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Sample records for body elongation pelvic

  1. The mitochondrial phylogeny of an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes (Polypteridae with implications for the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin loss, and craniofacial morphology in Osteichthyes

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    Brandley Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Polypteridae, commonly known as "bichirs", is a lineage that diverged early in the evolutionary history of Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish, but has been the subject of far less evolutionary study than other members of that clade. Uncovering patterns of morphological change within Polypteridae provides an important opportunity to evaluate if the mechanisms underlying morphological evolution are shared among actinoptyerygians, and in fact, perhaps the entire osteichthyan (bony fish and tetrapods tree of life. However, the greatest impediment to elucidating these patterns is the lack of a well-resolved, highly-supported phylogenetic tree of Polypteridae. In fact, the interrelationships of polypterid species have never been subject to molecular phylogenetic analysis. Here, we infer the first molecular phylogeny of bichirs, including all 12 recognized species and multiple subspecies using Bayesian analyses of 16S and cyt-b mtDNA. We use this mitochondrial phylogeny, ancestral state reconstruction, and geometric morphometrics to test whether patterns of morphological evolution, including the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin reduction, and craniofacial morphology, are shared throughout the osteichthyan tree of life. Results Our molecular phylogeny reveals 1 a basal divergence between Erpetoichthys and Polypterus, 2 polyphyly of P. endlicheri and P. palmas, and thus 3 the current taxonomy of Polypteridae masks its underlying genetic diversity. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest that pelvic fins were lost independently in Erpetoichthys, and unambiguously estimate multiple independent derivations of body elongation and shortening. Our mitochondrial phylogeny suggested species that have lower jaw protrusion and up-righted orbit are closely related to each other, indicating a single transformation of craniofacial morphology. Conclusion The mitochondrial phylogeny of polypterid fish provides a strongly

  2. Dynamics of rings around elongated bodies

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    Sicardy, Bruno; Leiva, Rodrigo; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Santos Sanz, Pablo; Renner, Stefan; El Moutamid, Maryame; Berard, Diane; Desmars, Josselin; Meza, Erick; Rossi, Gustavo; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Camargo, Julio; Vieira-Martins, Roberto; Morales, Nicolas; Duffard, Rene; Colas, Francois; Maquet, Lucie; Bouley, Sylvain; Bath, Karl-Ludwig; Beisker, Wolfgang; Dauverge, Jean-Luc; Kretlow, Mike; Chariklo Occultations Team; Haumea Occultation Team

    2017-10-01

    Dense and narrow rings are encountered around small bodies like the Centaur object Chariklo, and possibly Chiron. The rings and central bodies can be studied in great details thanks to stellar occultations, which accuracies at the km-level. Here we present new results from three high-quality occultations by Chariklo observed in 2017. They provide new insights on the ring geometry and Chariklo's shape. Data are currently being analyzed, but preliminary results are consistent with a triaxial model for Chariklo, with semi-axes a>b>c, where (a-b) may reach values as large as 10-15 km, depending on the model.Such large values induce a strong coupling between the body and an initial collisional debris disk from which the rings emerged. This coupling stems from Lindblad resonances between the ring particle mean motion and Chariklo's spin rate. We find that the resonances clear the corotation zone (estimated to lie at about 215 km from Chariklo's center) in very short time scales (centuries) and pushes the material well beyond the 3/2 resonance - that lies at an estimated radius of 280 km, thus consistent with the radius of Chariklo's main ring C1R, 390 km.Other cases will be examined in view of multi-chord stellar occultations by Trans-Neptunian Objects successfully observed in 2017, as they provide constraints for the presence of material around these bodies. Results and dynamical implications will be presented.Part of this work has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community's H2020 2014-2020 ERC grant Agreement n°669416 "Lucky Star"

  3. Aquatic bacteria elongate and wobble their bodies for flagellar performance

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    Liu, Bin; Valenzuela, Joanna; Chopra, Pooja

    2017-11-01

    Bacteria are endowed with well-regulated sizes and shapes. A bacillus has a rod-like cell body, achieving swimming motility by rotating a single flagellum or multiple flagella. Along with other shapes, this elongated cell is often viewed as a payload, and its movements are regarded as passive responses to its flagellar propulsion. Here, we simultaneously measured the morphology and movement of individual free-swimming bacteria using an automated tracking microscope and 3D reconstruction techniques. These cells were found to consistently precess, based on reconstructions of the apparent wobbling movements viewed from a microscope. Through a hydrodynamic model that incorporates such precessing cell bodies and rod-like geometries, we found that there is a critical cell size below which wobbling movement is beneficial for flagellar performance. This critical cell size is consistent with the cellular morphologies of Caulobacter crescentus and Escherichia coli, as examples of single- and multi-flagellated species that are known for wobbling movements in aquatic environments. We also showed that the moderate cell sizes of these species could be attributed to a compromise between dispersal speed and power consumption. The authors thank the support of NSF-CREST: Center for Cellular and Biomolecular Machines at UC Merced (NSF-HRD-1547848).

  4. Relationship between pelvic and linear body measurements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine pelvic height, width and area and to estimate correlations between these measurements and other external linear body parameters, i.e. body height, shoulder height, chest depth, front quarter width, hindquarter width, rump length and rump slope in Dorper ewes. A total of 332 young ...

  5. Pelvic belt effects on pelvic morphometry, muscle activity and body balance in patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

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    Odette Soisson

    Full Text Available The sacroiliac joint (SIJ is frequently involved in low back and pelvic girdle pain. However, morphometrical and functional characteristics related to SIJ pain are poorly defined. Pelvic belts represent one treatment option, but evidence still lacks as to their pain-reducing effects and the mechanisms involved. Addressing these two issues, this case-controlled study compares morphometric, functional and clinical data in SIJ patients and healthy controls and evaluates the effects of short-term pelvic belt application.Morphometric and functional data pertaining to pelvic belt effects were compared in 17 SIJ patients and 17 controls. Lumbar spine and pelvis morphometries were obtained from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Functional electromyography data of pelvis and leg muscles and center of pressure excursions were measured in one-leg stance. The numerical rating scale was used to evaluate immediate pain-reducing effects.Pelvic morphometry was largely unaltered in SIJ patients and also by pelvic belt application. The angle of lumbar lateral flexion was significantly larger in SIJ patients without belt application. Muscle activity and center of pressure were unaffected by SIJ pain or by belt application in one-leg stance. Nine of 17 patients reported decreased pain intensities under moderate belt application, four reported no change and four reported increased pain intensity. For the entire population investigated here, this qualitative description was not confirmed on a statistical significant level.Minute changes were observed in the alignment of the lumbar spine in the frontal plane in SIJ patients. The potential pain-decreasing effects of pelvic belts could not be attributed to altered muscle activity, pelvic morphometry or body balance in a static short-term application. Long-term belt effects will therefore be of prospective interest.

  6. Migrate small, sound big: functional constraints on body size promote tracheal elongation in cranes.

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    Jones, M R; Witt, C C

    2014-06-01

    Organismal traits often represent the outcome of opposing selection pressures. Although social or sexual selection can cause the evolution of traits that constrain function or survival (e.g. ornamental feathers), it is unclear how the strength and direction of selection respond to ecological shifts that increase the severity of the constraint. For example, reduced body size might evolve by natural selection to enhance flight performance in migratory birds, but social or sexual selection favouring large body size may provide a countervailing force. Tracheal elongation is a potential outcome of these opposing pressures because it allows birds to convey an auditory signal of exaggerated body size. We predicted that the evolution of migration in cranes has coincided with a reduction in body size and a concomitant intensification of social or sexual selection for apparent large body size via tracheal elongation. We used a phylogenetic comparative approach to examine the relationships among migration distance, body mass and trachea length in cranes. As predicted, we found that migration distance correlated negatively with body size and positively with proportional trachea length. This result was consistent with our hypothesis that evolutionary reductions in body size led to intensified selection for trachea length. The most likely ultimate causes of intensified positive selection on trachea length are the direct benefits of conveying a large body size in intraspecific contests for mates and territories. We conclude that the strength of social or sexual selection on crane body size is linked to the degree of functional constraint. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Pelvic floor muscle strength and body self-perception among Brazilian pregnant women.

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    Sacomori, Cinara; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Vanderlinde, Cristiane

    2010-12-01

    To examine the relationship between pelvic floor muscle strength and body self-perception variables in pregnant women; and, more specifically, to determine the influence of the number of pregnancies (primigravidas vs multigravidas) on the strength of contraction of the pelvic floor muscles and on the body self-perception of pregnant women. Comparative cross-sectional research. Public health centres from Florianópolis, Brazil. Thirty-five pregnant women (18 primigravidas, 17 multigravidas) with a mean age of 25.5 (standard deviation 5.7) years. Pelvic floor strength measured through manual palpation, and body self-perception using the Questionnaire of Corporeality and Human Sexuality. Pelvic floor muscle strength was positively correlated with schooling [rho (ρ)=0.496] and body self-perception variables: finding the body beautiful (ρ=0.476), finding the body sexy (ρ=0.520), feeling that others find them sexy (ρ=0.364), finding the body proportional (ρ=0.412), touching the body generally (ρ=0.554) and recognising the smell of the body (ρ=0.454). Primigravidas found their bodies more beautiful and were more satisfied with their bodies. On a scale of 0 to 6, multigravid participants expressed a greater wish than primigravid participants to be thinner (median difference 2, 95% confidence interval 0-3, P=0.03). Pelvic floor strength did not differ between groups. The results suggest a relationship between pelvic floor muscle strength and body self-perception. Professionals involved in women's health may have a role in helping their patients to understand their bodies. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A preliminary study into the effects of pelvic rotations on upper body lateral translation.

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    Pennycott, Andrew; Wyss, Dario; Vallery, Heike; Riener, Robert

    2013-06-01

    An understanding concerning the roles of the various degrees of freedom of the human body during functions such as walking is crucial to the design of robotic devices for rehabilitation. However, the function of the three rotational degrees of freedom of the pelvis during walking remains uncertain. Theories have been previously presented postulating a role of pelvic obliquity in reducing vertical movements of the body's centre of mass, and therefore in minimising energy expenditure, but these are not fully supported by empirical evidence. In this paper, an alterative role of pelvic obliquity in reducing lateral movements of the upper body is proposed. Through the application of a robotic orthosis platform, a variety of walking conditions are tested with different levels of pelvic rotation and lateral movement of the upper body. The presence of the robotic device significantly reduces the degree of pelvic obliquity. Though the data show no significant relationship between the pelvic angles and lateral movement, a trend for decreasing upper body movement with increasing pelvic obliquity is apparent.

  9. Measured force on elongated bodies in a simulated low-Earth orbit environment

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    Maldonado, C. A.; Ketsdever, A. D. [University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Gimelshein, S. F. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2014-12-09

    An overview of the development of a magnetically filtered atomic oxygen plasma source and the application of the source to study low-Earth orbit drag on elongated bodies is presented. Plasma diagnostics show that the magnetic filter plasma source produces atomic oxygen ions (O{sup +}) with streaming energies equivalent to the relative orbital environment of approximately 5eV and can supply the appropriate density for LEO simulation. Previous research has demonstrated that momentum transfer between ions and metal surfaces is equivalent to the momentum transfer expected for neutral molecules with similar energy, due to charge exchange occurring prior to momentum transfer. Total drag measurements of aluminum cuboid geometries of varying length to diameter ratios immersed in the extracted plasma plume are presented as a function of streaming ion energy.

  10. Effects of phylogeny and locomotor style on the allometry of body mass and pelvic dimensions in birds.

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    Anten-Houston, Matthew V; Ruta, Marcello; Deeming, D Charles

    2017-09-01

    The pelvic girdle provides physical support and attachment for the hind limb musculature. In birds there is variability in pelvic morphology across different orders and this has been used as evidence for various types of locomotion. However, the morphological variation of pelvic bones has yet to be studied systematically in birds. Therefore, we investigated basic allometric relationships among female body mass (as a size proxy) and various pelvic measurements in a phylogenetic context. We also examined in detail the inter-relationships among various pelvic measurements. Also considered were the effects of broader taxonomic relationships at the level of order, with further examination of the influence of style of terrestrial locomotion on the allometric relationships. Positive relationships were initially found among all pelvic linear measurements and female body mass (FBM). The relationships among measures of pelvic width and FBM were isometric, whereas those between pelvic length and FBM showed positive allometry. Also, FBM explained more of the variance in pelvic length than in width. Similarly, the angle of the pelvis had a significant negative relationship, but FBM only explained a very low proportion of the variation in pelvic angles. In general terms, ancova showed that the effect of FBM was smaller than the effect of locomotor style in this species set. Both the synsacrum and pelvic girdle play roles in weight support and therefore scale in proportion to body weight accordingly. All three parts of the pelvis (ilium, ischium and pubis) are attached around the acetabulum and also provide muscle attachment points, so it might be expected for them to scale in a similar manner. Increased angulation of the pelvis is linked to orders which employ their hind limbs in feeding, perching and running, although FBM also explains a very low proportion of the variation in pelvic angle. Muscle attachment and the confines on morphology presented by locomotion explain much of

  11. Impact of different body positions on bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles in nulliparous continent women.

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    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Sobota, Grzegorz; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Błaszczak, Edward; Taradaj, Jakub; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    We examined pelvic floor muscles (PFM) activity (%MVC) in twenty nulliparous women by body position during exercise as well as the activation of abdominal muscles and the gluteus maximus during voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Activation of transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis, and gluteus maximus during voluntary PFM contractions was also assessed. Significant differences in mean normalized amplitudes of baseline PFM activity were revealed between standing and lying (P activity seemed to depend on the body position and was the highest in standing. Pelvic floor muscles activity during voluntary contractions did not differ by position in continent women. Statistically significant differences between the supine lying and sitting positions were only observed during a sustained 60-second contraction of the PFMs.

  12. Prediction of Dynamic Stability Derivatives of an Elongated Body of Revolution. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-05-01

    developed by the Germans in connection with their investigations of the stability and motions of submarines and tor- pedoes have been reported...Pressure clstributicn data en bodies of revolution, however, indicate chat the velocity Just outside the boundary layer at the tall is about 0.9U

  13. The effect of water temperature and synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over narrow, elongated water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of the thermally induced breeze involved with a relatively narrow, elongated water body is presented in conjunction with evaluations of sensible heat fluxes in a stable marine atmospheric surface layer. The effect of the water surface temperature and of the large-scale synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over the water is examined. As implied by the sensible heat flux patterns, the simulation results reveal the following trends: (1) when the synoptic flow is absent or light, the induced surface breeze is not affected noticeably by a reduction of the water surface temperature; and (2) for stronger synoptic flow, the resultant surface flow may be significantly affected by the water surface temperature.

  14. Elongation of textile pelvic floor implants under load is related to complete loss of effective porosity, thereby favoring incorporation in scar plates.

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    Otto, Jens; Kaldenhoff, E; Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Mühl, Thomas; Klinge, Uwe

    2014-04-01

    Use of textile structures for reinforcement of pelvic floor structures has to consider mechanical forces to the implant, which are quite different to the tension free conditions of the abdominal wall. Thus, biomechanical analysis of textile devices has to include the impact of strain on stretchability and effective porosity. Prolift(®) and Prolift + M(®), developed for tension free conditions, were tested by measuring stretchability and effective porosity applying mechanical strain. For comparison, we used Dynamesh-PR4(®), which was designed for pelvic floor repair to withstand mechanical strain. Prolift(®) at rest showed moderate porosity with little stretchability but complete loss of effective porosity at strain of 4.9 N/cm. Prolift + M(®) revealed an increased porosity at rest, but at strain showed high stretchability, with subsequent loss of effective porosity at strain of 2.5 N/cm. Dynamesh PR4(®) preserved its high porosity even under strain, but as consequence of limited stretchability. Though in tension free conditions Prolift(®) and Prolift + M(®) can be considered as large pore class I meshes, application of mechanical strain rapidly lead to collapse of pores. The loss of porosity at mechanical stress can be prevented by constructions with high structural stability. Assessment of porosity under strain was found helpful to define requirements for pelvic floor devices. Clinical studies have to prove whether devices with high porosity as well as high structural stability can improve the patients' outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Analysis of pelvic 131I uptake after 131I whole body scan in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou Ying; Liu Jianzhong; Hao Xinzhong; Wu Lixiang; Lu Keyi; Yang Suyun; Shi Xiaoli; Hu Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and explore the possible mechanism for pelvic 131 I uptake after 131 I post treatment whole body scan (Rx-WBS)in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: (1) Data were retrospectively reviewed from 168 female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (everyone has a Rx-WBS). (2) 46 patients were accepted by analyzing the characteristics of Rx-WBS and combing with some inclusion criteria,and then followed up. Results: Among the 46 patients (46 positions accumulated 131 I) with significant pelvic 131 I uptake, 6 patients had two reasons leading to pelvic 131 I uptake, and 2 patients had no specific reason. Among the 50 reasons for pelvic 131 I uptake, 41 reasons related with uterus, 3 reasons related to rectum, 5 related to bladder and 1 related to ovarian chocolate cyst. Among the 41 reasons related to uterus, by combining the examinations of SPECT/CT, ultrasound, CT and the follow-up results, 18 were uterine leiomyomas, 9 were intrauterine devices, 2 were endometrial thickening, 3 were uterine cavity effusion, 7 were menstrual periods, 1 were uterine adenomyosis, 1 were gestational sac. Conclusions: (1) In the Rx-WBS of female, the significant pelvic 131 I uptake is generally caused by uterus, but not bladder. And it usually means gynecological disease, especially uterine leiomyomas when excluding physiological factors. (2) It is generally easy to differentiate bladder from rectum because they have different characteristic features of the pelvic 131 I uptake. (3) SPECT/CT plays a very important role in locating 131 I uptake in uterus. (authors)

  16. Bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles during synchronous whole-body vibration--a randomized controlled study.

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    Stania, Magdalena; Chmielewska, Daria; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Smykla, Agnieszka; Taradaj, Jakub; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-10-24

    More and more frequently stress urinary incontinence affects young healthy women. Hence, early implementation of effective preventive strategies in nulliparous continent women is essential, including pelvic floor muscle training. An initial evaluation based on the bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) during whole-body vibration (WBV) would help to devise the best individualized training for prevention of stress urinary incontinence in woman. We hypothesized that synchronous WBV enhances bioelectrical activity of the PFM which depends on vibration frequency and peak-to-peak vibration displacement. The sample consisted of 36 nulliparous continent women randomly allocated to three comparative groups. Group I and II subjects participated in synchronous whole-body vibrations on a vibration platform; the frequency and peak-to-peak displacement of vibration were set individually for each group. Control participants performed exercises similar to those used in the study groups but without the concurrent application of vibrations. Pelvic floor surface electromyography (sEMG) activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during three experimental trials limited to 30s, 60s and 90 s. The mean amplitude and variability of the signal were normalized to the Maximal Voluntary Contraction - MVC. Friedman's two-way ANOVA revealed a statistically significant difference in the mean normalized amplitudes (%MVC) of the sEMG signal from the PFM during 60s- and 90 s-trials between the group exposed to high-intensity WBV and control participants (p continent women. Prolonged maintenance of a static position significantly decreases the variability of sEMG signal amplitude independent of whole-body vibrations. Single whole-body vibrations in nulliparous continent women does not cause pelvic floor muscle fatigue. The trial was registered in the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (no. ACTRN12615000966594); registration date: 15/09/2015.

  17. Impact of Different Body Positions on Bioelectrical Activity of the Pelvic Floor Muscles in Nulliparous Continent Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Chmielewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined pelvic floor muscles (PFM activity (%MVC in twenty nulliparous women by body position during exercise as well as the activation of abdominal muscles and the gluteus maximus during voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Activation of transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis, and gluteus maximus during voluntary PFM contractions was also assessed. Significant differences in mean normalized amplitudes of baseline PFM activity were revealed between standing and lying (P<0.00024 and lying and ball-sitting positions (P<0.0053. Average peak, average time before peak, and average time after peak did not differ significantly during the voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Baseline PFM activity seemed to depend on the body position and was the highest in standing. Pelvic floor muscles activity during voluntary contractions did not differ by position in continent women. Statistically significant differences between the supine lying and sitting positions were only observed during a sustained 60-second contraction of the PFMs.

  18. Impact of Different Body Positions on Bioelectrical Activity of the Pelvic Floor Muscles in Nulliparous Continent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Sobota, Grzegorz; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Błaszczak, Edward; Taradaj, Jakub; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    We examined pelvic floor muscles (PFM) activity (%MVC) in twenty nulliparous women by body position during exercise as well as the activation of abdominal muscles and the gluteus maximus during voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Activation of transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis, and gluteus maximus during voluntary PFM contractions was also assessed. Significant differences in mean normalized amplitudes of baseline PFM activity were revealed between standing and lying (P < 0.00024) and lying and ball-sitting positions (P < 0.0053). Average peak, average time before peak, and average time after peak did not differ significantly during the voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Baseline PFM activity seemed to depend on the body position and was the highest in standing. Pelvic floor muscles activity during voluntary contractions did not differ by position in continent women. Statistically significant differences between the supine lying and sitting positions were only observed during a sustained 60-second contraction of the PFMs. PMID:25793212

  19. Pregnancy-related pelvic pain is more frequent in women with increased body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, K; Nohr, EA; Olsen, J

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association between pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Design: Nested case-control study. Setting and population. The Danish National Birth Cohort, a cohort of pregnant women and their children recruited 1996–2002. Methods. The women ...

  20. Changes in the limb kinematics and walking-distance estimation after shank elongation : evidence for a locomotor body schema?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominici, Nadia; Daprati, Elena; Nico, Daniele; Cappellini, Germana; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    When walking, step length provides critical information on traveled distance along the ongoing path [corrected] Little is known on the role that knowledge about body dimensions plays within this process. Here we directly addressed this question by evaluating whether changes in body proportions

  1. The influence of seat adjustment and a thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis on the distribution of body-seat pressure in children with scoliosis and pelvic obliquity.

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    Shoham, Yehudit; Meyer, Shirley; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Tamar Weiss, Patrice L

    2004-01-07

    To determine the effect of a thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO) on the distribution of body-seat interface pressure in children with concomitant scoliosis and pelvic obliquity and to determine the effects of two methods commonly used in customized seating--elevation (push up) of the lower side of the pelvis or a wedge insertion beneath the raised pelvis--on the distribution of body-seat interface pressure. The study population comprised 15 children with an underlying neuromuscular disorder. All had scoliosis and pelvic obliquity when seated, and used a TLSO during sitting. Body-seat interface pressure was measured using the QA Pad. Maximum pressure, mean pressure and contact area were recorded at baseline and at 10 degrees 'push up' and 10 degrees wedge insertion, with and without the TLSO. X-rays were performed with and without the orthosis at baseline position. The TLSO reduced the scoliosis deformity by a mean of 5.3 degrees and significantly (p pelvic obliquity was contralateral to the side of the curve. Seat adjustment did not have any significant effect on pressure readings. Application of a TLSO in a child with scoliosis and contralateral pelvic obliquity significantly reduced the spinal curvature and interface sitting pressure. Manipulation of sitting by use of wedges under the pelvis had no significant effect on pressure distribution.

  2. Waist-Hip Ratio Surrogate Is More Predictive Than Body Mass Index of Wound Complications After Pelvic and Acetabulum Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeblon, Todd; Perry, Kevin J; Kufera, Joseph A

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether a novel surrogate of waist-hip ratio (WHR) is more predictive of wound complications after pelvis or acetabulum stabilization than body mass index (BMI) and describe the method of measuring a WHR proxy (WHRp). Retrospective review. One Level 1 Trauma Center. One hundred sixty-one patients after operative repair of pelvis and acetabulum fractures. Operative stabilization of a pelvic ring injury or acetabular fracture. Infection (pin, superficial, and deep) and wound healing complication. We retrospectively reviewed 161 subjects after operative repair of pelvic and acetabular fractures. Primary outcome was any wound complication. BMI was acquired from medical records. WHRp was derived from anteroposterior and lateral computed tomography scout images. BMI and WHRp results were analyzed as continuous and categorical variables. BMI was grouped into high-risk categories of ≥30 and ≥40. WHRp data were grouped utilizing the WHO's high-risk profile for females (>0.85) and males (>0.90). An alternative optimal WHR was also assessed. Covariate analysis included demographic data, Injury Severity Score, mechanism, tobacco use, presence and types of open approach, injury type, associated injuries and comorbidities, failure of fixation, and thromboembolism. The mean follow-up was 15.9 months. Twenty-four (15%) patients developed wound complications. Increasing BMI (P < 0.007) and WHRp (P < 0.001) as continuous variables and female sex (P < 0.009) were associated with wound complications. Applying unadjusted continuous data to a receiver operating characteristic curve revealed a greater area under the curve for WHRp than for BMI (P < 0.001). The optimal predictive WHRp was ≥1.0 (P < 0.001, odds ratio 43.11). The receiver operating characteristic curve from adjusted data demonstrated a greater area under the curve for WHRp ≥1.0 (0.93) compared with BMI ≥30 (0.78) or ≥40 (0.75) and WHO WHRp (0.82). Computed tomography generated WHRp demonstrated

  3. Pelvic floor muscle strength evaluation in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Orsi Gameiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity. Materials and Methods Fifty healthy nulliparous women with mean age of 23 years were prospectively studied. Subjective evaluation of PFM was assessed by transvaginal digital palpation (TDP of anterior and posterior areas regarding the vaginal introitus. A perineometer with inflatable vaginal probe was used to assess the PFM strength in four different positions: supine with extended lower limbs (P1; bent-knee supine (P2; sitting (P3; standing (P4. Results Physical activity, 3 times per week, was reported by 58% of volunteers. Sexual activity was observed in 80% of women and 82% of them presented orgasm. The average body mass index (BMI was 21.76 kg/m2, considered as normal according World Health Organization (WHO. We observed that 68% of volunteers were conscious about the PFM contraction. TDP showed concordance of 76% when anterior and posterior areas were compared (p = 0.00014. There was not correlation between PFM strength and orgasm in subjective evaluation. The PFM strength was significantly higher in standing position when compared with the other positions (p < 0.000. No statistical difference was observed between orgasm and PFM strength when objective evaluations were performed. Conclusions There was concordance between anterior and posterior areas in 76% of cases when subjective PFM strength was assessed. In objective evaluation, higher PFM strength was observed when volunteers were standing. No statistical correlation was observed between PFM strength and orgasm in nulliparous healthy women.

  4. Severe pelvic floor symptoms after cervical cancer treatment are predominantly associated with mental and physical well-being and body image: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazewinkel, Menke H; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Velden, Jacobus van der; Burger, Matthé P M; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R

    2012-01-01

    To identify associations between demographic, disease-related, and psychological variables and severe distress from pelvic floor symptoms (PFSs) after cervical cancer treatment. This study was cross-sectional and questionnaire based. We included patients with cervical cancer treated between 1997 and 2007 in the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam. Pelvic floor symptoms were assessed with urogenital distress inventory and defecatory distress inventory. Scores were dichotomized into severe (>90th percentile) versus nonsevere distress. Disease-related variables were extracted from medical files. Psychological factors included mental and physical well-being, optimism, and body image, which were assessed with standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 282 patients were included: 148 were treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection, 61 patients were treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy, and 73 patients were treated with primary radiotherapy. Demographic: Multivariate analyses showed no significant relation between demographic variables and symptoms. Disease-related: None of these variables were significantly associated in multivariate analyses. Psychosocial: In all treatment groups, multivariate associations were found. In general, better mental and physical well-being was associated with nonsevere PFSs. Increased body image disturbance was associated with severe defecation symptoms. Few associations were found between demographic and disease-related variables and distress from PFS after cervical cancer treatment. However, better mental and physical well-being is associated with nonsevere distress from urogenital and defecation symptoms and more body image disturbance with severe PFSs. Improving these factors might reduce distress from PFSs and should be a focus of future research.

  5. A case of pelvic lipomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    岡, 裕也; 畑山, 忠; 滝, 洋二; 飛田, 収一; 上山, 秀麿; 小松, 洋輔

    1991-01-01

    This is a report of the fifth case of pelvic lipomatosis in Japan. A 52-year-old man presented himself in our hospital with a complaint of left lower abdominal pain on August 28, 1988. At that time, physical examination was unremarkable with the exception of mild obesity. The excretory urogram and retrograde pyelogram revealed left hydroureteronephrosis with tapering of the left lower ureter. Urethrocystogram showed an elongated posterior urethra with anterior displacement and elevation of th...

  6. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Patient Education FAQs Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Patient Education Pamphlets - ...

  7. Pelvic Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each step so that nothing comes as a surprise to you. After the pelvic exam After the ... Clinic does not endorse any of the third party products and services advertised. Advertising and sponsorship policy ...

  8. Anatomical and biomechanical traits of broiler chickens across ontogeny. Part II. Body segment inertial properties and muscle architecture of the pelvic limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Paxton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In broiler chickens, genetic success for desired production traits is often shadowed by welfare concerns related to musculoskeletal health. Whilst these concerns are clear, a viable solution is still elusive. Part of the solution lies in knowing how anatomical changes in afflicted body systems that occur across ontogeny influence standing and moving. Here, to demonstrate these changes we quantify the segment inertial properties of the whole body, trunk (legs removed and the right pelvic limb segments of five broilers at three different age groups across development. We also consider how muscle architecture (mass, fascicle length and other properties related to mechanics changes for selected muscles of the pelvic limb. All broilers used had no observed lameness, but we document the limb pathologies identified post mortem, since these two factors do not always correlate, as shown here. The most common leg disorders, including bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and rotational and angular deformities of the lower limb, were observed in chickens at all developmental stages. Whole limb morphology is not uniform relative to body size, with broilers obtaining large thighs and feet between four and six weeks of age. This implies that the energetic cost of swinging the limbs is markedly increased across this growth period, perhaps contributing to reduced activity levels. Hindlimb bone length does not change during this period, which may be advantageous for increased stability despite the increased energetic costs. Increased pectoral muscle growth appears to move the centre of mass cranio-dorsally in the last two weeks of growth. This has direct consequences for locomotion (potentially greater limb muscle stresses during standing and moving. Our study is the first to measure these changes in the musculoskeletal system across growth in chickens, and reveals how artificially selected changes of the morphology of the pectoral apparatus may cause

  9. Pelvic Actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra García-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Actinomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces, Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Its symptomatology imitates some malignant pelvic tumours, tuberculosis, or nocardiosis, causing abscesses and fistulas. Actinomycoses are opportunistic infections and require normal mucous barriers to be altered. No epidemiological studies have been conducted to determine prevalence or incidence of such infections. Objective. To analyse the clinical cases of pelvic actinomycosis reported worldwide, to update the information about the disease. Methods. A systematic review of worldwide pelvic actinomycosis cases between 1980 and 2014 was performed, utilising the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The following information was analysed: year, country, type of study, number of cases, use of intrauterine device (IUD, final and initial diagnosis, and method of diagnosis. Results. 63 articles met the search criteria, of which 55 reported clinical cases and 8 reported cross-sectional studies. Conclusions. Pelvic actinomycosis is confusing to diagnose and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic chronic inflammatory lesions. It is commonly diagnosed through a histological report, obtained after a surgery subsequent to an erroneous initial diagnosis. A bacterial culture in anaerobic medium could be useful for the diagnosis but requires a controlled technique and should be performed using specialised equipment.

  10. Synthesis of Elongated Microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the factors that influence the effectiveness of self-healing in functional materials is the amount of liquid healing agents that can be delivered to the damaged area. The use of hollow tubes or fibers and the more sophisticated micro-vascular networks has been proposed as a way to increase the amount of healing agents that can be released when damage is inflicted. Although these systems might be effective in some specific applications, they are not practical for coatings applications. One possible practical way to increase the healing efficiency is to use microcapsules with high-aspect-ratios, or elongated microcapsules. It is understood that elongated microcapsules will be more efficient because they can release more healing agent than a spherical microcapsule when a crack is initiated in the coating. Although the potential advantage of using elongated microcapsules for self healing applications is clear, it is very difficult to make elongated microcapsules from an emulsion system because spherical microcapsules are normally formed due to the interfacial tension between the dispersed phase and the continuous phase. This paper describes the two methods that have been developed by the authors to synthesize elongated microcapsules. The first method involves the use of an emulsion with intermediate stability and the second involves the application of mechanical shear conditions to the emulsion.

  11. A device for storing and reeling of an elongated flexible body, such as a supply flexible hose for a welding head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vouzellaud, A.

    1992-01-01

    The device is composed of an annular system with a spirally machined surface in which the flexible body is rolled-up. This device can be used to supply a laser welding head in order to weld sleeve tubes in pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes

  12. Pelvic Nodal Dosing With Registration to the Prostate: Implications for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishan, Amar U.; Lamb, James M.; Jani, Shyam S.; Kang, Jung J.; Steinberg, Michael L.; King, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether image guidance with rigid registration (RR) to intraprostatic markers (IPMs) yields acceptable coverage of the pelvic lymph nodes in the context of a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) regimen. Methods and Materials: Four to seven kilovoltage cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) from 12 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were analyzed, allowing approximation of an SBRT regimen. The nodal clinical target volume (CTV N ) and bladder were contoured on all kilovoltage CBCTs. The V 100 CTV N , expressed as a ratio to the same parameter on the initial plan, and the magnitude of translational shift between RR to the IPMs versus RR to the pelvic bones, were computed. The ability of a multimodality bladder filling protocol to minimize bladder height variation was assessed in a separate cohort of 4 patients. Results: Sixty-five CBCTs were assessed. The average V 100 CTV N was 92.6%, but for a subset of 3 patients the average was 80.0%, compared with 97.8% for the others (P<.0001). The average overall and superior–inferior axis magnitudes of the bony-to-fiducial translations were significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (8.1 vs 3.9 mm and 5.8 vs 2.4 mm, respectively; P<.0001). Relative bladder height changes were also significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (42.9% vs 18.5%; P<.05). Use of a multimodality bladder-filling protocol minimized bladder height variation (P<.001). Conclusion: A majority of patients had acceptable nodal coverage after RR to IPMs, even when approximating SBRT. However, a subset of patients had suboptimal nodal coverage. These patients had large bony-to-fiducial translations and large variations in bladder height. Nodal coverage should be excellent if the superior–inferior axis bony-to-fiducial translation and the relative bladder height change (both easily measured on CBCT) are kept to a minimum. Implementation of a strict bladder filling protocol may achieve this

  13. Elongation of Flare Ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman MT (United States); Cassak, Paul A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown WV (United States); Priest, Eric R. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-20

    We present an analysis of the apparent elongation motion of flare ribbons along the polarity inversion line (PIL), as well as the shear of flare loops in several two-ribbon flares. Flare ribbons and loops spread along the PIL at a speed ranging from a few to a hundred km s{sup −1}. The shear measured from conjugate footpoints is consistent with the measurement from flare loops, and both show the decrease of shear toward a potential field as a flare evolves and ribbons and loops spread along the PIL. Flares exhibiting fast bidirectional elongation appear to have a strong shear, which may indicate a large magnetic guide field relative to the reconnection field in the coronal current sheet. We discuss how the analysis of ribbon motion could help infer properties in the corona where reconnection takes place.

  14. The Sweetness of Embryonic Elongation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathan, Sundar R; Oates, Andrew C

    2017-02-27

    Metabolic pathways play a vital yet poorly understood role in embryogenesis. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Bulusu et al. (2017) and Oginuma et al. (2017) provide insights into the intricate relationship between metabolism and morphogenesis, showing that glycolysis facilitates body elongation and balances neural and mesodermal differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Severe Pelvic Floor Symptoms After Cervical Cancer Treatment Are Predominantly Associated With Mental and Physical Well-Being and Body Image A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazewinkel, Menke H.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Velden, Jacobus van der; Burger, Matthé P. M.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify associations between demographic, disease-related, and psychological variables and severe distress from pelvic floor symptoms (PFSs) after cervical cancer treatment. Methods: This study was cross-sectional and questionnaire based. We included patients with cervical cancer

  16. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca Rossetti, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  17. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rocca Rossetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  18. Elongated Microcapsules and Their Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan N. (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Perusich, Stephen A. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Williams, Martha K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Elongated microcapsules, such as elongated hydrophobic-core and hydrophilic-core microcapsules, may be formed by pulse stirring an emulsion or shearing an emulsion between two surfaces moving at different velocities. The elongated microcapsules may be dispersed in a coating formulation, such as paint.

  19. The Early Result of Whole Pelvic Radiotherapy and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Boost for High Risk Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei eLin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe rationale for hypofractionated radiotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer is based on the modern understanding of radiobiology and advances in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT techniques. Whole-pelvis irradiation combined with SBRT boost for high-risk prostate cancer might escalate biologically effective dose without increasing toxicity. Here, we report our 4-year results of SBRT boost for high-risk localized prostate cancer.Methods and MaterialsFrom October 2009 to August 2012, 41 patients of newly diagnosed, high-risk or very high-risk (NCCN definition localized prostate cancer patients were treated with whole-pelvis irradiation and SBRT boost. The whole pelvis dose was 45Gy (25 fractions of 1.8Gy. The SBRT boost dose was 21 Gy (three fractions of 7 Gy. Ninety percent of these patients received hormone therapy. The toxicities of gastrointestinal (GI and genitourinary (GU tracts were scored by Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Effect (CTCAE v3.0. Biochemical failure was defined by Phoenix definition.ResultsMedian follow-up was 42 months. Mean PSA before treatment was 44.18 ng/ml. Mean PSA level at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months was 0.94, 0.44, 0.13, 0.12, and 0.05 ng/ml, respectively. The estimated 4-year biochemical failure-free survival was 91.9%. Three biochemical failures were observed. GI and GU tract toxicities were minimal. No grade 3 acute GU or GI toxicity was noted. During radiation therapy, 27% of the patient had grade 2 acute GU toxicity and 12% had grade 2 acute GI toxicity. At 3 months, most toxicity scores had returned to baseline. At the last follow up, there was no grade 3 late GU or GI toxicity.ConclusionsWhole-pelvis irradiation combined with SBRT boost for high-risk localized prostate cancer is feasible with minimal toxicity and encouraging biochemical failure-free survival. Continued accrual and follow-up would be necessary to confirm the biochemical control rate and the toxicity profiles.

  20. Office Evaluation of Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Stacey; Hwang, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    The history and physical examination are important keys to diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic pelvic pain. The comprehensive history should include questioning regarding patient's pain complaint and a thorough history and review of any body system that may be involved, including neuromusculoskeletal, obstetric, gynecologic, gastrointestinal, urologic, dermatologic, infectious, oncologic, and psychiatric. The physical examination should also follow a focused systems-based approach and includes examination of gastrointestinal, dermatologic, neurologic, and musculoskeletal (including lumbosacral spine, sacroiliac joints, pelvis, and hips) systems, and the pelvic floor (internal and external examination, including neuromuscular anatomy). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic Pelvic Pain and Infertility Resulting from Unrecognized Retained Laminaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Nilsson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2013, the abortion rate in the United States was found to be 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. Of these, the CDC estimates that nearly 49% were performed using unsafe measures. Even when these procedures are safely performed, patients are at risk for immediate or delayed complications. In second-trimester terminations, mechanical dilation with an osmotic dilator is common to allow for delivery of the fetus. The Japanese seaweed Laminaria japonica is used to achieve this purpose. Case. A 28-year-old primigravida presented with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. She had irregular menstrual cycles and reported scant yellow discharge. A transvaginal ultrasound revealed an abnormally appearing endometrium with an elongated structure suspicious for a foreign body. The patient reported a voluntary termination of pregnancy twelve years earlier, for which laminaria were placed prior to the dilation and extraction. She underwent an operative hysteroscopy confirming our suspicion for retained laminaria. The pathology report demonstrated chronic severe endometritis and plant based material. Conclusion. Retained laminaria are associated with chronic pelvic pain and chronic infertility. Since they can be difficult to detect on conventional imaging, proper counting prior to insertion and after removal is an essential physician responsibility.

  2. Chronic Pelvic Pain and Infertility Resulting from Unrecognized Retained Laminaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2013, the abortion rate in the United States was found to be 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. Of these, the CDC estimates that nearly 49% were performed using unsafe measures. Even when these procedures are safely performed, patients are at risk for immediate or delayed complications. In second-trimester terminations, mechanical dilation with an osmotic dilator is common to allow for delivery of the fetus. The Japanese seaweed Laminaria japonica is used to achieve this purpose. Case A 28-year-old primigravida presented with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. She had irregular menstrual cycles and reported scant yellow discharge. A transvaginal ultrasound revealed an abnormally appearing endometrium with an elongated structure suspicious for a foreign body. The patient reported a voluntary termination of pregnancy twelve years earlier, for which laminaria were placed prior to the dilation and extraction. She underwent an operative hysteroscopy confirming our suspicion for retained laminaria. The pathology report demonstrated chronic severe endometritis and plant based material. Conclusion Retained laminaria are associated with chronic pelvic pain and chronic infertility. Since they can be difficult to detect on conventional imaging, proper counting prior to insertion and after removal is an essential physician responsibility. PMID:28932611

  3. Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe; Yu, Kaijia

    2008-01-01

    A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t...... with a molecular weight of 145 kg/ mol was subjected to the oscillative flow. The onset of the steady periodic regime is reached at the same Hencky strain as the onset of the steady elongational viscosity ( Lambda = 0). The integral molecular stress function formulation within the 'interchain pressure' concept...

  4. Chronic pelvic pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It affects all spheres of life, from physical and psychological ... Peripheral sensitisation: This refers to overactive afferent nerve pathways. • Pelvic floor hypertonicity: This refers to upregulation of the pelvic muscle tone. ... Chronic pelvic pain is defined as pain in the pelvis lasting for more than six months (some say three).

  5. Comparison of 18F-FDG PET/MRI and MRI alone for whole-body staging and potential impact on therapeutic management of women with suspected recurrent pelvic cancer: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Lino M; Kirchner, Julian; Grueneisen, Johannes; Ruhlmann, Verena; Aktas, Bahriye; Schaarschmidt, Benedikt M; Forsting, Michael; Herrmann, Ken; Antoch, Gerald; Umutlu, Lale

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of 18 F-FDG PET/MRI for whole-body staging and potential changes in therapeutic management of women with suspected recurrent pelvic cancer in comparison with MRI alone. Seventy-one consecutive women (54 ± 13 years, range: 25-80 years) with suspected recurrence of cervical (32), ovarian (26), endometrial (7), vulvar (4), and vaginal (2) cancer underwent PET/MRI including a diagnostic contrast-enhanced MRI protocol. PET/MRI and MRI datasets were separately evaluated regarding lesion count, localization, categorization (benign/malignant), and diagnostic confidence (3-point scale; 1-3) by two physicians. The reference standard was based on histopathology results and follow-up imaging. Diagnostic accuracy and proportions of malignant and benign lesions rated correctly were retrospectively compared using McNemar's chi 2 test. Differences in diagnostic confidence were assessed by Wilcoxon test. Fifty-five patients showed cancer recurrence. PET/MRI correctly identified more patients with cancer recurrence than MRI alone (100% vs. 83.6%, p PET/MRI, MRI alone missed 4/15 patients with pelvic recurrence and miscategorized 8/40 patients with distant metastases as having local recurrence only. Based on the reference standard, 241 lesions were detected in the study cohort (181 malignant, 60 benign). While PET/MRI provided correct identification of 181/181 (100%) malignant lesions, MRI alone correctly identified 135/181 (74.6%) malignant lesions, which was significantly less compared to PET/MRI (p PET/MRI offered superior diagnostic accuracy (99.2% vs. 79.3%, p PET/MRI demonstrates excellent diagnostic performance and outperforms MRI alone for whole-body staging of women with suspected recurrent pelvic cancer, indicating potential changes in therapy management based on evaluation of local recurrence and distant metastatic spread.

  6. Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intake. Biofeedback, which is a special form of pelvic floor physical therapy aimed at improving a patient’s rectal sensation and ... therapy. As patients perform this specialized form of pelvic floor physical therapy, they are often able to view EMG or ...

  7. Pelvic floor imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, J.; Halligan, S.; Bartram, C. I.

    2001-01-01

    A greater awareness of the therapies now available for pelvic floor dysfunction has increased demand for specialized imaging of this region. Some of the techniques required are available at relatively few centers, and the purpose of this review is to introduce the emerging subspecialty of pelvic

  8. Chronic female pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Maitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is defined as nonmalignant pain perceived in the structures related to the pelvis that has been present for more than 6 months or a non acute pain mechanism of shorter duration. Pain in the pelvic region can arise from musculoskeletal, gynaecological, urologic, gastrointestinal and or neurologic conditions. Key gynaecological conditions that contribute to CPP include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, endometriosis, adnexa pathologies (ovarian cysts, ovarian remnant syndrome, uterine pathologies (leiomyoma, adenomyosis and pelvic girdle pain associated with pregnancy. Several major and minor sexually transmitted diseases (STD can cause pelvic and vulvar pain. A common painful condition of the urinary system is Interstitial cystitis(IC. A second urologic condition that can lead to development of CPP is urethral syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with dysmenorrhoea in 60% of cases. Other bowel conditions contributing to pelvic pain include diverticular disease,Crohn′s disease ulcerative colitis and chronic appendicitis. Musculoskeletal pathologies that can cause pelvic pain include sacroiliac joint (SIJ dysfunction, symphysis pubis and sacro-coccygeal joint dysfunction, coccyx injury or malposition and neuropathic structures in the lower thoracic, lumbar and sacral plexus. Prolonged pelvic girdle pain, lasting more than 6 months postpartum is estimated in 3% to 30% of women. Nerve irritation or entrapment as a cause of pelvic pain can be related to injury of the upper lumbar segments giving rise to irritation of the sensory nerves to the ventral trunk or from direct trauma from abdominal incisions or retractors used during abdominal surgical procedures. Afflictions of the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, pudendal and obturator nerves are of greatest concern in patients with pelvic pain. Patient education about the disease and treatment involved is paramount. A knowledge of the differential

  9. Elongation Cutoff Technique: Parallel Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Korchowiec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the elongation cutoff technique (ECT substantially speeds up thequantum-chemical calculation at Hartree-Fock (HF level of theory and is especially wellsuited for parallel performance. A comparison of ECT timings for water chains with thereference HF calculations is given. The analysis includes the overall CPU (central processingunit time and its most time consuming steps.

  10. Ultrasonography of pelvic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chu Wan; Lee, Kyung Hi; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Choo, Dong Woon; Rha, Keun Yung; Kim, Syng Wook

    1980-01-01

    56 cases of ultrasonography in patient with proven pelvic mass were reviewed. Ultrasonography is a very useful noninvasive diagnostic modality in the patient with clinically suspected pelvic masses giving accurate assessment of the size, location, internal structure and origin as well as its existence. A specific diagnosis was possible in selected patients with ovarian cystadenoma, dermoids, uterine myoma, and H-mode. Nonspecific pattern was common in pelvic abscess and ectopic pregnancy. Diagnostic errors were primarily due to small lesions (2 cm or less in diameter) or misinterpretation of the lesion.

  11. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Treatment Options for Pelvic Organ Prolapse? After obtaining a detailed medical history and completing a thorough ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  13. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... organs and is often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, ... procedure is typically used to help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of ...

  16. Extraperitoneal pelvic leiomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamarina, Mario G.; Baltazar, Alberto D.; Arce, Patricia; Dettano, Veronica; Lopez, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    Extraperitoneal pelvic leiomyosarcoma is a very uncommon neoplasic process. It is a highly aggressive tumor with unfavorable prognosis. Clinical findings are nonspecific; diagnosis is generally made in an advanced stage of the disease. We present a case of a 34 years old female patient with pelvic leiomyosarcoma located at the recto vaginal septum who referred vulvar tumor and disability of the left lower limb. This case report describes the results obtained by ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and pathology. (author)

  17. Anorectal and Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Lee, Tae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Although pelvic pain is a symptom of several structural anorectal and pelvic disorders (eg, anal fissure, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the three most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with pelvic pain: functional anorectal pain (ie, levator ani syndrome, unspecified anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The first two conditions occur in both sexes, while the latter occurs only in men. They are defined by symptoms, supplemented with levator tenderness (levator ani syndrome) and bladder mucosal inflammation (interstitial cystitis). Although distinct, these conditions share several similarities, including associations with dysfunctional voiding or defecation, comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Several factors, including pelvic floor muscle tension, peripheral inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization, and psychosocial factors, have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The management is tailored to symptoms, is partly supported by clinical trials, and includes multidisciplinary approaches such as lifestyle modifications and pharmacologic, behavioral, and physical therapy. Opioids should not be avoided, and surgery has a limited role, primarily in refractory interstitial cystitis. PMID:27712641

  18. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Re-treatments of recurrence after pelvic floor repair surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S X; Wang, F M; Lin, L S; Song, Y F

    2017-06-25

    Objective: To analyze re-treatments of recurrence after the pelvic floor repair surgery. Methods: The protocol and the effect of re-treatments were investigated by reviewing and analyzing the clinical data of 81 recurrent patients (grade Ⅱ and above), who had received the pelvic floor repair surgery from January 2011 to January 2016. Pelvic organ prolapse quantitation system (POP-Q) and two questionnaires about quality of life [pelvic floor distress inventory-short form 20 (PFDI-20) and pelvic floor impact questionnaire short form (PFIQ-7)] were used to evaluate objective and subjective efficacy, respectively. Results: Among 81 recurrent patients who were followed up for a median of 35 months (10- 69 months), 78 cases (with prolapse up to grade Ⅲ or Ⅳ) were treated by surgical operation with both objective cure rate and subjective satisfaction being 100% (78/78); 3 cases (with grade Ⅱ prolapse) were treated by pelvic floor electrical stimulation biofeedback, and 1 case among the three cases had the vaginal foreign body sensation, the subjective satisfaction was 2/3. The methods of surgical operation for the 78 recurrent patients included: total pelvic floor reconstructive surgery (55 cases; 3 of which involve trachelectomy), anterior pelvic reconstructive surgery (2 cases), posterior pelvic reconstructive surgery (3 cases), Y-mesh sacral colpopexy (2 cases), colpocleisis (11 cases), vaginal hysterectomy combined posterior fornix forming (3 cases), and vaginal hysterectomy combined posterior pelvic reconstructive surgery(2 cases). Conclusion: The extent of recurrence, the recurrent site and complications must be carefully considered and evaluated for re-treatments of recurrence after pelvic floor repair surgery, and then an appropriately individualized re-treatment protocol could be designed for each of the patients.

  20. Elongational dynamics of multiarm polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Nielsen, Jens Kromann

    2009-01-01

    The startup of uni-axial elongational flow followed by stress relaxation and reversed bi-axial flow has been measured for a branched polystyrene melt with narrow molar mass distribution using the filament stretching rheometer. The branched polystyrene melt was a multiarm A(q)-C-C-A(q) pom......-pom polystyrene with an estimated average number of arms of q=2.5. The molar mass of each arm is about 28 kg/mole with an overall molar mass of M-w=280 kg/mole. An integral molecular stress function constitutive formulation within the "interchain pressure" concept agrees reasonably well with the experiments....

  1. Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Ring Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Weon-Yoo

    2014-06-01

    Pelvic fractures are classified according to the stability of the pelvic ring. Unlike stable pelvic fractures, which heal without complications, unstable fractures may lead to pelvic ring deformities, which cause severe complications. An orthopedic surgeon must determine the stability of the pelvic ring by radiography and physical examination of the patient in order to ensure early, prompt treatment. This article includes anatomy of the pelvic ring, classification of pelvic ring injuries, its treatment algorithm, and corresponding cases involving unstable pelvic ring injury.

  2. Pelvic support, pelvic symptoms, and patient satisfaction after colpocleisis

    OpenAIRE

    FitzGerald, M. P.; Richter, H. E.; Bradley, C. S.; Ye, W.; Visco, A. C.; Cundiff, G. W.; Zyczynski, H. M.; Fine, P.; Weber, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of colpocleisis on pelvic support, symptoms, and quality of life and report-associated morbidity and postoperative satisfaction. Women undergoing colpocleisis for treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were recruited at six centers. Baseline measures included physical examination, responses to the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire. Three and 12 months after surgery we repeated baseline measures. Of 152 patients with ...

  3. Pelvic floor muscle function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) referred by gynaecologists and urologists for in-hospital pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), and to identity associated factors for a low level of PFM...

  4. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Pelvic Inflammatory Disease KidsHealth / For Parents / Pelvic Inflammatory Disease What's in this article? Symptoms Complications Prevention Treatment ...

  5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) -- aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000710.htm Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... have just seen your health care provider for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID refers to an infection of the ...

  6. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003975.htm Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises ...

  7. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  8. Maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiroa, José N; Alves, Joao G

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Patterns of fetal growth predict non-communicable disease risk in adult life, but fetal growth variability appears to have a relatively weak association with maternal nutritional dynamics during pregnancy. This challenges the interpretation of fetal growth variability as ‘adaptation’. We hypothesized that associations of maternal size and nutritional status with neonatal size are mediated by the dimensions of the maternal pelvis. We analysed data on maternal height, body mass index (BMI) and pelvic dimensions (conjugate, inter-spinous and inter-cristal diameters) and neonatal gestational age, weight, length, thorax girth and head girth (n = 224). Multiple regression analysis was used to identify independent maternal predictors of neonatal size, and the mediating role of neonatal head girth in these associations. Pelvic dimensions displaced maternal BMI as a predictor of birth weight, explaining 11.6% of the variance. Maternal conjugate and inter-spinous diameters predicted neonatal length, thorax girth and head girth, whereas inter-cristal diameter only predicted neonatal length. Associations of pelvic dimensions with birth length, but not birth weight, were mediated by neonatal head girth. Pelvic dimensions predicted neonatal size better than maternal BMI, and these associations were mostly independent of maternal height. Sensitivity of fetal growth to pelvic dimensions reduces the risk of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, potentially a strong selective pressure during secular trends in height. Selection on fetal adaptation to relatively inflexible components of maternal phenotype, rather than directly to external ecological conditions, may help explain high levels of growth plasticity during late fetal life and early infancy. PMID:29423225

  9. Triple Pelvic Osteotomy and Double Pelvic Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Francisco; Franklin, Samuel P

    2017-07-01

    Triple and double pelvic osteotomy (TPO, DPO) are performed with the goal of increasing acetabular ventro-version, increasing femoral head coverage, and decreasing femoral head subluxation. Since the first descriptions of TPO, there have been modifications in technique, most notably omission of the ischial osteotomy for DPO, and improvements in the implants, including availability of locking TPO/DPO bone plates. Associated complication rates seem to have declined accordingly. The most salient questions regarding these procedures remain what selection criteria should be used to identify candidates and whether halting or preventing osteoarthritis is necessary to consider these surgeries clinically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anorectal and pelvic floor anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The anorectum and pelvic floor are crucial in maintaining continence, facilitating evacuation, providing pelvic organ support while in females the pelvic floor is part of the birth canal. The anal sphincter is a multilayered cylindrical structure, including the smooth muscle internal sphincter and

  11. Can pelvic tilting be ignored in total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Yong Shon

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The sagittal position of pelvis is a key factor in impingement and dislocation after total hip arthroplasty. Pelvic tilting affects the position of acetabular component in the sagittal plane of the body as compared with its anatomic position in the pelvis. We suggest a preoperative lateral view of spine-pelvis, in upright and supine position for evaluation of a corrective adaptation of the acetabular cup accordingly with pelvic balance.

