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Sample records for body elongation pelvic

  1. The mitochondrial phylogeny of an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes (Polypteridae with implications for the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin loss, and craniofacial morphology in Osteichthyes

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    Brandley Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Polypteridae, commonly known as "bichirs", is a lineage that diverged early in the evolutionary history of Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish, but has been the subject of far less evolutionary study than other members of that clade. Uncovering patterns of morphological change within Polypteridae provides an important opportunity to evaluate if the mechanisms underlying morphological evolution are shared among actinoptyerygians, and in fact, perhaps the entire osteichthyan (bony fish and tetrapods tree of life. However, the greatest impediment to elucidating these patterns is the lack of a well-resolved, highly-supported phylogenetic tree of Polypteridae. In fact, the interrelationships of polypterid species have never been subject to molecular phylogenetic analysis. Here, we infer the first molecular phylogeny of bichirs, including all 12 recognized species and multiple subspecies using Bayesian analyses of 16S and cyt-b mtDNA. We use this mitochondrial phylogeny, ancestral state reconstruction, and geometric morphometrics to test whether patterns of morphological evolution, including the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin reduction, and craniofacial morphology, are shared throughout the osteichthyan tree of life. Results Our molecular phylogeny reveals 1 a basal divergence between Erpetoichthys and Polypterus, 2 polyphyly of P. endlicheri and P. palmas, and thus 3 the current taxonomy of Polypteridae masks its underlying genetic diversity. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest that pelvic fins were lost independently in Erpetoichthys, and unambiguously estimate multiple independent derivations of body elongation and shortening. Our mitochondrial phylogeny suggested species that have lower jaw protrusion and up-righted orbit are closely related to each other, indicating a single transformation of craniofacial morphology. Conclusion The mitochondrial phylogeny of polypterid fish provides a strongly

  2. Body Image and Sexuality in Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Zielinski, Ruth; Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie; MILLER, JANIS M.

    2009-01-01

    Body image, including how a woman views her genitals, has been shown to impact sexuality. Currently, there are no valid and reliable questionnaires to assess body image specific to women with genital changes from pelvic organ prolapse. The purpose of this study was to assess implementation of a body image questionnaire in women with pelvic organ prolapse. The Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem Scale showed utility and potential for demonstrating change in body image after prolapse surgery.

  3. Evolution of Body Elongation in Gymnophthalmid Lizards: Relationships with Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Grizante, Mariana B.; Brandt, Renata; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of elongated body shapes in vertebrates has intrigued biologists for decades and is particularly recurrent among squamates. Several aspects might explain how the environment influences the evolution of body elongation, but climate needs to be incorporated in this scenario to evaluate how it contributes to morphological evolution. Climatic parameters include temperature and precipitation, two variables that likely influence environmental characteristics, including soil texture an...

  4. Evolution of body elongation in gymnophthalmid lizards: relationships with climate.

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    Mariana B Grizante

    Full Text Available The evolution of elongated body shapes in vertebrates has intrigued biologists for decades and is particularly recurrent among squamates. Several aspects might explain how the environment influences the evolution of body elongation, but climate needs to be incorporated in this scenario to evaluate how it contributes to morphological evolution. Climatic parameters include temperature and precipitation, two variables that likely influence environmental characteristics, including soil texture and substrate coverage, which may define the selective pressures acting during the evolution of morphology. Due to development of geographic information system (GIS techniques, these variables can now be included in evolutionary biology studies and were used in the present study to test for associations between variation in body shape and climate in the tropical lizard family Gymnophthalmidae. We first investigated how the morphological traits that define body shape are correlated in these lizards and then tested for associations between a descriptor of body elongation and climate. Our analyses revealed that the evolution of body elongation in Gymnophthalmidae involved concomitant changes in different morphological traits: trunk elongation was coupled with limb shortening and a reduction in body diameter, and the gradual variation along this axis was illustrated by less-elongated morphologies exhibiting shorter trunks and longer limbs. The variation identified in Gymnophthalmidae body shape was associated with climate, with the species from more arid environments usually being more elongated. Aridity is associated with high temperatures and low precipitation, which affect additional environmental features, including the habitat structure. This feature may influence the evolution of body shape because contrasting environments likely impose distinct demands for organismal performance in several activities, such as locomotion and thermoregulation. The present

  5. Pelvic belt effects on pelvic morphometry, muscle activity and body balance in patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

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    Odette Soisson

    Full Text Available The sacroiliac joint (SIJ is frequently involved in low back and pelvic girdle pain. However, morphometrical and functional characteristics related to SIJ pain are poorly defined. Pelvic belts represent one treatment option, but evidence still lacks as to their pain-reducing effects and the mechanisms involved. Addressing these two issues, this case-controlled study compares morphometric, functional and clinical data in SIJ patients and healthy controls and evaluates the effects of short-term pelvic belt application.Morphometric and functional data pertaining to pelvic belt effects were compared in 17 SIJ patients and 17 controls. Lumbar spine and pelvis morphometries were obtained from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Functional electromyography data of pelvis and leg muscles and center of pressure excursions were measured in one-leg stance. The numerical rating scale was used to evaluate immediate pain-reducing effects.Pelvic morphometry was largely unaltered in SIJ patients and also by pelvic belt application. The angle of lumbar lateral flexion was significantly larger in SIJ patients without belt application. Muscle activity and center of pressure were unaffected by SIJ pain or by belt application in one-leg stance. Nine of 17 patients reported decreased pain intensities under moderate belt application, four reported no change and four reported increased pain intensity. For the entire population investigated here, this qualitative description was not confirmed on a statistical significant level.Minute changes were observed in the alignment of the lumbar spine in the frontal plane in SIJ patients. The potential pain-decreasing effects of pelvic belts could not be attributed to altered muscle activity, pelvic morphometry or body balance in a static short-term application. Long-term belt effects will therefore be of prospective interest.

