0.008 Pa-s. We analyzed the interaction between the internal flows and diffusion and conclude that AP has a strong effect on flow sensing away from the tip and on transport of morphogens. These effects may be the intermediate mechanisms for the enhancement of branching seen in occluded embryonic lungs.

  10. The effect of head orientation on subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid distribution and its implications for neurophysiological modulation and recording techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravitational forces may lead to local changes in subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer thickness, which has important implications for neurophysiological modulation and recording techniques. This study examines the effect of gravitational pull associated with different head positions on the distribution of subarachnoid CSF using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Images of seven subjects in three different positions (supine, left lateral and prone) were statistically compared. Results suggest that subarachnoid CSF volume decreases on the side of the head closest to the ground, due to downward brain movement with gravity. These findings warrant future research into currently unexplored gravitation-induced changes in regional subarachnoid CSF thickness. (note)

  11. Stability of carbon nanotube yarn biofuel cell in human body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Jae Ah; Choi, Young-Bong; Kim, Hyug-Han; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-07-01

    High performance with stability, easy-handling electrodes, and biofluid-flow controllable system with mechanical strength of the biofuel cell can be considered as the critical issues for future human body implant. These three challenges are sufficiently considered by using the effective platform regarding the high surface area from multi-walled carbon nanotube-conducting polymer with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), and size/shape dependent flexible yarn electrodes for the implantation of biofuel cell. High power biofuel cell of mW cm-2 range in physiological condition (low glucose-containing phosphate buffered saline solution and human blood serum) controlling the stirring degree is also first demonstrated for future implantation in this study. Biofuel cells for future implantation in human body vitally require long-term stability and high power outputs. We have demonstrated that a high-surface area yarn-based biofuel cell retained over 70% of its initial power output after an extended 20 days period of continuous operation in human blood serum, while delivering a power density of ∼1.0 mW cm-2. Subsequently, our enhanced enzymatic biofuel cell system would be potentially used as an innovative power source for the next generation implantable electronics.

  12. Investigations with a simplified method for radiometric determination of vitamin B12 in body fluids and feeding stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified method for radiometrical determination of vitamin B12 is described, which in difference to the known methods is based on measurement of free B12 after absorption to albumin-coated charcoal instead of measurement of intrinsic factor B12-complex. The conditions for extraction from serum, milk, rumen-liquor and urine have been investigated and the effect of pH on IF-B12-binding in presence of these body fluids examined. Parallel microbiological determinations (O.m.- and L.1.-test) were in good correlation (r = 0,93-0,97) to radiometrically determined B12-contents in milk and rumen-liquor, but not to that in serum of dairy cows (r = 0,54-0,82). The analytical procedures are given in detail. (orig.)

  13. Corrosion mechanism and model of pulsed DC microarc oxidation treated AZ31 alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Yanhong, E-mail: ygu2@alaska.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Chen Chengfu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Bandopadhyay, Sukumar [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Ning Chengyun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Yongjun [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Guo Yuanjun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-06-01

    This paper addresses the effect of pulse frequency on the corrosion behavior of microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings on AZ31 Mg alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF). The MAO coatings were deposited by a pulsed DC mode at four different pulse frequencies of 300 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz and 3000 Hz with a constant pulse ratio. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were used for corrosion rate and electrochemical impedance evaluation. The corroded surfaces were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical microscopy. All the results exhibited that the corrosion resistance of MAO coating produced at 3000 Hz is superior among the four frequencies used. The XRD spectra showed that the corrosion products contain hydroxyapatite, brucite and quintinite. A model for corrosion mechanism and corrosion process of the MAO coating on AZ31 Mg alloy in the SBF is proposed.

  14. Dissolution and precipitation behaviors of silicon-containing ceramic coating on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Huang, Danlan

    2014-10-01

    We prepared Si-containing and Si-free coatings on Mg-1.74Zn-0.55Ca alloy by micro-arc oxidation. The dissolution and precipitation behaviors of Si-containing coating in simulated body fluid (SBF) were discussed. Corrosion products were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). Electrochemical workstation, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and pH meter were employed to detect variations of electrochemical parameter and ions concentration respectively. Results indicate that the fast formation of calcium phosphates is closely related to the SiOx(n-) groups, which induce the heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous hydroxyapatite (HA) by sorption of calcium and phosphate ions. PMID:25174544

  15. Preparation and studies on surface modifications of calcium-silico-phosphate ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and magnetic behaviour of 34SiO2-(45 - x) CaO-16P2O5-4.5 MgO-0.5 CaF2 - x Fe2O3 (where x = 5, 10, 15, 20 wt.%) glasses have been investigated. Ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics are prepared by melt quench followed by controlled crystallization. The surface modification and dissolution behaviour of these glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) have also been studied. Phase formation and magnetic behaviour have been studied using XRD and SQUID magnetometer. The room temperature Moessbauer study has been done to monitor the local environment around Fe cations and valence state of Fe ions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface modification in glass-ceramics when immersed in simulated body fluid. Formation of bioactive layer in SBF has been ascertained using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SBF solutions were analyzed using an absorption spectrophotometer. The magnetic measurements indicated that all these glasses possess paramagnetic character and the [Fe2+/Fe3+] ions ratio depends on the composition of glass and varied with Fe2O3 concentration in glass matrix. In glass-ceramics saturation magnetization increases with increase in amount of Fe2O3. The nanostructure of hematite and magnetite is formed in the glass-ceramics with 15 and 20 wt.% Fe2O3, which is responsible for the magnetic property of these glass-ceramics. Introduction of Fe2O3 induces several modifications at the glass-ceramics surface when immersed in SBF solution and thereby affecting the surface dissolution and the formation of the bioactive layer.

  16. Influence of hot rolling parameters on microstructure and biodegradability of Mg-1Ca alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Three different reduction levels and temperatures were taken into account. → Corrosion properties were investigated by electrochemical and immersion tests. → The biodegradability of Mg-1Ca alloy in SBF was improved by rolling process. → Higher reduction combined with lower temperature in rolling was more satisfying. -- Abstract: Binary Mg-1Ca alloy has been considered as a potential material for implant applications due to its non-toxic and biodegradable properties. However, the high corrosion tendency of the alloy, as a serious drawback, limited its practical efficiency. In this study, the effect of hot rolling on biodegradability of Mg-1Ca was investigated as a process to improve the microstructure and corrosion resistance of the alloy in simulated body fluid. The as-cast alloy was rolled to various reduction levels at different temperatures. Optical and scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used characterize the microstructure of the as-cast and rolled samples. Immersion and potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to examine the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of the samples in simulated body fluid. The results showed that the high corrosion tendency of as-cast Mg-1Ca was remarkably reduced by the hot rolling process due to the microstructure refinement. It was found that the corrosion rate of the samples which experienced higher reduction percentages decreased to some extent. However, the weight loss results indicated that the rolling process at higher temperatures caused more corrosion products to emerge on the surface of the samples. It can be associated with the accumulation and growth of Mg2Ca phase at the grain boundaries.

  17. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Hughes,1 L Davies,1 R Hale,1 JE Gallagher21Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2King's College London Dental Institute, London, United KingdomBackground: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010.Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity.Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72% took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%, followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%.Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted.Keywords: risk management, blood-borne virus, dental hospital, body fluids exposure, adverse event reporting

  18. A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].

  19. A Numerical Study on Water Waves Generated by A Submerged Moving Body in A Two-Layer Fluid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jia-Zhen; NG Chiu-On; ZHANG Dao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    This is a numerical study on the time development of surface waves generated by a submerged body moving steadily in a two-layer fluid system, in which a layer of water is underlain by a layer of viscous mud. The fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations are solved on FLUENT with the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) multiphase scheme in order to simulate the free surface waves as well as the water-mud interface waves as functions of time. The numerical model is validated by mimick-ing a reported experiment in a one-layer system before it is applied to a two-layer system, it is found that the presence of bottom mud in a water layer can lead to large viscous damping of the surface waves. For the investigation of the problem systematically, the effects of the Froude number and the mud layer thickness, density and viscosity relative to those of water are evaluated and discussed in detail.

  20. Removal of zearalenone toxin from synthetics gastric and body fluids using talc and diatomite: a batch kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprynskyy, Myroslav; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowak, Karolina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2012-06-01

    Adsorption kinetics of zearalenone (ZEA) toxin from synthetic gastric fluid (SGF) and synthetic body fluid (SBF) by talc and diatomite was studied in the batch experiments. Chemical composition, morphology and structure of the used adsorbents were examined by scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption method. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for ZEA determining. The study results showed that ZEA is more effectively adsorbed on the talc (73% and 54% from SGF and SBF respectively). The efficiency on the diatomite was lower (53% and 42% from SGF and SBF respectively). The first order kinetics model was applied to describe the adsorption process. Rate of the ZEA adsorption from SGF is very rapid initially with about 95% of amount of the toxin adsorbed during first 5 min, while ZEA is adsorbed from SBF in two steps. The values of determined Gibbs free energy of adsorption (from -13 to -17 kJ/mol) indicated that adsorption of ZEA toxin by the both adsorbents are spontaneous and exothermic. PMID:22326340

  1. Steady incompressible potential flow around lifting bodies immersed in a fluid. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuchiolo, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    The refinement was investigated of a method for evaluating the pressure distribution on a body surface of arbitrary shape in incompressible flow. The solution was obtained in terms of the velocity potential, through numerical approximations which require the use of a high speed digital computer. The box method and the modal method are described in detail, and were applied to a very thin, rectangular wing in incompressible, steady flow. The box method is found to be more practical as it is applicable to more general geometries (the modal method requires a new set of functions for each geometry), and requires less computer time (fifty percent of that required by the modal method for the same problem).

  2. Comparative study of acetazolamide and spironolactone on body fluid compartments on induction to high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. V.; Jain, S. C.; Rawal, S. B.; Divekar, H. M.; Parshad, Rajinder; Tyagi, A. K.; Sinha, K. C.

    1986-03-01

    Studies were conducted on 29 male healthy subjects having no previous experience of living at high altitude. These subjects were divided into three groups, i.e., subjects treated with placebo, acetazolamide and spironolactone. These subjects were first studied in Delhi. The drug schedule was started 24 hour prior to the airlift of these subjects to an altitude of 3,500 m and was continued for 48 hour after arrival at high altitude. Total body water, extra cellular water, plasma volume, blood electrolytes, pH, pO2, pCO2 and blood viscosity were determined on 3rd and 12th day of their stay at high altitude. Total body water, extra cellular water intracellular water and plasma volume decreased on high altitude exposure. There was a further slight decrease in these compartments with acetazolamide and spironolactone. It was also observed that spironolactone drives out more water from the extracellular compartment. Loss of plasma water was also confirmed by increased plasma osmolality. Increase in arterial blood pH was noticed on hypoxic exposure but the increase was found less in acetazolamide and spironolactone cases. This decrease in pH is expected to result in better oxygen delivery to the tissues at the low oxygen tension. It was also confirmed because blood pO2 increased in both the groups. No significant change in plasma electrolytes was observed in subjects of various groups. Blood viscosity slightly increased on exposure to high altitude. The degree of rise was found less in the group treated with spironolactone. This study suggests that both the drugs are likely to be beneficial in ameliorating/prevention of AMS syndrome.

  3. Non-Darcy Free Convection of Power-Law Fluids Over a Two-Dimensional Body Embedded in a Porous Medium

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-11-27

    A boundary layer analysis was presented to study the non-Darcy-free convection of a power-law fluid over a non-isothermal two-dimensional body embedded in a porous medium. The Ostwald-de Waele power-law model was used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. Similarity solutions were obtained with variations in surface temperature or surface heat flux. In view of the fact that most of the non-Newtonian fluids have large Prandtl numbers, this study was directed toward such fluids. The effects of the porous medium parameters, k1 and k2, body shape parameter, m, and surface thermal variations parameter, p, as well as the power-law index, n, were examined. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. LABILE IRON IN CELLS AND BODY FLUIDS . Physiology, Pathology and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ioav Cabantchik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower µM range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (that renders iron essentially non-labile, in systemic iron overload (IO, the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma transferrin approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of iron overload, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in iv iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI following parenteral iron

  5. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in body fluid compartments of dairy cattle according to season, farm, breed, and reproductive stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Petrera, Francesca; Capelletti, Maurizio; Dal Prà, Aldo; Bontempo, Luana; Tonon, Agostino; Camin, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow) of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese) were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H) and O (18O/16O) were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk) and 0.7848 (urine-plasma) for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk) and 0.9602 (plasma-milk) for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water. PMID:25996911

  6. Transient fluid-structure interaction of elongated bodies by finite-element method using elliptical and spheroidal absorbing boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Premkumar, R.

    2003-12-01

    In a domain method of solution of exterior scalar wave equation, the radiation condition needs to be imposed on a truncation boundary of the modeling domain. The Bayliss, Gunzberger, and Turkel (BGT) boundary dampers, which require a circular cylindrical and spherical truncation boundaries in two-(2D) and three-(3D)-dimensional problems, respectively, have been particularly successful in the analysis of scattering and radiation problems. However, for an elongated body, elliptical (2D) or spheroidal (3D) truncation boundaries have potential to reduce the size of modeling domain and hence computational effort. For harmonic problems, such extensions of the first- and second-order BGT dampers are available in the literature. In this paper, BGT dampers in both elliptical and spheroidal coordinate systems have been developed for transient problems involving acoustic radiation as well as fluid-structure interaction and implemented in the context of finite-element method based upon unsymmetric pressure-displacement formulation. Applications to elongated radiators and shells are reported using several numerical examples with excellent comparisons. It is demonstrated that significant computational economy can be achieved for elongated bodies with the use of these dampers.

  7. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone–implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications. (paper)

  8. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian; Akari, Khalid; Liu, Huinan

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone-implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications.

  9. A sensitive and practical RP-HPLC-FLD for determination of the low neuroactive amino acid levels in body fluids and its application in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan-Li; Yu, Si-Yang; Wu, Shi-Hua; Bao, Ai-Min

    2016-03-11

    Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) generally fails as a method to determine low levels of free amino acids (AAs) in body fluids. Here we present a modified reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) protocol for the determination of AAs in body fluids and its application in mood disorder patients. We improved a previous research protocol by modifying i) sample preparation, including deproteination, ii) derivitization, including derivating agent and condition, and iii) sample separation, which is mainly determined by the pH value, the components and the additives of the mobile phases. The combination of these modifications, together with fluorescence detection (FLD), allows sensitive and practical determination of free AA levels in body fluids of depressive patients. This protocol was validated by determining the postmortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels of 8 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, 9 bipolar disorder (BD) patients, and 19 well-matched controls, while also testing the plasma and CSF AA levels of living MDD patients. CSF Glu and GABA levels were both significantly decreased in MDD but not in BD patients. The data indicate that this RP-HPLC-FLD protocol is applicable for detection of low levels of neuroactive AAs in body fluids, as well as for routine clinical applications. PMID:26808642

  10. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  11. MicroRNAs transported by exosomes in body fluids as mediators of intercellular communication in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salido-Guadarrama I

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iván Salido-Guadarrama,1 Sandra Romero-Cordoba,1 Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,2 Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda,1 Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes1 1Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Institute of Genomics Medicine, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico Abstract: Cancer-cell communication is an important and complex process, achieved through a diversity of mechanisms that allows tumor cells to mold and influence their environment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated indicating that cells communicate via the release and delivery of microRNAs (miRNAs packed into tumor-released (TR exosomes. Understanding the role and mode of action of miRNAs from TR exosomes is of paramount importance in the field of cancer biomarker discovery and for the development of new biomedical applications for cancer therapeutics. In this review, we focus on miRNAs secreted via TR exosomes, which by acting in a paracrine or endocrine manner, facilitate a diversity of signaling mechanisms between cancer cells. We address their contribution as signaling molecules, to the establishment, maintenance, and enhancement of the tumor microenvironment and the metastatic niche in cancer. Finally, we address the potential role of these molecules as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and prognosis and their impact as a biomedical tool in cancer therapeutics. Keywords: tumor cells, multivesicular bodies, interference RNA, biomarkers and therapeutics

  12. In vitro degradation of ZM21 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witecka, Agnieszka; Bogucka, Aleksandra; Yamamoto, Akiko; Máthis, Kristián; Krajňák, Tomáš; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Święszkowski, Wojciech

    2016-08-01

    In vitro degradation behavior of squeeze cast (CAST) and equal channel angular pressed (ECAP) ZM21 magnesium alloy (2.0wt% Zn-0.98wt% Mn) was studied using immersion tests up to 4w in three different biological environments. Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (Hanks), Earle's Balanced Salt Solution (Earle) and Eagle minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (E-MEM+10% FBS) were used to investigate the effect of carbonate buffer system, organic compounds and material processing on the degradation behavior of the ZM21 alloy samples. Corrosion rate of the samples was evaluated by their Mg(2+) ion release, weight loss and volume loss. In the first 24h, the corrosion rate sequence of the CAST samples was as following: Hanks>E-MEM+10% FBS>Earle. However, in longer immersion periods, the corrosion rate sequence was Earle>E-MEM+10% FBS≥Hanks. Strong buffering effect provided by carbonate buffer system helped to maintain the pH avoiding drastic increase of the corrosion rate of ZM21 in the initial stage of immersion. Organic compounds also contributed to maintain the pH of the fluid. Moreover, they adsorbed on the sample surface and formed an additional barrier on the insoluble salt layer, which was effective to retard the corrosion of CAST samples. In case of ECAP, however, this effect was overcome by the occurrence of strong localized corrosion due to the lower pH of the medium. Corrosion of ECAP samples was much greater than that of CAST, especially in Hanks, due to higher sensitivity of ECAP to localized corrosion and the presence of Cl(-). The present work demonstrates the importance of using an appropriate solution for a reliable estimation of the degradation rate of Mg-base degradable implants in biological environments, and concludes that the most appropriate solution for this purpose is E-MEM+10% FBS, which has the closest chemical composition to human blood plasma. PMID:27157728

  13. Garden City Vein Complex, Gale Crater, Mars: Implications for Late Diagenetic Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronyak, R. E.; Kah, L. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Sumner, D. Y.; Fisk, M. R.; Rapin, W.; Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Wiens, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Calcium sulfate filled fractures are observed in nearly all stratigraphic units encountered by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. The mm-scale of veins, however, provides little evidence for emplacement style. From sols 924-949, Curiosity observed a vein rich outcrop called Garden City, which shows variation in both thickness and complexity of veins. Extensive Mastcam and MAHLI imaging was conducted across the outcrop to provide textural detail that can be related to emplacement mechanisms. Additionally, Curiosity collected geochemical data on 17 ChemCam targets and 7 APXS targets, shedding light on the composition and variety of potential vein fluids. The Garden City vein system records (1) the presence of distinct dark-toned and light-toned (calcium sulfate) mineralization, and (2) the presence of laminated, epitaxial, and brecciated fabrics that suggest multiple emplacement modes. Dark-toned mineralization is observed as erosionally resistant ridges predominantly along fracture walls. Although erosional resistance may reflect the permeability of host rock to fracture-borne fluids, at Garden City, laminated textures suggest that at least some mineralization may have occurred as fracture-fill. Light-toned mineralization often bisects dark-toned material, indicating re-use of fluid pathways. Light-toned veinlets permeate fracture walls, and the largest veins entrain host rock and dark-toned material within calcium sulfate matrix. Such brecciation indicates high forces associated with fluid expulsion. Elsewhere, linear patterns occur broadly perpendicular to fracture walls, and are interpreted to represent epitaxial crystal growth, suggesting lower flow rates and fluid flow pressures within the fracture system. Together these observations indicate multiple episodes of fluid flow in the Gale Crater system.

  14. Effects of Implant Design Parameters on Fluid Convection, Potentiating 3rd Body Debris Ingress into the Bearing Surface during THA Impingement/Subluxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Hannah J.; Pedersen, Douglas R.; Baer, Thomas E.; Muste, Marian; Callaghan, John J.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2007-01-01

    Aseptic loosening from polyethylene wear debris is the leading cause of failure for metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants. Third body debris ingress to the bearing space results in femoral head roughening and acceleration of polyethylene wear. How third body particles manage to enter the bearing space between the closely conforming articulating surfaces of the joint is not well understood. We hypothesize that one such mechanism is from convective fluid transport during subluxation of the t...

  15. Facile semi-automated forensic body fluid identification by multiplex solution hybridization of NanoString® barcode probes to specific mRNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Patrick; White, Robin Lynn; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2015-01-01

    A DNA profile from the perpetrator does not reveal, per se, the circumstances by which it was transferred. Body fluid identification by mRNA profiling may allow extraction of contextual 'activity level' information from forensic samples. Here we describe the development of a prototype multiplex digital gene expression (DGE) method for forensic body fluid/tissue identification based upon solution hybridization of color-coded NanoString(®) probes to 23 mRNA targets. The method identifies peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin. We showed that a simple 5 min room temperature cellular lysis protocol gave equivalent results to standard RNA isolation from the same source material, greatly enhancing the ease-of-use of this method in forensic sample processing. We first describe a model for gene expression in a sample from a single body fluid and then extend that model to mixtures of body fluids. We then describe calculation of maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of body fluid quantities in a sample, and we describe the use of likelihood ratios to test for the presence of each body fluid in a sample. Known single source samples of blood, semen, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin all demonstrated the expected tissue-specific gene expression for at least two of the chosen biomarkers. Saliva samples were more problematic, with their previously identified characteristic genes exhibiting poor specificity. Nonetheless the most specific saliva biomarker, HTN3, was expressed at a higher level in saliva than in any of the other tissues. Crucially, our algorithm produced zero false positives across this study's 89 unique samples. As a preliminary indication of the ability of the method to discern admixtures of body fluids, five mixtures were prepared. The identities of the component fluids were evident from the gene expression profiles of four of the five mixtures. Further optimization of the biomarker 'CodeSet' will be required

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid glucose and lactate: age-specific reference values and implications for clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, W.G.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Wevers, R.A.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is an important tool in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological disorders, but reference ranges for CSF glucose, CSF/plasma glucose ratio and CSF lactate based on studies with large numbers of CSF samples are not available. Our aim was to define age-specific re

  17. The dynamics of magnetically trapped fluids. I - Implications for umbral dots and penumbral grains. [in sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the magnetohydrodynamic system in which a nonmagnetized fluid in a gravitational field is surrounded by a fluid carrying a vertical magnetic field is presented. It is pointed out that this study can throw some light on the fine-structural features of a sunspot. The equilibrium configuration of the field-free fluid is a tapering column ending at an apex. The regions away form the apex can be studied by the slender flux tube approximation. A scheme developed to treat the apex indicates that, just below the apex, the radius of the tapering column opens up with a 3/2 power dependence on the depth below the apex. If the internal pressure of the field-free fluid is increased, the apex rises, and a static equilibrium may not be possible beyond a limit if the magnetic pressure drops quickly above a certain height. The nature of steady-flow solutions beyond this limit is investigated. Under conditions inside a sunspot, a column of field-free gas is found to rise with a velocity of about 100 km/hr. If umbral dots and penumbral grains are interpreted as regions where the field-free gas ultimately emerges, a very natural explanation of most of their observed properties is obtained.

  18. Flow regime analysis for fluid injection into a confined aquifer: implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Zheng, Z.; Celia, M. A.; Stone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection into a confined saline aquifer may be modeled as an axisymmetric two-phase flow problem. Assuming the two fluids segregate in the vertical direction due to strong buoyancy, and neglecting capillary pressure and miscibility, the lubrication approximation leads to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors in the system are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of the displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ , the gravity number, which represents the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. Four different analytical solutions can be derived as the asymptotic approximations, representing specific values of the parameter pairs. The four solutions correspond to: (1) Γ 1; and (4) Γ >> 1, any M values. The first two of these solutions are new, while the third corresponds to the solution of Nordbotten and Celia (2006) for confined injections and the fourth corresponds to the solution of (Lyle et al., 2005) for gravity currents in an unconfined aquifer. Overall, the various axisymmetric flows can be summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime (Fig. 1). Data from a number of CO2 injection sites around the world can be used to compute the two dimensionless groups Γ and M associated with each injection. When plotted on the regime diagram, these values show the flow behavior for each injection and how the values vary from site to site. For all the CO2 injections, M is always larger than 1, while Γ can range from 0.01 up to 100. The pairs of (Γ, M) with lower Γ values correspond to solution (3), while the ones with higher Γ values can move up to the intermediate regime and the flow regime for solution (4). The higher values of Γ correspond to pilot-scale injections with low injection rates; most industrial-scale injection

  19. Body Composition (Sarcopenia) in Obese Patients: Implications for Care in the Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Dympna; DeLegge, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The study of body composition is a rapidly evolving science. In today’s environment, there is a great deal of interest in assessing body composition, especially in the obese subject, as a guide to clinical and nutrition interventions. There are some strikingly different compartments of body composition between the obese and the lean patient. We do have the ability to measure body composition accurately, although these techniques can be labor intensive and expensive. The recognition of patient...

  20. Role of α2-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.F. Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Central α2-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α2-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α2-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion.

  1. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. PMID:27018063

  2. Role of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, C.A.F.; Andrade-Franzé, G.M.F.; De Paula, P.M.; De Luca, L.A. Jr.; Menani, J.V. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-10

    Central α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α{sub 2}-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α{sub 2}-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion.

  3. Multicomponent analysis of radiolytic products in human body fluids using high field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grootveld, M.C.; Herz, H.; Naughton, D.; Perera, A.; Knappitt, J.; Blake, D.R.; Claxson, A.W.D. [London Hospital Medical College (United Kingdom). The Inflammation Research Group; Haywood, R.; Hawkes, G.E. [Queen Mary and Westfield College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-05-01

    High field proton Hahn spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been employed to investigate radiolytic damage to biomolecules present in intact human body fluids. {gamma}-Radiolysis of healthy or rheumatoid human serum (5.00 kGy) in the presence of atmospheric O{sub 2} gave rise to reproducible elevations in the concentration of NMR-detectable acetate which are predominantly ascribable to the prior oxidation of lactate to pyruvate by hydroxyl radical ({sup .}OH) followed by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate by radiolytically-generated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and/or further {sup .}OH radical. Increases in the serum levels of non-protein-bound, low-molecular-mass components such as citrate and glutamine were also observed subsequent to {gamma}-radiolysis, an observation which may reflect their mobilisation from protein binding-sites by {sup .}OH radical, superoxide anion and/or HO{sub 2}. Moreover, substantial radiolytically-mediated elevations in the concentration of serum formate were also detectable. In addition to the above modifications, {gamma}-radiolysis of inflammatory knee-joint synovial fluid (SF) generated a low-molecular-mass oligosaccharide species derived from the radiolytic fragmentation of hyaluronate. The radiolytically-mediated production of acetate in SF samples was markedly greater than that observed in serum samples, a consequence of the much higher levels of {sup .}OH radical-scavenging lactate present. Indeed, increases in SF acetate concentration were detectable at doses as low as 48 Gy. We conclude that high field proton NMR analysis provides much useful information regarding the relative radioprotectant abilities of endogenous components and the nature, status and levels of radiolytic products generated in intact biofluids. (author).

  4. Role of α2-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central α2-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α2-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α2-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion

  5. Biochemical Technology Program progress report for the period January 1--June 30, 1976. [Centrifugal analyzers and advanced analytical systems for blood and body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Burtis, C.A.; Scott, C.D. (comps.)

    1976-09-01

    This document, which covers the period January 1-June 30, 1976, describes progress in the following areas: (1) advanced analytical techniques for the clinical laboratory, (2) fast clinical analyzers, (3) development of a miniaturized analytical clinical laboratory system, (4) centrifugal fast analyzers for animal toxicological studies, and (5) chemical profile of body fluids.

  6. Tissue weights and adaptation response of the toad after 96 hours of exposure to simulated high altitude — A body fluid and hematological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, H. M.; Boral, M. C.

    1985-12-01

    Adult male toads were exposed to simulated high altitude of 24,000 feet for 96 hrs of continuous exposure in a decompression chamber. The animals were sacrificed immediately after the exposure period. Significant increase of the weight of the ventricle and spleen is observed in altitude exposed animals. Red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit ratio and red cell mass are significantly increased in high altitude exposed animals in comparison to control. MCV (mean corpuscular volume) and MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin) are decreased in altitude exposed group. Plasma volume, blood volume, extracellular fluid volume, intracellular fluid volume and total body water are decreased significantly after altitude exposure for 96 hrs. These physiological changes are thought to be due to dehydration of this animal at simulated high altitude and it is highly affected after 96 hrs of exposure as evidenced by the significant reduction of total body water and intracellular fluid volume.

  7. A study of the structure in solid wastes and some implications for fluid flow in landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo, D.

    2013-01-01

    The search for alternative landfill operation and management strategies has triggered the development of the concept of a landfill as a bioreactor. The application of the concept requires the recirculation of liquids and hence a better understanding of fluid flow and transport processes that are strongly controlled by the physical structure of the media. It is generally accepted that as a result of the deposition in progressive layers, compaction and heterogeneity; solid waste develops a stro...

  8. Carbonated hydroxyapatite starting from calcite and different orthophosphates under moderate hydrothermal conditions: Synthesis and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Carbonated apatite (CAP) could be easily obtained from CaCO3 and orthophosphates. • Highest CaCO3 dissolution and apatitic carbonate content were obtained with H3PO4. • A-B-type CAP was formed. • The synthesized CAP was thermally stable up to 1000 °C. • This CAP showed high biomineralization activity before and after thermal treatment. - Abstract: The one-step synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) using calcite and different orthophosphates was investigated in a closed batch reactor. Only orthophosphoric acid could lead to the complete decomposition of calcite particles, when the reaction temperature was set at 80 °C. On the other hand, the reaction time and the dilution of the initial calcite suspension had no significant influence on the formation of the solid products. CAP was formed as the main crystalline calcium phosphate with the carbonate content in the range of 4.2–4.6 wt.%. The thermal decarbonation of the synthesized CAP started at 750 °C but it was only significant at 1000 °C under air atmosphere. This thermal decarbonation was total at 1200 °C or above. All CAP samples and products following thermal treatments were found bioactive in the test using simulated body fluid (SBF) solution

  9. Carbonated hydroxyapatite starting from calcite and different orthophosphates under moderate hydrothermal conditions: Synthesis and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Minh, Doan, E-mail: doan.phamminh@mines-albi.fr; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Carbonated apatite (CAP) could be easily obtained from CaCO{sub 3} and orthophosphates. • Highest CaCO{sub 3} dissolution and apatitic carbonate content were obtained with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • A-B-type CAP was formed. • The synthesized CAP was thermally stable up to 1000 °C. • This CAP showed high biomineralization activity before and after thermal treatment. - Abstract: The one-step synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) using calcite and different orthophosphates was investigated in a closed batch reactor. Only orthophosphoric acid could lead to the complete decomposition of calcite particles, when the reaction temperature was set at 80 °C. On the other hand, the reaction time and the dilution of the initial calcite suspension had no significant influence on the formation of the solid products. CAP was formed as the main crystalline calcium phosphate with the carbonate content in the range of 4.2–4.6 wt.%. The thermal decarbonation of the synthesized CAP started at 750 °C but it was only significant at 1000 °C under air atmosphere. This thermal decarbonation was total at 1200 °C or above. All CAP samples and products following thermal treatments were found bioactive in the test using simulated body fluid (SBF) solution.

  10. Cyclic delamination behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF. PMID:27287152

  11. In vitro biomineralization of a novel hydroxyapatite/superhydrophilic multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite using simulated body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Marcele Florencio; Brazil, Tayra Rodrigues; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira, E-mail: aolobo@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D,/NANOBIO/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Nanotecnologia Biomedica; Soares, Luis Eduardo Silva [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D/LEVB/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomdica; Corat, Evaldo Jose [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa Espacial (LAS/INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Sensores e Materiais

    2013-11-01

    Nano biomaterials based on superhydrophilic vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} ) are promising for their properties and bone tissue biocompatibility. VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) aim to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of this new nanocomposite due to its resemblance to bone matrix structure. This study aimed to produce in vitro biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites using simulated body fluid (SBF) with two different pHs (6.10 and 7.40) during 7 days to obtain a new surface design with higher crystallinity and better morphology of nHAp/VAMWCANT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites. The objective is to obtain biomineralized nano biomaterials to enable its applicability as 'scaffold' to cellular support and consequent bone tissue formation, accelerating the osseointegration. Layer densification has been achieved due to polycrystalline nano apatites deposition on surface and between the biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites, without any heat treatment. Therefore, through its characteristics and properties these nanocomposite applications can be considered extremely viable for acceleration of in vivo regenerative processes. (author)

  12. Electrodeposition of HAp coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy and its electrochemical behavior in simulated body fluid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Dinh, Thi Mai; Thom Nguyen, Thi; Pham, Thi Nam; Phuong Nguyen, Thu; Thu Trang Nguyen, Thi; Hoang, Thai; Grossin, David; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were prepared on Ti6Al4V substrate by electrodeposition method from electrolyte solution containing Ca(NO3)2, NH4H2PO4 and NaNO3. The results show that the HAp coatings were single phase crystals of HAp. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images present that HAp/Ti6Al4V have flake shapes which arrange to form like-coral agglomerates. In vitro test of the Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution was investigated with different immersion times. pH of SBF solution decreased and the mass of materials increased. SEM images prove the formation of apatite on the surface of Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V. The corrosion current density during immersion time of substrate is always higher than the one of HAp/Ti6Al4V because the deposited HAp can protect well for the substrate.

  13. Corrosion mechanism of micro-arc oxidation treated biocompatible AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Lia; Fang Lu; Honglong Li; Wenjun Zhu; Haobo Pan; Guoxin Tand; Yonghua Lao; Chengyun Ning; Guoxin Ni

    2014-01-01

    The rapid degradation of magnesium (Mg) based alloys has prevented their further use in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention, and therefore it is essential to investigate the corrosion mechanism for improving the corrosion resistance of these alloys. In this work, the effect of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with different voltages were carried out to obtain biocompatible ceramic coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy. The effects of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of MAO samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied systematically. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the morphologies and phase compositions of coating before and after corrosion. The results showed that corrosion resistance of the MAO coating obtained at 250 V was better than the others in SBF. The dense layer of MAO coating and the corrosion precipitation were the key factors for corrosion behavior. The corrosion of precipitation Mg(OH)2 and the calcium phosphate (Ca–P) minerals on the surface of MAO coatings could enhance their corrosion resistance effectively. In addition, the mechanism of MAO coated Mg alloys was proposed.

  14. Biomineralization behavior of a vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer added with polymerization accelerator in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Hamai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apatite-polymer composites have been evaluated in terms of its potential application as bone substitutes. Biomimetic processes using simulated body fluid (SBF are well-known methods for preparation of such composites. They are reliant on specific functional groups to induce the heterogeneous apatite nucleation and phosphate groups possess good apatite-forming ability in SBF. Improving the degree of polymerization is important for obtaining phosphate-containing polymers, because the release of significant quantities of monomer or low molecular weight polymers can lead to suppression of the apatite formation. To date, there have been very few studies pertaining to the effect of adding a polymerization accelerator to the polymerization reaction involved in the formation of these composite materials under physiological conditions. In this study, we have prepared a copolymer from triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA in the presence of different amounts of sodium p-toluenesulfinate (p-TSS as a polymerization accelerator. The effects of p-TSS on the chemical durability and apatite formation of the copolymers were investigated in SBF. The addition of 0.1–1.0 wt% of p-TSS was effective for suppressing the dissolution of the copolymers in SBF, whereas larger amount had a detrimental effect. A calcium polyvinylphosphate instead of the apatite was precipitated in SBF.