  12. Quality of life in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pelvic floor dysfunction is a frequent problem affecting more than 50% of women in peri- and postmenopause. Considering that ageing and menopause befall in the significant factors causing this issue, as well as the expected longevity of women in the world and in our country, pelvic floor dysfunction prevelence is foreseen to be even higher. The aim of the study was to evaluate impact of the symptoms of pelvic dysfunction on quality of life and examine body image satisfaction in adult women with pelvic organ prolapse presenting to tertiary care clinic for surgical treatment. Methods. This prospective case-control study included 50 patients who presented to tertiary care gynecology clinic for surgical treatment and 50 controls with normal pelvic floor support and without urinary incontinence who presented tertiary care gynecology clinic for other reasons. Both, patients and controls, completed two quastionnaires recommended for the evaluation of symptoms (Pelvic floor distress inventory - short forms and quality of life impact (Pelvic floor impact questionnaire - short form of pelvic organ prolapse, and Body Image Scale. Results. The patients scored significantly worse on the prolapse, urinary, colorectal scales and overall score of Pelvic floor distress inventory - 20 than controls subjects (134.91 vs 78.08; p < 0.01. The patients also measured significant decrease in condition- specific quality of life (89.23 vs 3.1; p < 0.01. They were more likely to feel self-conscious (78% vs 42%; p < 0.01, less likely to feel physically attractive (78% vs 22%; p < 0.01, more likely to have difficulty looking at themselves naked (70% vs 42%; p < 0.01, less likely to feel sexually attractive (64% vs 32%; p < 0.01, and less likely to feel feminine (56% vs 16%; p < 0.05, than controls. There were no differencies in their feeling of dissatisfaction with appearance when dressed, avoiding people because of appereance and overall dissatisfaction with

  13. Limitations of the pelvic examination for evaluation of the female pelvic organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, L A; Radosevich, D M; Milad, M P

    2005-01-01

    To assess factors influencing an accurate pelvic examination under the best possible circumstances. Before undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy, 84 women under general anesthesia underwent pelvic examinations by an attending gynecologist, a gynecology resident, and a medical student blinded to the indication for surgery. Surgical findings were compared with the examiners' findings. Dependent variables (uterine size, uterine contour, and presence of adnexal masses) and effect modifiers (examiner experience and body mass index) were analyzed. The overall pelvic examination was accurate 70.2% of the time for attending gynecologists, 64.0% for residents, and 57.3% for medical students. The sensitivity to detect adnexal masses was much lower than the sensitivity to assess uterine size or uterine contour. Obesity noticeably reduced detection of adnexal masses. The bimanual examination appears to be a limited screening test for the female upper genital tract even under the best possible circumstances. Uterine assessment appears to be more accurate than adnexal assessment.

  14. Obesity and pelvic organ prolapse: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Ayush; Hartmann, Katherine E; Hellwege, Jacklyn N; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Edwards, Todd L

    2017-07-01

    Studies evaluating the association between obesity and pelvic organ prolapse report estimates that range from negative to positive associations. Heterogeneous definitions for pelvic organ prolapse and variable choices for categorizing obesity measures have made it challenging to conduct meta-analysis. We systematically evaluated evidence to provide quantitative summaries of association between degrees of obesity and pelvic organ prolapse, and identify sources of heterogeneity. We searched for all indexed publications relevant to pelvic organ prolapse up until June 18, 2015, in PubMed/MEDLINE to identify analytical observational studies published in English that reported risk ratios (relative risk, odds ratio, or hazard ratio) for body mass index categories in relation to pelvic organ prolapse. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to report associations with pelvic organ prolapse for overweight and obese body mass index categories compared with women in the normal-weight category (referent: body mass index obesity and pelvic organ prolapse, 22 eligible studies provided effect estimates for meta-analysis of the overweight and obese body mass index categories. Compared with the referent category, women in the overweight and obese categories had meta-analysis risk ratios of at least 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.53) and at least 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-1.59), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed effect estimates for objectively measured clinically significant pelvic organ prolapse were higher than for self-reported pelvic organ prolapse. Other potential sources of heterogeneity included proportion of postmenopausal women in study and reported study design. Overweight and obese women are more likely to have pelvic organ prolapse compared with women with body mass index in the normal range. The finding that the associations for obesity measures were strongest for objectively measured, clinically significant pelvic organ prolapse further

  15. Pediatric pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Candice P; Holman, Joel; Herman, Martin J

    2007-03-01

    Pediatric pelvic fractures account for only 1% to 2% of fractures seen by orthopaedic surgeons who treat children. They are typically associated with high-energy trauma, requiring a comprehensive workup for concomitant life-threatening injuries. Anteroposterior radiographs and rapid-sequence computed tomography are the standards of diagnostic testing to identify the fracture and recognize associated injuries. Treatment is individualized based on patient age, fracture classification, stability of the pelvic ring, extent of concomitant injuries, and hemodynamic stability of the patient. Most pelvic injuries in children are treated nonsurgically, with protected weight bearing and gradual return to activity. Open reduction and internal fixation is required for acetabular fractures with >2 mm of fracture displacement and for any intra-articular or triradiate cartilage fracture displacement >2 mm. To prevent limb-length discrepancies, external fixation is necessary for pelvic ring displacement >2 cm. Fractures involving immature triradiate cartilage may lead to growth disturbance of the acetabulum, resulting in acetabular dysplasia, hip subluxation, or hip joint incongruity. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head may develop after acetabular fractures associated with hip dislocation. Other complications include myositis ossificans and neurologic deficits secondary to sciatic, femoral, and/or lumbosacral plexus nerve injuries.

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel and colon, such as: infections such as appendicitis , pyelonephritis or infected fluid collections, also known as abscesses. inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's ...

  17. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Such types include relaxation exercises and biofeedback . Nutrition therapy—Vitamin B 1 and magnesium may be used to relieve dysmenorrhea. Surgery—Pelvic pain that does not respond to other treatments can be relieved by surgery. Cutting or destroying nerves blocks pain signals from reaching ...

  18. Sexual selection targets cetacean pelvic bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, James P; Otárola-Castillo, Erik; Ralph, Peter; Alas, Jesse; Daley, Timothy; Smith, Andrew D; Dean, Matthew D

    2014-11-01

    Male genitalia evolve rapidly, probably as a result of sexual selection. Whether this pattern extends to the internal infrastructure that influences genital movements remains unknown. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis: since evolving from land-dwelling ancestors, they lost external hind limbs and evolved a highly reduced pelvis that seems to serve no other function except to anchor muscles that maneuver the penis. Here, we create a novel morphometric pipeline to analyze the size and shape evolution of pelvic bones from 130 individuals (29 species) in the context of inferred mating system. We present two main findings: (1) males from species with relatively intense sexual selection (inferred by relative testes size) tend to evolve larger penises and pelvic bones compared to their body length, and (2) pelvic bone shape has diverged more in species pairs that have diverged in inferred mating system. Neither pattern was observed in the anterior-most pair of vertebral ribs, which served as a negative control. This study provides evidence that sexual selection can affect internal anatomy that controls male genitalia. These important functions may explain why cetacean pelvic bones have not been lost through evolutionary time. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Sexual selection targets cetacean pelvic bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, J. P.; Otárola-Castillo, E.; Ralph, P.; Alas, J.; Daley, T.; Smith, A. D.; Dean, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Male genitalia evolve rapidly, probably as a result of sexual selection. Whether this pattern extends to the internal infrastructure that influences genital movements remains unknown. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis: since evolving from land-dwelling ancestors, they lost external hind limbs and evolved a highly reduced pelvis which seems to serve no other function except to anchor muscles that maneuver the penis. Here we create a novel morphometric pipeline to analyze the size and shape evolution of pelvic bones from 130 individuals (29 species) in the context of inferred mating system. We present two main findings: 1) males from species with relatively intense sexual selection (inferred by relative testes size) have evolved relatively large penises and pelvic bones compared to their body size, and 2) pelvic bone shape diverges more quickly in species pairs that have diverged in inferred mating system. Neither pattern was observed in the anterior-most pair of vertebral ribs, which served as a negative control. This study provides evidence that sexual selection can affect internal anatomy that controls male genitalia. These important functions may explain why cetacean pelvic bones have not been lost through evolutionary time. PMID:25186496

  20. Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Ring Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Weon-Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic fractures are classified according to the stability of the pelvic ring. Unlike stable pelvic fractures, which heal without complications, unstable fractures may lead to pelvic ring deformities, which cause severe complications. An orthopedic surgeon must determine the stability of the pelvic ring by radiography and physical examination of the patient in order to ensure early, prompt treatment. This article includes anatomy of the pelvic ring, classification of pelvic ring injuries, its...

  1. [Pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic floor disorders in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thubert, T; Bakker, E; Fritel, X

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to provide an update on the results of pelvic floor rehabilitation in the treatment of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle training allows a reduction of urinary incontinence symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle contractions supervised by a healthcare professional allow cure in half cases of stress urinary incontinence. Viewing this contraction through biofeedback improves outcomes, but this effect could also be due by a more intensive and prolonged program with the physiotherapist. The place of electrostimulation remains unclear. The results obtained with vaginal cones are similar to pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or electrostimulation. It is not known whether pelvic floor muscle training has an effect after one year. In case of stress urinary incontinence, supervised pelvic floor muscle training avoids surgery in half of the cases at 1-year follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle training is the first-line treatment of post-partum urinary incontinence. Its preventive effect is uncertain. Pelvic floor muscle training may reduce the symptoms associated with genital prolapse. In conclusion, pelvic floor rehabilitation supervised by a physiotherapist is an effective short-term treatment to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Auxin and Cellular Elongation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Silvia Melina; Barbez, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Auxin is a crucial growth regulator in plants. However, a comprehensive understanding of how auxin induces cell expansion is perplexing, because auxin acts in a concentration- and cell type-dependent manner. Consequently, it is desirable to focus on certain cell types to exemplify the underlying growth mechanisms. On the other hand, plant tissues display supracellular growth (beyond the level of single cells); hence, other cell types might compromise the growth of a certain tissue. Tip-growing cells do not display neighbor-induced growth constraints and, therefore, are a valuable source of information for growth-controlling mechanisms. Here, we focus on auxin-induced cellular elongation in root hairs, exposing a mechanistic view of plant growth regulation. We highlight a complex interplay between auxin metabolism and transport, steering root hair development in response to internal and external triggers. Auxin signaling modules and downstream cascades of transcription factors define a developmental program that appears rate limiting for cellular growth. With this knowledge in mind, the root hair cell is a very suitable model system in which to dissect cellular effectors required for cellular expansion. PMID:26787325

  3. Ultrasonography findings of the pelvic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Neung Jae; Lee, Hak Seo; Youn, Eun Kyung

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonography is most common utilized diagnostic tool in obstetric and gynecology for the evaluation of patient with a pelvic mass or pregnancy. For it is characterized by no radiation hazard, noninvasive examination and high diagnostic accuracy. Also it affords an accurate assessment of the presence, size, location and internal consistency of a pelvic mass. The recent availability and improved resolution of realtime scanning have afforded a more flexible and complete approach to evaluation of normal and abnormal structures in the pelvis. We analyzed ultrasonographic findings in 154 pathologically proven cases of pelvic mass examined at Korea General Hospital from January 1983 to April 1984. The results were as follows: 1. The age distribution was from 12 years to 66 years and the majority of patients were between the ages of 21 and 51 years (91.4%). 2. The incidence of pelvic mass was 27.9% in uterine leiomyoma, 22.7% in ovarian cyst, 13.0% in adenomyosis and 8.4% in serous cystadenoma. 3. Mild to moderately echogenic nodular uterine enlargement with some cystic change (81.4%) of leiomyoma and multiple small vesicular pattern of intrauterine contents with uterine enlargement of H-mole were the most common ultrasonographic findings. The location and type of leiomyoma were most common in the fundus and body (95.3%), and intramural myoma (53.5%). The most frequent findings of ovarian teratoma was cystic mass with echogenic focus (41.7%) but the echogenic appearance of the lesions was extremely variable.The ultrasonographic findings of ectopic pregnancy were cystic or complex adnexal mass (80.0%), with or without fluid in cul-de-sac and deviation of uterus by adnexal mass. 4. Accuracy of ultrasonography i determining the overall correct diagnosis of the pelvic masses compared with proven diagnosis was approximately 61.7%. The diagnostic accuracy was 90.7% in uterine leiomyoma, 100% in H-mole and 80.0% in ectopic pregnancy.

  4. [A simple supraacetabular external fixation for pelvic ring fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gänsslen, Axel; Pohlemann, Tim; Krettek, Christian

    2005-09-01

    Closed reduction and maintenance of pelvic ring injuries by external stabilization. Emergency management of unstable type B and type C pelvic ring fractures. Definitive treatment of type B injuries. Definitive treatment of the anterior pelvic ring in type C injuries with transpubic instability after posterior internal stabilization. Adjunct stabilization of internal fixation. Stabilization of pelvic ring fractures in children. Poor general condition. Local soft-tissue damage. Local infection. Bilateral percutaneous insertion of Schanz screws into the supraacetabular area of iliac bone. Closed reduction and stabilization of the pelvic ring by compression and application of a connecting rod under image intensification. Depending on the patient's condition and the degree of pelvic instability, a change to an open procedure may become necessary. Mobilization of the patient with partial weight bearing (one fifth of body weight) on the side of the injured posterior pelvic ring using forearm crutches, irrespective of the degree of stability of the pelvis. Retrospective analysis of 64 supraacetabular external fixator applications to stabilize the anterior pelvic ring in 20 type B and 44 type C injuries. Iatrogenic lesions of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve: 4.5%; all sensory disturbances completely reversed within 1 year. No pin site infection. In two patients (3%) primary perforation of the Schanz screw into the small pelvis not necessitating any treatment. No secondary displacements of the anterior or posterior pelvic ring in type B injuries nor for type C injuries, sacral fractures associated with fractures of the pubic ramus. One pseudarthrosis of the pubic and ischial rami requiring surgical treatment.

  5. Ligamentous influence in pelvic load distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Steinke, Hanno; Lingslebe, Uwe; Bechmann, Ingo; Josten, Christoph; Slowik, Volker; Böhme, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    The influence of the posterior pelvic ring ligaments on pelvic stability is poorly understood. Low back pain and sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain are described being related to these ligaments. Computational approaches involving finite element (FE) modeling may aid to determine their influence. Previous FE models lacked in precise ligament geometries and material properties, which might have influence on the results. The aim of this study is to investigate ligamentous influence in pelvic stability by means of FE using precise ligament material properties and morphometries. An FE model of the pelvis bones was created from computer tomography, including the pubic symphysis joint (PSJ) and the SIJ. Ligament data were used from 55 body donors: anterior (ASL), interosseous (ISL), and posterior (PSL) sacroiliac ligaments; iliolumbar (IL), inguinal (IN), pubic (PL), sacrospinous (SS), and sacrotuberous (ST) ligaments; and obturator membrane (OM). Stress-strain data were gained from iliotibial tract specimens. A vertical load of 600 N was applied. Pelvic motion related to altered ligament and cartilage stiffness was determined in a range of 50% to 200%. Ligament strain was investigated in the standing and sitting positions. Tensile and compressive stresses were found at the SIJ and the PSJ. The center of sacral motion was at the level of the second sacral vertebra. At the acetabula and the PSJ, higher ligament and cartilage stiffnesses decrease pelvic motion in the following order: SIJ cartilage>ISL>ST+SS>IL+ASL+PSL. Similar effects were found for the sacrum (SIJ cartilage>ISL>IL+ASL+PSL) but increased ST+SS stiffnesses increased sacral motion. The influence of the IN, OM, and PL was less than 0.1%. Compared with standing, total ligament strain was reduced to 90%. Increased strains were found for the IL, ISL, and PSL. Posterior pelvic ring cartilage and ligaments significantly contribute to pelvic stability. Their effects are region- and stiffness dependent. While sitting

  6. Management of pelvic chondrosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Groșeanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The partial or complete excision of the hemipelvis with sparing of the lower limb is an option of the treatment of pelvic chondrosarcoma and a therapeutic alternative of the interilio-abdominal disarticulation. The operation has in principle the same indications as the interilio-abdominal disarticulation and offers a good solution for avoiding a mutilating operation. The 149 cases include: 120 biopsies, 29 excisional biopsies, 6 interilioabdominal disarticulations and 14 resections – reconstruction’s, one of with prosthetic reconstruction. The prognostic score was established by assessing: the surgical stage, the site of the tumor, the surgical margins of the tumor, the functional mobility and the postoperative activity. The wide excision of the tumor, a stable reconstruction and an efficient recovery are essential for a successful treatment of pelvic chondrosarcoma. The limb sparing resection-reconstruction represents a highly surgical demanding procedure, followed up by complications in 60% of the cases, so that should be performed only by high skilled surgeons. Hemipelvectomy still remains a well-established life-saving surgery method for patients suffering from vast oncological extensions, where a pelvic resection is not an option.

  7. Pelvic reconstruction improves pelvic floor strength in pelvic organ prolapse patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhong; Li, Huai-Fang; Yang, Xiang; Guo, Li-Li

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate pelvic floor muscle strength after the modified pelvic reconstruction procedure for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Patients were assigned to two groups consisting of 37 patients diagnosed with POP and undergoing modified pelvic reconstruction (reconstruction group), and 30 patients admitted to our hospital during the same period for other surgical indications (control group). Vaginal palpation of pelvic floor muscle strength was performed according to the modified Oxford grading system before operating on the two groups and again in the 3(rd) month following surgery for the reconstruction group. A comparative study was performed to evaluate the differences between the two groups and the improvement of pelvic floor muscle strength in the reconstruction group. The pelvic floor muscle strength was significantly improved postoperatively when compared with preoperative results in the reconstruction group (t = -17.478, p pelvic reconstruction procedure could improve pelvic floor muscle strength in POP patients, which remains lower when compared with the normal population. Pelvic floor muscle strength should be included in the assessment of surgical outcomes in POP. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Cefotaxime Treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Monson, Thomas P.; Miller, Timothy T.; Nolan, Charles M.

    1981-01-01

    We studied cefotaxime in the treatment of gonococcal and nongonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease. Cefotaxime was uniformly effective against gonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease. However, 4 of 11 patients with nongonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease had a suboptimal response.

  9. Prospective study of treatment techniques to minimize the volume of pelvic small bowel with reduction of acute and late effects associated with pelvic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, M.J.; Brereton, H.D.; Rostock, R.A.; Zero, J.M.; Zekoski, D.A.; Poyss, L.F.; Richter, M.P.; Kligerman, M.M.

    1986-09-01

    The volume, distribution, and mobility of opacified pelvic small bowel (PSB) were determined by fluoroscopy and orthogonal radiographs in 150 consecutive patients undergoing pelvic irradiation. Various techniques including uteropexy, omental transposition, bladder distention, inclining the patient, and anterior abdominal wall compression in the supine and prone treatment position were studied for their effect on the volume and location of small bowel within the pelvis. Abdominal wall compression in the prone position combined with bladder distention was selected for further investigation because of its simplicity, reproducibility, patient comfort, and ability to displace the small bowel. Factors correlating with the volume of pelvic small bowel (PSB) included prior pelvic surgery, pelvic irradiation (XRT), and body mass index. After pelvic surgery, especially following abdominoperineal resection (APR), there was a greater volume of PSB which was also less mobile. The severity of acute gastrointestinal effects positively correlated with the volume of irradiated small bowel. Overall, 67% of patients experienced little or no diarrhea, 30% developed mild diarrhea, and no patient required treatment interruption. Late gastrointestinal effects correlated with the prior pelvic surgery and with the volume of small bowel receiving greater than 45 Gy. Small bowel obstruction was not observed in 75 patients who had no previous pelvic surgery. However, following pelvic surgery excluding APR, 2/50 patients and following APR, 3/25 patients developed small bowel obstruction.

  10. Phonation threshold flow in elongated excised larynges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jack J; Regner, Michael F; Tao, Chao; Pauls, Steven

    2008-07-01

    This study proposes the use of a new parameter of vocal aerodynamics, phonation threshold flow (PTF). The sensitivities of the PTF and the phonation threshold pressure (PTP) were quantitatively compared to the percent of vocal fold elongation from physiologic length. Ten excised canine larynges were mounted on a bench apparatus capable of controlling vocal fold elongation. Subglottal airflow was gradually increased until the onset of phonation. Elongation of the vocal folds was varied from +0% (physiologic length) to +15%, and the PTF and PTP were measured. The mean PTFs at physiologic vocal fold length ranged from 101 to 217 mL/s. No statistically significant relationship was found to exist between the size of the larynx and the measured PTF values (p = .404). The average percent change of PTF compared to the magnitude of elongation was found to be statistically significant (p < .001). The data indicated that the PTF was proportional to the percent of vocal fold elongation. The PTF was positively correlated with vocal fold elongation and the PTP for small magnitudes of elongation. The results suggest that the PTF may be indicative of the biomechanical properties of the vocal folds, thus providing a possibly valuable tool in the clinical evaluation of laryngeal function.

  11. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  12. Pelvic floor physical therapy in urogynecologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarinos, Rhonda K

    2003-08-01

    Physical therapists are uniquely qualified to treat pelvic floor dysfunction with conservative management techniques. Techniques associated with incontinence and support functions of the pelvic floor include bladder training and pelvic floor rehabilitation: pelvic floor exercises, biofeedback therapy, and pelvic floor electrical stimulation. Pain associated with mechanical pelvic floor dysfunction can be treated by physical therapists utilizing various manual techniques and modalities. Research documents that conservative management is effective in treating many conditions associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Research should be conducted to determine if addressing diastasis recti and contracture of the pelvic floor musculature should be a component of the standard physical therapy protocol.

  13. Muscle activity and hydrodynamic function of pelvic fins in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standen, E M

    2010-03-01

    Contrary to the previous premise that pelvic fins lacked obvious function, recent work on three-dimensional fin motions suggests that pelvic fins actively control stability and speed in slowly swimming trout. This study used electromyography to measure pelvic fin muscle activity and particle imaging velocimetry to quantify flow along the ventral body region to test this hypothesis. Fish swam at slow speeds (0.13-1.36 BL s(-1)) while being filmed with three high speed cameras. Three-dimensional kinematics were captured for all trials. During EMG trials pelvic fin muscle activity was synchronized to kinematic motion, during particle imaging velocimetry trials, a laser light-sheet was used to visualize the flow surrounding the ventral aspect of the fish. Four main conclusions are reached: first, pelvic fins are actively oscillated during slow-speed swimming; antagonistic abductor and adductor muscles contracted simultaneously, their collective action producing a unique contralateral oscillating behaviour in the fins. Second, pelvic fins slow the flow along the ventral side affecting pitch and yaw instabilities; flow upstream of the pelvic fins is slowed by 0.02 m s(-1) and flow downstream of the pelvic fins is slowed by 0.034 m s(-1) compared with free stream flow. Third, pelvic fin wake influences anal fin angle of attack; flow angle in the wake of the pelvic fin was 33.84+/-2.4 deg. (max) and -11.83+/-11.2 deg. (min) compared with the free stream flow angle of 1.27+/-0.1 deg. Fourth, pelvic fins appear to actively damp body oscillation during slow-speed swimming, providing drag to help control speed and stabilize the body position during slow-speed swimming.

  14. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...... viscosity, of up to a factor of 7 times the Trouton limit of 3 times the zero-shear viscosity....

  15. Polyamines and Anaerobic Elongation of Rice Coleoptile

    OpenAIRE

    Remo, Reggiani; Alejandro, Hochkoeppler; Alcide, Bertani; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.

    1989-01-01

    The role of polyamines in the anaerobic elongation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) coleoptiles was studied. The reduced growth of rice coleoptiles under anoxic conditions was accompanied by a massive accumulation of free putrescine. Putrescine was synthesized from arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC). The anoxic titer of putrescine was closely correlated with elongation of coleoptiles. In experiments in which putrescine and inhibitors [a-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and...

  16. Pelvic Muscle Rehabilitation: A Standardized Protocol for Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pedraza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pelvic floor dysfunction syndromes present with voiding, sexual, and anorectal disturbances, which may be associated with one another, resulting in complex presentation. Thus, an integrated diagnosis and management approach may be required. Pelvic muscle rehabilitation (PMR is a noninvasive modality involving cognitive reeducation, modification, and retraining of the pelvic floor and associated musculature. We describe our standardized PMR protocol for the management of pelvic floor dysfunction syndromes. Pelvic Muscle Rehabilitation Program. The diagnostic assessment includes electromyography and manometry analyzed in 4 phases: (1 initial baseline phase; (2 rapid contraction phase; (3 tonic contraction and endurance phase; and (4 late baseline phase. This evaluation is performed at the onset of every session. PMR management consists of 6 possible therapeutic modalities, employed depending on the diagnostic evaluation: (1 down-training; (2 accessory muscle isolation; (3 discrimination training; (4 muscle strengthening; (5 endurance training; and (6 electrical stimulation. Eight to ten sessions are performed at one-week intervals with integration of home exercises and lifestyle modifications. Conclusions. The PMR protocol offers a standardized approach to diagnose and manage pelvic floor dysfunction syndromes with potential advantages over traditional biofeedback, involving additional interventions and a continuous pelvic floor assessment with management modifications over the clinical course.

  17. Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2003-01-01

    Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...... above the linear viscoelastic prediction at intermediate strains, indicating strain hardening. The steady elongational viscosities are monotone decreasing functions of elongation rate. At elongation rates larger than the inverse reptation time, the steady elongational viscosity scales linearly...

  18. Evolution and Allometry of Calcaneal Elongation in Living and Extinct Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Gladman, Justin T.; Bloch, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Specialized acrobatic leaping has been recognized as a key adaptive trait tied to the origin and subsequent radiation of euprimates based on its observed frequency in extant primates and inferred frequency in extinct early euprimates. Hypothesized skeletal correlates include elongated tarsal elements, which would be expected to aid leaping by allowing for increased rates and durations of propulsive acceleration at takeoff. Alternatively, authors of a recent study argued that pronounced distal calcaneal elongation of euprimates (compared to other mammalian taxa) was related primarily to specialized pedal grasping. Testing for correlations between calcaneal elongation and leaping versus grasping is complicated by body size differences and associated allometric affects. We re-assess allometric constraints on, and the functional significance of, calcaneal elongation using phylogenetic comparative methods, and present an evolutionary hypothesis for the evolution of calcaneal elongation in primates using a Bayesian approach to ancestral state reconstruction (ASR). Results show that among all primates, logged ratios of distal calcaneal length to total calcaneal length are inversely correlated with logged body mass proxies derived from the area of the calcaneal facet for the cuboid. Results from phylogenetic ANOVA on residuals from this allometric line suggest that deviations are explained by degree of leaping specialization in prosimians, but not anthropoids. Results from ASR suggest that non-allometric increases in calcaneal elongation began in the primate stem lineage and continued independently in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Anthropoid and lorisid lineages show stasis and decreasing elongation, respectively. Initial increases in calcaneal elongation in primate evolution may be related to either development of hallucal-grasping or a combination of grasping and more specialized leaping behaviors. As has been previously suggested, subsequent increases in calcaneal

  19. The use of pelvic fins for benthic locomotion during foraging behavior in Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Shibuya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized bipedal movements of the pelvic fins provide propulsion (punting during displacement on the substrate in batoids with benthic locomotion. In skates (Rajidae this mechanism is mainly generated by the crural cartilages. Although lacking these anatomical structures, some stingray species show modifications of their pelvic fins to aid in benthic locomotion. This study describes the use of the pelvic fins for locomotory performance and body re-orientation in the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 during foraging. Pelvic fin movements of juvenile individuals of P. motoro were recorded in ventral view by a high-speed camera at 250-500 fields/s-1. Potamotrygon motoro presented synchronous, alternating and unilateral movements of the pelvic fins, similar to those reported in skates. Synchronous movements were employed during straightforward motion for pushing the body off the substrate as well as for strike feeding, whereas unilateral movements were used to maneuver the body to the right or left during both locomotion and prey capture. Alternating movements of the pelvic fins are similar to bipedal movements in terrestrial and semi-aquatic tetrapods. The pelvic fins showed coordinated movements during feeding even when stationary, indicating that they have an important function in maintaining body posture (station holding during prey capture and manipulation. The use of pelvic fins during prey stalking may be advantageous because it results in less substrate disturbance when compared to movements generated by pectoral fin undulation. The range of pelvic fin movements indicates more complex control and coordination of the pelvic radial muscles.

  20. Vertical pelvic ring displacement in pelvic ring injury: Measurements in pelvic outlet radiograph and in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boontanapibul, Krit; Harnroongroj, Thos; Sudjai, Narumol; Harnroongroj, Thossart

    2015-01-01

    Vertical pelvic ring displacement (VPRD) is a serious injury and needs assessment. Pelvic outlet radiographs are routinely taken. However, relationship of radiographic and actual VPRD is still in question. Thus, measurement of VPRD from pelvic radiographs was studied. 2 dry pelvic bones and 1 sacrum from same cadaver was reconstructed to be the pelvic ring. Five specimens were enrolled. 10, 20 and 30 mm vertical displacement of right pelvic bone was performed at levels of sacroiliac joint and pubic symphysis for representing right VPRD. Then, the pelvis was set sacral inclination at 60° from X-ray table for outlet and anteroposterior pelvic radiographs. Right VPRD was measured by referring to superior most pelvic articular surface of both sacroiliac joints and sacral long axis. Radiographic VPRD and actual displacement were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient at more than 0.90 for the strong correlation and strongly significant simple regression analysis was set at P outlet and anteroposterior pelvic views at 10 mm actual displacement were 20.12 ± 1.98 and 4.08 ± 3.76 mm, at 20 mm were 40.31 ± 1.97 and 9.94 ± 7.27 mm and at 30 mm were 58.56 ± 2.53 and 11.29 ± 2.89 mm. Statistical analyses showed that radiographic VPRD from pelvic outlet view is 1.95 times of actual displacement with strong correlation at 0.992 coefficient and strongly significant regression analysis (P outlet radiograph provides efficient measurement of VPRD with 2 times of actual displacement.

  1. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection in Patients Undergoing Pelvic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radiation therapy is known to induce the breakdown of certain body defence factors. In the patient who has carcinoma of the cervix, pelvic radiotherapy increases the risk of infection with both opportunistic and pathogenic agents,. Objectives: This study was done to determine the prevalence of urinary tract ...

  2. Post Pelvic Radiotherapy Bony Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    There has been recent interest in radiation-induced bone injury in clinical conditions, especially for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF). A PIF is caused by the effect of normal or physiological stress on bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) can also contribute to the development of a PIF. A PIF has been regarded as a rare complication with the use of megavoltage equipment. However, recent studies have reported the incidence of PIFs as 8.2{approx}20% after pelvic RT in gynecological patients, an incidence that was higher than previously believed. The importance of understanding a PIF lies in the potential for misdiagnosis as a bony metastasis. If patients complain of pelvic pain after whole-pelvis radiation therapy, the presence of a PIF must be considered in the differential diagnosis. The use of multibeam arrangements and conformal RT to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture. In addition to a PIF, osteonecrosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head can develop after radiation therapy. Osteoradionecrosis of the pelvic bone is a clinical diagnostic challenge that must be differentiated from an osseous metastasis. A post-radiation bone sarcoma can result as a long-term sequela of pelvic irradiation for uterine cervical cancer.

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT ... very much like other x-ray examinations. Different body parts absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... allows the body parts to be distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT ... entire body will be "inside" the scanner at one time such as with MRI. If an intravenous ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can ... large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then ...

  6. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might cause ongoing pelvic pain, infertility, or an ectopic pregnancy. What Are the Symptoms of PID? PID can ... has more of a chance of being infertile. Ectopic pregnancy. If a girl who has had PID does ...

  7. Elongation-based fiber optic tunable filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G. G.; Mejia-Islas, J. A.; Andrade-González, E. A.; Pérez-Torres, J. R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on introducing the results of a model using a control system for an optical filter that can be tuned, using a solution that employs both, an elongation control system and a fiber Bragg grating. At the first stage, the optical characterization of the filter was made, then the stepper motors were chosen for the desired wavelength selection with a couple of pulleys which produce the grating elongation and, as a consequence, the wavelength shifting. The pulleys diameters were calculated to produce 0.8 nm shift for each filtering wavelength using a control program.

  8. Pathways of extrapelvic spread of pelvic disease: imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Heng; Vikram, Raghunandan; Boonsirikamchai, Piyaporn; Faria, Silvana C; Charnsangavej, Chusilp; Bhosale, Priya R

    2011-01-01

    The complex extraperitoneal anatomy of the pelvis includes various outlets for the transit of organs and neurovascular structures to the rest of the body. These outlets include the greater sciatic foramen, lesser sciatic foramen, inguinal canal, femoral triangle, obturator canal, anal and genitourinary hiatuses of the pelvic floor, prevesical space, and iliopsoas compartment. All of these structures serve as conduits for the dissemination of malignant and benign inflammatory diseases from the pelvic cavity and into the soft-tissue structures of the abdominal wall, buttocks, and upper thigh. Knowledge of the pelvic anatomy is crucial to understand these patterns of disease spread. Cross-sectional imaging provides important anatomic information and depicts the extent of disease and its involvement of surrounding extrapelvic structures, information that is important for planning surgery and radiation therapy. RSNA, 2011

  9. Pelvic organ support and prevalence by Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Quantification (POP-Q) in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ju Tae; Kim, Joo Myung

    2006-05-01

    We evaluated pelvic organ support and the prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse in Korean women using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Quantification system as the assessment tool. The study population consisted of 713 women 18 to 72 years old who were seen for annual Papanicolaou testing and pelvic examinations. Pregnant patients and patients who had delivered within the previous 6 weeks were not recruited. All pelvic examinations were performed by a single examiner. The patient was examined in the dorsal lithotomy position in a pelvic examination chair positioned at a 15-degree angle. All 9 measurements except total vaginal length were taken with the patient performing the maximal Valsalva maneuver. Mean patient age was 41.6 years (range 18 to 72), mean weight +/- SD was 55.8 +/- 7.4 kg (range 40 to 83), mean height was 158.7 +/- 5.4 cm (range 138 to 177), mean body mass index was 22.3 +/- 8.1 kg/m2 (range 15.7 to 32) and median parity was 2 (range 0 to 6). Mean scores for the position of the cervix and posterior fornix, and total vaginal length were -5.0, -6.6 and 7.0 cm, respectively. In the 713 women with a uterus the incidence of anterior vaginal, uterine and posterior vaginal prolapse was 27.6%, 2.0% and 25.4%, respectively. The overall distribution of pelvic organ prolapse quantification system stage was stages 0 to 4 in 68.3%, 19.9%, 11.2%, 0.6% and 0.0% of patients, respectively. Vaginal size in Korean women differs from that in Western women. The prevalence of any degree of prolapse was approximately 31.7%. Korean women were at relatively higher risk for anterior and posterior vaginal prolapse than for uterine prolapse.

  10. Utilization of Human-Like Pelvic Rotation for Running Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya eOtani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP is used to model human running. It is based on a characteristic feature of human running, in which the linear-spring-like motion of the standing leg is produced by the joint stiffness of the knee and ankle. Although this model is widely used in robotics, it does not include human-like pelvic motion. In this study, we show that the pelvis actually contributes to the increase in jumping force and absorption of landing impact. On the basis of this finding, we propose a new model, SLIP2 (spring loaded inverted pendulum with pelvis, to improve running in humanoid robots. The model is composed of a body mass, a pelvis, and leg springs, and, it can control its springs while running by use of pelvic movement in the frontal plane. To achieve running motions, we developed a running control system that includes a pelvic oscillation controller to attain control over jumping power and a landing placement controller to adjust the running speed. We also developed a new running robot by using the SLIP2 model and performed hopping and running experiments to evaluate the model. The developed robot could accomplish hopping motions only by pelvic movement. The results also established that the difference between the pelvic rotational phase and the oscillation phase of the vertical mass displacement affects the jumping force. In addition, the robot demonstrated the ability to run with a foot placement controller depending on the reference running speed.

  11. International Continence Society supported pelvic physiotherapy education guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Els; Shelly, Beth; Esch, Fetske H; Frawley, Helena; McClurg, Doreen; Meyers, Peter

    2018-02-21

    To provide a guideline of desired knowledge, clinical skills and education levels in Pelvic Physiotherapy (PT). Physiotherapy (PT) involves "using knowledge and skills unique to physiotherapists" and, "is the service only provided by, or under the direction and supervision of a physiotherapist." 1 METHODS: The PT Committee, within the body of the International Continence Society (ICS), collected information regarding existing educational levels for pelvic floor PT. Through face to face and on on-line discussion consensus was reached which was summarized in three progressive educational levels based on knowledge and skills and brought together in a guideline. The guideline was submitted to all physiotherapists and the Educational Committee of the ICS, and after approval, submitted to the Executive Board of the ICS. The guideline lists, in a progressive way, knowledge areas and skills to be achieved by education. It is broad and allows for individual interpretation based on local situations regarding education and healthcare possibilities. It is intended to be dynamic and updated on a regular basis. The proposed Pelvic PT education guideline is a dynamic document that allows course creators to plan topics for continuing course work and to recognize educational level of a therapist in the field of Pelvic PT. This education guideline can be used to set minimum worldwide standards resulting in higher skill levels for local pelvic physiotherapists and thereby better patient care outcome. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Incorporating pelvic/vaginal reconstruction into radical pelvic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Jeffrey M

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss the more common surgical scenarios that often require pelvic/vaginal reconstruction with an emphasis on incorporating reconstructive options into the pelvic exenteration. A review of the literature regarding pelvic/vaginal reconstruction in patients undergoing radical pelvic surgery was performed and supplemented with the authors' own experience. Reconstructive surgical procedures are often necessary with outcome goals that include any combination of enhanced wound healing, decrease in acute and chronic morbidity, and restoration of anatomic form and function. Many reconstruction techniques are available including, but not limited to, skin grafting, simple tissue transposition flaps, fasciocutaneous flaps, and myocutaneous flaps. It is extremely important that the gynecologic oncologist be proficient with more than one of the reconstructive options available to address the various pelvic/vaginal defects one may encounter. There is a wide range in the complexity of surgical situations requiring reconstruction. The pelvic exenteration in the previously radiated patient offers the highest level of challenge in terms of pre-operative planning, intra-operative decision-making and surgical skills. Vaginal reconstruction for sexual intercourse may be a priority for some patients, however pelvic/vaginal reconstruction plays a major role in facilitating wound healing, minimizing significant morbidity, and improving patient quality of life and functional outcomes. The gynecologic oncologist is best suited to orchestrate this multifaceted surgical process. It is extremely important that the gynecologic oncologist be well versed in the reconstructive options available in order that it is optimally planned and effected at the primary surgical procedure.

  13. Swimming of a Sea Butterfly with an Elongated Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ferhat; Maas, Amy E.; Murphy, David W.

    2017-11-01

    Sea butterflies (pteropods) are small, zooplanktonic marine snails which swim by flapping highly flexible parapodia. Previous studies show that the swimming hydrodynamics of Limacina helicina, a polar pteropod with a spiraled shell, is similar to tiny insect flight aerodynamics and that forward-backward pitching is key for lift generation. However, swimming by diverse pteropod species with different shell shapes has not been examined. We present measurements of the swimming of Cuvierina columnella, a warm water species with an elongated non-spiraled shell collected off the coast of Bermuda. With a body length of 9 mm, wing beat frequency of 4-6 Hz and swimming speed of 35 mm/s, these organisms swim at a Reynolds number of approximately 300, larger than that of L. helicina. High speed 3D kinematics acquired via two orthogonal cameras reveals that the elongated shell correlates with reduced body pitching and that the wings bend approximately 180 degrees in each direction, overlapping at the end of each half-stroke. Time resolved 2D flow measurements collected with a micro-PIV system reveal leading edge vortices present in both power and recovery strokes. Interactions between the overlapping wings and the shell also likely play a role in lift generation.

  14. Static Elongation of a Suspended Slinky™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Mikolaj ``Mik''

    2002-05-01

    Elongation of a vertically suspended Slinky under its own weight and a weight hung from it is discussed using elementary considerations. Displacement of the center of mass of Slinky is also found. The results are verified experimentally using a 1 apparatus.

  15. Rhizome elongation and seagrass clonal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marbà, N.; Duarte, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    A compilation of published and original data on rhizome morphometry, horizontal and vertical elongation rates and branching patterns for 27 seagrass species developing in 192 seagrass stands allowed an examination of the variability of seagrass rhizome and clonal growth programmes across and within

  16. Pelvic Floor Dysfunction in Aging Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Den Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of pelvic floor dysfunction may increase steadily during the aging process in women. Pelvic floor dysfunction may be associated with dysfunctions of micturition, defecation, prolapse, and sex. The natural history and mechanism of pelvic floor dysfunction in aged women are not well understood or explored. In this article, we review the effect of age on the prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunction and on the structural and functional changes of the lower urinary tract, anorectum and pelvic floor. Altogether, the aging process has a negative impact on either the function or structure of the lower urinary tract, anorectum and pelvic floor in women.

  17. Feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fibre tractography of the normal female pelvic floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijta, F.M.; Froeling, M.; Paardt, M.P. van der; Bipat, S.; Nederveen, A.J.; Stoker, J.; Lakeman, M.M.E.; Montauban van Swijndregt, A.D.; Strijkers, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively determine the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fibre tractography as a tool for the three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of normal pelvic floor anatomy. Five young female nulliparous subjects (mean age 28 ± 3 years) underwent DTI at 3.0T. Two-dimensional diffusion-weighted axial spin-echo echo-planar (SP-EPI) pulse sequence of the pelvic floor was performed, with additional T2-TSE multiplanar sequences for anatomical reference. Fibre tractography for visualisation of predefined pelvic floor and pelvic wall muscles was performed offline by two observers, applying a consensus method. Three eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, λ3), fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were calculated from the fibre trajectories. In all subjects fibre tractography resulted in a satisfactory anatomical representation of the pubovisceral muscle, perineal body, anal - and urethral sphincter complex and internal obturator muscle. Mean FA values ranged from 0.23 ± 0.02 to 0.30 ± 0.04, MD values from 1.30 ± 0.08 to 1.73 ± 0.12 x 10- 3 mm 2 /s. Muscular structures in the superficial layer of the pelvic floor could not be satisfactorily identified. This study demonstrates the feasibility of visualising the complex three-dimensional pelvic floor architecture using 3T-DTI with fibre tractography. DTI of the deep female pelvic floor may provide new insights into pelvic floor disorders. (orig.)

  18. Feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fibre tractography of the normal female pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zijta, F.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Froeling, M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Paardt, M.P. van der; Bipat, S.; Nederveen, A.J.; Stoker, J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lakeman, M.M.E. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Gynaecology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Montauban van Swijndregt, A.D. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Strijkers, G.J. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    To prospectively determine the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fibre tractography as a tool for the three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of normal pelvic floor anatomy. Five young female nulliparous subjects (mean age 28 {+-} 3 years) underwent DTI at 3.0T. Two-dimensional diffusion-weighted axial spin-echo echo-planar (SP-EPI) pulse sequence of the pelvic floor was performed, with additional T2-TSE multiplanar sequences for anatomical reference. Fibre tractography for visualisation of predefined pelvic floor and pelvic wall muscles was performed offline by two observers, applying a consensus method. Three eigenvalues ({lambda}1, {lambda}2, {lambda}3), fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were calculated from the fibre trajectories. In all subjects fibre tractography resulted in a satisfactory anatomical representation of the pubovisceral muscle, perineal body, anal - and urethral sphincter complex and internal obturator muscle. Mean FA values ranged from 0.23 {+-} 0.02 to 0.30 {+-} 0.04, MD values from 1.30 {+-} 0.08 to 1.73 {+-} 0.12 x 10-{sup 3} mm{sup 2}/s. Muscular structures in the superficial layer of the pelvic floor could not be satisfactorily identified. This study demonstrates the feasibility of visualising the complex three-dimensional pelvic floor architecture using 3T-DTI with fibre tractography. DTI of the deep female pelvic floor may provide new insights into pelvic floor disorders. (orig.)

  19. Allometric growth of the trunk leads to the rostral shift of the pelvic fin in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yumie; Tamura, Mika; Aita, Yusuke; Fujimura, Koji; Murakami, Yasunori; Okabe, Masataka; Okada, Norihiro; Tanaka, Mikiko

    2010-11-01

    The pelvic fin position among teleost fishes has shifted rostrally during evolution, resulting in diversification of both behavior and habitat. We explored the developmental basis for the rostral shift in pelvic fin position in teleost fishes using zebrafish (abdominal pelvic fins) and Nile tilapia (thoracic pelvic fins). Cell fate mapping experiments revealed that changes in the distribution of lateral plate mesodermal cells accompany the trunk-tail protrusion. Presumptive pelvic fin cells are originally located at the body wall adjacent to the anterior limit of hoxc10a expression in the spinal cord, and their position shifts rostrally as the trunk grows. We then showed that the differences in pelvic fin position between zebrafish and Nile tilapia were not due to changes in expression or function of gdf11. We also found that hox-independent motoneurons located above the pelvic fins innervate into the pelvic musculature. Our results suggest that there is a common mechanism among teleosts and tetrapods that controls paired appendage positioning via gdf11, but in teleost fishes the position of prospective pelvic fin cells on the yolk surface shifts as the trunk grows. In addition, teleost motoneurons, which lack lateral motor columns, innervate the pelvic fins in a manner independent of the rostral-caudal patterns of hox expression in the spinal cord. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vaginal Fibroblastic Cells from Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Produce Matrices with Increased Stiffness and Collagen Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Zapata, A.M.Kerkhof, M.H.; Ghazanfari, S.; Zandieh-Doulabi, B.; Stoop, R.; Smit, T.H.; Helder, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is characterised by the weakening of the pelvic floor support tissues, and often by subsequent prolapse of the bladder outside the body, i.e. cystocele. The bladder is kept in place by the anterior vaginal wall which consists of a dense extracellular matrix rich in

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted ... at and passes through the part of the body being examined, recording an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted ... of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT ...

  3. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Saverio; Nozza, Arrigo; Del Pezzo, Chiara; Mereu, Liliana

    2014-09-01

    To examine the feasibility of performing pelvic lymphadenectomy with robotic single site approach. Recent papers described the feasibility of robotic-single site hysterectomy [1-3] for benign and malign pathologies but only with the development of new single site 5mm instruments as the bipolar forceps, robotic single site platform can be safely utilized also for lymphadenectomy. A 65 year-old, multiparous patient with a body mass index of 22.5 and diagnosed with well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium underwent a robotic single-site peritoneal washing, total hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The procedure was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) through a single 2,5 cm umbilical incision, with a multi-channel system and two single site robotic 5mm instruments. A 3-dimensional, HD 8.5mm endoscope and a 5mm accessory instrument were also utilized. Type I lymphonodes dissection for external iliac and obturator regions was performed [4]. Total operative time was 210 min; incision, trocar placement and docking time occurring in 12 min. Total console time was 183 min, estimated blood loss was 50 ml, no intra-operative or post-operative complications occurred. Hospital discharge occurred on post operative day 2 and total number of lymphnodes removed was 33. Difficulties in term of instrument's clashing and awkward motions have been encountered. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy using bipolar forceps and monopolar hook is feasible. New developments are needed to improve surgical ergonomics and additional studies should be performed to explore possible benefits of this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The undulatory swimming gait of elongated swimmers revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosilevskii, Gil

    2017-03-31

    An undulatory swimming gait is characterized by short lateral displacement waves that propagate backwards along the body of the swimmer faster than it swims. Hydrodynamic theory of elongated bodies predicts that if the amplitude of the displacement waves does not increase toward the caudal end, the part of the swimmer posteriad of the dorso-ventrally widest point takes no part in propulsion. It also predicts that if the amplitude does increase, then the hydrodynamic propulsion efficiency suffers. Cusk eels have their widest point located in the anterior half of the body with the bulk of their locomotive muscles located posteriad of it; indeed, they swim so that the amplitude of the propulsion wave increases toward the caudal end. Anguillid eels have their widest point posteriad of the mid-body, and their locomotive muscles are distributed along their entire length-but they swim as cusk eels, using the posterior half only. Apparently, both use hydrodynamically inefficient gaits. The paper questions the definition of propulsion efficiency and shows that biomechanical considerations are more important than hydrodynamic, and that most probably fish adjust their gait to maximize the ratio between the energy made good (the product of thrust and distance) and the chemical energy consumed by the muscles. The role of body shape is discussed.

  5. Development and testing of a pelvic goniometer designed to measure pelvic tilt and hip flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen; Flinn, Nannette; Wootten, Mary; McCorry, Stephanie

    2003-06-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of a pelvic goniometer designed to measure the pelvic tilt and hip flexion during seated posture. Assessment of the seated posture requires measurement of the pelvis and hip. Determining accurate pelvic tilt and hip flexion angles during sitting is often difficult using standard techniques. A pelvic goniometer has been designed to measure pelvic tilt and hip flexion angle of persons in a seated posture. VALIDATION of the pelvic goniometer was done radiographically. Ten male volunteers sat in three postures--erect, forward or anterior tilt, and posterior tilt. Pelvic tilt and hip angle were recorded using radiographs and the pelvic goniometer. Reliability of pelvic and conventional goniometers was done using seated nondisabled subjects with physical therapists performing measurements. the average differences and correlation between the pelvic goniometer and radiographic measures were as follows--pelvic tilt: -4.9 degrees, 0.93; hip angle 1.2 degrees, 0.81. Reliability: average range of hip angle across three measures was about 3 degrees for both goniometers. The data indicate that the pelvic goniometer has utility in measuring pelvic tilt and hip angle, especially within the seated posture. Because it measures both pelvic tilt and hip angle, the pelvic goniometer has an advantage over conventional goniometers that only measure the latter. A valid and reliable tool that measures pelvic tilt and hip angle of persons in a seated posture is needed for clinical research and practice. Its applications include wheelchair seating evaluations and ergonomic assessments of seated workers.

  6. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print How are pelvic floor disorders diagnosed? A physical exam may be all ... fee ). This test is used to evaluate the pelvic floor and rectum while the patient is having a ...

  7. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Treatment and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Treatment and Care Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  8. Planar elongation of soft polymeric networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Hassager, Ole; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    A new test fixture for the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks with application towards pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The concept of this new geometry is to elongate a tube-like sample by keeping the perimeter constant....... To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation. Particle tracking and video recording were used to detect to what extent the imposed strain rate and the sample perimeter remained constant. It was observed that, by using...... an appropriate choice of initial sample height, perimeter, and thickness, the planar stretch ratio will follow lambda(t) = h(t)/h(0) = exp((epsilon)overdot t), with h(t) being the height at time t and (epsilon)overdot the imposed constant strain rate. The perimeter would decrease by a few percent only, which...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small amount of radiation is aimed at and passes through the part of the body being examined, ... of CT scan, the machine may make several passes. You may be asked to hold your breath ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which ... contrast you will be asked to arrive approximately two hours prior to your scan time or begin ...

  11. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these ... allows the body parts to be distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT ...

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... preferable over CT scanning. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org: Radiation Therapy for Bladder ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... your breath during the scanning. Any motion, whether breathing or body movements, can lead to artifacts on ... minutes. However, if you are required to drink oral contrast you will be asked to arrive approximately ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... be needed for children who cannot hold still. Motion will cause blurring of the images and degrade ... to hold your breath during the scanning. Any motion, whether breathing or body movements, can lead to ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... slices. When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... entire body will be "inside" the scanner at one time such as with MRI. If an intravenous ... CT scanning provides very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Any motion, whether breathing or body movements, can lead to artifacts on the images. This loss of ... circumstances. For example, sometimes a parent wearing a lead shield may stay in the room with their ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... to urinate; however, this is actually a contrast effect and subsides quickly. If the contrast material is ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast ... of many areas of the body, particularly the lungs, abdomen, pelvis and bones. A diagnosis determined by ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... varying degrees. It is this crucial difference in absorption that allows the body parts to be distinguished ... will hear only slight buzzing, clicking and whirring sounds as the CT scanner's internal parts, not usually ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... beneficial for all patients but especially children, the elderly and critically ill, all of whom may have ... the scanning. Any motion, whether breathing or body movements, can lead to artifacts on the images. This ...

  5. Biomechanics of the pelvic floor musculature

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis was motivated by two main goals. The first research goal of the thesis was to understand the complex biomechanical behaviour of the pelvic floor muscles. The second goal was to study the mechanism of the pelvic organ prolapse (genital prolapse). The pelvic floor in humans is a very complex muscular structure. It is largely responsible for supporting both pelvic and abdominal organs and acts synergistically with the striated muscle of the anterior abdominal wall to generate ...

  6. Is Pelvic Floor Dysfunction an Independent Threat to Sexual Function? A Cross-Sectional Study in Women With Pelvic Floor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Yun-Fong, Ryan J; Larouche, Maryse; Hyakutake, Momoe; Koenig, Nicole; Lovatt, Catherine; Geoffrion, Roxana; Brotto, Lori A; Lee, Terry; Cundiff, Geoffrey W

    2017-02-01

    Prior studies have reported an association of sexual dysfunction with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD), but without defining causation. To investigate predictors of sexual function in women with PFD, including pelvic organ prolapse, stress urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, obstructed defecation, and fecal incontinence. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 755 women (mean age = 56 years, 68% postmenopausal) referred for PFD (2008-2013). Subjects underwent standardized history and examination, including demographics and assessment of pelvic floor function and sexual function using validated quality-of-life instruments. The physical examination included body mass index, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification measurements, and pelvic muscle strength (Oxford scale). Proportional odds regression analysis tested patient characteristics, PFD, and other determinants of sexual dysfunction as predictors of sexual function. The Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7) to assess PFD and the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire to assess sexual function. The prevalence of PFD included pelvic organ prolapse (72%), stress urinary incontinence (66%), overactive bladder (78%), fecal incontinence (41%), and obstructed defecation (70%). Most subjects (74%) had a sexual partner and most (56%) reported recent sexual intercourse. Participants reported a low level of sexual desire and sexual enjoyment and moderate levels of sexual arousal and orgasm. When stratified by sexual enjoyment, 46% enjoyed sex and this group had lower PFDI and PFIQ scores, reflecting less quality-of-life burden. Pelvic organ prolapse, obstructed defecation, and fecal incontinence were associated with not enjoying sex. However, when adjusted for other determinants of sexual dysfunction (eg, aging, dyspareunia, atrophy, and partner issues), these associations disappeared. Women with PFD also have a large burden of sexual dysfunction, although

  7. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  8. Biomechanics of the pelvic floor musculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janda, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis was motivated by two main goals. The first research goal of the thesis was to understand the complex biomechanical behaviour of the pelvic floor muscles. The second goal was to study the mechanism of the pelvic organ prolapse (genital prolapse). The pelvic floor in humans is a

  9. [Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength in competition-level athletes and untrained women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludviksdottir, Ingunn; Hardardottir, Hildur; Sigurdardottir, Thorgerdur; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2018-01-01

    Exercise can stress the pelvic floor muscles. Numerous women experience urinary incontinence while exercising or competing in sports. This study investigated pelvic floor muscle strength, urinary incontinence, and knowledge in contracting pelvic floor muscles among female athletes and untrained women. This was a prospective case-control study measuring pelvic floor muscle strength using vaginal pressure meas-urement. Participants answered questions regarding general health, urinary incontinence, and knowledge on pelvic floor muscles. Partici-pants were healthy nulliparous women aged 18-30 years, athletes and untrained women. The athletes had competed in their sport for at least three years; including handball, soccer, gymnastics, badminton, BootCamp and CrossFit. The women were comparable in age and height. The athletes (n=18) had a body mass index (BMI) of 22.8 kg/m² vs. 25 kg/m² for the untrained (n=16); p<0.05. The athletes trained on average 11.4 hours/week while the untrained women participated in some activity on average for 1.3 hours/week; p< 0.05. Mean pelvic floor strength was 45±2 hPa in the athletes vs. 43±4 hPa in the untrained; p=0.36 for whether the athletes were stronger. Of the athletes, 61.1% experienced urinary incontinence (n=11) compared with 12.5% of the untrained women (n=2); p<0.05. Incontinence usually occurred during high intensity exercise. The athletes were more knowledgeable about the pelvic floor muscles; p<0.05. There was not a significant difference in the strength of pelvic floor muscles of athletes and untrained women. This suggests that pelvic floor muscles are not strengthened during general training but require specific exercises. This holds especially for football, handball and sports with high physical intensity. Coaches need to pay special attention to training and strengthening women's pelvic floor muscles to reduce the occurrence of urinary incontinence.