  6. Internal Hernia Underneath an Elongated External Iliac Artery: A Complication After Extended Pelvic Lymphadenectomy and Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorin-Baier, Pascal; Randazzo, Marco; Medugno, Cristoforo; John, Hubert

    2016-09-01

    Small bowel herniation underneath the iliac vessel after transperitoneal pelvic lymphadenectomy is a rare complication. This report describes the first case of bowel incarceration behind the external iliac artery after transperitoneal robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy with extended lymph node dissection in a patient with prostate cancer 1 year after surgery. After diagnosis on CT scan, an open resection of the ischemic bowel was performed. Because of thrombosis, the external iliac artery was opened, the clot was removed and the elongated artery was resected with end-to-end anastomosis. In case of a meandering iliac artery, a retroperitonealization after pelvic lymphadenectomy might be discussed. PMID:27313985

  7. A morphospace for reef fishes: elongation is the dominant axis of body shape evolution.

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    Thomas Claverie

    Full Text Available Tropical reef fishes are widely regarded as being perhaps the most morphologically diverse vertebrate assemblage on earth, yet much remains to be discovered about the scope and patterns of this diversity. We created a morphospace of 2,939 species spanning 56 families of tropical Indo-Pacific reef fishes and established the primary axes of body shape variation, the phylogenetic consistency of these patterns, and whether dominant patterns of shape change can be accomplished by diverse underlying changes. Principal component analysis showed a major axis of shape variation that contrasts deep-bodied species with slender, elongate forms. Furthermore, using custom methods to compare the elongation vector (axis that maximizes elongation deformation and the main vector of shape variation (first principal component for each family in the morphospace, we showed that two thirds of the families diversify along an axis of body elongation. Finally, a comparative analysis using a principal coordinate analysis based on the angles among first principal component vectors of each family shape showed that families accomplish changes in elongation with a wide range of underlying modifications. Some groups such as Pomacentridae and Lethrinidae undergo decreases in body depth with proportional increases in all body regions, while other families show disproportionate changes in the length of the head (e.g., Labridae, the trunk or caudal region in all combinations (e.g., Pempheridae and Pinguipedidae. In conclusion, we found that evolutionary changes in body shape along an axis of elongation dominates diversification in reef fishes. Changes in shape on this axis are thought to have immediate implications for swimming performance, defense from gape limited predators, suction feeding performance and access to some highly specialized habitats. The morphological modifications that underlie changes in elongation are highly diverse, suggesting a role for a range of

  8. Study on the connection between the rotating mass dipole and natural elongated bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangyuan; Jiang, Fanghua; Li, Junfeng; Baoyin, Hexi

    2015-03-01

    The focus of this paper is to connect the rotating mass dipole with natural elongated bodies. The dipole system is consisted with two point masses connected with a massless rod in a constant characteristic distance. A brief introduction on the dynamics near the rotating mass dipole is given with the distribution of its equilibrium points and zero-velocity curves. Five parameters of the dipole model are required to approximate the potential distribution of an elongated body out of the body's surface, including the mass ratio, system mass, spinning period, characteristic distance and the ratio between the gravitational and centrifugal forces. The method to obtain the five parameters is presented along with its application to the asteroid 1620 Geographos in detail. The accuracy of the dipole model is quantified with the relative tolerance of locations of the equilibrium points. Six more elongated asteroids and comets, such as 25143 Itokawa and 103P/Hartley-2, are illustrated to provide a reference for further studies. Model justification is evaluated through comparison between sample elongated bodies and their corresponding dipole models with regard to the external potential distribution, the stability and topological manifold structure of the equilibrium points.

  9. Pelvic morphology, body posture and standing balance characteristics of adolescent able-bodied and idiopathic scoliosis girls.

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    Georgios A Stylianides

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how pelvic morphology, body posture, and standing balance variables of scoliotic girls differ from those of able-bodied girls, and to classify neuro-biomechanical variables in terms of a lower number of unobserved variables. Twenty-eight scoliotic and twenty-five non-scoliotic able-bodied girls participated in this study. 3D coordinates of ten anatomic body landmarks were used to describe pelvic morphology and trunk posture using a Flock of Birds system. Standing balance was measured using a force plate to identify the center of pressure (COP, and its anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML displacements. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was performed to determine differences between the two groups. A factor analysis was used to identify factors that best describe both groups. Statistical differences were identified between the groups for each of the parameter types. While spatial orientation of the pelvis was similar in both groups, five of the eight trunk postural variables of the scoliotic group were significantly different that the able-bodied group. Also, five out of the seven standing balance variables were higher in the scoliotic girls. Approximately 60% of the variation is supported by 4 factors that can be associated with a set of variables; standing balance variables (factor 1, body posture variables (factor 2, and pelvic morphology variables (factors 3 and 4. Pelvic distortion, body posture asymmetry, and standing imbalance are more pronounced in scoliotic girls, when compared to able-bodied girls. These findings may be beneficial when addressing balance and ankle proprioception exercises for the scoliotic population.