  15. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of silver doped hydroxyapatite coating in simulated body fluid used as corrosive agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković-Stanković Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium is a key biomedical material due its good biocompatibility, mechanical properties and corrosion stability, but infections of the implantation site still pose serious threat. One approach to prevent infection is to improve antimicrobial ability of the coating material. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag/HAP nanoparticles were synthesized by new modified precipitation method. The synthesized powder was used for preparation of Ag/HAP coating on titanium by electrophoretic deposition. The coating was characterized in terms of phase composition and structure by Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD; surface morphology and chemical composition was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Research focused on evaluation of the corrosion behaviour of Ag/HAP coating in simulated body fluid (SBF at 37 ºC during prolonged immersion time by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Silver doped HAP coating provided good corrosion protection in SBF solution. [Acknowledgements. This research was financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, contracts No. III 45019 and by National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC. Dr Ana Jankovic was financed by the FP7 Nanotech FTM Grant Agreement 245916

  16. In vitro biomineralization of a novel hydroxyapatite/superhydrophilic multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite using simulated body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano biomaterials based on superhydrophilic vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O2 ) are promising for their properties and bone tissue biocompatibility. VAMWCNT-O2 films with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) aim to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of this new nanocomposite due to its resemblance to bone matrix structure. This study aimed to produce in vitro biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites using simulated body fluid (SBF) with two different pHs (6.10 and 7.40) during 7 days to obtain a new surface design with higher crystallinity and better morphology of nHAp/VAMWCANT-O2 nanocomposites. The objective is to obtain biomineralized nano biomaterials to enable its applicability as 'scaffold' to cellular support and consequent bone tissue formation, accelerating the osseointegration. Layer densification has been achieved due to polycrystalline nano apatites deposition on surface and between the biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites, without any heat treatment. Therefore, through its characteristics and properties these nanocomposite applications can be considered extremely viable for acceleration of in vivo regenerative processes. (author)

  17. Granulocytes of sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 body fluid contain and release cytolysins forming plaques of lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Parisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most poisonous animals. The exact composition of cnidarian bioactive molecules is not known in detail, but little is known on the cells that produce the toxins. Here we have shown that the presence of cytolysins is not exclusive of nematocysts. A plaque-forming assay was carried out with cell populations extracted from the percoled body fluid showed for the first time that anthozoan granulocytes are able to form plaque of lysis. We have partitioned the total population of free cells into three distinct discrete bands by discontinuous Percoll gradient, and we have identified six small different types cells: morular granulocytes; cells with large or small peripherical granules, granulocytes with irregular shape containing blue and red granules, cells showing one fine red granule of uniform size and, finally, cells with elongated shape and small dispersed granules. Cell lysate of each cellular band resulted cytolytic toward different erythrocytes types. SDS page analysis of the lysate cell fraction showed a predominant of 20 kDa that corresponds to the weight of the cytolytic equinatoxin. The nature of equinatoxins-related activity was demonstrated by inhibition experiments using bovine sphingomyelin.

  18. Distant Secondary Craters from Lyot Crater, Mars, and Implications for Ages of Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2011-03-01

    We identified thousands of secondary craters in distinct clusters up to 5200 km from their primary crater, Lyot, on Mars. Their properties, relation to Lyot, and broader implications to secondary cratering and planetary ages will be discussed.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin (orexin) levels are elevated by play but are not raised by exercise and its associated heart rate, blood pressure, respiration or body temperature changes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M.-F.; Nienhuis, R.; Maidment, N.; Lam, H.A.; Siegel, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypocretin (Hcrt) has been implicated in the control of motor activity and in respiration and cardiovascular changes. Loss of Hcrt in narcolepsy is linked to sleepiness and to cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone which is triggered by sudden strong emotions. In the current study, we have compared the effects of treadmill running to yard play on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Hcrt level in normal dogs. We find that treadmill locomotion, at a wide range of speeds, does not increase Hcrt level bey...

  20. Psychobehavioral Attributes of Body Image in College Freshmen and Seniors: Implications for Long-Term Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, James E.; Partridge, Julie A.; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Understanding and assessing behavioral risk factors, particularly among college populations, is challenging for health educators. Similarly, issues affecting mental health remain unclear in terms of how body image evolves year to year in college students. A better understanding of how students perceive their bodies and to what extent…

  1. The Relationship among Overexcitability, Social Coping, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Implications for Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Heath R.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents confront a plethora of physical and emotional changes, especially those alterations surrounding puberty. Body image disturbances have become commonplace with high school students, and school personnel seem to have had little success in fighting this problem. Teenagers with body dissatisfaction may also be at risk for mental health…

  2. Deformation band clusters on Mars and implications for subsurface fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, C.H.; Schultz, R.A.; Chan, M.A.; Komatsu, G.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution imagery reveals unprecedented lines of evidence for the presence of deformation band clusters in layered sedimentary deposits in the equatorial region of Mars. Deformation bands are a class of geologic structural discontinuity that is a precursor to faults in clastic rocks and soils. Clusters of deformation bands, consisting of many hundreds of individual subparallel bands, can act as important structural controls on subsurface fluid flow in terrestrial reservoirs, and evidence of diagenetic processes is often preserved along them. Deformation band clusters are identified on Mars based on characteristic meter-scale architectures and geologic context as observed in data from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera. The identification of deformation band clusters on Mars is a key to investigating the migration of fluids between surface and subsurface reservoirs in the planet's vast sedimentary deposits. Similar to terrestrial examples, evidence of diagenesis in the form of light- and dark-toned discoloration and wall-rock induration is recorded along many of the deformation band clusters on Mars. Therefore, these structures are important sites for future exploration and investigations into the geologic history of water and water-related processes on Mars. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  3. Turbulence in nearly incompressible fluids: density spectrum, flows, correlations and implication to the interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dastgeer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstellar scintillation and angular radio wave broadening measurements show that interstellar and solar wind (electron density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k-5/3 power spectrum extending over many decades in wavenumber space. The ubiquity of the Kolmogorov-like interstellar medium (ISM density spectrum led to an explanation based on coupling incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD fluctuations to density fluctuations through a 'pseudosound' relation within the context of 'nearly incompressible' (NI hydrodynamics (HD and MHD models. The NI theory provides a fundamentally different explanation for the observed ISM density spectrum in that the density fluctuations can be a consequence of passive scalar convection due to background incompressible fluctuations. The theory further predicts generation of long-scale structures and various correlations between the density, temperature and the (magneto acoustic as well as convective pressure fluctuations in the compressible ISM fluids in different thermal regimes that are determined purely by the thermal fluctuation level. In this paper, we present the results of our two dimensional nonlinear fluid simulations, exploring various nonlinear aspects that lead to inertial range ISM turbulence within the context of a NI hydrodymanics model. In qualitative agreement with the NI predictions and the in-situ observations, we find that i the density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like spectrum via a passive convection in the field of the background incompressible fluctuations, ii the compressible ISM fluctuations form long scale flows and structures, and iii the density and the temperature fluctuations are anti-correlated.

  4. A 3D, fully Eulerian, VOF-based solver to study the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid bodies using the fictitious domain method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) and fully Eulerian approach to capturing the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid structures by using the fictitious domain and volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods. The solid bodies can have arbitrarily complex geometry and can pierce the fluid-fluid interface, forming contact lines. The three-phase interfaces are resolved and reconstructed by using a VOF-based methodology. Then, a consistent scheme is employed for transporting mass and momentum, allowing for simulations of three-phase flows of large density ratios. The Eulerian approach significantly simplifies numerical resolution of the kinematics of rigid bodies of complex geometry and with six degrees of freedom. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is computed using the fictitious domain method. The methodology was developed in a message passing interface (MPI) parallel framework accelerated with graphics processing units (GPUs). The computationally intensive solution of the pressure Poisson equation is ported to GPUs, while the remaining calculations are performed on CPUs. The performance and accuracy of the methodology are assessed using an array of test cases, focusing individually on the flow solver and the FSI in surface-piercing configurations. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology in simulations of the ocean wave energy converters is presented.

  5. A 3D GPU-accelerated MPI-parallel computational tool for simulating interaction of moving rigid bodies with two-fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    We present a 3D MPI-parallel, GPU-accelerated computational tool that captures the interaction between a moving rigid body and two-fluid flows. Although the immediate application is the study of ocean wave energy converters (WECs), the model was developed at a general level and can be used in other applications. Solving the full Navier-Stokes equations, the model is able to capture non-linear effects, including wave-breaking and fluid-structure interaction, that have significant impact on WEC performance. To transport mass and momentum, we use a consistent scheme that can handle large density ratios (e.g. air/water). We present a novel reconstruction scheme for resolving three-phase (solid-liquid-gas) cells in the volume-of-fluid context, where the fluid interface orientation is estimated via a minimization procedure, while imposing a contact angle. The reconstruction allows for accurate mass and momentum transport in the vicinity of three-phase cells. The fast-fictitious-domain method is used for capturing the interaction between a moving rigid body and two-fluid flow. The pressure Poisson solver is accelerated using GPUs in the MPI framework. We present results of an array of test cases devised to assess the performance and accuracy of the computational tool.

  6. Structural investigation of brittle carbonate fault rocks at various scales: implications for fluid migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröckenfuchs, Theresa-Christina; Bauer, Helene; Decker, Kurt; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    The EW-striking, sinistral Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg fault system is a prominent feature in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) in Austria. In particular, within the eastern part of the NCA, in Styria, it creates characteristic fault rocks in carbonates, comparable to fault rocks from similar tectonic regimes in other areas. Furthermore, faults and their characteristic fault rocks in this area play an important role in groundwater filtering, fluid pathways and in initiating karstification; this is of great social and economic importance since most of the drinking water for Vienna is obtained from that area. The fault zones are therefore ideal for investigating reservoir properties such as porosity and permeability evolution. Since detailed studies of such fault rocks on a micro scale are still rare, this work focuses on investigating structures and processes that create typical features in carbonate fault rocks from field- to nano-scale. Additionally, reservoir properties have been characterized. Apart from detailed structural field-work and porosity and permeability-measurements in the laboratory, thin-sections were analysed by optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy and electron microscopy using backscattered electron pictures and focused ion-beam techniques. The analytical methods provide an insight on processes and features such as grain size reduction, cementation and recrystallization, and point out porosity and permeability differences due to deformation mechanisms and cementation events. The results show that besides the common theory of grain interaction (rotation, gliding), in situ grain size reduction, predominantly controlled by pore fluid, plays an important role in creating cataclastic fabrics. Microscopic observations reveal a high amount of matrix porosity in dolomitic fault-core rocks, such as cataclasites and dilation breccias, which explains the high porosity values for those rocks measured in the laboratory; generally

  7. Noble gases in gas shales : Implications for gas retention and circulating fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sudeshna; Jones, Adrian; Verchovsky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Gas shales from three cores of Haynesville-Bossier formation have been analysed simultaneously for carbon, nitrogen and noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xe) to constrain their source compositions and identify signatures associated with high gas retention. Ten samples from varying depths of 11785 to 12223 feet from each core, retrieved from their centres, have been combusted from 200-1200°C in incremental steps of 100°C, using 5 - 10 mg of each sample. Typically, Xe is released at 200°C and is largely adsorbed, observed in two of the three cores. The third core lacked any measureable Xe. High 40Ar/36Ar ratio up to 8000, is associated with peak release of nitrogen with distinctive isotopic signature, related to breakdown of clay minerals at 500°C. He and Ne are also mostly released at the same temperature step and predominantly hosted in the pore spaces of the organic matter associated with the clay. He may be produced from the uranium related to the organic matter. The enrichment factors of noble gases defined as (iX/36Ar)sample/(iX/36Ar)air where iX denotes any noble gas isotope, show Ne and Xe enrichment observed commonly in sedimentary rocks including shales (Podosek et al., 1980; Bernatowicz et al., 1984). This can be related to interaction of the shales with circulating fluids and diffusive separation of gases (Torgersen and Kennedy, 1999), implying the possibility of loss of gases from these shales. Interaction with circulating fluids (e.g. crustal fluids) have been further confirmed using 20Ne/N2, 36Ar/N2 and 4He/N2 ratios. Deviations of measured 4He/40Ar* (where 40Ar* represents radiogenic 40Ar after correcting for contribution from atmospheric Ar) from expected values has been used to monitor gas loss by degassing. Bernatowicz, T., Podosek, F.A., Honda, M., Kramer, F.E., 1984. The Atmospheric Inventory of Xenon and Noble Gases in Shales: The Plastic Bag Experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research 89, 4597-4611. Podosek, F.A., Honda, M., Ozima, M., 1980

  8. Three-scale model of single bone osteon modelled as double-porous fluid saturated body: Study of influence of micro/meso-structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turjanicová J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the multiscale description of a single osteon of cortical bones. The cortical bone tissue is modeled as a double-porous medium decomposed into the solid matrix and the fluid saturated canals. The resulting homogenized model describes deformation of such medium in response to a static loading by external forces and to an injection of slightly compressible fluid. Three numerical examples are presented, showing the influence of selected lower-scales geometrical features on the macroscopic body behavior.

  9. The Energetic Implications of Using Deforming Reference Descriptions to Simulate the Motion of Incompressible, Newtonian Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, S J

    1999-01-01

    In this work the issue of whether key energetic properties (nonlinear, exponential-type dissipation in the abscence of forcing and long-term stability under conditions of time dependent loading) are automatically inherited by deforming reference descriptions is resolved. These properties are intrinsic to real flows and the conventional Navier-Stokes equations. A completely general reference description of an incompressible, Newtonian fluid, which reconciles the differences between opposing schools of thought in the literature is derived for the purposes of this investigation. The work subsequently focusses on establishing a class of time discretisations which inherit these self-same energetic properties, irrespective of the time increment employed. The findings of this analysis have profound consequences for the use of certain classes of finite difference schemes in the context of deforming references. It is significant that many algorithms presently in use do not automatically inherit the fundamental qualita...

  10. Multi-fluid systems—Multi-Beltrami relaxed states and their implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India); Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We consider the non-dissipative multi-fluid equations, and demonstrate how multi-Beltrami equilibria emerge as natural relaxed states of the model, representing an evolution towards the minimum energy. General properties of these states are studied, and a wide class of solutions is obtained. We specialize to the cases of double and triple Beltrami states and highlight their connections with the appropriate physical invariants, viz., the generalized helicities and the energy. In particular, we demonstrate that different field configurations can give rise to distinct or identical values of the invariants, depending on the nature of the roots of the multi-Beltrami equation. Moreover, we also highlight equivalences between (outwardly) unconnected models allowing us to treat them in a unified manner. Some observations regarding the nature of the solutions for certain special cases of these models are presented. Potential applications for astrophysical plasmas are also highlighted.

  11. Fluid motion and solute distribution around sinking aggregates II : Implications for remote detection by colonizing zooplankters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2001-01-01

    Marine snow aggregates are colonized by copepods, and encounter rates inferred from observed abundances of colonizers are high. We examined the potential for hydromechanical and chemical remote detection. The fluid disturbance generated by a sinking aggregate was described by solving the Navier...... account for the observed abundances of colonizers. We next solved the advection-diffusion equation to describe the chemical trail left by a leaking and sinking aggregate. The plume is long and slender and may be detected by a horizontally cruising copepod. From the model of the plume and literature- based...... estimates of size-dependent aggregate leakage rates of amino acids, we estimate that a threshold sensitivity to amino acids of 0.4 x 10(-7) M is required to account for observed abundances of colonizers. This is consistent with knowledge of the amino acid concentrations needed to elicit behavioral responses...

  12. Corrosion and bioactivity performance of graphene oxide coating on TiNb shape memory alloys in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Safaa N; Hosseinian S, Raheleh; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H R; Yaghoubidoust, F; Iqbal, N; Hamzah, E; Ooi, C H Raymond

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, the microstructure, corrosion, and bioactivity of graphene oxide (GO) coating on the laser-modified and -unmodified surfaces of TiNb shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. The surface morphology and chemical composition was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface modification was carried out via a femtosecond laser with the aim to increase the surface roughness, and thus increase the adhesion property. FE-SEM analysis of the laser-treated Ti-30at.% Nb revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the Ti-30at.% Nb surface after being surface modified via a femtosecond laser. Furthermore, the thickness of GO was increased from 35μm to 45μm after the surface was modified. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that both the GO and laser/GO-coated samples exhibited higher corrosion resistance than that of the uncoated TiNb SMA sample. However, the laser/GO-coated sample presented the highest corrosion resistance in SBF at 37°C. In addition, during soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF), both the GO and laser/GO coating improved the formation of apatite layer. Based on the bioactivity results, the GO coating exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria compared with the uncoated. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Ti-30at.% Nb SMAs may be promising alternatives to NiTi for certain biomedical applications. PMID:27524069

  13. Degradation behavior of n-MAO/EPD bio-ceramic composite coatings on magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A bio-ceramic n-MAO/EPD coating was prepared by combined MAO and EPD technique. • The precipitates of Ca/P compound are formed on the surface samples during immersion. • The n-MAO/EPD coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect. • Two degradation mechanism models for the n-MAO and n-MAO/EPD coating were proposed. - Abstract: The bio-ceramic composite coatings have been fabricated on ZK60 magnesium (Mg) alloy to improve its bio-corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Firstly, micro-arc oxidation coatings (n-MAO coating) with the addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and cerium oxide (CeO2) nano-particles were prepared by MAO technique on ZK60Mg alloy in alkaline electrolyte. Secondly, nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on the surface of n-MAO coatings by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The degradation behavior of the coated samples was investigated by means of immersion tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the SBF at 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. The variation of phase composition, surface and cross-section morphology of coatings at different immersion stages were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that the precipitation layer with biological activity formed on the surface of coated samples during the SBF immersion, which can inhibit Mg alloys from degrading effectively. The n-MAO/EPD composite coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect compared to the n-MAO coating. Degradation mechanism model of the corrosion process at different corrosion stages for two kinds of coatings were proposed. The long-term corrosion protection of the n-MAO/EPD composite coating was governed significantly by the synergistic effect of phase composition stability and micro structural integrity

  14. Simulated body fluid and water absorption effects on poly(methyl methacrylate/hydroxyapatite denture base composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/hydroxyapatite (HA composite has potential application in denture base materials. The denture base materials should exhibit good mechanical properties and dimensional stability in moist environment. Silane coupling agent [3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy silane (γ-MPS] was used to treat the HA fillers in order to enhance the interfacial interaction between the PMMA and HA. In this research, the kinetics and effects of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF and water absorption on the flexural properties of PMMA/HA composites were studied for an immersion duration of 2 months. The mathematical treatment used in analyzing the data was the single free phase model of diffusion, which assumed Fickian diffusion and utilized Fick’s second law of diffusion. The kinetics of water absorption of the PMMA/HA composites conformed to Fickian law behavior, whereby the initial moisture absorption follows a linear relationship between the percentage gain at any time t and t1/2, followed by saturation. It was found that the equilibrium moisture content and the diffusion coefficient are depending on the concentration of γ-MPS in PMMA/5HA composites. The reduction of equilibrium moisture content of PMMA/5HA is due to the hydrophobic behavior of γ-MPS and compatibility of PMMA with HA. The retention ability in flexural modulus and strength of PMMA/HA composites upon subjected towater absorption are considerably good. The reduction of flexural strength of the PMMA/HA composites after water absorption and SBF absorption could be attributed to the plasticizing effect of water molecules.

  15. Degradation behavior of n-MAO/EPD bio-ceramic composite coatings on magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ying, E-mail: yxiong@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lu, Chao [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wang, Chao; Song, Renguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A bio-ceramic n-MAO/EPD coating was prepared by combined MAO and EPD technique. • The precipitates of Ca/P compound are formed on the surface samples during immersion. • The n-MAO/EPD coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect. • Two degradation mechanism models for the n-MAO and n-MAO/EPD coating were proposed. - Abstract: The bio-ceramic composite coatings have been fabricated on ZK60 magnesium (Mg) alloy to improve its bio-corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Firstly, micro-arc oxidation coatings (n-MAO coating) with the addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nano-particles were prepared by MAO technique on ZK60Mg alloy in alkaline electrolyte. Secondly, nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on the surface of n-MAO coatings by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The degradation behavior of the coated samples was investigated by means of immersion tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the SBF at 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. The variation of phase composition, surface and cross-section morphology of coatings at different immersion stages were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that the precipitation layer with biological activity formed on the surface of coated samples during the SBF immersion, which can inhibit Mg alloys from degrading effectively. The n-MAO/EPD composite coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect compared to the n-MAO coating. Degradation mechanism model of the corrosion process at different corrosion stages for two kinds of coatings were proposed. The long-term corrosion protection of the n-MAO/EPD composite coating was governed significantly by the synergistic effect of phase composition stability and micro structural integrity.

  16. The production of knowledge related to body and beauty: implications for physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liege Monique Filgueiras da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The text it is a part of a research Masters, held at the Graduate Program in Education of UFRN. To this end, we considered the relationship between the meanings of body and beauty products analyzed and identified in the models of beauty in Physical Education. This research is qualitative in nature, and content analysis for data processing. The corpus of analysis consisted of eight papers in the area of Physical Education, published in the Bank of Capes Thesis from 2004 to 2008, selected from the subject body and beauty. It was observed that the understanding of body and beauty in the area has been re-signified, which represents the development that has occurred in the tract of the body of knowledge and beauty.

  17. Mind-body therapies: evidence and implications in advanced oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayden, Kelley D

    2012-11-01

    The idea that thoughts and emotions influence health outcomes is an ancient concept that was initially abandoned by Western medicine researchers. Today, researchers are showing a renewed interest in the interactions of the mind and body and the role these interactions play in disease formation and recovery. Complementary and alternative interventions, such as mind-body therapies, are increasingly being used by cancer survivors for disease prevention, immune system enhancement, and symptom control. Traditional training has not been structured to provide advanced practitioners with an in-depth knowledge of the clinical applications of mind-body therapies. The aim of this article is to acquaint the reader with common mind-body modalities (meditation/mindfulness-based stress reduction, relaxation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, hypnosis, biofeedback, music therapy, art therapy, support groups, and aromatherapy) and to examine important evidence in support of or against their clinical application. PMID:25031967

  18. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  19. Misreporting and Misclassification: Implications for Socioeconomic Disparities in Body-mass Index and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ljungvall, Åsa; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lindblad, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Body-mass index (BMI) has become the standard proxy for obesity in social science research. This study deals with the potential problems related to, first, relying on self-reported weight and height to calculate BMI (misreporting), and, second, the concern that BMI is a deficient measure of body fat (misclassification). Using a regional Swedish sample, we analyze whether socioeconomic disparities in BMI are biased because of misreporting, and whether socioeconomic disparities in the risk of o...

  20. HOX genes in the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: Implications for the evolution of complex body plans

    OpenAIRE

    Callaerts, Patrick; Lee, Patricia N.; Hartmann, Britta; Farfan, Claudia; Choy, Darrett W. Y.; Ikeo, Kazuho; Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich; Gehring, Walter J.; de Couet, H. Gert

    2002-01-01

    Molluscs display a rich diversity of body plans ranging from the wormlike appearance of aplacophorans to the complex body plan of the cephalopods with highly developed sensory organs, a complex central nervous system, and cognitive abilities unrivaled among the invertebrates. The aim of the current study is to define molecular parameters relevant to the developmental evolution of cephalopods by using the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes as a model system. Using PCR-based approaches, we identi...

  1. The media's impact on body image: Implications for prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, J.; Waller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that media images of “ideal” female models have an impact upon women's body image, leading to dissatisfaction and perceptual distortion. The evidence for this link between media presentation and body image distortion is reviewed, and theoretical models are advanced to explain the link. In particular, women's use of social comparison in establishing their self-concept seems to be an important psychological construct in understanding the impact of the media upon...

  2. Mind-Body Therapies: Evidence and Implications in Advanced Oncology Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mayden,, Kelley D.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that thoughts and emotions influence health outcomes is an ancient concept that was initially abandoned by Western medicine researchers. Today, researchers are showing a renewed interest in the interactions of the mind and body and the role these interactions play in disease formation and recovery. Complementary and alternative interventions, such as mind-body therapies, are increasingly being used by cancer survivors for disease prevention, immune system enhancement, and symptom con...

  3. Driven-dissipative Euler close-quote s equations for a rigid body: A chaotic system relevant to fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhering to the lore that vorticity is a critical ingredient of fluid turbulence, a triad of coupled helicity (vorticity) states of the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid are followed. Effects of the remaining states of the fluid on the triad are then modeled as a simple driving term. Numerical solution of the equations yield attractors that seem strange and chaotic. This suggests that the unpredictability of nonlinear fluid dynamics (i.e., turbulence) may be traced back to the most primordial structure of the Navier-Stokes equation; namely, the driven triadic interaction. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Q. R.; Schaef, T.; Thompson, C.; Loring, J. S.; Windisch, C. F.; Bowden, M. E.; Arey, B. W.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change is viewed by many as an anthropogenic phenomenon that could be mitigated through a combination of conservation efforts, alternative energy sources, and the development of technologies capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Continued increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected over the next decade, due to developing nations and growing populations. One economically favorable option for managing CO2 involves subsurface storage in deep basalt formations. The silicate minerals and glassy mesostasis basalt components act as metal cation sources, reacting with the CO2 to form carbonate minerals. Most prior work on mineral reactivity in geologic carbon sequestration settings involves only aqueous dominated reactions. However, in most sequestration scenarios, injected CO2 will reside as a buoyant fluid in contact with the sealing formation (caprock) and slowly become water bearing. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet scCO2. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) in order to gain insight into reaction processes. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by two novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the scCO2 resulted in increased carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy and indirectly with 18O isotopic labeling techniques (Raman spectroscopy). The thin water films were determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes in wet scCO2. Even in extreme low water conditions, the IR technique detected the formation of

  5. Fluid flow compartmentalization in the Sicilian fold and thrust belt: Implications for the regional aqueous fluid flow and oil migration history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewever, B.; Swennen, R.; Breesch, L.

    2013-04-01

    The fluid flow history in the frontal part of the Sicilian fold and thrust belt (FTB) has been reconstructed using an integrated structural, petrographic, geochemical and microthermometric approach. The study focused on comparing fluid flow during progressive deformation along major thrust horizons and in pelagic sediments occurring in the associated thrust sheets (foot- and hanging wall). A fluid flow model is constructed for the frontal part of the Sicilian FTB. Syn-deformational quartz and calcite have been precipitated along décollement horizons in the Iudica-Scalpello study area. The microthermometric analysis of fluid inclusions in the quartz and calcite indicated migration of low saline high temperature aqueous fluids (- 1.5 history in the thrust sheets can be subdivided into two stages. Calcite of types 1 and 2 has identical light orange cathodoluminescence as the surrounding mudstone. Furthermore, its isotope signature (2 history. Type 3 calcite is volumetrically by far the most important calcite phase. It occurs in (hydro-)fractures that are limited to the hanging wall of major thrusts and within major strike-slip faults that are interpreted as transfer faults as a result of thrust development. The presence of associated fluorite suggests more open fluid flow conditions during the final stages of the fluid flow history. Fluorite is characterized by low salinity fluid inclusions (- 2.6 < Tm < - 1.6 °C) with Th between 80 and 140 °C. Type 3 calcite has less depleted δ18O values compared to calcite of types 1 and 2 and the δ18O from calcite in faults is even positive. During the final stages of fluid flow with precipitation of calcite type 3, the fluid flow model invokes infiltration of overpressured fluids that migrated along the décollement zone. These fluids only infiltrate the thrust sheet in the hanging wall of the thrust, leading to a compartmentalized fluid flow pattern. An identical fluid flow pattern with migration of low and hot saline fluids

  6. Enhanced fluid flow in critically stressed fractures : implications for reservoir permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grollimund, B. [GeoMechanics International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The concept of building a geomechanical model for critically-stressed fractures in tectonic regimes in order to evaluate the potential for wellbore failure was discussed. Principal stress tensors that specify the stress orientations for overburden and for maximum or minimum horizontal principal stresses were illustrated. A geomechanical model must consider factors such as vertical stress, pore pressure, least principal stress, rock strength and the magnitude and orientation of stress tensors. An accurate geomechanical model is useful throughout the life of a reservoir to help with exploration, well drilling, well completion and exploitation. The ability to analyze wellbore failure from wellbore image logging data and caliper data was also discussed. Fracture permeability plays a significant role in hydrocarbon development. A strong correlation often exists between hydrocarbon flow and breccia zones, particularly if permeable fractures and faults are critically-stressed, meaning they are oriented preferably relative to the in situ stress field. A chart showing the relationship between critically stressed fractures and fluid flow was presented along with a data image of the correlation between natural fractures and reservoir flow. It was emphasized that pre-existing fractures and faults play an important role in controlling permeability in reservoirs. The information is used to optimize well trajectories to intersect permeable fracture sets and to avoid costly drilling problems associated with casing shear. tabs., figs.

  7. Two-Dimensional Self-Propelled Fish Motion in Medium: An Integrated Method for Deforming Body Dynamics and Unsteady Fluid Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present (1) the dynamical equations of deforming body and (2) an integrated method for deforming body dynamics and unsteady fluid dynamics, to investigate a modelled freely self-propelled fish. The theoretical model and practical method is applicable for studies on the general mechanics of animal locomotion such as flying in air and swimming in water, particularly of free self-propulsion. The present results behave more credibly than the previous numerical studies and are close to the experimental results, and the aligned vortices pattern is discovered in cruising swimming

  8. Two-Dimensional Self-Propelled Fish Motion in Medium:An Integrated Method for Deforming Body Dynamics and Unsteady Fluid Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; Wu Guan-Hao; YU Yong-Liang; TONG Bing-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We present(1)the dynamical equations of deforming body and(2)an integrated method for deforming body dynamics and unsteady fluid dynamics,to investigate a modelled freely serf-propelled fish.The theoretical model and practical method is applicable for studies on the general mechanics of animal locomotion such as flying in air and swimming in water,particularly of free self-propulsion.The present results behave more credibly than the previous numerical studies and are close to the experimental results,and the aligned vortices pattern is discovered in cruising swimming.

  9. A collaborative European exercise on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and interpretation of DNA and RNA results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berge, M; Carracedo, A; Gomes, I;

    2014-01-01

    The European Forensic Genetics Network of Excellence (EUROFORGEN-NoE) undertook a collaborative project on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and the interpretation of the resulting RNA and DNA data. Although both body fluids and skin are composed of a variety of cell types with different functions...... participating laboratories were asked to integrate the DNA and RNA results and associate donor and cell type where possible. A large variation for the integrated interpretations of the DNA and RNA data was obtained including correct interpretations. We infer that with expertise in analysing RNA profiles, clear...... and gene expression profiles, we refer to the procedure as 'cell type inference'. Nine laboratories participated in the project and used a 20-marker multiplex to analyse samples that were centrally prepared and thoroughly tested prior to shipment. Specimens of increasing complexity were assessed that...

  10. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  11. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H; Gao, M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, R.; W. Wang; Dahlgren, RA; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on centr...

  12. Development of highly sensitive and specific mRNA multiplex system (XCYR1 for forensic human body fluids and tissues identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available The identification of human body fluids or tissues through mRNA-based profiling is very useful for forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown mRNA biomarkers are effective to identify the origin of biological samples. In this study, we selected 16 tissue specific biomarkers to evaluate their specificities and sensitivities for human body fluids and tissues identification, including porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD, hemoglobin beta (HBB and Glycophorin A (GLY for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2 and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4 for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4 and human beta defensin 1(HBD1 for vaginal secretion, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 11 (MMP7 and MMP11 for menstrual blood, keratin 4(KRT4 for oral mucosa, loricrin (LOR and cystatin 6 (CST6 for skin, histatin 3(HTN3 for saliva, statherin (STATH for nasal secretion, dermcidin (DCD for sweat and uromodulin (UMOD for urine. The above mentioned ten common forensic body fluids or tissues were used in the evaluation. Based on the evaluation, a reverse transcription (RT PCR multiplex assay, XCYR1, which includes 12 biomarkers (i.e., HBB, GLY, HTN3, PRM2, KRT4, MMP11, MUC4, DCD, UMOD, MMP7, TGM4, and STATH and 2 housekeeping genes [i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and 18SrRNA], was developed. This assay was further validated with real casework samples and mock samples (with both single source and mixture and it was approved that XCYR1 is effective to identify common body fluids or tissues (i.e., circulatory blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood, oral mucosa, nasal secretion, sweat and urine in forensic casework samples.

  13. Pulsatile flow and heat transfer of a magneto-micropolar fluid through a stenosed artery under the influence of body acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Shit, G. C.; Roy, M.

    2012-01-01

    With an aim to investigate the effect of externally imposed body acceleration and magnetic field on pulsatile flow of blood through an arterial segment having stenosis is under consideration in this paper. The flow of blood is presented by a unsteady micropolar fluid and the heat transfer characteristics have been taken into account. The non-linear equations that governing the flow are solved numerically using finite difference technique by employing a suitable coordinate transformation. The ...

  14. On the existence of global strong solutions to the equations modeling a motion of a rigid body around a viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Wolf, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2016), s. 1539-1562. ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : incompressible fluid * motion of rigid body * strong solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.826, year: 2014 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=11589

  15. The effect of sodium silicate concentration on microstructure and corrosion properties of MAO-coated magnesium alloy AZ31 in simulated body fluid

    OpenAIRE

    B. Salami; Afshar, A.; Mazaheri, A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, magnesium and its alloys are considered as biodegradable implants. However magnesium implants may rapidly corrode before the natural healing process of the tissue is completed. In this investigation, micro arc oxidation process has been studied for avoiding primary corrosion of the magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid. Anodized coating was formed on AZ31 alloy in nontoxic silicate-alkaline solution at constant current. The effects of silicate concentration and conductivity...

  16. Earthquakes induced by fluid injection: Implications for secure CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, J.; Kendall, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    It is well understood that the injection of fluids into the subsurface can trigger seismic activity. Recently, the US unconventional gas boom has lead to an increase in the volumes of produced water being disposed in geological formations and a concomitant increase in triggered seismic events. This issue is especially pertinent for geologic carbon sequestration, where the injection volumes necessary to store the CO2 emissions from a typical coal-fired power station far exceed the volumes known to have triggered seismic activity. Moreover, unlike water disposal operations, where there is no strong buoyancy drive to return injected fluids to the surface, CO2 sequestration requires a sealing caprock to prevent upward CO2 migration. Induced seismic events may create or reactivate faults and fracture networks, compromising the hydraulic integrity of the caprock. Therefore, induced seismic activity at future CCS sites is of doubly significant, given both the direct seismic hazard and the risk to secure CO2 storage. With this in mind, we re-examine case histories of seismic activity induced by waste water disposal into sedimentary formations with the intention of learning lessons that can be applied to future CCS sites. In particular, we examine the spatial and temporal distributions of events to determine whether there are any rules-of-thumb that might be usefully applied when appraising and monitoring operations. We find that in all cases, at least some seismicity occurs at the depth of the injection interval, but the majority (~80% of events) occur at least 500m below the injection depth. Less than 2% of events occur more than 500m above the shallowest injection interval. This observation must be considered encouraging from a CCS perspective, where seismicity in sealing caprocks will be of greatest concern. However, without a phenomenological explanation for the relative lack of seismicity above injection depths, it cannot be guaranteed that such observations would be

  17. Comprehensive investigation of postmortem glucose levels in blood and body fluids with regard to the cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ikeda, Sayuko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The serum glucose level is regulated within a narrow range by multiple factors under physiological conditions, but is greatly modified in the death process and after death. The present study comprehensively investigated glucose levels in blood and body fluids, including pericardial fluid (PCF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vitreous humor, reviewing forensic autopsy cases (n=672). Right heart blood glucose level was often higher than at other sites, and the CSF glucose level was the lowest, showing greater dissociation in acute/subacute death cases. The glucose level was higher in the diabetic (high HbA1c) than in the non-diabetic (low HbA1c) group at each site (pdeath due to ischemic heart disease. Fatal methamphetamine (MA) abuse, sepsis, malnutrition (starvation) and hypoglycemia due to antidiabetics showed markedly lower blood glucose levels. Ketones in bilateral cardiac blood and PCF were increased in diabetic ketoacidosis and fatal alcohol abuse as well as in most cases of hyperthermia (heatstroke), hypothermia (cold exposure) and malnutrition. These findings suggest that combined analysis of glucose, HbA1c and ketones in blood and body fluids is useful to investigate not only fatal diabetic metabolic disorders but also death processes due to other causes, including alcohol and MA abuse, as well as thermal disorders, sepsis and malnutrition. PMID:26593993

  18. Rowing, the ultimate challenge to the human body - implications for physiological variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, S.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical diagnoses depend on a variety of physiological variables but the full range of these variables is seldom known. With the load placed on the human body during competitive rowing, the physiological range for several variables is illustrated. The extreme work produced during rowing is expla......Clinical diagnoses depend on a variety of physiological variables but the full range of these variables is seldom known. With the load placed on the human body during competitive rowing, the physiological range for several variables is illustrated. The extreme work produced during rowing...