  10. Age effects on pelvic floor symptoms in a cohort of nulliparous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Lieschen H; White, Dena E; Juarez, Dianna; Shobeiri, Seyed Abbas

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of age on pelvic floor symptoms (PFSs) in nulliparous women. Eighty community-dwelling nulliparous women, aged 21 to 70 years, were recruited. Pelvic floor support was assessed with pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. Participants completed the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory 20 and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire 7. Sexual function was assessed with the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire 12 and health status with the Short-Form Health Survey. The correlation between age and questionnaire scores was evaluated using Pearson coefficient. Logistic regression assessed predictors associated with PFS. Participants had a median age of 47 years, average body mass index of 28.3 kg/m, and most were white; 52.5% were healthy and 30% were postmenopausal. The most common stage of prolapse was stage I.Age was associated with slightly higher Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 scores (r = 0.41, P = 0.002), corresponding to more bothersome PFS, and lower Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire-12 scores, corresponding to worsening sexual function with advancing age (r = -0.41, P = 0.0012). There was no association between age and overall Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire scores (P = 0.12). For symptomatic patients, logistic regression showed age to be associated with increased odds of having PFS [odds ratio (OR), 1.881; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.216-2.91]. Menopausal status was not associated with increased odds of reporting symptoms (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 0.80-11.62). When age and age by menopause were incorporated in the model, age remained a significant predictor of having PFS (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.13-2.78). In this population of community-dwelling nulliparous women, age was associated with worsening sexual function and slightly increased odds of reporting symptoms of pelvic floor disorders.

  11. Biomechanical paradigm and interpretation of female pelvic floor conditions before a treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucente V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Lucente,1 Heather van Raalte,2 Miles Murphy,1 Vladimir Egorov3 1The Institute for Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Allentown, PA, USA; 2Princeton Urogynecology, Princeton, NJ, USA; 3Artann Laboratories, Trenton, NJ, USA Background: Further progress in restoring a woman’s health may be possible if a patient with a damaged pelvic floor could undergo medical imaging and biomechanical diagnostic tests. The results of such tests could contribute to the analysis of multiple treatment options and suggest the optimal one for that patient.Aim: To develop a new approach for the biomechanical characterization of vaginal conditions, muscles, and connective tissues in the female pelvic floor.Methods: Vaginal tactile imaging (VTI allows biomechanical assessment of the soft tissue along the entire length of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vaginal walls at rest, with manually applied deflection pressures and with muscle contraction, muscle relaxation, and Valsalva maneuver. VTI allows a large body of measurements to evaluate individual variations in tissue elasticity, support defects, as well as pelvic muscle function. Presuming that 1 the female pelvic floor organs are suspended by ligaments against which muscles contract to open or close the outlets and 2 damaged ligaments weaken the support and may reduce the force of muscle contraction, we made an attempt to characterize multiple pelvic floor structures from VTI data.Results: All of the 138 women enrolled in the study were successfully examined with the VTI. The study subjects have had normal pelvic support or pelvic organ prolapse (stages I–IV. The average age of this group of subjects was 60±15 years. We transposed a set of 31 VTI parameters into a quantitative characterization of pelvic muscles and ligamentous structures. Interpretation of the acquired VTI data for normal pelvic floor support and prolapse conditions is proposed based on biomechanical assessment of the

  12. Anatomy and Physiology of the Pelvic Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickmeyer, Sarah M

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the anatomic relationship of the pelvic floor muscles with the pelvic girdle, spine, and hips aids the rehabilitation provider in diagnosis, management, and appropriate referrals. The bony anatomy of the pelvic girdle consists of 3 bones and 3 joints. The pelvic floor muscles are comprised mainly of the levator ani muscles with somatic innervation from the lumbosacral plexus. The bony and muscular pelvis is highly interconnected to the hip and gluteal musculature, which together provide support to the internal organs and core muscles. Pelvic floor physiology is centered on bladder and bowel control, sexual functioning, and pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasound Imaging of the Pelvic Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Daniel E; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the background and appraisal of endoluminal ultrasound of the pelvic floor. It provides a detailed anatomic assessment of the muscles and surrounding organs of the pelvic floor. Different anatomic variability and pathology, such as prolapse, fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence, vaginal wall cysts, synthetic implanted material, and pelvic pain, are easily assessed with endoluminal vaginal ultrasound. With pelvic organ prolapse in particular, not only is the prolapse itself seen but the underlying cause related to the anatomic and functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor muscle structures are also visualized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MR imaging in female pelvic organs prolapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capiel, Carlos A. h; Bouzas, Carlos A.

    2003-01-01

    Pelvic floor weakness and consequent organ prolapse may result in a variety of symptoms, including pain, urinary or fecal incontinence and constipation. Diagnosis is made primary on the basis of findings at physical pelvic examination. Imaging is useful in patients in whom findings at physical examination are equivocal. Different imaging techniques (fluoroscopy, ultrasonography), can be useful in evaluating pelvic organs prolapse. MR imaging is a new noninvasive technique that provides a multiplanar global evaluation of the pelvic contents and demonstrates pelvic organs prolapse. Reference points are the pubococcygeal line and puborectalis muscle sling. This pictorial assay illustrates different grades of cystourethrocele, recto-sigmoidocele and hysteroptosis (uterine prolapse) on MR imaging. (author)

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in direct visual contact and usually with the ability to hear and talk to you with the use of a speaker and microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different body parts absorb the x-rays in varying ...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body. ... often eliminating the need for additional, more invasive diagnostic ... of CT is its ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at ...

  17. How Is Pelvic Pain Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... releasing hormone injections, or progestin-releasing intrauterine devices. Hormonal treatment for pelvic pain is not the same as hormone therapy that is sometimes used to treat the symptoms of menopause. Lifestyle changes. Some women's pain is helped by changes in ...

  18. Bone Health and Pelvic Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, C E; Faithfull, S

    2015-11-01

    Survivors who have received pelvic radiotherapy make up many of the long-term cancer population, with therapies for gynaecological, bowel, bladder and prostate malignancies. Individuals who receive radiotherapy to the pelvis as part of their cancer treatment are at risk of insufficiency fractures. Symptoms of insufficiency fractures include pelvic and back pain and immobility, which can affect substantially quality of life. This constellation of symptoms can occur within 2 months of radiotherapy up to 63 months post-treatment, with a median incidence of 6-20 months. As a condition it is under reported and evidence is poor as to the contributing risk factors, causation and best management to improve the patient's bone health and mobility. As radiotherapy advances, chronic symptoms, such as insufficiency fractures, as a consequence of treatment need to be better understood and reviewed. This overview explores the current evidence for the effect of radiotherapy on bone health and insufficiency fractures and identifies what we know and where gaps in our knowledge lie. The overview concludes with the need to take seriously complaints of pelvic pain from patients after pelvic radiotherapy and to investigate and manage these symptoms more effectively. There is a clear need for definitive research in this field to provide the evidence-based guidance much needed in practice. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Obesity and pelvic organ prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, U.J.; Kerkhof, M.H.; Leijsen, S.A. van; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to review the data on the relationship of obesity and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This review is timely and relevant as the prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, and it is an important risk factor to consider in counseling women on

  20. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The start-up and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 and 103 kg/mole, and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The monodisperse melts show a maximum in the steady elongational viscosity vs. the elongational...

  1. The 3D Pelvic Inclination Correction System (PICS): A universally applicable coordinate system for isovolumetric imaging measurements, tested in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Caecilia S; Williamson, Tom; Winklehner, Thomas; Lisse, Sean; Fink, Daniel; DeLancey, John O L; Betschart, Cornelia

    2017-07-01

    In pelvic organ prolapse (POP), the organs are pushed downward along the lines of gravity, so measurements along this longitudinal body axis are desirable. We propose a universally applicable 3D coordinate system that corrects for changes in pelvic inclination and that allows the localization of any point in the pelvis at rest or under dynamic conditions on magnetic resonance images (MRI) of pelvic floor disorders in a scanner- and software independent manner. The proposed 3D coordinate system called 3D Pelvic Inclination Correction System (PICS) is constructed utilizing four bony landmark points, with the origin set at the inferior pubic point, and three additional points at the sacrum (sacrococcygeal joint) and both ischial spines, which are clearly visible on MRI images. The feasibility and applicability of the moving frame was evaluated using MRI datasets from five women with pelvic organ prolapse, three undergoing static MRI and two undergoing dynamic MRI of the pelvic floor in a supine position. The construction of the coordinate system was performed utilizing the selected landmarks, with an initial implementation completed in MATLAB. In all cases the selected landmarks were clearly visible, with the construction of the 3D PICS and measurement of pelvic organ positions performed without difficulty. The resulting distance from the organ position to the horizontal PICS plane was compared to a traditional measure based on standard measurements in 2D slices. The two approaches demonstrated good agreement in each of the cases. The developed approach makes quantitative assessment of pelvic organ position in a physiologically relevant 3D coordinate system possible independent of pelvic movement relative to the scanner. It allows the accurate study of the physiologic range of organ location along the body axis ("up or down") as well as defects of the pelvic sidewall or birth-related pelvic floor injuries outside the midsagittal plane, not possible before in a 2D

  2. Mode of delivery and Pelvic floor disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, R.; Neelam, H.; Bashir, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare pelvic floor dysfunction in non pregnant women who had delivered vaginally versus those with cesarean delivery. Methodology: The prevalence of pelvic floor disorders among non pregnant women was assesses by using a standardized tool pelvic floor distress inventory short form (PFDI-20). Data was collected from Jinnah Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Total numbers of participants were 278. 47.12% subjects had moderate, 36.69% miner and 16.19% had severe pelvic floor dysfunction. The symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse were more prevalent (mean value is 59.1876) than Urinary Distress (mean value is 40.5426), while the Colorectal-Anal Distress (mean value is 35.9150) were least prevalent. Conclusion: Pelvic floor disorders are very common among females and are strongly associated with mode of delivery. Although spontaneous vaginal birth was extensively associated with pelvic floor disorders the instrumental delivery affects most. (author)

  3. Elongated nanostructures for radial junction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yinghuan; Vece, Marcel Di; Rath, Jatindra K; Dijk, Lourens van; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2013-10-01

    In solar cell technology, the current trend is to thin down the active absorber layer. The main advantage of a thinner absorber is primarily the reduced consumption of material and energy during production. For thin film silicon (Si) technology, thinning down the absorber layer is of particular interest since both the device throughput of vacuum deposition systems and the stability of the devices are significantly enhanced. These features lead to lower cost per installed watt peak for solar cells, provided that the (stabilized) efficiency is the same as for thicker devices. However, merely thinning down inevitably leads to a reduced light absorption. Therefore, advanced light trapping schemes are crucial to increase the light path length. The use of elongated nanostructures is a promising method for advanced light trapping. The enhanced optical performance originates from orthogonalization of the light's travel path with respect to the direction of carrier collection due to the radial junction, an improved anti-reflection effect thanks to the three-dimensional geometric configuration and the multiple scattering between individual nanostructures. These advantages potentially allow for high efficiency at a significantly reduced quantity and even at a reduced material quality, of the semiconductor material. In this article, several types of elongated nanostructures with the high potential to improve the device performance are reviewed. First, we briefly introduce the conventional solar cells with emphasis on thin film technology, following the most commonly used fabrication techniques for creating nanostructures with a high aspect ratio. Subsequently, several representative applications of elongated nanostructures, such as Si nanowires in realistic photovoltaic (PV) devices, are reviewed. Finally, the scientific challenges and an outlook for nanostructured PV devices are presented.

  4. Three-dimensional shape differences in the bony pelvis of women with pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirsten M; Handa, Victoria L; Macura, Katarzyna J; DeLeon, Valerie B

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the three-dimensional shape of the bony pelvis differs between women with and without pelvic floor disorders (PFDs). We predict that the levator ani attachment points for the pelvic floor are further displaced from one another in affected relative to unaffected women. Pelvic shape was quantified by collecting coordinate data from landmarks located on three-dimensional reconstructions of magnetic resonance images of 19 PFD cases and 16 matched controls. Euclidean distance matrix analysis (EDMA) was used to quantify and compare pelvic shape using these landmark data. There were no significant group differences in age, parity, body mass, racial attribution, cesarean section, or hysterectomy status. After controlling for size as a confounding factor, EDMA results identified significant differences (p = 0.05) in the bispinous diameter (4 % proportionally larger) and distances defining lateral displacement of ischia from pubis (5-6 % proportionally larger) in cases compared to controls. Pelvic shape in women with PFDs is characterized by the proportional mediolateral enlargement of the pelvic midplane and ischial eversion near the subpubic arch, consistent with inferolateral migration of the attachment points for the levator ani and correspondingly lateral displacement. These movements may result in increased strain on the pelvic floor's muscular and connective tissues, increasing the risk of failure over a woman's lifetime.

  5. Validation of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 in Danish women with pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    To translate the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 (PFIQ-7) and to evaluate their psychometric properties in Danish women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse....

  6. Elongational viscosity of multiarm (Pom-Pom) polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2006-01-01

    -Pom was estimated to have 2.5 arms on average, while the estimate is 3.3 for the asymmetric star. The molar mass of each arm is about 27 kg/mol. The melts were characterized in the linear viscoelastic regime and in non-linear elongational rheometry. The transient elongational viscosity for the Pom-Pom molecule...... it corresponds well with an estimate of the maximum stretchability of the backbone. Time-strain separability was not observed for the 'Asymmetric star' molecule at the elongation rates investigated. The transient elongational viscosity for the 'Pom-Pom' molecule went through a reproducible maximum...... in the viscosity at the highest elongational rate....

  7. Regular Exercisers Have Stronger Pelvic Floor Muscles than Non-Regular Exercisers at Midpregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Ellstrøm Engh, Marie; Hilde, Gunvor

    2017-12-26

    Today, all healthy pregnant women are encouraged to be physically active throughout pregnancy, with recommendations to participate in at least 30 min of aerobic activity on most days of the week, in addition to perform strength training of the major muscle groups 2-3 days per week, and also pelvic floor muscle training. There is, however, an ongoing debate whether general physical activity enhances or declines pelvic floor muscle function. To compare vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength and endurance in regular exercisers (exercise ≥ 30 minutes ≥ 3 times per week) and non-exercisers at mid-pregnancy. Furthermore, to assess whether regular general exercise or pelvic floor muscle strength was associated with urinary incontinence. This was a cross-sectional study at mean gestational week 20.9 (± 1.4) including 218 nulliparous pregnant women, mean age 28.6 years (range 19-40) and pre-pregnancy body mass index 23.9 kg/m 2 (SD 4.0). Vaginal resting pressure, pelvic floor muscle strength and pelvic floor muscle endurance were measured by a high precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence. Differences between groups were analyzed using Independent Sample T-test. Linear regression analysis was conducted to adjust for pre-pregnancy body mass index, age, smoking during pregnancy and regular pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. P-value was set to ≤ 0.05. Regular exercisers had statistically significant stronger ( mean 6.4 cm H 2 O (95% CI: 1.7, 11.2)) and more enduring ( mean 39.9 cm H 2 Osec (95% CI: 42.2, 75.7)) pelvic floor muscles. Only pelvic floor muscle strength remained statistically significant, when adjusting for possible confounders. Pelvic floor muscle strength and not regular general exercise was associated with urinary continence (adjusted B: -6.4 (95% CI: -11.5, -1.4)). Regular

  8. Trade studies of plasma elongation for next-step tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of elongation on minimum-cost devices is investigated for elongations ranging from 2 to 3. The analysis, carried out with the TETRA tokamak systems code, includes the effects of elongation on both physics (plasma beta limit) and engineering (poloidal field coil currents) issues. When ignition is required, the minimum cost occurs for elongations from 2.3 to 2.9, depending on the plasma energy confinement scaling used. Scalings that include favorable plasma current dependence and/or degradation with fusion power tend to have minimum cost at higher elongation (2.5-2.9); scalings that depend primarily on size result in lower elongation (/approximately/2.3) for minimum cost. For design concepts that include steady-state current-driven operation, minimum cost occurs at an elongation of 2.3. 12 refs., 13 figs

  9. Integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound in pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, A J; Solanki, D; Hamad, A; Morris, S J; Schizas, A M P; Williams, A B

    2017-01-01

    Imaging for pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction includes defaecation proctography. Integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound (transvaginal, transperineal, endoanal) may be an alternative. This study assesses ultrasound accuracy for the detection of rectocele, intussusception, enterocele and dyssynergy compared with defaecation proctography, and determines if ultrasound can predict symptoms and findings on proctography. Treatment is examined. Images of 323 women who underwent integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound and defaecation proctography between 2011 and 2014 were blindly reviewed. The size and grade of rectocele, enterocele, intussusception and dyssynergy were noted on both, using proctography as the gold standard. Barium trapping in a rectocele or a functionally significant enterocele was noted on proctography. Demographics and Obstructive Defaecation Symptom scores were collated. The positive predictive value of ultrasound was 73% for rectocele, 79% for intussusception and 91% for enterocele. The negative predictive value for dyssynergy was 99%. Agreement was moderate for rectocele and intussusception, good for enterocele and fair for dyssynergy. The majority of rectoceles that required surgery (59/61) and caused barium trapping (85/89) were detected on ultrasound. A rectocele seen on both transvaginal and transperineal scanning was more likely to require surgery than if seen with only one mode (P = 0.0001). If there was intussusception on ultrasound the patient was more likely to have surgery (P = 0.03). An enterocele visualized on ultrasound was likely to be functionally significant on proctography (P = 0.02). There was, however, no association between findings on imaging and symptoms. Integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound provides a useful screening tool for women with defaecatory dysfunction such that defaecatory imaging can avoided in some. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Robotic radical anterior pelvic exenteration: the UCI experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Oskar G; Young, Jennifer L; Sountoulides, Petros; Kaplan, Adam G; Dash, Atreya; Ornstein, David K

    2011-07-01

    Robotic technology may be a promising tool in reduction of morbidity in radical anterior pelvic exenteration for invasive bladder cancer. We report our initial experience with robotic-assisted radical anterior pelvic exenteration in females in an attempt to evaluate the technique's feasibility and outcomes. A retrospective review of our bladder cancer database was performed. Twelve women that underwent robotic-assisted radical anterior pelvic exenteration, bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, and urinary diversion for clinically localized urothelial carcinoma of the bladder between 2004 and 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Median age was 73.0 +/- 9.6 years and median body mass index (BMI) was 23.5 +/- 5.0 kg/m2. Ten patients underwent ileal conduit diversion, one had an orthotopic neobladder and one an Indiana pouch. Median total operating time was 6.4 +/- 1.5 hours with median console and diversion times of 4.7 +/- 0.9 and 2.5 +/- 1.5 hours respectively. Median blood loss was 275.0 +/- 165.8 ml. Median length of stay was 8.0 +/- 1.6 days. Four patients were T2N0 or less, five T3N0, one T3N1 and two patients T4N0. There was one patient with positive surgical margins. Median number of lymph nodes removed was 23.0 +/- 11.4. Median follow-up of 9.0 +/- 6.0 months was available for ten patients. One had a recurrent ureteroenteric stricture, one had colpocleisis for vault prolapse, and three had metastatic disease. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic anterior pelvic exenteration appears to be a favorable surgical option with acceptable operative, pathological, and short-term clinical outcomes. According to the UCI experience, robotic anterior exenteration appears to achieve the clinical and oncologic goals for the surgical treatment of bladder cancer.

  11. Efficacy of biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), fecal incontinence (FI) and/or pelvic floor dyssynergia, with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are described as pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is the first-line therapy in the treatment of PFD either alone or combined with biofeedback assisted pelvic ...

  12. Elongator and SPT4/SPT5 complexes as proxy to study RNA polymerase II transcript elongation control of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Dürr, Julius; Woloszynska, Magdalena; Grasser, Klaus D

    2014-10-01

    The elongation phase of the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription process is dynamic and regulated. Elongator and SUPPRESSOR OF Ty4 (SPT4)/SPT5 are transcript elongation factors that contribute to the regulation of mRNA synthesis by RNA polymerase II in the chromatin context. Recently, the Elongator complex consisting of six subunits and the SPT4/SPT5 heterodimer were isolated from Arabidopsis. Mutant plants affected in the expression of Elongator or SPT4/SPT5 share various auxin-signaling phenotypes. In line with that observation, auxin-related genes are prominent among the genes differentially expressed in these mutants. Exemplified by Elongator and SPT4/SPT5, we discuss here the role that transcript elongation factors may play in the control of plant growth and development. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Pelvic morphology in ischiofemoral impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Azevedo, Debora C.; Oliveira, Adriana L.; Simeone, Frank J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, Allston J. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2014-11-06

    To assess MRI measures to quantify pelvic morphology that may predispose to ischiofemoral impingement (IFI). We hypothesized that patients with IFI have a wider interischial distance and an increased femoral neck angle compared with normal controls. The study was IRB-approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. IFI was diagnosed based on clinical findings (hip or buttock pain) and ipsilateral edema of the quadratus femoris muscle on MRI. Control subjects did not report isolated hip/buttock pain and underwent MRI for surveillance of neoplasms or to exclude pelvic fractures. Two MSK radiologists measured the ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) distance, the ischial angle as a measure of inter-ischial distance, and the femoral neck angle. The quadratus femoris muscle was evaluated for edema. Groups were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate standard least-squares regression modeling was used to control for age and gender. The study group comprised 84 patients with IFI (53 ± 16 years, 73 female, 11 male) and 51 controls (52 ± 16 years, 33 female, 18 male). Thirteen out of 84 patients (15 %) had bilateral IFI. Patients with IFI had decreased IF and QF distance (p < 0.0001), increased ischial angle (p = 0.004), and increased femoral neck angle (p = 0.02) compared with controls, independent of age and gender. Patients with IFI have increased ischial and femoral neck angles compared with controls. These anatomical variations in pelvic morphology may predispose to IFI. MRI is a useful method of not only assessing the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities associated with IFI, but also of quantifying anatomical variations in pelvic morphology that can predispose to IFI. (orig.)

  14. Pelvic morphology in ischiofemoral impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Azevedo, Debora C.; Oliveira, Adriana L.; Simeone, Frank J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin; Stubbs, Allston J.

    2015-01-01

    To assess MRI measures to quantify pelvic morphology that may predispose to ischiofemoral impingement (IFI). We hypothesized that patients with IFI have a wider interischial distance and an increased femoral neck angle compared with normal controls. The study was IRB-approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. IFI was diagnosed based on clinical findings (hip or buttock pain) and ipsilateral edema of the quadratus femoris muscle on MRI. Control subjects did not report isolated hip/buttock pain and underwent MRI for surveillance of neoplasms or to exclude pelvic fractures. Two MSK radiologists measured the ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) distance, the ischial angle as a measure of inter-ischial distance, and the femoral neck angle. The quadratus femoris muscle was evaluated for edema. Groups were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate standard least-squares regression modeling was used to control for age and gender. The study group comprised 84 patients with IFI (53 ± 16 years, 73 female, 11 male) and 51 controls (52 ± 16 years, 33 female, 18 male). Thirteen out of 84 patients (15 %) had bilateral IFI. Patients with IFI had decreased IF and QF distance (p < 0.0001), increased ischial angle (p = 0.004), and increased femoral neck angle (p = 0.02) compared with controls, independent of age and gender. Patients with IFI have increased ischial and femoral neck angles compared with controls. These anatomical variations in pelvic morphology may predispose to IFI. MRI is a useful method of not only assessing the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities associated with IFI, but also of quantifying anatomical variations in pelvic morphology that can predispose to IFI. (orig.)

  15. Immiscible blend morphology after shear and elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Gibson L.; Trifkovic, Milana; Hedegaard, Aaron; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2015-05-01

    This work examines the role of shear and extensional strain on immiscible blend morphology, namely domain size, orientation, and co-continuity. The domain size reduces with surface tension similar to what is observed with isolated droplets. The domain size is shown to increase with shear strain due to coalescence. Hence the best mixing is found with low shear strains, i.e. low rates of shear and short durations of time. Extensional strain (extrusion draw ratio DR) reduces phase width and thickness with a DR-0.5 dependence, suggesting the transformation to a fibrilar morphology. The critical draw ratio for morphology transformation is approximately 7, in agreement with observations by Grace for droplet breakup in elongation. Fibrilar morphology is also consistent with a large increase in strain-to-break in the drawn film and with observed creep and optical scattering behavior.

  16. Pelvic trauma: WSES classification and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccolini, Federico; Stahel, Philip F; Montori, Giulia; Biffl, Walter; Horer, Tal M; Catena, Fausto; Kluger, Yoram; Moore, Ernest E; Peitzman, Andrew B; Ivatury, Rao; Coimbra, Raul; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Pereira, Bruno; Rizoli, Sandro; Kirkpatrick, Andrew; Leppaniemi, Ari; Manfredi, Roberto; Magnone, Stefano; Chiara, Osvaldo; Solaini, Leonardo; Ceresoli, Marco; Allievi, Niccolò; Arvieux, Catherine; Velmahos, George; Balogh, Zsolt; Naidoo, Noel; Weber, Dieter; Abu-Zidan, Fikri; Sartelli, Massimo; Ansaloni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Complex pelvic injuries are among the most dangerous and deadly trauma related lesions. Different classification systems exist, some are based on the mechanism of injury, some on anatomic patterns and some are focusing on the resulting instability requiring operative fixation. The optimal treatment strategy, however, should keep into consideration the hemodynamic status, the anatomic impairment of pelvic ring function and the associated injuries. The management of pelvic trauma patients aims definitively to restore the homeostasis and the normal physiopathology associated to the mechanical stability of the pelvic ring. Thus the management of pelvic trauma must be multidisciplinary and should be ultimately based on the physiology of the patient and the anatomy of the injury. This paper presents the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) classification of pelvic trauma and the management Guidelines.

  17. [Functional Outcome Assessment in Patients with Pelvic Fracture after Lushan Earthquake: a Punt Study using ICF-based Tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Liu, Chuan; Chen, Yao; He, Cheng-qi; He, Hong-cheng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the functional outcome of patients with pelvic fracture after Lushan earthquake using a newly developed tool based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Ten patients diagnosed as pelvic fracture were recruited in this study from April 20th to 30th, 2013 in West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Data were collected using the international comprehensive version of ICF Core Set for patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Descriptive statistics analysis were used. Pelvic fracture caused by Lushan earthquake lead to a series of severe injuries complicated with multiple organ dysfunction. In the assessment of body functions, almost all the patients with pelvic fracture showed impairments including energy and drive, sleep, sensation of pain, mobility and repair function of skin. In the assessment of body structures, the damages were mainly distributed in pelvic region, lower extremity, trunk as well as areas of skin. In the assessment of activities and participations, limitations and restrictions were related to changing and maintaining basic body position, transferring, walking andself-care. ICF Core Set could provide a comprehensive, systematic and evidence-based assessments from the perspective of body function, body structure as well as activities and participations for patients with pelvic fracture after Lushan earthquake. Future study with large sample size is needed to validate the assessment of ICF Core Set for patients with musculoskeletal injuries after earthquake and other natural disasters.

  18. Experience of pelvic floor muscle exercises among women in Taiwan: a qualitative study of improvement in urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsia-Tzu; Hayter, Mark; Hinchliff, Sharron; Tsai, Chuan-Hsiu; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2015-07-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of women's experiences of performing pelvic floor muscle exercises for urinary incontinence and the impact on their sexuality. Urinary incontinence is not a life-threatening disorder; however, it has been shown to have detrimental effects on quality of life in terms of psychological, social and sexual dysfunction. Pelvic floor muscle exercises is the first recommended strategy for managing mild to moderate urinary incontinence as it is noninvasive and cost effective. Pelvic floor muscle exercises reduce incontinence and strengthen the pelvic floor muscles, which positively affects sexual function in women. Currently, the data are scarce for qualitative literature regarding the subjective experiences of Taiwanese women undergoing pelvic floor muscle exercises and the impact on their urinary incontinence and sexuality. Qualitative exploratory study. Semi-structured in depth interviews were undertaken with twelve women who had completed a pelvic floor muscle exercises program in Taiwan. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Themes were related to Taiwanese women's initial feelings that urinary incontinence was inevitable and the effects on their sexuality. Three core themes were identified: perceptions of inevitability, developing awareness and gaining control and sexual taboo. Through developing awareness and control of their pelvic floor muscles women expressed improvement in urinary incontinence. Sexual enjoyment, body image, self confidence and sexuality were also enhanced. Pelvic floor muscle exercises had a positive effect on urinary incontinence and sexuality. The findings demonstrated that sex is a taboo topic for many Taiwanese women. With the sensitive management of pelvic floor muscle exercises programs this issue can be addressed. This study raises awareness of healthcare professionals by identifying how Taiwanese women perceive pelvic floor muscles. The positive impact of pelvic floor muscle exercises upon both

  19. The Influence of Pelvic Ramus Fracture on the Stability of Fixed Pelvic Complex Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jianyin; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Guiying; Wang, Zhihua; Cai, Xianhua

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical mechanism of pelvic ring injury for the stability of pelvis using the finite element (FE) method. Complex pelvic fracture (i.e., anterior column with posterior hemitransverse lesion) combined with pelvic ramus fracture was used to evaluate the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. Three FE fracture models (i.e., Dynamic Anterior Plate-Screw System for Quadrilateral Area (DAPSQ) for complex pelvic fracture with intact pubic ramus, DAPSQ for complex...

  20. Indigo carmine extravasation to upper limb after pelvic reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Fiona M; Chung, Christopher P; Yandell, Paul M

    2013-02-01

    The use of dyes during cystoscopy to visualize the ureters adequately is prevalent in gynecologic surgery. Observing ureteral patency after procedures such as a hysterectomy or pelvic reconstruction is important for identifying injury to the upper urinary tract. Indigo carmine is commonly used. Knowing the possible adverse effects and being aware of unusual presentations with the use of indigo carmine are important in managing and counseling patients. We present a case in which a patient developed indigo carmine extravasation to her upper limb after pelvic reconstructive surgery. The blue discoloration disappeared after 1 day. Indigo carmine extravasation to other parts of the body can occur without long-term complications. It takes 24-48 hours for the dye to clear subcutaneously.

  1. Can Transabdominal Sonography Predict Pelvic Relaxation?

    OpenAIRE

    Atoosa Adibi; Mahtab Zargham

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Pelvic relaxation and cystocele is a common problem in middle to old age women. Transabdominal ultrasound (TAS) is a noninvasive, available routine procedure in many situations. We evaluated whether TAS can predict pelvic relaxation or not. "nMaterials and Methods: In a cross sectional case- control study one hundred women 30 years or older were enrolled into the study. An expert female urologist examined the cases for the presence of signs and the grading of pelvic relaxat...

  2. Gynecological pelvic pain as emergency pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Domínguez, A; Mora Jurado, A; García de la Oliva, A; de Araujo Martins-Romeo, D; Cueto Álvarez, L

    Acute pelvic pain is a common condition in emergency. The sources of acute pelvic pain are multifactorial, so it is important to be familiar with this type of pathologies. The purpose of this article is review the main causes of gynecological acute pelvic pain and their radiologic appearances to be able to make an accurate diagnosis and provide objective criteria for patient management. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Contribution of pelvic floor muscles to stiffness of the pelvic ring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Hoek van Dijke, G; van Gurp, M; Mulder, P; Snijders, C.J.; Stoeckart, R.

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A biomechanical study in embalmed specimens, on the relation between applied tension in the pelvic floor muscles, stiffness of the pelvic ring and generation of movement in the sacroiliac joints. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the effect of tension in the pelvic floor muscles on

  4. X chromosome dosage compensation via enhanced transcriptional elongation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larschan, Erica; Bishop, Eric P; Kharchenko, Peter V; Core, Leighton J; Lis, John T; Park, Peter J; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2011-03-03

    The evolution of sex chromosomes has resulted in numerous species in which females inherit two X chromosomes but males have a single X, thus requiring dosage compensation. MSL (Male-specific lethal) complex increases transcription on the single X chromosome of Drosophila males to equalize expression of X-linked genes between the sexes. The biochemical mechanisms used for dosage compensation must function over a wide dynamic range of transcription levels and differential expression patterns. It has been proposed that the MSL complex regulates transcriptional elongation to control dosage compensation, a model subsequently supported by mapping of the MSL complex and MSL-dependent histone 4 lysine 16 acetylation to the bodies of X-linked genes in males, with a bias towards 3' ends. However, experimental analysis of MSL function at the mechanistic level has been challenging owing to the small magnitude of the chromosome-wide effect and the lack of an in vitro system for biochemical analysis. Here we use global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to examine the specific effect of the MSL complex on RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) on a genome-wide level. Results indicate that the MSL complex enhances transcription by facilitating the progression of RNAP II across the bodies of active X-linked genes. Improving transcriptional output downstream of typical gene-specific controls may explain how dosage compensation can be imposed on the diverse set of genes along an entire chromosome.

  5. Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    , DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark ABSTRACT (1795 anslag) Background: Excessive anterior pelvic tilt has been linked to pain and dysfunction of the hip and pelvic region. Conservative treatment (e.g. manual therapy and physical training) is suggested in correcting the tilt and eventually related symptoms....... However, the effectiveness in reducing excessive anterior pelvic tilt in adults is unknown. Purpose: To systematically review studies investigating the effectiveness of conservative treatment in reducing anterior pelvic tilt in adults and evaluate the quality of evidence. Materials and methods: MEDLINE...

  6. Testing of the Anorectal and Pelvic Floor Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Large Intestine Disorders of the Pelvic Floor Motility Testing Personal Stories Contact About GI Motility Twitter Facebook ... Large Intestine Disorders of the Pelvic Floor Motility Testing Personal Stories Contact Anorectal and Pelvic Floor Area ...

  7. Assessment of pelvic floor dysfunctions using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Salah Darwish

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Dynamic MRI is an ideal, non invasive technique which does not require patient preparation for evaluation of pelvic floor. It acts as one stop shop for diagnosing single or multiple pelvic compartment involvement in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction.

  8. Plant cell wall polysaccharide analysis during cell elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoyuan

    Plant cell walls are complex structures whose composition and architecture are important to various cellular activities. Plant cell elongation requires a high level of rearrangement of the cell wall polymers to enable cell expansion. However, the cell wall polysaccharides dynamics during plant cell...... elongation is poorly understood. This PhD project aims to elucidate the cell wall compositional and structural change during cell elongation by using Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP), microscopic techniques and molecular modifications of cell wall polysaccharide. Developing cotton fibre......, pea and Arabidopsis thaliana were selected as research models to investigate different types of cell elongation, developmental elongation and tropism elongation. A set of comprehensive analysis covering 4 cotton species and 11 time points suggests that non-cellulosic polysaccharides contribute...

  9. Tissue Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) Increase Pelvic Floor Muscle Mass in Ovariectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Suriyan; Sullivan, Ryan D; Thiyagarajan, Thirumagal; Tillmann, Heather; Getzenberg, Robert H; Narayanan, Ramesh

    2017-03-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), a prevalent condition, is represented by an involuntary leakage of urine that results, at least in part, from weakened or damaged pelvic floor muscles and is triggered by physical stress. Current treatment options are limited with no oral therapies available. The pelvic floor is rich in androgen receptor and molecules with anabolic activity including selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may serve as therapeutic options for individuals with SUI. In this study, two SARMs (GTx-024 and GTx-027) were evaluated in a post-menopausal animal model in order to determine their effect on pelvic floor muscles. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and their pelvic muscles allowed to regress. The animals were then treated with vehicle or doses of GTx-024 or GTx-027. Animal total body weight, lean body mass, and pelvic floor muscle weights were measured along with the expression of genes associated with muscle catabolism. Treatment with the SARMs resulted in a restoration of the pelvic muscles to the sham-operated weight. Coordinately, the induction of genes associated with muscle catabolism was inhibited. Although a trend was observed towards an increase in total lean body mass in the SARM-treated groups, no significant differences were detected. Treatment of an ovariectomized mouse model with SARMs resulted in an increase in pelvic floor muscles, which may translate to an improvement of symptoms associated with SUI and serves as the basis for evaluating their clinical use. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 640-646, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Using dynamic input allocation for elongation control at FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncagni, L.; Galeani, S.; Granucci, G.; Varano, G.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we exploit the dynamic allocation scheme for input redundant control systems proposed in to achieve elongation control on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The scheme first serves as a means for regulating the current in the F coils. Then, due to the quasi-static relationship between the plasma elongation and the F coils current, elongation control is achieved by suitably generalizing the allocation scheme. Both simulation and experimental results are reported.

  11. The contractility of elongated microvilli in early sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Evelyn; Howard, Louisa; Spiegel, Melvin

    1990-04-01

    Elongated microvilli attach the early sea urchin embryo to the fertilization envelope and support it in a concentric position within the perivitelline space. The contractility of the elongated microvilli was demonstrated in several ways. (1) During normal cleavage, these microvilli change their length to adapt to the change in shape and numbers of blastomeres. (2) When treated with calcium-free sea water, embryos become eccentrically located and the microvilli extend further than normal on one side; when returned to normal sea water, the embryos become centered again. (3) Several agents cause the fertilization envelope to become higher and thinner than normal and the elongated microvilli to extend correspondingly if treated within ten min after fertilization. In some cases, both elongated microvilli and fertilization envelope return to normal size when returned to normal sea water. (4) Fertilization in a papain solution causes the elongated microvilli and the fertilization envelope to contract to the surface of the embryo. (5) Refertilization after the papain-induced contraction can bring about the elongation of these microvilli and the elevation of the fertilization envelope a second time. It was also shown that elongated microvilli are extended immediately upon fertilization, at the same time as the short microvilli. The firm adherence of the tips of elongated microvilli to the fertilization envelope by means of extracellular matrix fibers is shown in a high voltage electron microscope stereoimage. This allows us to understand why it is that when the elongated microvilli extend or contract, the fertilization envelope also extends and contracts accordingly.

  12. Proof of concept: differential effects of Valsalva and straining maneuvers on the pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasz, Helena; Kremser, Christian; Kofler, Markus; Kalchschmid, Elisabeth; Lechleitner, Monika; Rudisch, Ansgar

    2012-10-01

    To prove a basic physiological principle in healthy women, demonstrating different movement patterns of diaphragm, pelvic floor, and muscular wall surrounding the abdominal cavity during a Valsalva maneuver as opposed to a straining maneuver, by means of real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study was performed at Hochzirl Hospital, Austria and Department of Radiology, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria. Four healthy women underwent MRI measurements in a 1.5-T whole body MR-scanner. Coronal, sagittal, and axial slices were acquired simultaneously and a dynamic MRI sequence was used to assess cranio-caudal movements of the diaphragm and pelvic floor and of concomitant changes in anterolateral abdominal muscle thickness and abdominal diameter at the umbilical level. Both the Valsalva maneuver and the straining maneuver began with deep inspiration and downward movement of the diaphragm. During the exertion phase of both maneuvers, abdominal muscle thickness increased and abdominal diameter decreased. During the Valsalva maneuver, the pelvic floor moved cranially parallel to the diaphragm, whereas during the straining maneuver, the pelvic floor was markedly displaced caudally. The Valsalva maneuver reflects an expiratory pattern with diaphragm and pelvic floor elevation, whereas during straining the pelvic floor descends. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size: Implications for growth plasticity in early life as adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K; Figueiroa, José N; Alves, Joao G

    2017-01-01

    Patterns of fetal growth predict non-communicable disease risk in adult life, but fetal growth variability appears to have a relatively weak association with maternal nutritional dynamics during pregnancy. This challenges the interpretation of fetal growth variability as 'adaptation'. We hypothesized that associations of maternal size and nutritional status with neonatal size are mediated by the dimensions of the maternal pelvis. We analysed data on maternal height, body mass index (BMI) and pelvic dimensions (conjugate, inter-spinous and inter-cristal diameters) and neonatal gestational age, weight, length, thorax girth and head girth ( n = 224). Multiple regression analysis was used to identify independent maternal predictors of neonatal size, and the mediating role of neonatal head girth in these associations. Pelvic dimensions displaced maternal BMI as a predictor of birth weight, explaining 11.6% of the variance. Maternal conjugate and inter-spinous diameters predicted neonatal length, thorax girth and head girth, whereas inter-cristal diameter only predicted neonatal length. Associations of pelvic dimensions with birth length, but not birth weight, were mediated by neonatal head girth. Pelvic dimensions predicted neonatal size better than maternal BMI, and these associations were mostly independent of maternal height. Sensitivity of fetal growth to pelvic dimensions reduces the risk of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, potentially a strong selective pressure during secular trends in height. Selection on fetal adaptation to relatively inflexible components of maternal phenotype, rather than directly to external ecological conditions, may help explain high levels of growth plasticity during late fetal life and early infancy.

  14. Pelvic Arterial Embolisation in a Trauma Patient with a Pre-Existing Aortobifemoral Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulaban, Osama; Hopkins, Jonathan; Willis, Andrew P.; Jones, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Pelvic fractures secondary to blunt trauma are associated with a significant mortality rate due to uncontrolled bleeding. Interventional radiology (IR) can play an important and central role in the management of such patients, offering definitive minimally invasive therapy and avoiding the need for high-risk surgery. Rapid access to whole-body computed tomography has been shown to improve survival in polytrauma patients and allows rapid diagnosis of vascular injury and assessment of suitability for endovascular therapy. IR can then target and treat the specific area of bleeding. Embolisation of bleeding pelvic arteries has been shown to be highly effective and should be the treatment of choice in this situation. The branches of the internal iliac artery (IIA) are usually involved, and these arteries are accessed by way of IIA catheterisation after abdominal aortography. Occasionally these arteries cannot be accessed by way of this conventional route because of recent IIA ligation carried out surgically in an attempt to stop the bleeding or because (in the rare situation we describe here) these vessels are excluded secondary to previous aortoiliac repair. In this situation, knowledge of pelvic arterial collateral artery pathways is important because these will continue to supply pelvic structures whilst making access to deep pelvic branches challenging. We describe a rare case, which has not been previously reported in the literature, in which successful embolisation of a bleeding pelvic artery was carried out by way of the collateral artery pathways.

  15. Evaluation of the female pelvic floor in pelvic organ prolapse using 3.0-Tesla diffusion tensor imaging and fibre tractography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zijta, F.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam and Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam, AZ (Netherlands); Lakeman, M.M.E.; Roovers, J.P. [University of Amsterdam the Netherlands and Biomedical NMR, Amsterdam and Department of Gynaecology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Froeling, M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Paardt, M.P. van der; Borstlap, C.S.V.; Bipat, S.; Nederveen, A.J.; Stoker, J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Montauban van Swijndregt, A.D. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam and Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Strijkers, G.J. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    To prospectively explore the clinical application of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tractography in evaluating the pelvic floor. Ten patients with pelvic organ prolapse, ten with pelvic floor symptoms and ten asymptomatic women were included. A two-dimensional (2D) spin-echo (SE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence of the pelvic floor was acquired. Offline fibre tractography and morphological analysis of pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. Inter-rater agreement for quality assessment of fibre tracking results was evaluated using weighted kappa ({kappa}). From agreed tracking results, eigen values ({lambda}1, {lambda}2, {lambda}3), mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated. MD and FA values were compared using ANOVA. Inter-rater reliability of DTI parameters was interpreted using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Substantial inter-rater agreement was found ({kappa} = 0.71 [95% CI 0.63-0.78]). Four anatomical structures were reliably identified. Substantial inter-rater agreement was found for MD and FA (ICC 0.60-0.91). No significant differences between groups were observed for anal sphincter, perineal body and puboperineal muscle. A significant difference in FA was found for internal obturator muscle between the prolapse group and the asymptomatic group (0.27 {+-} 0.05 vs 0.22 {+-} 0.03; P = 0.015). DTI with fibre tractography permits identification of part of the clinically relevant pelvic structures. Overall, no significant differences in DTI parameters were found between groups. circle Diffusion tensor MRI offers new insights into female pelvic floor problems. (orig.)

  16. Relationship between female pelvic floor dysfunction and sexual dysfunction: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolami, Arianna; Vanti, Carla; Banchelli, Federico; Guccione, Andrew A; Pillastrini, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The ability to express one's sexuality and engage in sexual activity requires multisystemic coordination involving many psychological functions as well as the integrity of the nervous, hormonal, vascular, immune, and neuromuscular body structures and functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among pelvic floor function, sexual function, and demographic and clinical characteristics in a population of women initiating physical therapy evaluation and treatment for pelvic floor-related dysfunctions (urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, vulvodynia, vaginismus, and constipation). We consented and collected completed demographic data and data related to symptoms and clinical condition on 85 consecutive patients in an outpatient physical therapy clinic. Clinical and anthropometric characteristics were analyzed descriptively. Analysis of variance and linear regression analyses were used to analyze Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scale ratings, whereas zero-inflated beta-binomial regression was applied to the pain subscale. Main outcome measure was FSFI score, whereas the secondary outcome measure was the FSFI subscale score related to pain. Women in our sample were 38 years old on average, 33% of whom had given birth and 82% of whom had high tone pelvic floor. Being in the middle-tercile age group and exhibiting low pelvic floor tone (Beta = 6.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.4; 12.0]) were significantly associated with lower levels of sexual dysfunction. Women with low tone pelvic floor also reported lower pain (odds ratio = 4.0; 95% CI = [1.6; 9.6]), whereas younger aged and physically unsatisfied subjects were more likely not to have sexual activity in the month prior to scale measurement. In female patients with pelvic floor muscle dysfunction undergoing physical therapy and rehabilitation, sexual dysfunction appears to be significantly correlated with age and high pelvic floor muscle tone. © 2015

  17. Latent profile analysis of pelvic floor muscle pain in patients with chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, B W; Grey, S F; Armstrong, A; McCarroll, M; Von Gruenigen, V

    2013-02-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a syndrome of related diagnoses including pain originating from the muscles of the pelvic floor. The objective of this study was to evaluate which muscles are important to examine, in what manner pelvic floor muscle pain contributes to patients' pain experience, or what thresholds should be applied to identify significant pelvic floor muscle pain by comparing exam findings with outcome measures A total of 428 patients meeting the definition for CPP were evaluated using a standardized physical examination of the abdominal wall, pelvic floor, and vestibule along with the 12 domain Patient Reported Outcome Measures Information System (PROMIS). These scores were evaluated for unidimensionality followed by latent profile analysis. The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves were used to identify the best pain threshold for each muscle. The eight pelvic floor muscle sites all loaded onto a single factor, separate from other areas examined. Two latent classes were found within all the variables. Patients in the severe pelvic floor pain class had significantly worse pain related PROMIS scores. Optimal thresholds for identifying significant pelvic floor pain ranged between 3 and 5. Pain in the pelvic floor muscles is distinguishable from pain in the abdominal wall and vulva. Any of the lateral muscle sites evaluated can be used to identify patients with significant pelvic floor pain. Two latent classes of CPP patients were identified: those with limited and those with severe pain, as identified by moderate to severe pelvic floor tenderness.

  18. Reconstructive options in pelvic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic tumours present a complex problem. It is difficult to choose between limb salvage and hemipelvectomy. Method: Forty three patients of tumours of pelvis underwent limb salvage resection with reconstruction in 32 patients. The majority were chondrosarcomas (20 cases followed by Ewing sarcoma. Stage II B was the most common stage in malignant lesions and all the seven benign lesions were aggressive (B3. Surgical margins achieved were wide in 31 and marginal in 12 cases. Ilium was involved in 51% of cases and periacetabular involvement was seen in 12 patients. The resections done were mostly of types I &II of Enneking′s classification of pelvic resection. Arthrodesis was attempted in 24 patients. Customized Saddle prosthesis was used in seven patients and no reconstruction in 12 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all high-grade malignant tumours, combined with radiotherapy in 7 patients. Results: With a mean follow up of 48.5 months and one patient lost to follow up, the recurrence rate among the evaluated cases was 16.6%. Oncologically, 30 patients were continuously disease free with 7 local recurrences and 4 deaths due to disseminated disease and 2 patients died of other causes. During the initial years, satisfactory functional results were achieved with prosthetic replacement. Long-term functional result of 36 patients who were alive at the time of latest follow up was satisfactory in 75% who underwent arthrodesis and in those where no reconstruction was used. We also describe a method of new classification of pelvic resections that clarifies certain shortcomings of the previous systems of classification. Conclusion: Selection of a procedure depends largely on the patient factors, the tumour grade, the resultant defect and the tissue factors. Resection with proper margins gives better functional and oncological results

  19. Mass composition analysis using elongation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochilo, Livingstone; Risse, Markus; Yushkov, Alexey [University of Siegen, Siegen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum has been observed to flatten at around 5.2 x 10{sup 18} eV where the spectral index changes from γ = 3.2 to γ = 2.6, a feature called the ''ankle'' of the spectrum. Cosmic rays with energy around the ankle and beyond, known as ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), have a very low flux and reconstruction of their properties from extensive air shower measurements is subject to uncertainties for instance from hadronic interaction models. Since the year 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has recorded a considerable number of UHECR events beyond the ankle. With the greatly improved statistics, the mass composition of the extreme end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum is now being investigated with improved accuracy. The measured composition of UHECR is an important parameter in validating the models used to explain their sources and acceleration mechanisms. In this study, we perform a mass composition analysis using elongation rate (the rate of change of the depth of shower maximum with energy), measured by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The advantage of this approach is a weak dependence of the results on the choice of the hadronic interaction models.

  20. Assessment of a semiautomated pelvic floor measurement model for evaluating pelvic organ prolapse on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, S; Lai-Yuen, S; Bao, P; Weitzenfeld, A; Greene, K; Kedar, R; Hart, S

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the performance of a semiautomated pelvic floor measurement algorithmic model on dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images compared with manual pelvic floor measurements for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) evaluation. We examined 15 MRIs along the midsagittal view. Five reference points used for pelvic floor measurements were identified both manually and using our semiautomated measurement model. The two processes were compared in terms of accuracy and precision. The semiautomated pelvic floor measurement model provided highly consistent and accurate locations for all reference points on MRI. Results also showed that the model can identify the reference points faster than the manual-point identification process. The semiautomated pelvic floor measurement model can be used to facilitate and improve the process of pelvic floor measurements on MRI. This will enable high throughput analysis of MRI data to improve the correlation analysis with clinical outcomes and potentially improve POP assessment.

  1. Biomimetic matrices for pelvic floor repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vashaghian, M.

    2017-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapsed (POP) is a dysfunctional disease in female pelvic floor that affects a lot of women worldwide, and reduces their quality of life. Currently, trans-vaginal knitted polypropylene meshes are used as secondary treatment, for anatomical correction of the dysfunctional tissues.

  2. Krukenberg Tumour Simulating Uterine Fibroids and Pelvic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To report a case of cancer of the colonwhich presented as secondaries to the ovaries. Case report. The case presented is that of a 39 year old female who presented with lower abdominal pain and a multinodular pelvic mass which led to an initial diagnosis of multiple uterine fibroids and pelvic inflammatory disease.

  3. Occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Juhl, Mette

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pelvic pain during pregnancy is a common ailment, and the disease is a major cause of sickness absence during pregnancy. It is plausible that occupational lifting may be a risk factor of pelvic pain during pregnancy, but no previous studies have examined this specific exposure. The ai...

  4. 38 CFR 4.67 - Pelvic bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pelvic bones. 4.67 Section 4.67 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.67 Pelvic bones. The variability of residuals...

  5. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Language: English (US) Español ( ...

  6. Laparoscopic Pelvic Floor Repair Using Polypropylene Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Shien Weng

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic pelvic floor repair using a single piece of polypropylene mesh combined with uterosacral ligament suspension appears to be a feasible procedure for the treatment of advanced vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele. Fewer mesh erosions and postoperative pain syndromes were seen in patients who had no previous pelvic floor reconstructive surgery.

  7. Mortality in patients with pelvic fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Oliver; Strohm, Peter C; Culemann, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pelvic and acetabular fractures are rare injuries and account for approximately 3% to 8% of all fractures. Often the result of high energy blunt trauma, most of the patients sustaining pelvic injuries are at high risk of associated injuries strongly influencing outcome and survival...... rates. Because of anatomic differences it has been suggested that pediatric pelvic fractures are different injuries as compared with that of adults. However, this has been controversially discussed. Aim of this multicenter register study was to identify similarities and differences between pediatric...... and adult pelvic trauma and evaluate the influence of changes in medical treatment by comparison of two treatment periods. METHODS: In this multicenter register study, data of 4,291 patients treated from 1991 to 1993 (n = 1,723) or 1998 to 2000 (n = 2,568) for pelvic fractures in one of the 23 participating...

  8. Imaging pelvic floor disorders. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, Jaap; Taylor, Stuart A.; DeLancey, John O.L.

    2008-01-01

    This volume builds on the success of the first edition of imaging pelvic floor disorders and is aimed at those practitioners with an interest in the imaging, diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Concise textual information from acknowledged experts is complemented by high-quality diagrams and images to provide a thorough update of this rapidly evolving field. Introductory chapters fully elucidate the anatomical basis underlying disorders of the pelvic floor. State of the art imaging techniques and their application in pelvic floor dysfunction are then discussed in detail. Additions since the first edition include consideration of the effect of aging and new chapters on perineal ultrasound, functional MRI and MRI of the levator muscles. The closing sections of the book describe the modern clinical management of pelvic floor dysfunction, including prolapse, urinary and faecal incontinence and constipation, with specific emphasis on the integration of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. (orig.)

  9. PROBLEMS AND PITFALLS IN PELVIC RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Riss

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pelvic reconstructive surgery requires a solid understanding of the anatomy of the small pelvis and the pelvic floor, in particular to avoid complications during and after pelvic reconstructive surgery.Methods. Possible complications of the pelvic floor reconstructive surgery are analised. There are 2 typical surgical problems encountered in pelvic reconstructive surgery: lesion of adjacent structures (rectum, bladder, ureter, small bowel and hemorrhage.Results. Postoperatively there is always a risk of pain, stenosis and dyspareunia, erosion of allograft, voiding problems, incontinence and prolapse.Conclusions. These complications can be reduced by insisting on an exact preoperative diagnosis and by choosing the correct procedure, by having a good knowledge of anatomy and by using meticulous surgical technique.