  10. Elongation of the active anterior wall of the uro-genital pelvic diaphragm, a late unusual complication of paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurascheck, F; Dollfus, P; Jacob-Chia, D

    1980-08-01

    The situation of the usual bladder, prostate, membranous urethra channel, can vary, according to the morphology of the perineum which can be overstretched. A case of a young man with a T10 complete upper motor neurone lesion is presented. The normal anterior angulation at the prostate and membranous urethra junction was reduced anteriorly and pushed backwards, thus causing an added indirect factor of dysuria. The mechanism is discussed in comparison with other such late, but often overlooked consequences of alterations of the pelvic floor during micturition. PMID:7422341

  11. Measured force on elongated bodies in a simulated low-Earth orbit environment

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    Maldonado, C. A.; Ketsdever, A. D. [University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Gimelshein, S. F. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2014-12-09

    An overview of the development of a magnetically filtered atomic oxygen plasma source and the application of the source to study low-Earth orbit drag on elongated bodies is presented. Plasma diagnostics show that the magnetic filter plasma source produces atomic oxygen ions (O{sup +}) with streaming energies equivalent to the relative orbital environment of approximately 5eV and can supply the appropriate density for LEO simulation. Previous research has demonstrated that momentum transfer between ions and metal surfaces is equivalent to the momentum transfer expected for neutral molecules with similar energy, due to charge exchange occurring prior to momentum transfer. Total drag measurements of aluminum cuboid geometries of varying length to diameter ratios immersed in the extracted plasma plume are presented as a function of streaming ion energy.

  12. Measured force on elongated bodies in a simulated low-Earth orbit environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, C. A.; Ketsdever, A. D.; Gimelshein, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    An overview of the development of a magnetically filtered atomic oxygen plasma source and the application of the source to study low-Earth orbit drag on elongated bodies is presented. Plasma diagnostics show that the magnetic filter plasma source produces atomic oxygen ions (O+) with streaming energies equivalent to the relative orbital environment of approximately 5eV and can supply the appropriate density for LEO simulation. Previous research has demonstrated that momentum transfer between ions and metal surfaces is equivalent to the momentum transfer expected for neutral molecules with similar energy, due to charge exchange occurring prior to momentum transfer. Total drag measurements of aluminum cuboid geometries of varying length to diameter ratios immersed in the extracted plasma plume are presented as a function of streaming ion energy.

  13. Measured force on elongated bodies in a simulated low-Earth orbit environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the development of a magnetically filtered atomic oxygen plasma source and the application of the source to study low-Earth orbit drag on elongated bodies is presented. Plasma diagnostics show that the magnetic filter plasma source produces atomic oxygen ions (O+) with streaming energies equivalent to the relative orbital environment of approximately 5eV and can supply the appropriate density for LEO simulation. Previous research has demonstrated that momentum transfer between ions and metal surfaces is equivalent to the momentum transfer expected for neutral molecules with similar energy, due to charge exchange occurring prior to momentum transfer. Total drag measurements of aluminum cuboid geometries of varying length to diameter ratios immersed in the extracted plasma plume are presented as a function of streaming ion energy

  14. Analysis of pelvic 131I uptake after 131I whole body scan in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze and explore the possible mechanism for pelvic 131I uptake after 131I post treatment whole body scan (Rx-WBS)in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: (1) Data were retrospectively reviewed from 168 female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (everyone has a Rx-WBS). (2) 46 patients were accepted by analyzing the characteristics of Rx-WBS and combing with some inclusion criteria,and then followed up. Results: Among the 46 patients (46 positions accumulated 131I) with significant pelvic 131I uptake, 6 patients had two reasons leading to pelvic 131I uptake, and 2 patients had no specific reason. Among the 50 reasons for pelvic 131I uptake, 41 reasons related with uterus, 3 reasons related to rectum, 5 related to bladder and 1 related to ovarian chocolate cyst. Among the 41 reasons related to uterus, by combining the examinations of SPECT/CT, ultrasound, CT and the follow-up results, 18 were uterine leiomyomas, 9 were intrauterine devices, 2 were endometrial thickening, 3 were uterine cavity effusion, 7 were menstrual periods, 1 were uterine adenomyosis, 1 were gestational sac. Conclusions: (1) In the Rx-WBS of female, the significant pelvic 131I uptake is generally caused by uterus, but not bladder. And it usually means gynecological disease, especially uterine leiomyomas when excluding physiological factors. (2) It is generally easy to differentiate bladder from rectum because they have different characteristic features of the pelvic 131I uptake. (3) SPECT/CT plays a very important role in locating 131I uptake in uterus. (authors)

  15. Transient fluid-structure interaction of elongated bodies by finite-element method using elliptical and spheroidal absorbing boundaries

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    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Premkumar, R.

    2003-12-01

    In a domain method of solution of exterior scalar wave equation, the radiation condition needs to be imposed on a truncation boundary of the modeling domain. The Bayliss, Gunzberger, and Turkel (BGT) boundary dampers, which require a circular cylindrical and spherical truncation boundaries in two-(2D) and three-(3D)-dimensional problems, respectively, have been particularly successful in the analysis of scattering and radiation problems. However, for an elongated body, elliptical (2D) or spheroidal (3D) truncation boundaries have potential to reduce the size of modeling domain and hence computational effort. For harmonic problems, such extensions of the first- and second-order BGT dampers are available in the literature. In this paper, BGT dampers in both elliptical and spheroidal coordinate systems have been developed for transient problems involving acoustic radiation as well as fluid-structure interaction and implemented in the context of finite-element method based upon unsymmetric pressure-displacement formulation. Applications to elongated radiators and shells are reported using several numerical examples with excellent comparisons. It is demonstrated that significant computational economy can be achieved for elongated bodies with the use of these dampers.

  16. Pregnancy related pelvic pain is more frequent in women with increased body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, Karin; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association between pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Design: Nested case-control study. Setting and population. The Danish National Birth Cohort, a cohort of pregnant women and their children recruited 1996–2002. Methods. The women.......Main outcomemeasure. Self-reported pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Results. In the total cohort, 18.5% of all pregnant women reported pregnancyrelated pelvic pain. In the nested case-control study, the adjusted ORs for overall pelvic pain were 0.9 (0.7–1.2) in underweight women, 1.2 (1.1–1.4) in overweight women, 1.......5 (1.2–2.0) in obese women Class 1 (30=BMI<35), and 1.9 (1.3–2.8) in obese women Class 2 + 3 (BMI=35), all relative to normal weight women. The correspondent ORs for severe pelvic pain were 0.8 (0.6–1.2), 1.4 (1.2–1.7), 1.7 (1.3–2.2), and 2.3 (1.6–3.4). The associations were stronger among women who...