  19. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zihlman, AL; Bolter, DR

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonob...

  20. Lemna minor tolerance to metal-working fluid residues: implications for rhizoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalbo, L; Becerril, J M; Barrutia, O; Gutierrez-Mañero, J; Lucas Garcia, J A

    2016-07-01

    For the first time in the literature, duckweed (Lemna minor) tolerance (alone or in combination with a consortium of bacteria) to spent metal-working fluid (MWF) was assessed, together with its capacity to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of this residue. In a preliminary study, L. minor response to pre-treated MWF residue (ptMWF) and vacuum-distilled MWF water (MWFw) was tested. Plants were able to grow in both residues at different COD levels tested (up to 2300 mg·l(-1) ), showing few toxicity symptoms (mainly growth inhibition). Plant response to MWFw was more regular and dose responsive than when exposed to ptMWF. Moreover, COD reduction was less significant in ptMWF. Thus, based on these preliminary results, a second study was conducted using MWFw to test the effectiveness of inoculation with a bacterial consortium isolated from a membrane bioreactor fed with the same residue. After 5 days of exposure, COD in solutions containing inoculated plants was significantly lower than in non-inoculated ones. Moreover, inoculation reduced β+γ-tocopherol levels in MWFw-exposed plants, suggesting pollutant imposed stress was reduced. We therefore conclude from that L. minor is highly tolerant to spent MWF residues and that this species can be very useful, together with the appropriate bacterial consortium, in reducing COD of this residue under local legislation limits and thus minimise its potential environmental impact. Interestingly, the lipophilic antioxidant tocopherol (especially the sum of β+γ isomers) proved to be an effective plant biomarker of pollution. PMID:27007194

  1. Cerebral spinal fluid dynamics: effect of hypoxia and implications for high-altitude illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Justin S; Levine, Benjamin D; Williams, Michael A; Malm, Jon; Eklund, Anders; Polaner, David M; Subudhi, Andrew W; Hackett, Peter H; Roach, Robert C

    2016-01-15

    The pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high-altitude cerebral edema, the cerebral forms of high-altitude illness, remain uncertain and controversial. Persistently elevated or pathological fluctuations in intracranial pressure are thought to cause symptoms similar to those reported by individuals suffering cerebral forms of high-altitude illness. This review first focuses on the basic physiology of the craniospinal system, including a detailed discussion of the long-term and dynamic regulation of intracranial pressure. Thereafter, we critically examine the available literature, based primarily on invasive pressure monitoring, that suggests intracranial pressure is acutely elevated at altitude due to brain swelling and/or elevated sagittal sinus pressure, but normalizes over time. We hypothesize that fluctuations in intracranial pressure occur around a slightly elevated or normal mean intracranial pressure, in conjunction with oscillations in arterial Po2 and arterial blood pressure. Then these modest fluctuations in intracranial pressure, in concert with direct vascular stretch due to dilatation and/or increased blood pressure transmission, activate the trigeminal vascular system and cause symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Elevated brain water (vasogenic edema) may be due to breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. However, new information suggests cerebral spinal fluid flux into the brain may be an important factor. Regardless of the source (or mechanisms responsible) for the excess brain water, brain swelling occurs, and a "tight fit" brain would be a major risk factor to produce symptoms; activities that produce large changes in brain volume and cause fluctuations in blood pressure are likely contributing factors. PMID:26494441

  2. Body cooling and its energetic implications for feeding and diving of tufted ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, JJ; Butler, PJ; Woakes, AJ; Zegwaard, F

    1998-01-01

    Wintering in a temperate climate with low water temperatures is energetically expensive for diving ducks. The energy costs associated with body cooling due to diving and ingesting large amounts of cold food were measured in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) feeding on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorph

  3. Endogenous and exogenous factors influencing the concentrations of adiponectin in body fluids and tissues in the bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Häußler, Susanne

    2016-07-01

    of the literature about the adiponectin protein in cattle addressing the following aspects: (1) the course of the adiponectin serum concentrations during development in both sexes, during inflammation, nutritional energy deficit and energy surplus, and lactation-induced changes including the response to supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and with niacin, (2) the concentrations of adiponectin in subcutaneous vs visceral fat depots of dairy cows, (3) the protein expression of adiponectin in tissues other than adipose, and (4) the concentrations in different body fluids including milk. PMID:27345322

  4. Fluid retention associated with imatinib treatment in patients with gastroenterol stromal: Quantitative radiologic assessment and implications for management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Shinagare, Atul B.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Ramaiya, Nikihil H. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Pyo, Jun Hee [The Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We aimed to describe radiologic signs and time-course of imatinib-associated fluid retention (FR) in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and its implications for management. In this Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study of 403 patients with GIST treated with imatinib, 15 patients with imaging findings of FR were identified by screening radiology reports, followed by manual confirmation. Subcutaneous edema, ascites, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion were graded on a four-point scale on CT scans; total score was the sum of these four scores. The most common radiologic sign of FR was subcutaneous edema (15/15, 100%), followed by ascites (12/15, 80%), pleural effusion (11/15, 73%), and pericardial effusion (6/15, 40%) at the time of maximum FR. Two distinct types of FR were observed: 1) acute/progressive FR, characterized by acute aggravation of FR and rapid improvement after management, 2) intermittent/steady FR, characterized by occasional or persistent mild FR. Acute/progressive FR always occurred early after drug initiation/dose escalation (median 1.9 month, range 0.3-4.0 months), while intermittent/steady FR occurred at any time. Compared to intermittent/steady FR, acute/progressive FR was severe (median score, 5 vs. 2.5, p = 0.002), and often required drug-cessation/dose-reduction. Two distinct types (acute/progressive and intermittent/steady FR) of imatinib-associated FR are observed and each type requires different management.

  5. Seafloor expressions of tectonic structures in Isfjorden, Svalbard: implications for fluid migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Srikumar; Noormets, Riko; Braathen, Alvar

    2014-05-01

    amplitude flat reflectors and high magnetic values have been interpreted as Cretaceous dolerite intrusions in Nordfjorden and central Isfjorden. In the eastern Isfjorden (eastern zone of WSFTB), a 10.5 km long N-S striking ridge in Billefjorden corresponds to the deep-seated Billefjorden Fault Zone, extending south across the mouth of Tempelfjorden where it is 8.5 km long. This composite ridge is bound by a steep east-dipping fault, placing competent Carboniferous and Permian carbonates at the seafloor. Overall, our study shows a distinct pattern of pockmarks concentrated along the identified ridges on the seafloor of Isfjorden. These ridges can be linked to fault-fold systems and dolerite intrusions in the bedrock, thereby suggesting various possible fluid migration pathways towards pockmarks: (i) along fracture networks associated with folds and intrusions, (ii) along décollement zones and faults acting as localized conduits, and (iii) directly from organic rich layers when exposed at the seafloor. Reference: Bergh, S. G., Braathen, A., and Andresen, A., 1997, Interaction of basement-involved and thin-skinned tectonism in the Tertiary fold-thrust belt of central Spitsbergen, Svalbard: AAPG Bulletin, v. 81, no. 4, p. 637-661.

  6. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in the human body: clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wang, G.-J.; Shumay, E.; Telang, F.; Thanos, P.; Alexoff, D.

    2010-12-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most toxic of the drugs of abuse, which may reflect its distribution and accumulation in the body. However no studies have measured methamphetamine's organ distribution in the human body. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used in conjunction with [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine to measure its whole-body distribution and bioavailability as assessed by peak uptake (% Dose/cc), rate of clearance (time to reach 50% peak-clearance) and accumulation (area under the curve) in healthy participants (9 Caucasians and 10 African Americans). Methamphetamine distributed through most organs. Highest uptake (whole organ) occurred in lungs (22% Dose; weight {approx}1246 g), liver (23%; weight {approx}1677 g) and intermediate in brain (10%; weight {approx}1600 g). Kidneys also showed high uptake (per/cc basis) (7%; weight 305 g). Methamphetamine's clearance was fastest in heart and lungs (7-16 minutes), slowest in brain, liver and stomach (>75 minutes), and intermediate in kidneys, spleen and pancreas (22-50 minutes). Lung accumulation of [{sup 11}C]d-methamphetamine was 30% higher for African Americans than Caucasians (p < 0.05) but did not differ in other organs. The high accumulation of methamphetamine, a potent stimulant drug, in most body organs is likely to contribute to the medical complications associated with methamphetamine abuse. In particular, we speculate that methamphetamine's high pulmonary uptake could render this organ vulnerable to infections (tuberculosis) and pathology (pulmonary hypertension). Our preliminary findings of a higher lung accumulation of methamphetamine in African Americans than Caucasians merits further investigation and questions whether it could contribute to the infrequent use of methamphetamine among African Americans.

  7. Distribution and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine in the human body: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methamphetamine is one of the most toxic of the drugs of abuse, which may reflect its distribution and accumulation in the body. However no studies have measured methamphetamine's organ distribution in the human body. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used in conjunction with (11C)d-methamphetamine to measure its whole-body distribution and bioavailability as assessed by peak uptake (% Dose/cc), rate of clearance (time to reach 50% peak-clearance) and accumulation (area under the curve) in healthy participants (9 Caucasians and 10 African Americans). Methamphetamine distributed through most organs. Highest uptake (whole organ) occurred in lungs (22% Dose; weight ∼1246 g), liver (23%; weight ∼1677 g) and intermediate in brain (10%; weight ∼1600 g). Kidneys also showed high uptake (per/cc basis) (7%; weight 305 g). Methamphetamine's clearance was fastest in heart and lungs (7-16 minutes), slowest in brain, liver and stomach (>75 minutes), and intermediate in kidneys, spleen and pancreas (22-50 minutes). Lung accumulation of (11C)d-methamphetamine was 30% higher for African Americans than Caucasians (p < 0.05) but did not differ in other organs. The high accumulation of methamphetamine, a potent stimulant drug, in most body organs is likely to contribute to the medical complications associated with methamphetamine abuse. In particular, we speculate that methamphetamine's high pulmonary uptake could render this organ vulnerable to infections (tuberculosis) and pathology (pulmonary hypertension). Our preliminary findings of a higher lung accumulation of methamphetamine in African Americans than Caucasians merits further investigation and questions whether it could contribute to the infrequent use of methamphetamine among African Americans.

  8. Association of Body Mass and Brain Activation during Gastric Distention: Implications for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Backus, Walter; Geliebter, Allan; Telang, Frank; Jayne, Millar C.; Wong, Christopher; Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gastric distention (GD), as it occurs during meal ingestion, signals a full stomach and it is one of the key mechanisms controlling food intake. Previous studies on GD showed lower activation of the amygdala for subjects with higher body mass index (BMI). Since obese subjects have dopaminergic deficits that correlate negatively with BMI and the amygdala is innervated by dopamine neurons, we hypothesized that BMI would correlate negatively with activation not just in the amygdala bu...

  9. The health and cost implications of high body mass index in Australian defence force personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peake Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent illness and injury among workers with high body mass index (BMI can raise the costs of employee healthcare and reduce workforce maintenance and productivity. These issues are particularly important in vocational settings such as the military, which require good physical health, regular attendance and teamwork to operate efficiently. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage and administrative outcomes among Australian Defence Force personnel with varying BMI. Methods Personnel were grouped into cohorts according to the following ranges for (BMI: normal (18.5 − 24.9 kg/m2; n = 197, overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2; n = 154 and obese (≥30 kg/m2 with restricted body fat (≤28% for females, ≤24% for males (n = 148 and with no restriction on body fat (n = 180. Medical records for each individual were audited retrospectively to record the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage (i.e., consultation with medical specialists, hospital stays, medical investigations, prescriptions and administrative outcomes (e.g., discharge from service over one year. These data were then grouped and compared between the cohorts. Results The prevalence of injury and illness, cost of medical specialist consultations and cost of medical scans were all higher (p  Conclusions High BMI in the military increases healthcare usage, but does not disrupt workforce maintenance. The greater prevalence of injury and illness, greater healthcare usage and lower productivity in obese Australian Defence Force personnel is not related to higher levels of body fat.

  10. Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Lewy Body Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Koichi Hirata; Masaoki Iwanami; Masayuki Miyamoto; Tomoyuki Miyamoto

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Both results of the odor identification and cardiac 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine accumulation have been investigated for their potential to enhance the detection of pathogenesis resembling that of Lewy body-related α -synucleinopathies in patients clinically diagnosed as having idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Methods. We performed both the Odor Stick Identification Test for Japanese and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in 30 patients with idiopathic REM sleep beha...

  11. Do Participant, Facilitator, or Group Factors Moderate Effectiveness of the Body Project? Implications for Dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Butryn, Meghan L.; Rohde, Paul; Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Body Project is a dissonance-based a selective eating disorder prevention program with a broad evidence-base. The study sought to determine if previous findings regarding participant moderators replicate in an effectiveness trial under more real-world conditions. This study also had the novel aim of examining facilitator characteristics and group-level variables as potential outcome predictors. These aims are critical for understanding when the intervention is most effective and for whom....

  12. Petrology and mineralogy of CK chondrites: Implications for the metamorphism of the CK chondrite parent body

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki, Noguchi

    1993-01-01

    The petrology and mineralogy of four CK chondrites, Karoonda (CK4), Maralinga (CK4), Yamato(Y)-693(CK4), and Elephant Moraine (EET) 87507 (CK5) were investigated in detail to estimate the origin of their quite heterogeneous plagioclases and the metamorphic history of CK chondrite parent body. EPMA analyses and SEM observations revealed that plagioclases in chondrules, CAIs, and matrices in CK chondrites have different compositional variations and that plagioclases in matrices display distinct...

  13. Lipid Bodies: Inflammatory Organelles Implicated in Host-Trypanosoma cruzi Interplay during Innate Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa D'Avila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flagellated protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi is the causal agent of Chagas' disease, a significant public health issue and still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. Acute Chagas' disease elicits a strong inflammatory response. In order to control the parasite multiplication, cells of the monocytic lineage are highly mobilized. Monocyte differentiation leads to the formation of phagocytosing macrophages, which are strongly activated and direct host defense. A distinguishing feature of Chagas' disease-triggered macrophages is the presence of increased numbers of distinct cytoplasmic organelles termed lipid bodies or lipid droplets. These organelles are actively formed in response to the parasite and are sites for synthesis and storage of inflammatory mediators. This review covers current knowledge on lipid bodies elicited by the acute Chagas' disease within inflammatory macrophages and discusses the role of these organelles in inflammation. The increased knowledge of lipid bodies in pathogenic mechanisms of infections may not only contribute to the understanding of pathogen-host interactions but may also identify new targets for intervention.

  14. Fatty acids and small organic compounds bind to mineralo-organic nanoparticles derived from human body fluids as revealed by metabolomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Young, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a ``protein corona'' that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an ``organic corona'' containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body.Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a ``protein corona'' that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an ``organic corona'' containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See

  15. Do superconductors violate Lenz's law? Body rotation under field cooling and theoretical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a magnetic field is turned on, a superconducting body acquires an angular momentum in direction opposite to the applied field. This gyromagnetic effect has been established experimentally and is understood theoretically. However, the corresponding situation when a superconductor is cooled in a pre-existent field has not been examined. We argue that the conventional theory of superconductivity does not provide a prediction for the outcome of that experiment that does not violate fundamental laws of physics, either Lenz's law or conservation of angular momentum. The theory of hole superconductivity predicts an outcome of this experiment consistent with the laws of physics

  16. Geology and photometric variation of solar system bodies with minor atmospheres: implications for solid exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yuka; Kimura, Jun; Dohm, James; Ohtake, Makiko

    2014-09-01

    A reasonable basis for future astronomical investigations of exoplanets lies in our best knowledge of the planets and satellites in the Solar System. Solar System bodies exhibit a wide variety of surface environments, even including potential habitable conditions beyond Earth, and it is essential to know how they can be characterized from outside the Solar System. In this study, we provide an overview of geological features of major Solar System solid bodies with minor atmospheres (i.e., the terrestrial Moon, Mercury, the Galilean moons, and Mars) that affect surface albedo at local to global scale, and we survey how they influence point-source photometry in the UV/visible/near IR (i.e., the reflection-dominant range). We simulate them based on recent mapping products and also compile observed light curves where available. We show a 5-50% peak-to-trough variation amplitude in one spin rotation associated with various geological processes including heterogeneous surface compositions due to igneous activities, interaction with surrounding energetic particles, and distribution of grained materials. Some indications of these processes are provided by the amplitude and wavelength dependence of variation in combinations of the time-averaged spectra. We also estimate the photometric precision needed to detect their spin rotation rates through periodogram analysis. Our survey illustrates realistic possibilities for inferring the detailed properties of solid exoplanets with future direct imaging observations. Key Words: Planetary environments-Planetary geology-Solar System-Extrasolar terrestrial planets. PMID:25238324

  17. Karyomapping identifies second polar body DNA persisting to the blastocyst stage: implications for embryo biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottolini, Christian S; Rogers, Shaun; Sage, Karen; Summers, Michael C; Capalbo, Antonio; Griffin, Darren K; Sarasa, Jonas; Wells, Dagan; Handyside, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Blastocyst biopsy is now widely used for both preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Although this approach yields good results, variable embryo quality and rates of development remain a challenge. Here, a case is reported in which a blastocyst was biopsied for PGS by array comparative genomic hybridization on day 6 after insemination, having hatched completely. In addition to a small trophectoderm sample, excluded cell fragments from the subzonal space from this embryo were also sampled. Unexpectedly, the array comparative genomic hybridization results from the fragments and trophectoderm sample were non-concordant: 47,XX,+19 and 46,XY, respectively. DNA fingerprinting by short tandem repeat and amelogenin analysis confirmed the sex chromosome difference but seemed to show that the two samples were related but non-identical. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and karyomapping identified that the origin of the DNA amplified from the fragments was that of the second polar body corresponding to the oocyte from which the biopsied embryo developed. The fact that polar body DNA can persist to the blastocyst stage provides evidence that excluded cell fragments should not be used for diagnostic purposes and should be avoided when performing embryo biopsies as there is a risk of diagnostic errors. PMID:26380865

  18. Analysis of Moderately Siderophile Elements in Angrites: Implications for Core Formation of the Angrite Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Shirai, N.; Irving, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Angrites are an enigmatic group of achondrites, that constitute the largest group of basalts not affiliated with the Moon, Mars or Vesta (HEDs). Chemically, angrites are exceptionally refractory element- enriched (e.g., Al, Ca) and volatile element-depleted (e.g., Na and K) achondrites. Highly volatile siderophile and chalcophile elements (Zn, Ge and Se) may be less depleted than alkalis and Ga taken to imply a fractionation of plagiophile elements. Core formation on the angrite parent body (APB) is not well understood due to the dearth of moderately siderophile element (Ga, Ge, Mo, Sb, W) data for angrites, with the exception of Ni and Co [2]. In particular, there are no data for Mo abundances of angrites, while Sb and W abundances are reported for only 3 angrites, and have not always been determined on the same sample. The recent increase in angrite numbers (13) has greatly increased our knowledge of the compositional diversity of the angrite parent body (APB). In this study, we report new Co, Ni, Ga, Mo, Sb and W abundances for angrites by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in order to place constraints on core formation of the APB.

  19. Geology and Photometric Variation of Solar System Bodies with Minor Atmospheres: Implications for Solid Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Yuka; Dohm, James; Ohtake, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    A reasonable basis for future astronomical investigations of exoplanets lies in our best knowledge of the planets and satellites in the Solar System. Solar System bodies exhibit a wide variety of surface environments, even including potential habitable conditions beyond Earth, and it is essential to know how they can be characterized from outside the Solar System. In this study, we provide an overview of geological features of major Solar System solid bodies with minor atmospheres (i.e., the Terrestrial Moon, Mercury, the Galilean moons, and Mars) that affect surface albedo at local to global scale, and we survey how they influence point-source photometry in UV, visible, and near IR (i.e., the reflection-dominant range). We simulate them based on recent mapping products and also compile observed light curves where available. We show a 5-50% peak-to-trough variation amplitude in one spin rotation associated with various geological processes including heterogeneous surface compositions due to igneous activities...

  20. Fluid inclusions and biomarkers in the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district; implications for the fluid-flow and thermal history of the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E. Lanier; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1996-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district is hosted by Ordovician carbonate rocks at the northern margin of the Illinois Basin. Fluid inclusion temperature measurements on Early Permian sphalerite ore from the district are predominantly between 90?C and I50?C. These temperatures are greater than can be explained by their reconstructed burial depth, which was a maximum of approximately 1 km at the time of mineralization. In contrast to the temperatures of mineral formation derived from fluid inclusions, biomarker maturities in the Upper Mississippi Valley district give an estimate of total thermal exposure integrated over time. Temperatures from fluid inclusions trapped during ore genesis with biomarker maturities were combined to construct an estimate of the district's overall thermal history and, by inference, the late Paleozoic thermal and hydrologic history of the Illinois Basin. Circulation of groundwater through regional aquifers, given sufficient flow rates, can redistribute heat from deep in a sedimentary basin to its shallower margins. Evidence for regional-scale circulation of fluids is provided by paleomagnetic studies, regionally correlated zoned dolomite, fluid inclusions, and thermal maturity of organic matter. Evidence for igneous acti vity contemporaneous with mineralization in the vicinity of the Upper Mississippi Valley district is absent. Regional fluid and heat circulation is the most likely explanation for the elevated fluid inclusion temperatures (relative to maximum estimated burial depth) in the Upper Mississippi Valley district. One plausible driving mechanism and flow path for the ore-forming fluids is groundwater recharge in the late Paleozoic Appalachian-Ouachita mountain belt and northward flow through the Reelfoot rift and the proto- Illinois Basin to the Upper Mississippi Valley district. Warm fluid flowing laterally through Cambrian and Ordovician aquifers would then move vertically upward through the fractures that control

  1. Tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys in simulated body fluid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taekyung; Mathew, Eshaan; Rajaraman, Santhosh; Manivasagam, Geetha; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Lee, Chong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Development of submicrocrystalline structure in biomedical alloy such as Ti-13Nb-13Zr (in wt%) through warm-rolling process has been found to enhance mechanical properties compared to conventional thermomechanical processing routes including hot-rolling process. The present study investigated the tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-rolled (WR) and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys which have not been studied to date. Both tribological and corrosion experiments were carried out in simulated body fluid conditions (Hank's solution at 37°C) based on the fact that the investigated alloys would be used in a human body as orthopedic implants. The WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr demonstrated a submicrocrystalline structure that provided a significant enhancement in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, there was no notable difference in wear resistance between the WR and hot-rolled samples despite the different microstructure and hardness. The present study confirmed the enormous potential of WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr with not only great mechanical properties but also high corrosion resistance in the simulated body fluid. PMID:26491322

  2. Interaction Design for and with the Lived Body: Some Implications of Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanæs, Dag

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, Paul Dourish proposed the term embodied interaction to describe a new paradigm for interaction design that focuses on the physical, bodily, and social aspects of our interaction with digital technology. Dourish used Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of perception as the theoretical basis for...... his discussion of the bodily nature of embodied interaction. This article extends Dourish’s work to introduce the human-computer interaction community to ideas related to Merleau-Ponty’s concept of the lived body. It also provides a detailed analysis of two related topics: (1) embodied perception: the...... active and embodied nature of perception, including the body’s ability to extent its sensory apparatus through digital technology; and (2) kinaesthetic creativity: the body’s ability to relate in a direct and creative fashion with the “feel” dimension of interactive products during the design process....

  3. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and un wellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits including better sleep and reduced pain from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance

  4. The $\\rho$-Geminid meteoroid stream: orbits, spectroscopic data and implications for its parent body

    CERN Document Server

    Madiedo, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    By using an array of high-sensitivity CCD video devices and spectrographs, the activity of meteor events from the poorly-known $\\rho$-Geminid meteoroid stream has been monitored during January 2012 and 2013. As a result of this research, the atmospheric trajectory and radiant position of 10 of these events has been obtained, but also the orbital parameters of the progenitor meteoroids and the tensile strength of these particles. The data reveal that the progenitor of this stream must be a comet. In addition, the emission spectra produced by three $\\rho$-Geminid meteors were also recorded. These are the first $\\rho$-Geminid spectra discussed in the scientific literature, and have provided clues about the chemical nature of these meteoroids and their parent body.

  5. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétan Chevalier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance.

  6. General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies, new weak-field effects and the post-newtonian expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Mach, Patryk; Pirog, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Recent general-relativistic extensions of Newtonian rotation laws for self-gravitating stationary fluids allow one to rederive, in the first post-Newtonian approximation, the well known geometric dragging of frames, and two new weak-field effects within rotating tori. These are the recently discovered anti-dragging and a new effect that measures the deviation from the Keplerian motion and/or the contribution of the fluids selfgravity. They can be applied to the study of the existence of the (post-)Newtonian limits of solutions and in investigations of inequalities relating parameters of rotating black holes.

  7. Point vortex dynamics as zero-radius limit of the motion of a rigid body in an irrotational fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Olivier; Munnier, Alexandre; Sueur, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The vortex point system is usually considered as an idealized model where thevorticity of an ideal incompressible two-dimensional fluid is concentrated in afinite number of moving points. In the case of a single vortex in an otherwise irrotational ideal fluid occupying a bounded and simply-connected two-dimensional domain the motion is given by the so-called Kirchhoff-Routh velocity which depends only on the domain.The main result of this paper establishes that this dynamics canalso be obtain...

  8. Bone mineral density, body mass index and cigarette smoking among Iranian women: implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Nguyen D

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While risk factors of osteoporosis in Western populations have been extensively documented, such a profile has not been well studied in Caucasians of non-European origin. This study was designed to estimate the modifiable distribution and determinants of bone mineral density (BMD among Iranian women in Australia. Methods Ninety women aged 35 years and older completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN using DXA (GE Lunar, WI, USA, and was expressed in g/cm2 as well as T-score. Results In multiple regression analysis, advancing age, lower body mass index (BMI, and smoking were independently associated with LS and FN BMD, with the 3 factors collectively accounting for 30% and 38% variance of LS and FN BMD, respectively. LS and FN BMD in smokers was 8% lower than that in non-smokers. Further analysis of interaction between BMI and smoking revealed that the effect of smoking was only observed in the obese group (p = 0.029 for LSBMD and p = 0.007 for FNBMD, but not in the overweight and normal groups. Using T-scores from two bone sites the prevalence of osteoporosis (T-scores ≤ -2.5 was 3.8% and 26.3% in pre-and post-menopausal women, respectively. Among current smokers, the prevalence was higher (31.3% than that among ex-smokers (28.6% and non-smokers (7.5%. Conclusion These data, for the first time, indicate that apart from advancing age and lower body mass index, cigarette smoking is an important modifiable determinant of bone mineral density in these Caucasians of non-European origin.

  9. Clinical implications of sulcal enhancement on postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images in patients with acute stroke symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) without diffusion abnormalities is occasionally found in patients with an acute stroke. This study was to determine the prevalence and clinical implications of HARM without diffusion abnormalities. There was a retrospective review of magnetic resonance images 578 patients with acute strokes and identified those who did not have acute infarction lesions, as mapped by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). These patients were classified into an imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups, based on the DWI findings and postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission, 1 day, and 7 days after the event, as well as clinical data and risk factors, were compared between the imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups. Seventy-seven acute stroke patients without any DWI abnormalities were found. There were 63 patients with an imaging-negative stroke (accounting for 10.9% of 578) and 13 patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities (accounting for 2.4% of 578). The NIHSS scores at admission were higher in HARM without diffusion abnormalities group than in the imaging-negative stroke group (median, 4.5 vs. 1.0; p < 0.001), but the scores at 7 days after the event were not significantly different between the two groups (median, 0 vs. 0; p = 1). The patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities were significantly older, compared with patients with an imaging-negative stroke (mean, 73.1 years vs. 55.9 years; p < 0.001). Patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities are older and have similarly favorable short-term neurological outcomes, compared with the patients with imaging-negative stroke

  10. Clinical implications of sulcal enhancement on postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images in patients with acute stroke symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyuk Joon; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byoung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) without diffusion abnormalities is occasionally found in patients with an acute stroke. This study was to determine the prevalence and clinical implications of HARM without diffusion abnormalities. There was a retrospective review of magnetic resonance images 578 patients with acute strokes and identified those who did not have acute infarction lesions, as mapped by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). These patients were classified into an imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups, based on the DWI findings and postcontrast fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission, 1 day, and 7 days after the event, as well as clinical data and risk factors, were compared between the imaging-negative stroke and HARM without diffusion abnormalities groups. Seventy-seven acute stroke patients without any DWI abnormalities were found. There were 63 patients with an imaging-negative stroke (accounting for 10.9% of 578) and 13 patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities (accounting for 2.4% of 578). The NIHSS scores at admission were higher in HARM without diffusion abnormalities group than in the imaging-negative stroke group (median, 4.5 vs. 1.0; p < 0.001), but the scores at 7 days after the event were not significantly different between the two groups (median, 0 vs. 0; p = 1). The patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities were significantly older, compared with patients with an imaging-negative stroke (mean, 73.1 years vs. 55.9 years; p < 0.001). Patients with HARM without diffusion abnormalities are older and have similarly favorable short-term neurological outcomes, compared with the patients with imaging-negative stroke.

  11. Pulsatile flow and heat transfer of a magneto-micropolar fluid through a stenosed artery under the influence of body acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Shit, G C

    2012-01-01

    With an aim to investigate the effect of externally imposed body acceleration and magnetic field on pulsatile flow of blood through an arterial segment having stenosis is under consideration in this paper. The flow of blood is presented by a unsteady micropolar fluid and the heat transfer characteristics have been taken into account. The non-linear equations that governing the flow are solved numerically using finite difference technique by employing a suitable coordinate transformation. The numerical results have been observed for axial and microrotation component of velocity, fluid acceleration, wall shear stress(WSS), flow resistance, temperature and the volumetric flow rate. It thus turns out that the rate of heat transfer increases with the increase of Hartmann number $H$, while the wall shear stress has a reducing effect on the Hartmann number $H$ and an enhancing effect on microrotation parameter $K$ as well as the constriction height $\\delta$.

  12. Corrosion behavior of Mg-3Zn/bioglass (45S5) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.; Idris, M. S.; Osman, R. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium has emerged as promising materials in biomaterials research due to its good mechanical and physical properties closer to human bones. However, magnesium has poor corrosion resistance to chloride ions that exist in human blood plasma thus preventing its application in biomedical. The addition of zinc and bioglass can reduce magnesium corrosion rate. In this work, the effect of different solution media (Simulated Body Fluid and Phosphate Buffered Saline) to the corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn/bioglass (45S5) composites was investigated. The composites of Mg-3Zn added with 5, 10, 15, 20, 15 and 30 wt. % bioglass were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The composites were prepared by mixing at 140 rpm for 1 hour, pressing at 500 MPa and sintering in an argon environment at a temperature of 450°C for 3 hours. Sintered samples were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) and Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) in order to investigate the corrosion behavior. Samples mass loss was determined after 3 days of immersion. Samples microstructure and corrosion products were analyzed using optical microscope and x-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The results revealed that the samples immersed in the Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) shows lower mass loss compare to the samples immersed in the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for all composition except for Mg-3Zn without bio-glass. The results indicated that the existence of high phosphate ions in PBS has retarded the corrosion rate of composite Mg-3Zn/45S5. The pH value of the PBS solution after immersion showed significant increase between 10.3 and 11.09. Diffraction pattern (XRD) showed the presence of Mg(OH)2 as the major corrosion product for samples immersed in the SBF and PBS solutions. The mass loss of samples decreased with the addition of bio-glass.

  13. The epinet data of four Indian hospitals on incidence of exposure of healthcare workers to blood and body fluid: A multicentric prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Chakravarthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Sharps injury (SI and blood and body fluid exposure are occupational hazards to healthcare workers (HCWs. Although data from the developed countries have shown the enormity of the problem, data from developing countries, such as India, arelacking. Purpose : The purpose of this study was to cumulate data from fourmajor hospitals in India and analyze the incidence of SI and blood and body fluid exposure in HCWs. Materials and Methods : Four Indian hospitals (hospital A, B, C and D from major cities of India participated in this multicentric study. Data ranging from 6 to 26 months were collected from these hospitals using Exposure Prevention Information network (EPINet which is the database created by International Healthcare Worker Safety Research and Resource Center, University of Virginia. Results : Two hundred and forty-three sharp injuries and 22 incidents of blood or body fluid exposure were encountered in the cumulated 50 months of our study. The incidence of SIswas thehighestamong nurses (55% of allthe HCWs, akin to the global data. An injury rate of nearly 20% among housekeeping staff seems to be specific to the Indian data. Patient′s room followed by operation theater appeared to be common locations of injury in our study. The source of the injury was identified in majority (64% of the injuries. A major part of the group was not the primary users of the sharp (38%. Disposable needles caused nearly half of the injuries. Suture needles contributed to a reasonable number of injuries in one of the hospitals. Conclusions : The incidence of SI is the highest among nurses and the housekeeping staff (>30% each. A substantial number of injuries are avoidable.

  14. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Volatile Trace Elements in H Chondrites: Implications for Parent Body Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S. F.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1993-07-01

    The perception among meteoriticists is that contents of the volatile trace elements systematically decrease with shock and particularly petrologic type. This perception affects views that investigators have of the early history and structure of the H chondrite parent body. Measurement of a variety of volatile trace elements in a statistically significant number of samples accompanied by chemometric data analysis techniques developed for interpretation of trace- element data [1] should maximize the amount of genetic information available from the volatile trace elements and offer clues to the early thermal history of the H chondrite parent body. Volatile trace-element data exist for 58 H chondrite falls: the complete dataset includes Co, Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, and In (listed in increasing order of volatility) [2,3]. This dataset includes 13 H4, 32 H5, and 13 H6 chondrites, which cover the full range of shock facies from a through f. To examine the effect that shock has on volatile trace-element concentrations in H4-6 chondrites, we have compared data for the least-shocked samples (shock facies a-b) with the most shocked samples (shock facies c-f) using both univariate (Student's t-test) and multivariate techniques (linear discriminant analysis). The results demonstrate no reason to doubt the null hypothesis of no difference in volatile trace-element composition between shocked and unshocked H4-6 chondrites at any reasonable significance level. This situation contrasts sharply with the strong difference found between shocked and unshocked L chondrites [4]. The role of shock in establishing volatile trace- element contents in H and L chondrites clearly differs. Univariate comparisons between H4, H5, and H6 chondrites demonstrate that only Cs varies significantly with petrologic type (prob. > F 0.0006) with concentration decreasing monotonically with increasing petrographic type. Box- and-whisker plots of volatile trace-element contents reveal a general

  15. PORE-SCALE SIMULATION OF FLUID FLOW IN PACKED-BED REACTORS VIA RIGID-BODY SIMULATIONS AND CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Icardi, Matteo; Marchisio, Daniele,; Boccardo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The problem of fluid flow in porous media is of paramount importance in the process, oil and metallurgical industries, since it is involved in the extraction of minerals and oil, in aquifer dynamics, as well as chemical reactions carried out in fixed bed catalytic reactors. Its CFD simulation is particularly interesting, as it offers the possibility of reducing the extent of costly experimental investigations, but presents a number of technical challenges. One of the main issues is the genera...

  16. Patterns of epidural progression following postoperative spine stereotactic body radiotherapy: implications for clinical target volume delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michael W; Thibault, Isabelle; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Yu, Eugene; John Cho, B C; Letourneau, Daniel; Lee, Young; Yee, Albert; Fehlings, Michael G; Sahgal, Arjun

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT The authors performed a pattern-of-failure analysis, with a focus on epidural disease progression, in patients treated with postoperative spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). METHODS Of the 70 patients with 75 spinal metastases (cases) treated with postoperative spine SBRT, there were 26 cases of local disease recurrence and 25 cases with a component of epidural disease progression. Twenty-four of the 25 cases had preoperative epidural disease with subsequent epidural disease progression, and this cohort was the focus of this epidural-specific pattern-of-failure investigation. Preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up MRI scans were reviewed, and epidural disease was characterized based on location according to a system in which the vertebral anatomy is divided into 6 sectors, with the anterior compartment comprising Sectors 1, 2, and 6, and the posterior compartment comprising Sectors 3, 4, and 5. RESULTS Patterns of epidural progression are reported specifically for the 24 cases with preoperative epidural disease and subsequent epidural progression. Epidural disease progression within the posterior compartment was observed to be significantly lower in those with preoperative epidural disease confined to the anterior compartment than in those with preoperative epidural disease involving both anterior and posterior compartments (56% vs 93%, respectively; p = 0.047). In a high proportion of patients with epidural disease progression, treatment failure was found in the anterior compartment, including both those with preoperative epidural disease confined to the anterior compartment and those with preoperative epidural disease involving both anterior and posterior compartments (100% vs. 73%, respectively). When epidural disease was confined to the anterior compartment on the preoperative and postoperative MRIs, no epidural disease progression was observed in Sector 4, which is the most posterior sector. Postoperative epidural disease characteristics

  17. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A.; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  18. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  19. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Villa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously.