  10. Imaging pelvic floor disorders. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, Jaap [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Specialist X-Ray; DeLancey, John O.L. (eds.) [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). L4000 Women' s Hospital

    2008-07-01

    This volume builds on the success of the first edition of imaging pelvic floor disorders and is aimed at those practitioners with an interest in the imaging, diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Concise textual information from acknowledged experts is complemented by high-quality diagrams and images to provide a thorough update of this rapidly evolving field. Introductory chapters fully elucidate the anatomical basis underlying disorders of the pelvic floor. State of the art imaging techniques and their application in pelvic floor dysfunction are then discussed in detail. Additions since the first edition include consideration of the effect of aging and new chapters on perineal ultrasound, functional MRI and MRI of the levator muscles. The closing sections of the book describe the modern clinical management of pelvic floor dysfunction, including prolapse, urinary and faecal incontinence and constipation, with specific emphasis on the integration of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. (orig.)

  11. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  12. High n ballooning modes in highly elongated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Bateman, G.

    1980-02-01

    An analytic study of stability against high n ballooning modes in highly elongated axisymmetric plasmas is presented and compared with computational results. From the equation for the marginal pressure gradient, it is found that the local shear plays an important role on the stability of elongated and shifted plasma, and that high elongation deteriorates the stability by decreasing the stabilizing effects of field line bending and local shear. The net contribution of the local shear to stability decreases with elongation and shift for strongly ballooning modes (eigenfunctions strongly localized near the outer edge of the toroidal flux surfaces) but increases for interchange modes (eigenfunctions more uniform along the flux surfaces). The computational study of high n ballooning modes in a highly elongated plasma reveals that lowering the aspect ratio and broadening the pressure profile enhance the marginal beta for β/sub p/ less than unity but severely reduce the marginal beta for β/sub p/ larger than unity

  13. Sequence-Dependent Elongation Dynamics on Macrolide-Bound Ribosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Johansson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of macrolide antibiotics as plugs inside the ribosomal nascent peptide exit tunnel (NPET has lately been challenged in favor of a more complex, heterogeneous mechanism, where drug-peptide interactions determine the fate of a translating ribosome. To investigate these highly dynamic processes, we applied single-molecule tracking of elongating ribosomes during inhibition of elongation by erythromycin of several nascent chains, including ErmCL and H-NS, which were shown to be, respectively, sensitive and resistant to erythromycin. Peptide sequence-specific changes were observed in translation elongation dynamics in the presence of a macrolide-obstructed NPET. Elongation rates were not severely inhibited in general by the presence of the drug; instead, stalls or pauses were observed as abrupt events. The dynamic pathways of nascent-chain-dependent elongation pausing in the presence of macrolides determine the fate of the translating ribosome stalling or readthrough.

  14. Noninvasive diagnostic tools for pelvic congestion syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbeek, Miranda P; van der Vleuten, Carine J M; Schultze Kool, Leo J; Nieboer, Theodoor E

    2018-01-30

    In the work-up of patients with suspected pelvic congestion syndrome, venography is currently the gold standard. Yet if non-invasive diagnostic tools are found to be accurate, invasive venography might no longer be indicated as necessary. A literature search in Pubmed and EMBASE was performed from inception until May 6th 2017. Studies comparing non-invasive diagnostic tools to a reference standard in the work-up of patients with (suspected) pelvic congestion syndrome were included. Relevant data were extracted and methodological quality of individual included studies was assessed by the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. Nine studies matched our inclusion criteria. Six studies compared ultrasonography to venography and three studies described a magnetic resonance imaging technique. In using transvaginal ultrasonography, the occurrence of a vein greater than five mm crossing the uterine body had a specificity of 91% (95% CI; 77-98%) and occurrence of pelvic varicoceles a sensitivity and specificity of 100% (95% CI; 89-100%) and 83-100% (95% CI; 66-93%), respectively. In transabdominal ultrasonography, reversed caudal flow in the ovarian vein accounted for a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI; 84-100%). Detection of pelvic congestion syndrome with magnetic resonance imaging techniques resulted in a sensitivity varying from 88 to 100%. The sensitivity of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging seem to be adequate, which indicates a role for both tests in an early stage of the diagnostic workup. However, due to methodological flaws and diversity in outcome parameters, more high standard research is necessary to establish a clear advice for clinical practice. © 2018 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  15. Touching the private parts: how gender and sexuality norms affect medical students' first pelvic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensdotter, Renita; Siwe, Karin

    2016-11-01

    Gynaecologists are in a position to challenge norms about gender and sexuality in relation to female genitals. Through their work they have the opportunity to educate patients, which is why teaching medical students to perform examinations in a gender sensitive way is significant. Medical students performing their first pelvic examination often experience the examination as uncomfortable because it is a body part that is connected to sex and to something private. This paper uses medical students' interpretations of performing their first pelvic examination as a means to discuss how cultural norms for gender, sexuality and female genitals affect these examinations. Issues raised include how cultural connotations of female genitals affect the pelvic examination, how female and male students relate differently to examining female genitals and the interpretations they make in relation to themselves. Findings show that the female genitals are perceived as a special body part connected to sexuality and intimacy. Students' gender also affects the interpretations they make during pelvic examinations. Norms of gender, sexuality and female genitals need to be challenged in the teaching and performance of pelvic examination in order to demystify this experience.

  16. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase regulates the cold stress response by slowing translation elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John R P; Bastide, Amandine; Roobol, Anne; Roobol, Jo; Jackson, Thomas J; Utami, Wahyu; Barrett, David A; Smales, C Mark; Willis, Anne E

    2015-01-15

    Cells respond to external stress conditions by controlling gene expression, a process which occurs rapidly via post-transcriptional regulation at the level of protein synthesis. Global control of translation is mediated by modification of translation factors to allow reprogramming of the translatome and synthesis of specific proteins that are required for stress protection or initiation of apoptosis. In the present study, we have investigated how global protein synthesis rates are regulated upon mild cooling. We demonstrate that although there are changes to the factors that control initiation, including phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) on the α-subunit, the reduction in the global translation rate is mediated by regulation of elongation via phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) by its specific kinase, eEF2K (eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase). The AMP/ATP ratio increases following cooling, consistent with a reduction in metabolic rates, giving rise to activation of AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase), which is upstream of eEF2K. However, our data show that the major trigger for activation of eEF2K upon mild cooling is the release of Ca2+ ions from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and, importantly, that it is possible to restore protein synthesis rates in cooled cells by inhibition of this pathway at multiple points. As cooling has both therapeutic and industrial applications, our data provide important new insights into how the cellular responses to this stress are regulated, opening up new possibilities to modulate these responses for medical or industrial use at physiological or cooler temperatures.

  17. The Role of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Male Sexual Dysfunction and Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah; Gonzalez, Joshua; Goldstein, Irwin

    2016-01-01

    Sexual function is essential to good health and well-being in men. The relationship between male sexual function, pelvic floor function, and pelvic pain is complex and only beginning to be appreciated. The objectives of the current review are to examine these complex relationships, and to demonstrate how pelvic floor physical therapy can potentially improve the treatment of various male sexual dysfunctions, including erectile dysfunction and dysfunction of ejaculation and orgasm. Contemporary data on pelvic floor anatomy and function as they relate to the treatment of various male sexual dysfunctions were reviewed. Examination of evidence supporting the association between the male pelvic floor and erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory/orgasmic dysfunction, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, respectively. Evidence suggests a close relationship between the pelvic floor and male sexual dysfunction and a potential therapeutic benefit from pelvic floor therapy for men who suffer from these conditions. Pelvic floor physical therapy is a necessary tool in a more comprehensive bio-neuromusculoskeletal-psychosocial approach to the treatment of male sexual dysfunction and pelvic pain. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Total pelvic floor ultrasound for pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction: a pictorial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Deepa; Schizas, Alexis M P; Williams, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic floor ultrasound is used for the dynamic assessment of pelvic floor dysfunction and allows multicompartmental anatomical and functional assessment. Pelvic floor dysfunction includes defaecatory, urinary and sexual dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse and pain. It is common, increasingly recognized and associated with increasing age and multiparity. Other options for assessment include defaecation proctography and defaecation MRI. Total pelvic floor ultrasound is a cheap, safe, imaging tool, which may be performed as a first-line investigation in outpatients. It allows dynamic assessment of the entire pelvic floor, essential for treatment planning for females who often have multiple diagnoses where treatment should address all aspects of dysfunction to yield optimal results. Transvaginal scanning using a rotating single crystal probe provides sagittal views of bladder neck support anteriorly. Posterior transvaginal ultrasound may reveal rectocoele, enterocoele or intussusception whilst bearing down. The vaginal probe is also used to acquire a 360° cross-sectional image to allow anatomical visualization of the pelvic floor and provides information regarding levator plate integrity and pelvic organ alignment. Dynamic transperineal ultrasound using a conventional curved array probe provides a global view of the anterior, middle and posterior compartments and may show cystocoele, enterocoele, sigmoidocoele or rectocoele. This pictorial review provides an atlas of normal and pathological images required for global pelvic floor assessment in females presenting with defaecatory dysfunction. Total pelvic floor ultrasound may be used with complementary endoanal ultrasound to assess the sphincter complex, but this is beyond the scope of this review. PMID:26388109

  19. Factors of Pelvic Infection and Death in Patients with Open Pelvic Fractures and Rectal Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenhao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Xu, Weicheng; Zhang, Guoming; Wang, Chunhui; Qiu, Daodi; Dong, Jinlei

    Open pelvic fractures associated with rectal injuries are uncommon. They often cause serious pelvic infection, even death. This combination of injuries has been reviewed infrequently. Herein, we report factors associated with pelvic infection and death in a group of patients with open pelvic fractures and concurrent rectal injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with open pelvic fractures and rectal injuries who were treated at our institution from January 2010-April 2014. From the medical records, age, gender, Injury Severity Score (ISS), cause of fracture, associated injuries, classification of the fracture, degree of soft-tissue injury, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), packed red blood cells (PRBCs) needed, presence/absence of shock, early colostomy (yes or no), drainage (yes or no), and rectal washout (yes or no) were extracted. Univariable and multivariable analysis were performed to determine the association between risk factors and pelvic infection or death. Twenty patients were identified. Pelvic infection occurred in 50% (n = 10) of the patients. Four patients suffered septicemia, and three patients died of multiple organ dysfunction. The mortality rate thus was 15%. According to the univariable analysis, the patients in whom pelvic infection developed had shock, RTS ≤8, GCS ≤8, blood transfusion ≥10 units in the first 24 h, no colostomy, or Gustilo grade III soft-tissue injury. According to the multivariable analysis, shock and absence of colostomy were independently associated with pelvic infection. By univariable analysis, the only factor associated with death was RTS ≤8. The incidence of pelvic infection was lower in patients having early colostomy (p < 0.05). Patients with shock had a higher risk of pelvic infection, and we recommend aggressive measures to treat these patients. According to our results, RTS ≤8 could be a predictor of poor outcomes in patients with open pelvic fracture and

  20. Quantitative MDCT assessment of binder effects after pelvic ring disruptions using segmented pelvic haematoma volumes and multiplanar caliper measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, David; Bodanapally, Uttam; Mascarenhas, Daniel; O'Toole, Robert V; Tirada, Nikki; Issa, Ghada; Nascone, Jason

    2018-03-13

    To assess effects of pelvic binders for different instability grades using quantitative multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) parameters including segmented pelvic haematoma volumes and multiplanar caliper measurements. CT examinations of 49 patients with binders and 49 controls performed from January 2008-June 2016, and matched 1:1 for Tile instability grade and Pennal/Young-Burgess force vector, were compared for differences in pubic symphysis and sacroiliac displacement using caliper measurements in three orthogonal planes. Pelvic haematoma volumes (ml) were derived using semi-automated seeded region-growing segmentation. Median caliper measurements and volumes were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test, and correlations assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Relevant caliper measurement cutoffs were established using ROC analysis. Rotationally unstable (Tile B) patients with binders showed significant decreases in sacroiliac diastasis (2.7 mm vs. 4.5 mm; p=0.003) and haematoma volumes (135 ml vs. 295 ml; p=0.008). Globally unstable (Tile C) binder patients showed decreased sacroiliac diastasis (4.7 mm vs. 6.4 mm, p=0.04), without significant difference in haematoma volumes (284 ml vs. 234 ml, p=0.34). Four Tile C patients with binders demonstrated over-reduction resulting in pubic body over-ride. Rotationally unstable patients with binders have significantly less sacroiliac diastasis versus controls, corresponding with significantly lower haematoma volumes. • Haematoma segmentation and multiplanar caliper measurements provide new insights into binder effects. • Binder reduction corresponds with decreased pelvic haematoma volume in rotationally unstable injuries. • Discrimination between rotational and global instability is important for management. • Several caliper measurement cut-offs discriminate between rotationally and globally unstable injuries. • Pubic symphysis over-ride is suggestive of binder over-reduction in globally unstable

  1. Reconstruction of Complex Post-Traumatic Perineal/Pelvic Defects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the pelvic diaphragm). A composite pedicled. ALT flap was considered adequate for the initial reconstruction and stabilization, with the option of using a free fibular flap later, should the pelvic ring remain unstable. The fascia was used to complete the pelvic ring. It also provided anterior support to the pelvic diaphragm.

  2. Efficacy of biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim

    2014-07-18

    Jul 18, 2014 ... Pelvic floor dysfunction;. Pelvic floor electrophysiology. Abstract Background: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), fecal incontinence (FI) and/or pelvic ... Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is the first-line therapy in the treatment of PFD either .... PFD attending the outpatient clinic at the Physical Medicine,.

  3. [Pelvic fracture. Diagnostics and current treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culemann, U; Tosounidis, G; Reilmann, H; Pohlemann, T

    2003-07-01

    Pelvic fracture, especially in combination with multiple trauma, can still lead to life-threatening situations. Only clear inclusion criteria and decisions can ensure the survival of the patient, the key task being mechanical stabilization using external fixators or pelvic clamps with or without surgical intervention for hemostasis. The basis for problem-oriented management is a precise classification, which is based on conventional X-rays in emergency situations and detailed analysis of computed tomography for the planning of definitive surgical interventions. The classification groups postulated are stable pelvic fractures (type A), rotational unstable pelvic fractures (type B--partial stability of the posterior pelvic ring present), and translational instabilities (type C--with a complete disruption of the anterior and posterior pelvic ring). This classification leads to clear indications for pelvic ring stabilization as surgical interventions are only exceptionally indicated in type A fractures, stabilization of the anterior ring is sufficient for type B fractures, and combined posterior and anterior stabilization is necessary for treatment of type C fractures. Following these concepts and by using standardized procedures and implants, the high rate of enclosed anatomical healing can be achieved even after type C injuries. Nevertheless, the role of concomitant soft tissue injuries and scar formation is not clear as the origin of the frequently observed long-term clinical impairments even after anatomical reconstruction of the osteoligamentous structures.

  4. (R)-β-lysine-modified elongation factor P functions in translation elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Zou, S Betty; Rajkovic, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modification of bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) with (R)-β-lysine at a conserved lysine residue activates the protein in vivo and increases puromycin reactivity of the ribosome in vitro. The additional hydroxylation of EF-P at the same lysine residue by the YfcM protein has...... also recently been described. The roles of modified and unmodified EF-P during different steps in translation, and how this correlates to its physiological role in the cell, have recently been linked to the synthesis of polyproline stretches in proteins. Polysome analysis indicated that EF-P functions...... in translation elongation, rather than initiation as proposed previously. This was further supported by the inability of EF-P to enhance the rate of formation of fMet-Lys or fMet-Phe, indicating that the role of EF-P is not to specifically stimulate formation of the first peptide bond. Investigation of hydroxyl-(β)-lysyl-EF-P...

  5. Outcome analysis of pelvic ring fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The behavior of pelvic ring fractures in the long run has been very sparsely studied. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term outcome of pelvic ring fractures. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients with pelvic ring fractures, not involving the acetabulum, were followed up for an average duration of 33 months (range 24-49 months. The clinicoradiological assessment was done using the pelvic scoring system adapted from Cole et al. Parameters assessed included sacroiliac (SI joint involvement and, among SI joint injuries, the presence of a fracture disruption and the degree of displacement. Results: Pain and limp were present in 13 patients (54.2% each and residual working disability in 9 patients (37.5%. The overall Cole′s pelvic score was 31.3 ± 7.02 of a total score of 40. The average pelvic score in patients with SI disruption was 29.2 ± 6.75; much lower than patients without SI disruption with an average score of 34.9 ± 6.25 reaching statistical significance. The pelvic score among patients with a displacement ≤10 mm was 33.0 ± 3.92 and with a displacement> 10 mm 25.88 ± 7.14. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusions: Pelvic ring injuries can lead to long term problems significantly. The involvement of the SI joint affects the long-term outcome adversely, more so if the residual displacement is> 10 mm. The pelvic scoring system is comprehensive and depicts subtle differences in the outcome, which the individual parameters of the assessment fail to show.

  6. Pelvic Mass Due to Transmigrated IUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadereh Behtash

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine device (IUD, a conventional method of contraception is rarely associated with uterine perforation and extra uterine dislocation. A 29 years old woman complaining of vaginal bleeding was referred for pelvic mass identified in ultrasound. The mass was confirmed with CT scan. In laparatomy we found an IUD in cul-de-sac and pelvic mass was apparently an organized hematoma. Transmigrated IUD can induce organized hematomas presenting as a pelvic mass."n© 2010 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiology of sport injuries of pelvic apophyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.

    1983-01-01

    Pelvic apophyses are places of insertion of strong muscles and tendons and are therefore places of least resistance at the end of skeletal growth. Avulsions and disruptions of pelvic apophyses can be caused by overstrain during different kinds of sport activity. Typical radiological findings in 8 different cases of ruptures of apophyses, osteochondropathies, and resulting conditions of sport injuries are demonstrated. The difficulties of correct diagnosis and different diagnosis are pointed out. The significance of hormonal impairment of ossification for development and stress factor of pelvic apophyses is exposed. Questions of treatment and follow-up studies are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Resin Elongation Phenomenon of Polystyrene Nanopillars in Nanoimprint Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Kosuke; Miyauchi, Akihiro; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the elongation of polystyrene nanopillars formed by thermal nanoimprint lithography. Silicone and perfluoropolyether were used as mold release agents to obtain molds with different adhesion forces against polystyrene to be imprinted. The adhesion force between the resin and release layers was evaluated as a force curve by atomic force microscope with a polystyrene colloid probe. Elongation depended on the aspect ratio of the corresponding microholes on the mold and the adhesion force against the release layer. The conditions under which the elongation occurred exhibited a clear threshold on the stress loaded on the foot area of the nanopillars.

  9. Scattering phaseshift formulas for mesons and baryons in elongated boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank X.; Alexandru, Andrei

    2018-03-01

    We derive Lüscher phaseshift formulas for two-particle states in boxes elongated in one of the dimensions. Such boxes offer a cost-effective way of varying the relative momentum of the particles. Boosted states in the elongated direction, which allow wider access to energies, are also considered. The formulas for the various scenarios (moving and zero-momentum states in cubic and elongated boxes) are compared and relations between them are clarified. The results are applicable to a wide set of meson-meson and meson-baryon elastic scattering processes, with the two-particle system having equal or unequal masses.

  10. Recognition and Management of Nonrelaxing Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Faubion, Stephanie S.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction is not widely recognized. Unlike in pelvic floor disorders caused by relaxed muscles (eg, pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence, both of which often are identified readily), women affected by nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction may present with a broad range of nonspecific symptoms. These may include pain and problems with defecation, urination, and sexual function, which require relaxation and coordination of pelvic floor muscles and urinary and ...

  11. Gonadal shielding and collimation information for pelvic radiography in podiatric practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalin, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pelvic x-rays are often necessary in podiatric practice, to aid in the diagnosis of podiatric and foot-related disorders. The disorders which warrant such x-rays are reviewed. The author urges caution in the administration of pelvic x-rays, citing the possible genetic effects of gonadal exposure to x-rays. Various methods of dose reduction are discussed, with special emphasis on collimators to confine radiation to the smallest body area and gonadal shields to protect the gonads when they fall within the direct x-ray beam.

  12. Malignant Mesothelioma Presenting as a Giant Chest, Abdominal and Pelvic Wall Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Zhi Hong; Gao, Xiao Long; Yi, Xiang Hua; Wang, Pei Jun [Tongji Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2011-11-15

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a relatively rare carcinoma of the mesothelial cells, and it is usually located in the pleural or peritoneal cavity. Here we report on a unique case of MM that developed in the chest, abdominal and pelvic walls in a 77-year-old female patient. CT and MRI revealed mesothelioma that manifested as a giant mass in the right flank and bilateral pelvic walls. The diagnosis was confirmed by the pathology and immunohistochemistry. Though rare, accurate investigation of the radiological features of a body wall MM may help make an exact diagnosis.

  13. Malignant Mesothelioma Presenting as a Giant Chest, Abdominal and Pelvic Wall Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Zhi Hong; Gao, Xiao Long; Yi, Xiang Hua; Wang, Pei Jun

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a relatively rare carcinoma of the mesothelial cells, and it is usually located in the pleural or peritoneal cavity. Here we report on a unique case of MM that developed in the chest, abdominal and pelvic walls in a 77-year-old female patient. CT and MRI revealed mesothelioma that manifested as a giant mass in the right flank and bilateral pelvic walls. The diagnosis was confirmed by the pathology and immunohistochemistry. Though rare, accurate investigation of the radiological features of a body wall MM may help make an exact diagnosis.

  14. The Influence of Pelvic Ramus Fracture on the Stability of Fixed Pelvic Complex Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianyin; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Guiying; Wang, Zhihua; Cai, Xianhua

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical mechanism of pelvic ring injury for the stability of pelvis using the finite element (FE) method. Complex pelvic fracture (i.e., anterior column with posterior hemitransverse lesion) combined with pelvic ramus fracture was used to evaluate the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. Three FE fracture models (i.e., Dynamic Anterior Plate-Screw System for Quadrilateral Area (DAPSQ) for complex pelvic fracture with intact pubic ramus, DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with pubic ramus fracture, and DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with fixed pubic ramus fracture) were established to explore the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. The pubic ramus fracture leads to an unsymmetrical situation and an unstable situation of the pelvis. The fixed pubic ramus fracture did well in reducing the stress levels of the pelvic bone and fixation system, as well as displacement difference in the pubic symphysis, and it could change the unstable situation back to a certain extent. The pelvic ring integrity was the prerequisite of the pelvic stability and should be in a stable condition when the complex fracture is treated.

  15. Pelvic exenteration for locally advanced primary and recurrent pelvic neoplasm: a series of 54 resectable cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais Costa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report on a series of 54 patients with pelvic neoplasms submitted to curative pelvic exenteration at a tertiary hospital and describe the results (morbidity, mortality, and long-term survival. Methods: The complete data of 54 patients submitted to pelvic exenteration between 1999 and 2007 were evaluated. Sixteen men and 38 women with a mean age of 65 years and median age of 66 years (36 to 77 were studied. Surgical procedures included total pelvic exenteration (n = 26, anterior pelvic exenteration(n = 5, and posterior pelvic exenteration (n = 23. Rresults: The mean operative time was 402 minutes (280 to 585. The average volume of intraoperative bleeding was 2,013 ml (300 to 5,800. Postoperative mortality was 5% (n = 3. The overall morbidity rate was 46%(n = 25. Histological evaluation demonstrated that 47 resections were R0 (87% while seven were R1 (13%. The overall survival rate in five years was 23.5% (n = 12. Cconclusions: Despite its aggressive nature and high morbidity, pelvic exenteration is still justified in locally advanced pelvic neoplasms or even in isolated pelvic recurrence, since it affords a greater long-term control of the neoplasm.

  16. The Influence of Pelvic Ramus Fracture on the Stability of Fixed Pelvic Complex Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyin Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical mechanism of pelvic ring injury for the stability of pelvis using the finite element (FE method. Complex pelvic fracture (i.e., anterior column with posterior hemitransverse lesion combined with pelvic ramus fracture was used to evaluate the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. Three FE fracture models (i.e., Dynamic Anterior Plate-Screw System for Quadrilateral Area (DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with intact pubic ramus, DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with pubic ramus fracture, and DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with fixed pubic ramus fracture were established to explore the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. The pubic ramus fracture leads to an unsymmetrical situation and an unstable situation of the pelvis. The fixed pubic ramus fracture did well in reducing the stress levels of the pelvic bone and fixation system, as well as displacement difference in the pubic symphysis, and it could change the unstable situation back to a certain extent. The pelvic ring integrity was the prerequisite of the pelvic stability and should be in a stable condition when the complex fracture is treated.

  17. Sexual activity and vaginal topography in women with symptomatic pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenfield, Autumn L; Levin, Pamela J; Dieter, Alexis A; Amundsen, Cindy L; Siddiqui, Nazema Y

    2015-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders affect vaginal anatomy and may affect sexual function. The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between vaginal anatomy and sexual activity in women with symptomatic pelvic floor disorders and to assess whether vaginal measurements (topography) correlate with sexual function. This is a retrospective cohort study comparing sexually active and nonsexually active women planning urogynecologic surgery. Our primary outcome was the difference in vaginal topography based on Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) exam between cohorts. Correlations between POP-Q measurements and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire short form (PISQ-12) scores were assessed in sexually active women. The POP-Q is a quantitative and standardized examination for prolapse. The PISQ-12 is a condition-specific sexual function questionnaire validated in sexually active women with pelvic floor disorders. Of 535 women, 208 (39%) were sexually active and 327 (61%) were not. Median genital hiatus (GH) and perineal body (PB) measurements and a PB:GH ratio were not significantly different between the two cohorts. Total vaginal length (TVL) was longer in sexually active women (median 9 vs. 8 cm, Ppelvic floor symptoms. There was poor correlation between TVL, GH, PB, and PB : GH ratio with PISQ-12 scores (r=0.10, -0.05, -0.09, -0.03, respectively). In women with pelvic floor disorders, sexual activity is associated with a longer vaginal length. One-quarter of women indicated they avoided sexual activity because of pelvic floor symptoms. Vaginal topography does not correlate with sexual function based on PISQ-12 scores. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Falling out: authoritative knowledge and women's experiences with pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse, many women suffer in silence, lacking the language and opportunity to describe their condition. There are limited descriptions of women's experiences with pelvic organ prolapse in the literature. This qualitative study addressed the knowledge and experience of women with pelvic organ prolapse. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women who had been previously diagnosed with pelvic organ prolapse. Transcripts of the interviews were reviewed and coded using a process of content analysis compared against the framework of authoritative knowledge, developed by Brigitte Jordan. By applying the concept of authoritative knowledge, we identified 3 themes of how women construct understanding about pelvic organ prolapse and how they demonstrate deference to the authoritative knowledge of medical providers. First, we found through women's narratives that authoritative knowledge was held by the health care provider and is considered consequential and legitimate by all participants. Second, women reported that the health care provider's authoritative knowledge was valued over personal, experiential knowledge. Finally, women described how they work with their health care providers to create a system of authoritative knowledge as they seek treatment for or discuss their condition. Throughout the narratives, women's experiences are not legitimized by the women or the medical community, perpetuating the "hidden" nature of these conditions. This analysis provides qualitative evidence of Jordan's authoritative knowledge: women and health care providers contribute to dimensions of authoritative knowledge surrounding pelvic organ prolapse. Despite what women experience, the health care provider's definition and understanding of pelvic organ prolapse is seen as legitimate and consequential. Because of their construction of their condition, and the power dynamic at play, women are silenced, and their expertise about their

  19. Falling Out: Authoritative Knowledge and Women’s Experience with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the high prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse many women suffer in silence, lacking the language and opportunity to describe their condition. There are limited descriptions of women’s experiences with pelvic organ prolapse in the literature. This qualitative study addressed the knowledge and experience of women with pelvic organ prolapse. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 women who had been previously diagnosed with pelvic organ prolapse. Transcripts of the interviews were reviewed and coded using a process of content analysis compared against the framework of authoritative knowledge, developed by Bridgitte Jordan. Results By applying the concept of “authoritative knowledge,” we identified three themes of how women construct understanding about their pelvic organ prolapse and how they demonstrate deference to the authoritative knowledge of medical providers. First, we found through women’s narratives that authoritative knowledge was held by the health care provider and is considered consequential and legitimate by all participants. Second, women reported that the health care provider’s authoritative knowledge was valued over personal, experiential knowledge. Finally, women describe how they work with their health care providers to create a system of authoritative knowledge as they seek treatment for or discuss their condition. Throughout the narratives, women’s experiences are not well acknowledged by themselves or the medical community, perpetuating the “hidden” nature of these conditions. Discussion This analysis provides qualitative evidence of Jordan’s authoritative knowledge: women and health care providers contribute to dimensions of authoritative knowledge surrounding pelvic organ prolapse. Despite what women experience, the health care provider’s definition and understanding of pelvic organ prolapse is seen as legitimate and consequential. Because of their construction of their condition, and

  20. Effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and angles of the lower limb joints during walking in female university students

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Misuk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and lower limb joint angles during walking in female university students. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female university students were randomly assigned to an experimental group (pelvic adjustment group, n = 15) and a control group (stretching group, n = 15). [Methods] Pelvic adjustment was performed three times on the experimental group. The control group performed three sets of pelvic muscle stretching for 15 ...

  1. Pelvic Surgical Site Infections in Gynecologic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Lachiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of surgical site infection (SSI remains the most common complication of gynecologic surgical procedures and results in significant patient morbidity. Gynecologic procedures pose a unique challenge in that potential pathogenic microorganisms from the skin or vagina and endocervix may migrate to operative sites and can result in vaginal cuff cellulitis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic abscesses. Multiple host and surgical risk factors have been identified as risks that increase infectious sequelae after pelvic surgery. This paper will review these risk factors as many are modifiable and care should be taken to address such factors in order to decrease the chance of infection. We will also review the definitions, microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of pelvic SSIs after gynecologic surgery.

  2. Imaging findings in idiopathic pelvic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Bongartz, G. [Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Stoffel, F. [Inst. of Urology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland)

    2001-04-01

    Two patients presented with ureteric obstruction, and voiding symptoms and constipation, respectively, and were examined by means of intravenous urography and computed tomography. One patient was additionally examined by means of MR tomography. After CT (performed in both patients) and MRT (performed in one patient) had shown a diffuse, contrast-enhancing, infiltrating process in the small pelvis with infiltration of adjacent organs and vessels, surgical biopsy proved the diagnosis of idopathic pelvic fibrosis. Extension of retroperitoneal fibrosis below the pelvic rim is very rare. Clinical symptoms of pelvic fibrosis are variable and imaging findings may lead to a broad list of differential diagnoses. We present two patients with idiopathic pelvic fibrosis and discuss radiological findings and differential diagnoses of this rare disease. (orig.)

  3. Venus Elongation Measurements for the Transit of Venus, using the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 11. Venus Elongation Measurements for the Transit of Venus, using the Historical Jantar Mantar Observatory. N Rathnasree. Classroom Volume 9 Issue 11 November 2004 pp 46-55 ...

  4. Gun barrel view of the anterior pelvic ring for percutaneous anterior column or superior pubic ramus screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercetti, Nicholas; Horne, Brandon; DiPaolo, Zac; Prayson, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Traditionally, operative fixation of pelvic and acetabular injuries involves complex approaches and significant complications. Accelerated rehabilitation, decreased soft tissue stripping and decreased wound complications are several benefits driving a recent interest in percutaneous fixation. We describe a new fluoroscopic view to guide the placement of screws within the anterior pelvic ring. Twenty retrograde anterior pelvic ring screws were percutaneously placed in ten cadaveric specimens. Arranging a standard C-arm in a position similar to obtaining a lateral hip image, with angles of 54° ± 2° beam to body, 75° ± 5° of reverse cantilever and 14° ± 6° of outlet, a gun barrel view of the anterior pelvic ring is identified. Fluoroscopic images were taken, and the hemipelvi were harvested to examine the dimensions of the anterior pelvic ring and inspected for any cortical or articular perforation. The minimum cranial-to-caudal distance in the anterior pelvic ring was 9 mm (range 6.5-12 mm), and the minimum anterior-to-posterior dimension was 9 mm (range 5-15 mm). All but 2 screws were completely confined within the osseous corridors. Identifiable on final fluoroscopic evaluation, one screw perforated the psoas groove and a second perforated the acetabular dome. Overall, 90 % of our screws were accurately and safely placed, upon the first attempt, within the anterior pelvic ring using the described gun barrel view. Employing either open reduction, or following a closed or percutaneous reduction, the anterior pelvic ring gun barrel view can reproducibly guide safe placement of anterior pelvic ring screw fixation. IV.

  5. A Case of Phosphoglyceride Crystal Deposition Disease in the Pelvic Soft Tissues Recurring after Initial Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Yamada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoglyceride crystal deposition disease (PGDD is a rare disease entity that is characterized by phosphoglyceride crystal deposition that stimulates the formation of masses in soft tissue scars or bones. We report a case of PGDD in the pelvic soft tissues that recurred after initial surgical treatment. A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the evaluation of pelvic masses that were observed on an abdominal ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed masses in the pelvic region, with the largest being 10 cm in diameter. The masses were diagnosed as ovarian malignant tumors, and an exploratory laparotomy was performed. Operative findings revealed them to be foreign body granulomas, and the patient was diagnosed with PGDD. The patient had a history of cesarean delivery at the age of 24 years. PGDD is extremely rare, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses in patients with a history of abdominal surgery.

  6. Biomimetic matrices for pelvic floor repair

    OpenAIRE

    Vashaghian, M.

    2017-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapsed (POP) is a dysfunctional disease in female pelvic floor that affects a lot of women worldwide, and reduces their quality of life. Currently, trans-vaginal knitted polypropylene meshes are used as secondary treatment, for anatomical correction of the dysfunctional tissues. However, the meshes can create sever adverse complications in some patients, such as chronic pain and dypareunia, in longer-term. In the hope of finding an alternative surgical treatment, we developed ...

  7. Spondylolisthesis caused by extreme pedicle elongation in osteogenesis imperfecta

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo, Roland; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Eysel, Peer

    2007-01-01

    Although osteogenesis imperfecta is a well-known skeletal disorder, reports of spondylolisthesis in osteogenesis imperfecta are rare. Only very few cases of spondylolisthesis caused by elongation of lumbar pedicles have been described in the literature. Here we report three patients suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta showing a severe form of hyperlordosis caused by lumbar pedicle elongation and consecutive spondylolisthesis. Radiographs in the course of childhood and adolescence show a ra...

  8. Baropodometry on women suffering from chronic pelvic pain--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaercher, Carolina W; Genro, Vanessa K; Souza, Carlos A; Alfonsin, Mariane; Berton, Greice; Filho, João S Cunha

    2011-11-17

    Previous studies have associated chronic pelvic pain with a stereotyped pattern of movement and posture, lack of normal body sensations, a characteristic pain distribution. We aimed at evaluating if these postural changes are detectable in baropodometry results in patients with chronic pelvic pain. We performed a prospective study in a university hospital. We selected 32 patients suffering from chronic pelvic pain (study group) and 30 women without this pathology (regular gynecological work out--control group). Pain scores and baropodometric analysis were performed. As expected, study group presented higher pain scores than control group. Study and control groups presented similar averages for the maximum pressures to the left and right soles as well as soles supports in the forefeet and hind feet. Women suffering from chronic pelvic pain did not present differences in baropodometric analysis when compared to healthy controls. This data demonstrates that postural abnormalities resulting from CPP could not be demonstrated by baropodometric evaluation. Other postural measures should be addressed to evaluate pelvic pain patients.

  9. Baropodometry on women suffering from chronic pelvic pain - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaercher Carolina W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have associated chronic pelvic pain with a stereotyped pattern of movement and posture, lack of normal body sensations, a characteristic pain distribution. We aimed at evaluating if these postural changes are detectable in baropodometry results in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Methods We performed a prospective study in a university hospital. We selected 32 patients suffering from chronic pelvic pain (study group and 30 women without this pathology (regular gynecological work out - control group. Pain scores and baropodometric analysis were performed. Results As expected, study group presented higher pain scores than control group. Study and control groups presented similar averages for the maximum pressures to the left and right soles as well as soles supports in the forefeet and hind feet. Women suffering from chronic pelvic pain did not present differences in baropodometric analysis when compared to healthy controls. Conclusions This data demonstrates that postural abnormalities resulting from CPP could not be demonstrated by baropodometric evaluation. Other postural measures should be addressed to evaluate pelvic pain patients.

  10. Pelvic floor and sexual male dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pischedda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The pelvic floor is a complex multifunctional structure that corresponds to the genito- urinary-anal area and consists of muscle and connective tissue. It supports the urinary, fecal, sexual and reproductive functions and pelvic statics. The symptoms caused by pelvic floor dysfunction often affect the quality of life of those who are afflicted, worsening significantly more aspects of daily life. In fact, in addition to providing support to the pelvic organs, the deep floor muscles support urinary continence and intestinal emptying whereas the superficial floor muscles are involved in the mechanism of erection and ejaculation. So, conditions of muscle hypotonia or hypertonicity may affect the efficiency of the pelvic floor, altering both the functionality of the deep and superficial floor muscles. In this evolution of knowledge it is possible imagine how the rehabilitation techniques of pelvic floor muscles, if altered and able to support a voiding or evacuative or sexual dysfunction, may have a role in improving the health and the quality of life.

  11. Seasonal trend of acute pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xholli, Anjeza; Cannoletta, Marianna; Cagnacci, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    Many infections follow a seasonal trend. Aim of our study was to check whether acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) follows a seasonal progress. In a retrospective study on 12,152 hospital records, 158 cases of acute pelvic inflammatory disease were identified. Periodogram analysis was applied to the date of pelvic inflammatory disease admission and to related environmental factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. Pelvic inflammatory disease follows a seasonal rhythm with mean to peak variation of 23 % and maximal values in September (±37.2 days). The rhythm, more evident in married women, is related to the rhythm of temperature advanced by 2 months and of photoperiod advanced by 3 months. Cases of pelvic inflammatory disease are more frequent than expected in unmarried (36 vs. 17.3/34,626, p = 0.015), particularly divorced women 30-40 years of age. Our study evidences a seasonal trend and confirms unmarried, particularly divorced status, as important risk factor for acute pelvic inflammatory disease.

  12. Vaginal parity and pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Lieschen H; Muñoz, Alvaro; Shippey, Stuart H; Gutman, Robert E; Handa, Victoria L

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether the odds of pelvic organ prolapse vary significantly with the number of vaginal births and whether cesarean birth is associated with prolapse. In this cross-sectional study of women over the age of 40, pelvic organ prolapse was defined as descent to or beyond the hymen. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative odds of pelvic organ prolapse for each vaginal birth or cesarean birth, controlling for confounders. Two hundred ninety women underwent a pelvic organ prolapse quantification POPQ examination, and 72 were found to have pelvic organ prolapse. A single vaginal birth significantly increased the odds of prolapse (OR 9.73, 95% CI 2.68-35.35). Additional vaginal births were not associated with a significant increase in the odds of prolapse. Cesarean births were not associated with prolapse (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.49-3.54). The odds of pelvic organ prolapse were almost 10 times higher after a single vaginal birth. The marginal impact of additional births on this association was small.

  13. Preoperative evaluation of locally spreaded pelvic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baramia, M.; Todua, F.; Gotsadze, D.; Khutulashvili, N.; Lashkhi, K.; Nadareishvili, A.

    1998-01-01

    Am of the study: preoperative evaluation of patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors subjected to pelvic exenteration. Determine operability to avoid explorative laparatomies, which cause serious complications in these patients. Evaluate condition of urinary system in case of this pathology. Materials and methods: 34 patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors where pelvic exenteration was attempted were studied. Along with other methods of diagnostic CT and MRI were performed. Results: In all patients secondary involvement of the urinary bladder was noted. In 30 patients CT and MR findings were confirmed (88,2%) intraoperatively and different types of pelvic organs exenteration were performed. In 1 case spread of tomoruos infiltrate to the pelvic wall and common iliac vessels was detected intraoperatively (patient had history of radiation therapy). In 2 cases carcinomatosis of the peritoneum was found. In 1 case involvement of urinary bladder was simulated by close attachment of enlarged uterus. Conclusion: Obtained results show, that CT and MR are highly informative methods of disease spread evaluation and thus determining operability. Radiotherapy performed prior to operation sets difficulties in differentiation for tumourous infiltrate and post-radiotherapy changes in pelvis. (Full text)

  14. The passive biomechanics of human pelvic collecting lymphatic vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Athanasiou

    Full Text Available The lymphatic system has a major significance in the metastatic pathways in women's cancers. Lymphatic pumping depends on both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms, and the mechanical behavior of lymphatic vessels regulates the function of the system. However, data on the mechanical properties and function of human lymphatics are lacking. Our aim is to characterize, for the first time, the passive biomechanical behavior of human collecting lymphatic vessels removed at pelvic lymph node dissection during primary debulking surgeries for epithelial ovarian cancer. Isolated vessels were cannulated and then pressurized at varying levels of applied axial stretch in a calcium-free Krebs buffer. Pressurized vessels were then imaged using multi-photon microscopy for collagen-elastin structural composition and fiber orientation. Both pressure-diameter and force-elongation responses were highly nonlinear, and axial stretching of the vessel served to decrease diameter at constant pressure. Pressure-diameter behavior for the human vessels is very similar to data from rat mesenteric vessels, though the human vessels were approximately 10× larger than those from rats. Multiphoton microscopy revealed the vessels to be composed of an inner layer of elastin with an outer layer of aligned collagen fibers. This is the first study that successfully described the passive biomechanical response and composition of human lymphatic vessels in patients with ovarian cancer. Future work should expand on this knowledge base with investigations of vessels from other anatomical locations, contractile behavior, and the implications on metastatic cell transport.

  15. Cessation of reproduction-related spine elongation after multiple breeding cycles in female naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2009-01-01

    The breeding female or "queen" naked mole-rat has a uniquely elongated body morphology attributed to the lengthening of the lumbar vertebral column that occurs during pregnancy. It is unknown whether this vertebral growth is a continuous process, or associated only with early reproductive experience. We compared pregnancy-related bone elongation in nascent primiparous queens and established queens to determine if this vertebral expansion was a lifelong process in these females. We also investigated the impact of lactation on vertebral elongation in these mole-rats because it is known to be a time of significant bone loss in other mammals. Our data show that after eight or more pregnancies, established queens no longer experienced a net gain in lumbar spine length over the reproductive cycle, whereas the nascent breeders demonstrated significant spine lengthening over this time. Despite the lack of net spine lengthening in established breeders, our results indicated that these queens still experienced some pregnancy-specific vertebral elongation. In naked mole-rats, pregnancy-induced bone elongation may serve the dual purposes of first lengthening the spine, and then once optimal spine size is achieved, serving as a homeostatic mechanism that prepares the spine for the mineral demands of lactation. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Pelvic floor tenderness in the etiology of superficial dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Paul J; Mui, Justin; Allaire, Catherine; Williams, Christina

    2014-11-01

    To calculate the prevalence of pelvic floor tenderness in the population of women with pelvic pain and to determine its implications for symptoms of pelvic pain. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with pelvic pain at a tertiary referral centre. Pelvic floor tenderness was defined as levator ani tenderness on at least one side during single digit pelvic examination. The prevalence of pelvic floor tenderness in this cohort of women with pelvic pain was compared with the prevalence in a cohort of women without pain attending a gynaecology clinic. In the women with pelvic pain, multiple regression was performed to determine which variables were independently associated with pelvic floor tenderness. The prevalence of pelvic floor tenderness was 40% (75/189) in the cohort with pelvic pain, significantly greater than the prevalence of 13% (4/32) in the cohort without pain (OR 4.61; 95% CI 1.55 to 13.7, P = 0.005). On multiple logistic regression, superficial dyspareunia (OR 4.45; 95% CI 1.86 to 10.7, P = 0.001), abdominal wall pain (OR 4.04; 95% CI 1.44 to 11.3, P = 0.005), and bladder base tenderness (OR 4.65; 95% CI 1.87 to 11.6, P = 0.001) were independently associated with pelvic floor tenderness. Pelvic floor tenderness was similarly present in women with or without underlying endometriosis. Pelvic floor tenderness is common in women with pelvic pain, with or without endometriosis, and is a contributor to superficial dyspareunia. Pelvic floor tenderness was also associated with abdominal wall pain and bladder base tenderness, suggesting that nervous system sensitization is involved in the etiology of pelvic floor tenderness.

  17. Dynamic magnetic resonance of pelvic floor: experience in 38 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocantos, Jorge; Fattal Jaef, Virginia; Pietrani, Marcelo; Seclen, Maria F.; Seehaus, Alberto; Sarsotti, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To show the experience in the evaluation of dysfunctions of pelvic floor by dynamic magnetic resonance (DMR) and to describe the structural and dynamic disorders of pelvis organs. Material and Methods: From March 2004 to March 2005 38 patients with pelvic floor disorders have been studied, 33/38 women (86, 84 %) and 5/38 men (15,16 %), ages between 16 and 74 years old. An evacuating rectal enema has been indicated 4 hours before the examination with bladder retention of 3 hours. 180-240 cc of semisolid paste (thin oats and saline solution) has been used to distend rectum until patients refer sensation of rectum full or a maximum of 240 cm 3 . The study has been performed in a Siemens Magnetom Vision (1.5 T) body array and coil CP Body Array Flex. T2 turbo spin eco axial and sagittal (TR 4700, TE1, 32), T1 coronal (TR 580 TE 14) with a 4 mm slice were selected for static sequences and Siemens TRUFI sagittal (TR 4.8 TE 2.3) for dynamic acquisitions during rectal and voiding evacuations. The morphology and symmetry of peri urethral ligaments (PUL), elevator anus muscle (LA), and vagina (V) was evaluated. The organs prolapse was evaluated at rest and maximal pelvis strain in accord with Comiter parameters (Fielding J.R.). Results: At 10/38 (26, 32 %) patients was not detected lesions. In 28/38 P (73,68 %) 75 defects of the pelvic supports (54,6 % of LA, 14,6% of the vagina V, 9,3% of PUL and other 21,3 %). The dynamic sequences show 59 defects, 50, 84 % of posterior compartment and 49,16% of anterior. In 8/38 (28, 57 %) patients the lesions affected both compartment. Conclusion: Dynamic magnetic resonance allows the direct interpretation of the very small pelvic floor structure and its disorders (not available by other methods) and the dynamic study of prolapse, providing a more accurate interpretation of its causes. DRM can be very useful in patients with multi-compartment involvement, complex prolapse or recurrence of symptoms post surgical repair. (author

  18. Prevalence of myofascial chronic pelvic pain and the effectiveness of pelvic floor physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Patterson, Betsy; Mahajan, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and the outcome of transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain caused by myofascial pelvic pain in a tertiary care facility. A retrospective chart review was performed on all women who presented to our facility between January 2005 and December 2007. Those diagnosed with myofascial pelvic pain and referred for transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy over this 3-year period were evaluated. Participants with an initial pain score of > or = 4, myofascial pelvic pain on examination, and who attended 2 or more physician visits were included in the analysis. Patient physical examination findings, symptoms, and verbal pain ratings were reviewed. In all, 146 (13.2%) of 1,106 initially screened patients were diagnosed with myofascial pain. Seventy-five (51%) of the 146 patients who were referred for physical therapy were included, and 75% had an initial pain score of > or = 7. Pain scores significantly improved proportional to the number of physical therapy visits completed, with 63% of patients reporting significant pain improvement. Transvaginal physical therapy is an effective treatment for chronic pelvic pain resulting from myofascial pelvic pain.

  19. Relations between pregnancy-related low back pain, pelvic floor activity and pelvic floor dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Slieker ten Hove, M.C.; Vierhout, M.E.; de Mulder, PH; Pool, J.J.M.; Snijders, C.J.; Stoeckart, R.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the occurrence of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) in pregnancy- related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) patients, a cross-sectional study was performed, comprising 77 subjects. Each subject underwent physical assessment, and filled in the Urogenital Distress Inventory completed with

  20. Pelvic floor muscle function in a general population of women with and without pelvic organ prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.P. Slieker-ten Hove (Marijke); A.L. Pool-Goudzwaard (Annelies); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); C.W. Burger (Curt); M.E. Vierhout (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction and hypothesis: This study aims to examine the relationship between pelvic floor muscle function (PFMF) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in a general female population. Methods: Cross-sectional study on women aged 45-85 years. Validated questionnaires were used to assess

  1. Assessment of pelvic floor muscle contractility: digital palpation versus 2D and 3D perineal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrich, Stefan; Steetskamp, Joscha; Knoechel, Sophie-Luise; Porta, Saskia; Hoffmann, Gerald; Skala, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate 2D and 3D ultrasound assessment of pelvic floor muscle contractility as an objective non-invasive diagnostic tool in urogynecologic patients. Patients from our urogynecological outpatient clinic were examined clinically by a single investigator including digital palpation as well as 2D and 3D perineal ultrasound. Muscle contractility was graded according to the modified Oxford Score and ultrasound images were saved for later analysis. Stored images were evaluated offline by another investigator blinded to all clinical data at a later stage. Bladder neck distance from pubic symphysis and symphysis-levator distance were measured in 2D at rest and during maximal pelvic floor muscle contraction. Hiatal area at the level of minimal hiatal dimensions as a 3D ultrasound parameter was measured at rest and during maximal pelvic floor muscle contraction, too. Spearman's rho was used to calculate statistical correlation between ultrasound parameters and digital assessment. A total of 114 patients were examined in our study. We found a significant correlation between modified Oxford Score and 2D ultrasound parameters of elongation of bladder neck length (Spearman's rho 0.292, p = 0.002) and reduction of symphysis-levator distance (Spearman's rho 0.0.301, p = 0.001), respectively. In addition, we detected a statistical significant correlation of modified Oxford Score and reduction of hiatal area in 3D ultrasound (Spearman's rho 0.458, p pelvic floor muscle strength with 2D and 3D ultrasound parameters as an objective diagnostic tool.

  2. [DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME IN PELVIC INJURIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, A I; Voytenko, A N; Bondarenko, A V; Muzalevskaya, N I; Kruglykhin, I V

    2015-01-01

    Case records of 1994 patients with injuries of the pelvic ring were analyzed. The article presents the results of examination and treatment of patients with urinary tract dysfunction. A frequent complications of pelvic fractures include overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) (18.9%). Many factors play a role in the development of this syndrome, in particular damage to the pelvic diaphragm and the development of pelvic hematoma. OAB is more common in unstable pelvic fractures (24.8%). Surgical stabilization of the pelvic ring injuries and the use of M-cholinoblockers and a1-blockers lead to a reduction of OAB.

  3. Signaling pathways differentially affect RNA polymerase II initiation, pausing, and elongation rate in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, Charles G; Hah, Nasun; Luo, Xin; Martins, André L; Core, Leighton; Lis, John T; Siepel, Adam; Kraus, W Lee

    2013-04-25

    RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribes hundreds of kilobases of DNA, limiting the production of mRNAs and lncRNAs. We used global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to measure the rates of transcription by Pol II following gene activation. Elongation rates vary as much as 4-fold at different genomic loci and in response to two distinct cellular signaling pathways (i.e., 17β-estradiol [E2] and TNF-α). The rates are slowest near the promoter and increase during the first ~15 kb transcribed. Gene body elongation rates correlate with Pol II density, resulting in systematically higher rates of transcript production at genes with higher Pol II density. Pol II dynamics following short inductions indicate that E2 stimulates gene expression by increasing Pol II initiation, whereas TNF-α reduces Pol II residence time at pause sites. Collectively, our results identify previously uncharacterized variation in the rate of transcription and highlight elongation as an important, variable, and regulated rate-limiting step during transcription. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. BRD4 assists elongation of both coding and enhancer RNAs guided by histone acetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Tomohiko; Kanno, Yuka; LeRoy, Gary; Campos, Eric; Sun, Hong-Wei; Brooks, Stephen R; Vahedi, Golnaz; Heightman, Tom D; Garcia, Benjamin A; Reinberg, Danny; Siebenlist, Ulrich; O’Shea, John J; Ozato, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule BET inhibitors interfere with the epigenetic interactions between acetylated histones and the bromodomains of the BET family proteins, including BRD4, and they potently inhibit growth of malignant cells by targeting cancer-promoting genes. BRD4 interacts with the pause-release factor P-TEFb, and has been proposed to release Pol II from promoter-proximal pausing. We show that BRD4 occupied widespread genomic regions in mouse cells, and directly stimulated elongation of both protein-coding transcripts and non-coding enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), dependent on the function of bromodomains. BRD4 interacted physically with elongating Pol II complexes, and assisted Pol II progression through hyper-acetylated nucleosomes by interacting with acetylated histones via bromodomains. On active enhancers, the BET inhibitor JQ1 antagonized BRD4-associated eRNA synthesis. Thus, BRD4 is involved in multiple steps of the transcription hierarchy, primarily by assisting transcript elongation both at enhancers and on gene bodies. PMID:25383670

  5. BRD4 assists elongation of both coding and enhancer RNAs by interacting with acetylated histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Tomohiko; Kanno, Yuka; LeRoy, Gary; Campos, Eric; Sun, Hong-Wei; Brooks, Stephen R; Vahedi, Golnaz; Heightman, Tom D; Garcia, Benjamin A; Reinberg, Danny; Siebenlist, Ulrich; O'Shea, John J; Ozato, Keiko

    2014-12-01

    Small-molecule BET inhibitors interfere with the epigenetic interactions between acetylated histones and the bromodomains of the BET family proteins, including BRD4, and they potently inhibit growth of malignant cells by targeting cancer-promoting genes. BRD4 interacts with the pause-release factor P-TEFb and has been proposed to release RNA polymerase II (Pol II) from promoter-proximal pausing. We show that BRD4 occupies widespread genomic regions in mouse cells and directly stimulates elongation of both protein-coding transcripts and noncoding enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), in a manner dependent on bromodomain function. BRD4 interacts with elongating Pol II complexes and assists Pol II in progression through hyperacetylated nucleosomes by interacting with acetylated histones via bromodomains. On active enhancers, the BET inhibitor JQ1 antagonizes BRD4-associated eRNA synthesis. Thus, BRD4 is involved in multiple steps of the transcription hierarchy, primarily by facilitating transcript elongation both at enhancers and on gene bodies independently of P-TEFb.