  17. A Morphospace for Reef Fishes: Elongation Is the Dominant Axis of Body Shape Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Claverie, Thomas; Wainwright, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reef fishes are widely regarded as being perhaps the most morphologically diverse vertebrate assemblage on earth, yet much remains to be discovered about the scope and patterns of this diversity. We created a morphospace of 2,939 species spanning 56 families of tropical Indo-Pacific reef fishes and established the primary axes of body shape variation, the phylogenetic consistency of these patterns, and whether dominant patterns of shape change can be accomplished by diverse underlyin...

  18. The effect of water temperature and synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over narrow, elongated water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of the thermally induced breeze involved with a relatively narrow, elongated water body is presented in conjunction with evaluations of sensible heat fluxes in a stable marine atmospheric surface layer. The effect of the water surface temperature and of the large-scale synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over the water is examined. As implied by the sensible heat flux patterns, the simulation results reveal the following trends: (1) when the synoptic flow is absent or light, the induced surface breeze is not affected noticeably by a reduction of the water surface temperature; and (2) for stronger synoptic flow, the resultant surface flow may be significantly affected by the water surface temperature.

  19. Pelvic Exam

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    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Exam, Pelvic View/Download: Small: 720x590 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Exam, Pelvic Description: Pelvic exam; drawing shows a side ...

  20. Research progress on pelvic floor treatment in combination with yoga training for recovery of maternal pelvic floor function and body type%盆底治疗结合瑜伽训练对产妇盆底功能及体型恢复的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李崇珍

    2012-01-01

    介绍了妊娠分娩与盆底结构损伤的关系,总结了盆底功能测试、盆底治疗仪生物反馈、电刺激结合产后瑜伽训练等方法能有效促进盆底功能和体型恢复.%It introduced the relationship between Pregnancy and pelvic structural damage,and summarized the Pelvic floor function test,pelvic floor therapy instrument biofeedback, electrical stimulation combined with post - natal yoga training can effectively promote pelvic floor function and body type recovery.

  1. Dosimetric Evaluation Between Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Body Mass Index for Intracranial, Thoracic, and Pelvic Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate radiation dose for organs at risk (OAR) within the cranium, thorax, and pelvis from megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT). Using a clinical treatment planning system, CBCT doses were calculated from 60 patient datasets using 27.4 x 27.4 cm2 field size and 200o arc length. The body mass indices (BMIs) for these patients range from 17.2-48.4 kg/m2. A total of 60 CBCT plans were created and calculated with heterogeneity corrections, with monitor units (MU) that varied from 8, 4, and 2 MU per plan. The isocenters of these plans were placed at defined anatomical structures. The maximum dose, dose to the isocenter, and mean dose to the selected critical organs were analyzed. The study found that maximum and isocenter doses were weakly associated with BMI, but linearly associated with the total MU. Average maximum/isocenter doses in the cranium were 10.0 (± 0.18)/7.0 (± 0.08) cGy, 5.0 (± 0.09)/3.5 (± 0.05) cGy, and 2.5 (± .04)/1.8 (± 0.05) cGy for 8, 4, and 2 MU, respectively. Similar trends but slightly larger maximum/isocenter doses were found in the thoracic and pelvic regions. For the cranial region, the average mean doses with a total of 8 MU to the eye, lens, and brain were 9.7 (± 0.12) cGy, 9.1 (± 0.16) cGy, and 7.2 (± 0.10) cGy, respectively. For the thoracic region, the average mean doses to the lung, heart, and spinal cord were 6.6 (± 0.05) cGy, 6.9 (± 1.2) cGy, and 4.7 (± 0.8) cGy, respectively. For the pelvic region, the average mean dose to the femoral heads was 6.4 (± 1.1) cGy. The MV-CBCT doses were linearly associated with the total MU but weakly dependent on patients' BMIs. Daily MV-CBCT has a cumulative effect on the total body dose and critical organs, which should be carefully considered for clinical impacts.

  2. Pelvic floor muscle strength evaluation in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity

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    Monica Orsi Gameiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity. Materials and Methods Fifty healthy nulliparous women with mean age of 23 years were prospectively studied. Subjective evaluation of PFM was assessed by transvaginal digital palpation (TDP of anterior and posterior areas regarding the vaginal introitus. A perineometer with inflatable vaginal probe was used to assess the PFM strength in four different positions: supine with extended lower limbs (P1; bent-knee supine (P2; sitting (P3; standing (P4. Results Physical activity, 3 times per week, was reported by 58% of volunteers. Sexual activity was observed in 80% of women and 82% of them presented orgasm. The average body mass index (BMI was 21.76 kg/m2, considered as normal according World Health Organization (WHO. We observed that 68% of volunteers were conscious about the PFM contraction. TDP showed concordance of 76% when anterior and posterior areas were compared (p = 0.00014. There was not correlation between PFM strength and orgasm in subjective evaluation. The PFM strength was significantly higher in standing position when compared with the other positions (p < 0.000. No statistical difference was observed between orgasm and PFM strength when objective evaluations were performed. Conclusions There was concordance between anterior and posterior areas in 76% of cases when subjective PFM strength was assessed. In objective evaluation, higher PFM strength was observed when volunteers were standing. No statistical correlation was observed between PFM strength and orgasm in nulliparous healthy women.