  20. Stable isotope systematics and fluid inclusion studies in the Cu-Au Visconde deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: implications for fluid source generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Silva, Antonia Railine; Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre; Lafon, Jean-Michel; Craveiro, Gustavo Souza; Ferreira, Valderez Pinto

    2015-06-01

    The Cu-Au Visconde deposit is located in the Carajás Mineral Province (CMP), northern Brazil, near the contact between the ca. 2.76 Ga metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Itacaiunas Supergroup rocks and the ~3.0 Ga granitic-gneissic basement. It is hosted by mylonitized Archean rocks, mainly metadacites, the Serra Dourada granite, and gabbros/diorites, which have been successively altered by sodic, sodic-calcic-magnesian, potassic, and calcic-magnesian hydrothermal processes, producing diverse mineralogical associations (albite-scapolite; albite-actinolite-scapolite-epidote; K-feldspar-biotite; chlorite-actinolite-epidote-calcite, etc.). Chalcopyrite is the dominant ore mineral and occurs principally in breccias and veins/veinlets. The aqueous fluids responsible for the alteration/mineralization were initially hot (>460 °C) and very saline (up to 58 wt.% equivalent (equiv.) NaCl), but as the system evolved, they experienced successive dilution processes. Mineral oxygen and hydrogen isotope data show that 18O-rich ( to +9.4 ‰) fluids prevailed in the earlier alteration (including magnetitites) and reached temperatures as high as 410-355 °C. Metamorphic/formation waters, most likely derived from the Carajás Basin rocks, appear to have contributed a major component to the fluid composition, although some magmatic input cannot be discounted. In turn, the later alterations and the mineralization involved cooler (<230 °C), 18O-depleted ( to +3.7 ‰) and less saline (7-30 wt.% equiv. NaCl) fluids, indicating the influx of meteoric water. Fluid dilution and cooling might have caused abundant precipitation of sulfides, especially as breccia cement. Ore δ 34 S values (+0.5 to +3.4 ‰) suggest a magmatic source for sulfur (from sulfide dissolution in pre-existing igneous rocks). The chalcopyrite Pb-Pb ages (2.73 ± 0.15 and 2.74 ± 0.10 Ga) indicate that the Visconde mineralization is Neoarchean, rather than Paleoproterozoic as previously considered. If so, the

  1. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Gao, Ming; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Rongbo; Wang, Wenwei; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Xuedong

    2015-03-15

    Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on central composite design. Optimal conditions consisted of 945μL acetone extraction solvent, pH 2.1, 4.1min stir time, 5.9g Na2SO4, and 4.0min centrifugation. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (at S/N=3) were 0.12-0.66μgL(-1), the linear range was 0.5-500μgL(-1) and recoveries were 92.6-110.9% for the five FQs extracted from plasma and urine. The proposed method has several advantages, such as easy construction from inexpensive materials, high extraction efficiency, short extraction time, and compatibility with HPLC analysis. Thus, this method shows excellent prospects for sample pretreatment and analysis of FQs in human body fluids. PMID:25660716

  2. Effects of zirconium and nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Mg–Y–RE alloy in simulated body fluid and cell culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dual Zr and N plasma ion implantation are conducted on WE43Mg alloy. • Zr and N implanted WE43 (ZrN-WE43) enhanced corrosion resistance in cell culture medium. • ZrN-WE43 enhanced corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid (SBF). • ZrN-WE43 shows near capacitive impedance spectra in cell culture medium. • Calcium phosphate is formed on the corrosion product. - Abstract: The effects of dual Zr and N plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) on the corrosion behavior of WE43Mg alloy are evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and cell culture medium (cDMEM). Zr and N PIII improves the corrosion resistance of WE43 which exhibits smaller icorr, larger R1 and R2, smaller CPE2, and larger phase angle maxima in SBF and cDMEM. The Zr and N PIII WE43 samples exhibit 12-folds decrease in icorr in SBF and 71-folds decrease in icorr with near capacitive EIS in cDMEM. Analysis of the corrosion products reveals calcium phosphate

  3. Identification of autoantigens in body fluids by combining pull-downs and organic precipitations of intact immune complexes with quantitative label-free mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merl, Juliane; Deeg, Cornelia A; Swadzba, Margarete E; Ueffing, Marius; Hauck, Stefanie M

    2013-12-01

    Most autoimmune diseases are multifactorial diseases and are caused by the immunological reaction against a number of autoantigens. Key for understanding autoimmune pathologies is the knowledge of the targeted autoantigens, both initially and during disease progression. We present an approach for autoantigen identification based on isolation of intact autoantibody-antigen complexes from body fluids. After organic precipitation of high molecular weight proteins and free immunoglobulins, released autoantigens were identified by quantitative label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We confirmed feasibility of target enrichment and identification from highly complex body fluid proteomes by spiking of a predefined antibody-antigen complex at low level of abundance. As a proof of principle, we studied the blinding disease autoimmune uveitis, which is caused by autoreactive T-cells attacking the inner eye and is accompanied by autoantibodies. We identified three novel autoantigens in the spontaneous animal model equine recurrent uveitis (secreted acidic phosphoprotein osteopontin, extracellular matrix protein 1, and metalloproteinase inhibitor 2) and confirmed the presence of the corresponding autoantibodies in 15-25% of patient samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thus, this workflow led to the identification of novel autoantigens in autoimmune uveitis and may provide a versatile and useful tool to identify autoantigens in other autoimmune diseases in the future. PMID:24059262

  4. Evaluation of a blood-specific DNA methylated region and trial for allele-specific blood identification from mixed body fluid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Akutsu, Tomoko; Takamura, Ayari; Sakurada, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    The identification of blood samples obtained from crime scenes has been an important step in forensic investigation. Recently, a novel approach using the blood-specific methylated CpG site cg06379435 has been reported. In this study, we developed a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction-based method that can simply and rapidly quantitate the methylation ratio of cg06379435 and its neighboring CpGs and set the threshold ratios for blood identification by analyzing various body fluid samples. Blood identification using the thresholds was successfully performed in the analysis of a small amount (1ng) of DNA from blood and various aged blood samples, including 29-year-old stains. We also demonstrated a test for allele-specific blood identification from a mixed DNA sample by bisulfite sequencing analysis of these CpG sites and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphism, rs7359943 (A/G), which is of relevance in cases where mixed samples are obtained from crime scenes. The stability of DNA methylation in aged samples and the usefulness of neighboring genetic information shown in this study suggest that DNA-methylation-based body fluid identification will play a major role in future forensic investigations. PMID:27591539

  5. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on wear and corrosion behavior of the orthopedic Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Geetha, M., E-mail: geethamanivasagam@vit.ac.in [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India); Richard, C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Rheologie EA 2640, Polytech' Tours, 37000 Tours (France); Landoulsi, J. [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, UMR 7197 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie - Paris VI, 4 Place Jussieu, Case 178, F-75252 Paris (France); Ramasawmy, H. [University of Mauritius, Faculty of Engineering, Reduit (Mauritius); Suwas, S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Asokamani, R. [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-05-01

    We report investigations on the texture, corrosion and wear behavior of ultra-fine grained (UFG) Ti-13Nb-Zr alloy, processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) technique, for biomedical applications. The microstructure obtained was characterized by X-ray line profile analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). We focus on the corrosion resistance and the fretting behavior, the main considerations for such biomaterials, in simulated body fluid. To this end, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the UFG alloy in Hanks solution at 37 Degree-Sign C. The fretting wear behavior was carried out against bearing steel in the same conditions. The roughness of the samples was also measured to examine the effect of topography on the wear behavior of the samples. Our results showed that the ECAE process increases noticeably the performance of the alloy as orthopedic implant. Although no significant difference was observed in the fretting wear behavior, the corrosion resistance of the UFG alloy was found to be higher than the non-treated material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevancy of ECAE process applied to titanium alloy for biomedical applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant improvement of mechanical properties of the surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noticeable increase of the corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid.

  6. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on wear and corrosion behavior of the orthopedic Ti–13Nb–13Zr alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report investigations on the texture, corrosion and wear behavior of ultra-fine grained (UFG) Ti–13Nb–Zr alloy, processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) technique, for biomedical applications. The microstructure obtained was characterized by X-ray line profile analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). We focus on the corrosion resistance and the fretting behavior, the main considerations for such biomaterials, in simulated body fluid. To this end, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the UFG alloy in Hanks solution at 37 °C. The fretting wear behavior was carried out against bearing steel in the same conditions. The roughness of the samples was also measured to examine the effect of topography on the wear behavior of the samples. Our results showed that the ECAE process increases noticeably the performance of the alloy as orthopedic implant. Although no significant difference was observed in the fretting wear behavior, the corrosion resistance of the UFG alloy was found to be higher than the non-treated material. Highlights: ► Relevancy of ECAE process applied to titanium alloy for biomedical applications. ► Significant improvement of mechanical properties of the surface. ► Noticeable increase of the corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid.

  7. Vascularization of air sinuses and fat bodies in the head of the Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus: morphological implications on physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eCostidis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCetaceans have long been considered capable of limiting diving-induced nitrogen absorption and subsequent decompression sickness through a series of behavioral, anatomical, and physiological adaptations. Recent studies however suggest that in some situations these adaptive mechanisms might be overcome, resulting in lethal and sublethal injuries. Perhaps most relevant to this discussion is the finding of intravascular gas and fat emboli in mass-stranded beaked whales. Although the source of the gas emboli has as yet to been ascertained, preliminary findings suggest nitrogen is the primary component. Since nitrogen gas embolus formation in divers is linked to nitrogen saturation, it seems premature to dismiss similar pathogenic mechanisms in breath-hold diving cetaceans. Due to the various anatomical adaptations in cetacean lungs, the pulmonary system is thought of as an unlikely site of significant nitrogen absorption. The accessory sinus system on the ventral head of odontocete cetaceans contains a sizeable volume of air that is exposed to the changing hydrostatic pressures during a dive, and is intimately associated with vasculature potentially capable of absorbing nitrogen through its walls. The source of the fat emboli has also remained elusive. Most mammalian fat deposits are considered poorly-vascularized and therefore unlikely sites of intravascular introduction of lipid, although cetacean blubber may not be as poorly vascularized as previously thought. We present new data on the vasculature of air sinuses and acoustic fat bodies in the head of bottlenose dolphins and compare it to published accounts. We show that the mandibular fat bodies and accessory sinus system are associated with extensive venous plexuses and suggest potential physiological and pathological implications.

  8. Geochemistry of fluids discharged over the seismic area of the Southern Apennines (Calabria region, Southern Italy): Implications for Fluid-Fault relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first comprehensive geochemical data-set of the fluids circulating over a 14,000 km2-wide seismic-prone area of the Southern Apennines, Calabria Region (Italy), is presented here. The geochemical investigations were carried out with the twofold aim of constraining the origin and interactions of the circulating fluids and to investigate possible relationships with local faults. Sixty samples of both thermal and cold waters were collected, from which the dissolved gases were extracted. The geochemical features of the water samples display different types and degrees of water-rock interactions, irrespective of the outlet temperature. The calculated equilibrium temperatures of the thermal waters (60-160 deg. C) and the low heat flow of the whole study area, are consistent with a heating process due to deep water circulation and rapid upflow through lithospheric structures. The composition of the dissolved gases reveals that crustal-originating gases (N2 and CO2-dominated) feed all the groundwaters. The 3He/4He ratios of the dissolved He, in the range of 0.03-0.22Rac for the thermal waters and 0.05-0.63Rac for the cold waters (Rac = He isotope ratio corrected for atmospheric contamination), are mainly the result of a two-component (radiogenic and atmospheric) mixing, although indications of mantle-derived He are found in some cold waters. As the study area had been hit by 18 of the most destructive earthquakes (magnitude ranging from 5.9 to 7.2) occurring over a 280-a time span (1626-1908) in the Southern Apennines, the reported results on the circulating fluids may represent the reference for a better inside knowledge of the fault-fluid relationships and for the development of long-term geochemical monitoring strategies for the area.

  9. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  10. Adsorption of Fluids of Pseudo-Hard Bodies and EPM5 Water on Solid Surface: Density Functional Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 8 (2003), s. 1171-1181. ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : adsorption * primitive models * pseudo-hard body Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2003

  11. On the motion of rigid bodies in a compressible viscous fluid under the action of gravitational forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka

    Prague : Institute of Math ematics AS CR, 2012 - (Brandts, J.; Chleboun, J.; Korotov, S.; Segeth, K.; Šístek, J.; Vejchodský, T.), s. 83-98 ISBN 978-80-85823-60-8. [Applications of Math ematics 2012. Prague (CZ), 02.05.2012-05.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible viscous fluid * motion Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics http://www. math .cas.cz/~am2012/proceedings/contributions/ducomet.pdf

  12. Novel /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for the analysis of. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites in human body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.

    A cannabinoid radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects some of the major ..delta../sup 9/-THC metabolites is developed and evaluated for use in forensic science. It incorporates a novel /sup 125/I radiotracer, is sensitive, reliable, relatively quick, and simple to use. The RIA uses a commercially available antiserum and detects a number of cannabinoid metabolites, including ..delta../sup 9/-THC-11-oic acid and its glucuronide conjugate in biological fluids. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of blood and urine samples submitted for forensic analysis.

  13. Tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm- and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys in simulated body fluid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taekyung Lee,1 Eshaan Mathew,2 Santhosh Rajaraman,2 Geetha Manivasagam,2 Ashok Kumar Singh,3 Chong Soo Lee4 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA; 2Centre for Biomaterials Science and Technology, School for Mechanical and Building Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, India; 4Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH, Pohang, Republic of Korea Abstract: Development of submicrocrystalline structure in biomedical alloy such as Ti-13Nb-13Zr (in wt% through warm-rolling process has been found to enhance mechanical properties compared to conventional thermomechanical processing routes including hot-rolling process. The present study investigated the tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-rolled (WR and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys which have not been studied to date. Both tribological and corrosion experiments were carried out in simulated body fluid conditions (Hank’s solution at 37°C based on the fact that the investigated alloys would be used in a human body as orthopedic implants. The WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr demonstrated a submicrocrystalline structure that provided a significant enhancement in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, there was no notable difference in wear resistance between the WR and hot-rolled samples despite the different microstructure and hardness. The present study confirmed the enormous potential of WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr with not only great mechanical properties but also high corrosion resistance in the simulated body fluid. Keywords: titanium alloy, multi-pass caliber-rolling, grain refinement, tribology, corrosion

  14. Internal waves patterns in the wake of a 3D body towed in a two-layer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Laurent; Mercier, Matthieu; Thual, Olivier; Paci, Alexandre

    2014-11-01

    Stratified flows over obstacles are important features in meteorology and oceanography. The characterization of these flows is crucial in order to propose models of geophysical processes such as mixing and ocean circulation or orographic drag in the atmosphere. For some specific stratification profiles, the energy of internal waves generated by the obstacle can be trapped at a given depth, at the base of the oceanic mixing layer or at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer for instance. This scenario can be modelled by a two-layer stratified fluid for which gravity waves spread at the interface between the two layers. The work presented here focuses on a two-layer flow over a 3D obstacle, or equivalently, an obstacle towed in a fluid at rest. Experiments performed both in the large-scale flume of CNRM-GAME Toulouse (METEO-FRANCE & CNRS) and in a smaller tank apparatus, are presented with a specific attention on the measurement of the 3D wave patterns. A non-hydrostatic linear analysis is used to describe the observed wave patterns. The experiments highlight the strong influence of the Froude number on the generated waves. More specifically, we investigate the nature of the wake angle obtained from the wave pattern, and discuss a transition from Kelvin to Mach angle.

  15. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  16. Carbonation by fluid-rock interactions at high-pressure conditions: Implications for carbon cycling in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Francesca; Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Martinez, Isabelle; Ague, Jay J.; Chaduteau, Carine

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate-bearing lithologies are the main carbon carrier into subduction zones. Their evolution during metamorphism largely controls the fate of carbon, regulating its fluxes between shallow and deep reservoirs. Recent estimates predict that almost all subducted carbon is transferred into the crust and lithospheric mantle during subduction metamorphism via decarbonation and dissolution reactions at high-pressure conditions. Here we report the occurrence of eclogite-facies marbles associated with metasomatic systems in Alpine Corsica (France). The occurrence of these marbles along major fluid-conduits as well as textural, geochemical and isotopic data indicating fluid-mineral reactions are compelling evidence for the precipitation of these carbonate-rich assemblages from carbonic fluids during metamorphism. The discovery of metasomatic marbles brings new insights into the fate of carbonic fluids formed in subducting slabs. We infer that rock carbonation can occur at high-pressure conditions by either vein-injection or chemical replacement mechanisms. This indicates that carbonic fluids produced by decarbonation reactions and carbonate dissolution may not be directly transferred to the mantle wedge, but can interact with slab and mantle-forming rocks. Rock-carbonation by fluid-rock interactions may have an important impact on the residence time of carbon and oxygen in subduction zones and lithospheric mantle reservoirs as well as carbonate isotopic signatures in subduction zones. Furthermore, carbonation may modulate the emission of CO2 at volcanic arcs over geological time scales.

  17. The Influence of Zn Content on the Corrosion and Wear Performance of Mg-Zn-Ca Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Debao; Zhao, Yue; Jin, Feng; Chen, Minfang

    2016-07-01

    Mg-Zn-Ca alloy has been attracting increasing attention as a potential biodegradable implant material. In this paper, Mg-3Zn-0.2Ca and Mg-4Zn-0.2Ca alloys were prepared by means of vacuum melting and subsequent hot extrusion process. The influences of Zn content on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion and wear behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied. The results show that with increased Zn content, the grain size and corrosion resistance were decreased, while the mechanical strength and wear resistance were increased, under both dry sliding and SBF-lubricated conditions. For the same Mg-Zn-Ca alloy, the wear loss rate under SBF lubrication was higher than dry sliding condition, indicating a strong corrosion-assisted wear effect of SBF to the Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.

  18. Effect of titanium ions on the ion release rate and uptake at the interface of silica based xerogels with simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •New insights into corrosion of bioactive glasses in simulated body fluid. •Effect of TiO2 added to bioactive glasses on their behaviour in aqueous media. •Incorporation of TiO2 slows the corrosion rate of bioactive glasses. •TiO2 influences the ion release rate of phosphate, but scarcely affects that of silicate. -- Abstract: The dissolution and surface layer changes of new xTiO2(100 − x)[4SiO2·CaO·0.3P2O5] sol–gel derived xerogels (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 20 mol%) have been investigated in Kokubo’s simulated body fluid (SBF). The ionic leaching rate was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES results showed a relatively fast dissolution of titanium free sample, with a high release of phosphorous and calcium ions in the first hour of incubation while the release of silicon ions continuously increased up to 6 h of immersion. The titanium dioxide addition up to 20 mol% differently influences the release of phosphorus, calcium and silicon ions, i.e. TiO2 strongly stabilises the phosphorus ions, to a lesser extent the calcium ions, and has almost no effect on the silicon ions release. The structural changes were evaluated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results show that all samples remain mainly amorphous after immersion in SBF. The changes occurred in the surrounding of phosphorous and silicon ions are well reflected in FTIR spectra and they were correlated with the samples stability in SBF

  19. Mercury concentrations in human placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid and their relations with body parameters of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on samples taken from giving birth women (n = 40) living in Poland, representing three age groups: 19–25, 26–30 and 31–38 years old. Mercury concentrations were measured with CV-AAS in placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid. The placentas weight did not exceed the 750 g value and was heavier than 310 g. Mean values of Hg concentrations in blood, placenta and umbilical cord were similar (c.a. 9 μg/g). High levels of mercury were noted in cord blood which in 75% of all observations exceeded (up to 17 μg/L) the safe dose set by US EPA (5.8 μg/L). No statistically significant differences in medium level of Hg in all the studied tissues among age groups of women were observed. Positive correlations between Hg concentrations in placenta and umbilical cord and cord blood were revealed as well as some negative ones between mercury concentrations and pregnancy parameters. -- Highlights: •Concentrations of mercury in cord blood exceed the safety threshold level. •Maternal age was not an influential factor of Hg concentrations in studied samples. •Positive correlations between Hg levels in different tissues were observed. •Negative correlation between Hg concentrations and pregnancy parameters were noted. -- Maternal age was not an influential factor of mercury concentrations in studied samples. 75% of cord blood samples exceeded the Hg threshold concentration

  20. Action of fluid on aqueduct body during strong earthquake%强震下流体对渡槽槽身的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李遇春; 楼梦麟

    2000-01-01

    The boundary element method is applied to simulate nonlinear sloshing of fluid,dynamic horizontal force and overturning moment actingon the aqueduct body during earthquake.The computational results of BEM(nonlinear)are compared with that of linearized theories.The numerical results reveal that a great horizontal force acting on the aqueduct body may occurred during strong earthquake.This action must be considered in seismic resistance design.%本文应用边界元法计算了强震下流体的非线性晃动及其对槽身的水平力及翻转力矩,将所得数值结果与线性解析方法的计算结果作了比较,分析了两类结果的异同点。计算表明:强震时,流体对槽身可能会产生很大的横向水平力,建议在抗震设计时考虑这一作用因素。

  1. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the Omeo Metamorphic complex, Victor: implications for metamorphic fluid flow, mineralisation and anatexis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, I.; Harper, S. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Victorian Institute of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1998-12-01

    Metamorphosed turbidites from the Omeo Metamorphic Complex show only minor changes in {delta}{sup 18}O values with increasing metamorphic grade from 13.4 {+-} 1.7 per mill in the chlorite and biotite zones to 12.3 {+-} 1.0 per mill in the sillimanite + K-feldspar zone. Rocks within 5 km of the S-type granite at Hume Dam have {delta}{sup 18}O values of 6.8-8.1 per mill that probably reflect interaction with heated meteoric-igneous fluids. Interaction with igneous fluids has also occurred close to other I- and S-type granites in this region. However, pervasive metamorphic fluid-rock interaction in this terrain did not occur, which limits the region`s potential for hydrothermal mineralisation. Anatexis at high grades was probably via dehydration-melting reactions that consumed muscovite and biotite, which is consistent with there being little fluid present during metamorphism. Small (kilometre scale or less) S-type granites in the sillimanite + K-feldspar zone have {delta}{sup 18}O values similar to those of the surrounding metasediments and probably formed by melting of those rocks. By contrast, larger (tens of kilometres scale) Ca-rich. peraluminous, S-type granites have lower {delta}{sup 18}O values than the surrounding metasediments, and may represent melts of underlying middle to lower crust . Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Asia 31 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  3. Geological, fluid inclusion and isotopic studies of the Yinshan Cu-Au-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, South China: Implications for ore genesis and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Guang; Ni, Pei; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Chen, Hui; Ding, Jun-Ying; Zhao, Chao; Cai, Yi-Tao

    2013-09-01

    The Yinshan Cu-Au-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is located in Dexing, South China. Ore bodies are primarily hosted in low-grade phyllite of the Neoproterozoic Shuangqiaoshan Group along EW- and NNW-striking fault zones. Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization is dictated by Jurassic rhyolitic quartz porphyries (ca. 172 Ma), whereas Cu-Au mineralization is associated with Jurassic dacite porphyries (ca. 170 Ma). The main ore minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, tetrahedrite-tennatite, gold, silver, and silver sulphosalt, and the principal gangue minerals are quartz, sericite, calcite, and chlorite. Two-phase liquid-rich (type I), two-phase vapor-rich (type II), and halite-bearing (type III) fluid inclusions can be observed in the hydrothermal quartz-sulfides veins. Type I inclusions are widespread and have homogenization temperatures of 187-303 °C and salinities of 4.2-9.5 wt.% NaCl equivalent in the Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization, and homogenization temperatures of 196-362 °C and salinities of 3.5-9.9 wt.% NaCl equivalent in the Cu-Au mineralization. The pervasive occurrence of type I fluid inclusions with low-moderate temperatures and salinities implies that the mineralizing fluids formed in epithermal environments. The type II and coexisting type III inclusions, from deeper levels below the Cu-Au ore bodies, share similar homogenization temperatures of 317-448 °C and contrasting salinities of 0.2-4.2 and 30.9-36.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively, which indicates that boiling processes occurred. The sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfides (δ34S = -1.7‰ to +3.2‰) suggest a homogeneous magmatic sulfur source. The lead isotopes of sulfides (206Pb/204Pb = 18.01-18.07; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.55-15.57; and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.03-38.12) are consistent with those of volcanic-subvolcanic rocks (206Pb/204Pb = 18.03-18.10; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.56-15.57; and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.02-38.21), indicating a magmatic origin for lead in the ore. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ18O = +7.8

  4. Fluid accumulation threshold measured by acute body weight change after admission in general surgical intensive care units: how much should be concerning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittawatanarat K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kaweesak Chittawatanarat,1 Todsaporn Pichaiya,2 Kamtone Chandacham,1 Tidarat Jirapongchareonlap,1 Narain Chotirosniramit11Division of Surgical Critical Care and Trauma, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: The objective of this study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01351506 was to identify the threshold level of fluid accumulation measured by acute body weight (BW change during the first week in a general surgical intensive care unit (ICU, which is associated with ICU mortality and other adverse outcomes.Methods: Four hundred sixty-five patients were prospectively followed for a 28-day period. The maximum BW change threshold during the first week was evaluated by the maximum percentage change in BW from the ICU admission weight (Max%ΔBW. Daily screening of adverse events in the ICU were recorded. The cutoff point of Max%ΔBW on ICU mortality was defined by considering the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, intersection of the sensitivity and specificity, and the Youden Index. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to demonstrate the associations. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05.Results: The appropriate cutoff value of Max%ΔBW threshold was 5%. Regarding the multivariable regression model, in overall patients, the occurrence of the following adverse events (expressed as adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] were significantly associated with a Max%ΔBW of >5%: ICU mortality (2.38 [1.25–4.54] (P=0.008, ICU mortality in patients without renal replacement therapy (RRT (2.47 [1.21–5.06] (P=0.013, reintubation within 72 hours (2.51 [1.04–6.00] (P=0.039, RRT requirement (2.67 [1.13–6.33] (P=0.026, and delirium (1.97 [1.08–3.57] (P=0.025. Regarding the postoperative subgroup, a Max%ΔBW value of more than 5% was significantly associated with: ICU

  5. Multifrequency geoacoustic imaging of fluid escape structures offshore Costa Rica: Implications for the quantification of seep processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaucke, Ingo; Masson, Douglas G.; Petersen, C. JöRg; Weinrebe, Wilhelm; Ranero, CéSar R.

    2008-04-01

    Quantification of fluid fluxes from cold seeps depends on accurate estimates of the spatial validity of flux measurements. These estimates are strongly influenced by the choice of geoacoustic mapping tools. Multibeam bathymetry, side-scan sonar, and Chirp subbottom profiler data of several mound-shaped cold seeps offshore central Costa Rica show great variety in morphology and structure although the features are only a few kilometers apart. Mound 11 (a 35 m high and 1000 m in diameter structure), situated in the SE of the study area, has an irregular morphology but a smooth surface on side-scan sonar data, while mound 12 (30 m high, 600 m across) is a cone of more regular outline but with a rough surface, and mound Grillo (5 m high, 500 m across) shows the same rough surface as mound 12 but without relief. Video observations and sediment cores indicate that the structures are formed by the precipitation of authigenic carbonates and indications for extensive mud extrusion are absent, except for one possible mudflow at mound 11. Different sonar frequencies result in variable estimates of the extent of these mounds with low frequencies suggesting much wider cold seeps, consequently overestimating fluid fluxes. The absence of mud volcanism compared to accretionary prisms where mud volcanism occurs is related to different tectonic styles: strong sediment overpressure and thrust faulting in typical accretionary prisms can generate mud volcanism, while subduction erosion and normal faulting (extension) of the overriding plate at the Costa Rican margin result in fluid venting driven by only slight fluid overpressures.

  6. Comparison of four techniques for the detection of Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in intestinal contents and other body fluids of sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, F A; Kelly, W R; Thomas, R; Hornitzky, M; Galea, F

    2003-03-01

    Polyclonal capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PC-ELISA), monoclonal capture ELISA (MC-ELISA), mouse neutralization test (MNT), and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), were compared for their ability to detect epsilon toxin in intestinal contents and body fluids of sheep and goats. When used to evaluate intestinal contents of sheep artificially spiked with epsilon prototoxin, PC-ELISA detected 0.075 mouse lethal dose (MLD)50/ml, whereas the MNT, MC-ELISA, and CIEP detected 6, 25, and 50 MLD50/ml, respectively. Amounts of epsilon toxin detected by PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, MNT, and CIEP in sheep pericardial fluid artificially spiked with epsilon prototoxin were 0.075, 0.75, 6, and 200 MLD50/ml, respectively. For assaying epsilon toxin in aqueous humor, PC-ELISA and MC-ELISA detected 0.075 MLD50/ml, whereas CIEP detected 200 MLD50/ml (MNT was not evaluated). When 51 samples of intestinal contents of sheep and goats (32 positive and 19 negative to MNT) were analyzed by the other 3 techniques, the relative sensitivity of PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, and CIEP was 93.75, 84.37, and 37.50%, respectively. The specificity of PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, and CIEP was 31.57, 57.89, and 84.21%, respectively. The absolute sensitivity of PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, CIEP, and MNT was 90.90, 69.69, 15.15, and 54.54%. The absolute specificity of the 4 techniques was 100%. These results show that there is a marked inconsistency among techniques routinely used to detect Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin. Until more consistent results are achieved, the diagnosis of enterotoxemia should not only be based solely on epsilon toxin detection, but also on clinical and pathological data. PMID:12661718

  7. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flankhydrothermal fluids: implications for the location and nature of the heatsource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, B.W.; Kennedy, B.M.; Adams, M.C.; Bjornstad, S.C.; Buck, C.

    2007-01-08

    Fluids have been sampled from 9 wells and 2 fumaroles fromthe East Flank of the Coso hydrothermal system with a view toidentifying, if possible, the location and characteristics of the heatsource inflows into this portion of the geothermal field. Preliminaryresults show that there has been extensive vapor loss in the system, mostprobably in response to production. Wells 38A-9, 51-16 and 83A-16 showthe highest CO2-CO-CH4-H2 chemical equilibration temperatures, rangingbetween 300-340oC, and apart from 38A-9, the values are generally inaccordance with the measured temperatures in the wells. Calculatedtemperatures for the fractionation of 13C between CO2 and CH4 are inexcess of 400oC in fluids from wells 38A-9, 64-16-RD2 and 51A-16,obviously pointing to equilibrium conditions from deeper portions of thereservoir. Given that the predominant reservoir rock lithologies in theCoso system are relatively silicic (granitic to dioritic), the isotopicsignatures appear to reflect convective circulation and equilibrationwithin rocks close to the plastic-brittle transition. 3He/4He signatures,in conjunction with relative volatile abundances in the Coso fluids,point to a possibly altered mantle source for the heat sourcefluids.

  8. A Candidate Approach Implicates the Secreted Salmonella Effector Protein SpvB in P-Body Disassembly

    OpenAIRE

    Eulalio, A.; Fröhlich, K.; Mano, M; Giacca, M.; Vogel, J.

    2011-01-01

    P-bodies are dynamic aggregates of RNA and proteins involved in several post-transcriptional regulation processes. P-bodies have been shown to play important roles in regulating viral infection, whereas their interplay with bacterial pathogens, specifically intracellular bacteria that extensively manipulate host cell pathways, remains unknown. Here, we report that Salmonella infection induces P-body disassembly in a cell type-specific manner, and independently of previously characterized path...