  6. [Preclinical and clinical treatment of instable pelvic injuries : Results of an online survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlrath, B; Trentzsch, H; Hoffmann, R; Kremer, M; Schmidt-Horlohè, K; Schweigkofler, U

    2016-09-01

    Instable pelvic injuries are often associated with a high blood loss, which can effectively be curtailed by rapid external stabilization of the pelvis. The S3 guidelines on the treatment of multiple trauma and the severely injured recommend an initial stability testing in cases of an instable pelvis and hemodynamic instability even though the sensitivity is very low, with subsequent external stabilization. Radiological diagnostic procedures are also becoming more important for early diagnostics. An online survey of the current management of instable pelvic injuries was carried out with 266 participants via the e-mail distribution list of the German Society of Trauma Surgery (DGU).Most answers in the survey were received from very experienced senior and chief physicians at level 1 trauma centers. The vast majority of the participants recommended carrying out mechanical stabilization testing and most wanted to do the testing themselves independent of any previous findings. Most participants would only carry out a pelvic stabilization if they themselves had recognized instability during the stability testing and many of them even in cases of hemodynamic instability alone, although several studies have reported a very low sensitivity of 26-44 % for stability testing. The preferred procedure for emergency stabilization in the emergency room was the pelvic sling, which in contrast to invasive tools was often implemented before radiological imaging was completed. In preclinical treatment the vacuum mattress was used more often for stabilization than the pelvic sling. In radiological examinations a whole body computed tomography (CT) scan was mostly used, sometimes combined with an anteroposterior pelvic x-ray. In cases of persisting hemorrhage in spite of external stabilization, most participants preferred a pelvic tamponade but angioembolization was also highly rated.Because many of the participants relied on their own findings from stability testing for a decision on

  7. Development of the lateral plate mesoderm in medaka Oryzias latipes and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: insight into the diversification of pelvic fin position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hiroki; Nakatani, Yuki; Fujimura, Koji; Tanaka, Mikiko

    2014-01-01

    The position of the pelvic fins among teleost fishes has tended to shift rostrally during evolution. This positional shift seems to have led to the diversification of feeding behavior and allowed adaptation to new environments. To understand the developmental basis of this shift in pelvic fin position among teleosts, we investigated the embryonic development of the lateral plate mesoderm, which gives rise to the pelvic fins, at histological levels in the medaka Oryzias latipes (abdominal pelvic fins) and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (thoracic pelvic fins). Our histological analyses revealed that the lateral plate mesodermal cells expand not only ventrally but also rostrally to cover the yolk during embryogenesis of both medaka and Nile tilapia. In medaka, we also found that the lateral plate mesoderm completely covered the yolk prior to the initiation of the pelvic fin buds, whereas in Nile tilapia the pelvic fin buds appeared in the body wall from the lateral plate mesoderm at the thoracic level when the lateral plate mesodermal cells only covered one-third of the yolk. We discuss the relevance of such differences in the rate of the lateral plate mesoderm expansion on the yolk surface and the position of the pelvic fins. PMID:25345789

  8. Prediction of RNA Polymerase II recruitment, elongation and stalling from histone modification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription is regulated by both DNA sequence and chromatin signals. Recent breakthroughs make it possible to measure the chromatin state and activity of core promoters genome-wide, but dedicated computational strategies are needed to progress from descriptive annotation of data to quantitative, predictive models. Results Here, we describe a computational framework which with high accuracy can predict the locations of core promoters, the amount of recruited RNAPII at the promoter, the amount of elongating RNAPII in the gene body, the mRNA production originating from the promoter and finally also the stalling characteristics of RNAPII by considering both quantitative and spatial features of histone modifications around the transcription start site (TSS). As the model framework can also pinpoint the signals that are the most influential for prediction, it can be used to infer underlying regulatory biology. For example, we show that the H3K4 di- and tri- methylation signals are strongly predictive for promoter location while the acetylation marks H3K9 and H3K27 are highly important in estimating the promoter usage. All of these four marks are found to be necessary for recruitment of RNAPII but not sufficient for the elongation. We also show that the spatial distributions of histone marks are almost as predictive as the signal strength and that a set of histone marks immediately downstream of the TSS is highly predictive of RNAPII stalling. Conclusions In this study we introduce a general framework to accurately predict the level of RNAPII recruitment, elongation, stalling and mRNA expression from chromatin signals. The versatility of the method also makes it ideally suited to investigate other genomic data. PMID:22047616

  9. Prediction of RNA Polymerase II recruitment, elongation and stalling from histone modification data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII transcription is regulated by both DNA sequence and chromatin signals. Recent breakthroughs make it possible to measure the chromatin state and activity of core promoters genome-wide, but dedicated computational strategies are needed to progress from descriptive annotation of data to quantitative, predictive models. Results Here, we describe a computational framework which with high accuracy can predict the locations of core promoters, the amount of recruited RNAPII at the promoter, the amount of elongating RNAPII in the gene body, the mRNA production originating from the promoter and finally also the stalling characteristics of RNAPII by considering both quantitative and spatial features of histone modifications around the transcription start site (TSS. As the model framework can also pinpoint the signals that are the most influential for prediction, it can be used to infer underlying regulatory biology. For example, we show that the H3K4 di- and tri- methylation signals are strongly predictive for promoter location while the acetylation marks H3K9 and H3K27 are highly important in estimating the promoter usage. All of these four marks are found to be necessary for recruitment of RNAPII but not sufficient for the elongation. We also show that the spatial distributions of histone marks are almost as predictive as the signal strength and that a set of histone marks immediately downstream of the TSS is highly predictive of RNAPII stalling. Conclusions In this study we introduce a general framework to accurately predict the level of RNAPII recruitment, elongation, stalling and mRNA expression from chromatin signals. The versatility of the method also makes it ideally suited to investigate other genomic data.

  10. [Ultrastructure of statocytes and cells of distal elongation zone of Arabidopsis thaliana under clinorotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, S M

    2010-01-01

    Results of the electron-microscopic investigation of root apices of Arabidopsis thaliana 3-, 5- and 7-days-old seedlings grown in the stationary conditions and under clinorotation are presented. It was shown the similarity in the root apex cell ultrastructure in control and under clinorotation. At the same time there were some differences in the ultrastructure of statocytes and the distal elongation zone under clinorotation. For the first time the sensitivity of ER-bodies, which are derivatives of GER and contain beta-glucosidase, to the influence of simulated microgravity was demonstrated by increased quantity and area of ER-bodies at the cell section as well as by higher variability of their form under clinorotation. A degree of these changes correlated with the duration of clinorotation. On the basis of experimental data a protective role of ER-bodies in adaptation of plants to microgravity is supposed.

  11. Transcriptional control by NF-κB: elongation in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Gil; Dikstein, Rivka

    2013-09-01

    The NF-κB family of transcription factors governs the cellular reaction to a variety of extracellular signals. Following stimulation, NF-κB activates genes involved in inflammation, cell survival, cell cycle, immune cell homeostasis and more. This review focuses on studies of the past decade that uncover the transcription elongation process as a key regulatory stage in the activation pathway of NF-κB. Of interest are studies that point to the elongation phase as central to the selectivity of target gene activation by NF-κB. Particularly, the cascade leading to phosphorylation and acetylation of the NF-κB subunit p65 on serine 276 and lysine 310, respectively, was shown to mediate the recruitment of Brd4 and P-TEFb to many pro-inflammatory target genes, which in turn facilitate elongation and mRNA processing. On the other hand, some anti-inflammatory genes are refractory to this pathway and are dependent on the elongation factor DSIF for efficient elongation and mRNA processing. While these studies have advanced our knowledge of NF-κB transcriptional activity, they have also raised unresolved issues regarding the specific genomic and physiological contexts by which NF-κB utilizes different mechanisms for activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of several ribosomal mutations on speed of elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galas, D.J.; Branscomb, E.W.

    1976-09-28

    Consideration of simple kinetic schemes for the discrimination of charged tRNA at the ribosome has led us to expect changes in the elongation speed to be caused by some ribosomal mutations. We have examined this hypothesis by investigating the effect of several well-studied mutations of E. coli ribosomes on the chain elongation time in the translation of the Z gene of the lactose operon. The lag time (at 37/sup 0/C) in the appearance of the first active, newly-synthesized ..beta..-galactosidase molecule after induction of the operon was measured, and the average elongation time estimated. We found that mutations to resistance to high levels of streptomycin (at the str A locus) fall into two classes; one class exhibits a slow-down in elongation of about 30 percent, the other exhibits little, if any, detectable change. Mutation to paramomycin resistance also causes a significant decrease in speed. On the other hand, mutation to spectinomycin resistance appears not to affect the speed. A common characteristic of streptomycin and paramomycin is that they both are known to cause misreading during translation (and resistance causes a decrease in errors) whereas spectinomycin is known to have no such effect. This evidence, together with kinetic considerations, seems to indicate that mutations which affect the accuracy of translation may also affect elongation speed.

  13. Amphiregulin Antibody and Reduction of Axial Elongation in Experimental Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jun Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanism of ocular axial elongation in myopia, guinea pigs (age: 2–3 weeks which either underwent unilateral or bilateral lens-induced myopization (group 1 or which were primarily myopic at baseline (group 2 received unilateral intraocular injections of amphiregulin antibody (doses: 5, 10, or 15 μg three times in intervals of 9 days. A third group of emmetropic guinea pigs got intraocular unilateral injections of amphiregulin (doses: 0.25, 0.50 or 1.00 ng, respectively. In each group, the contralateral eyes received intraocular injections of Ringer's solution. In intra-animal inter-eye comparison and intra-eye follow-up comparison in groups 1 and 2, the study eyes as compared to the contralateral eyes showed a dose-dependent reduction in axial elongation. In group 3, study eyes and control eyes did not differ significantly in axial elongation. Immunohistochemistry revealed amphiregulin labelling at the retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with lens-induced myopization and Ringer's solution injection, but not in eyes with amphiregulin antibody injection. Intraocular injections of amphiregulin-antibody led to a reduction of lens-induced axial myopic elongation and of the physiological eye enlargement in young guinea pigs. In contrast, intraocularly injected amphiregulin in a dose of ≤1 ng did not show a significant effect. Amphiregulin may be one of several essential molecular factors for axial elongation.

  14. Sequence-dependent elongation dynamics on macrolide-bound ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Magnus; Chen, Jin; Tsai, Albert; Kornberg, Guy; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2014-06-12

    The traditional view of macrolide antibiotics as plugs inside the ribosomal nascent peptide exit tunnel (NPET) has lately been challenged in favor of a more complex, heterogeneous mechanism, where drug-peptide interactions determine the fate of a translating ribosome. To investigate these highly dynamic processes, we applied single-molecule tracking of elongating ribosomes during inhibition of elongation by erythromycin of several nascent chains, including ErmCL and H-NS, which were shown to be, respectively, sensitive and resistant to erythromycin. Peptide sequence-specific changes were observed in translation elongation dynamics in the presence of a macrolide-obstructed NPET. Elongation rates were not severely inhibited in general by the presence of the drug; instead, stalls or pauses were observed as abrupt events. The dynamic pathways of nascent-chain-dependent elongation pausing in the presence of macrolides determine the fate of the translating ribosome stalling or readthrough. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Film dosimetry of small elongated electron beams for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, and 18 Mev electron beams for small elongated fields of dimensions L x W (where L=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 cm; and W=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 cm) have been studied. Film dosimetry and parallel-plate ion chamber measurements have been used to obtain various dose parameters. Selective results of a series of systematic measurements for central axis depth dose data, uniformity index, field flatness, and relative output factors of small elongated electron beams are reported. The square-root method is employed to predict the beam data of small elongated electron fields from corresponding small square electron fields using film dosimetry. The single parameter area/perimeter radio A/P is used to characterize the relative output factors of elongated electron beams. It is our conclusion that for clinical treatment planning square-root method may be applied with caution in determining the beam characteristics of small elongated electron fields from film dosimetry. The calculated and estimated relative output factors from square-root method and A/P ratio are in good agreement and show agreement to within 1% with the measured film values

  16. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  17. Pelvic floor health: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Heather; Perry, Lin; Gallagher, Robyn; Chiarelli, Pauline

    2015-05-01

    To report an analysis of the concept 'pelvic floor health'. 'Pelvic floor health' is a term used by multiple healthcare disciplines, yet as a concept is not well defined. Rodger's evolutionary view was used to guide this analysis. Academic literature databases and public domain websites viewed via the Internet search engine Google. Literature in English, published 1946-July 2014 was reviewed. Websites were accessed in May 2014, then analysed of presentation for relevance and content until data saturation. Thematic analysis identified attributes, antecedents and consequences of the concept. Based on the defining attributes identified in the analysis, a contemporary definition is offered. 'Pelvic floor health' is the physical and functional integrity of the pelvic floor unit through the life stages of an individual (male or female), permitting an optimal quality of life through its multifunctional role, where the individual possesses or has access to knowledge, which empowers the ability to prevent or manage dysfunction. This analysis provides a definition of 'pelvic floor health' that is based on a current shared meaning and distinguishes the term from medical and lay terms in a complex, multifaceted and often under-reported area of healthcare knowledge. This definition provides a basis for theory development in future research, by focusing on health rather than disorders or dysfunction. Further development of the meaning is required in an individual's social context, to ensure a contemporaneous understanding in a dynamic system of healthcare provision. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in primiparae two years after cesarean section: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Angélica Mércia Pascon; Marini, Gabriela; Piculo, Fernanda; Rudge, Cibele Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha

    2013-01-01

    There is uncertainty in the literature regarding the theory that obstetric events and pelvic floor injuries give rise to lower risk of subsequent urinary incontinence among women delivering via cesarean section than among women delivering vaginally. The objective of this study was to assess the two-year postpartum prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and the factors responsible for them. Cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university. 220 women who had undergone elective cesarean section or vaginal childbirth two years earlier were selected. Their urinary incontinence symptoms were investigated, and their pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was assessed using digital palpation and a perineometer. The two-year urinary incontinence prevalences following vaginal childbirth and cesarean section were 17% and 18.9%, respectively. The only risk factor for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was weight gain during pregnancy. Body mass index less than 25 kg/m 2 and normal pelvic floor muscle function protected against urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence increased the risk of two-year postpartum urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence was a crucial precursor of postpartum urinary incontinence. Weight gain during pregnancy increased the subsequent risk of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and elective cesarean section did not prevent urinary incontinence.

  19. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in primiparae two years after cesarean section: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Mércia Pascon Barbosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE There is uncertainty in the literature regarding the theory that obstetric events and pelvic floor injuries give rise to lower risk of subsequent urinary incontinence among women delivering via cesarean section than among women delivering vaginally. The objective of this study was to assess the two-year postpartum prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and the factors responsible for them. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university. METHODS 220 women who had undergone elective cesarean section or vaginal childbirth two years earlier were selected. Their urinary incontinence symptoms were investigated, and their pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was assessed using digital palpation and a perineometer. RESULTS The two-year urinary incontinence prevalences following vaginal childbirth and cesarean section were 17% and 18.9%, respectively. The only risk factor for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was weight gain during pregnancy. Body mass index less than 25 kg/m 2 and normal pelvic floor muscle function protected against urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence increased the risk of two-year postpartum urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION Gestational urinary incontinence was a crucial precursor of postpartum urinary incontinence. Weight gain during pregnancy increased the subsequent risk of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and elective cesarean section did not prevent urinary incontinence.

  20. Pelvic ultrasonography in pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Aggarwal, Anu; Sandesh, K; Solanki, R S; Aneja, S; Kumar, Guresh

    2002-10-01

    To derive norms for the size of uterus, uterine shape (fundal-cervical ratio) and ovarian volume in girls in various Tanners stages of puberty. Pelvic ultrasound was performed in ninety-two healthy girls in the age group of 8-15 years. These included twenty girls each in Tanner stages 1-4 and twelve in stage 5. All the subjects enrolled in the study had a weight and height within 5th-95th percentile of NCHS standards and their bone ages corresponded to the chronological age. Uterine height, fundal-cervical ratio (FCR) and ovarian volume were measured in all the subjects. The data was stratified according to various pubertal stages as well as for different ages. Statistical analysis was carried out to derive the percentiles for the three parameters in different pubertal stages and to study the correlation between these parameters and age, weight and height of the subjects. A statistically significant increase in uterine height, FCR and ovarian volume was observed with progressive pubertal stages. Maximum increase in uterine height was observed during the transition from stage 2 to stage 3. All girls beyond the age of 10 years or beyond Tanner stage 2 had a FCR>1. The ovarian volume, after showing an initial increase, tended to plateau and there was no significant increase from stage 4-stage 5. A significant correlation was found between the three parameters and the subject's age, weight and height, the maximum correlation was with age (correlation coefficients being 0.748, 0.648, 0.568 for uterine height, FCR and ovarian volume respectively). Centiles for these parameters were obtained for different pubertal stages. This work has provided some guidelines for normative data for various pubertal stages as well as for ages between 8-15 years. These may be used as a reference in evaluation of patients with suspected disorders of puberty.

  1. Bilateral elongated mandibular coronoid process in an Anatolian skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çorumlu, Ufuk; Kopuz, Cem; Demir, Mehmet Tevfik; Pirzirenli, Mennan Ece

    2016-09-01

    Elongation or hyperplasia of coronoid process of mandible is rare condition characterized by abnormal bone development which cause malocclusion and the limited mouth opening. In this study, in an Anatolian skull, a case of bilateral elongation of mandibular coronoid process was presented. Levandoski panographic analysis was performed on the panoramic radiographie to determine the hyperplasia of the coronoid process. The right condylar process was exactly hyperplastic. The measurements of Kr-Go/Cd-Go were 95.10 mm/79.03 mm on right side and 97.53 mm/87.80 mm on left side. The ratio of Kr-Go/Cd-Go on the right side was 1.20. Elongated coronoid process is one of the factors cause mandibular hypomobility, it as reported here might lead to limited mouth opening. The knowledge of this variation or abnormality can be useful for the radiologist and surgeons and prevent misdiagnosis.

  2. Ubiquitylation and degradation of elongating RNA polymerase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Marcus D; Harreman, Michelle; Svejstrup, Jesper Q

    2013-01-01

    During its journey across a gene, RNA polymerase II has to contend with a number of obstacles to its progression, including nucleosomes, DNA-binding proteins, DNA damage, and sequences that are intrinsically difficult to transcribe. Not surprisingly, a large number of elongation factors have...... evolved to ensure that transcription stalling or arrest does not occur. If, however, the polymerase cannot be restarted, it becomes poly-ubiquitylated and degraded by the proteasome. This process is highly regulated, ensuring that only RNAPII molecules that cannot otherwise be salvaged are degraded....... In this review, we describe the mechanisms and factors responsible for the last resort mechanism of transcriptional elongation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA polymerase II Transcript Elongation....

  3. Control of Transcriptional Elongation by RNA Polymerase II: A Retrospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Brannan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins of our current understanding of control of transcription elongation lie in pioneering experiments that mapped RNA polymerase II on viral and cellular genes. These studies first uncovered the surprising excess of polymerase molecules that we now know to be situated at the at the 5′ ends of most genes in multicellular organisms. The pileup of pol II near transcription start sites reflects a ubiquitous bottle-neck that limits elongation right at the start of the transcription elongation. Subsequent seminal work identified conserved protein factors that positively and negatively control the flux of polymerase through this bottle-neck, and make a major contribution to control of gene expression.

  4. Yielding and Flow of Soft-Jammed Systems in Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Fadoul, O.; Lorenceau, E.; Coussot, P.

    2018-01-01

    So far, yielding and flow properties of soft-jammed systems have only been studied from simple shear and then extrapolated to other flow situations. In particular, simple flows such as elongations have barely been investigated experimentally or only in a nonconstant, partial volume of material. We show that using smooth tool surfaces makes it possible to obtain a prolonged elongational flow over a large range of aspect ratios in the whole volume of material. The normal force measured for various soft-jammed systems with different microstructures shows that the ratio of the elongation yield stress to the shear yield stress is larger (by a factor of around 1.5) than expected from the standard theory which assumes that the stress tensor is a function of the second invariant of the strain rate tensor. This suggests that the constitutive tensor of the materials cannot be determined solely from macroscopic shear measurements.

  5. Spondylolisthesis caused by extreme pedicle elongation in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerderer, Sebastian; Eysel, Peer

    2007-01-01

    Although osteogenesis imperfecta is a well-known skeletal disorder, reports of spondylolisthesis in osteogenesis imperfecta are rare. Only very few cases of spondylolisthesis caused by elongation of lumbar pedicles have been described in the literature. Here we report three patients suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta showing a severe form of hyperlordosis caused by lumbar pedicle elongation and consecutive spondylolisthesis. Radiographs in the course of childhood and adolescence show a rapid progression of pedicle elongation and hyperlordosis with increased mechanical loads. The treatment strategy consists of physiotherapy, medical treatment with bisphosphonates, and orthopedic surgery and is preferably conservative. In the three patients reported here, one patient was treated with laminectomy and postero-lateral fusion, whereas in the other two patients surgery is currently not considered as necessary. PMID:17242874

  6. Laparoscopy and ultrasound examination in women with acute pelvic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Felding, C

    1990-01-01

    The results of preoperative pelvic examination and eventual ultrasound examination were correlated with the laparoscopic findings in 316 women with acute pelvic pain. The predictive values of normal and abnormal findings at pelvic examination were 46.9 and 82.1%, respectively. 42.1% of the women...... had ultrasound examination performed. This investigation showed to be helpful especially in patients with normal findings at pelvic examination. If ultrasonic findings were abnormal the results at laparoscopy were also abnormal in 90%. On the contrary, normal findings at ultrasound examination did...... not exclude abnormal pelvic findings. The predictive value of normal results at ultrasound examination was 50.0%. This discrepancy between ultrasonic and pelvic findings can be explained by the size of the pelvic masses. Ultrasound examination is a valuable tool in the evaluation of patients with acute pelvic...

  7. Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Aspiration of Pelvic Abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Corsi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the utility of a less invasive approach to the care of women with a pelvic abscess, we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of women with pelvic abscesses managed by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration.

  8. Light touch cue through a cane improves pelvic stability during walking in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsinsukh, Rumpa; Panichareon, Lawan; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

    2009-06-01

    To examine the effect of a light touch cue provided through a cane on mediolateral (ML) pelvic stability during walking in subjects poststroke. Crossover trial examining ML pelvic stability during walking using a cane with the force contact and touch contact methods. Physical therapy clinic, tertiary care center. Subacute patients (N=40) with stroke with a mean age of 59.6 years and mean stroke duration of 46.8 days. The average gait speed with a cane was .13 m/s (.05-.29 m/s). Using a cane with the force contact and touch contact methods during walking. ML pelvic stability as measured by averaged peak-to-peak pelvic acceleration, muscle activation of bilateral tensor fascia latae (TFL), semitendinosus (ST), and vastus medialis (VM) using an electromyography system, and vertical cane force. The average amount of cane force during touch contact and force contact cane use conditions was 2.3N and 49.3N, respectively. A light touch cue through a cane was required only when the paretic leg accepted the body weight, and this cue can provide ML pelvic stability (.16 g of average pelvic acceleration) during walking to the same degree as the force contact method of cane use. However, significant increases in single-limb support duration with higher activations of TFL, VM, and ST muscles on the paretic leg were found during the paretic stance phase when using a cane in the touch contact fashion (Pstability during walking for subjects with stroke by facilitating the activations of weight-bearing muscles on the paretic leg during the stance phase.

  9. Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength evaluations in nulliparous and primiparous women: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Orsi Gameiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength of nulliparous and primiparous women. METHODS: A total of 100 women were prospectively distributed into two groups: Group 1 (G1 (n = 50 included healthy nulliparous women, and Group 2 (G2 (n = 50 included healthy primiparous women. Pelvic floor muscle strength was subjectively evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation. Pelvic floor muscle strength was objectively assessed using a portable perineometer. All of the parameters were evaluated simultaneously in G1 and were evaluated in G2 during the 20th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and 45 days after delivery. RESULTS: In G2, 14 women were excluded because they left the study before the follow-up evaluation. The median age was 23 years in G1 and 22 years in G2; there was no significant difference between the groups. The average body mass index was 21.7 kg/m² in G1 and 25.0 kg/m² in G2; there was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0004. In G2, transvaginal digital palpation evaluation showed significant impairments of pelvic floor muscle strength at the 36th week of pregnancy (p = 0.0006 and 45 days after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001 compared to G1. Objective evaluations of pelvic floor muscle strength in G2 revealed a significant decrease 45 days after vaginal delivery compared to nulliparous patients. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and vaginal delivery may cause weakness of the pelvic floor muscles.

  10. Head and pelvic movement asymmetry during lungeing in horses with symmetrical movement on the straight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodin, M; Roepstorff, L; French, A; Keegan, K G; Pfau, T; Egenvall, A

    2016-05-01

    Lungeing is commonly used as part of standard lameness examinations in horses. Knowledge of how lungeing influences motion symmetry in sound horses is needed. The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the symmetry of vertical head and pelvic motion during lungeing in a large number of horses with symmetric motion during straight line evaluation. Cross-sectional prospective study. A pool of 201 riding horses, all functioning well and considered sound by their owners, were evaluated in trot on a straight line and during lungeing to the left and right. From this pool, horses with symmetric vertical head and pelvic movement during the straight line trot (n = 94) were retained for analysis. Vertical head and pelvic movements were measured with body mounted uniaxial accelerometers. Differences between vertical maximum and minimum head (HDmax, HDmin) and pelvic (PDmax, PDmin) heights between left and right forelimb and hindlimb stances were compared between straight line trot and lungeing in either direction. Vertical head and pelvic movements during lungeing were more asymmetric than during trot on a straight line. Common asymmetric patterns seen in the head were more upward movement during push-off of the outside forelimb and less downward movement during impact of the inside limb. Common asymmetric patterns seen in the pelvis were less upward movement during push-off of the outside hindlimb and less downward movement of the pelvis during impact of the inside hindlimb. Asymmetric patterns in one lunge direction were frequently not the same as in the opposite direction. Lungeing induces systematic asymmetries in vertical head and pelvic motion patterns in horses that may not be the same in both directions. These asymmetries may mask or mimic fore- or hindlimb lameness. © 2015 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  11. Analysis of pelvic strain in different gait configurations in a validated cohort of computed tomography based finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Zoryana; Beek, Maarten; Wright, David; Maloul, Asmaa; Whyne, Cari Marisa

    2017-11-07

    The pelvis functions to transmit upper body loads to the lower limbs and is critical in human locomotion. Semi-automated, landmark-based finite element (FE) morphing and mapping techniques eliminate the need for segmentation and have shown to accelerate the generation of multiple specimen-specific pelvic FE models to enable the study of pelvic mechanical behaviour. The purpose of this research was to produce an experimentally validated cohort of specimen-specific FE models of the human pelvis and to use this cohort to analyze pelvic strain patterns during gait. Using an initially segmented specimen-specific pelvic FE model asa source model, four more specimen-specific pelvic FE models were generated from target clinical CT scans using landmark-based morphing and mapping techniques. FE strains from the five models were compared to the experimental strains obtained from cadaveric testing via linear regression analysis, (R 2 values ranging from 0.70 to 0.93). Inter-specimen variability in FE strain distributions was seen among the five specimen-specific pelvic FE models. The validated cohort of specimen-specific pelvic FE models was utilized to examine pelvic strains at different phases of the gait cycle. Each validated specimen-specific FE model was reconfigured into gait cycle phases representing heel-strike/heel-off and midstance/midswing. No significant difference was found in the double-leg stance and heel-strike/heel-off models (p=0.40). A trend was observed between double-leg stance and midstance/midswing models (p=0.07), and a significant difference was found between heel-strike/heel-off models and midstance/midswing models (p=0.02). Significant differences were also found in comparing right vs. left models (heel-strike/heel-off p=0.14, midstance/midswing p=0.04). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pelvic radiotherapy and sexual dysfunction in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Tine; Froeding, Ligita Paskeviciute

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the past decade there has been considerable progress in developing new radiation methods for cancer treatment. Pelvic radiotherapy constitutes the primary or (neo) adjuvant treatment of many pelvic cancers e.g., locally advanced cervical and rectal cancer. There is an increasing...... of life (QOL) issues; sexual functioning has proved to be one of the most important aspects of concern in long-term survivors. METHODS: An updated literature search in PubMed was performed on pelvic radiotherapy and female sexual functioning/dysfunction. Studies on gynaecological, urological...... and gastrointestinal cancers were included. The focus was on the period from 2010 to 2014, on studies using PROs, on potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where female sexual dysfunction (FSD) at least constituted a secondary outcome, and on studies reporting from modern radiotherapy modalities. RESULTS...

  13. Imaging of the posterior pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, Jaap [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St. Mark' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    Disorders of the posterior pelvic floor are relatively common. The role of imaging in this field is increasing, especially in constipation, prolapse and anal incontinence, and currently imaging is an integral part of the investigation of these pelvic floor disorders. Evacuation proctography provides both structural and functional information for rectal voiding and prolapse. Dynamic MRI may be a valuable alternative as the pelvic floor muscles are visualised, and it is currently under evaluation. Endoluminal imaging is important in the management of anal incontinence. Both endosonography and endoanal MRI can be used for detection of anal sphincter defects. Endoanal MRI has the advantage of simultaneously evaluating external sphincter atrophy, which is an important predictive factor for the outcome of sphincter repair. Many aspects of constipation and prolapse remain incompletely understood and treatment is partly empirical; however, imaging has a central role in management to place patients into treatment-defined groups. (orig.)

  14. Imaging of the posterior pelvic floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, Jaap; Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Disorders of the posterior pelvic floor are relatively common. The role of imaging in this field is increasing, especially in constipation, prolapse and anal incontinence, and currently imaging is an integral part of the investigation of these pelvic floor disorders. Evacuation proctography provides both structural and functional information for rectal voiding and prolapse. Dynamic MRI may be a valuable alternative as the pelvic floor muscles are visualised, and it is currently under evaluation. Endoluminal imaging is important in the management of anal incontinence. Both endosonography and endoanal MRI can be used for detection of anal sphincter defects. Endoanal MRI has the advantage of simultaneously evaluating external sphincter atrophy, which is an important predictive factor for the outcome of sphincter repair. Many aspects of constipation and prolapse remain incompletely understood and treatment is partly empirical; however, imaging has a central role in management to place patients into treatment-defined groups. (orig.)

  15. Knowledge of the pelvic floor in nulliparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Neels, Hedwig; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Michel; Vermandel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Proper pelvic floor function is important to avoid serious dysfunctions including incontinence, prolapse, and sexual problems. The current study evaluated the knowledge of young nulliparous women about their pelvic floor and identified what additional information they wanted. [Subjects and Methods] In this cross-sectional survey, a validated, 36 item questionnaire was distributed to 212 nulliparous women. The questionnaire addressed demography, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor dys...

  16. Are routine pelvic radiographs in major pediatric blunt trauma necessary?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagisetty, Jyothi [Memorial Hermann Medical Center, Emergency Medicine Department, Houston, TX (United States); Slovis, Thomas [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Thomas, Ronald [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Knazik, Stephen; Stankovic, Curt [Wayne State University of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Screening pelvic radiographs to rule out pelvic fractures are routinely used for the initial evaluation of pediatric blunt trauma. Recently, the utility of routine pelvic radiographs in certain subsets of patients with blunt trauma has been questioned. There is a growing amount of evidence that shows the clinical exam is reliable enough to obviate the need for routine screening pelvic radiographs in children. To identify variables that help predict the presence or absence of pelvic fractures in pediatric blunt trauma. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 to January 2010 using the trauma registry at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. We analyzed all level 1 and level 2 trauma victims, evaluating history, exam and mechanism of injury for association with the presence or absence of a pelvic fracture. Of 553 level 1 and 2 trauma patients who presented during the study period, 504 were included in the study. Most of these children, 486/504 (96.4%), showed no evidence of a pelvic fracture while 18/504 (3.6%) had a pelvic fracture. No factors were found to be predictive of a pelvic fracture. However, we developed a pelvic fracture screening tool that accurately rules out the presence of a pelvic fracture P = 0.008, NPV 99, sensitivity 96, 8.98 (1.52-52.8). This screening tool combines eight high-risk clinical findings (pelvic tenderness, laceration, ecchymosis, abrasion, GCS <14, positive urinalysis, abdominal pain/tenderness, femur fracture) and five high-risk mechanisms of injury (unrestrained motor vehicle collision [MVC], MVC with ejection, MVC rollover, auto vs. pedestrian, auto vs. bicycle). Pelvic fractures in pediatric major blunt trauma can reliably be ruled out by using our pelvic trauma screening tool. Although no findings accurately identified the presence of a pelvic fracture, the screening tool accurately identified the absence of a fracture, suggesting that pelvic radiographs are not warranted in this subset of patients. (orig.)

  17. Functional imaging of the pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienemann, Andreas E-mail: andreaslienemann@web.de; Fischer, Tanja

    2003-08-01

    Introduction/Objective: Pelvic floor dysfunction and associated pelvic organ prolapse represent a major problem in our present-day society, mostly afflicting parous women. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is assuming an increasingly important role in the more accurate delineation of the extent of the problem. This article briefly reviews one of the main radiological methods for the dynamic evaluation of the pelvic floor: functional cine MRI. Methods and Material: Out of the literature the smallest common denominator for functional cine MRI can be defined as follows: high field system; patient either in supine or sitting position; fast gradient echo sequence; midsagittal slice orientation; either a stack of slices or repeated measurements at the same slice position with the patient at rest or straining; image analysis using the pubococcygeal reference line. Results: All except two publications stress the usefulness of functional cine MRI in the evaluation of patients with organ descent and prolapse. This well accepted method allows for the visualization of all relevant structures in the anterior, middle and posterior compartment. It is especially useful in the detection of enteroceles, and provides a reliable postoperative follow-up tool. Isolated urinary or stool incontinence are not an indication for functional cine MRI, as is the case in patients with equivocal clinical findings. To date it does not allow for real 3D imaging of the pelvic floor or sufficient determination of fascial defects. Discussion: Functional cine MRI of the pelvic floor is a promising new imaging method for the detection of organ descent and prolapse in patients with equivocal clinical findings. The combination of function and morphology allows for an innovative view of the pelvic floor, and thus adds to our understanding of the various interactions of the structures.

  18. Viscosity overshoot in the start-up of uniaxial elongation of low density polyethylene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Bach, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The transient uniaxial elongational viscosity of BASF Lupolen 1840D and 3020D melts has been measured on a filament stretch rheometer up to Hencky strains of 6-7. The elongational viscosity of both melts was measured at 130 degrees C within a broad range of elongational rates. At high elongation ...

  19. Architectural differences in the anterior and middle compartments of the pelvic floor of young-adult and postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Hagoort, Jaco; Tan, Li-Wen; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Lamers, Wouter H

    2017-05-01

    The pelvic floor guards the passage of the pelvic organs to the exterior. The near-epidemic prevalence of incontinence in women continues to generate interest in the functional anatomy of the pelvic floor. However, due to its complex architecture and poor accessibility, the classical 'dissectional' approach has been unable to come up with a satisfactory description, so that many aspects of its anatomy continue to raise debate. For this reason, we opted for a 'sectional' approach, using the Chinese Visible Human project (four females, 21-35 years) and the Visible Human Project (USA; one female, 59 years) datasets to investigate age-related changes in the architecture of the anterior and middle compartments of the pelvic floor. The puborectal component of the levator ani muscle defined the levator hiatus boundary. The urethral sphincter complex consisted of a circular proximal portion (urethral sphincter proper), a sling that passed on the vaginal wall laterally to attach to the puborectal muscle (urethral compressor), and a circular portion that surrounded the distal urethra and vagina (urethrovaginal sphincter). The exclusive attachment of the urethral sphincter to soft tissues implies dependence on pelvic-floor integrity for optimal function. The vagina was circular at the introitus and gradually flattened between bladder and rectum. Well-developed fibrous tissue connected the inferior vaginal wall with urethra, rectum and pelvic floor. With eight-muscle insertions, the perineal body was a strong, irregular fibrous node that guarded the levator hiatus. Only loose areolar tissue comprising a remarkably well developed venous plexus connecting the middle and superior parts of the vagina with the lateral pelvic wall. The posterolateral boundary of the putative cardinal and sacrouterine ligaments coincided with the adventitia surrounding the mesorectum. The major difference between the young-adult and postmenopausal pelvic floor was the expansion of fat in between

  20. Clinical Presentation of Pelvic Tuberculosis Imitating Ovarian Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ju Huang

    2004-03-01

    Conclusion: Pelvic tuberculosis should be taken into account, especially in premenopausal women who manifest with massive ascites and adnexal tumors. Tumor markers such as CA-125 give limited information for the differential diagnosis of pelvic tuberculosis and ovarian carcinoma. We suggest exploratory laparotomy and intraoperative frozen pathology for the diagnosis of pelvic tuberculosis. New insight needs to be applied to tuberculosis.

  1. An approach to constipation associated with pelvic floor dysfunction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An approach to constipation associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. ... A detailed history and physical examination is necessary. Tests of colonic and pelvic floor function help distinguish constipation ... A small group of patients, refractory to medical therapy should be considered for surgery. Should test results show pelvic ...

  2. Prophylactic Antibiotics Use at IUCD Insertion and Pelvic Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only one had positive preinsertion swab for Chlamydia, and only one client had clinical pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with negative swab. Conclusion: Pelvic infection with Chlamydia isolation was not common amongst new IUCD insertions to warrant routine antibiotic prophylaxis in Brook Jersey. All cases of pelvic ...

  3. Pelvic floor function during and after first pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummen, H.J. van

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects the first pregnancy and childbirth on the pelvic floor. Pregnancy and vaginal delivery can negatively affect pelvic floor function. Micturition symptoms, defecation symptoms and sexual dysfunction are all signs of an impaired pelvic floor function. These symptoms are

  4. Pelvic radiograph in skeletal dysplasias: An approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bony pelvis is constituted by the ilium, ischium, pubis, and sacrum. The pelvic radiograph is an important component of the skeletal survey performed in suspected skeletal dysplasia. Most of the common skeletal dysplasias have either minor or major radiological abnormalities; hence, knowledge of the normal radiological appearance of bony pelvis is vital for recognizing the early signs of various skeletal dysplasias. This article discusses many common and some uncommon radiological findings on pelvic radiographs along with the specific dysplasia in which they are seen; common differential diagnostic considerations are also discussed.

  5. Primary Pelvic Involvement of Hydatid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migraci Tosun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by larval stage of a parasite named as Echinococcus. To diagnose this condition may be challenging without surgery and postoperative pathological examination due to limited value of serological studies but imaging techniques may give a clue when hydatid disease is suspected and hydatid disease shall be considered for differential diagnosis in pelvic mass. In the present case, we present a 75-year-old postmenopausal woman with pelvic hydatosis.

  6. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THE PELVIC FLOOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E.; Shaw, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) are common, with one in four U.S. women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review is to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and PFDs. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include: Urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this exam finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for women. However

  7. Assessment of pelvic fractures resulting from the 2010 Haiti earthquake: opportunities for improved care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Steven K; Casstevens, E Christopher; Archdeacon, Michael T; Mamczak, Christiaan N; Burgess, Andrew R

    2014-03-01

    On January 12, 2010, a catastrophic 7.0 magnitude earthquake shook the Haitian capital of Port-au-Prince. Because of their sudden and destructive nature, earthquakes can result in unfamiliar mass casualty situations accompanied by devastating orthopedic injuries. Evaluation of the pelvic fractures resulting from this earthquake revealed several factors that we hope will facilitate optimal preparation and planning for future disaster situations. A cohort of patients with earthquake-related pelvic ring fractures who were treated aboard the USNS Comfort was retrospectively analyzed. Anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis were evaluated and categorized according to the Young-Burgess classification system. Sixty-eight patients were included in the cohort. The mean (SD) age was 29.6 (14.4) years. Nineteen patients (29.7%) were male, and 49 (70.3%) were female. Pelvic fractures were categorized as anteroposterior compression in 7 patients, lateral compression (LC) in 47 patients, vertical shear (VS) in 8 patients, and combination of pelvic ring/acetabulum in 6 patients. Among the 23 patients treated operatively, the mean (SD) delay from injury to surgery was 19.2 (7.4) days. Patients showed predominance toward LC injuries (69.1%), consistent with crush under rubble. Thirty-one percent of the fractures were considered unstable (anteroposterior compression Type III, LC Type III, VS, and combination of pelvic ring/acetabulum). The VS injuries observed (11.8%) may be the result of a previously unidentified injury mechanism, an upright individual being struck by falling rubble, violently applying a downward force to the body over an extended lower extremity. A substantial delay in the treatment observed in this series may lead to an underestimation of both quantity and severity of pelvic fractures as critically ill patients may have perished before evaluation and treatment. In addition, the application of pelvic sheeting techniques may be a lifesaving intervention for

  8. Possible Removal of Rival Sperm by the Elongated Genitalia of the Earwig, Euborellia plebeja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Y

    2000-07-01

    Sperm displacement is a sperm competition avoidance mechanism that reduces the paternity of males that have already mated with the female. Direct anatomical sperm removal or sperm flushing is known to occur in four insect orders: Odonata, Orthoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. In a fifth order, Dermaptera (earwigs), I found that the virga (the elongated rod of the male genitalia) of Euborellia plebeja seems to be used to remove rival sperm from the spermatheca (a fine-tubed female sperm storage organ). In this species, copulation lasted on average 4.6 minutes, during which time the male inserted the virga deep into the spermatheca, and then extracted it ejaculating semen from the opening of the virgal tip. The extraction of virgae (with its brim-like tip) appeared to cause removal of stored sperm in the spermatheca. The virga was as long as the body length of males, and the spermatheca was twice the female body length. The long length of the spermatheca and the possible removal function of the virga may select for virgal elongation.

  9. Visualization of elongation measurements using an SER universal testing platform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr; Zelenková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/2342 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : elongational viscosity * Universal Testing Platform (SER) * polymer melts * LDPE Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.241, year: 2015

  10. CLOSED FORM OF THE STEERED ELONGATED HERMITE-GAUSS WAVELETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Campisi, Patrizio; Petkov, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    We provide a closed form, both in the spatial and in the frequency domain, of a family of wavelets which arise from steering elongated Hermite-Gauss filters. These wavelets have interesting mathematical properties, as they form new dyadic families of eigenfunctions of the 2D Fourier transform, and

  11. Longitudinal domain wall formation in elongated assemblies of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varón, Miriam; Beleggia, Marco; Jordanovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Through evaporation of dense colloids of ferromagnetic ~13 nm ε-Co particles onto carbon substrates, anisotropic magnetic dipolar interactions can support formation of elongated particle structures with aggregate thicknesses of 100-400 nm and lengths of up to some hundred microns. Lorenz microsco...

  12. Tandem Oligonucleotide Probe Annealing and Elongation To Discriminate Viral Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Maria; Uhd, Jesper; Miotke, Laura

    2017-01-01

    opportunities in transcriptome analysis, virology, and other fields. Herein, we report for the first time a "click" chemistry approach to oligonucleotide probe elongation as a novel approach to specifically detect a viral sequence. We hybridized a library of short, terminally labeled probes to Ebola virus RNA...

  13. The life and death of translation elongation factor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene; Merrill, A.R.; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) occupies an essential role in protein synthesis where it catalyses the translocation of the two tRNAs and the mRNA after peptidyl transfer on the 80S ribosome. Recent crystal structures of eEF2 and the cryo-EM reconstruction of its 80S complex now provide...

  14. Loss of elongation factor P disrupts bacterial outer membrane integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, S Betty; Hersch, Steven J; Roy, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) is posttranslationally modified at a conserved lysyl residue by the coordinated action of two enzymes, PoxA and YjeK. We have previously established the importance of this modification in Salmonella stress resistance. Here we report that, like poxA and yjeK mutants, Sal...

  15. On the measurement of elongational viscosity of polyethylene materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švrčinová, Petra; Kharlamov, Alexander; Filip, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2009), s. 49-57 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Elongational viscosity * SER Universal * Testing Platform * LDPE Escorene Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. Modelling elongational and shear rheology of two LDPE melts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rolón-Garrido, V. H.; Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr; Zatloukal, M.; Wagner, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2009), s. 691-697 ISSN 0035-4511 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Rheology * MSF model * Shear flow * Elongational flow * Strain hardening * Low-density polyethylene * Polymer melts Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.882, year: 2009

  17. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  18. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der

    2009-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  19. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis And Treatment In The Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Charles Walter; Taira, Taku

    2016-12-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease is a common disease that is associated with significant complications including infertility, chronic pelvic pain, ruptured tubo-ovarian abscess, and ectopic pregnancy. The diagnosis may be delayed when the presentation has nonspecific signs and symptoms. Even when it is properly identified, pelvic inflammatory disease is often treated suboptimally. This review provides evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, disposition, and follow-up of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease. Arranging follow-up of patients within 48 to 72 hours and providing clear patient education are fundamental to ensuring good patient outcomes. Emerging issues, including new pathogens and evolving resistance patterns among pelvic inflammatory disease pathogens are reviewed.

  20. Pelvic floor reconstruction by modified rectus abdominis myoperitoneal (MRAM) flap after pelvic exenterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibula, D; Zikan, M; Fischerova, D; Kocian, R; Germanova, A; Burgetova, A; Dusek, L; Fartáková, Z; Schneiderová, M; Nemejcová, K; Slama, J

    2017-03-01

    To describe the technique and report experiences with pelvic floor reconstruction by modified rectus abdominis myoperitoneal (MRAM) flap after extensive pelvic procedures. Surgical technique of MRAM harvest and transposition is carefully described. The patients in whom pelvic floor reconstruction with MRAM after either infralevator pelvic exenteration and/or extended lateral pelvic sidewall excision was carried out were enrolled into the study (MRAM group, n=16). Surgical data, post-operative morbidity, and disease status were retrospectively assessed. The results were compared with a historical cohort of patients, in whom an exenterative procedure without pelvic floor reconstruction was performed at the same institution (control group, n=24). Both groups were balanced in age, BMI, tumor types, and previous treatment. Substantially less patients from the MRAM group required reoperation within 60days of the surgery (25% vs. 50%) which was due to much lower rate of complications potentially related to empty pelvis syndrome (1 vs. 7 reoperations) (p=0.114). Late post-operative complication rate was substantially lower in the MRAM group (any grade: 79% vs. 44%; grade≥3: 37% vs. 6%) (p=0.041). The performance status 6months after the surgery was ≤1 in the majority of patients in MRAM (81%) while in only 38% of patients from the control group (p=0.027). There was one incisional hernia in MRAM group while three cases were reported in the controls. Pelvic floor reconstruction by MRAM in patients after pelvic exenterative procedures is associated with a substantial decrease in postoperative complications that are potentially related to empty pelvis syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Triathlete Risk of Pelvic Floor Disorders, Pelvic Girdle Pain, and Female Athlete Triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Johnny; Tenfelde, Sandi; Tell, Dina; Brincat, Cynthia; Fitzgerald, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Our primary objective was to describe the prevalence of pelvic floor disorders (PFDs), pelvic girdle pain (PGP), and the female athlete triad (disordered eating, menstrual irregularities, and osteoporosis) in a female triathlete population. We also evaluated for an association between these conditions. We administered an online survey to women who self-identified as female triathletes. Using validated questionnaires, Epidemiology of Prolapse and Incontinence Questionnaire and Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire, along with the female athlete triad questionnaire, we identified the prevalence of PFDs, PGP, and female athlete triad in this specific population. Demographic and exercise intensity were also queried to characterize these female triathletes. Three hundred eleven female triathletes responded to the Internet survey. There was a significant prevalence of PFDs with stress urinary incontinence and anal incontinence symptoms being most common (37.4% and 28%, respectively). Urgency urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse were less common (16% and 5%, respectively). Stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse were more common in parous triathletes (P = 0.001, P = 0.05). Pelvic girdle pain was noted in 18% of these triathletes but was not disabling. Twenty-four percent of participants screened positive for at least 1 arm of the female athlete triad. No association was found between the female athlete triad and PFDs. Pelvic floor disorders are common and bothersome in female triathletes. Pelvic girdle pain, while present, does not limit these athletes from their training. These female triathletes may be at risk for the female athlete triad. Female triathletes may be at risk for both metabolic and PFDs and should be screened when identified.

  2. Pelvic floor electrophysiology patterns associated with faecal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan

    2012-12-28

    Dec 28, 2012 ... a Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt ... Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the patterns of pelvic floor electrophysiology that are associated ..... decision of the appropriate therapy whether conservative or.

  3. CASE REPORT CAS Transcolonic pelvic abscess drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there are a number of reports of successful drainage of deep pelvic collections using transrectal, transvaginal, transgluteal and other routes,1,2 some collections remain difficult to access. An elderly female patient with renal failure presented with features of sepsis following a partial sigmoid colectomy for ...

  4. EAU Guidelines on Chronic Pelvic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fall, Magnus; Baranowski, Andrew P.; Elneil, Sohier; Engeler, Daniel; Hughes, John; Messelink, Embert J.; Oberpenning, Frank; Williams, Amanda C. de C.

    Context: These guidelines were prepared on behalf of the European Association of Urology (EAU) to help urologists assess the evidence-based management of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and to incorporate the recommendations into their clinical practice. Objective: To revise guidelines for the diagnosis,

  5. Epidemiology and outcome of complex pelvic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Markmiller, Max; Mehlhorn, Alexander T

    2005-01-01

    center were analysed for associated intrapelvic injuries, classification, severity of trauma, type of intervention and outcome. Of 552 patients with a pelvic fracture who entered the study, 15.5% presented with associated intrapelvic injuries secondary to the fracture (group I). A subgroup of patients...

  6. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Commonly Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incontinence at the time of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse in women who don't have symptoms of stress incontinence can help to prevent stress incontinence from occurring after surgery and without increasing ... organ prolapse. American Family Physician, 81 , 1111-1117. Shamliyan, ...

  7. Pelvic rotation torque during fast-pitch softball hitting under three ball height conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Yoichi; Fukushima, Atsushi; Kojima, Takeji

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relevance of hip joint angles to the production of the pelvic rotation torque in fast-pitch softball hitting and to examine the effect of ball height on this production. Thirteen advanced female softball players hit stationary balls at three different heights: high, middle, and low. The pelvic rotation torque, defined as the torque acting on the pelvis through the hip joints about the pelvic superior-inferior axis, was determined from the kinematic and force plate data using inverse dynamics. Irrespective of the ball heights, the rear hip extension, rear hip external rotation, front hip adduction, and front hip flexion torques contributed to the production of pelvic rotation torque. Although the contributions of the adduction and external rotation torques at each hip joint were significantly different among the ball heights, the contributions of the front and rear hip joint torques were similar among the three ball heights owing to cancelation of the two torque components. The timings of the peaks of the hip joint torque components were significantly different, suggesting that softball hitters may need to adjust the timings of the torque exertions fairly precisely to rotate the upper body effectively.

  8. Chronic female pelvic pain--part 1: clinical pathoanatomy and examination of the pelvic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Gail; Nelson, Patricia; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Dedrick, Gregory; Justiz, Rafael; Sizer, Phillip S

    2012-02-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is defined as the presence of pain in the pelvic girdle region for over a 6-month period and can arise from the gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal systems. As 15% of women experience pelvic pain at some time in their lives with yearly direct medical costs estimated at $2.8 billion, effective evaluation and management strategies of this condition are necessary. This merits a thorough discussion of a systematic approach to the evaluation of chronic pelvic pain conditions, including a careful history-taking and clinical examination. The challenge of accurately diagnosing chronic pelvic pain resides in the degree of peripheral and central sensitization of the nervous system associated with the chronicity of the symptoms, as well as the potential influence of the affective and biopsychosocial factors on symptom development as persistence. Once the musculoskeletal origin of the symptoms is identified, a clinical examination schema that is based on the location of primary onset of symptoms (lumbosacral, coccygeal, sacroiliac, pelvic floor, groin or abdominal region) can be followed to establish a basis for managing the specific pain generator(s) and manage tissue dysfunction. © 2011 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2011 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Pelvic floor dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondurri, A; Maffioli, A; Danelli, P

    2015-12-01

    Advances in tailored medical therapy and introduction of biologic agents for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment have ensured long-term disease remission. Some patients, however, still report defecatory symptoms. Patients present with a wide spectrum of conditions - anal incontinence, obstructed defecation and pelvic pain among the most frequent - that have a great impact on their quality of life. Due to IBD diagnosis, little relevance is attributed to this type of symptoms and their epidemiologic distribution is unknown. Pathogenetic hypotheses are currently under investigation. Routine diagnostic workflow and therapeutic options in pelvic floor service are often underused. The evaluation of these disorders starts with an endoscopy to rule out ongoing disease; the following diagnostic workflow is the same as in patients without IBD. For fecal incontinence and obstructed defecation, simple conservative therapy with dietary modifications and appropriate fluid intake is effective in most cases. In non-responding patients, anorectal physiology tests and imaging are required to select patients for pelvic floor muscle training and biofeedback. These treatments have been proven effective in IBD patients. Some new minimally invasive alternative strategies are available for IBD patients, as sacral nerve and posterior tibial nerve stimulation; for other ones (e.g., bulking agent implantation) IBD still remains an exclusion criterion. In order to preserve anatomical areas that could be useful for future reconstructive techniques, surgical options to cure pelvic floor dysfunction are indicated only in a small group of IBD patients, due to the high risk of failure in wound healing and to the possible side effects of surgery, which can lead to anal incontinence or to a possible proctectomy. A particular issue among defecatory symptoms in patients with IBD is paradoxical puborectalis contraction after restorative proctocolectomy: if this disorder is properly diagnosed, a

  10. Pelvic fractures: part 1. Evaluation, classification, and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Joshua R; Burgess, Andrew R; Liporace, Frank A; Haidukewych, George J

    2013-08-01

    Pelvic fractures range in severity from low-energy, generally benign lateral compression injuries to life-threatening, unstable fracture patterns. Initial management of severe pelvic fractures should follow Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols. Initial reduction of pelvic blood loss can be provided by binders, sheets, or some form of external fixation, which serve to reduce pelvic volume, stabilize clot formation, and reduce ongoing tissue damage. Persistently unstable patients may benefit from angiography with selective embolization, pelvic packing, or a combination of these interventions. Open pelvic fractures involving the perineum or bowel injury benefit from fecal diversion by colostomy. Trauma team coordination facilitates efficient resuscitative efforts and may affect definitive management by optimizing incision, ostomy, or catheter placement. Established protocols for both open and closed pelvic fractures help to standardize care.

  11. Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia elongate through zones of peptidoglycan synthesis that mark division sites of daughter cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Brandon Lyon; Scott, Molly; Parry, Bradley; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-08-16

    Agents that cause Lyme disease, relapsing fever, leptospirosis, and syphilis belong to the phylum Spirochaetae-a unique lineage of bacteria most known for their long, spiral morphology. Despite the relevance to human health, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of spirochete growth. Here, using quantitative microscopy to track peptidoglycan cell-wall synthesis, we found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi displays a complex pattern of growth. B. burgdorferi elongates from discrete zones that are both spatially and temporally regulated. In addition, some peptidoglycan incorporation occurs along the cell body, with the notable exception of a large region at the poles. Newborn cells inherit a highly active zone of peptidoglycan synthesis at midcell that contributes to elongation for most of the cell cycle. Concomitant with the initiation of nucleoid separation and cell constriction, second and third zones of elongation are established at the 1/4 and 3/4 cellular positions, marking future sites of division for the subsequent generation. Positioning of elongation zones along the cell is robust to cell length variations and is relatively precise over long distances (>30 µm), suggesting that cells ‟sense" relative, as opposed to absolute, cell length to establish zones of peptidoglycan synthesis. The transition from one to three zones of peptidoglycan growth during the cell cycle is also observed in relapsing fever Borrelia. However, this mode of growth does not extend to representative species from other spirochetal genera, suggesting that this distinctive growth mode represents an evolutionary divide in the spirochete phylum.