  3. Apparatus for treating the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus for reaing carcinoma of the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity is described. An elongated tube has an inner end adapted to be placed in the pelvic cavity and an outer end adapted to extend through to the outside of the body. Radioactive material is placed at the inner end. An inner balloon above the radioactive material is inflated to hold a body of liquid shielding material such as mercury. A lower balloon portion beneath the inner balloon spaces areas to be treated such as the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity from the radioactive material. An upper balloon portion above the inner balloon keeps the intestines out of the pelvic cavity and away from the radioactive material. The apparatus is inserted into the pelvic cavity through an abdominal incision. When treating a woman for carcinoma in the walls and floor of the pelvic cavity the tube is moved through the vaginal passage from the inside outwardly. When treating a woman with a closed vaginal passage, as may result from surgery, or when treating a man, such as for carcinoma of the bladder, the tube will pass out of the body through a lower abdominal incision. Following treatment, all balloons are deflated so that the apparatus can be withdrawn through the vaginal passage or the lower abdominal incision, as the case may be. (auth)

  4. Relationship of lifestyle and body stature growth with the development of myopia and axial length elongation in Taiwanese elementary school children

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    Chung-Ying Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The development of myopia and growth of the eye, occur at a time when body stature is increasing. Aims: To investigate the relationship of lifestyle and body growth with axial elongation and myopia development among schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Children in elementary schools without serious eye disorders were invited to participate. We measured cycloplegic refraction, corneal curvature, intraocular pressure, axial length, body height, and weight. Questionnaires about the children′s daily lifestyles, family members′ myopia and parents′ socio-demographic status were completed. The children were followed up every 6 months in a 3-year period. Statistical Analysis Used: Bivariate correlations, simple and multiple regression. Results: Eighty-eight children participated in this study. Forty-eight were myopic at the beginning of the study, and their myopia correlated with longer axial length and parental myopia (P = 0.015, 0.012. Sixty-five children (74% completed the study, and the rates of change per year were -0.43 ± 0.58 (mean + standard deviation diopters in spherical equivalence, 0.32 ± 0.25 mm in axial length (AL, 5.73 ± 2.71 cm in body height, and 3.84 ± 2.23 kg in weight. The axial length change was positively correlated with the height change (P < 0.001. The myopia shift was correlated to axial length change (P = 0.000 but not correlated to height change. Using multiple regression test, near work was the only significant risk factor for myopia progression (P = 0.022. Conclusions: Our study showed that body height increment was correlated to axial length elongation but not to myopia shift in children aged 7-9 years. Genetic factors such as parental myopia and body height had a possible influence on myopia development, and the environment factor as near work intensity was related to myopia progression.

  5. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Treatment Options for Pelvic Organ Prolapse? What is Pelvic Organ Prolapse? Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the tissue ...

  6. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  7. Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvic pain occurs mostly in the lower abdomen area. The pain might be steady, or it might come and go. If the pain is severe, it might get in the way ... re a woman, you might feel a dull pain during your period. It could also happen during ...

  8. PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Ketut Yoga Mira Pratiwi; I Gede Mega Putra

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is defined as a decrease in abnormal or herniation of the pelvic organs out of place attached to its normal position or in the pelvic cavity. As for the anatomy of the pelvic organs consists of bones, muscles, and nerves. The presence of damage to the pelvic connective tissue and visceral attachment pelvic organs the cause occurs. The symptoms that appear in patients POP not specific to distinguish prolapse of some compartments but can reflect the degree of prolaps...

  9. Pelvic Nodal Dosing With Registration to the Prostate: Implications for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishan, Amar U., E-mail: aukishan@mednet.ucla.edu; Lamb, James M.; Jani, Shyam S.; Kang, Jung J.; Steinberg, Michael L.; King, Christopher R.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To determine whether image guidance with rigid registration (RR) to intraprostatic markers (IPMs) yields acceptable coverage of the pelvic lymph nodes in the context of a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) regimen. Methods and Materials: Four to seven kilovoltage cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) from 12 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were analyzed, allowing approximation of an SBRT regimen. The nodal clinical target volume (CTV{sub N}) and bladder were contoured on all kilovoltage CBCTs. The V{sub 100} CTV{sub N}, expressed as a ratio to the same parameter on the initial plan, and the magnitude of translational shift between RR to the IPMs versus RR to the pelvic bones, were computed. The ability of a multimodality bladder filling protocol to minimize bladder height variation was assessed in a separate cohort of 4 patients. Results: Sixty-five CBCTs were assessed. The average V{sub 100} CTV{sub N} was 92.6%, but for a subset of 3 patients the average was 80.0%, compared with 97.8% for the others (P<.0001). The average overall and superior–inferior axis magnitudes of the bony-to-fiducial translations were significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (8.1 vs 3.9 mm and 5.8 vs 2.4 mm, respectively; P<.0001). Relative bladder height changes were also significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (42.9% vs 18.5%; P<.05). Use of a multimodality bladder-filling protocol minimized bladder height variation (P<.001). Conclusion: A majority of patients had acceptable nodal coverage after RR to IPMs, even when approximating SBRT. However, a subset of patients had suboptimal nodal coverage. These patients had large bony-to-fiducial translations and large variations in bladder height. Nodal coverage should be excellent if the superior–inferior axis bony-to-fiducial translation and the relative bladder height change (both easily measured on CBCT) are kept to a minimum. Implementation of a strict bladder filling