  9. Focused fluid flow in the Baiyun Sag, northern South China Sea: implications for the source of gas in hydrate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Duanxin; WU Shiguo; DONG Dongdong; MI Lijun; FU Shaoying; SHI Hesheng

    2013-01-01

    The origin and migration of natural gas and the accumulation of gas hydrates within the Pearl River Mouth Basin of the northern South China Sea are poorly understood.Based on high-resolution 2D/3D seismic data,three environments of focused fluid flow:gas chinmeys,mud diapirs and active faults have been identified.Widespread gas chimneys that act as important conduits for fluid flow are located below bottom simulating reflections and above basal uplifts.The occurrence and evolution of gas chimneys can be divided into a violent eruptive stage and a quiet seepage stage.For most gas chimneys,the strong eruptions are deduced to have happened during the Dongsha Movement in the latest Miocene,which are observed below Pliocene strata and few active faults develop above the top of the Miocene.The formation pressures of the Baiyun Sag currently are considered to be normal,based on these terms:1) Borehole pressure tests with pressure coefficients of 1.043-1.047; 2) The distribution of gas chimneys is limited to strata older than the Pliocene; 3) Disseminated methane hydrates,rather than fractured hydrates,are found in the hydrate samples; 4) The gas hydrate is mainly charged with biogenic gas rather than thermogenic gas based on the chemical tests from gas hydrates cores.However,periods of quiet focused fluid flow also enable the establishment of good conduits for the migration of abundant biogenic gas and lesser volumes of thermogenic gas.A geological model governing fluid flow has been proposed to interpret the release of overpressure,the migration of fluids and the formation of gas hydrates,in an integrated manner.This model suggests that gas chimneys positioned above basal uplifts were caused by the Dongsha Movement at about 5.5 Ma.Biogenic gas occupies the strata above the base of the middle Miocene and migrates slowly into the gas chimney columns.Some of the biogenic gas and small volumes of thermogenic gas eventually contribute to the formation of the gas

  10. Nosocomial Infections: Multicenter surveillance of antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative rods isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Poorabbas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antibiotic resistance is increasing, especially in healthcare-associated infections causing significant public health concerns worldwide. National information is required to make appropriate policies, update list of essential drugs for treatment, and evaluate the effects of intervention strategies. A nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in nosocomial infections was established in Iran in 2008, so that the data obtained through the surveillance would enable us to construct a database.Materials and Methods: Seven major teaching hospitals in Shiraz, Tabriz, Sari, Mashhad, Sanandaj, Ahwaz and Isfahan participated in this study. A total of 858 strains isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids were tested. Identification at the species level was performed with conventional biochemical methods and the API system. Susceptibility tests were done using disk diffusion method. The methicillin-resistance in S. aureus (MRSA was determined by the oxacillin agar screen plate and respective MIC values were assessed using the E-test strips. The confirmatory disk diffusion methods were applied for phenotypic identification of extended-spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL production for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, according to CLSI guidelines.Results: Cultivation and re-identification of the strains yielded 858 isolates, consisting of 224 S. aureus, 148 Klebsiellaspp., 105 Serratia spp., 146 E. coli, 67 Acinetobacter spp., 38 Enterobacter spp., 95 Pseudomonas spp., 71 P.aeruginosa.35 Stenotrophomonas sp., and 8 other organisms. MRSA was detected in 37.5% of the isolates. No vancomycin-resistant or vancomycin-intermediate resistant S. aureus was detected. With the exception of Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas, 85% of the Gram-negative isolates were found to be susceptible in vitro to imipenem. Overall, about 61% of K. pneumoniae and 35% of E. coli isolates were ESBL producing.Conclusion: Multidrug resistant isolates

  11. The interpretation of forensic biochemical expert test made in human body fluids: scientific - legal analysis in the research on sexual offenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions of science and technology have covered the whole of human life, and relationships of coexistence are even found in the various disciplines of knowledge through legal forensics. Therefore, it is increasingly imperative that the law enforcement agents are interdisciplinary professionals, with knowledge beyond the legal knowledge to enable them make the most of the scientific knowledge in judicial proceedings. Among the natural sciences applied to right, forensic biochemistry has contributed an extremely relevant test for the investigation of various sexual offenses, much has been so, that the Organismo de Investigacion Judicial of Costa Rica has in its Departamento de Laboratorios de Ciencias Forenses with specialized sections in this discipline. A diversity of skills are performed of presumptive and confirmatory character for the presence of biological fluids, sexually transmitted diseases and identification of DNA by genetic markers. Updated information is given with respect to the correct interpretation of forensic biochemical expertises achievable for identification of semen, blood and human saliva in the investigation of sexual offenses. A scientific and legal language is used allowing the most of this information in the criminal process. The main objective has been to interpret, legal and scientifically, forensic biochemical expert evidence performed in human body fluids during the investigation of sexual offenses. A legal, doctrinal and scientific review is presented with compilation of related jurisprudence and criminology reports analysis of Seccion de Bioquimica of the Departamento de Laboratorios Forenses of the Organismo de Investigacion Juridica issued during the investigation of sexual offenses. Two types of attainable skills have existed for the identification of biological fluids, each with a different binding. In addition, it has been clear, due to the lexicon employed when making a forensic biochemist opinion, that to make a proper

  12. A genome-wide association study of kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid: implications for psychosis and cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellgren, CM; Kegel, ME; Bergen, SE; Ekman, CJ; Olsson, S; Larsson, M; Vawter, MP; Backlund, L; Sullivan, PF; Sklar, P; Smoller, JW; Magnusson, PKE; Hultman, CM; Walther-Jallow, L; Svensson, CI; Lichtenstein, P; Schalling, M; Engberg, G; Erhardt, S; Landén, M

    2016-01-01

    Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the glia-derived N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) have consistently been implicated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study based on CSF KYNA in bipolar disorder and found support for an association with a common variant within 1p21.3. After replication in an independent cohort, we linked this genetic variant—associated with reduced SNX7 expression—to positive psychotic symptoms and executive function deficits in bipolar disorder. A series of post-mortem brain tissue and in vitro experiments suggested SNX7 downregulation to result in a caspase-8-driven activation of interleukin-1β and a subsequent induction of the brain kynurenine pathway. The current study demonstrates the potential of using biomarkers in genetic studies of psychiatric disorders, and may help to identify novel drug targets in bipolar disorder. PMID:23459468

  13. Determination of medicinal and illicit drugs in post mortem dental hard tissues and comparison with analytical results for body fluids and hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Miriam; Altenburger, Markus J; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker; Neukamm, Merja A

    2016-08-01

    In burnt or skeletonized bodies dental hard tissue sometimes is the only remaining specimen available. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative matrix in post mortem toxicology. Additionally, analysis of dental tissues could provide a unique retrospective window of detection. For forensic interpretation, routes and rates of incorporation of different drugs as well as physicochemical differences between tooth root, tooth crown and carious material have to be taken into account. In a pilot study, one post mortem tooth each from three drug users was analyzed for medicinal and illicit drugs. The pulp was removed in two cases; in one case the tooth was root canal treated. The teeth were separated into root, crown and carious material and drugs were extracted from the powdered material with methanol under ultrasonication. The extracts were screened for drugs by LC-MS(n) (ToxTyper™) and quantitatively analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The findings were compared to the analytical results for cardiac blood, femoral blood, urine, stomach content and hair. In dental hard tissues, 11 drugs (amphetamine, MDMA, morphine, codeine, norcodeine, methadone, EDDP, fentanyl, tramadol, diazepam, nordazepam, and promethazine) could be detected and concentrations ranged from approximately 0.13pg/mg to 2,400pg/mg. The concentrations declined in the following order: carious material>root>crown. Only the root canal treated tooth showed higher concentrations in the crown than in the root. In post mortem toxicology, dental hard tissue could be a useful alternative matrix facilitating a more differentiated consideration of drug consumption patterns, as the window of detection seems to overlap those for body fluids and hair. PMID:26930453

  14. Longitudinal Relationships among Internalization of the Media Ideal, Peer Social Comparison, and Body Dissatisfaction: Implications for the Tripartite Influence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; McLean, Siân A.; Paxton, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal…

  15. Mediators of the relationship between media literacy and body dissatisfaction in early adolescent girls: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2013-06-01

    This study examined in young adolescent girls the fit of a theoretical model of the contribution of media literacy to body dissatisfaction via the mediating influences of internalisation of media ideals and appearance comparisons. Female Grade 7 students (N=469) completed self-report assessments of media literacy, internalisation, appearance comparisons, body dissatisfaction, and media exposure. Strong, significant inverse associations between media literacy and body dissatisfaction, internalisation, and appearance comparisons were observed. Path analysis revealed that a slightly modified revision of the model provided a good fit to the data. Specifically, body dissatisfaction was influenced directly by appearance comparisons, internalisation, and body mass index, and indirectly by media literacy and media exposure. Indirect pathways were mediated by appearance comparisons and internalisation. Thus, a relationship between media literacy and eating disorder risk factors was observed. Findings may explain positive outcomes of media literacy interventions in eating disorder prevention. PMID:23465878

  16. Nucleation and characterization of hydroxyapatite on thioglycolic acid-capped reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles in simplified simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Zhaochun, E-mail: zhangzhaochun@shu.edu.cn; Yu, Zhenwei; He, Zhenni; Yang, Shanshan; Jiang, Huiyi

    2014-01-15

    Herein hydroxyapatite (HA) has been synthesized by the nucleation on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles (rGO/AgNPs) chemisorbed with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The self-assembled monolayer of TGA formed on rGO/AgNPs was immersed in simplified simulated body fluid under gentle growth conditions, forming rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite. The phase structures and functional groups of biocomposite were analyzed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Enhanced Raman spectrum of TGA on prepared rGO/AgNPs was obtained with excitation at 633 nm, showing that TGA was chemisorbed on AgNPs through S atom and TGA molecular plane exhibited a tilted orientation with respect to AgNPs. The morphologies of biocomposite were investigated by means of atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrum. Analysis shows that the AgNPs uniformly distributed on the rGO nanosheets with the size of about 15–20 nm and HA formation initiated through Ca{sup 2+}-adsorption upon complexation with -COO{sup −} groups of TGA on AgNPs. The results obtained indicated that the rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite may have immense potential application in bone tissue engineering fields for its outstanding and stable activities.

  17. Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang

    2014-09-01

    The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

  18. Alterations in Body Fluid Balance During Fin Swimming in 29 °C Water in a Population of Special Forces Divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, O; Desruelle, A V; Blatteau, J E; Schmid, B; Dumoulin, G; Regnard, J

    2015-12-01

    Highly trained "combat swimmers" encounter physiological difficulties when performing missions in warm water. The aim of this study was to assess the respective roles of immersion and physical activity in perturbing fluid balance of military divers on duty in warm water. 12 trained divers performed 2 dives each (2 h, 3 m depth) in fresh water at 29 °C. Divers either remained Static or swam continuously (Fin) during the dive. In the Fin condition, oxygen consumption and heart rate were 2-fold greater than during the Static dive. Core and skin temperatures were also higher (Fin: 38.5±0.4 °C and 36.2±0.3 °C and Static: 37.2±0.3 °C and 34.3±0.3 °C; respectively p=0.0002 and p=0.0003). During the Fin dive, the average mass loss was 989 g (39% urine loss, 41% sweating and 20% insensible water loss and blood sampling); Static divers lost 720 g (84% urine loss, 2% sweating and 14% insensible water loss and blood sampling) (p=0.003). In the Fin condition, a greater decrease in total body mass and greater sweating occurred, without effects on circulating renin and aldosterone concentrations; diuresis was reduced, and plasma volume decreased more than in the Static condition. PMID:26422054

  19. Nucleation and characterization of hydroxyapatite on thioglycolic acid-capped reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles in simplified simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein hydroxyapatite (HA) has been synthesized by the nucleation on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles (rGO/AgNPs) chemisorbed with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The self-assembled monolayer of TGA formed on rGO/AgNPs was immersed in simplified simulated body fluid under gentle growth conditions, forming rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite. The phase structures and functional groups of biocomposite were analyzed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Enhanced Raman spectrum of TGA on prepared rGO/AgNPs was obtained with excitation at 633 nm, showing that TGA was chemisorbed on AgNPs through S atom and TGA molecular plane exhibited a tilted orientation with respect to AgNPs. The morphologies of biocomposite were investigated by means of atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrum. Analysis shows that the AgNPs uniformly distributed on the rGO nanosheets with the size of about 15–20 nm and HA formation initiated through Ca2+-adsorption upon complexation with -COO− groups of TGA on AgNPs. The results obtained indicated that the rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite may have immense potential application in bone tissue engineering fields for its outstanding and stable activities.

  20. Surface Modification and In Vitro Characterization of Cp-Ti and Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Ta Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Y.; Rajendran, N.

    2012-10-01

    Ti and its alloys are widely used in manufacturing orthopedic implants as prostheses for joint replacement because of their high corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility. However, they lack in bone-bonding ability and leads to higher rate of osteolysis and subsequent loosening of implants. In order to enhance the bone-bonding ability of these alloys, various surface-modification techniques are generally employed. The present investigation is mainly concerned with the surface modification of Cp-Ti and Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Ta alloy using a mixture of alkali and hydrogen peroxide followed by subsequent heat treatment to produce a porous gel layer with anatase structure, which enhances osseointegration. The morphological behavior was examined by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). The in vitro characterization of all the specimens was evaluated by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid solution to assess the apatite formation over the metal surface. The apatite formation was confirmed by XRD, SEM-EDX, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Further, the electrochemical corrosion behaviors of both the untreated and treated specimens were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that the surface-modified and heat-treated specimens exhibited higher corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility when compared to the chemical and untreated specimens.

  1. The effect of sodium silicate concentration on microstructure and corrosion properties of MAO-coated magnesium alloy AZ31 in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Salami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, magnesium and its alloys are considered as biodegradable implants. However magnesium implants may rapidly corrode before the natural healing process of the tissue is completed. In this investigation, micro arc oxidation process has been studied for avoiding primary corrosion of the magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid. Anodized coating was formed on AZ31 alloy in nontoxic silicate-alkaline solution at constant current. The effects of silicate concentration and conductivity of electrolyte solution on microstructure and corrosion properties of coating were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that a thick and condensed coating is formed after enough anodizing period. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that Si, O and Mg are the main components of the coating. Corrosion resistance of the coated and uncoated samples was assessed using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in SBF at 37 °C and pH of 7.4. Maximum corrosion resistance was achieved at 30 g/L concentration of sodium silicate in anodizing solution. It was observed that further increase in silicate concentration decreased the corrosion resistance.

  2. Biomineralization of electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin composite fibrous scaffold by using a supersaturated simulated body fluid with continuous CO2 bubbling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To promote the biomineralization, supersaturated simulated body fluids (SBFs), e.g. five times SBF (5 x SBF), were usually applied. In these SBFs, however, homogeneous nucleation of Ca-P mineralites and deposition unavoidably took place owing to the HCO3- decomposition and the pH value increment, which made the prediction of bone bioactivity of substrates controversial. In this study, the classically prepared 5 x SBF was continuously bubbled with CO2 to keep the pH value stable at 6.4 and the solution transparent, and a kind of electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin composite fibers was used for the biomineralization study. In such a modified 5 x SBF, heterogenenous nucleation occurred dominantly and thermodynamical unstable brushites (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) were detected shortly on both electrospun PLLA fibers and PLLA/gelatin (1:1 in weight) composite fibers. In comparison with electrospun PLLA fibers, the sheet-like DCPD mineralites transformed into flaky carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) within 24 h on the PLLA/gelatin composite fibers due to the accelerating effect of gelatin component. The formed apatite coating contained much less Mg2+ ions than that deposited in the classical 5 x SBF. The results of this study showed that supersaturated SBFs buffered with gassy CO2 were expected good choices for the accelerated biomineralization, and for the prediction of the bone bonding bioactivity of substrates.

  3. Fretting wear behaviour of hydroxyapatite–titanium composites in simulated body fluid, supplemented with 5 g l−1 bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaged articulating joints can be repaired or replaced with synthetic biomaterials, which can release wear debris due to articulation, leading to the osteolysis. In a recent work, it has been shown that it is possible to achieve a better combination of flexural strength/fracture toughness as well as in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility properties in spark plasma sintered hydroxyapatite–titanium (HA–Ti) composites. Although hydroxyapatite and titanium are well documented for their good biocompatibility, nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) and titanium (Ti) particles can cause severe toxicity to cells. In order to address this issue, fretting wear study of HA–Ti composites under dry and wet (1× SBF, supplemented with 5 g l−1 bovine serum albumin (BSA)) condition was performed to assess the wear resistance as well as wear debris formation, in vitro. The experimental results reveal one order of magnitude lower wear rate for HA–10 wt% Ti (7.5 × 10−5 mm3 N−1 m−1) composite than monolithic HA (3.9 × 10−4 mm3 N−1 m−1) in simulated body fluid. The difference in the tribological properties has been analyzed in the light of phase assemblages and mechanical properties. Overall, the results suggest the potential use of HA–Ti composites over existing HA-based biocomposites in orthopedic as well as dental applications. (paper)

  4. Simulating Gas-Liquid-Water Partitioning and Fluid Properties of Petroleum under Pressure: Implications for Deep-Sea Blowouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Jonas; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Socolofsky, Scott A; Arey, J Samuel

    2016-07-19

    With the expansion of offshore petroleum extraction, validated models are needed to simulate the behaviors of petroleum compounds released in deep (>100 m) waters. We present a thermodynamic model of the densities, viscosities, and gas-liquid-water partitioning of petroleum mixtures with varying pressure, temperature, and composition based on the Peng-Robinson equation-of-state and the modified Henry's law (Krychevsky-Kasarnovsky equation). The model is applied to Macondo reservoir fluid released during the Deepwater Horizon disaster, represented with 279-280 pseudocomponents, including 131-132 individual compounds. We define >n-C8 pseudocomponents based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) measurements, which enable the modeling of aqueous partitioning for n-C8 to n-C26 fractions not quantified individually. Thermodynamic model predictions are tested against available laboratory data on petroleum liquid densities, gas/liquid volume fractions, and liquid viscosities. We find that the emitted petroleum mixture was ∼29-44% gas and ∼56-71% liquid, after cooling to local conditions near the broken Macondo riser stub (∼153 atm and 4.3 °C). High pressure conditions dramatically favor the aqueous dissolution of C1-C4 hydrocarbons and also influence the buoyancies of bubbles and droplets. Additionally, the simulated densities of emitted petroleum fluids affect previous estimates of the volumetric flow rate of dead oil from the emission source. PMID:27117673

  5. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  6. Epidote-Bearing Veins in the State 2-14 Drill Hole: Implications for Hydrothermal Fluid Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, L. J.; Bird, D. K.; Cho, M.; Liou, J. G.

    1988-11-01

    Epidote-bearing veins in State 2-14 drill core from 900 to 2960 m depth were examined using backscattered electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis to characterize the mineralogy, parageneses, texture, and composition of vein minerals. In order of decreasing abundance, minerals in epidote-bearing veins are pyrite, calcite, K-feldspar, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, chlorite, Fe-Cu-Zn sulfides, actinolite, titanite, and allanite. The downhole distribution of minerals in epidote-bearing veins (+ pyrite and quartz) varies as a function of depth and includes: (1) calcite above ˜2000 m, (2) K-feldspar between 1700 and 2745 m, (3) anhydrite between 2195 and 2745 m, (4) hematite ± sulfides above 2773 m, and (5) actinolite below ˜2890 m. Where present, K-feldspar was the first mineral to precipitate in veins followed by epidote. In all other veins, epidote was the earliest vein mineral to form. Calcite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and sulfides were paragenetically later. Compositional zoning, common in most vein epidotes, is typically symmetric with Al-rich cores and Fe3+ -rich rims. The minimum mole fraction of Ca2Fe3Si3O12(OH) (XPs) in vein epidotes decreases systematically with increasing depth from ˜0.33 at 906 m to ˜0.21 at 2900 m, and the maximum XPs at any given depth is greater than 0.33. Thermodynamic analyses of phase relations among vein-filling minerals and aqueous solutions at depths near 1867 m and 300°C indicate that the modern reservoir fluid in the Salton Sea geothermal system is in equilibrium with calcite + hematite + quartz + epidote (XPs = 0.33) ± anhydrite. The predicted fugacity of CO2 (˜14 bars) for the modern Salton Sea brine is in close agreement with the calculated value of fCO2 for the 1867 m production fluid. Theoretical phase diagrams in the system CaO-K2O-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-O2-S2-CO2 demonstrate that the mineralogies and mineral parageneses recorded hi epidote-bearing veins and the observed variations in Al-Fe3+ content of

  7. A meta-study of relationships between fluvial channel-body stacking pattern and aggradation rate: implications for sequence stratigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Colombera, L; Mountney, NP; McCaffrey, WD

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative comparison of 20 literature case studies of fluvial sedimentary successions tests common assumptions made in published models of alluvial architecture concerning (1) inverse proportionality between channel-deposit density and floodplain aggradation rates, and (2) resulting characteristics of channel-body geometries and connectedness. Our results do not support the relationships predicted by established stratigraphy models: the data suggest that channel-body density, geometry, a...

  8. Herbivory and Body Size: Allometries of Diet Quality and Gastrointestinal Physiology, and Implications for Herbivore Ecology and Dinosaur Gigantism

    OpenAIRE

    Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W. H.; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differ- entiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quali...

  9. Origin of arc-like continental basalts: Implications for deep-Earth fluid cycling and tectonic discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A.; Xu, Bei; Pang, Chong-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Continental basalts generally display enrichment of fluid-mobile elements and depletion of high-field-strength elements, similar to those that evolved in the subduction environment, but different from oceanic basalts. Based on the continental flood basalt database for six large igneous provinces, together with rift-related basalt data from the Basin and Range Province, this study aimed to test the validity of geochemical tectonic discrimination diagrams in distinguishing arc-like intra-continental basalts from arc basalts and to further investigate the role of deep-Earth water cycling in producing arc-like signatures in large-scale intra-continental basalts. Our evaluation shows that arc-like intra-continental basalts can be distinguished from arc basalts by integrating the following factors: (1) the FeO, MgO, and Al2O3 concentrations of the primary melt; (2) Tisbnd V, Zrsbnd Zr/Y, Zrsbnd Ti, and Ti/Vsbnd Zr/Smsbnd Sr/Nd discrimination diagrams; (3) the coexistence of arc-like and OIB-like subtype basalts within the same province; (4) primitive mantle-normalized trace element distribution patterns. The similarity of enrichment in fluid-mobile elements (Ba, Rb, Sr, U, and K) between arc-like and true arc basalts suggests the importance of water flux melting in producing arc-like signatures in continental basalts. Experimentally determined liquid lines of descent (LLD) imply high magma water concentrations for continental flood basalts (CFBs) and the Basin and Range basalts. Furthermore, estimates based on the Al2O3-LLD method indicates 4.0-5.0 wt% pre-eruptive magma H2O concentration for CFBs and the Basin and Range basalts. The tight relationships between H2O/Ce and Ba/La, Ba/Nb and Rb/Nb based on global arc basalt data were further used to estimate the primary H2O concentrations. With the exception of the Emeishan CFBs (mainly containing 4.0-5.6 wt% H2O), all other CFBs investigated have similar estimated primary H2O contents, with values ranging from 1.0 to 2

  10. Fluid flow in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera: Implications from thermal data and deep electrical sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribnow, D.F.C.; Schutze, C.; Hurter, S.J.; Flechsig, C.; Sass, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Temperatures of 100??C are measured at 3 km depth in a well located on the resurgent dome in the center of Long Valley Caldera, California, despite an assumed >800??C magma chamber at 6-8 km depth. Local downflow of cold meteoric water as a process for cooling the resurgent dome is ruled out by a Pecle??t-number analysis of temperature logs. These analyses reveal zones with fluid circulation at the upper and lower boundaries of the Bishop Tuff, and an upflow zone in the metasedimentary rocks. Vertical Darcy velocities range from 10 to 70 cm a-1. A 21-km-long geoelectrical profile across the caldera provides resistivity values to the order of 100 to >103 ??m down to a depth of 6 km, as well as variations of self-potential. Interpretation of the electrical data with respect to hydrothermal fluid movement confirms that there is no downflow beneath the resurgent dome. To explain the unexpectedly low temperatures in the resurgent dome, we challenge the common view that the caldera as a whole is a regime of high temperatures and the resurgent dome is a local cold anomaly. Instead, we suggest that the caldera was cooled to normal thermal conditions by vigorous hydrothermal activity in the past, and that a present-day hot water flow system is responsible for local hot anomalies, such as Hot Creek and the area of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. The source of hot water has been associated with recent shallow intrusions into the West Moat. The focus of planning for future power plants should be to locate this present-day flow system instead of relying on heat from the old magma chamber. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic expenditures of lunge feeding rorquals across scale: implications for the evolution of filter feeding and the limits to maximum body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Jean; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Shadwick, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Bulk-filter feeding is an energetically efficient strategy for resource acquisition and assimilation, and facilitates the maintenance of extreme body size as exemplified by baleen whales (Mysticeti) and multiple lineages of bony and cartilaginous fishes. Among mysticetes, rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) exhibit an intermittent ram filter feeding mode, lunge feeding, which requires the abandonment of body-streamlining in favor of a high-drag, mouth-open configuration aimed at engulfing a very large amount of prey-laden water. Particularly while lunge feeding on krill (the most widespread prey preference among rorquals), the effort required during engulfment involve short bouts of high-intensity muscle activity that demand high metabolic output. We used computational modeling together with morphological and kinematic data on humpback (Megaptera noveaangliae), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) whales to estimate engulfment power output in comparison with standard metrics of metabolic rate. The simulations reveal that engulfment metabolism increases across the full body size of the larger rorqual species to nearly 50 times the basal metabolic rate of terrestrial mammals of the same body mass. Moreover, they suggest that the metabolism of the largest body sizes runs with significant oxygen deficits during mouth opening, namely, 20% over maximum VO2 at the size of the largest blue whales, thus requiring significant contributions from anaerobic catabolism during a lunge and significant recovery after a lunge. Our analyses show that engulfment metabolism is also significantly lower for smaller adults, typically one-tenth to one-half VO2|max. These results not only point to a physiological limit on maximum body size in this lineage, but also have major implications for the ontogeny of extant rorquals as well as the evolutionary pathways used by ancestral toothed whales to transition from hunting individual prey

  12. Metabolic expenditures of lunge feeding rorquals across scale: implications for the evolution of filter feeding and the limits to maximum body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Potvin

    Full Text Available Bulk-filter feeding is an energetically efficient strategy for resource acquisition and assimilation, and facilitates the maintenance of extreme body size as exemplified by baleen whales (Mysticeti and multiple lineages of bony and cartilaginous fishes. Among mysticetes, rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae exhibit an intermittent ram filter feeding mode, lunge feeding, which requires the abandonment of body-streamlining in favor of a high-drag, mouth-open configuration aimed at engulfing a very large amount of prey-laden water. Particularly while lunge feeding on krill (the most widespread prey preference among rorquals, the effort required during engulfment involve short bouts of high-intensity muscle activity that demand high metabolic output. We used computational modeling together with morphological and kinematic data on humpback (Megaptera noveaangliae, fin (Balaenoptera physalus, blue (Balaenoptera musculus and minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whales to estimate engulfment power output in comparison with standard metrics of metabolic rate. The simulations reveal that engulfment metabolism increases across the full body size of the larger rorqual species to nearly 50 times the basal metabolic rate of terrestrial mammals of the same body mass. Moreover, they suggest that the metabolism of the largest body sizes runs with significant oxygen deficits during mouth opening, namely, 20% over maximum VO2 at the size of the largest blue whales, thus requiring significant contributions from anaerobic catabolism during a lunge and significant recovery after a lunge. Our analyses show that engulfment metabolism is also significantly lower for smaller adults, typically one-tenth to one-half VO2|max. These results not only point to a physiological limit on maximum body size in this lineage, but also have major implications for the ontogeny of extant rorquals as well as the evolutionary pathways used by ancestral toothed whales to transition from hunting

  13. Body mass of wild Bornean orangutans living in human-dominated landscapes: Implications for understanding their ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayadin, Yaya; Spehar, Stephanie N

    2015-06-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of a species' ecology, including locomotion, foraging strategies, and energetics. Accurate information on the body mass of wild primates allows us to develop explanatory models for relationships among body size, ecology, and behavior and is crucial for reconstructing the ecology and behavior of fossil primates and hominins. Information on body mass can also provide indirect information on health and can be an important tool for conservation in the context of increasingly widespread habitat disturbance. This study reports body mass data recorded for wild Northeast Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) during relocation efforts in forestry and oil palm plantations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The average mass of flanged adult males (n = 12, 74 ± 9.78 kg) and adult females (n = 7, 35.29 ± 7.32 kg) from this study were 13.6% and 9% lower, respectively, than the only other published wild Bornean orangutan body mass measurements, but the range of weights for both males and females was larger for this study. This pattern could be due to sampling error, data collection differences, or the influence of habitat disturbance, specifically a lack of access to resources, on individual health. When necessary relocations present the opportunity, we encourage researchers to prioritize the collection of body size data for the purposes of understanding ecology but also as an indirect means of monitoring population viability. As primate habitat becomes increasingly fragmented and altered by humans such data will become critical to our ability to make informed conservation decisions. PMID:25682922

  14. Thermodynamic properties of Fe-S alloys from molecular dynamics modeling: Implications for the lunar fluid core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuskov, Oleg L.; Belashchenko, David K.

    2016-09-01

    Density and sound velocity of Fe-S liquids for the P-T parameters of the lunar core have not been constrained well. From the analysis of seismic wave travel time, Weber et al. (2011) proposed that the lunar core is composed of iron alloyed with ⩽6 wt% of light elements, such as S. A controversial issue in models of planetary core composition concerns whether Fe-S liquids under high pressure - temperature conditions provide sound velocity and density data, which match the seismic model. Here we report the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of iron-sulfur alloys based on Embedded Atom Model (EAM). The results of calculations include caloric, thermal and elastic properties of Fe-S alloys at concentrations of sulfur 0-18 at.%, temperatures up to 2500 K and pressures up to 14 GPa. The effect of sulfur on the elastic properties of Fe-rich melts is most evident in the notably decreased density with added S content. In the MD simulation, the density and bulk modulus KT of liquid Fe-S decrease with increasing sulfur content, while the bulk modulus KS decreases as a whole but has some fluctuations with increasing sulfur content. The sound velocity increases with increasing pressure, but depends weakly on temperature and the concentration of sulfur. For a fluid Fe-S core of the Moon (∼5 GPa/2000 K) with 6-16 at.% S (3.5-10 wt%), the sound velocity and density may be estimated at the level of 4000 m s-1 and 6.25-7.0 g cm-3. Comparison of thermodynamic calculations with the results of interpretation of seismic observations shows good agreement of P-wave velocities in the liquid outer core, while the core density does not match the seismic models. At such concentrations of sulfur and a density by 20-35% higher than the model seismic density, a radius for the fluid outer core should be less than about 330 km found by Weber et al. because at the specified mass and moment of inertia values of the Moon an increase of the core density leads to a decrease of the core

  15. Imaging cross fault multiphase flow using time resolved high pressure-temperature synchrotron fluid tomography: implications for the geological storage of carbon dioxide within sandstone saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seers, Thomas; Andrew, Matthew; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin; Dobson, Kate; Hodgetts, David; Lee, Peter; Menke, Hannah; Singh, Kamaljit; Parsons, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Applied shear stresses within high porosity granular rocks result in characteristic deformation responses (rigid grain reorganisation, dilation, isovolumetric strain, grain fracturing and/or crushing) emanating from elevated stress concentrations at grain contacts. The strain localisation features produced by these processes are generically termed as microfaults (also shear bands), which occur as narrow tabular regions of disaggregated, rotated and/or crushed grains. Because the textural priors that favour microfault formation make their host rocks (esp. porous sandstones) conducive to the storage of geo-fluids, such structures are often abundant features within hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers and potential sites of CO2 storage (i.e. sandstone saline aquifers). The porosity collapse which accompanies microfault formation typically results in localised permeability reduction, often encompassing several orders of magnitude. Given that permeability is the key physical parameter that governs fluid circulation in the upper crust, this petrophysical degradation implicates microfaults as being flow impeding structures which may act as major baffles and/or barriers to fluid flow within the subsurface. Such features therefore have the potential to negatively impact upon hydrocarbon production or CO2 injection, making their petrophysical characterisation of considerable interest. Despite their significance, little is known about the pore-scale processes involved in fluid trapping and transfer within microfaults, particularly in the presence of multiphase flow analogous to oil accumulation, production and CO2 injection. With respect to the geological storage of CO2 within sandstone saline aquifers it has been proposed that even fault rocks with relatively low phyllosilicate content or minimal quartz cementation may act as major baffles or barriers to migrating CO2 plume. Alternatively, as ubiquitous intra-reservoir heterogeneities, micro-faults also have the potential to

  16. Intention to comply with post-exposure management among nurses exposed to blood and body fluids in Taiwan: application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, N-Y; Yeh, S-H; Tsay, S-L; Ma, H-J; Chen, C-H; Pan, S-M; Feng, M-C; Chiang, M-C; Lee, Y-W; Chang, L-H; Jang, J-F

    2011-04-01

    Nurses are at significant risk from occupationally acquired bloodborne virus infections following a needlestick and sharps injury. This study aimed to apply the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict nurses' intention to comply with occupational post-exposure management. A cross-sectional survey was applied to select registered nurses who worked in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-designated hospitals. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire based on the TPB was distributed to 1630 nurses and 1134 (69.5%) questionnaires were returned. From these, a total of 802 nurses (71%) reported blood and body fluid exposure incidents during 2003-2005 and this group was used for analysis. Only 44.6% of the 121 exposed nurses who were prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) by infectious disease doctors returned to the clinic for interim monitoring, and only 56.6% of exposed nurses confirmed their final serology status. Structural equation modelling was used to test the TPB indicating perceived behavioural control (the perception of the difficulty or ease of PEP management, β=0.58), subjective norm (the perception of social pressure to adhere to PEP, β=0.15), and attitudes (β=0.12) were significant direct effects on nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The hypothesised model test indicated that the model fitted with the expected relationships and directions of theoretical constructs [χ(2) (14, N=802)=23.14, P=0.057, GFI=0.987, RMSEA=0.039]. The TPB model constructs accounted for 54% of the variance in nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The TPB is an appropriate model for predicting nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. Healthcare facilities should have policies to decrease the inconvenience of follow-up to encourage nurses to comply with post-exposure management. PMID:21276639

  17. A simple evaluation of numbers of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid under light microscopy. Analysis of 35 pulmonary nodular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1 asbestos body (AB) per ml of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) under light microscopy was defined as AB positive (ABP) and suggests an occupational asbestos exposure. We microscopically evaluated the AB number per one ml of BALF, which we defined as the AB concentration (ABC), using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytocentrifuge slides obtained from 35 patients having pulmonary nodular lesions (20 carcinoma and 15 nonneoplastic disease) and examined the correlation between ABC and clinicopathological data including findings on Helical computed tomography scan (HCTS) and occupational history of asbestos exposure (OHAE). BAL was performed by the standard technique without removing mucous with a gauze filter. AB was microscopically defined as a structure consisting of a core of transparent asbestos surrounded by an iron-protein coat. Twenty of 35 patients were ABP (ABP rate; 57%) and ABC ranged from 0 to 207.98/ml (mean ABC; 11.33/ml). Mean ABC was significantly higher in patients with OHAE (15.04/ml) compared to that in patients without OHAE (3.23/ml). Twenty-two of 35 patients (63%) lacked abnormality on HCTS and among these, 12 patients (55%) were ABP. In 20 pulmonary carcinoma patients, the ABP rate was 85% and ABC ranged from 0 to 31.1/ml (Mean ABC; 2.99/ml). The ABP rate of pulmonary carcinoma patients was 40% (8 patients) and among these, 5 patients (63%) did not show any abnormality on HCTS. In conclusion, our method was simple and useful and should be applied to patients with pulmonary nodular lesions and OHAE, even if there are no abnormalities on HCTS. (author)

  18. Biocompatibility and corrosion behavior of the shape memory NiTi alloy in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to unique properties of NiTi shape memory alloys such as high corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, super elasticity and shape memory behavior, NiTi shape memory alloys are suitable materials for medical applications. Although TiO2 passive layer in these alloys can prevent releasing of nickel to the environment, high nickel content and stability of passive layer in these alloys are very debatable subjects. In this study a NiTi shape memory alloy with nominal composition of 50.7 atom% Ni was investigated by corrosion tests. Electrochemical tests were performed in two physiological environments of Ringer solution and NaCl 0.9% solution. Results indicate that the breakdown potential of the NiTi alloy in NaCl 0.9% solution is higher than that in Ringer solution. The results of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) reveal that low pitting corrosion occurred in Ringer solution compared with NaCl solution at potentiostatic tests. The pH value of the solutions increases after the electrochemical tests. The existence of hydride products in the X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the decrease of the concentration of hydrogen ion in solutions. Topographical evaluations show that corrosion products are nearly same in all samples. The biocompatibility tests were performed by reaction of mouse fibroblast cells (L929). The growth and development of cells for different times were measured by numbering the cells or statistics investigations. The figures of cells for different times showed natural growth of cells. The different of the cell numbers between the test specimen and control specimen was negligible; therefore it may be concluded that the NiTi shape memory alloy is not toxic in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids.