  12. Pelvic floor dyssynergia: efficacy of biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadel Hak, Nabil; El-Hemaly, Mohamed; Hamdy, Emad; El-Raouf, Ahmed Abd; Atef, Ehab; Salah, Tarek; El-Hanafy, Ehab; Sultan, Ahmad; Haleem, Magdy; Hamed, Hala

    2011-03-01

    Paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor during attempts to defaecate is described as pelvic floor dyssynergia (anismus). It is a behavioural disorder (no associated morphological or neurological abnormalities); consequently, biofeedback training has been recommended as a behavioural therapy for such a disorder. The aim of the present study was to evaluate long-term satisfaction of patients diagnosed with pelvic floor dyssynergia after biofeedback. Sixty patients (35 females and 25 males) with a mean age of 30±12years and a 4year duration of constipation were included. Forty-five patients had normal colonic transit and 15 patients had slow colonic transit. History, physical examination and barium enema were done to exclude constipation secondary to organic causes. Colonic and pelvic floor functions (colon-transit time, anorectal manometry, EMG and defaecography) were performed before and after biofeedback treatments. Patients were treated on a weekly basis with an average of (6±2) sessions. At the end of sessions, 55 out of 60 patients (91.6%) reported a subjectively overall improvement. Symptoms of dyschezia were reported less frequently after biofeedback. Age and gender were not predictive factors of outcome. No symptoms at initial assessment were predictive for patient's satisfaction but the only factor of predictive value was the diagnosis of anismus and the motivated patient who wanted to continue the sessions. Biofeedback remains a morbidity free, low-cost and effective outpatient therapy for well-motivated patients complaining of functional constipation and diagnosed as pelvic floor dyssynergia. Copyright © 2011 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilt before and after the performance of a fatigue protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim, Felipe C; Peixoto, Jennifer G; Vicente, Eduardo J D; Chagas, Paula S C; Fonseca, Diogo S

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of data in the literature for determining the influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilting and, thus, on lumbar stability. To assess the influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilt. Ten healthy young subjects were recruited, with a body mass index (BMI) below 24.9 kg/m(2) and leg length discrepancy below 1 cm. The BMI, pelvic perimeter and lower-limb lengths were assessed and, subsequently, the degrees of hemi-pelvic tilt and asymmetry between them were analyzed using lateral view photographs of the subjects in a standing position, using SAPO (Software for Postural Assessment). Next, fatigue was induced in the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on the dominant side, and after that the hemi-pelvic tilt and the asymmetry between the hemi-pelvises were reassessed. The Pearson r and Student t tests were conducted at the significance level of alpha=0.05. There were no significant correlations between the confounding variables and asymmetry of the hemi-pelvic angles. There were significant changes in the hemi-pelvic angle of the dominant side (t=3.760; p=0.004). Fatigue in the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle can generate increases in the tilt angle of the ipsilateral pelvis.

  14. Incidence of pelvic organ prolapse in Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, J. E. N.; Obiechina, N. J. A.; Obionu, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence and types of utero-vaginal prolapse. METHODS: Retrospective medical records analyses of women who were subjected to reconstructive pelvic surgery for various types of pelvic relaxation at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi and the University Of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria was carried out. The study was conducted from January 1996 to December 1999 during which there were 7515 surgical admissions. The inclusion criteria were those women who complained of feeling a mass in the vagina with demonAstrable descent of the anterior and/or posterior and/or apical vaginal walls and/or perineal descent. Excluded were patients who had other symptoms other than utero-vaginal prolapse and those whose grades and sites of prolapse were not determinable from the clinical or surgical notes. Also excluded were patients with nerve injury or disease, connective tissue disorders and neuromuscular diseases. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 54 women (age or = 40 years). The findings between those two groups were compared with reference to sites, types and degree of prolapse. Also, coexistence of pelvic relaxation and underlying medical conditions were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 159 subjects out of 492 charts studied met the inclusion criteria for the study. In group I, mean age was 32.839 with a standard deviation (SD) of +/- 6.012 years; and in group II the mean age was 56.543 with a SD of 8.094. Hypertrophic (elongated) cervix was determined in 15 (6.3%) subjects in group I for an incidence of 1.58% per year, cystocele (vaginal anterior wall descent) was present in 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year; rectocele (posterior vaginal wall descent) was identified in 15 (6.3%) women for an incidence of 1.58% per year; vaginal cough prolapse (apical descent) was present 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year. Perineal descent was absent in this group. In group II

  15. Incidence of pelvic organ prolapse in Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, J E N; Obiechina, N J A; Obionu, C N

    2003-02-01

    To establish the incidence and types of utero-vaginal prolapse. Retrospective medical records analyses of women who were subjected to reconstructive pelvic surgery for various types of pelvic relaxation at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi and the University Of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria was carried out. The study was conducted from January 1996 to December 1999 during which there were 7515 surgical admissions. The inclusion criteria were those women who complained of feeling a mass in the vagina with demonAstrable descent of the anterior and/or posterior and/or apical vaginal walls and/or perineal descent. Excluded were patients who had other symptoms other than utero-vaginal prolapse and those whose grades and sites of prolapse were not determinable from the clinical or surgical notes. Also excluded were patients with nerve injury or disease, connective tissue disorders and neuromuscular diseases. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 54 women (age or = 40 years). The findings between those two groups were compared with reference to sites, types and degree of prolapse. Also, coexistence of pelvic relaxation and underlying medical conditions were evaluated. A total of 159 subjects out of 492 charts studied met the inclusion criteria for the study. In group I, mean age was 32.839 with a standard deviation (SD) of +/- 6.012 years; and in group II the mean age was 56.543 with a SD of 8.094. Hypertrophic (elongated) cervix was determined in 15 (6.3%) subjects in group I for an incidence of 1.58% per year, cystocele (vaginal anterior wall descent) was present in 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year; rectocele (posterior vaginal wall descent) was identified in 15 (6.3%) women for an incidence of 1.58% per year; vaginal cough prolapse (apical descent) was present 21 (8.9%) women for an incidence of 2.2% per year. Perineal descent was absent in this group. In group II, there was no hypertrophic

  16. Transition zone cells reach G2 phase before initiating elongation in maize root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Victoria Alarcón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root elongation requires cell divisions in the meristematic zone and cell elongation in the elongation zone. The boundary between dividing and elongating cells is called the transition zone. In the meristem zone, initial cells are continuously dividing, but on the basal side of the meristem cells exit the meristem through the transition zone and enter in the elongation zone, where they stop division and rapidly elongate. Throughout this journey cells are accompanied by changes in cell cycle progression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that meristematic cells are in cycle, but exit when they enter the elongation zone. In addition, the percentage of cells in G2 phase (4C strongly increased from the meristem to the elongation zone. However, we did not observe remarkable changes in the percentage of cells in cell cycle phases along the entire elongation zone. These results suggest that meristematic cells in maize root apex stop the cell cycle in G2 phase after leaving the meristem.

  17. Recent Advances in Understanding Pelvic-Floor Tissue of Women With and Without Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Considerations for Physical Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kimberly

    2017-04-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a fairly common condition that imposes significant symptoms, diminished quality of life, social burden, financial expense, and surgical risk on women. As evidence supporting the benefit of pelvic-floor muscle training in nonsurgical management of pelvic organ prolapse grows, physical therapists are becoming a provider of choice interacting with women affected by pelvic organ prolapse. This perspective article will review recent research on tissue characteristics of 3 key components of pelvic organ support: skeletal muscle, ligament, and vaginal wall. This information will be summarized as implications for physical therapists. An improved understanding of pelvic-floor tissue in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse will provide a more comprehensive appreciation of the interaction of multiple systems in the disorder. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association.

  18. [Physiotherapy of pelvic floor for incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeri, S; Sottini, C

    2001-09-01

    The rate of urinary incontinence after prostatectomy, as reported in several studies, varies between 0 and 88%. In the last years, pelvic floor rehabilitation in the women stress incontinence has been strengthened, with a great amount of clinical studies and results. Recently, the rehabilitation treatment has been studied in men who underwent a radical prostatectomy. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews recently published the "Conservative management for post prostatectomy incontinence". The aim of this study was to determine the effects of conservative management in post prostatectomy urinary incontinence. Randomized or almost-randomized trials were analyzed up to January 1999; five studies were included, with the following results: 1. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no active treatment. Two trials compared pelvic floor muscle training with patients in a control group. In both groups there was a clinical improvement, especially in the first months after prostatectomy. The results of the two studies suggest a benefit in the treated group, even if not statistically significant, mainly in the first months after surgery. 2. Pelvic floor muscle training + biofeedback versus no active treatment. The treated group regained continence in shorter time, with decrease of incontinence episodes, of urinary frequency, of the quantity of urine loss; these data were not statistically significant. 3. Pelvic floor muscle training + rectal electrical stimulation versus no active treatment No detectable differences among the two groups, either in number of men still incontinent, and in Pad-test results. 4. Pelvic floor muscle training + rectal electrical stimulation + biofeedback versus no active treatment. Pad-test evaluation was similar in the treated and in the control group; no other outcomes were described. 5. Pelvic floor muscle training + rectal electrical stimulation versus pelvic floor muscle training. There was a progressive improvement in three months of

  19. Motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic region improve respiratory function in obese men. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzoli, Emanuela; Andreotti, Dianne; Pianta, Lucia; Mascheroni, Martina; Piccinno, Lorena; Puricelli, Luca; Cimolin, Veronica; Salvadori, Alberto; Codecasa, Franco; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Obese subjects have decreased pulmonary function. The hypothesis of our study was that poor coordination of the lumbar-pelvic musculature secondary to obesity may hinder the synergic activation of the respiratory muscles. The aim of the paper was to evaluate whether specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic musculature were able to improve respiratory function. Twenty obese male patients underwent a rehabilitation program including adapted physical activity and respiratory physiotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned to a Specific Motor Control Exercise Group (SG) and a Control Group (CG). SG followed a protocol according to the SMARTERehab concept aimed at improving posture, intra-abdominal pressure, rib cage mobility, and perception of correct muscle activation. CG performed an exercise training protocol to improve aerobic capacity and muscle strength. After intervention, both groups showed similar changes in body weight, fat, and fat-free mass. Respiratory function indexes improved in SG due to improved proprioception and coordination of the deep lumbar-pelvic muscles. Our study provides preliminary evidence that breathing, postural control, and spinal stability are intertwined. Positive respiratory effects in obese men can be obtained by prescribing specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic muscles. Implications for rehabilitation Obese subjects present with decreased pulmonary function and postural changes. Poor coordination of the lumbar-pelvic muscles affects posture and the synergic activation of the respiratory muscles. Specific motor control exercises of the lumbar-pelvic musculature can improve respiratory function. Breathing and postural control are intertwined: positive respiratory effects can be obtained by enhancing motor control of the lumbar-pelvic muscles.

  20. Pelvic actinomycosis presenting as a malignant pelvic mass: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perek Asiye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pelvic actinomycosis constitutes 3% of all human actinomycosis infections. It is usually insidious, and is often mistaken for other conditions such as diverticulitis, abscesses, inflammatory bowel disease and malignant tumors, presenting a diagnostic challenge pre-operatively; it is identified post-operatively in most cases. Here we present a case that presented as pelvic malignancy and was diagnosed as pelvic actinomycosis post-operatively. Case presentation A 48-year-old Caucasian Turkish woman presented to our clinic with a three-month history of abdominal pain, weight loss and difficulty in defecation. She had used an intra-uterine device for 16 years, however it had recently been removed. The rectosigmoidoscopy revealed narrowing of the lumen at 12 cm due to a mass lesion either in the wall or due to an extrinsic lesion that prevented the passage of the endoscope. On examination, there was no gynecological pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass, measuring 5.5 × 4 cm attached to the rectum posterior to the uterus. The ureter on that side was dilated. Surgically there was a pelvic mass adhered to the rectum and uterine adnexes, measuring 10 × 12 cm. It originated from uterine adnexes, particularly ones from the left side and formed a conglomerated mass with the uterus and nearby organs; the left ureter was also dilated due to the pelvic mass. Because of concomitant tubal abscess formation and difficulty in dissection planes, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy was performed (our patient was 48 years old and had completed her childbearing period. The cytology revealed inflammatory cells with aggregates of Actinomyces. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. Conclusions Pelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intra-uterine devices, and who have a history of appendectomy, tonsillectomy

  1. Minimally invasive anterior pelvic internal fixation: An anatomic study comparing Pelvic Bridge to INFIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Lee M; MacCormick, Lauren M; Dugarte, Anthony J; Rizkala, Amir R; Graves, Sara C; Cole, Peter A

    2018-02-01

    Anterior external fixation for pelvic ring fractures has shown to effectively improve stability and reduce mortality. However, these fixators can be associated with substantial morbidity such as pin tract infection, premature loss of fixation, and decreased quality of life in patients. Recently, two new methods of subcutaneous anterior pelvic internal fixation have been developed; the INFIX and the Pelvic Bridge. These methods have the purported advantages of lower wound complications, less surgical site pain, and improved quality of life. We sought to investigate the measured distances to critical anatomic structures, as well as the qualitative and topographic differences notable during implantation of both devices in the same cadaveric specimen. The Pelvic Bridge and INFIX were implanted in eleven fresh cadavers. Distances were then measured to: the superficial inguinal ring, round ligament, spermatic cord, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), femoral nerve, femoral artery, and femoral vein. Observations regarding implantation and topography were also recorded. The INFIX had greater measured distances from all structures except for the LFCN, in which its proximity placed this structure at risk. Neither device appears to put other critical structures at risk in the supine position. Significant implantation and topographic differences exist between the devices. The INFIX application lacked "safety margins" concerning the LFCN in 10/11 (90.9%) specimens, while Pelvic Bridge placement lacked "safety margins" with regard to the right superficial ring (1/11, 9%) and the right spermatic cord (1/11, 9%). Both the Pelvic Bridge and INFIX lie at safe distances from most critical pelvic structures in the supine position, though INFIX application places the LFCN at risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cladding axial elongation models for FRAP-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Carlson, E.R.; Berna, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the cladding axial elongation models developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for use by the FRAP-T6 computer code in analyzing the response of fuel rods during reactor transients in light water reactors (LWR). The FRAP-T6 code contains models (FRACAS-II subcode) that analyze the structural response of a fuel rod including pellet-cladding-mechanical-interaction (PCMI). Recently, four models were incorporated into FRACAS-II to calculate cladding axial deformation: (a) axial PCMI, (b) trapped fuel stack, (c) fuel relocation, and (d) effective fuel thermal expansion. Comparisons of cladding axial elongation measurements from two experiments with the corresponding FRAP-T6 calculations are presented

  3. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Reyes, M.; Lopez-Sandoval, R.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Garibay-Alonso, R.; Carroll, D.L.; Lastras-Martinez, A.

    2007-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam

  4. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Reyes, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)], E-mail: reyesm@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx; Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Arenas-Alatorre, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garibay-Alonso, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Carroll, D.L. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics. Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem NC 27109 (United States); Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-11-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam.

  5. The Many Faces of Elongator in Neurodevelopment and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kojic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of the nervous system requires a variety of cellular activities, such as proliferation, migration, axonal outgrowth and guidance and synapse formation during the differentiation of neural precursors into mature neurons. Malfunction of these highly regulated and coordinated events results in various neurological diseases. The Elongator complex is a multi-subunit complex highly conserved in eukaryotes whose function has been implicated in the majority of cellular activities underlying neurodevelopment. These activities include cell motility, actin cytoskeleton organization, exocytosis, polarized secretion, intracellular trafficking, and the maintenance of neural function. Several studies have associated mutations in Elongator subunits with the neurological disorders familial dysautonomia, intellectual disability, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and rolandic epilepsy. Here, we review the various cellular activities assigned to this complex and discuss the implications for neural development and disease. Further research in this area has the potential to generate new diagnostic tools, better prevention strategies and more effective treatment options for a wide variety of neurological disorders.

  6. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. Neuroprotective copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato complexes promote neurite elongation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bica

    Full Text Available Abnormal biometal homeostasis is a central feature of many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD, and motor neuron disease. Recent studies have shown that metal complexing compounds behaving as ionophores such as clioquinol and PBT2 have robust therapeutic activity in animal models of neurodegenerative disease; however, the mechanism of neuroprotective action remains unclear. These neuroprotective or neurogenerative processes may be related to the delivery or redistribution of biometals, such as copper and zinc, by metal ionophores. To investigate this further, we examined the effect of the bis(thiosemicarbazonato-copper complex, Cu(II(gtsm on neuritogenesis and neurite elongation (neurogenerative outcomes in PC12 neuronal-related cultures. We found that Cu(II(gtsm induced robust neurite elongation in PC12 cells when delivered at concentrations of 25 or 50 nM overnight. Analogous effects were observed with an alternative copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato complex, Cu(II(atsm, but at a higher concentration. Induction of neurite elongation by Cu(II(gtsm was restricted to neurites within the length range of 75-99 µm with a 2.3-fold increase in numbers of neurites in this length range with 50 nM Cu(II(gtsm treatment. The mechanism of neurogenerative action was investigated and revealed that Cu(II(gtsm inhibited cellular phosphatase activity. Treatment of cultures with 5 nM FK506 (calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor resulted in analogous elongation of neurites compared to 50 nM Cu(II(gtsm, suggesting a potential link between Cu(II(gtsm-mediated phosphatase inhibition and neurogenerative outcomes.

  8. IAA-glucopyranoside stimulation of corn coleoptiles elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Szmidt-Jaworska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously suggested that 1-O-IAGIuc growth stimulation occurs as the effect of its hydrolysis into a free IAA. In present experiments castanospermine, a known β-glucosidase inhibitor, was included. 1-O-IAGluc in the presence of castanospermine stimulated growth of corn coleoptiles segments even stronger then free IAA. So, it seems that 1-O-IAGluc itself, is responsible for the observed stimulation of corn coleoptile segments elongation.

  9. Polymer film strain gauges for measuring large elongations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratov, A. P.; Zueva, A. M.; Varakin, R. S.; Taranec, I. P.; Savenkova, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    The paper shows the possibility to print polymer strain gages, microstrip lines, coplanar waveguides, and other prints for avionics using printing technology and equipment. The methods of screen and inkjet printing have been complemented by three new operations of preparing print films for application of an electrically conductive ink layer. Such additional operations make it possible to enhance the conductive ink layer adhesion to the film and to manufacture strain gages for measuring large elongations.

  10. The life and death of translation elongation factor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene; Merrill, A.R.; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) occupies an essential role in protein synthesis where it catalyses the translocation of the two tRNAs and the mRNA after peptidyl transfer on the 80S ribosome. Recent crystal structures of eEF2 and the cryo-EM reconstruction of its 80S complex now provide...... diphthamide residue, which is ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa....

  11. Predictability of successful trans-arterial embolization in pelvic fracture bleeding based on patient initial presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Cheng-Cheng; Yu, Jei-Feng; Lan, Shou-Jen

    2017-12-24

    Pelvic fracture bleeding generally leads to hemorrhagic shock. Trans-arterial embolization (TAE) is regarded as the most useful treatment; however, the initial presentation of the patient can impact the effectiveness of TAE for pelvic fracture bleeding. The aim of this retrospective study is to explore whether the patient data at the initial presentation can predict the success of TAE for pelvic fracture bleeding. Twenty-seven charts were retrospectively reviewed. TAE failure was defined as any patient who eventually received an exigent laparotomy or who died due to uncontrolled bleeding after TAE. For patients who received TAE, we analyzed factors recorded at the initial presentation, including age, gender, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS) and associated injuries, using Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests. The odds ratio was used to determine the cut-off values for the patient presentation findings related to successful TAE and thus was used to assess congruity. Successful TAE was not correlated with age or gender. The hierarchical order of statistically significant associations between successful TAE and initial presentation data was as follows: the patient's body temperature, associated injury, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, GCS score, and ISS. The odds ratios for all statistically significant initial presentation factors were within a 95% confidence interval. The findings upon initial presentation of a patient with pelvic fracture bleeding that were related to the predictability of successful TAE include the following: hypothermia prevention with maintenance of the body temperature above 36°C, associated injuries limited to two organ systems, maintenance of the respiratory rate at approximately twenty-two breaths per minute, a sustained systolic blood pressure of approximately 90mmHg, maintenance of a heart rate of approximately one hundred

  12. Use of pelvic floor ultrasound to assess pelvic floor muscle function in Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth N; Morin, Melanie; Binik, Yitzchak M; Khalife, Samir; Carrier, Serge

    2011-11-01

    An important cause or maintaining factor for pain in Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS) may be pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunction, which may also be implicated in sexual dysfunction and influenced by psychosocial factors. Pelvic floor ultrasound is a noninvasive, reliable, and relatively simple method to assess PFM morphology and function and can be assessed by the anorectal angle (ARA) and levator plate angle (LPA). The aim of the present study was to examine PFM morphology in men with UCPPS as compared with controls and to examine the correlation with pain and psychosocial measures. Our participants were 24 men with UCPPS and 26 controls. A GE Voluson E8 ultrasound probe was placed on the perineum, and three-dimensional images were taken at rest and during PFM contraction. The main outcomes were ARA and LPA at rest and contraction. Participants also completed the National Institute of Health (NIH) Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire, State Anxiety Inventory, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Men with UCPPS had more acute ARAs than controls both at rest and during contraction. The two groups did not differ in LPA at rest; however, men with UCPPS had significantly more acute angles during contraction and LP excursion. Acute ARAs were positively correlated with greater pain report and sexual dysfunction. Anxiety was correlated with more acute ARAs and more obtuse LPAs. Three implications can be drawn from the findings. First, ARA at rest and during contraction as well as LP angle during contraction and LPA excursion separates men with UCPPS from controls. Second, ARA at rest and during contraction was correlated with pain and sexual dysfunction, while LPA at rest was related to anxiety. Third, pelvic floor ultrasound has the potential to be a useful and objective method of assessing PFM morphology in UCPPS. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Functional pelvic orientation measured from lateral standing and sitting radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGioia, Anthony M; Hafez, Mahmoud A; Jaramaz, Branislav; Levison, Timothy J; Moody, James E

    2006-12-01

    We prospectively obtained preoperative and 3-month postoperative lateral pelvic radiographs in the standing and sitting positions from 84 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty. We measured pelvic orientation (flexion extension) using the anterior pelvic plane as defined by the anterior superior iliac spines and pubic tubercles as references. There was a trend towards upright pelvic alignment when standing, with a mean anterior pelvic plane angle of 1.2 degrees (range, -22 degrees - +27 degrees). In the sitting position the pelvis tended to extend posteriorly, with a mean anterior pelvic plane angle of -36.2 degrees (range, -64 degrees - +4 degrees). There was a wide variation in the arc of pelvic flexion extension as patients moved from standing to sitting, with are of pelvic motion in some patients as mobile as 70 degrees and in others as stiff as 5 degrees. There was no significant variation between males and females or between preoperative and postoperative pelvic flexion extension. There were substantial variations in pelvic orientation when comparing standing and sitting for an individual patient and between different patients. This variation can be unpredictable, and may influence implant alignment and stability after total hip arthroplasty.

  14. [Pelvic congestion syndrome: outcome after embolization with coils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo Prades, M A; Ferrer Puchol, M D; Esteban Hernández, E; Ferrero Asensi, M

    2014-01-01

    To study the clinical manifestations and findings at venography in patients with pelvic congestion syndrome and to evaluate the outcome after percutaneous embolization using coils. We studied 34 women referred to the vascular radiology unit from the vascular surgery department for clinical suspicion of pelvic congestion syndrome. All patients underwent venography to assess the competence of the ovarian veins and to detect other varicose pelvic veins. When pelvic varicose veins were detected, they were embolized with coils. Clinical outcomes were recorded after reviewing the clinical history and administering a questionnaire over the phone. In 22 of the 34 patients, signs of pelvic venous insufficiency were found. The symptoms were mainly pelvic and perineal heaviness (20/22) and pelvic pain (18/22). The technical success of venography and embolization was 100%, with three minor complications that did not require hospitalization. Pelvic heaviness improved in 14 patients (in 13 it was completely eliminated). Pain disappeared in 11 patients and was partially alleviated in another 2. In patients with pelvic congestion syndrome, the embolization of insufficient pelvic veins achieves clinical improvement with short hospital stays and few complications. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Significant enhancement by biochar of caproate production via chain elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Hua; Lü, Fan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biochar was introduced into a chain elongation system to enhance the bioproduction of caproate and caprylate. The concentration of caproate increased to 21.1 g/L upon the addition of biochar, which is the highest level of caproate reported for such a system to date when ethanol was used as electron donor. The addition of biochar created a tougher system with more stable microorganism community structure for chain elongation, in which no obvious inhibition by products or substrates was observed, moreover, the lag phase was reduced 2.3-fold compared to the system without biochar. These reinforcement effect of biochar are attributed to the enhanced conductivity due to the significant enrichment of functional microorganisms via the microbial network surrounding smaller biochar particles, and via the adsorption on the rough surfaces or pores of larger particles, which facilitated electron transfer. Higher amounts of extracellular polymer substances and higher conductivity induced by biochar could contribute to the reinforcement effect in chain elongation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Three tRNAs on the ribosome slow translation elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junhong; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2017-12-26

    During protein synthesis, the ribosome simultaneously binds up to three different transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules. Among the three tRNA binding sites, the regulatory role of the exit (E) site, where deacylated tRNA spontaneously dissociates from the translational complex, has remained elusive. Here we use two donor-quencher pairs to observe and correlate both the conformation of ribosomes and tRNAs as well as tRNA occupancy. Our results reveal a partially rotated state of the ribosome wherein all three tRNA sites are occupied during translation elongation. The appearance and lifetime of this state depend on the E-site tRNA dissociation kinetics, which may vary among tRNA species and depends on temperature and ionic strength. The 3-tRNA partially rotated state is not a proper substrate for elongation factor G (EF-G), thus inhibiting translocation until the E-site tRNA dissociates. Our result presents two parallel kinetic pathways during translation elongation, underscoring the ability of E-site codons to modulate the dynamics of protein synthesis.

  17. Analysis of cracking potential and micro-elongation of linerboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supattra Panthai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Folding cracks of linerboards in relation to their micro-elongation and the forming conditions were studied using an industrial linerboard machine with a top former. The experiments consisted of the study of various forming conditions by manipulating the jet/wire speed ratio to produce linerboard with differences in fiber structures that were related to the cracked and uncracked products. The results showed that changes to the jet/wire speed ratio of about 0.01–0.02 to improve the tested folding endurance in the machine direction potentially produced folding cracks in the linerboard, which indicated an ambiguous interpretation of the foldability tests. The delaminated cracked layers were found to have a high folding endurance and tensile strength, while the decrease in the micro-elongation formulated in this study was found to be related to cracking. A lower micro-elongation of about 350–500 μm/N·g was found in a range of products with folding cracks.

  18. Three-dimensional evaluation of pelvic posture in adolescents with and without a history of low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Seher; Genç, Arzu; Kul Karaali, Hayriye; Algun, Zeliha Candan

    2017-12-19

    Background/aim: This study aimed to evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) profile of pelvic posture and postural displacements of the pelvis in adolescents with and without a history of low back pain (LBP). Materials and methods: Thirty-two adolescents participated in this study. Participants were asked if they had ever suffered LBP at some point in their lives. Participants were divided into two groups: with a history of LBP (LBP group) and without a history of LBP (control group). For 3D evaluation of pelvic posture, the PosturePrint system was used. Three digital photographs were obtained in an upright stance (anteroposterior, left-right lateral) and analyzed. Postural displacements of the pelvis were calculated as rotations in degrees and translations in millimeters. The posture index, which is the total postural displacements score, was recorded. Results: Overall, 40.6% of the participants reported a history of LBP, while 59.4% of the participants did not. Although the 3D profile of pelvic posture, postural displacements of pelvis, and posture index score were similar between groups, the majority of participants in both groups had altered pelvic and total body posture. Conclusion: The findings suggest that adolescents with LBP have a profile of pelvic posture similar to those of healthy adolescents without a history of LBP.

  19. Acute and late side-effects of conventional and conformal pelvic radiotherapy for cervical and endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmajlowicz, B.; Komafel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze and compare acute and late side-effects observed in patients with cervical and endometrial cancer treated with conventional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) pelvic radiotherapy. Patients and method. 50 patients treated with conventional pelvic radiotherapy and 50 patients treated with conformal pelvic radiotherapy at the Clinical Department of Gynecological Radiotherapy of the Lower Silesian Oncology Center between November 2004 and October 2005 were entered into a prospective study. We assessed Radiotherapy side-effects according to EORTCIRTOG, performance status according to the WHO, Body Mass Index and hematologic parameters during radiotherapy and one year after treatment. Results. Performance status acc. to the WHO was significantly better in the conformal arm. Anemia and nausea were more frequent in the conventional arm. In both the study groups acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary morbidity was more frequent than late morbidity and performance status was better after than before radiotherapy. Mean BMI was lower after radiotherapy than before treatment. Conclusions. Conformal pelvic radiotherapy in patients with cervical and endometrial cancer is less toxic than conventional pelvic radiotherapy which is also confirmed by the performance status. (authors)

  20. Percutaneous iliosacral fixation in external rotational pelvic fractures. A biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giráldez-Sánchez, Miguel A; Lázaro-Gonzálvez, Ángel; Martínez-Reina, Javier; Serrano-Toledano, David; Navarro-Robles, Alfredo; Cano-Luis, Pedro; Fragkakis, Evangelos M; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-02-01

    Although the gold standard in open book pelvic fractures remains the pubic symphysis (PS) plate fixation, the clinical outcomes are not satisfactory, despite the excellent anatomical reduction assessed radiologically. Some authors suggest that residual instability of the posterior pelvic elements may be responsible for the chronic pain and the early osteoarthritic changes in the sacroiliac joint (SIJ). To evaluate whether the isolated posterior fixation with one or two iliosacral screws (ISSs) is sufficient to provide adequate stability for the treatment of Burgess Young APC-II (YB APC-II) type of pelvic ring injuries. Biomechanical experimental study using 7 fresh human pelvises, where an YB APC-II pelvic injury was previously implemented. The isolated posterior fixation of the pelvic ring with 1 or 2 ISSs directed in the S1 vertebra body was analysed in each specimen following an axial load of 300N. The different displacement of the SIJ and of the PS were analysed in all three spatial axes, using the validated optical measurement system 3D PONTOS 5M. A multivariate version of Friedman test (non-parametric ANOVA for repeated measures) was performed. The isolated fixation of the SIJ with 1 ISS did not show any differences with respect to the intact pelvis (p=0.851). Regarding the PS, both type of fixations (with 1 or 2 ISSs) confirmed an acceptable correction and adequate control of the PS even though with some differences compared to the intact pelvis (p=0.01). The presence of the second ISS found not to offer any significant additional benefit. The three-dimensional analysis of the behaviour of the pelvic elements, in these two different types of fixation, did not show any statistical significant differences (p=0.645). The posterior fixation with ISS can represent an alternative option for treatment of pelvic injuries associated with rotational instability. Further prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine, the influence of the residual pubic

  1. Sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in adults: The Wakayama Spine Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Asai

    Full Text Available To establish the normal values of spino-pelvic alignment and to clarify the effect of age-related changes using large, community-based cohorts.In this study, data from 1461 participants (466 men, 995 women were analyzed. On lateral standing radiographs, the following parameters were measured: thoracic kyphosis (TK, lumbar lordosis (LL, pelvic tilt (PT, pelvic incidence (PI, and C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA. All values are expressed as the mean±standard deviation. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to examine correlations between variables of spino-pelvic parameters. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between age and spino-pelvic parameters. Therefore, we entered values for the body mass index (BMI, SVA, TK, and PI-LL into a multiple regression model to adjust for potential confounding factors.The SVA, TK, and PT increased with age, and LL decreased with age. Regarding sex differences, the TK was statistically significantly larger in men than in women, and LL, PT, and PI were statistically significantly smaller in men than in women. Correlation coefficients between the SVA and TK, between the SVA and PI-LL, and between TK and PI-LL were none, strong, and weak, respectively. Results of multiple regression analysis between age and spino-pelvic parameters showed that the standardized partial regression coefficients for the SVA, TK, and PI-LL were 0.17, 0.30, and 0.23, respectively, in men and 0.29, 0.32, and 0.23, respectively, in women.We found that all parameters were significantly associated with age in men and women. The SVA, TK, and PT increased with age, and LL decreased with age. Results of multiple regression analysis also demonstrated that the SVA, TK, and PI-LL are related to age. Indeed, the PI-LL value increased with age. In this study, a more excessive PI-LL mismatch was shown, indicating an increased risk of spinal malalignment. Differences in the absolute values of spino-pelvic parameters in each sex were small

  2. Elongated patellae at the final stage of Osgood-Schlatter disease: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, T; Pihlajamäki, H K; Mattila, V M; Kiuru, M

    2007-06-01

    Aetiology of Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is still unknown. Relative length of the patellar articular surface with the length of the patella, relative height of the tibial tubercle with the sagittal diameter of the tibia, Insall-Salvati, Blackburne-Peel, and Caton-Deschamps indexes, as well as Grelsamer-morphology type of the patella were measured from preoperative plain X-rays in 82 knees of 20-year-old males with OSD and in 87 knees of 20-year-old male controls with normal MRI findings of the knee. Seventy-eight of the OSD patients had separate ossicles. Their mean patellar morphology index was 1.44 and that of the controls was 1.28 (p<0.001), indicating significant lengthening of the patellar body among the OSD group. OSD patients had also significantly more often Grelsamer type II (elongated patellae) than the controls. Tibial tuberosity was significantly higher among OSD patients, but was not correlated with the lengthening of the patella. An increased patellar height among OSD patients was shown by the Blackburne-Peel and Caton-Deschamps indexes (p<0.001) and the Insall-Salvati index (p=0.018). OSD patients exhibit elongated patellae and patellar tendons which may result from long-standing tension of the extensor apparatus during growth spurt, when femoral growth exceeds that of the anterior structures of the knee.

  3. MRI pelvic landmark angles in the assessment of apical pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginath, Shimon; Garely, Alan; Luchs, Jonathan S; Shahryarinejad, Azin; Olivera, Cedric; Zhou, Sue; Ascher-Walsh, Charles; Condrea, Alexander; Brodman, Michael; Vardy, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pelvic landmark angles and lines in the assessment of apical vault prolapse. Seventeen women were evaluated as part of a prospective surgical trial. Baseline data are presented as a pilot study of the utility of MRI in addition to this evaluation of 6 nulliparous volunteers without prolapse and 11 parous women with symptomatic ≥ stage II uterine prolapse. Each patient underwent assessment for pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) and pelvic MRI. Pelvic landmark angles and lines were measured. Mann-Whitney Rank sum test and Spearman's Rank order correlation test were used to assess agreement. Women with prolapse had a significantly larger h angle, g angle, and e angle at rest than those without prolapse. Correlation between apical vault descent was measured clinically by POPQ point C with MRI measurements: h angle (r = 0.61, p = 0.01), g angle (r = 0.64, p = 0.005), and e angle (r = 0.62, p = 0.007). MRI measurements of pelvic landmark angles reliably differentiate between women with and without uterine prolapse and correlate best with POPQ point C.

  4. Effect of a new pelvic stabilizer (T-POD) on reduction of pelvic volume and haemodynamic stability in unstable pelvic fractures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Stigt, S.F. van; Vugt, A.B. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pelvic fractures, often the result of high energy blunt trauma, are associated with severe morbidity and mortality. A new pelvic stabilizer (T-POD) provides secure and effective simultaneous circumferential compression of the pelvis. METHODS: In this study we describe 15 patients with a

  5. Patients with Pelvic Floor Muscle Spasm Have a Superior Response to Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy at Specialized Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackwich, Alan Scott; Li, Jianbo; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a common condition that often requires multimodal therapy. Patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome have a high incidence of pelvic floor spasm, which can be treated with pelvic floor physical therapy. However, this is a specialized skill. We compared outcomes of pelvic floor physical therapy as part of multimodal therapy in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome between those treated at our institution and elsewhere. We identified patients from our chronic pelvic pain syndrome registry with pelvic floor spasm who were seen between 2010 and 2014 for more than 1 visit. Patient phenotype was assessed with the UPOINT system and symptom severity was determined by the National Institutes of Health CPSI. A 6-point decrease in CPSI was used to define patient improvement. A total of 82 patients fit the study criteria. Mean age was 41.6 years (range 19 to 75) and median symptom duration was 24 months (range 3 to 240). Mean CPSI was 26.8 (range 10 to 41), the median number of positive UPOINT domains was 3 (range 1 to 6) and 27 patients (32.9%) were treated locally. At followup 9 patients had refused pelvic floor physical therapy, and 24 and 48 had undergone pelvic floor physical therapy elsewhere and at CCF, respectively. The mean change in CPSI was 1.11 ± 4.1 in patients who refused, -3.46 ± 6.7 in those treated elsewhere and -11.3 ± 7.0 in those treated at CCF (p physical therapy at CCF (OR 4.23, p = 0.002) and symptom duration (OR 0.52, p = 0.03) predicted improvement. Pelvic floor physical therapy can be effective for chronic pelvic pain syndrome in patients with pelvic floor spasm. However, the outcome depends on specialty training and experience of therapists. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complications following pelvic irradiation for ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, P.R.; Holden, R.J.; Cowell, M.A.C.; Watkinson, G.

    1980-01-01

    Multiple complications are described in a patient following orthovoltage irradiation of the pelvis for ovarian carcinoma. Although ablation of the tumour was achieved, 17 years of poor health ensued terminating in her death from a combination of radiation enteritis causing severe malabsorption and retroperitoneal fibrosis obstructing both ureters and the inferior vena cava. Complications of pelvic irradiation and its position in the management of ovarian carcinoma are discussed. (author)

  7. Interstitial Cystitis: Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Atuğ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder of unknown etiology characterized by urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia and suprapubic pain. The syndrome presents differently in many patients, with the unifying factor being chronic pelvic pain and disruption of daily life activities.Although there are abundance of theories, the etiology of the condition remains unclear. This review focuses on recently published literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  8. Pelvic schwannoma in the right parametrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machairiotis N

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Machairiotis,4 Paul Zarogoulidis,3 Aikaterini Stylianaki,1 Eleni Karatrasoglou,4 Georgia Sotiropoulou,4 Alvin Floreskou,4 Eleana Chatzi,4 Athanasia Karamani,4 Georgia Liapi,5 Eleni Papakonstantinou,5 Nikolaos Katsikogiannis,1 Nikolaos Courcoutsakis,2 Christodoulos Machairiotis4 1Surgery Department, 2Radiology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 3Pulmonary Department, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Obstetric Gynecology Department, 5Pathology Department, Thriasio General Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Neurilemomas are benign usually encapsulated nerve sheath tumors derived from the Schwann cells. These tumors commonly arise from the cranial nerves as acoustic neurinomas but they are extremely rare in the pelvis and the retroperitoneal area (less than 0.5% of reported cases, unless they are combined with von Recklinghausen disease (type 1 neurofibromatosis. We report the case of a 58-year-old female with pelvic schwannoma, 6.5 × 5.5 cm in size, in the right parametrium. This is the first case reported in the literature. Based on the rarity of this tumor and in order to ensure optimum treatment and survival for our patient, we performed laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy and en-block tumor excision. A frozen section was taken during the surgery before complete resection of the mass, which was ambiguous. Because of the possibility of malignancy, complete excision of the mass was performed, with pelvic blunt dissection. Histological examination showed a benign neoplasm, originating from the cells of peripheral nerve sheaths; diagnosis was a schwannoma. There were degenerative areas, including cystic degeneration, hemorrhagic infiltrations, ischemic foci with pycnotic cells, and collagen replacement. Pelvic schwannomas are rare neoplasms that can be misdiagnosed. Laparoscopy is a safe

  9. Effect of a pelvic belt on EMG activity during manual load lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Manual lifting (ML capacity is still a matter of concern for industry administrators and electromyography (EMG seems to be a good alternative for the evaluation of muscles involved in this task. However, the reliability of these measures is very important. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of a pelvic belt on EMG activity of the erector spinus (ES and rectus femoralis (RF muscles during ML and during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC of trunk extension performed before (baseline and after ML. In addition, the variabilityin the EMG signal normalized by the following three different methods was evaluated: peak EMG activity, mean EMG activity, and EMG activity obtained during MVC. Eight volunteers performed ML of 15% and 25% of their body weight for 1 minute in the presence or absence of a pelvic belt. The coefficient of variation (CV of the EMG signal obtained for the ES and RF muscles was calculated during ML. Load cell traction values and the electromyographic variables RMS, median frequency, mean power frequency and total power of the ES muscle were obtained during MVC. The results showed lower CV (smaller variability when the EMG signal was normalized by peak activity, with this method thus being preferable. During MVC, only the load cell traction value differed from baseline after ML of 25% body weight without the pelvic belt (p=0.035, a finding suggesting rapid recovery of ES muscle after ML for 1 minute.

  10. Omental transposition for low pelvic anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, B; Acland, R D; Kolodko, V; Galandiuk, S

    2001-11-01

    Surgeons' opinions differ regarding the role of the omentum in low pelvic intestinal anastomoses. This study was undertaken to define the anatomy and surgical technique of omental transposition to the pelvis. We studied 45 cadavers to elucidate surgical aspects of omental mobilization, lengthening, and transposition into the pelvic cavity. In addition, intraoperative studies of omental transposition to the pelvis were performed in 20 patients with chronic ulcerative colitis, familial adenomatous polyposis, and rectal cancer who were undergoing ileal J-pouch anal anastomosis or low anterior resection. The most important anatomic variables for omental transposition are three variants of arterial blood supply: (1) In 56% of patients, there is one right, one (or two) middle, and one left omental artery. (2) In 26% of patients, the middle omental artery is absent. (3) In the remaining 18% of patients, the gastroepiploic artery is continued as a left omental artery but with various smaller connections to the right or middle omental artery. The first stage of omental lengthening is detachment of the omentum from the transverse colon mesentery. This must be performed carefully, as the omentum is closely adherent to the right transverse mesocolon. The second stage is the actual lengthening of the omentum. The third stage is placement of the omental flap into the pelvis. Creation of an omental pedicle is a simple surgical procedure. This procedure can be performed quickly, does not involve significant blood loss, and may reduce the frequency of complications after low pelvic anastomoses.

  11. CT findings of acute pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Hee; Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu; Woo, Hyunsik; Oh, Sohee

    2014-12-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) findings of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This retrospective, single-institution case-control study was approved by our institutional review board, and the informed consent was waived owing to the retrospective nature of the study. CT images of 32 women with clinically proven acute PID and 32 control subjects with other conditions of similar presentation were retrospectively reviewed. Analysis of CT findings included hepatic capsular enhancement, pelvic fat haziness, complicated ascites, uterine serosal enhancement, tubal thickening, endometritis, and oophoritis. Comparison of CT findings was performed with the Chi square test or the Fisher exact test and logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant CT findings in predicting PID. The CT findings that showed a statistically significant difference were hepatic capsular enhancement on late arterial phase (p = 0.003), pelvic fat haziness (p = 0.045), and tubal thickening (p = 0.001). Subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of hepatic capsular enhancement on late arterial phase and tubal thickening were significant predictors of PID (hepatic capsular enhancement on late arterial phase, p = 0.015, odds ratio [OR] = 4.8; tubal thickening, p = 0.005, OR = 10.5). Diagnostic morphological CT findings in women with clinically proven PID and acute abdominal pain include hepatic capsular enhancement on late arterial phase and tubal thickening.

  12. Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pusiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.

  13. Prophylactic ibuprofed administration during pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryker, J.A.; Demers, L.M.; Mortel, R.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to begin pelvic irradiation for malignant disease were randomized to receive ibuprofen 400 mg P.O. q.i.d. during their radiotherapy or standard therapy for radiation-induced gastrointestinal symptoms. Seventeen of 19 patients in the ibuprofen group completed the protocol. There was no significant difference in the daily stool frequency between the ibuprofen and control patients during the 5 to 6 week course of pelvic irradiation; the incidence and severity of diarrhea was the same. There was no significant difference in the incidence of nausea reported by the patients but the severity of nausea was less in the ibuprofen group; none of the 17 patients in the ibuprofen group reported vomiting at any time, whereas, 27% of the patients in the control group reported vomiting. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The data suggest that prophylactic ibuprofen administration may be beneficial in reducing the severity of nausea and preventing radiation-induced vomiting in patients who receive pelvic irradiation

  14. A Geometrically-Constrained Mathematical Model of Mammary Gland Ductal Elongation Reveals Novel Cellular Dynamics within the Terminal End Bud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Paine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is often used to model biological systems. In mammary gland development, mathematical modeling has been limited to acinar and branching morphogenesis and breast cancer, without reference to normal duct formation. We present a model of ductal elongation that exploits the geometrically-constrained shape of the terminal end bud (TEB, the growing tip of the duct, and incorporates morphometrics, region-specific proliferation and apoptosis rates. Iterative model refinement and behavior analysis, compared with biological data, indicated that the traditional metric of nipple to the ductal front distance, or percent fat pad filled to evaluate ductal elongation rate can be misleading, as it disregards branching events that can reduce its magnitude. Further, model driven investigations of the fates of specific TEB cell types confirmed migration of cap cells into the body cell layer, but showed their subsequent preferential elimination by apoptosis, thus minimizing their contribution to the luminal lineage and the mature duct.

  15. Relative Mesothelioma Potencies for Unregulated Respirable Elongated Mineral and Synthetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    For decades uncertainties and contradictions have surrounded the issue of whether exposures to respirable elongated mineral and synthetic particles (REMPs and RESPs) present health risks such as those recognized for exposures to elongated asbestiform mineral particles from the fi...

  16. A Cellular Factor for Regulation of Transcriptional Elongation by HIV TAT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Qiang

    1998-01-01

    Control of transcriptional elongation has been recognized as an important step in gene regulation, but mechanisms regulating the efficiency of elongation by RNA polymerase II have not been extensively studied...

  17. Characteristics of elongated and ruptured anterior cruciate ligament grafts: An analysis of 21 consecutive revision cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Iio

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The location of the original femoral tunnel was more proximal in patients with elongated grafts than in those with ruptured grafts. Different bone tunnel position from native ACL might lead to graft elongation.

  18. Physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Kahr; Backhausen, Mette; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pelvic girdle pain is a frequent cause of sick leave among pregnant women in Denmark. Studies regarding prevention of pelvic girdle pain are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A nested...... case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 5304). METHODS: This study used self-reported data on pelvic girdle pain obtained from an interview six months after childbirth. Information on physical exercise was obtained from the pregnancy interview around gestational week 16....... The association was estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Physical exercise in pregnancy was associated with decreased risk of overall pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99, p = 0.028). Tests for trend indicated decreasing odds for pelvic girdle pain with increasing number of hours per...

  19. Recognition and Management of Nonrelaxing Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction is not widely recognized. Unlike in pelvic floor disorders caused by relaxed muscles (eg, pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence, both of which often are identified readily), women affected by nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction may present with a broad range of nonspecific symptoms. These may include pain and problems with defecation, urination, and sexual function, which require relaxation and coordination of pelvic floor muscles and urinary and anal sphincters. These symptoms may adversely affect quality of life. Focus on the global symptom complex, rather than the individual symptoms, may help the clinician identify the condition. The primary care provider is in a position to intervene early, efficiently, and effectively by (1) recognizing the range of symptoms that might suggest nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction, (2) educating patients, (3) performing selective tests when needed to confirm the diagnosis, and (4) providing early referral for physical therapy. PMID:22305030

  20. IL17 Mediates Pelvic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F Murphy

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS is the most common form of prostatitis, accounting for 90-95% of all diagnoses. It is a complex multi-symptom syndrome with unknown etiology and limited effective treatments. Previous investigations highlight roles for inflammatory mediators in disease progression by correlating levels of cytokines and chemokines with patient reported symptom scores. It is hypothesized that alteration of adaptive immune mechanisms results in autoimmunity and subsequent development of pain. Mouse models of CPPS have been developed to delineate these immune mechanisms driving pain in humans. Using the experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP in C57BL/6 mice model of CPPS we examined the role of CD4+T-cell subsets in the development and maintenance of prostate pain, by tactile allodynia behavioral testing and flow cytometry. In tandem with increased CD4+IL17A+ T-cells upon EAP induction, prophylactic treatment with an anti-IL17 antibody one-day prior to EAP induction prevented the onset of pelvic pain. Therapeutic blockade of IL17 did not reverse pain symptoms indicating that IL17 is essential for development but not maintenance of chronic pain in EAP. Furthermore we identified a cytokine, IL7, to be associated with increased symptom severity in CPPS patients and is increased in patient prostatic secretions and the prostates of EAP mice. IL7 is fundamental to development of IL17 producing cells and plays a role in maturation of auto-reactive T-cells, it is also associated with autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes. More recently a growing body of research has pointed to IL17's role in development of neuropathic and chronic pain. This report presents novel data on the role of CD4+IL17+ T-cells in development and maintenance of pain in EAP and CPPS.

  1. Intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carolyn W; Smith, Tovia M; Luo, Jiajia; Kolenic, Giselle E; Ashton-Miller, James A; DeLancey, John O

    2017-02-01

    was performed to identify variables independently associated with clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification point C. In all, 52 women were included: 14 in the normal/normal group, 11 in the normal/prolapse group, and 27 in the prolapse/prolapse group. At 1 N of traction force in the operating room, 50% of women in the normal/prolapse group had cervix locations outside the normal range while 10% had apical support stiffness outside the normal range. Of women in the prolapse/prolapse group, 81% had cervix locations outside the normal range and 8% had apical support stiffness outside the normal range. Similar results for cervix locations were observed at 18 N of traction force; however the proportion of women with apical support stiffness outside the normal range increased to 50% in the normal/prolapse group and 59% in the prolapse/prolapse group. The prolapse/prolapse group had statistically lower apical support stiffness compared to the normal/normal group with increased traction from 1-18 N (0.47 ± 0.18 N/mm vs 0.63 ± 0.20 N/mm, P = .006), but all other comparisons were nonsignificant. After controlling for age, parity, body mass index, and apical support stiffness, cervix location at 1 N traction force remained an independent predictor of clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification point C, but only in the prolapse/prolapse group. Approximately 50% of women with cystocele and/or rectocele but normal apical support in the clinic had cervix locations outside the normal range under intraoperative traction, while 19% of women with uterine prolapse had normal apical support. Identifying women whose apical support falls outside a defined normal range may be a more accurate way to identify those who truly need a hysterectomy and/or an apical support procedure and to spare those who do not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Presentation of Pelvic Tuberculosis Imitating Ovarian Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Ju Huang; Lin-Hung Wei; Chang-Yao Hsieh

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Pelvic tuberculosis is rare, but is problematic for differential diagnosis. In this communication, we report a case series of pelvic tuberculosis clinically presenting as ovarian malignancy. Case Series: Over the past 10 years in our hospital, six cases of pelvic tuberculosis were seen. Five were thought to be ovarian malignancies, presenting either with ascites, an elevation of serum CA-125, or an adnexal tumor. Four patients underwent exploratory laparotomy and one received on...

  3. Radiodiagnosis of pelvic birth injuries and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konycheva, E.A.; Loskutova, L.A. (Bashkirskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    A study was made of the changes in the pelvic articulations in women with birth injuries 2-5 years following birth on the basis of the clinicoroentgenological findings. Pathological adhesion of birth injuries of the pelvic bones, that manifested itself in the formation of callus and arthrosis of the public and sacroiliac articulations, was noted. The study confirmed incomplete rehabilitation in this group of women. For prognosis of subsequent parturition roentgenopelvimetry is recommended for women with birth injuries of the pelvic girdle.

  4. Pelvic orientation and assessment of hip dysplasia in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Lund, B

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study was performed to qualify the source material of 4151 pelvic radiographs for the research into the relationship between unrecognised childhood hip disorders and the development of hip osteoarthrosis, and to investigate the effect of varying degrees of pelvic tilt and rotation....... Furthermore, we found that studies of acetabular dysplasia based on supine urograms or colon radiographs without information about pelvic orientation, centering of the X-ray beam and tube to film distance, run a serious risk of erroneous measurements....

  5. CT diagnosis of pelvic hemoperitoneum in obstetric and gynecologic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshie; Nakayama, Fumie; Ohnishi, Takeshi; Sakuyama, Keiko; Ishikawa, Tohru

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed CT findings of 10 cases with ovarian hemorrhage and 8 cases with ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Pelvic hematomas were surgically proven in 8 of 10 patients with ovarian hemorrhage and 8 of 8 patients with ruptured ectopic pregnancy. All cases showed high density hematomas (mean attenuation: 73.4) in the pelvic space. CT has high predictive value for pelvic hemoperitoneum in obstetric and gynecologic diseases. (author)

  6. Assessment of female pelvic pathology by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, M.; Sanchez, A.; Narvaez, J.A.; Valls, C.; Guma, A.; Andia, E.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the imaging technique of choice for the detection and characterization of pelvic pathology. Its multiplanar capability, excellent soft tissue contrast, use of nonionizing radiations and noninvasive nature make MRI the ideal technique for assessing the female pelvis. The purpose of this study is to describe the normal pelvic anatomy as it appears in MRI and to asses the radiologic features of the different pelvic pathologies. (Author) 21 refs

  7. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.

  8. Lower urinary tract symptoms in female patients with pelvic organ prolapse: efficacy of pelvic floor reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Kenya; Ito, Akiko; Murata, Yasutaka; Ashikari, Daisaku; Igarashi, Tomohiro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Mochida, Junichi; Yamanaka, Yataro; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of pelvic floor reconstruction on lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with pelvic organ prolapse. We carried out a prospective study at a single institution. A total of 223 female patients who underwent tension-free vaginal mesh surgery for pelvic organ prolapse between January 2006 and February 2010 were enrolled and prospectively evaluated. A total of 171 cases with concurrent stress urinary incontinence (76% of all cases) underwent concomitant transobturator tape sling. For evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms, parameters included International Prostate Symptom Score, its quality of life score, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaires Short Form, overactive bladder questionnaire, maximal flow rate and postvoid residual. These parameters were evaluated at baseline, and at 3, 6 and 12 months after the surgery. The severity of International Prostate Symptom Score total scores significantly correlated with preoperative pelvic organ prolapse quantification stages, overactive bladder questionnaire total scores and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaires Short Form scores. A total of 37% of stage 4 showed ≥20 International Prostate Symptom Score (severe cases). Postvoid residual significantly increased in stage 4 compared with stage 2. Tension-free vaginal mesh improved International Prostate Symptom Score, overactive bladder questionnaire and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaires Short Form significantly, and also achieved grade 0 pelvic organ prolapse quantification in 91% of all cases at 1 year after surgery. Postvoid residual values significantly improved and remained stable for 1 year. Worse overactive bladder questionnaire score was a significant predictive factor for poor postoperative International Prostate Symptom Score. The tension-free vaginal mesh plus transobturator tape procedure improves lower urinary tract symptoms in the majority of patients presenting pelvic

  9. Pelvic floor dysfunction, and effects of pregnancy and mode of delivery on pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bozkurt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD, although seems to be simple, is a complex process that develops secondary to multifactorial factors. The incidence of PFD is increasing with increasing life expectancy. PFD is a term that refers to a broad range of clinical scenarios, including lower urinary tract excretory and defecation disorders, such as urinary and anal incontinence, overactive bladder, and pelvic organ prolapse, as well as sexual disorders. It is a financial burden on the health care system and disrupts women's quality of life. Strategies applied to decrease PFD are focused on the course of pregnancy, mode and management of delivery, and pelvic exercise methods. Many studies in the literature define traumatic birth, usage of forceps, length of the second stage of delivery, and sphincter damage as modifiable risk factors for PFD. Maternal age, fetal position, and fetal head circumference are nonmodifiable risk factors. Although numerous studies show that vaginal delivery affects pelvic floor structures and their functions in a negative way, there is not enough scientific evidence to recommend elective cesarean delivery in order to prevent development of PFD. PFD is a heterogeneous pathological condition, and the effects of pregnancy, vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, and possible risk factors of PFD may be different from each other. Observational studies have identified certain obstetrical exposures as risk factors for pelvic floor disorders. These factors often coexist; therefore, the isolated effects of these variables on the pelvic floor are difficult to study. The routine use of episiotomy for many years in order to prevent PFD is not recommended anymore; episiotomy should be used in selected cases, and the mediolateral procedures should be used if needed.