  10. Pelvic Nodal Dosing With Registration to the Prostate: Implications for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether image guidance with rigid registration (RR) to intraprostatic markers (IPMs) yields acceptable coverage of the pelvic lymph nodes in the context of a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) regimen. Methods and Materials: Four to seven kilovoltage cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) from 12 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were analyzed, allowing approximation of an SBRT regimen. The nodal clinical target volume (CTVN) and bladder were contoured on all kilovoltage CBCTs. The V100 CTVN, expressed as a ratio to the same parameter on the initial plan, and the magnitude of translational shift between RR to the IPMs versus RR to the pelvic bones, were computed. The ability of a multimodality bladder filling protocol to minimize bladder height variation was assessed in a separate cohort of 4 patients. Results: Sixty-five CBCTs were assessed. The average V100 CTVN was 92.6%, but for a subset of 3 patients the average was 80.0%, compared with 97.8% for the others (P<.0001). The average overall and superior–inferior axis magnitudes of the bony-to-fiducial translations were significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (8.1 vs 3.9 mm and 5.8 vs 2.4 mm, respectively; P<.0001). Relative bladder height changes were also significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (42.9% vs 18.5%; P<.05). Use of a multimodality bladder-filling protocol minimized bladder height variation (P<.001). Conclusion: A majority of patients had acceptable nodal coverage after RR to IPMs, even when approximating SBRT. However, a subset of patients had suboptimal nodal coverage. These patients had large bony-to-fiducial translations and large variations in bladder height. Nodal coverage should be excellent if the superior–inferior axis bony-to-fiducial translation and the relative bladder height change (both easily measured on CBCT) are kept to a minimum. Implementation of a strict bladder filling protocol may achieve this goal

  11. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rocca Rossetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  12. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and layers of connective tissue, which are called fascia, become weakened, stretched, or are torn the pelvic ... delivery) can cause injury to the muscles or fascia of the pelvic floor. The increased pressure of ...

  13. Pelvic arteriovenous malformation: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin Meidcal College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of female pelvic organ is a rare disease of unknown cause. The authors report a case of pelvic AVM which was incidentally found during US examination of the patient with choriocarcinoma after chemotherapy. The real-time sonography revealed several cystic lesions around the uterus with adjacent dilated tortuous vessels. The color Doppler sonography depicted abundant blood flow mixed with red and blue colors within the cystic lesions and rapid turbulent systolic and diastolic flows. CT showed well-enhancing round vascular lesions with elongated vessels in the pelvis, and MRI depicted signal-void cystic lesions on both T1 and T2 weighted images with small portions of high intensity with the lesions on T2 weighted image. The angiography revealed pelvic AVM fed by tortuous uterine and vaginal arteries with a dilated draining vein.

  14. PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Yoga Mira Pratiwi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is defined as a decrease in abnormal or herniation of the pelvic organs out of place attached to its normal position or in the pelvic cavity. As for the anatomy of the pelvic organs consists of bones, muscles, and nerves. The presence of damage to the pelvic connective tissue and visceral attachment pelvic organs the cause occurs. The symptoms that appear in patients POP not specific to distinguish prolapse of some compartments but can reflect the degree of prolapse as a whole. Physical examination focused on pelvic examination, beginning with inspection on the vulva and vagina to identify the presence of erosion, ulceration, or other lesions. As for the existing therapy options include observation, non-operative management, and operative management.

  15. Quality of life in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana; Parezanović-Ilić Katarina; Ćurčić Aleksandar; Višnjevac Nemanja

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim. Pelvic floor dysfunction is a frequent problem affecting more than 50% of women in peri- and postmenopause. Considering that ageing and menopause befall in the significant factors causing this issue, as well as the expected longevity of women in the world and in our country, pelvic floor dysfunction prevelence is foreseen to be even higher. The aim of the study was to evaluate impact of the symptoms of pelvic dysfunction on quality of life and examine body image satisfac...

  16. Drosophila egg chamber elongation

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Julie

    2012-01-01

    As tissues and organs are formed, they acquire a specific shape that plays an integral role in their ability to function properly. A relatively simple system that has been used to examine how tissues and organs are shaped is the formation of an elongated Drosophila egg. While it has been known for some time that Drosophila egg elongation requires interactions between a polarized intracellular basal actin network and a polarized extracellular network of basal lamina proteins, how these interac...

  17. A device for storing and reeling of an elongated flexible body, such as a supply flexible hose for a welding head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device is composed of an annular system with a spirally machined surface in which the flexible body is rolled-up. This device can be used to supply a laser welding head in order to weld sleeve tubes in pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes

  18. Synthesis of Elongated Microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the factors that influence the effectiveness of self-healing in functional materials is the amount of liquid healing agents that can be delivered to the damaged area. The use of hollow tubes or fibers and the more sophisticated micro-vascular networks has been proposed as a way to increase the amount of healing agents that can be released when damage is inflicted. Although these systems might be effective in some specific applications, they are not practical for coatings applications. One possible practical way to increase the healing efficiency is to use microcapsules with high-aspect-ratios, or elongated microcapsules. It is understood that elongated microcapsules will be more efficient because they can release more healing agent than a spherical microcapsule when a crack is initiated in the coating. Although the potential advantage of using elongated microcapsules for self healing applications is clear, it is very difficult to make elongated microcapsules from an emulsion system because spherical microcapsules are normally formed due to the interfacial tension between the dispersed phase and the continuous phase. This paper describes the two methods that have been developed by the authors to synthesize elongated microcapsules. The first method involves the use of an emulsion with intermediate stability and the second involves the application of mechanical shear conditions to the emulsion.

  19. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  20. Pelvic Support Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nonsurgical ways to obtain symptom relief? • What are Kegel exercises? • Can surgery correct pelvic support problems? • Glossary ... your overall health and possibly your prolapse symptoms. • Kegel exercises—These exercises strengthen the muscles that surround ...

  1. Pelvic Insufficiency Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Timothy J.; Cole, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic insufficiency fractures may occur in the absence of trauma or as a result of low-energy trauma in osteoporotic bone. With a growing geriatric population, the incidence of pelvic insufficiency fracture has increased over the last 3 decades and will continue to do so. These fractures can cause considerable pain, loss of independence, and economic burden to both the patient and the health care system. While many of these injuries are identified and treated based on plain radiographs, some...