  19. Development of a new multi-analyte assay for the simultaneous detection of opioids in serum and other body fluids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, K; Röhrich, J; Breitmeier, D; Ferner, M; Laufenberg-Feldmann, R; Urban, R

    2015-09-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using electrospray ionization in positive ionization mode was developed for the simultaneous detection of multiple opioid-type drugs in plasma. The presented assay allows the quantitative determination of alfentanil, buprenorphine, codeine, desomorphine, dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, ethylmorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, naloxone, naltrexone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine, pholcodine, piritramide, remifentanil, sufentanil, and tramadol as well as the metabolites 6-monoacetylmorphine, bisnortilidine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, naltrexol, norbuprenorphine, norfentanyl, norpethidine, nortilidine, and O-desmethyltramadol. Serum and blood samples were purified by solid-phase extraction. The analytes were separated on a phenyl-hexyl (100mm) column by formic acid/acetonitrile gradient elution using an UPLC 1290 Infinity coupled with a 6490 Triple Quadrupole mass spectrometer. The limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.6ng/mL and the lower limits of quantification ranged from 0.1 to 2.0ng/mL. The calibration curves were linear between Calibration Levels 1-6 for all 35 substances. Recovery rates ranged between 51 and 88% for all compounds except alfentanil, bisnortilidine, pethidine, and morphine-3-glucuronide. The matrix effect ranged from 86% for ethylmorphine to 105% for desomorphine. Using the validation procedure proposed by the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry, acceptable precision and accuracy data for almost all analytes were obtained. The method was successfully applied to 206 authentic serum samples provided by the palliative and intensive care units of the University Medical Center and the police authorities. Furthermore, a suspected fatal intoxication is demonstrated by an analysis of the sufentanil in post mortem body fluids and tissues. PMID:26241181

  20. Determination of solvent thinner components in human body fluids by capillary gas chromatography with trapping at low oven temperature for headspace samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, X P; Kumazawa, T; Sato, K; Watanabe, K; Seno, H; Suzuki, O

    1998-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method is presented for determination of solvent thinner components in human body fluids by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with a low oven temperature for trapping headspace vapor components. After heating a blood or urine sample containing ethyl acetate, benzene, butan-1-ol, toluene, butyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and ethylbenzene (internal standard) in a 7.5 ml vial at 90 degrees C for 30 min, 5 ml of headspace vapor were drawn into a glass syringe. All vapor was introduced through an injection port in the splitless mode into a DB-624 medium-bore capillary column at a 5 degrees C oven temperature for trapping the volatile compounds, and the oven temperature was programmed up to 110 degrees C for their detection by GC. These conditions gave sharp peaks, a good separation of each peak and low background noise for both whole blood and urine samples. As much as 3.58-55.1 and 3.52-57.9% of the six compounds, which had been added to vials, could be introduced to the GC instrument for whole blood and urine, respectively. The intra-day RSD values in terms of the introduction rate (net recovery) of the six compounds in whole blood and urine samples were < or = 8.1%. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range 0.78-400 ng per 0.5 ml whole blood or urine. The detection limits were 0.5-5 ng per 0.5 ml. The data on toluene in post mortem blood in an actual case are also presented. PMID:9581030

  1. In vitro investigation of biodegradable polymeric coating for corrosion resistance of Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A silane-based biodegradable coating was developed and investigated to improve corrosion resistance of an Mg-6Zn-Ca magnesium alloy to delay the biodegradation of the alloy in the physiological environment. Conditions were optimized to develop a stable and uniform hydroxide layer on the alloys surface—known to facilitate silane-substrate adhesion. A composite coating of two silanes, namely, diethylphosphatoethyltriethoxysilane (DEPETES) and bis-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl] tetrasulfide (BTESPT), was developed, by the sol-gel route. Corrosion resistance of the coated alloy was characterized in a modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF), using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The silane coating provided significant and durable corrosion resistance. During the course of this, hydrogen evolution and pH variation, if any, were monitored for both bare and coated alloys. The coating morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and the cross-linking in the coating was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, an important finding was the presence of hydrated magnesium phosphate on the sample that was subjected to immersion in m-SBF for 216 h. Magnesium phosphate is reported to support osteoblast formation and tissue healing. - Highlights: • A silane-based coating was investigated for improving corrosion resistance. • Coating was developed on Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy to delay its biodegradation in m-SBF. • Corrosion resistance was characterized, using polarization and EIS. • The coating morphology was characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD and FTIR. • 1:4 volume ratio of DEPETES:BTESPT showed significant corrosion resistance

  2. In vitro investigation of biodegradable polymeric coating for corrosion resistance of Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Swati, E-mail: gaurswat@gmail.com [IITB–Monash Research Academy, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Singh Raman, R.K. [Department of Mechanical, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Khanna, A.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-09-01

    A silane-based biodegradable coating was developed and investigated to improve corrosion resistance of an Mg-6Zn-Ca magnesium alloy to delay the biodegradation of the alloy in the physiological environment. Conditions were optimized to develop a stable and uniform hydroxide layer on the alloys surface—known to facilitate silane-substrate adhesion. A composite coating of two silanes, namely, diethylphosphatoethyltriethoxysilane (DEPETES) and bis-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl] tetrasulfide (BTESPT), was developed, by the sol-gel route. Corrosion resistance of the coated alloy was characterized in a modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF), using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The silane coating provided significant and durable corrosion resistance. During the course of this, hydrogen evolution and pH variation, if any, were monitored for both bare and coated alloys. The coating morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and the cross-linking in the coating was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, an important finding was the presence of hydrated magnesium phosphate on the sample that was subjected to immersion in m-SBF for 216 h. Magnesium phosphate is reported to support osteoblast formation and tissue healing. - Highlights: • A silane-based coating was investigated for improving corrosion resistance. • Coating was developed on Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy to delay its biodegradation in m-SBF. • Corrosion resistance was characterized, using polarization and EIS. • The coating morphology was characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD and FTIR. • 1:4 volume ratio of DEPETES:BTESPT showed significant corrosion resistance.

  3. A sensitive and semi-quantitative method for determination of multi-drug residues in animal body fluids using multiplex dipstick immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuaijuan; Zhou, Tianjiao; Yin, Bingjie; He, Pingli

    2016-07-13

    The objective of this research was to develop a multiplex dipstick immunoassay method for the simultaneous determination of multi-veterinary drug residues, such as β-agonists, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in milk, urine, and serum. The multiplex dipstick assay format was based on an indirect competitive approach: Three test lines (different antigens) and one control line (goat anti-mouse IgG) were located on the strip membrane. Labeled antibodies were freeze-dried in microwells. Samples did not require pretreatment and could be directly analyzed within 10 min. Threshold levels in different sample matrices were visually estimated at 0.3-0.45 ng mL(-1) for clenbuterol; 3-4 ng mL(-1) for sulfadiazine; and 4.5-6 ng mL(-1) for tetracycline, respectively. The linear relationship between the concentrations of veterinary drug residues and the Au nanoparticles plasmon absorbance allowed quantitative determination of these veterinary drug residues. The recoveries of clenbuterol, sulfadiazine and tetracycline in spiked samples ranged from 78.4% to 112.6%, and the relative standard deviations were below 11.2%. Analysis of animal samples suggested that the proposed multiplex dipstick assay method was consistent with the LC-MS/MS method. The percentage of false results was less than or equal to 5%. Thus, the proposed multiplex dipstick assay is inexpensive, easy-to-use, and suitable for the purposes of rapid and comprehensive screening of 3 families of β-agonists, sulfonamides and tetracyclines including 26 drugs in animal body fluids. PMID:27237838

  4. Lateral ventricular cerebrospinal fluid diffusivity as a potential neuroimaging marker of brain temperature in multiple sclerosis: a hypothesis and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Khader M; Lincoln, John A; Nelson, Flavia M; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2015-04-01

    In this retrospective study we tested the hypothesis that the net effect of impaired electrical conduction and therefore increased heat dissipation in multiple sclerosis (MS) results in elevated lateral ventricular (LV) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diffusivity as a measure of brain temperature estimated in vivo using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We used validated DTI-based segmentation methods to obtain normalized LV-CSF volume and its corresponding CSF diffusivity in 108 MS patients and 103 healthy controls in the age range of 21-63 years. The LV CSF diffusivity was ~2% higher in MS compared to controls that correspond to a temperature rise of ~1°C that could not be explained by changes in the CSF viscosity due to altered CSF protein content in MS. The LV diffusivity decreased with age in healthy controls (r=-0.29; p=0.003), but not in MS (r=0.15; p=0.11), possibly related to MS pathology. Age-adjusted LV diffusivity increased with lesion load (r=0.518; p=1×10(-8)). Our data suggest that the total brain lesion load is the primary contributor to the increase in LV CSF diffusivity in MS. These findings suggest that LV diffusivity is a potential in vivo biomarker of the mismatch between heat generation and dissipation in MS. We also discuss limitations and possible confounders. PMID:25485790

  5. Scaling and geometric properties of extensional fracture systems in the proterozoic basement of Yemen. Tectonic interpretation and fluid flow implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Garzic, Edouard; de L'Hamaide, Thibaut; Diraison, Marc; Géraud, Yves; Sausse, Judith; de Urreiztieta, Marc; Hauville, Benoît; Champanhet, Jean-Michel

    2011-04-01

    Multi-scale mappings of fracture systems in the crystalline basement of Yemen are presented. Fracture datasets are described through statistical analyses of direction, length, spacing, density, and spatial distribution. Results are combined with field observations and can be directly used to model the geometry of the fracture networks in analog basement rocks, from multi-kilometric to decametric scales. The fractured reservoir analog is defined with a dual porosity model in which tectonic and joint systems correspond to the basement reservoir "backbone" and "matrix" respectively. These two end-members reveal contrasting geometrical, reservoir, and scaling properties. In tectonic systems, multi-scale geometries are "self-similar", the fracture network shows fractal behavior (power-law length distribution and clustered spacing), and fault zones show hierarchical organization of geometrical parameters such as length, thickness, and spacing. In joint systems, the fracture network is scale dependent with exponential length distribution, and shows anti-clustered spacing. However, these two end-members have both well-connected properties, with fault zones acting as main drain and joint systems acting as the fluid supply.

  6. Measurement of {sup 40}K as an indicator of body potassium: Implication for diabetes and other disease conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniyan, C.G.; Mohan, G.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Sujata, R.; Haridasan, P.P.; Khan, A.H

    2003-07-01

    Potassium (K) content in 408 male workers of a rare earths processing plant was estimated using a shadow shield whole body counter. The average K content in the non-vegetarian and vegetarian group was found to be 1.5 g kg{sup -1} and 2.1 g kg{sup -1} respectively. The absorbed dose due to {sup 40}K works out to 0.18 {+-} 0.02 mGy. While the K content was found to be proportional to body build index, it is inversely proportional to slenderness. Body K was maximum in the middle aged group (35-45 y) and minimum in younger and older persons. The correlation of potassium content with some disease patterns were also studied. Diabetes mellitus patients were observed to have low K content of 0.9 {+-} 0.2 g kg{sup -1} and those who suffer from cardiovascular disorders were found to have high K content 2.7 {+-} 0.3 g kg{sup -1}. The studies showed that the depletion of body K content takes place a few years prior to the clinical detection of diabetes and it builds up a few years before the clinical detection of cardiovascular disorders. It is stressed that the medical information is preliminary as the number of subjects studied was not very large. Wider and in depth study by various groups can hopefully strengthen the observation. (author)

  7. Measurement of 40K as an indicator of body potassium: Implication for diabetes and other disease conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium (K) content in 408 male workers of a rare earths processing plant was estimated using a shadow shield whole body counter. The average K content in the non-vegetarian and vegetarian group was found to be 1.5 g kg-1 and 2.1 g kg-1 respectively. The absorbed dose due to 40K works out to 0.18 ± 0.02 mGy. While the K content was found to be proportional to body build index, it is inversely proportional to slenderness. Body K was maximum in the middle aged group (35-45 y) and minimum in younger and older persons. The correlation of potassium content with some disease patterns were also studied. Diabetes mellitus patients were observed to have low K content of 0.9 ± 0.2 g kg-1 and those who suffer from cardiovascular disorders were found to have high K content 2.7 ± 0.3 g kg-1. The studies showed that the depletion of body K content takes place a few years prior to the clinical detection of diabetes and it builds up a few years before the clinical detection of cardiovascular disorders. It is stressed that the medical information is preliminary as the number of subjects studied was not very large. Wider and in depth study by various groups can hopefully strengthen the observation. (author)

  8. High School Students' Attitudes and Knowledge of Food Consumption and Body Image: Implications for School Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, U.; Tepper, I.

    1997-01-01

    Nutritional habits, body image, knowledge of nutrition, and attitudes toward obesity, overweight people, and dieting were studied in high school students (N=141) using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics are presented. The students knowledge and sources of knowledge about nutrition are discussed. Recommendations for an…

  9. Challenging Stereotypes of Eating and Body Image Concerns among College Students: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment of Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Dana L.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a study that was conducted to provide better understanding of eating and body image concerns among clients in university counseling centers. First, they explored the prevalence of such concerns among stereotype-congruent (White, heterosexual, female) and stereotype-incongruent groups (e.g., ethnic/sexual minorities, men).…

  10. A comparison of ARMS and direct sequencing for EGFR mutation analysis and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors treatment prediction in body fluid samples of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation is strongly associated with the therapeutic effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Nevertheless, tumor tissue that needed for mutation analysis is frequently unavailable. Body fluid was considered to be a feasible substitute for the analysis, but arising problems in clinical practice such as relatively lower mutation rate and poor clinical correlation are not yet fully resolved. Method In this study, 50 patients (32 pleural fluids and 18 plasmas with TKIs therapy experience and with direct sequencing results were selected from 220 patients for further analysis. The EGFR mutation status was re-evaluated by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS, and the clinical outcomes of TKIs were analyzed retrospectively. Results As compared with direct sequencing, 16 positive and 23 negative patients were confirmed by ARMS, and the other 11 former negative patients (6 pleural fluids and 5 plasmas were redefined as positive, with a fairly well clinical outcome (7 PR, 3 SD, and 1 PD. The objective response rate (ORR of positive patients was significant, 81.3% (direct sequencing and 72.7% (ARMS for pleural fluids, and 80% (ARMS for plasma. Notably, even reclassified by ARMS, the ORR for negative patients was still relatively high, 60% for pleural fluids and 46.2% for plasma. Conclusions When using body fluids for EGFR mutation analysis, positive result is consistently a good indicator for TKIs therapy, and the predictive effect was no less than that of tumor tissue, no matter what method was employed. However, even reclassified by ARMS, the correlation between negative results and clinical outcome of TKIs was still unsatisfied. The results indicated that false negative mutation still existed, which may be settled by using method with sensitivity to single DNA molecule or by optimizing the extraction procedure with RNA or CTC to

  11. Bone scan findings of chest wall pain syndrome after stereotactic body radiation therapy: implications for the pathophysiology of the syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Shane; Decker, Roy H.; Evans, Suzanne B.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 72-year-old woman treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for peripherally located stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After treatment she developed ipsilateral grade II chest wall pain. A bone scan showed nonspecific and heterogeneous increased radiotracer uptake in the volume of ribs receiving 30% of the prescription dose of radiation (V30). We present a color wash image demonstrating excellent concordance between the V30 and the area of scinti...

  12. Relationships between body image, nutritional supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys: implications for prevention programs

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, Zali; O’Dea, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Background Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Methods Participants were 1148 male adolescen...

  13. Swimming strategy and body plan of the world’s largest fish: implications for foraging efficiency and thermoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eMeekan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest animals in the oceans eat prey that are orders of magnitude smaller than themselves, implying strong selection for cost-effective foraging to meet their energy demands. Whale sharks (Rhincodon typus may be especially challenged by warm seas that elevate their metabolism and contain sparse prey resources. Using a combination of biologging and satellite tagging, we show that whale sharks use four strategies to save energy and improve foraging efficiency: 1 fixed, low power swimming, 2 constant low speed swimming, 3 gliding and 4 asymmetrical diving. These strategies increase foraging efficiency by 22 – 32% relative to swimming horizontally and resolve the energy-budget paradox of whale sharks. However, sharks in the open ocean must access food resources that reside in relatively cold waters (up to 20oC cooler than the surface at depths of 250-500 m during the daytime, where long, slow gliding descents, continuous ram ventilation of the gills and filter-feeding could rapidly cool the circulating blood and body tissues. We suggest that whale sharks may overcome this problem through their large size and a specialized body plan that isolates highly vascularized red muscle on the dorsal surface, allowing heat to be retained near the centre of the body within a massive core of white muscle. This could allow a warm-adapted species to maintain enhanced function of organs and sensory systems while exploiting food resources in deep, cool water.

  14. Optimizing whole-body kinematics to minimize valgus knee loading during sidestepping: implications for ACL injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C J; Lloyd, D G; Elliott, B C; Reinbolt, J A

    2012-05-11

    The kinematic mechanisms associated with elevated externally applied valgus knee moments during non-contact sidestepping and subsequent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk are not well understood. To address this issue, the residual reduction algorithm (RRA) in OpenSim was used to create nine subject-specific, full-body (37 degrees of freedom) torque-driven simulations of athletic males performing unplanned sidestep (UnSS) sport tasks. The RRA was used again to produce an optimized kinematic solution with reduced peak valgus knee torques during the weight acceptance phase of stance. Pre-to-post kinematic optimization, mean peak valgus knee moments were significantly reduced by 44.2 Nm (p=0.045). Nine of a possible 37 upper and lower body kinematic changes in all three planes of motion were consistently used during the RRA to decrease peak valgus knee moments. The generalized kinematic strategy used by all nine simulations to reduce peak valgus knee moments and subsequent ACL injury risk during UnSS was to redirect the whole-body center of mass medially, towards the desired direction of travel. PMID:22387123

  15. An evaluation of the environmental implications of petroleum refinery emissions by multielemental neutron activation analysis of rumen fluid ash of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study environmental pollution in and around a petroleum refinery complex, a multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used to assay concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Mo, K, Na, P, Sc, Rb, Se, Sr, W and Zn in the rumen fluid ash sample of buffaloes from the vicinity of the refinery. Corresponding samples from a control area 300 km away from the refinery were analysed. Standard Reference Materials, Bovine liver (SRM 1577a), Oyster tissue (SRM 1566a) and Animal bone (CRM H-5) were also analysed for quality control. Samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons at 1012-1013n cm-2 s-1 and counted by high-resolution γ spectrometry. Mean elemental concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Cr, Hg and Fe were found to be enhanced, whereas those of Na, K, Cl, Cu, Mn and P were depleted in samples from the vicinity of the refinery complex compared to controls. The environmental implications of anomalous elemental concentrations are discussed. (Author)

  16. Temperature - Fluid Pressure controls on the mechanical evolution of shale-carbonate composite gouge: Implications for natural faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, J. C.; Kennedy, L.; Faulkner, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Carbonate and phyllosilicate-rich fault gouges are common in fault zones worldwide, particularly in fold and thrust belts. Limestone-on-shale thrust faults are commonly comprised of a carbonate hangingwall and a shale footwall. Generally a cataclasite develops in both the carbonate and shale materials and between them is a zone of mixing in which the shale cataclasite contains clasts of carbonate cataclasite. Both hangingwall and footwall cataclasites are commonly foliated but the extent of partitioning of strain between shale and carbonate cataclasites is unknown. Frictional sliding experiments were conducted on carbonate and shale composite gouges to examine the effect of gouge composition, temperature (T) and pore fluid pressure (Pf) on the strength, stability, and microstructural evolution of these gouge zones. Triaxial frictional sliding experiments were conducted at a displacement rate of 4.5 µm/s on 20mm diameter by 50mm length cores containing a 1 mm thick, gouge layer coating a 30° angle sawcut. Porous Berea Sandstone (φ ~ 17%) comprised the upper forcing block while impermeable Badshot Dolomite comprised the lower forcing block. The synthetic gouge was a mixture of quartz-bearing phyllosilicate-rich shale (31% quartz, 39% muscovite, 18% clinochlore, 11% feldspar) and reagent grade calcite powder (80% calcite, 20% dolomite). Experiments were performed on endmember compositions and on 75%, 50% and 25% mixtures of shale and carbonate. Baseline, room temperature experiments on water saturated (but drained) gouge were conducted at 70 MPa confining pressure (Pc). Under these conditions, the 100% shale gouge is the weakest (μ ~ .65). The 100% carbonate gouge is the strongest (μ ~.87), and the composite gouges are intermediate in strength (μ ~ .7 - .75). All gouge compositions show stable sliding and slight strain hardening. Experiments at 150°C were conducted with a Pf of 15 MPa and a Pc of 85MPa (Pc effective = 70 MPa). Under these conditions, 100% shale

  17. Theory for planetary exospheres: III. Radiation pressure effect on the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem and its implication on planetary atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Beth, Arnaud; Toublanc, Dominique; Dandouras, Iannis; Mazelle, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The planetary exospheres are poorly known in their outer parts, since the neutral densities are low compared with the instruments detection capabilities. The exospheric models are thus often the main source of information at such high altitudes. We present a new way to take into account analytically the additional effect of the stellar radiation pressure on planetary exospheres. In a series of papers, we present with an Hamiltonian approach the effect of the radiation pressure on dynamical trajectories, density profiles and escaping thermal flux. Our work is a generalization of the study by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989). In this third paper, we investigate the effect of the stellar radiation pressure on the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem (CR3BP), called also the photogravitational CR3BP, and its implication on the escape and the stability of planetary exospheres, especially for Hot Jupiters. In particular, we describe the transformation of the equipotentials and the location of the Lagrange points, an...

  18. The Growth of Magma Bodies by Amalgamation of Discrete Sheet Intrusions: Implications for the Formation of Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annen, C.

    2007-12-01

    Until recently, igneous bodies (plutons and magma chambers) were commonly considered to be approximately spherical bodies, rapidly emplaced into the crust. However, field, structural, geophysical, and geochronological studies indicate that many plutons are low aspect-ratio tabular bodies (sills) that are formed by the amalgamation of successive discrete magma pulses. The thermal evolution of an igneous body that grows by accretion of thin magma sheets is fundamentally different from the evolution of a rapidly emplaced magma sphere or of a single thick magma sill. In thin sheet intrusions, the heat loss is through the walls of the sheets and the temperatures within the intrusions do not depend on the volumes injected but on the one-dimension sheets emplacement rate. The first sheets injected in a cold crust rapidly cool down and solidify. The ability of successive intrusions to stay at high temperature and eventually build up a long-lived magma chamber is controlled by the emplacement rate. Heat transfer modeling applied in the context of a volcanic arc shows that average emplacement rates of at least several centimeters per year and an incubation time of tens thousands of years are needed for a persistent magma chamber to form. During the incubation time, the intrusions solidify and when a chamber of high melt fraction magma eventually grows, the volume of eruptible magma only form a small part of the total intruded volume. The emplacement rate of plutons is controversial. Geochronological data suggest that some plutons may be emplaced over millions years. For a pluton that is assembled at a slow rate of a few millimeters per year, millions of years are needed, over which kilometric thicknesses are intruded, before a volume of magma larger than the size of a single intrusion becomes mobile and eruptible. In many cases, volcanic products may come from a deep source without being associated with a long-lived upper crust magma chamber. If volcanism is associated with

  19. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Z. Orta-Flores; C. Nolasco-Hipólito; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses...

  20. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2009-01-01

    , and . Only did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to . The opposite occurred in group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The responses were similar to , with the exception of food consumption. In both and groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents.

  1. Methanol incorporation in clathrate hydrates and the implications for oil and gas pipeline flow assurance and icy planetary bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kyuchul; Udachin, Konstantin A.; Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Leek, Donald M.; Alavi, Saman; Ratcliffe, Christopher I.; Ripmeester, John A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the best-known uses of methanol is as antifreeze. Methanol is used in large quantities in industrial applications to prevent methane clathrate hydrate blockages from forming in oil and gas pipelines. Methanol is also assigned a major role as antifreeze in giving icy planetary bodies (e.g., Titan) a liquid subsurface ocean and/or an atmosphere containing significant quantities of methane. In this work, we reveal a previously unverified role for methanol as a guest in clathrate hydrate c...

  2. Herbivory and body size: allometries of diet quality and gastrointestinal physiology, and implications for herbivore ecology and dinosaur gigantism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Clauss

    Full Text Available Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM.

  3. Space Weathering of Ordinary Chondrite Parent Bodies, Its Impact on the Method of Distinguishing H, L, and LL Types and Implications for Itokawa Samples Returned by the Hayabusa Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, T.; Sasaki, S.; Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    As the most abundance meteorites in our collections, ordinary chondrites potentially have very important implications on the origin and formation of our Solar System. In order to map the distribution of ordinary chondrite-like asteroids through remote sensing, the space weathering effects of ordinary chondrite parent bodies must be addressed through experiments and modeling. Of particular importance is the impact on distinguishing different types (H/L/LL) of ordinary chondrites. In addition, samples of asteroid Itokawa returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft may re veal the mechanism of space weathering on an LLchondrite parent body. Results of space weathering simulations on ordinary chondrites and implications for Itokawa samples are presented here.

  4. Safety implications of high-field MRI: actuation of endogenous magnetic iron oxides in the human body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dobson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanners have become ubiquitous in hospitals and high-field systems (greater than 3 Tesla are becoming increasingly common. In light of recent European Union moves to limit high-field exposure for those working with MRI scanners, we have evaluated the potential for detrimental cellular effects via nanomagnetic actuation of endogenous iron oxides in the body. METHODOLOGY: Theoretical models and experimental data on the composition and magnetic properties of endogenous iron oxides in human tissue were used to analyze the forces on iron oxide particles. PRINCIPAL FINDING AND CONCLUSIONS: Results show that, even at 9.4 Tesla, forces on these particles are unlikely to disrupt normal cellular function via nanomagnetic actuation.

  5. Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Body Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Endurance Athletes during The Course of Treadmill Exercise Performed at 30 °C for 90 minute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pense

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on body fluid and electrolyte balancein endurance athletes during the course of treadmill exercise performed at 30C for 90min. 9 elit level male long-distance runnerwere participated to this study (age: x = 18,7 ±1,3 years, height: x = 170,7±5,2 cm, body weight: x = 58,8±6,6 kg, VO2max:63,94±3,04 ml.kg-1. First, VO2max of the subjects were determined with an incremental treadmill running protocol. In a randomized,double-blind cross over experimental design subjects were tested three times with 3 days intervals (wash out following ingestion of20 ml.kg-1BW of three different mixture of solutions: 1 diluted sports drink with 1.2 gr.kg-1BW glycerol (GS 2 diluted sports drink(SP and 3 aspartame flavored distilled water (WS. Exercise trials were conducted at an exercise intensity of 65% maximal oxygenconsumption (VO2max for 90 min at 30±1.8C and 25-35% relative humidity. Blood and urin samples were collected pre and postfluid ingestion, at the 30th, 60th and 90th min of exercise trials to determine body fluid and electrolyte balance. Data were analyzedusing two-way (treatmentxtime analyses of variance (ANOVA. Significance level was defined as p0.05. Inconclusion, glycerol-induced hyperhydration has no advantage compared to the other solutions ingested on body fluid andelectrolyte balance in endurance athletes during 90 min of treadmill run.

  6. Cyanobacterial Toxic and Bioactive Peptides in Freshwater Bodies of Greece: Concentrations, Occurrence Patterns, and Implications for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Gkelis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms represent one of the most conspicuous waterborne microbial hazards in aquatic environments mostly due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites, mainly microcystins (MCs. Other bioactive peptides are frequently found in cyanobacterial blooms, yet their concentration and ecological relevance is still unknown. In this paper we studied the presence and concentration of cyanobacterial peptides (microcystins, anabaenopeptins, anabaenopeptilides in 36 Greek freshwater bodies, using HPLC-DAD, ELISA, and PP1IA. Microcystins were found in more than 90% of the samples investigated, indicating that microcystin-producing strains seem to also occur in lakes without blooms. Microcystins MC-RR, MC-LR, and MC-YR were the main toxin constituents of the bloom samples. Anabaenopeptin A and B were predominant in some samples, whereas anabaenopeptolide 90A was the only peptide found in Lake Mikri Prespa. The intracellular concentrations of anabaenopeptins produced by cyanobacterial bloom populations are determined for the first time in this study; the high (>1000 µg·L−1 anabaenopeptin concentration found indicates there may be some impacts, at least on the ecology and the food web structure of the aquatic ecosystems. The maximum intracellular MC values measured in Lakes Kastoria and Pamvotis, exceeding 10,000 µg·L−1, are among the highest reported.

  7. "Women's bodies are shops": beliefs about transactional sex and implications for understanding gender power and HIV prevention in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Fenwick, Angela; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Stones, William

    2011-02-01

    Although transactional sex has been linked to undesirable sexual health outcomes, there is a lack of clarity as to the meaning of the practice, which appears to extend beyond behaviors related to women's economic circumstances. This article explored the perspectives of parents and unmarried young people on motivations for, and beliefs about, transactional sex in rural Tanzania using an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus groups and 46 in-depth interviews with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/caregivers. Transactional sex was widely accepted by both parents and young people. Male parents equated sexual exchange to buying meat from a butcher and interpreted women's demand for exchange before sex with personal power. Young men referred to transactional sex as the easiest way to get a woman to satisfy their sexual desires while also proving their masculinity. Young women perceived themselves as lucky to be created women as they could exploit their sexuality for pleasure and material gain. They felt men were stupid for paying for "goods" (vagina) they could not take away. Mothers were in agreement with their daughters. Although young women saw exploitation of the female body in positive terms, they were also aware of the health risks but ascribed these to bad luck. Interventions aimed at tackling transactional sex in the interests of women's empowerment and as a strategy for HIV prevention need to understand the cultural beliefs associated with the practice that may make it thrive despite the known risks. PMID:20652390

  8. Hydrodynamics of the interaction between bodies in a viscous fluid in the vicinity of their contact at low and high Reynolds numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrov, A. G.; Kharlamov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-191. ISSN 0015-4628 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Grant ostatní: Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 11-01-00535; Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 11-01-00857; Target Analytical Program; Development of the Scientific Potential of the Higher School(RU) 2.1.2/3604 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : lubrication layer theory * viscous and inviscid fluids * thin layer * contact vicinity Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.320, year: 2013

  9. Dosimetric Implications of an Injection of Hyaluronic Acid for Preserving the Rectal Wall in Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Udrescu, Corina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Tanguy, Ronan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Ruffion, Alain [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Sotton, Marie-Pierre [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Devonec, Marian [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Colombel, Marc [Department of Urology, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the contribution of ahyaluronic acid (HA) injection between the rectum and the prostate to reducing the dose to the rectal wall in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: As part of a phase 2 study of hypofractionated radiation therapy (62 Gy in 20 fractions), the patients received a transperineal injection of 10 cc HA between the rectum and the prostate. A dosimetric computed tomographic (CT) scan was systematically performed before (CT1) and after (CT2) the injection. Two 9-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy-SBRT plans were optimized for the first 10 patients on both CTs according to 2 dosage levels: 5 × 6.5 Gy (PlanA) and 5 × 8.5 Gy (PlanB). Rectal wall parameters were compared with a dose–volume histogram, and the prostate–rectum separation was measured at 7 levels of the prostate on the center line of the organ. Results: For both plans, the average volume of the rectal wall receiving the 90% isodose line (V90%) was reduced up to 90% after injection. There was no significant difference (P=.32) between doses received by the rectal wall on CT1 and CT2 at the base of the prostate. This variation became significant from the median plane to the apex of the prostate (P=.002). No significant differences were found between PlanA without HA and PlanB with HA for each level of the prostate (P=.77, at the isocenter of the prostate). Conclusions: HA injection significantly reduced the dose to the rectal wall and allowed a dose escalation from 6.5 Gy to 8.5 Gy without increasing the dose to the rectum. A phase 2 study is under way in our department to assess the rate of acute and late rectal toxicities when SBRT (5 × 8.5 Gy) is combined with an injection of HA.

  10. Dosimetric Implications of an Injection of Hyaluronic Acid for Preserving the Rectal Wall in Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study assessed the contribution of ahyaluronic acid (HA) injection between the rectum and the prostate to reducing the dose to the rectal wall in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: As part of a phase 2 study of hypofractionated radiation therapy (62 Gy in 20 fractions), the patients received a transperineal injection of 10 cc HA between the rectum and the prostate. A dosimetric computed tomographic (CT) scan was systematically performed before (CT1) and after (CT2) the injection. Two 9-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy-SBRT plans were optimized for the first 10 patients on both CTs according to 2 dosage levels: 5 × 6.5 Gy (PlanA) and 5 × 8.5 Gy (PlanB). Rectal wall parameters were compared with a dose–volume histogram, and the prostate–rectum separation was measured at 7 levels of the prostate on the center line of the organ. Results: For both plans, the average volume of the rectal wall receiving the 90% isodose line (V90%) was reduced up to 90% after injection. There was no significant difference (P=.32) between doses received by the rectal wall on CT1 and CT2 at the base of the prostate. This variation became significant from the median plane to the apex of the prostate (P=.002). No significant differences were found between PlanA without HA and PlanB with HA for each level of the prostate (P=.77, at the isocenter of the prostate). Conclusions: HA injection significantly reduced the dose to the rectal wall and allowed a dose escalation from 6.5 Gy to 8.5 Gy without increasing the dose to the rectum. A phase 2 study is under way in our department to assess the rate of acute and late rectal toxicities when SBRT (5 × 8.5 Gy) is combined with an injection of HA

  11. Magnesium-rich minerals in sediment and suspended particulates of South Florida water bodies: implications for turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W G; Fisher, M M; Cao, X; Osborne, T; Ellis, L

    2007-01-01

    Fine sediments in shallow water bodies such as Lake Okeechobee are prone to resuspension. Predominantly inorganic "mud" sediment that covers approximately 670 km2 of the lake has been recognized as a persistent source of turbidity. The objective of this study was to determine if mineral components of sediments in Lake Okeechobee and water conveyances of the northern Everglades also occur as suspended sediment and hence constitute a potential abiotic contributor to turbidity. Sediment samples were collected from nine stations within the lake and eight locations north of Water Conservation Area 2A in the Everglades. Water samples were also collected at selected locations. The silt and clay mineralogy of sediment and suspended particles was determined using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray elemental microanalysis, and high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Clay fractions of the lake sediment contained the Mg silicate minerals sepiolite and palygorskite, along with smectite, dolomite, calcite, and kaolinite. Sediment silt fractions were dominated by carbonates and/or quartz, with smaller amounts of Ca phosphates and sepiolite. Mineralogy of the mud sediment was similar to that reported for geologic phosphate deposits. This suggests that the mud sediment might have accumulated by stream transport of minerals from these deposits. Suspended solids and mud-sediment mineralogy were similar, except that smectite was more abundant in suspended solids. Everglade samples also contained Mg-rich minerals. The small size, low density, and fibrous or platy nature of the prevalent mud sediment minerals make them an abiotic, hydrodynamically sensitive source of persistent turbidity in a shallow lake. Mitigation efforts focused exclusively on P-induced biogeochemical processes do not address the origin or effects of these minerals. Ecological management issues such as turbidity control, P retention, geologic P input

  12. Exploration for Standing Bodies of Water on Mars: When Were They There, Where did They go, and What are the Implications for Astrobiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.

    2001-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor altimetry data (MOLA) have shown that the major topographic features of Mars formed early and have changed little over geologic time. Thus, analysis of topography, slopes and roughness data can test previous hypotheses for standing bodies of water, provide important new information, and explore astrobiological implications of these results. 1) Noachian lakes and oceans: Valley networks, enhanced degradation rates, smooth planer topography, candidate buried channels in the northern lowlands, higher heat flux and thinner cryosphere, all provide evidence for local to regional standing bodies of water; key to their nature and fate is the degree to which Mars was `warm and wet' in the Noachian. 2) South circumpolar deposit meltback: The meltback of an extensive circumpolar ice sheet-like unit in the Hesperian, the Dorsa Argentea Formation, formed drainage channels and extensive lakes in adjacent craters and depressions; water ultimately drained into the Argyre and Hellas basins. 3) Outflow channels and the northern lowlands: Evidence exists for large ocean-scale standing bodies of water formed by outflow channel effluent that likely underwent geologically rapid freezing and sublimation; the sublimation residue is preserved as the Vastitas Borealis Formation. 4) Cryospheric seal penetration and outflow: By the Amazonian Period, a global cryosphere apparently existed and communication with subsurface groundwater occurred only locally (e.g., Utopia, Elysium and Amazonis Planitiae) through melting of this global aquitard by magmatic events, such as dikes and sills; outflow events in Amazonis Planitia are interpreted to have occurred as recently as the last several percent of the history of Mars. These geological settings for water suggest liquid water environments changed from surface to dominantly subsurface by the Early Hesperian, and that the following astrobiological environments were potentially important: 1) fluvial, 2) lacustrine, 3) ice (polar

  13. Association between tobacco use and body mass index in urban Indian population: implications for public health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Heema C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index [BMI, weight (kg/height (m2], a measure of relative weight, is a good overall indicator of nutritional status and predictor of overall health. As in many developing countries, the high prevalence of very low BMIs in India represents an important public health risk. Tobacco, smoked in the form of cigarettes or bidis (handmade by rolling a dried rectangular piece of temburni leaf with 0.15–0.25 g of tobacco or chewed, is another important determinant of health. Tobacco use also may exert a strong influence on BMI. Methods The relationship between very low BMI (2 and tobacco use was examined using data from a representative cross-sectional survey of 99,598 adults (40,071 men and 59,527 women carried out in the city of Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay in western India. Participants were men and women aged ≥ 35 years who were residents of the main city of Mumbai. Results All forms of tobacco use were associated with low BMI. The prevalence of low BMI was highest in bidi-smokers (32% compared to 13% in non-users. For smokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were OR = 1.80(1.65 to 1.96 for men and OR = 1.59(1.09 to 2.32 for women, respectively, relative to non-users. For smokeless tobacco and mixed habits (smoking and smokeless tobacco, OR = 1.28(1.19 to 1.38 and OR = 1.83(1.67 to 2.00 for men and OR = 1.50(1.43 to 1.59 and OR = 2.19(1.90 to 3.41 for women, respectively. Conclusion Tobacco use appears to be an independent risk factor for low BMI in this population. We conclude that in such populations tobacco control research and interventions will need to be conducted in concert with nutrition research and interventions in order to improve the overall health status of the population.

  14. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-03-28

    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si. PMID:27036464

  15. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-03-01

    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si.