  10. Pelvic ring fractures: what the orthopedic surgeon wants to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Bharti; Sheehan, Scott E; Sodickson, Aaron D; Weaver, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Treating trauma patients with displaced pelvic fractures requires a multidisciplinary approach at a designated trauma center to reduce morbidity and mortality. Immediate recognition of pelvic ring disruption and determination of pelvic stability are critical components in the evaluation of such patients. Stability is achieved by the ability of the osseoligamentous structures of the pelvis to withstand physiologic stresses without abnormal deformation. The supporting pelvic ligaments, including the posterior and anterior sacroiliac, iliolumbar, sacrospinous, and sacrotuberous ligaments, play a crucial role in pelvic stabilization. Radiologists should be familiar with the ligamentous anatomy and biomechanics relevant to understanding pelvic ring disruptions, as well as the Young and Burgess classification system, a systematic approach for interpreting pelvic ring disruptions and assessing stability on the basis of fundamental force vectors that create predictable patterns. This system provides an algorithmic approach to interpreting images and categorizes injuries as anterioposterior (AP) compression, lateral compression, vertical shear, or combined. Opening and closing of the pelvis from rotational forces result in AP compression and lateral compression injuries, respectively, whereas vertical shear injuries result from cephalad displacement of the hemipelvis. AP and lateral compression fractures are divided into types 1, 2, and 3, with increasing degrees of severity. Knowledge of these injury patterns leads to prompt identification and diagnosis of other subtle injuries and associated complications at pelvic radiography and cross-sectional imaging, allowing the orthopedic surgeon to apply corrective forces for prompt pelvic stabilization. ©RSNA, 2014.

  11. [SHOULD EVERY WOMAN AFTER LABOR BE OFFERED PELVIC FLOOR PHYSIOTHERAPY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Vered; Kafri, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Pelvic floor damage can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or post-partum, and may be expressed by symptoms such as urinary incontinence, fecal and gas incontinence, sexual dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse and chronic pelvic pain. Some of the symptoms, which manifest later in a woman's life, will go unrecognized in the immediate postpartum period. Most women do not mention their general health, unless specifically asked. Physiotherapists, who are adept with the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and the ability to diagnose unique differences, can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of postpartum pelvic floor problems. Monitoring, pelvic floor physiotherapy and exercise can be effective both in treatment and prevention of functional disorders of the pelvic floor. In this article, we will discuss pelvic floor problems and their appearance throughout pregnancy and childbirth, and the means of treatment from the physiotherapist's perspective. We raise the question as to whether all postpartum women could benefit from a training program of pelvic floor muscles. Pelvic floor physiotherapy is included in the health basket in Israel, but is not broadly utilized. Wider use could be adopted, particularly in light of the latest research evidence.

  12. Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy for Vulvodynia: A Clinician's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Stephanie A

    2017-09-01

    Vulvar pain affects up to 20% of women at some point in their lives, and most women with vulvar pain have associated pelvic floor impairments. Pelvic floor dysfunction is associated with significant functional limitations in women by causing painful intercourse and urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunction. A quick screening of the pelvic floor muscles can be performed in the gynecology office and should be used when patients report symptoms of pelvic pain. It is now known the vulvar pain syndromes are heterogeneous in origin; therefore, successful treatment plans are multimodal and include physical therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pelvic floor rehabilitation is effective in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahtera, T; Haaranen, M; Viramo-Koskela, A L; Ruutiainen, J

    1997-08-01

    To determine the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises combined with electrical stimulation of pelvic floor on lower urinary tract dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with near normal (current symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction. The muscle activity of the pelvic floor muscles was tested using surface EMG. Subjective urinary symptoms were assessed using a questionnaire. Pelvic floor muscles were stimulated using electrical stimulation at six sessions. During and after the final session the patients were taught to exercise their pelvic floor muscles and advised to continue these exercises regularly for at least six months. The control group was not treated. The maximal contraction power and endurance of the pelvic floor muscles increased after six sessions of electrical stimulation with interferential currents. Symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency and incontinence were significantly less frequent in the treated group than in the untreated subjects. Male patients appeared to respond better to the treatment than female patients. Compliance with the pelvic floor exercises was over 60% at the end of a follow-up for six months. Most drop-outs were due to the disappearance of urinary tract symptoms or to severe relapses in MS. The present study indicates that pelvic floor muscle exercises combined with electrical stimulation of the pelvic floor constitute an effective treatment for lower urinary tract dysfunction at least in male patients with MS.

  14. Pelvic congestion syndrome masquerading as osteoarthritis of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS is associated with pelvic vein reflux (PVR, occasionally secondary to venous compression. Its symptoms, usually intra-pelvic, are alleviated following the abolition of this reflux by pelvic vein embolisation (PVE. The objective of this report is to present two cases of left hip pain, erroneously diagnosed as osteoarthritis, which disappeared after successful PVE and abolition of PVR. Methods: Two females presented with lower limb varicose veins, and also had a history of left-sided hip pain. Both had previously been investigated for the hip pain and diagnosed as osteoarthritis despite minimal arthritic changes on pelvic X-rays. During investigation for lower limb varicose veins, both showed a pelvic origin for their leg veins and hence underwent transvaginal duplex ultrasound. This revealed PVR, and PVE was planned in both patients. Results: Both patients underwent PVE and reported ‘miraculous’ resolution of left hip pain and also PCS symptoms including pelvic pain, irritable bowel issues and the disappearance of pelvic dragging, with almost immediate disappearance of vulval and vaginal varicosities. One patient also noted reduced clitoral sensitivity. Conclusion: Manifestations of PCS may vary in terms of intra- or extra-pelvic signs. PCS and PVR should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with arthritic symptoms in the hip without evident radiographic evidence.

  15. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the body mass of a fossil animal is an essential step toward understanding its palaeoecological role. Length × width (L×W) of the first lower molar (m1) is frequently used as a proxy for body mass in fossil mammals. However, among rodents, Muroidea have no premolar and an elongated

  16. How do roots elongate in a structured soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kemo; Shen, Jianbo; Ashton, Rhys W; Dodd, Ian C; Parry, Martin A J; Whalley, William R

    2013-11-01

    In this review, we examine how roots penetrate a structured soil. We first examine the relationship between soil water status and its mechanical strength, as well as the ability of the soil to supply water to the root. We identify these as critical soil factors, because it is primarily in drying soil that mechanical constraints limit root elongation. Water supply to the root is important because root water status affects growth pressures and root stiffness. To simplify the bewildering complexity of soil-root interactions, the discussion is focused around the special cases of root elongation in soil with pores much smaller than the root diameter and the penetration of roots at interfaces within the soil. While it is often assumed that the former case is well understood, many unanswered questions remain. While low soil-root friction is often viewed as a trait conferring better penetration of strong soils, it may also increase the axial pressure on the root tip and in so doing reduce the rate of cell division and/or expansion. The precise trade-off between various root traits involved in root elongation in homogeneous soil remains to be determined. There is consensus that the most important factors determining root penetration at an interface are the angle at which the root attempts to penetrate the soil, root stiffness, and the strength of the soil to be penetrated. The effect of growth angle on root penetration implicates gravitropic responses in improved root penetration ability. Although there is no work that has explored the effect of the strength of the gravitropic responses on penetration of hard layers, we attempt to outline possible interactions. Impacts of soil drying and strength on phytohormone concentrations in roots, and consequent root-to-shoot signalling, are also considered.

  17. Fruiting branch K+ level affects cotton fibre elongation through osmoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashuo eYang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fibre length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fibre elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fibre length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1 on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibres were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax is the parameter that best reflects the change in fibre elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analysed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fibre length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibres, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fibre length in late season bolls.

  18. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    determined in vitro and in vivo. Cell lines used: MCF10A progression model ( MCF10A , M-II and M-IV cells), all in hand. Mouse strain used: 5-week old...breast cancer cells. 6-30 H. Lu (Zhou) 7 Cell lines used: MCF10A , M-II and M-IV. Subtask 2: Determine the molecular basis underlying high sensitivity...of EMT and metastasis-related genes to control at the transcription elongation stage. Cell lines used: MCF10A , M-II and M-IV. 12-36 H. Lu (Zhou

  19. Time Dependent and Steady Uni-axial Elongational Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens K.; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Here we present measurements of transient and steady uni-axial elongational viscosity, using the Filament Stretching Rheometer1 or FSR1 (see Fig. 1) of the following melts: Four narrow MMD polystyrene (PS) samples with weight-average molar mass Mw in the range of 50k to 390k. Three different bi......-disperse samples, mixed from the narrow MMD PS. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (Lupolen 1840D and 3020D). A steady-state viscosity was kept for 1-2.5 Hencky strain units in all measurements....

  20. Controlled laser production of elongated articles from particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Raymond D.; Lewis, Gary K.; Milewski, John O.

    2002-01-01

    It has been discovered that wires and small diameter rods can be produced using laser deposition technology in a novel way. An elongated article such as a wire or rod is constructed by melting and depositing particulate material into a deposition zone which has been designed to yield the desired article shape and dimensions. The article is withdrawn from the deposition zone as it is formed, thus enabling formation of the article in a continuous process. Alternatively, the deposition zone is moved along any of numerous deposition paths away from the article being formed.

  1. The 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratases HACD1 and HACD2 exhibit functional redundancy and are active in a wide range of fatty acid elongation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Megumi; Uchida, Yukiko; Ohno, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Masatoshi; Nishioka, Chieko; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Sassa, Takayuki; Kihara, Akio

    2017-09-15

    Differences among fatty acids (FAs) in chain length and number of double bonds create lipid diversity. FA elongation proceeds via a four-step reaction cycle, in which the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratases (HACDs) HACD1-4 catalyze the third step. However, the contribution of each HACD to 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activity in certain tissues or in different FA elongation pathways remains unclear. HACD1 is specifically expressed in muscles and is a myopathy-causative gene. Here, we generated Hacd1 KO mice and observed that these mice had reduced body and skeletal muscle weights. In skeletal muscle, HACD1 mRNA expression was by far the highest among the HACDs However, we observed only an ∼40% reduction in HACD activity and no changes in membrane lipid composition in Hacd1 -KO skeletal muscle, suggesting that some HACD activities are redundant. Moreover, when expressed in yeast, both HACD1 and HACD2 participated in saturated and monounsaturated FA elongation pathways. Disruption of HACD2 in the haploid human cell line HAP1 significantly reduced FA elongation activities toward both saturated and unsaturated FAs, and HACD1 HACD2 double disruption resulted in a further reduction. Overexpressed HACD3 exhibited weak activity in saturated and monounsaturated FA elongation pathways, and no activity was detected for HACD4. We therefore conclude that HACD1 and HACD2 exhibit redundant activities in a wide range of FA elongation pathways, including those for saturated to polyunsaturated FAs, with HACD2 being the major 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase. Our findings are important for furthering the understanding of the molecular mechanisms in FA elongation and diversity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Effect of Early Pelvic Binder Use in the Emergency Management of Suspected Pelvic Trauma: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Der; Chen, Cheng-Jueng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Wang, Sheng-Hao; Chan, De-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the effect of early pelvic binder use in the emergency management of suspected pelvic trauma, compared with the conventional stepwise approach. Methods: We enrolled trauma patients with initial stabilization using a pelvic binder when suspecting pelvic injury. The inclusion criteria were traumatic injury requiring a trauma team and at least one of the following: a loss of consciousness or a Glasgow coma score (GCS) of pelvic injury. Various parameters, including gender, age, mechanism of injury, GCS, mortality, hospital stay, initial vital signs, revised trauma score, injury severity score, and outcome, were assessed and compared with historical controls. Results: A total of 204 patients with high-energy multiple-trauma from a single level I trauma center in North Taiwan were enrolled in the study from August 2013 to July 2014. The two group baseline patient characteristics were all collected and compared. The trauma patients with suspected pelvic fractures initially stabilized with a pelvic binder had shorter hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stays. The study group achieved statistically significantly improved survival and lower mean blood transfusion volume and mortality rate, although they were more severe in the trauma score. Conclusions: We recommend prompt pelvic binder use for suspected pelvic injury before definitive imaging is available, as a cervical spine collar is used to protect the cervical spine from further injury prior to definitive identification and characterization of an injury. PMID:29023379

  3. Assessment of the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength using ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Gezer, Cenk; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap; Askar, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength could be detected via ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Of 282 incontinent patients, 116 participated in the study and were randomly divided into a pelvic floor muscle training (n=65) group or control group (n=51). The pelvic floor muscle training group was given pelvic floor exercise training for 12 weeks. Both groups were ev...

  4. Doc toxin is a kinase that inactivates elongation factor Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W; Rothenbacher, Francesca P; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S; Dunham, Christine M; Woychik, Nancy A

    2014-03-14

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site.

  5. Doc Toxin Is a Kinase That Inactivates Elongation Factor Tu*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W.; Rothenbacher, Francesca P.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S.; Dunham, Christine M.; Woychik, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site. PMID:24448800

  6. Application of an Elongated Kelvin Model to Space Shuttle Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle foams are rigid closed-cell polyurethane foams. The two foams used most-extensively oil space shuttle external tank are BX-265 and NCFL4-124. Because of the foaming and rising process, the foam microstructures are elongated in the rise direction. As a result, these two foams exhibit a nonisotropic mechanical behavior. A detailed microstructural characterization of the two foams is presented. Key features of the foam cells are described and the average cell dimensions in the two foams are summarized. Experimental studies are also conducted to measure the room temperature mechanical response of the two foams in the two principal material directions (parallel to the rise and perpendicular to the rise). The measured elastic modulus, proportional limit stress, ultimate tensile strength, and Poisson's ratios are reported. The generalized elongated Kelvin foam model previously developed by the authors is reviewed and the equations which result from this model are summarized. Using the measured microstructural dimensions and the measured stiffness ratio, the foam tensile strength ratio and Poisson's ratios are predicted for both foams and are compared with the experimental data. The predicted tensile strength ratio is in close agreement with the measured strength ratio for both BX-265 and NCFI24-124. The comparison between the predicted Poisson's ratios and the measured values is not as favorable.

  7. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole (PS52K) and 103 kg/mole (PS103K), and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The bidisperse melts consist of PS103K or PS52K and a monodisperse...... (closed loop proportional regulator) using the laser in such a way that the stretch rate at the neck is kept constant. The rheometer has been described in more detail in (A. Bach, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Journal of Rheology, 47 (2003) 429). PS390K show a decrease in the steady viscosity as a power......-law function of the elongational rate (A. Bach, K. Almdal, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Macromolecules 36 (2003) 5174). PS52K and PS103K show that the steady viscosity has a maximum that is respectively 100% and 50% above 3 times the zero-shear-rate viscosity. The bidisperse melts show a significant...

  8. Transcription elongation factor GreA has functional chaperone activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Tianyi; Yu, Bo; Wang, Limin; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial GreA is an indispensable factor in the RNA polymerase elongation complex. It plays multiple roles in transcriptional elongation, and may be implicated in resistance to various stresses. In this study, we show that Escherichia coli GreA inhibits aggregation of several substrate proteins under heat shock condition. GreA can also effectively promote the refolding of denatured proteins. These facts reveal that GreA has chaperone activity. Distinct from many molecular chaperones, GreA does not form stable complexes with unfolded substrates. GreA overexpression confers the host cells with enhanced resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress. Moreover, GreA expression in the greA/greB double mutant could suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype, and dramatically alleviate the in vivo protein aggregation. The results suggest that bacterial GreA may act as chaperone in vivo. These results suggest that GreA, in addition to its function as a transcription factor, is involved in protection of cellular proteins against aggregation.

  9. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  10. Axial elongation following prolonged near work in myopes and emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Emily C; Read, Scott A; Collins, Michael J; Hegarty, Katherine J; Priddle, Scott B; Smith, Josephine M; Perro, Judd V

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the influence of a period of sustained near work upon axial length in groups of emmetropes (EMM) and myopes. Forty young adult subjects (20 myopes and 20 emmetropes) were recruited for the study. Myopes were further classified as early onset (EOM), late onset (LOM), stable (SM) or progressing (PM) subgroups. Axial length was measured with the IOLMaster instrument before, immediately after and then again 10 min after a continuous 30 min near task of 5 D accommodation demand. Measures of distance objective refraction were also collected. Significant changes in axial length were observed immediately following the near task. EOM axial length elongated on average by 0.027±0.021 mm, LOM by 0.014±0.020 mm, EMM by 0.010±0.015 mm, PM by 0.031±0.022 mm and SM by 0.014±0.018 mm. At the conclusion of the 10 min regression period, axial length measures were not significantly different from baseline values. Axial elongation was observed following a prolonged near task. Both EOM and PM groups showed increases in axial length that were significantly greater than emmetropes.

  11. Granular packings of elongated faceted particles deposited under gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Raúl Cruz; Zuriguel, Iker; Maza, Diego; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results of the effect that particle shape has on the packing properties of granular materials. We have systematically measured the particle angular distribution, the cluster size distribution and the stress profiles of ensembles of faceted elongated particles deposited in a bidimensional box. Stress transmission through this granular system has been numerically simulated using a two-dimensional model of irregular particles. For grains of maximum symmetry (squares), the stress propagation localizes and forms chain-like forces analogous to those observed for granular materials composed of spheres. For thick layers of grains, a pressure saturation is observed for deposit depths beyond a characteristic length. This scenario correlates with packing morphology and can be understood in terms of stochastic models of aggregation and random multiplicative processes. As grains elongate and lose their symmetry, stress propagation is strongly affected. Lateral force transmission becomes less favored than vertical transfer, and hence, an increase in the pressure develops with depth, hindering force saturation

  12. Measurements of rope elongation or deflection in impact destructive testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The computation of energy dissipation in mechanical protective systems and the corresponding determination of their safe use in mine shafts, requires a precise description of their bending and elongation, for instance, in conditions of dynamic, transverse loading induced by the falling of mass. The task aimed to apply a fast parallactic rangefinder and then to mount it on a test stand, which is an original development of the Central Mining Institute's Laboratory of Rope Testing in Katowice. In the solution presented in this paper, the measuring method and equipment in which the parallactic laser rangefinder, provided with a fast converter and recording system, ensures non-contact measurement of elongation, deflection or deformation of the sample (construction during impact loading. The structure of the unit, and metrological parameters are also presented. Additionally, the method of calibration and examples of the application in the impact tests of steel wire ropes are presented. The measurement data obtained will provide a basis for analysis, the prediction of the energy of events and for applying the necessary means to maintain explosion-proofness in the case of destructive damage to mechanical elements in the mine atmosphere. What makes these measurements novel is the application of a fast and accurate laser rangefinder to the non-contact measurement of crucial impact parameters of dynamic events that result in the destruction of the sample. In addition, the method introduces a laser scanning vibrometer with the aim of evaluating the parameters of the samples before and after destruction.

  13. Laparoscopic pelvic sling placement facilitates optimum therapeutic radiotherapy delivery in the management of pelvic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, M; Thirion, P; Kiernan, F; Byrnes, C; Kelly, P; Keane, F; Neary, P

    2009-04-01

    Radiotherapy has a significant role in the management of pelvic malignancies. However, the small intestine represents the main dose limiting organ. Invasive and non-invasive mechanical methods have been described to displace bowel out of the radiation field. We herein report a case series of laparoscopic placement of an absorbable pelvic sling in patients requiring pelvic radiotherapy. Six patients were referred to our minimally invasive unit. Four patients required radical radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer, one was scheduled for salvage localised radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy PSA progression and one patient required adjuvant radiotherapy post-cystoprostatectomy for bladder carcinoma. All patients had excessive small intestine within the radiation fields despite the use of non-invasive displacement methods. All patients underwent laparoscopic mesh placement, allowing for an elevation of small bowel from the pelvis. The presence of an ileal conduit or previous surgery did not prevent mesh placement. Post-operative planning radiotherapy CT scans confirmed displacement of the small intestine allowing all patients to receive safely the planned radiotherapy in terms of both volume and radiation schedule. Laparoscopic mesh placement represents a safe and efficient procedure in patients requiring high-dose pelvic radiation, presenting with unacceptable small intestine volume in the radiation field. This procedure is also feasible in those that have undergone previous major abdominal surgery.

  14. Laparoscopic pelvic sling placement facilitates optimum therapeutic radiotherapy delivery in the management of pelvic malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Joyce, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy has a significant role in the management of pelvic malignancies. However, the small intestine represents the main dose limiting organ. Invasive and non-invasive mechanical methods have been described to displace bowel out of the radiation field. We herein report a case series of laparoscopic placement of an absorbable pelvic sling in patients requiring pelvic radiotherapy. METHODS: Six patients were referred to our minimally invasive unit. Four patients required radical radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer, one was scheduled for salvage localised radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy PSA progression and one patient required adjuvant radiotherapy post-cystoprostatectomy for bladder carcinoma. All patients had excessive small intestine within the radiation fields despite the use of non-invasive displacement methods. RESULTS: All patients underwent laparoscopic mesh placement, allowing for an elevation of small bowel from the pelvis. The presence of an ileal conduit or previous surgery did not prevent mesh placement. Post-operative planning radiotherapy CT scans confirmed displacement of the small intestine allowing all patients to receive safely the planned radiotherapy in terms of both volume and radiation schedule. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic mesh placement represents a safe and efficient procedure in patients requiring high-dose pelvic radiation, presenting with unacceptable small intestine volume in the radiation field. This procedure is also feasible in those that have undergone previous major abdominal surgery.

  15. Lifestyle advice with or without pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of adding pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to a structured lifestyle advice program. METHODS: This was a single-blinded randomized trial of women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage ≥ II. Participants were randomized to a stru......INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of adding pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to a structured lifestyle advice program. METHODS: This was a single-blinded randomized trial of women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage ≥ II. Participants were randomized...... to a structured lifestyle advice program with or without PFMT. Both groups received similar lifestyle advice in six separate group sessions. The combined group performed group PFMT after an individual assessment. Primary outcome was a global improvement scale at six-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were...... %) completed six-month follow-up. At both follow-ups, significantly more women in the combined group reported improvement in the global scale. At the three-month follow-up, the combined group only had significant improvement of POP symptoms while only the lifestyle advice group had significant improvement...

  16. Effect of pelvic irradiation of lactose absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryker, J.A.; Mortel, R.; Hepner, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-four patients undergoing pelvic irradiation for gynecologic malignancies had 14 C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of their treatment. The 14 C-lactose breath test was performed by administering 2 μCi of 14 C-lactose by mouth along with 50 g of lactose. Breath samples were collected in ethanolic hyamine 1, 2, and 3 hr later; the radioactivity of the trapped 14 CO 2 was determined by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. In the first week of treatment the percentage of administered 14 C excreted as 14 CO 2 at 1, 2, and 3 hr was 1.7 +- 0.8% (mean +- SD), 4.5 +- 1.6%, and 5.8 +- 1.4%, respectively. In the fifth week of treatment the 1-hr, 2-hr, and 3-hr values were 1.2 +- 0.9%, 3.6 +- 2.0%, and 4.7 +- 1.9%, respectively. The difference between the first week and fifth week test results at 1, 2, and 3 hr was statistically significant (t = 2.64, p 14 C-lactose breath test results in the fifth week and the stool frequency at that time (r = -0.44, p 14 C-lactose breath test results in the fifth week were below normal (<1.2%) had nausea at that time. The data suggest that in some patients, lactose malabsorption as a result of the effect of radiation on small intestinal function may be etiologically related to the symptoms of nausea and diarrhea which occur commonly in patients who are undergoing pelvic irradiation. In addition, the results suggest that lactose-containing foods should be restricted in some patients who are undergoing pelvic irradiation to prevent symptoms resulting from radiation-induced lactose intolerance

  17. Botulinum Toxin A Injections Into Pelvic Floor Muscles Under Electromyographic Guidance for Women With Refractory High-Tone Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: A 6-Month Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Darlene; El-Khawand, Dominique; Ginzburg, Natasha; Wehbe, Salim; O'Hare, Peter; Whitmore, Kristene

    2015-01-01

    High-tone pelvic floor dysfunction (HTPFD) is a debilitating chronic pain disorder for many women with significant impact on their quality of life (QoL). Our objective was to determine the efficacy of electromyography-guided onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox; Allergan, Irvine, Calif) injections in treating patient's perception of pelvic pain and improving QoL measurement scores. This is a prospective pilot open-label study of women with chronic pelvic pain and HTPFD who have failed conventional therapy between January 2011 and August 2013. Botox injections (up to 300 U) were done using needle electromyography guidance, from a transperineal approach, to localize spastic pelvic floor muscles (PFMs). Data were collected at baseline, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after injections. This included demographics; Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for pain and dyspareunia; validated questionnaires for symptoms, QoL, and sexual function; Global Response Assessment scale for pelvic pain; digital examination of PFM for tone and tenderness; and vaginal manometry. Side effects were also recorded. Out of 28 women who enrolled in the study, 21 completed the 6-month follow-up and qualified for analysis. The mean (SD) age was 35.1 (9.4) years (range, 22-50 years), and the mean (SD) body mass index was 25 (4.4). Comorbidities included interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (42.9%) and vulvodynia (66.7%). Overall, 61.9% of subjects reported improvement on Global Response Assessment at 4 weeks and 80.9% at 8, 12, and 24 weeks post injection, compared with baseline. Of the subjects who were sexually active at baseline, 58.8% (10/17), 68.8% (11/16), 80% (12/15), and 83.3% (15/18) reported less dyspareunia at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks, respectively. Dyspareunia Visual Analog Scale score significantly improved at weeks 12 (5.6, P = 0.011) and 24 (5.4, P = 0.004) compared with baseline (7.8). Two of the 4 patients who avoided sexual activity at baseline secondary to dyspareunia resumed and tolerated

  18. Pelvic irradiation for stage II ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, K.Y.; Morley, G.W.; Roberts, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Over a 20-year period, 34 patients with FIGO stage II ovarian carcinoma were treated with postoperative pelvic irradiation at the University of Michigan. Complications of radiation treatment were minimal. The overall actuarial disease-free 5-year survival was 53%. This was not significantly different for substages IIA, IIB, or IIC. Patients with well-differentiated tumors had a significantly better survival than patients with moderate or poorly differentiated tumors (P less than 0.05). The implications for managing stage II ovarian carcinoma are discussed

  19. CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROME: A PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Kryuchkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS is a chronic pain disease with high prevalence rates. The etiology and pathogenesis of this problem remains poorly understood. No uniform solitary treatment is known for CPPS. As a result, a multimodal approach is most likely to demonstrate benefit for this disease. An interdisciplinary classification system is commonly used (UPOINT which includes psychosocial domain. Nevertheless, psychosocial and psychopathological influences on CPPS only recently became a research focus. This literature review investigated the association of personality traits, mental disorders with the baseline clinical characteristics of patients with CPPS. We aimed to synthesize the existing data and to identify further research topics.

  20. A Novel Cystometric Model of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction After Rabbit Pelvic Floor Noxious Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberfuhl, Amy D; Spettel, Sara; Schuler, Catherine; Dubin, Andrew H; Levin, Robert M; De, Elise J B

    2016-01-01

    Although a relationship between pelvic floor dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms is described in the literature, the mechanism and pathways need further characterization. We developed an animal model of pelvic floor dysfunction after noxious stimulation of the pubococcygeus (PC) muscle. Fifteen female adult rabbits were evaluated with cystometry (CMG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings from the PC muscle. Cystometry/EMG was performed before and after treatment animal (n = 11) received noxious pelvic floor electrical stimulation through the PC EMG electrode, and controls (n = 4) underwent sham needle placement. Two animals underwent S3 dorsal rhizotomy to demonstrate that the observed results required afferent innervation. Voiding changes were demonstrated in 9 of 11 rabbits after stimulation. Most of the rabbits (7/9) exhibited a prolonged-dysfunctional voiding pattern with larger capacity (mean, 17 mL [SEM, ±8 mL]), longer intercontractile interval (227% [SEM, ±76%]) and duration (163% [SEM, ±20%]), and increased postvoid residual (24 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]). The remaining dysfunctional rabbits (2/9) exhibited an overactive-dysfunctional voiding pattern with lower capacity (-26 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]), shortened intercontractile interval (16% [SEM, ±9%]) and duration (56% [SEM, ±30%]), and decreased postvoid residual (-27 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]). Nonresponder rabbits (2/11) were relatively unchanged in their micturition cycles after stimulation. Rhizotomy animals were acontractile and filled until overflow incontinence occurred. Using noxious electrical stimulation of the pelvic musculature, we were able to produce an animal model of pelvic floor dysfunction in most rabbits as hallmarked by a larger bladder capacity, an increased intercontractile interval, and prolonged contraction duration.

  1. Iatrogenic lower urinary tract injury at the time of pelvic reconstructive surgery: does previous pelvic surgery increase the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguan, Docile; Northington, Gina; Chinthakanan, Orawee; Hudson, Catherine; Karp, Deborah

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a history of previous pelvic surgery is associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) injury at the time of pelvic reconstructive surgery (PRS). A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery from 2006 to 2011 was performed. Patients were divided into two groups: those with previous pelvic surgery and those without previous pelvic surgery. A sample size analysis was performed to determine the number needed to detect at least a 3-fold difference in the rate of LUT injury. Demographic, historical, clinical, intraoperative, and postoperative data were analyzed. Associations between LUT injury and demographics, previous pelvic surgery, or other clinical risk factors were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. 685 women were included in the analysis: 514 (74.9%) with and 171 (25.1%) without prior pelvic surgery. The overall rate of LUT injury was 6%. Of the injuries, 3.2% were cystotomies, and 1.9% were ureteral obstructions. Previous pelvic surgery did not significantly affect the rate of LUT injury (OR 0.76, 95%CI 0.38-1.54). A diagnosis of prolapse, concurrent hysterectomy, anterior repair, and apical repair were significantly associated with LUT injury. After controlling for age and race, a diagnosis of prolapse remained significantly associated with LUT injury (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.11-14.75). Prior pelvic surgery does not affect the rate of LUT injury in pelvic reconstructive surgery. The diagnosis of prolapse is a risk factor for LUT injury in women undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery.

  2. Pelvic floor spasm as a cause of voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tricia L C; Ng, L G; Chapple, Christopher R

    2015-07-01

    Pelvic floor disorders can present with lower urinary tract symptoms, bowel, sexual dysfunction, and/or pain. Symptoms of pelvic muscle spasm (nonrelaxing pelvic floor or hypertonicity) vary and can be difficult to recognize. This makes diagnosis and management of these disorders challenging. In this article, we review the current evidence on pelvic floor spasm and its association with voiding dysfunction. To distinguish between the different causes of voiding dysfunction, a video urodynamics study and/or electromyography is often required. Conservative measures include patient education, behavioral modifications, lifestyle changes, and pelvic floor rehabilitation/physical therapy. Disease-specific pelvic pain and pain from pelvic floor spasm needs to be differentiated and treated specifically. Trigger point massage and injections relieves pain in some patients. Botulinum toxin A, sacral neuromodulation, and acupuncture has been reported in the management of patients with refractory symptoms. Pelvic floor spasm and associated voiding problems are heterogeneous in their pathogenesis and are therefore often underrecognized and undertreated; it is therefore essential that a therapeutic strategy needs to be personalized to the individual patient's requirements. Therefore, careful evaluation and assessment of individuals using a multidisciplinary team approach including a trained physical therapist/nurse clinician is essential in the management of these patients.

  3. Sexual Pelvic Bone Dimorphism in the West African Fruit Bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of sexual pelvic bone dimorphism in mammals are well documented. However, limited osteo-morphometrical examinations exist of the nature of dimorphism in the bony pelvis of the bat. This study, therefore, investigated the patterns of size and shape dimorphism in the pelvic bone of the West African fruit bat, ...

  4. Role of pelvic lymphadenectomy in stage 1A endometrial carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the commonest gynecological cancer mostly affecting women in the postmenopausal age group. There is a debate regarding the need of pelvic lymphadenectomy in managing stage 1A diagnosed preoperatively, we try to evaluate this need. Objective: To evaluate the role of pelvic ...

  5. Objective Measures for Pregnancy Related Low Back and Pelvic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Groot (Mirthe)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPain in the lumbar spine and pelvic region is a frequent complication of pregnancy and delivery. The prevalence of pregnancy related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) varies between 14.2 and 56%. In 6 to 15% the pain is so severe that it impedes daily life activities. The symptoms of

  6. Pregnancy Related Low Back and Pelvic Pain: a surgical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A. Zwienen

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMore than half of all pregnant women experience low back and/or pelvic pain of whom one-third has severe complaints. In most cases the pelvic pain disap­pears within a few months after delivery, either spontaneously or after con­servative treatment. In a minority of patients the pain

  7. Obstetric practice and the pelvic floor | Jeffery | Obstetrics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vaginal delivery has a profound impact on the pelvic floor with the potential for significant functional sequelae. There is an increasing trend among obstetricians to perform a caesarean section to preserve pelvic floor function. This in turn has contributed to an increasing caesarean section rate, both in South Africa and ...

  8. Navicular bone fracture in the pelvic limb in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser-Hotz, B.; Ueltschi, G.; Hess, N.

    1991-01-01

    The case history, radiographic and scintigraphic findings of two horses with pelvic limb navicular bone fractures are presented. In both cases the fractures were of traumatic origin. One horse had a bilateral fracture of the navicular bone, distal border, the other horse had a fracture of the proximal articular border in one pelvic limb navicular bone

  9. Clinical Features Of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease In Gombe, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the symptoms and signs of pelvic inflammatory disease among women attending gynaecological clinics. It was retrospective of the clinical features presented by patients over a one year period. Four hundred and eight – nine case of pelvic inflammatory disease were reviewed.

  10. An approach to urological injuries associated with pelvic surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injuries during pelvic floor surgery may involve the ureter, bladder and urethra. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of these structures and the application of this knowledge during surgery, together with appropriate pre-operative imaging will help to reduce morbidity from urological injuries during pelvic floor surgery.

  11. Should we use pessaries for pelvic organ prolapse? | Abdool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population of 9 billion by 2040 and also an increase in demand for services to care for female pelvic floor disorders. Currently non-surgical treatment modalities include expectant management, pelvic floor exercises and the use of support devices i.e. vaginal pessaries. Vaginal support devices date back to at least 1550 BC, ...

  12. Modification of the pelvic examination simulator for the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Calvin; Cohen, Elaine; Salud, Lawrence; Pugh, Carla

    2014-01-01

    The clinical pelvic exam is a critical examination for external and internal inspection of female reproductive organs. A sensor enabled pelvic examination simulator was developed to provide immediate visual performance feedback. The simulator was modified for rural area usage, where electricity supply and PC display may not be available. We succeeded at replacing key components while maintaining functionality.

  13. Pelvic actinomycosis associated with intrauterine device use: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfuhaid, T. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Univ. Health Centre and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Reinhold, C. [Radiology, Gastroenterology and Gynecology, McGill Univ. Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare disease that may complicate longstanding intrauterine device (IUD) use. Its timely recognition is crucial to minimize morbidity and avoid the erroneous diagnosis of malignancy with subsequent, unnecessary surgery. We describe a case of pelvic actinomycosis. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in recognizing this infectious disease process is stressed. (author)

  14. Clinical outcome of ovarian vein embolization in pelvic congestion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassan Abdelsalam

    2016-02-20

    Feb 20, 2016 ... Abstract Introduction: Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), is a condition associated with ovarian vein (OV) incompetence among other causes. It is manifested by chronic pelvic pain with associated dyspareunia and dysmenorrhea. The diagnosis of PCS is often overlooked and the management can.

  15. Understanding peripartum pelvic pain: Implications of a patient survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Mens (Jan); A. Vleeming (Andry); R. Stoeckart (Rob); H.J. Stam (Henk); C.J. Snijders (Chris)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractStudy Design. An analysis was made of the self-reported medical histories of patients with peripartum pelvic pain. Objectives. To compile an inventory of the disabilities of patients with peripartum pelvic pain, analyze factors associated with the risk for development of the disease, and

  16. Local Oestrogen for Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M. A.; Kleijn, M. H.; Langendam, M.; Limpens, J.; Heineman, M. J.; Roovers, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The decline in available oestrogen after menopause is a possible etiological factor in pelvic floor disorders like vaginal atrophy (VA), urinary incontinence (UI), overactive bladder (OAB) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This systematic review will examine the evidence for local oestrogen

  17. 33 FOSTERING THE EASE OF CALVING: PELVIC AREA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Fostering calving ease, pelvic area assessment, Bunaji, Rahaji. Abstract. Pelvic area (P.A.) assessment may be used as management tool to reduce the risks associated with dystocia and foster calving ease. Relationship between cow's P.A. and age can aid pre- breeding culling decisions. This study used 100 ...

  18. Comparative histology of mouse, rat, and human pelvic ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Orlicky, David J; Arnett, Jameson; Guess, Marsha K; Hurt, K Joseph; Connell, Kathleen A

    2016-11-01

    The uterosacral (USL) and cardinal ligaments (CL) provide support to the uterus and pelvic organs, and the round ligaments (RL) maintain their position in the pelvis. In women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP), the connective tissue, smooth muscle, vasculature, and innervation of the pelvic support structures are altered. Rodents are commonly used animal models for POP research. However, the pelvic ligaments have not been defined in these animals. In this study, we hypothesized that the gross anatomy and histological composition of pelvic ligaments in rodents and humans are similar. We performed an extensive literature search for anatomical and histological descriptions of the pelvic support ligaments in rodents. We also performed anatomical dissections of the pelvis to define anatomical landmarks in relation to the ligaments. In addition, we identified the histological components of the pelvic ligaments and performed quantitative analysis of the smooth muscle bundles and connective tissue of the USL and RL. The anatomy of the USL, CL, and RL and their anatomical landmarks are similar in mice, rats, and humans. All species contain the same cellular components and have similar histological architecture. However, the cervical portion of the mouse USL and RL contain more smooth muscle and less connective tissue compared with rat and human ligaments. The pelvic support structures of rats and mice are anatomically and histologically similar to those of humans. We propose that both mice and rats are appropriate, cost-effective models for directed studies in POP research.

  19. Structure of the pelvic ureter in an adult Kenyan population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in histomorphological features of the pelvic ureter such as muscle fiber orientation have been implicated in the etiology of vesicoureteric reflux. Consequently, anatomical sex differences in the histomorphology of the pelvic ureter may explain the female predisposition to this disease. Reports of these differences ...

  20. Discrepancies in the female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeon workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Tyler M; Weterings, Robbie; Barber, Mathew D; Steinberg, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether the current distribution of surgeons practicing female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery in the United States is adequate to meet the needs of a growing and aging population. We assessed the geographic distribution of female pelvic surgeons as represented by members of the American Urogynecologic Society (AUGS) throughout the United States at the county, state, and American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists district levels. County-level data from the AUGS, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the United States Census were analyzed in this observational study. State and national patterns of female pelvic surgeon density were mapped graphically using ArcGIS software and 2010 US Census demographic data. In 2013, the 1058 AUGS practicing physicians represented 0.13% of the total physician workforce. There were 6.7 AUGS members available for every 1 million women and 20 AUGS members for every 1 million postreproductive-aged women in the United States. The density of female pelvic surgeons was highest in metropolitan areas. Overall, 88% of the counties in the United States lacked female pelvic surgeons. Nationwide, there was a mean of 1 AUGS member for every 31 practicing general obstetrician-gynecologists. These findings have implications for training, recruiting, and retaining female pelvic surgeons. The uneven distribution of female pelvic surgeons throughout the United States is likely to worsen as graduating female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery fellows continue to cluster in urban areas.

  1. Pelvic Exenteration in Gynecologic Cancer: La Paz University Hospital Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Palacios, Elisa; Diestro, Maria D; De Santiago, Javier; Hernández, Alicia; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2015-07-01

    Pelvic exenteration is an ultraradical surgery involving the en bloc resection of the pelvic organs, including the internal reproductive organs, the distal urinary tract (ureters, bladder, urethra), and/or anorectum. It is mainly applied as a salvage surgery for recurrent gynecologic tumors of any origin (vulva, vagina, cervix, uterine, and also ovary). Our aim was to establish the most favorable cases for this type of surgery by means of a review of our institution experience. Retrospective analyses of all patients treated with pelvic exenteration for recurrent gynecologic cancer from 2008 to 2014 at La Paz University Hospital. Ten patients underwent pelvic exenteration for recurrent gynecologic cancers including uterine, cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and ovarian cancer. All patients had received prior treatment: surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy. Eight patients underwent total pelvic exenteration, one anterior and one posterior pelvic exenteration. Urinary diversions technique consisted of ileal conduits in all cases. Permanent colostomy was performed in all cases. Postoperative complications were related to the urinary diversion in 50% of the cases, to the reconstructive technique in 30%, and to systemic or pelvic infections in 20%. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rates, pelvic exenteration is feasible, and in selected cases of cancer recurrence is the last possible treatment.

  2. Acupuncture for chronic pelvic inflammatory disease: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Youcai; Jin, Yuhao; Xu, Na; Guo, Taipin

    2018-03-01

    Chronic pelvic inflammation disease (PID) is a difficult-to-treat gynecological disorder with complex etiologies. Acupuncture has been applied widely for treating chronic pelvic inflammation or chronic pelvic pain symptoms in China. The aim of this review is to undertake a systematic review to estimate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture on chronic PID. A literature search will be conducted electronically with date up to October 2018 in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EBASE, and CNKI databases, using combination subject terms of chronic pelvic pain (or chronic pelvic inflammation, and chronic pelvic pain symptoms, etc.) and acupuncture related treatment. Also duplicates will be removed. The primary outcomes consisted of improvement rate and pain relief. Secondary outcomes include the recurrence rate and side effects, such as pneumothorax, bleeding, serious discomfort, subcutaneous nodules, and infection. Systematic reviews and databases will be searched for randomized controlled trials on acupuncture for chronic PID with acupuncture treatment will be included. Cochrane RevMan V5.3.5 risk of bias assessment tool will be implemented for risk of bias evaluation, data synthesis, meta-analyses, and subgroup analysis while condition is met. Mean difference (MD), standard mean difference (SMD), and dichotomous data will be used to present continuous outcomes. This study will generate a comprehensive review of current evidence of acupuncture for chronic pelvic inflammation diseases. The study will provide updated evidence to evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of acupuncture for chronic pelvic inflammation disease. CRD42018087950.

  3. Tissue - engineering as an adjunct to pelvic reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangö, Hanna

    2017-08-01

    This PhD-thesis is based on animal studies and comprises three original papers and unpublished data. The studies were con-ducted during my employment as a research fellow at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Herlev University Hospital, Denmark. New strategies for surgical reconstruction of pelvic organ pro-lapse (POP) are warranted. Traditional native tissue repair may be associated with poor long-term outcome and augmentation with permanent polypropylene meshes is associated with frequent and severe adverse effects. Tissue-engineering is a regenerative strategy that aims at creating functional tissue using stem cells, scaffolds and trophic factors. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the potential adjunctive use of a tissue-engineering technique for pelvic reconstructive surgery using two synthetic biodegradable materials; methoxypolyethyleneglycol-poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (MPEG-PLGA) and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) - with or without seeded muscle stem cells in the form of autologous fresh muscle fiber fragments (MFFs). To simulate different POP repair scenarios different animal models were used. In Study 1 and 2, MPEG-PLGA was evaluated in a native tissue re-pair model and a partial defect model of the rat abdominal wall. We found that the scaffold was fully degraded after eight weeks. Cells from added MFFs could be traced and had resulted in the formation of new striated muscle fibers. Also, biomechanical changes were found in the groups with added MFFs. In Study 3, the long-term degradable electrospun PCL scaffold was evaluated in three rat abdominal wall models representing different loads on the scaffold. Surprisingly, cells from the MFFs did not survive. After eight weeks, a marked inflammatory foreign-body response was observed with numerous giant cells located between and around the PCL fibers which appeared not to be degraded. This response caused a considerable increase in the thickness of the mesh, resulting in a neotissue

  4. Pelvic radiography in ATLS algorithms: A diminishing role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buggy Donald J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic x-ray is a routine part of the primary survey of polytraumatized patients according to Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS guidelines. However, pelvic CT is the gold standard imaging technique in the diagnosis of pelvic fractures. This study was conducted to confirm the safety of a modified ATLS algorithm omitting pelvic x-ray in hemodynamically stable polytraumatized patients with clinically stable pelvis in favour of later pelvic examination by CT scan. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of all polytraumatized patients in our emergency room between 01.07.2004 and 31.01.2006. Inclusion criteria were blunt abdominal trauma, initial hemodynamic stability and a stable pelvis on clinical examination. We excluded patients requiring immediate intervention because of hemodynamic instability. Results We reviewed the records of n = 452 polytraumatized patients, of which n = 91 fulfilled inclusion criteria (56% male, mean age = 45 years. The mechanism of trauma included 43% road traffic accidents, 47% falls. In 68/91 (75% patients, both a pelvic x-ray and a CT examination were performed; the remainder had only pelvic CT. In 6/68 (9% patients, pelvic fracture was diagnosed by pelvic x-ray. None of these 6 patients was found having a false positive pelvic x-ray, i.e. there was no fracture on pelvic CT scan. In 3/68 (4% cases a fracture was missed in the pelvic x-ray, but confirmed on CT (false negative on x-ray. None of the diagnosed fractures needed an immediate therapeutic intervention. 5 (56% were classified type A fractures, and another 4 (44% B 2.1 in computed tomography (AO classification. One A 2.1 fracture was found in a clinically stable patient who only received CT scan (1/23. Conclusion While pelvic x-ray is an integral part of ATLS assessment, this retrospective study suggests that in hemodynamically stable patients with clinically stable pevis, its sensitivity is only 67% and it may safely be omitted in

  5. [Postpartum pelvic floor muscle training and abdominal rehabilitation: Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffieux, X; Vieillefosse, S; Billecocq, S; Battut, A; Nizard, J; Coulm, B; Thubert, T

    2015-12-01

    Provide guidelines for clinical practice concerning postpartum rehabilitation. Systematically review of the literature concerning postpartum pelvic floor muscle training and abdominal rehabilitation. Pelvic-floor rehabilitation using pelvic floor muscle contraction exercises is recommended to treat persistent urinary incontinence at 3 months postpartum (grade A), regardless of the type of incontinence. At least 3 guided sessions with a therapist is recommended, associated with pelvic floor muscle exercises at home. This postpartum rehabilitation improves short-term urinary incontinence (1 year) but not long-term (6-12 years). Early pelvic-floor rehabilitation (within 2 months following childbirth) is not recommended (grade C). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation in women presenting with anal incontinence, is associated with a lower prevalence of anal incontinence symptoms in short-term (1 year) (EL3) but not long-term (6 and 12) (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation is recommended to treat anal incontinence (grade C) but results are not maintained in medium or long term. No randomized trials have evaluated the pelvic-floor rehabilitation in asymptomatic women in order to prevent urinary or anal incontinence in medium or long term. It is therefore not recommended (expert consensus). Rehabilitation supervised by a therapist (physiotherapist or midwife) is not associated with better results than simple advice for voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles to prevent/correct, in short term (6 months), a persistent prolapse 6 weeks postpartum (EL2), whether or not with a levator ani avulsion (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation is not associated with a decrease in the prevalence of dyspareunia at 1-year follow-up (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation guided by a therapist is therefore not recommended to treat or prevent prolapse (grade C) or dyspareunia (grade C). No randomized trials have evaluated the effect of pelvic

  6. Spondylolisthesis, Sacro-Pelvic Morphology, and Orientation in Young Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toueg, Charles-William; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Grimard, Guy; Poitras, Benoit; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert

    2015-07-01

    Cross-sectional evaluation of sacro-pelvic morphology and orientation as well as spondylolisthesis prevalence in a cohort of young gymnasts. To evaluate the prevalence of spondylolisthesis in a cohort of gymnasts, as well as the associated demographic characteristics and sacro-pelvic morphology and orientation. Numerous studies have shown that sagittal sacro-pelvic morphology and orientation is abnormal in spondylolisthesis. Sacro-pelvic morphology and orientation in gymnasts and their relationship with spondylolisthesis have never been analyzed. Radiologic evaluation of 92 gymnasts was performed to identify spondylolisthesis, and to measure pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and sacral table angle. In the presence of spondylolisthesis, the slip percentage was measured. Different demographic and training characteristics were evaluated. Radiographic parameters were compared with reference values published for asymptomatic children and adolescents, and for subjects with spondylolisthesis. A 6.5% prevalence of spondylolisthesis was found in our cohort. The weekly training schedule was the only statistically significant different demographic characteristic between the 2 groups, at 20.6±5.4 versus 14.4±5.6 h/wk for subjects with and without spondylolisthesis, respectively. Pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and sacral table angle were 69±20, 15±13, 54±11, and 88±7 degrees in gymnasts with spondylolisthesis, and 53±11, 10±6, 43±9, and 94±6 degrees in gymnasts without spondylolisthesis, respectively. When compared with asymptomatic individuals, pelvic incidence and pelvic tilt were slightly superior in gymnasts without spondylolisthesis. Pelvic incidence, sacral slope, and sacral table angle were significantly different between gymnasts with and without spondylolisthesis. The prevalence of spondylolisthesis in young gymnasts was similar to that observed in the general population. Sagittal sacro-pelvic morphology and orientation was abnormal

  7. Concurrent femoral neck fractures following pelvic irradiation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okolo Clement

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fracture of the neck of the femur is common in older people. It often occurs in a single hip, with osteoporosis being the most common cause. Sometimes this fracture may also occur following pelvic irradiation, though this is not common. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first reported case in Nigeria of concurrent bilateral fractures of the femoral neck following pelvic irradiation. Case presentation A 74-year-old Nigerian woman presented at our surgical outpatients department with a 5-month history of pain in both hips and a 4-month history of inability to walk. She had had pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix 2 years earlier. Pelvic radiographs confirmed bilateral subcapital neck fractures. Conclusion Patients with hip pain who have been treated with pelvic irradiation should be thoroughly investigated for hip fractures.

  8. Attendance at Prescribed Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy in a Diverse, Urban Urogynecology Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Megan Brady; Genereux, Madeleine; Brincat, Cynthia; Adams, William; Brubaker, Linda; Mueller, E R; Fitzgerald, Colleen M

    2017-11-11

    Pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT) is a common and effective treatment for several pelvic floor disorders, but there is limited knowledge about adherence to the therapy or what factors influence attendance. To determine rates of PFPT attendance (initiation and completion) as well as correlates of PFPT attendance. Retrospective cohort analysis. Urban outpatient clinics at a tertiary medical center treating women with pelvic floor disorders. Patients prescribed PFPT during the time period January 1, 2014, through January 1, 2015. Number of PFPT visits recommended and attended; diagnoses associated with PFPT referral. Two-thirds of participants (66%; 118/180) initiated PFPT but less than one-third (29%; 52/180) completed the full treatment course. On univariate analysis, age, body mass index, diagnosis requiring PFPT treatment, marital or employment status, insurance type, number of comorbidities, incontinence status on examination, and stage of prolapse did not differ between PFPT initiators and noninitiators. Those who self-identified as Hispanic were less likely to initiate PFPT when compared with non-Hispanic patients, although this only trended toward significance (odds ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.14-1.09; exact P = .078). Two thirds (66%) of patients initiated PFPT but less than one third (29%) completed the treatment course. There appears to be an opportunity to augment PFPT attendance, as well as explore racial disparities in attendance. To be determined. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prospective study of irradiation and magnification on a pelvic imaging: EOS system versus conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, Loic

    2015-01-01

    The pelvic x-ray is essential for the orthopedic practise. Recently, EOS system has been developed with technology to limit irradiation and theoretically not create magnification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the EOS system realizing a pelvic x-ray. All patients who underwent hip replacement between September 2014 and April 2015 have benefited pelvis radiograph with the 2 techniques, after surgery. The size of the head was measured with both techniques and compared to the established size. Irradiation of each technique was listed. A correlation study was carried out with the body mass index (BMI) of the patient. Irradiation was significantly greater with conventional radiography than with the EOS system: PDS of conventional radiography = 15.0 (10.5; 25.2) against the EOS system PDS = 8.2 (7.1; 9.7), p ≤0.0001. It was found a significant correlation between BMI and irradiation, particularly with conventional radiography. About expansion, the EOS system not create any except in 4 cases, unlike the conventional radiograph. The EOS system significantly decreases irradiation in all patients, compared to the conventional radiography, and it do not create magnification when realizing a pelvic x-ray, even in overweight patients [fr

  10. Hamstring Injury Prevention Practices in Elite Sport: Evidence for Eccentric Strength vs. Lumbo-Pelvic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Anthony J; Bourne, Matthew N

    2018-03-01

    Hamstring strain injuries are endemic in running-based sports. Given the economic and performance implications of these injuries, a significant body of research has emerged in recent years in an attempt to identify risk factors and develop or optimise injury prevention strategies. Surveys of injury prevention practices among medical and conditioning staff in elite sport suggest that many sporting clubs invest significant efforts in eccentric hamstring conditioning and lumbo-pelvic or trunk stability programmes. The purpose of this narrative review was to critically evaluate the evidence underpinning these practices. Single-exercise eccentric training interventions have proven effective in the prevention of primary and recurrent hamstring strains, when compliance is adequate. However, despite its almost universal acceptance, the authors are aware of only one, very recent, prospective risk factor study examining the effect of lumbo-pelvic motion during sprinting on hamstring injury risk. Furthermore, the interventions exploring the effect of lumbo-pelvic training on hamstring injury rates have not measured stability in any way. An improved understanding of the evidence underpinning commonly employed hamstring injury prevention practices may enable clinicians and coaches to better prioritise effective strategies in the increasingly complex environment of elite sport.