  2. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed. PMID:26880505

  3. Pelvic Insufficiency Fracture After Pelvic Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Medical records and imaging studies, including bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI of 557 patients with cervical cancer who received whole-pelvic RT between January 1998 and August 2005 were reviewed. Results: Eighty-three patients were diagnosed as having PIF after pelvic RT. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PIF was 19.7%. The most commonly involved site was the sacroiliac joint. Pelvic pain developed in 48 patients (57.8%) at diagnosis. Eleven patients (13.3%) needed admission or narcotics because of severe pain, and others had good relief of symptoms with conservative management. In univariate analysis, age ≥55 years (p < 0.001), anteroposterior/posteroanterior parallel opposing technique (p = 0.001), curative treatment (p < 0.001), and radiation dose ≥50.4 Gy (p = 0.005) were the predisposing factors for development of PIF. Concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.78) was not significant. Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥55 years (p < 0.001), body weight <55 kg (p = 0.02), curative treatment (p = 0.03), and radiation dose ≥50.4 Gy (p = 0.04) were significant predisposing factors for development of PIF. Conclusion: The development of PIF is not rare after pelvic RT. The use of multibeam arrangements to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture, especially in elderly women with low body weight

  4. Pelvic floor muscle function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) referred by gynaecologists and urologists for in-hospital pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), and to identity associated factors for a low level of PFM...

  5. Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe; Yu, Kaijia

    2008-01-01

    A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t...

  6. Pelvic Organ Prolapse--Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About "It" Talking About PFD 3 Resources + More Pelvic Organ Prolapse POP Symptoms & Types Can I Prevent POP? POP ... Get Involved About the Campaign Supporters Contact Information Pelvic Organ Prolapse POP Symptoms & Types Can I Prevent POP? Kegel ...

  7. Serialization of elongated members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elongated members such as nuclear fuel end plugs are provided to a robot by a vibratory feeder. The robot singly inserts the members into a character stamper or marker and then removes them and drops them down a chute to an inspection site. The member is inserted into a character reader and inspected. Unacceptably stamped members are rejected and for each accepted member the stamper is advanced to a next character. Thus, a next member is stamped with the next character, or permutation of characters, the robot already having provided a new member to the stamper

  8. Anorectal and pelvic floor anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stoker

    2009-01-01

    The anorectum and pelvic floor are crucial in maintaining continence, facilitating evacuation, providing pelvic organ support while in females the pelvic floor is part of the birth canal. The anal sphincter is a multilayered cylindrical structure, including the smooth muscle internal sphincter and t

  9. [PELVIC FLOOR RECONSTRUCTION AFTER PELVIC EVISCERATION USING GRACILIS MUSCULOCUTANEOUS FLAP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V N; Bakirov, A A; Kabirov, I R; Izmajlov, A A; Kutlijarov, L M; Safiullin, R L; Urmancev, M F; Sultanov, I M; Abdrahimov, R V

    2015-01-01

    Evisceration of the pelvic organs (EPO) is a fairly uncommon surgical treatment that removes all organs from a patient's pelvic cavity. We use gracilis musculocutaneous flap to repair pelvic floor after EPO. Over the period from November 2013 to December 2014 we carried out EPO with reconstructive repair of the pelvic floor with gracilis musculocutaneous flap in 10 patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors. We describe the surgical procedure and surgical outcomes in these patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years. Mean duration of EPO with the pelvic floor repair was 285 min., mean blood loss--595 mL and the average length of hospital stay--19 days. Gracilis musculocutaneous flap has a sufficient arterial supply and mobility for pelvic floor reconstruction. Necrosis of flap's distal edge occurred in one of the 10 clinical cases, while the remaining flaps were fully preserved. Complete healing of wounds with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor muscles was observed in all cases. Pelvic floor reconstruction is an essential procedure in order to reduce complications associated with the evisceration of the pelvic organs. The Gracilis musculocutaneous flap is the logical alternative to repair pelvic floor defect. It does not contribute to complications like functional deficiency of the lower limbs, complications of stoma formation or weakening of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:26390558

  10. Can pelvic tilting be ignored in total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Yong Shon

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The sagittal position of pelvis is a key factor in impingement and dislocation after total hip arthroplasty. Pelvic tilting affects the position of acetabular component in the sagittal plane of the body as compared with its anatomic position in the pelvis. We suggest a preoperative lateral view of spine-pelvis, in upright and supine position for evaluation of a corrective adaptation of the acetabular cup accordingly with pelvic balance.

  11. Quality of life in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pelvic floor dysfunction is a frequent problem affecting more than 50% of women in peri- and postmenopause. Considering that ageing and menopause befall in the significant factors causing this issue, as well as the expected longevity of women in the world and in our country, pelvic floor dysfunction prevelence is foreseen to be even higher. The aim of the study was to evaluate impact of the symptoms of pelvic dysfunction on quality of life and examine body image satisfaction in adult women with pelvic organ prolapse presenting to tertiary care clinic for surgical treatment. Methods. This prospective case-control study included 50 patients who presented to tertiary care gynecology clinic for surgical treatment and 50 controls with normal pelvic floor support and without urinary incontinence who presented tertiary care gynecology clinic for other reasons. Both, patients and controls, completed two quastionnaires recommended for the evaluation of symptoms (Pelvic floor distress inventory - short forms and quality of life impact (Pelvic floor impact questionnaire - short form of pelvic organ prolapse, and Body Image Scale. Results. The patients scored significantly worse on the prolapse, urinary, colorectal scales and overall score of Pelvic floor distress inventory - 20 than controls subjects (134.91 vs 78.08; p < 0.01. The patients also measured significant decrease in condition- specific quality of life (89.23 vs 3.1; p < 0.01. They were more likely to feel self-conscious (78% vs 42%; p < 0.01, less likely to feel physically attractive (78% vs 22%; p < 0.01, more likely to have difficulty looking at themselves naked (70% vs 42%; p < 0.01, less likely to feel sexually attractive (64% vs 32%; p < 0.01, and less likely to feel feminine (56% vs 16%; p < 0.05, than controls. There were no differencies in their feeling of dissatisfaction with appearance when dressed, avoiding people because of appereance and overall dissatisfaction with

  12. Pelvic inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Práxedes Rojas Quintana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographical revision on the main topics referred to the acute pelvic inflammatory disease which includes definition, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment with the objective to create a supporting educational aid to the teaching of students of 4th and 6th year of the medicine and nursing specialty in their rounds on the services of gynecology and obstetrics.