  16. Non-destructive determination of uranium, thorium and 40K in tobacco and their implication on radiation dose levels to the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Lara, R; Landsberger, S G

    2015-11-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides of (235)U, (238)U and (232)Th and their daughter products are a potential major source of anthropogenic radiation to tobacco smokers. Often overlooked is the presence of (40)K in tobacco and its implication to radiation dose accumulation in the human body. In this study, these three radiation sources have been determined in four typical US cigarettes using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA reactions of (238)U(n,γ)(239)U, (232)Th(n,γ)(233)Th and (41)K(n,γ)(42)K were used to determine (235)U, (238)U and (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The activity of (238)U can easily be determined by epithermal NAA of the (238)U(n,γ)(239)U reaction, and the activity of (235, 234)U can easily be deduced. Using isotopic ratios, the activity due to (40)K was found by the determined concentrations of (41)K (also by epithermal neutrons) in the bulk material. Each gram of total potassium yields 30 Bq of (40)K. The annual effective dose for smokers using 20 cigarettes per day was calculate to be 14.6, 137 and 9 μSv y(-1) for (238,235,) (234)U, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. These values are significantly lower that the dose received from (210)Po except for (232)Th. PMID:25944955

  17. Non-destructive determination of uranium, thorium and 40K in tobacco and their implication on radiation dose levels to the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring radionuclides of 235U, 238U and 232Th and their daughter products are a potential major source of anthropogenic radiation to tobacco smokers. Often overlooked is the presence of 40K in tobacco and its implication to radiation dose accumulation in the human body. In this study, these three radiation sources have been determined in four typical US cigarettes using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA reactions of 238U(n,γ)239U, 232Th(n,γ)233Th and 41K(n,γ)42K were used to determine 235U, 238U and 232Th and 40K, respectively. The activity of 238U can easily be determined by epithermal NAA of the 238U(n,γ)239U reaction, and the activity of 235,234U can easily be deduced. Using isotopic ratios, the activity due to 40K was found by the determined concentrations of 41K (also by epithermal neutrons) in the bulk material. Each gram of total potassium yields 30 Bq of 40K. The annual effective dose for smokers using 20 cigarettes per day was calculated to be 14.6, 137 and 9 μSv y-1 for 238,235,234U, 232Th and 40K, respectively. These values are significantly lower that the dose received from 210Po except for 232Th. (authors)

  18. Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns for improved detection of carboxylic acids in body fluids by electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshvar, M. I.; Brooks, J B; Winstead, R M

    1987-01-01

    Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns were tested for their effectiveness in removing unreacted trichloroethanol (TCE) from derivatized samples for gas-liquid chromatography analysis. Derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of saponified whole cells of Mycobacterium species, spent culture media, and derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of serum and cerebrospinal fluids from patients with tuberculous meningitis were tested. Samples were added to preconditioned reversed-phase chroma...

  19. Fluids preserved in variably altered graphitic pelitic schists in the Dufferin Lake Zone, south-central Athabasca Basin, Canada: implications for graphite loss and uranium deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Marjolaine; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Ansdell, Kevin; Annesley, Irvine R.; Kotzer, Tom; Jiricka, Dan; Cuney, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Athabasca Basin (Canada) contains the highest grade unconformity-type uranium deposits in the world. Underlying the Athabasca Group sedimentary rocks of the Dufferin Lake Zone are variably graphitic, pelitic schists (VGPS), altered to chlorite and hematite (Red/Green Zone: RGZ). They were locally bleached near the unconformity during paleoweathering and/or later fluid interaction. Overall, graphite was lost from the RGZ and the bleached zone relative to the original VGPS. Fluid inclusions were examined in different generations of quartz veins, using microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy, to characterize and compare the different fluids that interacted with the RGZ and the VGPS. In the VGPS, CH4-, and N2-rich fluid inclusions, which homogenize into the vapor phase between -100 and -74 °C, and -152 and -125 °C, respectively, and CO2-rich fluid inclusions, homogenizing either into vapor or liquid between 20 and 28 °C, are present. Carbonic fluids could be the result of the breakdown of graphite to CH4 + CO2, whereas N2-rich fluid is interpreted to be the result of breakdown of feldspars/micas to NH4 ++N2. In the RGZ, the presence of fluid inclusions with low ice melting temperature (-38 to -16 °C) reflect the presence of CaCl2, and fluid inclusions with halite daughter minerals that dissolve between 190 and 240 °C indicate the presence of highly saline fluids. These fluids are interpreted to be derived from the Athabasca Basin. The circulation of carbonic fluids and brines occurred during two different events related to different P-T conditions of trapping. The carbonic fluids interacted with basement rocks during retrograde metamorphism of the basement rocks before deposition of the Athabasca Basin, whereas the brines circulated after the deposition of the Athabasca Basin. These latter fluids are similar to brines related to uranium mineralization at McArthur River and thus, in addition to possibly being related to graphite depletion in the RGZ, they could

  20. 2010年中国CHINET临床分离自无菌体液的细菌分布和耐药性监测%CHINET 2010 surveillance of bacterial distribution and resistance in sterile body fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小江; 陈中举; 胡云建; 艾效曼; 张泓; 孔菁; 贾蓓; 黄文祥; 王传清; 王爱敏; 魏莲花; 徐英春; 吴玲; 卓超; 苏丹虹; 张朝霞; 季萍; 徐元宏; 沈继录; 单斌; 杜艳; 俞云松; 杨青; 汪复; 朱德妹; 倪语星; 孙景勇; 孙自镛

    2012-01-01

    临床治疗造成严重威胁.%Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of the bacteria isolated from cerebrospi-nal fluid and other sterile body fluids from hospitals in several regions of China. Methods Twelve general hospitals and two children's hospitals were involved in this program. Disc diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer method), E-test and MIC determination were employed to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5. 4 software according to CLSI 2010 breakpoints. Results A total of 2 409 nonduplicate clinical isolates were collected from January to December in 2010, of which gram negative organisms and gram positive cocci accounted for 56.2% (1 353/2 409) and 43. 8% (1 056/2 409), respectively. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), B. baumannii, K, pneumoniae, S. aureus and E. coli were the most common bacterial species in cerebrospinal fluid. E. coli, CNS, E. faecium, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated species from other sterile body fluids. About 78.6% and 69,7% of the S. aureus and CNS isolates from cerebrospinal fluid were methicillin resistant, respectively, while 60. 3% and 67. 2% of the S. aureus and CNS strains from other sterile body fluids were methicillin resistant, respectively. No staphylococcal strain was found resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. None of the enterococcal strains from cerebro-spinal fluid was resistant to vancomycin. A total of 17 E. faecium strains from other sterile body fluid were found resistant to vancomycin. ESBLs-producing strains accounted for 62. 5% and 30. 0% in the E. coli and Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca) isolates from cerebrospinal fluid , respectively. About 50. 4% and 27. 3% of the E. coli and Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae , K. oxytoca) isolated from other sterile body fluid were ESBLs-producing strains. Pan-resist ant strains were identified in the A. baumannii (n=10, 18. 2%), K. pneumoniae (n = 8, 27. 6%) and P. aeruginosa {n= 1, 7. 7

  1. Fluid-rock interactions in seismic faults: Implications from the structures and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of drilling cores from the rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qingbao; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Chen, Jianye; Chen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    We describe the structural features and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the fault rocks recovered from boreholes at the Golden River site on the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, which activated and slipped along a 240 km-long main surface rupture zone during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The fault, which accommodated co-seismic slip, cuts granitic rocks from the Pengguan complex, in which this earthquake most likely nucleated. Fault rocks, including cohesive cataclasite, unconsolidated breccia and three fault gouges with distinct colors, were identified from the drilling cores. On-going uplift and erosion in the area means that the fault rocks, formed at different depth, were exhumed to the shallow surface during the uplift history of the Longmenshan fault zone. A clear change from fracturing and comminution in the cataclasites and breccia to more pervasive shear/formation of fine grained materials in the gouges has been observed. The gouges are distinct and have accommodated significant displacement in multiple increments of shear. Furthermore, fault rocks recovered from the boreholes display numerous features indicative of fluid infiltration and fluid-rock interaction. Toward the fault core, clay minerals have replaced feldspars. The element enrichment/depletion patterns of the fault rocks show general fluid infiltration trends, such as 1) mobile elements are generally depleted in the fault rocks, 2) the microstructural, mineralogical and geochemical results of the fault rocks consistently indicate that pervasive fluid infiltration and fluid-rock interactions altered feldspars and mafic minerals to clay minerals. The fluid was Mg2 +- and Fe2 +-rich, facilitating formation of chlorite. Isocon analyses further reveal that a large rock volume has been lost, which is attributed to the removal of mobile elements associated with fluid infiltration and perhaps enhanced by pressure solution. These results reflect the accumulated effects of cataclasis and fluid

  2. Induction of arthritis with Mycoplasma hyosynoviae in pigs: Clinical response and re-isolation of the organism from body fluids and organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Olsen, T.; Nielsen, N.C.; Friis, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    mycoplasma is cultivable from synovial fluids and other tissues. In this article we report on the clinical response to infection and the results obtained from re-isolation attempts. In three inoculation experiments with M. hyosynoviae, clinical arthritis was produced by intravenous and by intranasal exposure...... half of the cases the onset was acute and the lameness severe, Epically involving the hindlegs and with affected pigs assuming a dog-sitting position. A systemic phase was found in the majority (86 %) of the pigs. However, the infection was in two cases established in the tonsils without detection of a...

  3. The Origin, Function and Diagnostic Potential of Extracellular microRNA in Human Body Fluids%人体体液中细胞外microRNA的起源、功能及潜在诊疗价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张甦洋; 谢佳昀; 梁宏伟; 陈熹; 张辰宇

    2013-01-01

    Recently,numerous studies have documented the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) as an essential cornerstone of the genetic system.Once thought as unstable RNA molecules,miRNAs are now known to circulate in the bloodstream and other body fluids in a stable,cell-free form.Importantly,extracellular miRNAs are aberrantly present in plasma,serum and other body fluids during the pathogenesis of many diseases and,thus,are promising noninvasive or minimally invasive biomarkers to assess the pathological status of the body.However,the origin and biological function of extracellular miRNAs remains incompletely understood.In this review,we summarize the recent literature on the biogenesis and working models of extracellular miRNAs,and we highlight the impact of extending these ongoing extracellular miRNA studies to clinical applications.%最近大量的研究表明micro RNAs(miRNAs)是一类重要的调控因子.曾经被认为是非常不稳定的RNA分子——miRNA,却可以稳定存在于血液和其他体液中.更加重要的是,细胞外miRNAs被发现和多种疾病密切相关,它们可以作为诸如肿瘤等各种疾病的非侵入性生物标志物.然而,目前关于细胞外miRNA的来源以及生物学功能还不甚清楚.本文将总结最近细胞外miRNA的研究进展,并将重点介绍细胞外miRNA在疾病诊断及治疗中的作用.

  4. Simulation research on fluid field of limited space around the human body%有限空间人体周围流场的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志刚; 崔红力; 管小荣; 张庆华

    2011-01-01

    As an important content of the research and development of personal health care robot, the contact area, speed and pressure between human skin and circulating water during the process of bath should be taken into consideration, since these parameters have significant impact on the bathing effect. To enhance the effect of auto-bathing and provide research basis for structural design of bath and control strategy of circulating water, the CFD model of the limited space and human body was established based on the statistically significant human size. According to the cycling approach of water flow, and the geometric boundary conditions of bath and human body, the flow field around human body in the bath was dispersed, refining the grid of the flow field around human body. The numerical simulation and computation of three-dimensional flow field, the velocity distribution near the surface of human body and the intake of trace chart under different cycling modes were achieved. The numerical solution of the changing flow field around human body in time and space quantitatively was given, providing reference for structural optimization design and the bathing mode research.%作为个人卫生护理机器人研发的重要内容,在洗浴过程中必须考虑人体皮肤与循环水流的接触面积、速度和压力,因为这些参数对洗浴效果影响较大.为提高自动洗浴效果,为浴槽结构设计和循环水自动控制策略提供研究依据,基于统计意义上的人体尺寸,建立了有限空间和人体的CFD模型.结合水流的循环方式、浴槽和人体的几何边界条件,对浴槽内人体周围的流场进行离散,细化接近人体周围的流场网格.对三维流场进行数值模拟计算,计算出水流不同循环模式作用下,人体近表面的速度分布及各循环模式下进水口的迹线图,在时间和空间上定量给出浴槽内人体周围流场变化的数值解,为结构优化设计和洗浴模式研究提供参考.

  5. Fluid composition and evolution in coesite-bearing rocks (Dora-Maira massif, Western Alps): implications for element recycling during subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Pascal; Chevallier, Pierre; Chopin, Christian; Dubessy, Jean

    1995-08-01

    Fluid inclusions and F, Cl concentration of hydrous minerals were analysed in the coesite-pyrope quartzite, the interlayered jadeite quartzite and their country-rock gneiss from the Dora-Maira massif using a combination of microthermometry, Raman spectrometry, synchrotron X-ray microfiuorescence and electron microprobe analysis. Three populations of fluid inclusions were recognized texturally and can be related to distinct metamorphic stages. A low-salinity aqueous fluid occurs in the retrogressed country gneiss and as late secondary inclusions in jadeite quartzite and chloritized pyrope. An earlier secondary population is found in matrix quartz of the jadeite- and pyro-pe-quartzites. This population can be related to the early decompression and so to incipient breakdown of garnet into phlogopite-bearing assemblages. The inclusion fluid is highly saline (up to 84 wt% equivalent NaCl) and contains Na, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn as major cations. In pyrope quartzite, additional K was found in these brines, which locally coexist with CO2-rich inclusions. The oldest fluid inclusions are preserved in kyanite grains included in fresh pyrope and in pyrope itself. In pyrope, all inclusions have decrepitated and contain magnesite, an Mg-phosphate, sheet-silicate(s), a chloride and an opaque phase, with no fluid preser ved. In contrast, the kyanite inclusions in pyrope preserve primary H2O-CO2 low-salinity fluid inclusions, probably owing to the low compressibility of the kyanite inclusions and host garnet. In spite of in-situ re-equilibration, these inclusions can be interpreted as relics of the dehydration fluid that attended pyrope growth. These correlations between textural and chemical fluid inclusion data and metamorphic stages are consistent with the fluid composition calculated from the halogen content of different generations of phlogopite and biotite. The preservation of different fluid compositions, both in time and space, is evidence for local control and possibly origin

  6. Structure and thermodynamics of a mixture of patchy and spherical colloids: a multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Artee; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    A mixture of solvent particles with short-range, directional interactions and solute particles with short-range, isotropic interactions that can bond multiple times is of fundamental interest in understanding liquids and colloidal mixtures. Because of multi-body correlations predicting the structure and thermodynamics of such systems remains a challenge. Earlier Marshall and Chapman developed a theory wherein association effects due to interactions multiply the partition function for clustering of particles in a reference hard-sphere system. The multi-body effects are incorporated in the clustering process, which in their work was obtained in the absence of the bulk medium. The bulk solvent effects were then modeled approximately within a second order perturbation approach. However, their approach is inadequate at high densities and for large association strengths. Based on the idea that the clustering of solvent in a defined coordination volume around the solute is related to occupancy statistics in that def...

  7. Incursion de fluides dans une zone de cisaillement ductile (Tinos, Cyclades, Grèce) : Mécanismes de circulation et implications tectoniques

    OpenAIRE

    Famin, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Serge Fourcade (rapporteur), Martin Burkhard (rapporteur), Ghislain De Marsily (président), Denis Gapais (examinateur), Dov Avigad (examinateur), Satoru Nakashima (invité) Fluid flow along mid-crustal shear zones has been extensively described on the structural, petrological and chemical aspects. Yet, quantitative parameters of deep fluid circulation, although of considerable importance for a real understanding of lithosphere shearing, are still poorly constrained at the present. We have c...

  8. Simple, inexpensive method of determining total body water using a tracer dose of D2O and infrared absorption of biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved infrared spectrophotometric method using tracer doses of D2O for determination of total body water (TBW) is described. Evaluation of sample preparation procedures showed that only vacuum sublimation yielded acceptable recoveries of D2O standards in the range of 0.01-0.30 mg/ml in urine and plasma (101 +/- 2.5 and 99.6 +/- 2.6%, mean +/- SD, respectively). Oral administration of a 10 g dose of D2O was shown to equilibrate within 2 hr in the saliva and plasma of 10 healthy men and women, including obese (30% body fat) subjects. Calculated TBW was 39.1 +/- 6.4 L which represented 74 +/- 1.6% of the fat free mass determined by hydrodensitometry. The precision of the described infrared method was 2.5%. Based upon the observed sensitivity of this method, it would be possible to administer smaller oral D2O doses, 5-6 g, and obtain reliable TBW values. The practical advantages of this method are low cost and a simple analysis that permits repeated TBW measurements over brief periods without an undue buildup of background deuterium levels in the body

  9. Thermal-chemical-mechanical feedback during fluid-rock interactions: Implications for chemical transport and scales of equilibria in the crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutrow, Barbara

    2008-08-13

    Our research evaluates the hypothesis that feedback amongst thermal-chemical-mechanical processes operative in fluid-rock systems alters the fluid flow dynamics of the system which, in turn, affects chemical transport and temporal and spatial scales of equilibria, thus impacting the resultant mineral textural development of rocks. Our methods include computational experimentation and detailed analyses of fluid-infiltrated rocks from well-characterized terranes. This work focuses on metamorphic rocks and hydrothermal systems where minerals and their textures are utilized to evaluate pressure (P), temperature (T), and time (t) paths in the evolution of mountain belts and ore deposits, and to interpret tectonic events and the timing of these events. Our work on coupled processes also extends to other areas where subsurface flow and transport in porous media have consequences such as oil and gas movement, geothermal system development, transport of contaminants, nuclear waste disposal, and other systems rich in fluid-rock reactions. Fluid-rock systems are widespread in the geologic record. Correctly deciphering the products resulting from such systems is important to interpreting a number of geologic phenomena. These systems are characterized by complex interactions involving time-dependent, non-linear processes in heterogeneous materials. While many of these interactions have been studied in isolation, they are more appropriately analyzed in the context of a system with feedback. When one process impacts another process, time and space scales as well as the overall outcome of the interaction can be dramatically altered. Our goals to test this hypothesis are: to develop and incorporate algorithms into our 3D heat and mass transport code to allow the effects of feedback to be investigated numerically, to analyze fluid infiltrated rocks from a variety of terranes at differing P-T conditions, to identify subtle features of the infiltration of fluids and/or feedback, and

  10. Use of sodC versus ctrA for real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Neisseria meningitidis in sterile body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Takenori Higa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of a newly described sodC-based real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay for detecting Neisseria meningitidis in normally sterile sites, such as cerebrospinal fluid and serum. The sodC-based RT-PCR assay has an advantage over ctrA for detecting nongroupable N. meningitidis isolates, which are commonly present in asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage. However, in our study, sodC-based RT-PCR was 7.5% less sensitive than ctrA. Given the public health impact of possible false-negative results due to the use of the sodC target gene alone, sodC-based RT-PCR for the diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis should be used with caution.

  11. Geochemical characteristics of the fluids and muds from two southern Taiwan mud volcanoes: Implications for water-sediment interaction and groundwater arsenic enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mud volcanoes distributed in the southern part of Taiwan are believed to be sourced from an accretionary prism located along the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea plate and the Asian Continental plate. Fluid and mud samples have been collected from Wushanting and Hsiaokunshui mud volcanoes during October 2004, March and June 2005, and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, and stable isotopes. The results show that the mud volcano fluids are enriched in Na+ and Cl- but are depleted in Ca2+ and Mg2+. The chemical composition and oxidation state of the fluids fluctuate seasonally, with ionic contents being notably higher during the dry pre-monsoon period. The enriched ionic (e.g., Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Cl-) compositions of the exchangeable fractions indicate that the muds were sourced from a marine depositional environment. δD and δ18O values indicate that the mud volcano fluids may have been modified by chemical exchange with 18O-rich crustal rocks and possibly originated from mixing of deep brines with circulating meteoric water. The spatial and temporal distribution of ions in the muds suggests a varied mixing regime within the mud volcanoes. Incubation study of the muds shows the leaching of soluble salts under aerobic conditions, which is generally consistent with the fluid geochemical characteristics. Moreover, elevated trace element (e.g., As, Zn, Cu and Mn) concentrations are also observed in the fluids and muds. Geochemical correlations between As, Zn and Cu in the muds suggest prevailing SO4-reducing conditions at depth. The relatively low Eh values (range: -50 to -30 mV) of the fluids near the surface would favor bacterial Fe reduction and mobilization of As. The dewatering of mud volcanoes may represent a significant source of groundwater As in the nearby Chianan plain.

  12. Modeled Temperatures and Fluid Source Distributions for the Mexico Subduction Zone: Effects of Hydrothermal Cooling and Implications for Plate Boundary Seismic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M. R.; Spinelli, G. A.; Wada, I.

    2014-12-01

    In subduction zones, spatial variations in pore fluid pressure are hypothesized to control the distribution and nature of slip behavior (e.g., "normal" earthquakes, slow slip events, non-volcanic tremor, very low frequency earthquakes) on the plate boundary fault. A primary control on the pore fluid pressure distribution in subduction zones is the distribution of fluid release from hydrous minerals in the subducting sediment and rock. The distributions of these diagenetic and metamorphic fluid sources are controlled by the pressure-temperature paths that the subducting material follows. Thus, constraining subduction zone thermal structure is required to inform conceptual models of seismic behavior. Here, we present results of thermal models for the Mexico subduction zone, a system that has received recent attention due to observations of slow-slip events and non-volcanic tremor. We model temperatures in five margin-perpendicular transects from 96 ˚W to 104 ˚W. In each transect, we examine the potential thermal effects of vigorous fluid circulation in a high permeability aquifer within the basaltic basement of the oceanic crust. In the transect at 100˚W, hydrothermal circulation cools the subducting material by up to 140 ˚C, shifting peak slab dehydration landward by ~100 km relative to previous estimates from models that do not include the effects of fluid circulation. The age of the subducting plate in the trench increases from ~3 Ma at 104 ˚W to ~18 Ma at 96 ˚W; hydrothermal circulation redistributes the most heat (and cools the system the most) where the subducting plate is youngest. For systems with <20 Ma subducting lithosphere, hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust should be considered in estimating subduction zone temperatures and fluid source distributions.

  13. Computational fluid dynamic studies of certain ducted bluff-body flowfields relevant to turbojet combustors. Volume 2: Time-averaged flowfield predictions for a proposed centerbody combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.; Krishnamurthy, L.

    1986-07-01

    The near-wake region in a ducted bluff-body combustor was investigated by finite-difference computations. The numerical predictions are based upon the time-independent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the k-epsilon turbulence model. The steady-state calculations address both nonreacting and reacting flowfields in a novel configuration to more realistically simulate some of the essential features of the primary zone of a gas turbine combustion chamber. This configuration is characterized by turbulent mixing and combustion in the recirculating near-wake region downstream of an axisymmetric bluff body due to two annular air streams--an outer swirl-free flow and an inner swirling flow--and a central fuel jet. The latter contains propane for reacting flows and carbon dioxide for nonreacting flows. In view of the large number of geometrical and flow parameters involved, the reported results are concerned with only a limited parametric examination with the major emphasis being on nonreacting flows. Questions addressed for a particular set of geometric parameters include the effects of variation of mass flow rates in all three streams and the influence of swirl in the middle stream. Reacting computations investigate the influence of swirl on combustion, as well as that of combustion on the flowfield.

  14. Conditions of Mytilus edulis extracellular body fluids and shell composition in a pH-treatment experiment: Acid-base status, trace elements and δ11B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Agnes; Fietzke, Jan; Melzner, Frank; BöHm, Florian; Thomsen, JöRn; Garbe-SchöNberg, Dieter; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Mytilus edulis were cultured for 3 months under six different seawater pCO2 levels ranging from 380 to 4000 μatm. Specimen were taken from Kiel Fjord (Western Baltic Sea, Germany) which is a habitat with high and variable seawater pCO2 and related shifts in carbonate system speciation (e.g., low pH and low CaCO3 saturation state). Hemolymph (HL) and extrapallial fluid (EPF) samples were analyzed for pH and total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) to calculate pCO2 and [HCO3-]. A second experiment was conducted for 2 months with three different pCO2 levels (380, 1400 and 4000 μatm). Boron isotopes (δ11B) were investigated by LA-MC-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Multicollector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) in shell portions precipitated during experimental treatment time. Additionally, elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF of specimen from the second experiment were measured via ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry). Extracellular pH was not significantly different in HL and EPF but systematically lower than ambient water pH. This is due to high extracellular pCO2 values, a prerequisite for metabolic CO2 excretion. No accumulation of extracellular [HCO3-] was measured. Elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF increased slightly with pH which is in accordance with increasing growth and calcification rates at higher seawater pH values. Boron isotope ratios were highly variable between different individuals but also within single shells. This corresponds to a high individual variability in fluid B/Ca ratios and may be due to high boron concentrations in the organic parts of the shell. The mean δ11B value shows no trend with pH but appears to represent internal pH (EPF) rather than ambient water pH.

  15. Genesis of the zinc-lead-barite deposits in the northern Iraq: ore mineralogy, geochemistry, fluid inclusions, lead isotopes and sulfur isotopes implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc - leaed - barite deposits hosted by carbonate rocks are studied mineralogically, geochemically and genetically. These deposits (Lefan, lower Banik, Menin and Upper Banik) locate at the Nortgeren Thrust Zone, Northern Iraq. They consistt of sulfides as sphalerite, galena and pyrite, and sulfates as barite. Fluid inclusions observed in barite contain heavy oil associated with aqueous chloride-rich fluids (13% -15.5% wt equv. NaC1). The temperature of formation of barite is suggested to be 50-60 degree. The sulfur isotope composition (δ34S) of early generated galena is 0.36 per mil. This value is close to the hydrothermal magmatic sulfur origin. The δ34S of late generated galena is 6.41 per mil. This value indicates that the hydrothermal magmatic fluids were partially mixeed with oilfield brine connate waters. The δ34S of barite ranges from 16.64 to 24.23 per mil. These values indicate high isotopeic fractionation that caused by descending meteoric waters which diluted the ascending ore-bearing fluids. The lead isotope compostion (204pb, 206pb, 207pb and 208pb) of galeana has revealed that lead was derived from the crust reservoir. Ore metals (Zn, Pb, Fe, and Ba) may have been originated from oilfield brine waters that may have partially been mixed with the hydrothermal fluids of magmatic origin that supplied sulfur. These fluides have migrated upward as chloride and sulfide complexes along fractures and faults possibly after crustal extension and rifting during Alpine orogeny in the Paleocene. Zinc - lead - barite deposits could be classified as epithermal, eigenetic strata-bound of Mississippi Vally type (MVT) deposits, lithologically and structurally controlled within Cretaceous carbonates. (authors).

  16. Multi-stage barites in partially melted UHP eclogite: implications for fluid/melt activities during deep continental subduction in the Sulu orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songjie; Wang, Lu

    2015-04-01

    Barite (BaSO4) is well-known from deep-sea sedimentary environments but has received less attention to its presence in high-grade metamorphic rocks. Recently, barite in ultrahigh pressure (UHP) eclogite has drawn increasing attention from geologists, especially in the Dabie-Sulu orogen, since it is an important indicator for high-salinity fluid events, thus aiding in further understanding HP-UHP fluid / melt evolution. However, its formation time and mechanism in UHP eclogite are still controversial, with three representative viewpoints: (1) Liu et al. (2000) found barite-anhydrite-coesite inclusions in zircon and interpreted them to have formed by UHP metamorphic fluids; (2) Zeng et al. (2007) recognized isolated barite within K-feldspar (Kfs) and Quartz (Qz) surrounded by radial cracks in omphacite, and interpreted Kfs+Qz to be reaction products of potassium-rich fluid/melt and coesite, with the barite formed by prograde metamorphic fluids; (3) Gao et al. (2012) and Chen et al. (2014) found barite-bearing Multiphase Solid (MS) inclusions within garnet and omphacite and assumed that the barite formed by phengite breakdown possibly caused by eclogite partial melting during exhumation, though no direct evidence were proposed. The controversy above is mainly due to the lack of direct formation evidence and absence of a clear link with the metamorphic evolution of UHP eclogite along the subduction-exhumation path. We report detailed petrological and micro-structural analyses revealing four types of barites clearly linked with (1) the prograde, (2) earlier stage of partial melting and (3) later stage of crystallization differentiation, as well as (4) high-grade amphibolite-facies retrogression of a deeply subducted and partially melted intergranular coesite-bearing eclogite from Yangkou Bay, Sulu Orogen. Round barite inclusions (type-I) within UHP-stage garnet and omphacite are formed by internally buffered fluids from mineral dehydration during prograde metamorphism

  17. Laboratory triggering of stick-slip events by oscillatory loading in the presence of pore fluid with implications for physics of tectonic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlow, Noel M.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2012-01-01

    The physical mechanism by which the low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that make up portions of tectonic (also called non-volcanic) tremor are created is poorly understood. In many areas of the world, tectonic tremor and LFEs appear to be strongly tidally modulated, whereas ordinary earthquakes are not. Anomalous seismic wave speeds, interpreted as high pore fluid pressure, have been observed in regions that generate tremor. Here we build upon previous laboratory studies that investigated the response of stick-slip on artificial faults to oscillatory, tide-like loading. These previous experiments were carried out using room-dry samples of Westerly granite, at one effective stress. Here we augment these results with new experiments on Westerly granite, with the addition of varying effective stress using pore fluid at two pressures. We find that raising pore pressure, thereby lowering effective stress can significantly increase the degree of correlation of stick-slip to oscillatory loading. We also find other pore fluid effects that become important at higher frequencies, when the period of oscillation is comparable to the diffusion time of pore fluid into the fault. These results help constrain the conditions at depth that give rise to tidally modulated LFEs, providing confirmation of the effective pressure law for triggering and insights into why tremor is tidally modulated while earthquakes are at best only weakly modulated.

  18. Donnan effect on chloride ion distribution as a determinant of body fluid composition that allows action potentials to spread via fast sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbel Sven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteins in any solution with a pH value that differs from their isoelectric point exert both an electric Donnan effect (DE and colloid osmotic pressure. While the former alters the distribution of ions, the latter forces water diffusion. In cells with highly Cl--permeable membranes, the resting potential is more dependent on the cytoplasmic pH value, which alters the Donnan effect of cell proteins, than on the current action of Na/K pumps. Any weak (positive or negative electric disturbances of their resting potential are quickly corrected by chloride shifts. In many excitable cells, the spreading of action potentials is mediated through fast, voltage-gated sodium channels. Tissue cells share similar concentrations of cytoplasmic proteins and almost the same exposure to the interstitial fluid (IF chloride concentration. The consequence is that similar intra- and extra-cellular chloride concentrations make these cells share the same Nernst value for Cl-. Further extrapolation indicates that cells with the same chloride Nernst value and high chloride permeability should have similar resting membrane potentials, more negative than -80 mV. Fast sodium channels require potassium levels >20 times higher inside the cell than around it, while the concentration of Cl- ions needs to be >20 times higher outside the cell. When osmotic forces, electroneutrality and other ions are all taken into account, the overall osmolarity needs to be near 280 to 300 mosm/L to reach the required resting potential in excitable cells. High plasma protein concentrations keep the IF chloride concentration stable, which is important in keeping the resting membrane potential similar in all chloride-permeable cells. Probable consequences of this concept for neuron excitability, erythrocyte membrane permeability and several features of circulation design are briefly discussed.

  19. Multiple episodes of breccia formation by particle fluidization in fault zones: implications repeated, rupture-controlled fluid flow and seismicity styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Breccias in the Rusey Fault (Cornwall, UK) provide insights about the dynamics of fault behaviour, fluid flow and flow velocities when fault ruptures breach overpressured reservoirs of hydrothermal fluid. The 3 m wide fault core comprises a mix of breccias, banded cataclasites, probable psuedotachylites and extension veins. The damage products are dominated by high dilation breccias with cockade-like textures in which rock fragments are mantled by spheroidal overgrowths of quartz. Although none of the rock fragment cores of accretionary spheroids are in contact with their neighbours, the spheroidal overgrowths do contact each other and are at least partially cemented together. The hydrothermal overgrowths mostly comprise either outwards coarsening crystals that radiate from the surface of the core particle, or finer-grained, inequigranular to mesh-like intergrowths. Concentric textural banding and oscillatory growth zones are present in some hydrothermal overgrowths. The breccias occur as fault-parallel layers and lenses, each up to several tens of centimeter thick. Adjacent layers are characterised by texturally-distinct ranges of clast sizes and different proportions of clasts to hydrothermal overgrowths. Many texturally-distinct breccia layers are present within the fault core. Some breccia layers truncate others and many breccia layers exhibit grainsize grading or banding. Clasts in the breccias include fragments of wall-rock, veins and various fault damage products, including fragments of earlier generations of cemented breccia. As brecciation was episodic and separated by periods of cementation, the breccias are interpreted to have formed as a consequence of repeated seismogenic failure. The distinctive textures in the breccias are interpreted to have formed by fluidization of fault damage products in a high fluid flux regime, with each breccia layer being the product of one, rupture-related flow episode. Hydrothermal coatings developed while clasts were in a

  20. Isotope geochemistry of the Huize Zn-Pb ore field, Yunnan province, Southwestern China. Implication for the sources of ore fluid and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Huize ore field, which is the most famous high-grade Zn-Pb ore field in China, comprises the Kuangshanchang and Qilinchang deposits. The Zn and Pb reserves of these two deposits are more than 5 Mt with ore grades ranging from 25% to 35% in weight. Lead, sulfur, carbon oxygen, hydrogen and strontium isotope geochemistry is reported to help understand the sources of the ore fluid and metals. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb values of the ores range from 18.251-18.530, 15.663-15.855 and 38.487-39.433, respectively. These values are similar to those of the wall rocks. The pyrites disseminated in the wall rocks have indistinguishable Pb isotope composition with the ores. These data indicate that the wall rocks provided metals to the ore fluid. Most δ34S values of the ores range from 13 to 17 per mil. The sulfur of the ores originated by in situ reduction sulfate. Three kinds of gangue calcite from the ores have similar isotope compositions, which have δ13C values in the range of -2.1 to -3.5 per mil with respect to PDB and δ18O values in the range of 16.8 to 18.6 per mil with respect to SMOW. The δDFI values of fluid inclusions in the three kinds of gangue calcites have a narrow range of -50 to -60 per mil and the δ18OH2O values calculated from δ18O values of calcite range from 7.0 to 8.8 per mil at 200degC. These data suggest that the ore fluid was a basinal brine that passed through shale, clastic rocks and mudstone underlying the host rock. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the pyrite, sphalerite and calcite from the ores range from 0.714 to 0.717. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of unaltered host rock (0.7083-0.7093) are lower than that of the altered host rock (0.7106). It suggests that the ore fluids have higher initial 87Sr/86Sr values than the wall rocks. These high initial 87Sr/86Sr values may be due to the reaction between the ore fluid and the shale, clastic rocks and mudstone underlying the host rock or the fluid might have originated from these

  1. Active colloids in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Patteson, Alison E; Arratia, Paulo E

    2016-01-01

    We review recent work on active colloids or swimmers, such as self-propelled microorganisms, phoretic colloidal particles, and artificial micro-robotic systems, moving in fluid-like environments. These environments can be water-like and Newtonian but can frequently contain macromolecules, flexible polymers, soft cells, or hard particles, which impart complex, nonlinear rheological features to the fluid. While significant progress has been made on understanding how active colloids move and interact in Newtonian fluids, little is known on how active colloids behave in complex and non-Newtonian fluids. An emerging literature is starting to show how fluid rheology can dramatically change the gaits and speeds of individual swimmers. Simultaneously, a moving swimmer induces time dependent, three dimensional fluid flows, that can modify the medium (fluid) rheological properties. This two-way, non-linear coupling at microscopic scales has profound implications at meso- and macro-scales: steady state suspension proper...

  2. Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids in a Department of Oral Sciences: Results of a Thirteen-Year Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. A. Gatto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Aim of this analysis was to identify trends that will aid in the prevention of injury. Methods. Our data were collected from 1999 to 2011 during a surveillance program of occupational exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials in a Dental School by using a standard coded protocol. Results. 63 exposures were reported. 56/63 (89% percutaneous and 7/63 (11% mucosal, involving a splash to the eye of the dental care workers (DCW. 25/63 (40% involved students, 23/63 (36% DCW attending masters and doctorate, 13/63 (21% DCW attending as tutors and 2/63 (3% staff. 45/63 (71% and 18/63 (29% occurred respectively during and after the use of the device; of last ones, 1/18 (0.05% were related to instrument clean-up and 1/18 (0.05% to laboratory activity, 12/18 (67% occurred when a DCW collided with a sharp object during the setting, and 4/18 (22% during other activities. The instrument and the body part most likely involved were needle and finger respectively. The overall exposure rate was 4.78 per 10,000 patient visits. Conclusions Our results may serve as benchmark that Dental Schools can employ to assess their frequency of injury.