  11. Effect of a locking triple pelvic osteotomy plate on screw loosening in 26 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Scott A; Peck, Jeffrey N; Tano, Cheryl A; Uddin, Nizam; de Haan, Jacek J

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the complication rate of the double (DPO) and triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) procedure (unilateral and bilateral) with a locking purpose-specific plate. Retrospective case series Dogs (n = 26; 38 hips) Medical records (January 2007-January 2011) of dogs that had unilateral or bilateral DPO or TPO were evaluated. Signalment, age, body weight, estimated preoperative subluxation and reduction angles, lameness, and complications were evaluated. Follow-up radiographs were evaluated for implant loosening or failure, femoral head coverage (FCH), pelvic dimensions, and radiographic evidence of healing. Screw loosening occurred in 1 of 266 (0.4%) screws placed and in 1 of 38 hips (2.6%). The rate of screw loosening was significantly lower than previously reported. Only 1 hip (2.6%) developed a major complication. Minor complications involving implants occurred in 2 hips (5.3%). Three to 5 locking screws were used per plate. There was a significant increase in FCH and Norberg angle (NA) compared with preoperative values. No clinically significant change in pelvic canal dimensions measured at 3 locations was identified. Locking 7-hole TPO plates with 3-5 locking screws resulted in a lower rate of major and minor implant associated complications than the reported complication rate for conventional 6-hole plates. En bloc pullout of the caudal aspect of the plate is an infrequent but repeatable complication associated with the locking TPO implant. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. The formation mechanism of 4179 Toutatis' elongated bi-lobed structure in a close Earth encounter scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shoucun; Ji, Jianghui; Richardson, Derek C.; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Yun

    2018-04-01

    The optical images of near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis acquired by Chang'e-2 spacecraft show that Toutatis has an elongated contact binary configuration, with the contact point located along the long axis. We speculate that such configuration may have resulted from a low-speed impact between two components. In this work, we performed a series of numerical simulations and compared the results with the optical images, to examine the mechanism and better understand the formation of Toutatis. Herein we propose an scenario that an assumed separated binary precursor could undergo a close encounter with Earth, leading to an impact between the primary and secondary, and the elongation is caused by Earth's tide. The precursor is assumed to be a doubly synchronous binary with a semi-major axis of 4 Rp (radius of primary) and the two components are represented as spherical cohesionless self-gravitating granular aggregates. The mutual orbits are simulated in a Monte Carlo routine to provide appropriate parameters for our N-body simulations of impact and tidal distortion. We employ the pkdgrav package with a soft-sphere discrete element method (SSDEM) to explore the entire scenarios. The results show that contact binary configurations are natural outcomes under this scenario, whereas the shape of the primary is almost not affected by the impact of the secondary. However, our simulations further provide an elongated contact binary configuration best-matching to the shape of Toutatis at an approaching distance rp = 1.4 ˜ 1.5 Re (Earth radius), indicative of a likely formation scenario for configurations of Toutatis-like elongated contact binaries.

  13. Pelvic floor assessment after delivery: how should women be selected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Marco; Livio, Stefania; De Ponti, Elena; Scebba, Ileana; Carpentieri, Federica; Serati, Maurizio; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2016-11-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction after delivery is quite common. New mothers deserve to receive targeted care for pelvic floor dysfunction, but how should women who are at risk be identified and selected for treatment? This study investigated risk factors and puerperal health-seeking behaviours to develop a restrictive patient selection model for postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction assessment. This prospective observational study involved women who were at ≥32 weeks gestational age when they delivered in a tertiary referral maternity hospital in Milan, Italy, between July and December 2014. Eligible women were scheduled for a 3-month postnatal pelvic floor clinic. The adherence rate to the pelvic floor clinic and the prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunctions at 3 months postpartum were recorded. Univariable and logistic multivariable analyses were performed to select risk factors for pelvic floor dysfunctions. Risk factors were then tested for sensitivity and specificity for 3-month postpartum pelvic floor dysfunctions. Of 1606 eligible women, 1293 (80.5%) were included in the analysis; 685 puerperal women (53.0%) adhered to the 3-month postnatal pelvic floor clinic; pelvic floor dysfunctions were detected in 238 women (34.7%). Four elements emerged as risk factors: symptoms before pregnancy (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.15-2.56; p=0.008), symptoms during pregnancy (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.49-3.06; p<0.0001), vacuum extractor use (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.54; p=0.034), and severe perineal tears (OR 19.45, 95% CI 2.42-156.15; p=0.005). The combined sensitivity and specificity for the 4 risk factors were 82% and 39%, respectively. Internal risk factors analysis offers the potential to efficiently restrict patient selection for follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Static Mechanical Loading Influences the Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Cell Adhesion Proteins in Vaginal Cells Derived From Premenopausal Women With Severe Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufaishi, Hala; Alarab, May; Drutz, Harold; Lye, Stephen; Shynlova, Oksana

    2016-08-01

    Primary human vaginal cells derived from women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP-HVCs) demonstrate altered cellular characteristics as compared to cells derived from asymptomatic women (control-HVCs). Using computer-controllable Flexcell stretch unit, we examined whether POP-HVCs react differently to mechanical loading as compared to control-HVCs by the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, cell-ECM adhesion proteins, and ECM degrading and maturating enzymes. Vaginal tissue biopsies from premenopausal patients with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System stage ≥3 (n = 8) and asymptomatic controls (n = 7) were collected during vaginal hysterectomy or repair. Human vaginal cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion, seeded on collagen (COLI)-coated plates, and stretched (24 hours, 25% elongation). Total RNA was extracted, and 84 genes were screened using Human ECM and Adhesion Molecules polymerase chain reaction array; selected genes were verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Stretch-conditioned media (SCM) were collected and analyzed by protein array, immunoblotting, and zymography. In mechanically stretched control-HVCs, transcript levels of integrins (ITGA1, ITGA4, ITGAV, and ITGB1) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 8, and 13 were downregulated (P SCM from POP-HVCs compared to control-HVCs. Primary human vaginal cells derived from women with severe pelvic organ prolapse and control-HVCs react differentially to in vitro mechanical stretch. Risk factors that induce stretch may alter ECM composition and cell-ECM interaction in pelvic floor tissue leading to the abatement of pelvic organ support and subsequent POP development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. The distinct impact of voluntary and autonomic pelvic floor muscles on Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord; Reissing, Elke; Borg, Charmaine; Broens, Paul Broens

    While the debate on diagnostic distinction continues, the DSM-5 combined dyspareunia and vaginismus into the genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder. Recent research into the pathophysiology of dyspareunia and vaginismus has focused mainly on general pelvic floor pathology, the experience of pain,

  16. Pelvic floor muscle training as a persistent nursing intervention: Effect on delivery outcome and pelvic floor myodynamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Persistent nursing intervention for pregnant/postpartum women helped to shorten the second stage of labour and contributed to the recovery of postpartum pelvic floor myodynamia. The influence of this intervention on the delivery mode, and rates of episiotomy and perineal laceration remains unknown. Medical staff should strengthen health education programmes that involve pelvic floor functional rehabilitation.

  17. Accuracy of integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound compared to defaecatory MRI in females with pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Pilkington, Sophie A; Grierson, Catherine; Rutherford, Elizabeth; Schizas, Alexis M P; Nugent, Karen P; Williams, Andrew B

    2016-12-01

    Defaecatory MRI allows multicompartmental assessment of defaecatory dysfunction but is often inaccessible. Integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound (transperineal, transvaginal, endoanal) may provide a cheap, portable alternative. The accuracy of total pelvic floor ultrasound for anatomical abnormalities when compared with defaecatory MRI was assessed. The dynamic images from 68 females who had undergone integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound and defaecatory MRI between 2009 and 2015 were blindly reviewed. The following were recorded: rectocoele, enterocoele, intussusception and cystocoele. There were 26 rectocoeles on MRI (49 rectocoeles on ultrasound), 24 rectocoeles with intussusception on MRI (19 rectocoeles on ultrasound), 23 enterocoeles on MRI (24 enterocoeles on ultrasound) and 49 cystocoeles on MRI (35 cystocoeles on ultrasound). Sensitivity and specificity of total pelvic floor ultrasound were 81% and 33% for rectocoele, 60% and 91% for intussusception, 65% and 80% for enterocoele and 65% and 84% for cystocoele when compared with defaecatory MRI. This gave a negative-predictive value and positive-predictive value of 74% and 43% for rectocoele, 80% and 79% for intussusception, 82% and 63% for enterocoele and 48% and 91% for cystocoele. Integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound may serve as a screening tool for pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction; when normal, defaecatory MRI can be avoided, as rectocoele, intussusception and enterocoele are unlikely to be present. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to compare integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound with defaecatory MRI. The results support the use of integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound as a screening tool for defaecatory dysfunction.

  18. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise on pelvic floor muscle activity and voiding functions during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu Sut, Hatice; Balkanli Kaplan, Petek

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pelvic floor muscle exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period on pelvic floor muscle activity and voiding functions. Pregnant women (n = 60) were randomly assigned into two groups (Training [n = 30] and Control [n = 30]) using a computer-based system. Pelvic floor muscle strength was measured using a perineometry device. Urinary symptoms were measured using the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI-6), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q). Voiding functions were measured using uroflowmetry and 3-day voiding diaries. Measurements were obtained at week 28, weeks 36-38 of pregnancy, and postpartum weeks 6-8. Pelvic floor muscle strength significantly decreased during the pregnancy (P pelvic floor muscle strength improvement was significantly higher in the Training group compared to the Control group (P  0.05). However, UDI-6, coping, concern, and total scores of OAB-q were significantly decreased during weeks 36-38 of pregnancy in the Control group (P pelvic floor muscle strength, urinary symptoms, quality of life, and voiding functions. Pelvic floor muscle exercises applied during pregnancy and the postpartum period increase pelvic floor muscle strength and prevent deterioration of urinary symptoms and quality of life in pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Do women with pelvic floor dysfunction referred by gynaecologists and urologists at hospitals complete a pelvic floor muscle training programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    For decades women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) have been referred to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), but there is only little information on whether the women complete the programmes and why. The objectives of this study were to investigate to which extent women completed a PFMT...

  20. Effectiveness and complications of pelvic circumferential compression devices in patients with unstable pelvic fractures: A systematic review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.R. Spanjersberg (Willem); S.P. Knops (Simon); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); P. Patka (Peter); I.B. Schipper (Inger)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pelvic fractures can cause massive haemorrhage. Early stabilisation and compression of unstable fractures is thought to limit blood loss. Reposition of fracture parts and reduction of pelvic volume may provide haemorrhage control. Several non-invasive techniques for early

  1. Effectiveness and complications of pelvic circumferential compression devices in patients with unstable pelvic fractures: a systematic review of literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg, W.R.; Knops, S.P.; Schep, N.W.; Lieshout, E.M. van; Patka, P.; Schipper, I.B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pelvic fractures can cause massive haemorrhage. Early stabilisation and compression of unstable fractures is thought to limit blood loss. Reposition of fracture parts and reduction of pelvic volume may provide haemorrhage control. Several non-invasive techniques for early stabilisation

  2. Effectiveness and complications of pelvic circumferential compression devices in patients with unstable pelvic fractures: a systematic review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg, Willem R.; Knops, Simon P.; Schep, Niels W. L.; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Patka, Peter; Schipper, Inger B.

    2009-01-01

    Pelvic fractures can cause massive haemorrhage. Early stabilisation and compression of unstable fractures is thought to limit blood loss. Reposition of fracture parts and reduction of pelvic volume may provide haemorrhage control. Several non-invasive techniques for early stabilisation have been

  3. Psychogenic chronic pelvic pain: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D P; Wiesner, M G; Reiter, R C

    1990-03-01

    By the time that the pelvalgia patient seeks treatment, her chronic tension, anxiety, stress, and related somatic symptoms, which usually have moderated her fear of repeat assault or punishment by the aggressor-parent, has begun to disintegrate. The patient usually has little or no insight into the fact that her feelings of being trapped, helpless, and victimized in her marriage, job, or other interpersonal relationships can be symbols of the original sexual trauma. The depressed patient may be unaware that suicidal thoughts and actions, if present, are a reflection of her sense of helplessness, hopelessness, and victimization. Hence, CPP may be a symptom of a wide spectrum of disorders, both organic and psychological. While the patient is undergoing evaluation of pelvic pain, it is essential that clinicians remain aware that the patient's psychogenic symptoms are an attempt to reinforce a faltering ego. Additionally, it is important that they recognize that previous attempts at diagnosis and therapy of CPP and other somatic complaints usually have reinforced the belief that the symptoms are physically based and unrelated to any psychological factors. A number of prospective studies currently are underway to characterize further the relationships between complaints of chronic pelvic pain, personality functioning, and history of sexual trauma. Without data on very long-term follow-up, our understanding of the precise psychodevelopmental pathophysiology and long-term prognosis of CPP currently remains incomplete.

  4. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Diaz Dilernia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death.

  5. Penile Rehabilitation after Pelvic Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed.

  6. Urethral sensation following reconstructive pelvic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, M G; Davis, C; Lowenstein, L; Mueller, E R; Brubaker, L; Kenton, K

    2014-11-01

    Most urethral neuromuscular function data focus on efferent rather than afferent innervation. We aimed to determine if changes exist in urethral afferent nerve function before and after reconstructive pelvic surgery (RPS). Secondarily, we compared afferent urethral innervation in women with and without stress urinary incontinence undergoing RPS. Participants underwent current perception threshold (CPT) and urethral anal reflex (UAR) testing prior to surgery and again post-operatively. Wilcoxon signed ranked test and Spearman's correlations were used and all tests were two-sided. p = 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Urethral CPT thresholds increased significantly after RPS, consistent with decreased urethral afferent function. Pre-operative urethral CPT thresholds at 5 and 250 Hz were lower in SUI women (10 [IQR 5-29], 40 [32-750]) compared with continent women (63 [14-99], 73 [51-109]; p = 0.45, p = 0.020), signifying increased urethral sensation or easier activation of urethral afferents in SUI women. Reconstructive pelvic surgery is associated with a short-term deleterious impact on urethral afferent function, as demonstrated by the higher levels of stimuli required to activate urethral afferent nerves (decreased urethral sensation) immediately after RPS. Women with SUI required lower levels of stimuli to activate urethral afferent nerves prior to RPS, although UAR latencies were similar regardless of concomitant SUI.

  7. Pelvic floor electrophysiology in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankisi, H; Pugdahl, K; Rasmussen, M M; Clemmensen, D; Rawashdeh, Y F; Christensen, P; Krogh, K; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate sacral peripheral nerve function and continuity of pudendal nerve in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) using pelvic floor electrophysiological tests. Twelve patients with low cervical or thoracic SCI were prospectively included. Quantitative external anal sphincter (EAS) muscle electromyography (EMG), pudendal nerve terminal motor latency (PNTML) testing, bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) testing and pudendal short-latency somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) measurement were performed. In EAS muscle EMG, two patients had abnormal increased spontaneous activity and seven prolonged motor unit potential duration. PNTML was normal in 10 patients. BCR was present with normal latency in 11 patients and with prolonged latency in one. The second component of BCR could be recorded in four patients. SEPs showed absent cortical responses in 11 patients and normal latency in one. Pudendal nerve and sacral lower motor neuron involvement are significantly associated with chronic SCI, most prominently in EAS muscle EMG. The frequent finding of normal PNTML latencies supports earlier concerns on the utility of this test; however, BCR and pudendal SEPs may have clinical relevance. As intact peripheral nerves including pudendal nerve are essential for efficient supportive therapies, pelvic floor electrophysiological testing prior to these interventions is highly recommended. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Young; Sohn, Cheol Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate safe access route and success rate of percutaneous drainage of pelvic fluid collection. The 35 percutaneous drainages of pelvic fluid collection under the CT and fluorosocpic guidance were done in 32 patients. The anterior transabdominal approach was done in 20 patients, while the nine patients used the transgluteal approach through greater sciatic foramen. Three patients, who had septated or noncommunicating abscesses, underwent drainage using both approaches. The catheter was removed when the patient's symptom and laboratory data were improved or the amount of drainage and the size of fluid collection were markedly reduced. Success, partial success and failure were classified. The causes of fluid collection were complication of intraabdominal operation in 27 patient. The diagnosis after drainage included abscess (21), loculated ascites (6), and hematoma (4). The 27 cases (30 procedure) were treated successfully and the mean duration of catheter insertion was 10 days. The partial successes were two cases (2 procedures), which had palliative purpose. Three cases (3 procedures) were failed, which were multiple loculated ascites of pancreatic origin (2) and recurrent abscess (1). The significant complication during the procedure or drainage was not noted

  9. A Novel, Extremely Elongated, and Endocellular Bacterial Symbiont Supports Cuticle Formation of a Grain Pest Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Bin; Okude, Genta; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Futahashi, Ryo; Moriyama, Minoru; Meng, Xian-Ying; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2017-09-26

    The saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Silvanidae), is a cosmopolitan stored-product pest. Early studies on O. surinamensis in the 1930s described the presence of peculiar bacteriomes harboring endosymbiotic bacteria in the abdomen. Since then, however, the microbiological nature of the symbiont has been elusive. Here we investigated the endosymbiotic system of O. surinamensis in detail. In the abdomen of adults, pupae, and larvae, four oval bacteriomes were consistently identified, whose cytoplasm was full of extremely elongated tubular bacterial cells several micrometers wide and several hundred micrometers long. Molecular phylogenetic analysis identified the symbiont as a member of the Bacteroidetes , in which the symbiont was the most closely related to the endosymbiont of a grain pest beetle, Rhyzopertha dominica (Bostrichidae). The symbiont was detected in developing embryos, corroborating vertical symbiont transmission through host generations. The symbiont gene showed AT-biased nucleotide composition and accelerated molecular evolution, plausibly reflecting degenerative evolution of the symbiont genome. When the symbiont infection was experimentally removed, the aposymbiotic insects grew and reproduced normally, but exhibited a slightly but significantly more reddish cuticle and lighter body mass. These results indicate that the symbiont of O. surinamensis is not essential for the host's growth and reproduction but contributes to the host's cuticle formation. Symbiont genome sequencing and detailed comparison of fitness parameters between symbiotic and aposymbiotic insects under various environmental conditions will provide further insights into the symbiont's biological roles for the stored-product pest. IMPORTANCE Some beetles notorious as stored-product pests possess well-developed symbiotic organs called bacteriomes for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria, although their biological roles have been poorly understood. Here we report

  10. Pelvic reference selection in patients with unilateral Crowe type IV DDH for measuring leg length inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Chang, Fei; Wang, Chenyu; Yang, Modi; Wang, Jincheng

    2015-01-01

    We identified the presence of deformities in the affected pelvis of unilateral Crowe type IV DDH patients, and if present, whether the teardrop and ischial lines were parallel with the sacral base line. We also verified whether the sacral base line provided a better pelvic landmark than the teardrop line for determining leg length inequality (LLI). After leveling the pelvis by using a block to lift the short leg, standard anterior-posterior full-length radiography was performed on 10 patients and 10 healthy volunteers as controls. The ratio of pelvic heights on each side of the pelvis, the angles formed by the sacral base line and the other 2 lines between 2 groups were measured. LLI were measured by sacral base line and teardrop line respectively. The ratio between the pelvic heights was lower in the patient group than in the control group (0.95 versus 0.99). The angles between the teardrop and ischial lines and the sacral base line in the patient group were both greater than in the control group (6.08° versus 0.92° and 7.13° versus 0.97°). LLI measured from the sacral base line was larger than from the teardrop line in the patient group (5.55 cm versus 4.36 cm). There was pelvic asymmetry and the sacral base line was not parallel with the other 2 lines in unilateral Crowe type IV DDH. The leveled sacral base line was perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body, and may be a better choice for accurate LLI measurement in this situation.

  11. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Sexology and Acupressure Through the Vagina (Hippocratic Pelvic Massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many gynecological and sexological problems (like urine incontinence, chronic pelvic pains, vulvodynia, and lack of lust, excitement, and orgasm are resistant to standard medical treatment. In our work at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen, we have found that vaginal acupressure, or Hippocratic pelvic massage, can help some of these problems. Technically, it is a very simple procedure as it corresponds to the explorative phase of the standard pelvic examination, supplemented with the patient's report on the feelings it provokes and the processing and integration of these feelings. Sometimes it can be very difficult to control the emotions released by the technique, i.e., regression to earlier traumas from childhood sexual abuse. This review discusses the theory behind vaginal acupressure, ethical aspects, and presentation of a case story. This procedure helped the patient to become present in her pelvis and to integrate old traumas with painful emotions. Holistic gynecology and sexology can help the patient to identify and let go of negative feelings, beliefs, and attitudes related to sex, gender, sexual organs, body, and soul at large. Shame, guilt, helplessness, fear, disgust, anxiety, anger, hatred, and other strong feelings are almost always an important part of a sexual or functional problem as these feelings are “held” by the tissue of the pelvis and sexual organs. Acupressure through the vagina/pelvic massage must be done with great care by an experienced physician, with a third person present, after obtaining consent and the necessary trust of the patient. It must be followed by conversational therapy and further holistic existential processing.

  12. Bone anatomy of the pelvic girdle, the thigh and the leg of Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Myrmecophagidae: Pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is the largest anteater species in the world. It is an animal of terrestrial habits, however, it has some ability to climb tall trees and termite mounds. The hard skeletal structures are of crucial importance, since they join and protect the soft organs and help support the body, shape, and get involved in movement. The appendicular skeleton is an important part of the locomotor apparatus, whose anatomical information in wild species is scarce, making it difficult to interpret data on these bones. This paper aims to describe the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg skeleton in the giant anteater. We used two specimens of Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus (1758, fixed in a 3.7% aqueous formaldehyde solution. At first, the limbs were disjointed and we removed the skin, viscera, and muscles associated to the bones of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg in the specimens. Then, they were macerated in boiling water, and, subsequently, placed in a hydrogen peroxide solution. Once clean and dry, the bones were identified and described. The pelvic girdle skeleton in the giant anteater consists of the hip bone, formed by the ilium, pubis, and ischium bones; the thigh consists of the femur bone, and the leg consists of the tibia and fibula bones. In the knee joint region there is the patella, a relatively small sesamoid bone, considering the large size of this animal. The giant anteater have osteological features of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg similar to those in domestic carnivores, however, some morphological differences are made evident, something which may reflect differences in locomotor patterns.

  13. The value of vaginal packing in pelvic floor surgery: a randomised double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagamoorthy, G; Khalil, A; Cardozo, L; Srikrishna, S; Leslie, G; Robinson, D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaginal packing following pelvic floor surgery with regard to post-operative pain, bleeding and infection. This was a double-blind randomised study of women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy and/or pelvic floor repair at a tertiary urogynaecology unit. The primary outcome of day 1 post-operative pain was assessed using the short-form McGill Pain score. Secondary outcomes were haematological and infective morbidity, evaluated using changes in full blood count, and cultures of midstream urine and high vaginal swabs. A transvaginal ultrasound scan to exclude pelvic haematoma was performed at 6 weeks in all women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy with or without a pelvic floor repair. In total, 190 women were recruited: mean age 58.3 years (27-91 years), mean body mass index 27.4 kg/m(2) and median parity 3. Women were randomised into the 'pack' (n = 86) and 'no pack' (n = 87) arms with no demographic differences between the groups. No statistically significant differences in the post-operative pain scores or secondary outcome measures were demonstrated. Incidence of haematoma formation (14.8 % no pack, 7.3 % pack, p = 0.204) was not statistically significant. There were three clinically significant complications in the no pack group and none in the pack group. This is the first study to examine pain in association with post-operative vaginal packing. There is no evidence to suggest that packing increases pain scores or post-operative morbidity. A trend towards increased haematoma and significant complications was seen in the no pack group. As vaginal packing does no harm and may be of some benefit it may be argued that packing should be recommended as routine clinical practice.

  14. Pelvic examination experiences in women with and without chronic pain during intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Stéphanie C; Pukall, Caroline F

    2014-12-01

    Although pelvic examinations (PEs) are an important component of women's health, some women experience difficulty during PEs due to anxiety and pain. These difficulties may be heightened in women with chronic pain during sexual intercourse. Some evidence suggests that this population experiences pain and distress during PEs, but their experiences in this context have not been empirically investigated from a multidimensional perspective. The aims of this study were to compare the PE experiences of women with and without pain during intercourse and to examine predictors of negative experiences in each group. Women with vulvovaginal pain (n = 90), pelvic pain (n = 89), and women without current intercourse pain (n = 207) completed an online survey including sections assessing demographics, gynecological and medical history, and PE experiences. Respondents completed questionnaires assessing vaginal penetration cognitions and body image. Participants rated their most recent PE on numerical scales for pain, embarrassment, anxiety, and the overall quality of the experience. Women with pelvic and vulvovaginal pain during intercourse reported significantly more pain and anxiety during their most recent PE compared with the no pain group, and women with a higher number of lifetime gynecological diagnoses reported significantly more pain. Multiple regression analyses indicated that various predisposing, examination-related, and psychological factors predicted specific PE ratings in each group. The results provide empirical support that PEs are more physically and emotionally difficult for women who experience chronic pain during intercourse. These findings have important clinical implications, as PEs are a critical part of complete reproductive care and play an essential role in the assessment/management of sexual pain, including Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of four-view radiography and conventional computed tomography analysing sacral and pelvic fractures in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger-Vanegas, S M; Senthirajah, S K J; Nemanic, S; Baltzer, W; Warnock, J; Bobe, G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was (1) to determine whether four-view radiography of the pelvis is as reliable and accurate as computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing sacral and pelvic fractures, in addition to coxofemoral and sacroiliac joint subluxation or luxation, and (2) to evaluate the effect of the amount of training in reading diagnostic imaging studies on the accuracy of diagnosing sacral and pelvic fractures in dogs. Sacral and pelvic fractures were created in 11 canine cadavers using a lateral impactor. In all cadavers, frog-legged ventro-dorsal, lateral, right and left ventro-45°-medial to dorsolateral oblique frog leg ("rollover 45-degree view") radiographs and a CT of the pelvis were obtained. Two radiologists, two surgeons and two veterinary students classified fractures using a confidence scale and noted the duration of evaluation for each imaging modality and case. The imaging results were compared to gross dissection. All evaluators required significantly more time to analyse CT images compared to radiographic images. Sacral and pelvic fractures, specifically those of the sacral body, ischiatic table, and the pubic bone, were more accurately diagnosed using CT compared to radiography. Fractures of the acetabulum and iliac body were diagnosed with similar accuracy (at least 86%) using either modality. Computed tomography is a better method for detecting canine sacral and some pelvic fractures compared to radiography. Computed tomography provided an accuracy of close to 100% in persons trained in evaluating CT images.

  16. Effect of two culture media on Pinus taeda shoots elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Paula Imbrogno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pinus taeda L. is a forest species of great international importance and in Argentina. Biotechnological techniques can provide an alternative to propagate this species, as well as for obtaining mother plants. The aim of this study was to achieve adequate elongation of in vitro shoots before transfer to the rooting stage. The shoots were obtained from acclimatized mother plants. It was disinfected for in vitro establishment. Two types of basal culture media: WV5 and DCR were studied. The best results were achieved with the combination of the WV5 salts supplement with 0.5% activated carbon, 0.01 mg l-1 ANA to obtain vigorous and longer than 40.0 mm in length shoots. Key words: forest, micropropagation, pine

  17. Iwr1 facilitates RNA polymerase II dynamics during transcription elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Navarro, Natalia; Peiró-Chova, Lorena; Estruch, Francisco

    2017-07-01

    Iwr1 is an RNA polymerase II (RNPII) interacting protein that directs nuclear import of the enzyme which has been previously assembled in the cytoplasm. Here we present genetic and molecular evidence that links Iwr1 with transcription. Our results indicate that Iwr1 interacts with RNPII during elongation and is involved in the disassembly of the enzyme from chromatin. This function is especially important in resolving problems posed by damage-arrested RNPII, as shown by the sensitivity of iwr1 mutants to genotoxic drugs and the Iwr1's genetic interactions with RNPII degradation pathway mutants. Moreover, absence of Iwr1 causes genome instability that is enhanced by defects in the DNA repair machinery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sigmoid Colon Elongation Evaluation by Volume Rendering Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla SENAYLI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sigmoid colons have various measurements, shapes, and configurations for individuals. In this subject there are rare clinical trials to answer the question of sigmoidal colon maldevelopment predicting a risk for volvulus. Therefore, sigmoid colon measurement may be beneficial to decide for volvulus. In a study, sigmoid colon diameters were evaluated during abdominal surgeries and it was found that median length was 47 cm and median vertical mesocolon length was 13 cm. We report a 14-year-old female patient who has a sigmoidal colon measured as nearly 54 cm. We used tomographic equipments for this evaluation. We know that MRI technique was used for this purpose but, there has not been data for MRI predicting the sigmoidal volvulus. We hope that our findings by this evaluation can contribute to insufficient literature of sigmoidal elongation. [J Contemp Med 2011; 1(2.000: 71-73

  19. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we demonstr......We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. We see this as an example of the stability of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori. These observations of an atmosphere around a moving body with no circulation around it appear to be new. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics...

  20. Elongational rheology and cohesive fracture of photo-oxidated LDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.

    2014-01-01

    It was found recently that low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samples with different degrees of photo-oxidation represent an interesting system to study the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture and the aspects of the cohesive rupture in elongational flow. Sheets of LDPE were subjected to photo-oxidation in the presence of air using a xenon lamp to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Characterisation methods included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solvent extraction method, and rheology in shear and uniaxial extensional flows. Linear viscoelasticity was increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by the carbonyl index, acid and aldehydes groups, and gel fraction. The molecular stress function model was used to quantify the experimental data, and the nonlinear model parameter β was found to be correlated with the gel content. The uniaxial data showed that the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture was shifted to lower elongational rates, the higher the gel content was. From 2 weeks photo-oxidation onwards, cohesive rupture occurred at every strain rate investigated. The true strain and true stress at cohesive fracture as well as the energy density applied to the sample up to fracture were analyzed. At low gel content, rupture was mainly determined by the melt fraction while at high gel content, rupture occurred predominantly in the gel structure. The strain at break was found to be independent of strain rate, contrary to the stress at break and the energy density. Thus, the true strain and not the stress at break or the energy density was found to be the relevant physical quantity to describe cohesive fracture behavior of photo-oxidated LDPE. The equilibrium modulus of the gel structures was correlated with the true strain at rupture. The stiffer the gel structure, the lower was the deformation tolerated before the sample breaks

  1. Pelvic incidence: a fixed value or can you change it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Howard M; Hayes, Ann M; Huebner, Stephen B; Hayden, Andy M; Israel, Heidi; Brechbuhler, Jennifer L

    2017-10-01

    There has been renewed interest in the pelvic vertebrae by spinal surgeons recently. Those involved in working with patients with adult spinal deformity focus on the position of the fused spine as it relates to the pelvis, and determine success or failure by specific numbers for given pelvic parameters. The pelvic parameters that are commonly measured for these patients are pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and pelvic incidence (PI). Out of the three, PI has always been considered to be the fixed measurement, whereas pelvic tilt and sacral slope have the capacity to change in relation to external forces. The assumption that the PI does not change has not been proven in a healthy, asymptomatic population. This study aimed to investigate the differences in PI between three pelvic positions used in common functional activities: resting baseline pelvic posture, maximal anterior pelvic rotation, and maximal posterior pelvic rotation. This was a randomized, prospective study of 50 healthy, asymptomatic, individuals who were recruited from the vicinity of our institution. Fifty patients (16 men with a mean age of 26.5±12.1 years; 34 women with a mean age of 27.2±10.8 years) were recruited for this study. Initial screening occurred by telephone. The inclusion criteria consisted of participants being between 18 and 79 years of age, no previous history of spine, pelvic, or lower extremity pain which had lasted longer than 48 hours, or history of any disorder in the spine, pelvis, or lower extremity that had required medical care. Female patients could not be pregnant at the time of participation. Changes in PI were assessed by examining the differences between the values of the PI with each change in pelvic position: resting to maximal anterior pelvic rotation and resting to maximal posterior pelvic rotation. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. This study was funded by a Small Exploratory Grant from the Scoliosis Research Society. All subjects had an

  2. Effect of a new pelvic stabilizer (T-POD®) on reduction of pelvic volume and haemodynamic stability in unstable pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Edward C T H; van Stigt, Sander F L; van Vugt, Arie B

    2010-12-01

    Pelvic fractures, often the result of high energy blunt trauma, are associated with severe morbidity and mortality. A new pelvic stabilizer (T-POD®) provides secure and effective simultaneous circumferential compression of the pelvis. In this study we describe 15 patients with a prehospital untreated unstable pelvic fracture with signs of hypovolaemic shock with the T-POD®. Before and 2 min after applying the T-POD®, heart rate and blood pressure were measured. An X-ray before and directly after applying the T-POD® was made to measure the effect on reduction in symphyseal diastasis. Application of the T-POD® reduced the symphyseal diastasis with 60% (p = 0.01). The mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased significant from 65.3 to 81.2 mm Hg (p = 0.03) and the heart rate declined from 107 beats per minute to 94 (p = 0.02). Out of ten patients in whom the circulatory response before and after the T-POD® was recorded, seven were good responders, one had a transient response and two responded poor. In the acute setting, the T-POD® device has a clear compressive effect on the pelvic volume in unstable pelvic fractures. The T-POD® is therefore an effective and easy to use device in (temporarily) stabilizing the pelvic ring in haemodynamically unstable patients.

  3. Tuberculosis presenting with pelvic mass, peritoneal lesions, and elevation of serum CA125 mimicking malignant tumor: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C Y; Liaw, C C; Chen, T C

    2000-04-01

    Tuberculosis is a curable infective disease which can mimic a malignant tumor. We report on a young woman who presented with abdominal fullness, body weight loss, and microcytic anemia. A pelvic mass and peritoneal lesions were found. The serum CA125 level was high. The initial gynecologic echo and abdominal CT scan revealed bilateral ovarian mass with peritoneal lesions, and malignancy was highly suspected. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed, and peritoneal tuberculosis was pathologically proven. Combination anti-tuberculosis therapy was prescribed for one year. She was followed up in the outpatient clinic regularly with symptom improvement, body weigh gain, and improvement of anemia. We suggest that in cases of a pelvic mass and peritoneal lesions, with elevation of the serum CA125 level, tuberculosis should always be kept on the list of differential diagnoses. A tissue diagnosis should always be obtained before treatment, regardless of initial image study and laboratory findings.

  4. Association between preterm labour and pelvic floor muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Turhan; Pekgöz, Ipek; Bozkaya, Hasan; Osmanagaoglu, Mehmet A

    2018-03-23

    We hypothesised that the pressure on the cervix increases with advancing gestation and it may lead to a cervical shortening and cause preterm labour in women with weak pelvic floor muscles. The aim of this prospective study was to measure vaginal resting pressure and pelvic floor muscle strength in the first trimester of pregnancy and to investigate their effects on labour. A study was conducted on the pregnant women with a low risk for preterm birth. The pelvic floor muscle strength and vaginal resting pressure were assessed in 320 pregnant women at their first trimester with a vaginal pressure measurement device. Fifty-two pregnant women were hospitalised for tocolytic therapy because of spontaneous preterm labour. Thirty-two of them (10.2%) had a preterm delivery despite the tocolytic therapy. Both the vaginal resting pressure (p = .009, 95%CI: 0.8; 5.9) and the pelvic floor muscle strength (p = .01, 95%CI: 3.5; 13.1) were significantly lower in the women with a preterm labour. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? The pelvic floor muscles have an essential role in continence and provide support to the pelvic organs. They also have an impact on labour. The pelvic floor muscles should distend to allow the passage of the foetus during labour. The rotation and flexion of the foetal head is due to the pelvic floor resistance. The effect of a vaginal birth on the pelvic floor's function is readily understood. On the other hand, the effect of the pelvic floor muscle function on labour is still controversial. What do the results of this study add? This prospective study showed that there is a negative association between the pelvic floor muscle strength and preterm labour. This is the first clinical study indicating that weak pelvic floor muscles may cause a preterm labour. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Pelvic floor physical therapy may be an alternative preventive strategy to reduce

  5. Incidence and Risk Factors for Pelvic Pain After Mesh Implant Surgery for the Treatment of Pelvic Floor Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J.; Babb, Emma; Nackley, Andrea G.; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective Our aim was to assess incidence and risk factors for pelvic pain after pelvic mesh implantation. Design Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Setting Single university hospital. Patients Women who have undergone surgery with pelvic mesh implant for treatment of pelvic floor disorders including prolapse and incontinence. Interventions Telephone interviews to assess pain, sexual function, and general health. Measurements and Main Results Pain was measured by the McGill Short-Form Pain Questionnaire for somatic pain, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory for neuropathic pain, Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness for somatization, and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) for sexual health and dyspareunia. General health was assessed with the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Among 160 enrolled women, mean time since surgery was 20.8 ± 10.5 months, mean age was 62.1 ± 11.2 years, 93.8% were white, 86.3% were postmenopausal, and 3.1% were tobacco users. Types of mesh included midurethral sling for stress incontinence (78.8%), abdominal/robotic sacrocolpopexy (35.7%), transvaginal for prolapse (6.3%), and perirectal for fecal incontinence (1.9%), with 23.8% concomitant mesh implants for both prolapse and incontinence. Our main outcome, self-reported pelvic pain at least 1 year after surgery, was 15.6%. Women reporting pain were younger, with fibromyalgia, worse physical health, higher somatization, and lower surgery satisfaction (all p pelvic pain correlated with early postoperative pelvic pain (p pelvic pain after pelvic mesh implant surgery, with decreased sexual function. Risk factors included younger age, fibromyalgia, early postoperative pain, poorer physical health, and somatization. Understanding risk factors for pelvic pain after mesh implantation may improve patient selectionq. PMID:27773810

  6. ACTH-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma with ovarian and pelvic metastases causing Cushing's syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wen-Qing; Wu, Xia; Li, Gan-Di; Wu, Wei-Lu; Wang, Wei-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) with ovarian and pelvic metastases causing Cushing's syndrome is very rare and might be misdiagnosed. We describe a case of ACTH-secreting pancreatic poorly differentiated NEC developing bilateral ovarian and pelvic metastases. A 27-year-old woman presented with thirst, polydipsia, fatigue and poorly controlled hyperglycemia. Laboratory and imaging investigations revealed hypokalemia, hyperglycaemia, ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia and a 12-cm mass at the junction of body and tail of the pancreas with ovarian and pelvic nodules. The patient underwent partial pancreatectomy and splenectomy, uterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, and excision of peritoneal nodules. Tumors in pancreas, ovaries and pelvis were diagnosed as poor-differentiated NEC. After 19-month chemotherapy, she developed pelvic metastasis. The tumor in our case is a large, poorly differentiated NEC secreting ACTH and causing CS, with ovarian metastases. To our knowledge, this new additional case of ACTH-secreting pancreatic NEC with ovarian metastases would add to the better understanding of this tumor.

  7. Temperature Dependence of the Elongation Behavior of Polyphenylene Sulfide using Melt Spinning Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Changbin; Yang, Yan; Gao, Jun; Li, Shenghu; Qing, Long

    2017-12-01

    The elongational properties of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) melt were measured using a melt spinning technique. The relationship between extrusion temperature and melt strength (MS) as well as between elongational viscosity and drawability were investigated with respect to the effects of extrusion temperature and extensional strain rate on the melt extensional stress and elongational viscosity. The results showed that the stretching force for the PPS melt decreased with a rise of extrusion temperature while increased roughly with an increase of extensional rate. The MS decreased with an increase of temperature, and the ln MS was a linear function of 1/T when the extrusion velocity was constant. Both the melt extensional stress and elongational viscosity decreased with the increase of the extrusion temperature. With increase of the extensional strain rate, the extensional stress increased while the melt elongational viscosity first decreases and then increases gradually. A low melt elongational viscosity might be beneficial to improve the melt drawability.

  8. Pelvic floor muscle dysfunctions are prevalent in female chronic pelvic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loving, S; Thomsen, Thordis; Jaszczak, Poul P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No current standardized set of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) outcome measures have been specifically tested for their applicability in a general female chronic pelvic pain (CPP) population. We aimed to compare PFM function between a randomly selected population-based sample of women...... with CPP and age-matched pain-free controls using multiple standardized intravaginal examination measures recommended by the International Continence Society. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, population-based and controlled study with randomly selected participants among women in Denmark. We reported...... blinded findings from a set of standardized vaginal PFM examination manoeuvres in 50 female participants (24 with CPP, 26 pain free). A preliminary pilot study ensured the intra- and intertester reliability of the test procedure. PFM outcomes were resting tone, relaxation capacity, strength, surface...

  9. Spanish language translation of pelvic floor disorders instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amy E; Fine, Paul M; McCrery, Rebecca; Wren, Patricia A; Richter, Holly E; Brubaker, Linda; Brown, Morton B; Weber, Anne M

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to translate existing measures of pelvic symptoms and quality of life from English into Spanish, facilitating research participation of Hispanic/Latina women. The forward-backward translation protocol was applied then adjudicated by a concordance committee. The measures included the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ), Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA) Questionnaire, Hunskaar Severity Measure, Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and modified Manchester Questionnaire, Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (PISQ), and the Life Orientation Test (LOT). English and Spanish versions were administered to 50 Hispanic/Latina women with pelvic symptoms. Kappa correlations of items and correlation coefficients for scales were computed. Psychometric testing for translations demonstrated good (0.80-0.89), very good (0.90-0.95), or excellent (>0.95) correlations for primary scales of the PFDI, PFIQ, MESA, Hunskaar, PISQ, and LOT. Strict translation techniques and testing yielded valid Spanish translations of instruments assessing pelvic symptoms/functional life impact in women with pelvic floor disorders.

  10. Weightbearing anteroposterior pelvic radiographs are recommended in DDH assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troelsen, Anders; Jacobsen, Steffen; Rømer, Lone; Søballe, Kjeld

    2008-04-01

    Neutral pelvic positioning during recording of anteroposterior pelvic radiographs has been recommended for precise interpretation of acetabular deformities. Because the effect of pelvic positioning is controversial in the literature, we asked whether the weightbearing position would alter radiographic interpretations. We obtained sets of supine and weightbearing anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 31 patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip and measured pelvic tilt, acetabular version, center edge angle, acetabular index, joint space width and femoral head translation. For both genders the pelvis extended when patients were repositioned from supine to weightbearing but extension was more pronounced in women compared with men. The number of patients with apparent acetabular retroversion was reduced from 11 supine to four when weightbearing. The center edge angle, acetabular index, joint space width and femoral head translation were similar in both views. We recommend weightbearing anteroposterior pelvic radiographs be obtained to assess DDH given the differences in pelvic flexion-extension and interpretations of acetabular version. Level III, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. [Establishement for regional pelvic trauma database in Hunan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Zhu, Yong; Long, Haitao; Yang, Junxiao; Sun, Buhua; Li, Kanghua

    2017-04-28

    To establish a database for pelvic trauma in Hunan Province, and to start the work of multicenter pelvic trauma registry.
 Methods: To establish the database, literatures relevant to pelvic trauma were screened, the experiences from the established trauma database in China and abroad were learned, and the actual situations for pelvic trauma rescue in Hunan Province were considered. The database for pelvic trauma was established based on the PostgreSQL and the advanced programming language Java 1.6.
 Results: The complex procedure for pelvic trauma rescue was described structurally. The contents for the database included general patient information, injurious condition, prehospital rescue, conditions in admission, treatment in hospital, status on discharge, diagnosis, classification, complication, trauma scoring and therapeutic effect. The database can be accessed through the internet by browser/servicer. The functions for the database include patient information management, data export, history query, progress report, video-image management and personal information management.
 Conclusion: The database with whole life cycle pelvic trauma is successfully established for the first time in China. It is scientific, functional, practical, and user-friendly.

  12. Straight leg elevation to rule out pelvic injury.

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    Bolt, Caroline; O'Keeffe, Francis; Finnegan, Pete; Dickson, Kristofer; Smit, De Villiers; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Mitra, Biswadev

    2018-02-01

    Pelvic x-ray is frequently used as a screening tool during initial assessment of injured patients. However routine use in the awake and alert blunt trauma patient may be questioned due to low yield. We propose a clinical tool that may avoid unnecessary imaging by examining whether the ability to straight leg raise, without pain, can rule out pelvic injury. We conducted a prospective cohort study with the exposure variables of ability to straight leg raise and presence of pain on doing so, and presence of pelvic fracture on x-ray as the primary outcome variable. Of the 328 participants, 35 had pelvic fractures, and of these 32 were either unable to straight leg raise, or had pain on doing so, with a sensitivity of 91.43% (95% CI: 76.94-98.2%) and a negative predictive value of 98.57% (95% CI: 95.88-99.70%). The 3 participants with a pelvic fracture who could straight leg raise with no pain, all had a GCS of less than 15, and therefore, among the sub-group of patients with GCS15, a 100% sensitivity and 100% negative predictive value for straight leg raise with no pain to rule out pelvic fracture was demonstrated. Among awake, alert patients, painless straight leg raise can exclude pelvic fractures and be incorporated into initial examination during reception and resuscitation of injured patients. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY, SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT AND PELVIC BALANCE IN LUMBAR SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Muñiz Luna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To demonstrate the recovery of lumbar sagittal pelvic alignment and sagittal pelvic balance after surgical reduction of lumbar spondylolisthesis and establish the benefits of the surgery for reduction and fixation of the lumbar spondylolisthesis with 360o circumferential arthrodesis for 2 surgical approaches by clinical and functional evaluation. Method: Eight patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with surgical reduction and fixation of listhesis and segmental circumferential fusion with two surgical approaches were reviewed. They were evaluated before and after treatment with Oswestry, Visual Analogue for pain and Odom scales, performing radiographic measurement of lumbar sagittal alignment and pelvic sagittal balance with the technique of pelvic radius. Results: Oswestry scales and EVA reported improvement of symptoms after treatment in 8 cases; the Odom scale had six outstanding cases reported. The lumbar sagittal alignment presented a lumbosacral lordosis angle and a lumbopelvic lordosis angle reduced in 4 cases and increased in 4 other cases; pelvic sagittal balance increased the pelvic angle in 4 cases and decreased in 3 cases and the sacral translation of the hip axis to the promontory increased in 6 cases. Conclusion: The surgical procedure evaluated proved to be useful by modifying the lumbar sagittal alignment and the pelvic balance, besides reducing the symptoms, enabling the patient to have mobility and movement and the consequent satisfaction with the surgery.

  14. Sleep quality in women seeking care for pelvic organ prolapse

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    GHETTI, Chiara; LEE, MinJae; OLIPHANT, Sallie; OKUN, Michele; LOWDER, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify the prevalence of sleep disturbance in women seeking treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and identify correlates of poor sleep quality in this population by using a validated sleep scale. Study Design This is a cohort study of female patients with pelvic organ prolapse. Main Outcome Measures Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory (PFDI), and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ) measures were completed. Demographic data, medical comorbidities, medications, and physical examinations were also recorded. Results 407 women were enrolled. Analysis was performed on the 250 subjects who completed all PSQI components. Subjects were predominantly white, with a mean age of 61±11 years and mean BMI of 28±5kg/m2. The majority (71%) had Stage III prolapse. Half (N=127) had poor sleep quality (PSQI >5). Women with poor sleep quality were younger, had more medical comorbidities, more pelvic floor symptoms, more nocturia, more depressive symptoms, and took more time to fall asleep. Factors associated with sleep quality were evaluated using multivariable linear regression models. Worse sleep scores were associated with each of the PFDI subscores (urinary, prolapse, bowel), depressive symptoms, severe nocturia symptoms, and number of comorbidities. Conclusions Poor sleep is prevalent in women with prolapse. Pelvic floor symptoms as measured by PFDI sub-scales, were associated with poor sleep quality. Future studies are needed to better understand how sleep disturbances may contribute to the impact of pelvic floor symptoms on quality of life. PMID:25465518

  15. Treatment of symptomatic pelvic varices by ovarian vein embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, Patrizio; Simons, Christine; Trotteur, Genevieve; Dondelinger, Robert F.; Henroteaux, Denis; Gaspard, Ulysse

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. Pelvic congestion syndrome is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain in women and its association with venous congestion has been described in the literature. We evaluated the potential benefits of lumboovarian vein embolization in the treatment of lower abdominal pain in patients presenting with pelvic varicosities. Methods. Nineteen patients were treated. There were 13 unilateral embolizations, 6 initial bilateral treatments and 5 treated recurrences (a total of 30 procedures). All embolizations were performed with either enbucrilate and/or macrocoils, and there was an average clinical and Doppler duplex follow-up of 15.4 months. Results. The initial technical success rate was 96.7%. There were no immediate or long-term complications. Variable symptomatic relief was observed in 73.7% of cases with complete responses in 57.9%. All 8 patients who had partial or no pain relief complained of dyspareunia. The direct relationship between varices and chronic pelvic pain was difficult to ascertain in a significant number of clinical failures. Conclusion. Transcatheter embolization of lumboovarian varices is a safe technique offering symptomatic relief of pelvic pain in the majority of cases. The presence of dyspareunia seemed to be a poor prognostic factor, indicating that other causes of pelvic pain may coexist with pelvic varicosities

  16. Laparoscopy in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Shalini; Gupta, Priyanka; Gupta, Bindiya; Kaur, Iqbal R; Goel, Neerja

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of genital tuberculosis in women with idiopathic chronic pelvic pain on laparoscopy, correlate laparoscopic findings with microbiological and histological diagnosis of tuberculosis and assess the response to anti tubercular treatment (ATT) in these cases. In a prospective cohort study, fifty women with idiopathic chronic pelvic pain were enrolled. Diagnostic laparoscopy was done in all women and fluid from pouch of Douglas and/or saline washings were sent for acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear, conventional and rapid culture and DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for diagnosis of genital TB. The results of these tests were analyzed and agreement with laparoscopy was assessed using Kappa statistics. Pain scores using visual analogue scale were compared before and after treatment. Pelvic pathology was present in 44 (88%) women of idiopathic chronic pelvic pain, with a 34% prevalence rate of genital tuberculosis. Pelvic inflammation was associated with positive peritoneal fluid PCR (n=4) and AFB culture (n=3). Acid fast bacilli PCR had substantial agreement (kappa statistics=0.716) with visual findings at laparoscopy. There was a significant reduction in pain scores after treatment. Genital tuberculosis contributes to one-third cases of chronic pelvic pain. Pelvic inflammation is an early feature of genital TB and peritoneal fluid PCR has the best co-relation with laparoscopic findings of genital tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy Regarding Treatment of High-Tone Pelvic Floor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, Dani; Higgins, Margaret; Swan, Kimberly; Cummings, Jennifer; Dominguez, Sarah; Carey, Erin

    Chronic pelvic pain is a prevalent and debilitating condition with a wide range of etiologies. An estimated 30% to 70% of chronic pelvic cases involve musculoskeletal component pain including high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction (HTPFD). Pelvic floor physical therapy has been shown to be a beneficial treatment for HTPFD, yet many patients do not have access to this treatment. The objective of this study was to identify the barriers preventing patients from following through with the first-line management, physical therapy. Participants with a diagnosis of HTPFD (n = 154) were identified from the list of referrals sent from the obstetrics and gynecology department to an affiliated PFPT center. Participants were contacted and asked to complete a phone survey addressing demographics and perceived barriers to care. Responses were collected in REDCap. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed using a statistical analysis software. Seventy surveys were completed. The top barriers identified by participants were financial constraints (51.4%), perceived lack of utility (37.1%), time constraints (30.0%), and travel issues (18.6%); 84.4% of participants had 1 or more comorbid pain condition. Whereas 51.4% expressed some level of anxiety regarding the PFPT option, only 9.6% of participants did not start treatment because of fear of treatment. The majority of treatment barriers identified were concrete restraints, with insurance noncoverage and time constraints being the top issues. A fair number of participants expressed anxiety about the treatment or felt they received unclear explanations of the treatment. These are areas in which providers can potentially alleviate some barriers to care.

  18. The association between different measures of pelvic floor muscle function and female pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversand, Sissel H; Atan, Ixora Kamisan; Shek, Ka Lai; Dietz, Hans Peter

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to compare palpatory and translabial ultrasound (TLUS) measurements of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function with symptoms and signs of female pelvic organ prolapse (FPOP) to determine a possible association. We analysed data from 726 women with a mean age of 56 (SD 13.7, range 18-88) years, seen for symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction between August 2011 and April 2013. The examination included a standardised interview and clinical assessment of FPOP with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) measurements, Modified Oxford Scale (MOS) grading and 4D TLUS. Symptoms of prolapse were reported in 51.4% (373 out of 726) with a mean bother score of 5.8 (SD 2.91, range 0-10). A clinically significant POP (Incontinence Society [ICS]-POP-Q stage ≥ 2) in any compartment was diagnosed in 77.1%. Mean MOS was 2.4 (SD 1.1, range 0-5). Significant POP on TLUS was seen in 54.6% (389 out of 712). TLUS volumes at rest and on maximal PFM contraction were analysed on a desktop PC, to assess the degree of bladder neck (BN) cranioventral shift and levator antero-posterior (AP) diameter reduction, blinded against other data. Mean cranioventral BN shift was 7.11 (SD 4.36, range 0.32-25.32) mm and mean levator AP diameter reduction was 8.6 (SD 4.8, range 0.3-31.3) mm. MOS was strongly associated with subjective and objective POP (P ≤ 0.001), whereas this was not true for TLUS measurements of tissue displacement. The MOS seems to be a more valid measure of PFM function than sonographically determined BN displacement or reduction of hiatal AP diameter observed on PFM contraction.

  19. Elongation Kinetics of Polyglutamine Peptide Fibrils: A Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Robert H.; Jacobson, Kurt H.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Murphy, Regina M.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally expanded polyglutamine domains in proteins are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease. Expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) domain facilitates aggregation of the affected protein, and several studies directly link aggregation to neurotoxicity. Studies of synthetic polyQ peptides have contributed substantially to our understanding of the mechanism of aggregation. In this report, polyQ fibrils were immobilized onto a sensor, and their elongation by polyQ peptides of various length and conformation was examined using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The rate of elongation increased as the peptide length increased from 8 to 24 glutamines (Q8, Q20, and Q24). Monomer conformation affected elongation rates: insertion of a β-turn template d-Pro-Gly in the center of the peptide increased elongation rates several-fold, while insertion of Pro-Pro dramatically slowed elongation. Dissipation measurements of the QCM-D provided qualitative information about mechanical properties of the elongating fibrils. These data showed clear differences in the characteristics of the elongating aggregates, depending on the specific identity of the associating polyQ peptide. Elongation rates were sensitive to the pH and ionic strength of the buffer. Comparison of QCM-D data with those obtained by optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy revealed that very little water was associated with the elongation of fibrils by the peptide containing d-Pro-Gly, but a significant amount of water was associated when the fibrils were elongated by Q20. Together, the data indicate that elongation of polyQ fibrils can occur without full consolidation to the fibril structure, resulting in variations to the aggregate structure during elongation. PMID:22459263

  20. Role of laparoscopy in evaluation of chronic pelvic pain

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    Hebbar Shripad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a common medical problem affecting women. Too often the physical signs are not specific. This study aims at determining the accuracy of diagnostic laparoscopy over clinical pelvic examination. Settings and Design: A retrospective study of patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for CPP. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 86 women who underwent laparoscopic evaluation for CPP of at least 6-month duration were reviewed for presentation of symptoms, pelvic examination findings at the admission, operative findings and follow up when available. Statistical analysis used: McNemar Chi-square test for frequencies in a 2 x 2 table. Results: The most common presentation was acyclic lower abdominal pain (79.1%, followed by congestive dysmenorrhoea (26.7%. 61.6% of women did not reveal any significant signs on pelvic examination. Pelvic tenderness was elicited in 27.9%. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed significant pelvic pathology in 58% of those who essentially had normal pervaginal findings. The most common pelvic pathology by laparoscopy was pelvic adhesions (20.9%, followed by pelvic congestion (18.6%. Laparoscopic adhesiolyis achieved pain relief only in one-third of the women. Conclusion: The study revealed very low incidence of endometriosis (4.7%. Overall clinical examination could detect abnormality in only 38% of women, where as laparoscopy could detect significant pathology in 66% of women with CPP. This shows superiority of diagnostic laparoscopy over clinical examination in detection of aetiology in women with CPP (P < 0.001. Adhesiolysis helps only small proportion of women in achieving pain control.