  3. Constraints on the composition of ore fluids and implications for mineralising events at the Cleo gold deposit, Eastern Goldfields Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cleo gold deposit, 55 km south of Laverton in the Eastern Goldfields Province of Western Australia, is characterised by banded iron-formation (BIF)-hosted ore zones in the gently dipping Sunrise Shear Zone and high-grade vein-hosted ore in the Western Lodes. There is evidence that gold mineralisation in the Western Lodes (which occurred at ca 2655 Ma) post-dates the majority of displacement along the Sunrise Shear Zone, but it remains uncertain if the ore in both structures formed simultaneously or separately. Overall, the Pb, Nd, Sr, C, O and S isotopic compositions of ore-related minerals from both the Western Lodes and ore zones in the Sunrise Shear Zone are similar. Early low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids and late high-salinity fluids with similar characteristics are trapped in inclusions in quartz veins from both the Sunrise Shear Zone and the Western Lodes. The early CO2, CO2-H2O, and H2O-dominant inclusions are interpreted as being related to ore formation, and to have formed from a single low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluid as a result of intermittent fluid immiscibility. Homogenisation temperatures indicate that these inclusions were trapped at approximately 280 deg C and at approximately 4 km depth, in the deeper epizonal range. Differences between the ore zones are detected in the trace-element composition of gold samples, with gold from the Sunrise Shear Zone enriched in Ni, Pb, Sn, Te and Zn, and depleted in As, Bi, Cd, Cu and Sb, relative to gold from the Western Lodes Although there are differences in gold composition between the Sunrise Shear Zone and Western Lodes, and hence the metal content of ore fluids may have varied slightly between the different ore zones, no other systematic fluid or solute differences are detected between the ore zones. Given the fact that the ore fluids in each zone have very similar bulk properties, the considerable differences in gold grade, sulfide mineral abundance, and ore textures between the two ore zones

  4. Mineral solubilities in aqueous fluids at high pressures and temperatures: New thermodynamic model and implications for mass transfer in the Earth's crust and mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, David; Manning, Craig E.

    2010-05-01

    Aqueous fluids are produced by metamorphic devolatilization and magmatic activity in a variety of settings including continental orogens, subduction zones with magmatic arcs as well as oceanic ridges and sea floor. They are responsible for mobility and transport of inorganic and organic solutes as manifested by alteration or veining, distinct element depletion-enrichment patterns or isotopic disturbances. The impact of many fluid-mediated processes is promoted by high time-integrated fluid fluxes, 101-106 m3 m-2, inferred for diffuse and focused fluid flow through lithosphere. Previous approaches to aqueous speciation have almost exclusively been based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state, which, however, suffers from inaccuracies in the vicinity of critical point of water and cannot be extrapolated to very high temperatures and pressures due to the lack of experimental data on dielectric constant of H2O. We propose a new thermodynamic model for dissolution of minerals in aqueous fluids at high temperatures and pressures, which is derived from individual energetic contributions to lattice breakdown, solute hydration and compression of the hydration shell. The thermodynamic properties depend on temperature and H2O density only and are calculated using three to five model parameters calibrated by experimental data. Our formulation of the density dependence has the advantage of behaving as a smooth function at the critical point of H2O, it closely corresponds to the generalized Krichevskii parameter, and it linearly correlates with the Born electrostatic energy. Solubilities of quartz, corundum, rutile, calcite, apatite, fluorite, and portlandite monotonously increase for a given phase by 4-5 orders of magnitude as temperature rises from 200 to 1100 oC along typical geotherms. At constant pressure, however, mineral solubilities initially increase with rising temperature, but subsequently drop. This effect results from a reversal in isobaric expansivity of

  5. REE Geochemistry of Fluorite from the Maoniuping REE Deposit, Sichuan Province, China: Implications for the Source of Ore-forming Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fluorite is one of the main gangue minerals in the Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province, China. Fluorite with different colors occurs not only within various orebodies, but also in wallrocks of the orefield. Based on REE geochemistry, fluorite in the orefieid can be classified as the LREE-rich, LREE-flat and LREE-depleted types. The three types of fluorite formed at different stages from the same hydrothermal fluid source, with the LREE-rich fluorite forming at the relatively early stage, the LREE-flat fluorite in the middle, and the LREE-depleted fluorite at the latest stage. Various lines of evidence demonstrate that the variation of the REE contents of fluorite shows no relation to the color. The mineralization of the Maoniuping REE deposit is associated spatially and temporally with carbonatite-syenite magmatism and the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from carbonatite and syenite melts.

  6. Geological Fluid Mapping in the Tongling Area: Implications for the Paleozoic Submarine Hydrothermal System in the Middle-Lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Tongling area is one of the 7 ore-cluster areas in the Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt, East China, and has tectonically undergone a long-term geologic history from the late Paleozoic continental rifting, through the Middle Triassic continent-continent collision to the Jurassic-Cretaceous intracontinental tectono-magmatic activation. The Carboniferous sedimentary-exhalative processes in the area produced widespread massive sulfides with ages of 303-321 Ma, which partly formed massive pyrite-Cu deposits, but mostly provided significant sulfur and metals to the skarn Cu mineralization associated with the Yanshanian felsic intrusions.To understand the Carboniferous submarine hydrothermal system, an area of about 1046 km2 was chosen to carry out the geological fluid mapping. Associated with massive sulfide formation, footwall sequences 948 m to 1146 m thick, composed of the Lower Silurian-Upper Devonian sandstone, siltstone and thin-layered shale, were widely altered. This hydrothermal alteration is interpreted to reflect largescale hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the late Paleozoic crustal rifting and subsidence. Three hydrothermal alteration types, i.e., deep-level semiconformable silicification (S1), fracture-controlled quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration (S2-3), and upper-level sub-discordant quartz-sericite-chlorite alteration (D3), were developed to form distinct zones in the mapped area. About 50-m thick semiconformable siliclfication zones are located at ~1-km depth below massive sulfides and developed between an impermeable shale caprock (S1) and the underlying Ordovician unaltered limestone.Comparisons with modern geothermal systems suggest that the alteration zones record a sub-seafloor aquifer with the most productive hydrothermal fluid flow. Fracture-controlled quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration formed transgressive zones, which downward crosscut the semiconformable alteration zones,and upwards grade into sub-discordant alteration zones

  7. The "spare parts person"? Conceptions of the human body and their implications for public attitudes towards organ donation and organ sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schicktanz Silke

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing debate on financial incentives for organ donation raises concerns about a "commodification of the human body". Philosophical-ethical stances on this development depend on assumptions concerning the body and how people think about it. In our qualitative empirical study we analyze public attitudes towards organ donation in their specific relation to conceptions of the human body in four European countries (Cyprus, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. This approach aims at a more context-sensitive picture of what "commodification of the body" can mean in concrete clinical decisions concerning organ donation. Results We find that moral intuitions concerning organ donation are rooted in various conceptions of the human body and its relation to the self: a the body as a mechanical object owned by the self, b the body as a part of a higher order embodying the self, and c the body as a hierarchy of organs constitutive of the self. Conclusion The language of commodification is much too simple to capture what is at stake in everyday life intuitions about organ donation and organ sale. We discuss how the plurality of underlying body-self conceptions can be taken into account in the ethical debate, pointing out consequences for an anthropologically informed approach and for a liberal perspective.

  8. Generation of Multiple Fluid-Phase C3b:Plasma Protein Complexes During Complement Activation. Possible Implications in C3 Glomerulopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Richard J. Smith; Kew, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    The complement system is tightly regulated to safeguard against tissue damage that results from unwanted activation. The key step of C3 cleavage to C3b is regulated by multiple mechanisms that control the initiation and extent of activation. This study demonstrated that C3b:plasma protein complexes form in the fluid-phase during complement activation. Several different plasma proteins displayed a discrete high molecular SDS-resistant band when any of the three complement activating pathways w...

  9. Direct continuous supercritical fluid extraction as a novel method of wine analysis. Comparison with conventional indirect extraction and implications for wine variety identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Varaďová-Ostrá, Elena; Mikešová, Milena; Goliáš, J.; Roth, Michal; Vejrosta, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1002, 1-2 (2003), s. 13-23. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/99/1570; GA AV ČR IBS4031110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * wine analysis * multivariate statistics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.922, year: 2003

  10. Anisotropy in seafloor flange, slab, and crust samples from measurements of permeability and porosity: Implications for fluid flow and deposit evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbin, Jill L.; Zhu, Wen-Lu; Tivey, Margaret K.

    2012-03-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal vents accommodate the convective transfer of fluids from subsurface environments to the oceans. In addition to black smoker chimneys, a variety of other deposit-types form. Flanges protrude from the sides of edifices as horizontal ledges, below which vent fluids pool. Slabs are hydrothermally silicified layered volcaniclastic deposits. Crusts are deposits composed of previously deposited material underlain by hot fluids. Permeability and porosity measurements were conducted on flanges from Guaymas Basin and the Main Endeavour Vent Field, slabs from the Lucky Strike Vent Field, and a crust sample from the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) active mound. Cores taken parallel to textural layers have high permeabilities (≈10-12 m2) and porosities (30-40%) that follow a power law relationship with exponent α ≈ 1 to 2. Cores taken perpendicular to layering have permeabilities from 10-16 to 10-12 m2 and porosities from 20 to 45%, with α ≈ 5 to 8. The two distinct trends result from the heterogeneity of textural layers within these deposits. Microstructural observations show large variations in grain packing and pore distributions between layers, consistent with flow perpendicular to layering being more susceptible to changes in permeability that result from mineral precipitation than flow parallel to layering. These results imply that the primary flow direction in these deposits is parallel to layering, whereas flow perpendicular to layering is more restricted. Quantification of anisotropic permeability provides important constraints for determination of fluid flux from these layered deposits, and temperatures, chemistry, and availability of nutrients to organisms living in and at exteriors of deposits.

  11. Fracture-fluid relationships: implications for the sealing capacity of clay layers - Insights from field study of the Blue Clay formation, Maltese islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealing capacity of clay layers is a key parameter in many fields of geoscience, such as CO2 storage, hydrocarbons trapping, and waste disposal. In the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, clayey formations are studied as potential host rocks. This work deals with tectonic fracturing, fluid flow, and the sealing capacity of clay layers in an outcropping formation sharing similarities to these potential host rocks. The Blue Clay formation (Maltese islands) outcrops between two limestones affected by slight extensional tectonics. Zones of oxidation around fractures are interpreted as evidence of palaeo-fluid circulation, and are used to assess the role of joints and faults in controlling the hydrological communication between adjacent layers. Joints and small faults (displacement 50 m) display clay smear structures, and the lack of oxidized zones around them suggests they served as barriers to fluid flow. Intermediate-sized faults die out up-section into complex deformation zones comprised of irregular joints that are filled with gypsum and surrounded by oxidation zones. These observations indicate that these intermediate-sized faults, usually considered as sealed by classical predictive methods such as 'Shale Smear Factor', may have played a significant role in the local palaeo-hydrology. (authors)

  12. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  13. Body Image, Dieting and Disordered Eating and Activity Practices among Teacher Trainees: Implications for School-Based Health Education and Obesity Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to investigate and compare body image, body dissatisfaction, dieting, disordered eating, exercise and eating disorders among trainee health education/physical education (H&PE) and non-H&PE teachers. Participants were 502 trainee teachers randomly selected from class groups at three Australian universities who completed the…

  14. Magnetite-bubble aggregates at mixing interfaces in andesite magma bodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, M; Brett, A.; Herd, R.A.; Humphreys, M. C. S.; Woods, A

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite is a particularly favourable site for heterogeneous bubble nucleation in magma and yet only very rarely is evidence for this preserved, owing to the myriad of processes that act to overprint such an association. The possibility of bubble-magnetite aggregates in magmas carries with it interesting implications for the fluid mechanics of magma bodies and for the magma mixing process responsible for the formation of andesites. We use image analysis and statistical methods to...

  15. 外形任意的多孔介质轴对称物体中充满非Newton幂律流体时的自然对流%Natural Convection of Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid Over Axisymmetric and Two-Dimensional Bodies of Arbitrary Shape in a Fluid-Saturated Porous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S·M·阿布德尔-盖德; M·R·伊德

    2011-01-01

    在一个轴对称、外形任意的多孔介质二维体中,充满了有屈服应力的非Newton幂律流体时,数值分析其自由对流及其传热/传质问题,利用相似变换,将边界层控制方程及其边界条件变换为无量纲形式,然后用有限差分法求解该方程组.所研究的参数为流变常数、浮力比和Lewis数.给出并讨论了典型的速度、温度及浓度曲线,发现屈服应力参数值和非Newton流体的幂律指数对结果有着显著的影响.%Numerical analysis of free convection coupled heat and mass transfer was presented for non-Newtonian power-law fluids with yield stress flowing over two-dimensional or axisymmetric body of arbitrary shape in a fluid-saturated porous medium.The governing boundary layer equations and boundary conditions were cast into a dimensionless form by similarity transformation and the resulting system of equations was solved by a finite difference method.The parameters studied were the rheologicai constants, the buoyancy ratio, and the Lewis number.Representative velocity as well as temperature and concentration profiles were presented and discussed.It was found that the result depend strongly on the values of the yield stress parameter, and the power-law index of non-Newtonian fluid.

  16. Flow around Ahmed Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav; Sedlák, K.

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, v. v. i., 2009 - (Příhoda, J.; Kozel, K.), s. 107-110 ISBN 978-80-87012-19-2. [Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics 2009. Praha (CZ), 25.02.2009-26.02.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : Ahmed body * dynamics * wake Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  17. The characteristics of internal waves generated by a revolution body in a stratified fluid with a pycnocline%具有密度跃层分层流体中回转体激发内波特性实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 尤云祥; 胡天群; 王小青; 朱敏慧

    2012-01-01

    Experiments are conducted for the characteristics of both body and wake-generated internal waves due to a revolution body(aspect ratio 7:1) in a stratified fluid with a pycnocline where the revolution body is horizontally towed in forward and backward ways.Results show that the body-generated internal waves are a type of stationary multiple-mode Lee wave structures,and the wake-generated internal waves are a type of non-stationary quasi-Lee structures produced by the large-scale coherent structure in the turbulent wake acting as a moving excitation with respect to the towed revolution body.The transition between Lee and quasi-Lee waves occurs at a critical Froude number Fr_c which is shown to be linearly dependent on the aspect ratios of the revolution bodies where the wave patterns for Fr Fr_c are dominated by Lee waves,whereas the wave patterns for Fr Fr_c are dominated by quasi-Lee waves, Fr is the Froude number for the characteristic diameter of the revolution body.For the quasi-Lee waves,the dimensionless peak-topeak amplitudes linearly increase with Fr and the Froude numbers relative to the correlation velocities remain at a relatively constant value of approximately 0.8 regardless of the aspect ratios.Moreover,the head and the tail shapes of the revolution body have no remarkable influence on the critical Froude number Fr_c,as well as both the Froude numbers relative to the correlation velocities and the dimensionless peak-to-peak amplitudes of the quasi-Lee waves.%在具有连续密度跃层的分层流体中,对长径比为7:1的回转体在迎水和背水运动下激发体积效应与尾迹效应内波特性开展了系列实验.结果表明,体积效应激发内波属于一种相对于回转体定常的多模态Lee波结构,而尾迹效应激发主控内波为相对于回转体非定常的拟Lee波结构,这是一类由湍流尾迹中大尺度相干结构作为移动源激发的内波结构,在Lee波与拟Lee波之间存在

  18. Fluid-metapelite interaction in an ultramafic mélange: implications for mass transfer along the slab-mantle interface in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yasushi; Shigeno, Miki; Nishiyama, Tadao

    2014-12-01

    The slab-mantle interface in subduction zones is a site of tectonic mixing of crustal and mantle rocks. It is the interface for fluid flow of slab-derived components into the mantle wedge. To assess the fluid-rock interaction along the slab-mantle interface, we studied the bleaching of pelitic schist in an ultramafic mélange. The Nishisonogi metamorphic rocks in Kyushu, Japan, comprise ultramafic mélanges intercalated with epidote-blueschist facies schists. The ultramafic mélange consists of tectonic blocks of various lithologies and a matrix of chlorite-actinolite schist and serpentinite. Along the contact with the mélange matrix, pelitic schist blocks are bleached mainly due to the modal increase of albite and the consumption of carbonaceous material. The bleaching is probably attributed to infiltration of Na-rich external fluid from the mélange matrix. Mass balance analysis indicates losses of C, Rb, K2O, Ba, Pb, and SiO2 from the bleached pelitic schist, although Al2O3, TiO2, Sc, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce, and Nd remain immobile. This suggests fractionation of large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and Pb from the high-field-strength elements and rare earth elements during the bleaching. If this ultramafic mélange is analogous to the slab-mantle interface, similar infiltration metasomatism will promote liberation of C, Si, LILE, and Pb from subducting metapelites and enhance metasomatism of the mantle wedge.

  19. Stromatactis and stromatactum pattern formation in sediment: constraints from fluid mechanics and rheology and implications for environments, sedimentary architecture and cyclostratigraphy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladil, Jindřich; Koptíková, Leona; Lisá, Lenka; Čejchan, Petr; Růžička, Marek; Kulaviak, Lukáš; Adamovič, Jiří; Janečka, Jiří; Večeř, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří; Havlica, Jaromír

    Tashkent: State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Geology and Mineral Resources ; Institute of Petroleum Geology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008 - (Kim, A.; Salimova, F.; Meshchankina, N.), s. 36-40 ISBN N. [Conference Global alignements of Lower Devonian carbonate and clastic sequences (SDS/IGCP Project 499 joint field meeting). Kitab State Geological Reserve (UZ), 25.08.2008-03.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00130702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : stromatactis * sedimentation processes * fluid mechanics Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  20. Experimental study of arsenic speciation in vapor phase to 500°C: Implications for As transport and fractionation in low-density crustal fluids and volcanic gases.

    OpenAIRE

    Pokrovski, Gleb S.; Zakirov, Ildar V.; Roux, Jacques; Testemale, Denis; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Y. U. Bychkov, Andrew; V. Golikova, Galina

    2002-01-01

    The stoichiometry and stability of arsenic gaseous complexes were determined in the system As-H2O ± NaCl ± HCl ± H2S at temperatures up to 500°C and pressures up to 600 bar, from both measurements of As(III) and As(V) vapor-liquid and vapor-solid partitioning, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopic study of As(III)-bearing aqueous fluids. Vapor-aqueous solution partitioning for As(III) was measured from 250 to 450°C at the saturated vapor pressure of the system (Psat) with a...

  1. Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development.

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Hamid A.; McConnell, Emma L; Liu, Fang; Ramaswamy, Chandrasekaran; Kulkarni, Rucha P; Basit, Abdul W; Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported human literature. The mean gastric pH (fed ad libitum) was 2.9 and 4.4 in guinea pig and pig, respectively. In contrast, a very low pH (1.6)...

  2. Mechanistic aspects of the calcite precipitation reaction and supercritical fluid movements in calcite lattice: implication for mineral storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geologic sequestration of CO2 seems to be one of the most relevant strategy for the long term reduction of the atmospheric releases of this greenhouse gas. Indeed, CO2 can be stored in geologic formations in different ways. The solution which appears as the most stable is to make react fluids rich in CO2 with rocks minerals (or organic matter) of the surrounding geological formations and to produce a new carbonated solid matrix. The kinetics implied in the mineralization of CO2 have been studied. In the first part of this work is described the mechanistic aspects of the precipitation reaction of the calcite by a kinetic approach allowing to precisely obtain the velocities and the kinetic constants of the reactions as well as the data on the reactional mechanisms in making the temperature range between 5 and 70 C, as well as the composition of the solution (sur-saturation degree and inhibitor presence: Mg2+ and SO42-). The results have shown that the temperature role is not limited to a simple catalyst effect but that the kinetic mechanisms changes, that the temperature induces, determine the Mg quantities which can be incorporated into the calcite. By extension to this study, a global empirical law describing the variation of the precipitation rate in terms of the carbonate concentration and of the different physico-chemical parameters influencing the reaction of the calcite formation (PCO2, salinity, temperature, inhibitors, organic matter) has been established. It is appeared that the temperature can make the precipitation rate increase but only in the conditions of important imbalance when PCO2 has an equal influence near and far from the equilibrium in solutions however completely buffered. In the second part, the study has dealt with the movements of supercritical fluids inside a calcitic solid matrix. It has been shown that CO2 supercritical bubbles trapped into fluid inclusions contained in a calcite polycrystalline matrix could circulate until the

  3. Temporal Chemical Variations during the Eruption Cycle at Crystal Geyser in Green River, Utah: Inverse Modeling of Fluid Sourcing and Implications to the Geyser Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Z. T.; Han, W. S.; Kampman, N.; Grundl, T.; Han, K.

    2014-12-01

    The most well-known example of a CO2-driven geyser is Crystal geyser in Green River, Utah. In situ monitoring of pressure and temperature and analysis of the elemental and isotopic composition of the emanating fluids has provided useful proxies for determining the geysering cycle, the source of water/CO2 and furthermore the physical constraints at depth which ultimately control the surficial expressions. Crystal geyser is the first geyser in the world which has been shown to go through repeated systematic chemical variations during its eruption cycle. The eruption cycle at Crystal geyser is comprised of 4 parts which follow the order of: minor eruption period (mEP), major eruption period (MEP), aftershock eruptions (Ae) and recharge period (R). Minor eruption periods are characterized by increasing specific conductivity (19.3 to 21.2 mS/cm), Na and Cl concentrations during the first half which plateau until the MEP. The beginning of the MEP denotes a sharp drop in temperature (17.4 to 16.8 ºC) Na, Cl, specific conductivity (21.2 to 18 mS/cm), and increasing concentrations of Fe, Sr, Ca, Mg and Mn. Downhole fluid sampling of the Entrada Sandstone and Navajo Sandstone provided 1 and 4 samples from the aquifers, respectively. The Entrada Sandstone in comparison to the deeper Navajo Sandstone has elevated concentrations of Sr and Fe and has lower concentrations of Na and Cl. Inverse modeling using the chemical characteristics of the Entrada Sandstone, Navajo Sandstone and brine was executed to determine the fractional inputs which comprise Crystal geyser's fluid. Variances in the fractional contribution are dependent on the depth of the sample chosen to be representative of the Navajo Sandstone because the concentration of Na and Cl, among other elements, changes over depth. During the mEP the Navajo Sandstone, Entrada Sandstone and brine supply 50-55%, 44-48% and 1-3% of the total fluid, respectively. During the MEP the Navajo Sandstone, Entrada Sandstone and brine

  4. Estimate of the lower-limb-specific muscle parameters during bipedal walking for humans, apes and early hominids with the implications for the evolution of body proportion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weijie

    2007-01-01

    Modern human has different body proportion from early hominids and great apes. Comparing with others, in general, modern human adults have relatively long lower limb and heavier body weight. Since the lower limbs provide support to the whole body and play an important role in walking, it is proposed that the ratio of the lower limb to the whole body for modern human could be beneficial to bipedal walking. This study tried to estimate the muscle parameters of the lower limb in walking for the subjects with various body proportions. Using a simplified musculoskeletal model, some muscle parameters of the lower limb, e.g. muscle force, stress, work and power, were estimated for modern human adult, child, AL 288-1 (the fossil specimens of Australopithecus afarensis, 3.18 million years old) and apes. The results show that with the body proportion modern human adult spends less muscle work and power in walking than other subjects. The results imply that using the cost of transport (i.e. the muscle work of the lower limb per unit of displacement) as the criteria, the early hominids, if their body proportions were structurally similar to AL 288-1, could evolve towards what modern human adult looks like, in order to save energy during bipedal walking.

  5. INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN ACOUSTIC TRAITS AND BODY SIZE, AND NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORDS FOR PSEUDOPALUDICOLA GIARETTAI CARVALHO, 2012 (ANURA, LEPTODACTYLIDAE, LEIUPERINAE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS CONGENERIC DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIAGO RIBEIRO DE CARVALHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an updated diagnosis for Pseudopaludicola giarettai based on the morphometric and acoustic variation observed with the assessment of new populations, plus an expansion of its distribution range. Our results support that all acoustic variation observed might be attributed to intraspecific variation. The variation in body size and dorsal stripe patterns observed for Pseudopaludicola giarettai reinforces that the distinctive whistling advertisement call pattern is the most reliable evidence line to diagnose it from its congeners, whereas morphological (robust body, glandular dorsum and morphometric (body size features vary considerably within and among populations so that they should no longer be employed as diagnostic features of Pseudopaludicola giarettai.

  6. Development of garlic bioactive compounds analytical methodology based on liquid phase microextraction using response surface design. Implications for dual analysis: Cooked and biological fluids samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniela Andrea; Locatelli, Daniela Ana; Torres-Palazzolo, Carolina Andrea; Altamirano, Jorgelina Cecilia; Camargo, Alejandra Beatriz

    2017-01-15

    Organosulphur compounds (OSCs) present in garlic (Allium sativum L.) are responsible of several biological properties. Functional foods researches indicate the importance of quantifying these compounds in food matrices and biological fluids. For this purpose, this paper introduces a novel methodology based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) for the extraction and determination of organosulphur compounds in different matrices. The target analytes were allicin, (E)- and (Z)-ajoene, 2-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin (2-VD), diallyl sulphide (DAS) and diallyl disulphide (DADS). The microextraction technique was optimized using an experimental design, and the analytical performance was evaluated under optimum conditions. The desirability function presented an optimal value for 600μL of chloroform as extraction solvent using acetonitrile as dispersant. The method proved to be reliable, precise and accurate. It was successfully applied to determine OSCs in cooked garlic samples as well as blood plasma and digestive fluids. PMID:27542503

  7. Implication for horizontally-elongated fluid flow inferred from heat flow measurements in the Iheya-North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Yuka; Kinoshita, Masataka; Kawada, Yoshifumi

    2010-05-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin located in the southwestern part of Japan. It is considered to be in the initial stage of rifting of continental crust, and the activity generates volcanic edifices in this area, accompanied by hydrothermal circulation. The Iheya-North is one of the most active hydrothermal fields among them. As a proposed drilling site for the Integrated ocean Drilling Program, extensive geophysical surveys have been carried out including single-channel seismic imaging, and precise side-scan sonar imaging by using autonomous underwater vehicle 'Urashima' of Japan Agency for Marine-Science and Technology. In the recent few years, we have measured heat flow in and around the Iheya-North hydrothermal field to understand the spatial of hydrothermal circulation in detail. 78 measurements show that heat flow is higher than 10 W/m2 with in 0.5 km of the hydrothermal vent complex, that it gradually decrease eastward to vs. ~a few hundreds meters vertical). We performed numerical calculations of fluid flow and heat transportation to give constraints on the depth of hydrothermal circulation, the magnitude of darcy velocity, and the permeability at depth. The simulated results will be compared with measured heat flow distribution and will be checked for the larger or smaller circulation scale proposed from heat flow or fluid geochemistry data.

  8. Investigation of the motion of a viscous fluid in the vitreous cavity induced by eye rotations and implications for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravitreal drug delivery is a commonly used treatment for several retinal diseases. The objective of this research is to characterize and quantify the role of the vitreous humor motion, induced by saccadic movements, on drug transport processes in the vitreous chamber. A Perspex model of the human vitreous chamber was created, and filled with a purely viscous fluid, representing eyes with a liquefied vitreous humor or those containing viscous tamponade fluids. Periodic movements were applied to the model and the resulting three-dimensional (3D) flow fields were measured. Drug delivery within the vitreous chamber was investigated by calculating particle trajectories using integration over time of the experimental velocity fields. The motion of the vitreous humor generated by saccadic eye movements is intrinsically 3D. Advective mass transport largely overcomes molecular diffusive transport and is significantly anisotropic, leading to a much faster drug dispersion than in the case of stationary vitreous humor. Disregarding the effects of vitreous humor motion due to eye movements when predicting the efficiency of drug delivery treatments leads to significant underestimation of the drug transport coefficients, and this, in turn, will lead to significantly erroneous predictions of the concentration levels on the retina. (paper)

  9. Fluid distribution in grain boundaries of natural fine-grained rock salt deformed at low shear stress: implications for rheology and transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.; De Bresser, J. H. P.

    2012-04-01

    We used a combination of broad ion beam (BIB) cross-sectioning and high resolution (cryogenic) SEM to image polished surfaces and corresponding pairs of fractured grain boundaries in an investigation of grain boundary (GB) microstructures and fluid distribution in naturally deformed halite from a salt glacier (Kum Quh, central Iran). At the scale of observations, four types of fluid or gas filled grain boundaries can be distinguished: (1) straight boundaries with thick (up to 10 µm) GB tubes (2) straight boundaries with narrow (about 50 nm) GB tubes (3) wavy (tens of µm wavelength) GB with isolated inclusions of a few µm, and (4) wavy (µm wavelength) GB with small (µm) isolated inclusions. Grain boundary fluid inclusions can have three types of morphologies: the inclusion of Type 1 is intruded completely in one grain, inclusion of Type 2 has its major part included in one grain with a minor part in the second grain and the inclusion of Type 3 is located in both grains. Solid second phases in GB are mainly euhedral anhydrite crystals. The mobility of the brine is shown after cutting the inclusions by BIB in vacuum and fine-grained halite forms efflorescence and precipitates on internal walls of inclusions. At cryogenic temperature, in-situ brine is seen as continuous film in GB of type (1) and (2), and in isolated inclusions in GB of type (3) and (4). The structure of halite-halite contact between isolated fluid inclusions in GB of type (3) and (4) is below the resolution of SEM. GB of type (3) and (4) are interpreted to have formed by healing of mobile fluid films. First results of deformation experiments on the same samples under shear stress corresponding to conditions of natural salt glacier, show very low strain rates (7.43x10-10 s-1 and 1x10-9 s-1), up to one order of magnitude below of expected strain rates by solution precipitation creep. Both microstructures and deformation experiments suggest interfacial energy-driven GB healing, in agreement with the

  10. Moulting patterns drive within-individual variations of stable isotopes and mercury in seabird body feathers: implications for monitoring of the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Fromant, Aymeric; Cherel, Yves

    2014-01-01

    International audience One major limitation in the use of body feathers of seabirds as a monitoring tool of the trophic structure and contamination levels of marine ecosystems is the degree of heterogeneity in feather chemical composition within individuals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that moulting patterns drive body feather heterogeneity, with synchronous moult minimizing within-individual variations, in contrast to asynchronous feather growth. Chicks of white-chinned petrels Procell...

  11. Human body projectiles implantation in victims of suicide bombings and implications for health and emergency care providers: the 7/7 experience

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, HDL; Dryden, S; Gupta, A; Stewart, N.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION On 7 July 2005 four suicide bombings occurred on the London transport systems. In some of the injured survivors, bone fragments were embedded as biological foreign bodies. The aim of this study was to revisit those individuals who had sustained human projectile implantation injuries as a result of the bomb blasts at all scenes, review the process of body parts mapping and DNA identification at the scene, detail the management of such injuries and highlight the protocols that have...

  12. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  13. Influence of design on bioactivity of novel CaSiO3-CaMg(SiO3)2 bioceramics: in vitro simulated body fluid test and thermodynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, M A; Pena, P; Serena, S; Caballero, A

    2010-07-01

    A new type of bioactive ceramic has been designed and obtained from high-temperature phase information from the wollastonite (CaSiO(3))-diopside (CaMg(SiO(3))(2)) phase equilibrium diagram. The selected composition was that corresponding to the eutectic point of the pseudobinary CaSiO(3)-CaMg(SiO(3))(2) system. The sintering behaviour, phase evolution, microstructural changes and in vitro bioactivity of CaSiO(3)-CaMg(SiO(3))(2) eutectic bioceramics were analysed by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and image analysis. A simulation of the dissolution properties of the different materials studied, in water as well as in simulated body fluid (SBF), was also carried out by thermodynamic calculations, with the purpose of understanding the in vitro results obtained. The results demonstrate that the CaMg(SiO(3))(2) is significantly less soluble than CaSiO(3), developing an in situ porous structure (biomimetic porous bone material) with adequate biodegradation rate and stability strength when immersed in SBF. The influence of the microstructure (porosity, grain size and phase composition) on the in vitro bioactivity of the obtained bioceramics was also examined. PMID:20060937

  14. Fluid intake in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Martinez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An adequate hydration is critical for a series of body functions, including proper regulation of core body temperature, elimination of waste metabolites by the kidney and maintenance of normal physical and cognitive functions. Some institutions have set recommendations for adequate intake of water, but these recommendations vary widely. Objective: To estimate the usual daily consumption of fluids (water and all other beverages by a selective sample of Mexican population. Methods: Cross-sectional sample of 1,492 male and female adults between 18-65 years of age, drawn from 16 cities throughout Mexico. Self-reported fluid intake data collected over a 7-day consecutive period, recording intake of water, milk and derivatives, hot beverages, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB, alcoholic beverages and others. Results: We found that 87.5% of adult males and 65.4% of adult females reported drinking below their recommended daily fluid intake (3 L for males and 2 L for females, and in 80% of the population SSB, not including hot beverages or milk and derivatives, accounted for a larger amount and proportion of fluid intake than plain water. Sixty-five percent of adult males and 66% of adult females consumed more than 10% of their estimated daily caloric intake from fluids. Fluid intake did not differ significantly by gender, but showed a declining trend with age. Conclusion: Our findings may have important implications for policy recommendations, as part of comprehensive strategies to promote the adoption of healthy life styles, in this case, promoting consumption of plain water while discouraging excessive consumption of caloric beverages.

  15. Textured fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Gerhard K.

    1995-01-01

    The rheology and development morphology of textured fluids have been investigated. The first fluid considered in this work was a liquid crystalline polymer consisting of isotropic and anisotropic solutions of poly-p-phenyleneterephthalamide (PPT) in sulfuric acid. The second textured fluid considered in this work was an immiscible polymer blend consisting of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and nylon 6,6. The role played by liquid crystalline order (LCO) and a polydomain ...

  16. Cosmology with moving bimetric fluids

    OpenAIRE

    García-García, Carlos; Maroto, Antonio L.; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2016-01-01

    We study cosmological implications of bigravity and massive gravity solutions with non-simultaneously diagonal metrics by considering the generalized Gordon and Kerr-Schild ansatzes. The scenario that we obtain is equivalent to that of General Relativity with additional non-comoving perfect fluids. We show that the most general ghost-free bimetric theory generates three kinds of effective fluids whose equations of state are fixed by a function of the ansatz. Different choices of such function...

  17. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  18. Collisions of rigid bodies, deformable bodies and fluids

    OpenAIRE

    DIMNET, E; Fremond, M.; GORMAZ, R; San Martin, J.

    2003-01-01

    The system made of two solids is deformable because the relative position of the solids may change. This idea is applied to an old and complex problem of mechanics : the collision theory. The major findings are constitutive laws which are coherent from the thermodynamics point of view. They give robust and productive models and numerical methods, for instance for rocks avalanches and collisions of solids and flluids.

  19. Neuroendocrine control of body fluid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP play important and opposite roles in the control of water and salt intake, with angiotensin II promoting the intake of both and ANP inhibiting the intake of both. Following blood volume expansion, baroreceptor input to the brainstem induces the release of ANP within the hypothalamus that releases oxytocin (OT that acts on its receptors in the heart to cause the release of ANP. ANP activates guanylyl cyclase that converts guanosine triphosphate into cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP. cGMP activates protein kinase G that reduces heart rate and force of contraction, decreasing cardiac output. ANP acts similarly to induce vasodilation. The intrinsic OT system in the heart and vascular system augments the effects of circulating OT to cause a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume. Furthermore, natriuresis is rapidly induced by the action of ANP on its tubular guanylyl cyclase receptors, resulting in the production of cGMP that closes Na+ channels. The OT released by volume expansion also acts on its tubular receptors to activate nitric oxide synthase. The nitric oxide released activates guanylyl cyclase leading to the production of cGMP that also closes Na+ channels, thereby augmenting the natriuretic effect of ANP. The natriuresis induced by cGMP finally causes blood volume to return to normal. At the same time, the ANP released acts centrally to decrease water and salt intake.

  20. Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be:  Capable of both...