  13. Elongated toroid fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device for achieving ignition of a plasma with ohmic heating is described comprising: means for defining a toroidal plasma chamber,a and confining gas therein, and means including electrically conductive coils for generating plasma within the chamber and for confining and shaping such plasma substantially into and filling a predetermined single region of the chamber without an axisymmetric internal separatix and ohmically heating the confined plasma to ignition. The predetermined region is toroidal with a major axis defining an axial direction parallel thereto and a transaxial direction perpendicular to the axis and having an axial cross section with an elongation, k, greater than 4, where k is the ratio of the maximum axial dimension of the cross section to the maximum transaxial dimension of the cross section

  14. Sexual selection targets cetacean pelvic bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, James P; Otárola-Castillo, Erik; Ralph, Peter; Alas, Jesse; Daley, Timothy; Smith, Andrew D; Dean, Matthew D

    2014-11-01

    Male genitalia evolve rapidly, probably as a result of sexual selection. Whether this pattern extends to the internal infrastructure that influences genital movements remains unknown. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis: since evolving from land-dwelling ancestors, they lost external hind limbs and evolved a highly reduced pelvis that seems to serve no other function except to anchor muscles that maneuver the penis. Here, we create a novel morphometric pipeline to analyze the size and shape evolution of pelvic bones from 130 individuals (29 species) in the context of inferred mating system. We present two main findings: (1) males from species with relatively intense sexual selection (inferred by relative testes size) tend to evolve larger penises and pelvic bones compared to their body length, and (2) pelvic bone shape has diverged more in species pairs that have diverged in inferred mating system. Neither pattern was observed in the anterior-most pair of vertebral ribs, which served as a negative control. This study provides evidence that sexual selection can affect internal anatomy that controls male genitalia. These important functions may explain why cetacean pelvic bones have not been lost through evolutionary time. PMID:25186496

  15. [Pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic floor disorders in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thubert, T; Bakker, E; Fritel, X

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to provide an update on the results of pelvic floor rehabilitation in the treatment of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle training allows a reduction of urinary incontinence symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle contractions supervised by a healthcare professional allow cure in half cases of stress urinary incontinence. Viewing this contraction through biofeedback improves outcomes, but this effect could also be due by a more intensive and prolonged program with the physiotherapist. The place of electrostimulation remains unclear. The results obtained with vaginal cones are similar to pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or electrostimulation. It is not known whether pelvic floor muscle training has an effect after one year. In case of stress urinary incontinence, supervised pelvic floor muscle training avoids surgery in half of the cases at 1-year follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle training is the first-line treatment of post-partum urinary incontinence. Its preventive effect is uncertain. Pelvic floor muscle training may reduce the symptoms associated with genital prolapse. In conclusion, pelvic floor rehabilitation supervised by a physiotherapist is an effective short-term treatment to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:25921509

  16. Ultrasonography findings of the pelvic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Neung Jae; Lee, Hak Seo; Youn, Eun Kyung [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-12-15

    Ultrasonography is most common utilized diagnostic tool in obstetric and gynecology for the evaluation of patient with a pelvic mass or pregnancy. For it is characterized by no radiation hazard, noninvasive examination and high diagnostic accuracy. Also it affords an accurate assessment of the presence, size, location and internal consistency of a pelvic mass. The recent availability and improved resolution of realtime scanning have afforded a more flexible and complete approach to evaluation of normal and abnormal structures in the pelvis. We analyzed ultrasonographic findings in 154 pathologically proven cases of pelvic mass examined at Korea General Hospital from January 1983 to April 1984. The results were as follows: 1. The age distribution was from 12 years to 66 years and the majority of patients were between the ages of 21 and 51 years (91.4%). 2. The incidence of pelvic mass was 27.9% in uterine leiomyoma, 22.7% in ovarian cyst, 13.0% in adenomyosis and 8.4% in serous cystadenoma. 3. Mild to moderately echogenic nodular uterine enlargement with some cystic change (81.4%) of leiomyoma and multiple small vesicular pattern of intrauterine contents with uterine enlargement of H-mole were the most common ultrasonographic findings. The location and type of leiomyoma were most common in the fundus and body (95.3%), and intramural myoma (53.5%). The most frequent findings of ovarian teratoma was cystic mass with echogenic focus (41.7%) but the echogenic appearance of the lesions was extremely variable.The ultrasonographic findings of ectopic pregnancy were cystic or complex adnexal mass (80.0%), with or without fluid in cul-de-sac and deviation of uterus by adnexal mass. 4. Accuracy of ultrasonography i determining the overall correct diagnosis of the pelvic masses compared with proven diagnosis was approximately 61.7%. The diagnostic accuracy was 90.7% in uterine leiomyoma, 100% in H-mole and 80.0% in ectopic pregnancy.

  17. Ultrasonography findings of the pelvic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonography is most common utilized diagnostic tool in obstetric and gynecology for the evaluation of patient with a pelvic mass or pregnancy. For it is characterized by no radiation hazard, noninvasive examination and high diagnostic accuracy. Also it affords an accurate assessment of the presence, size, location and internal consistency of a pelvic mass. The recent availability and improved resolution of realtime scanning have afforded a more flexible and complete approach to evaluation of normal and abnormal structures in the pelvis. We analyzed ultrasonographic findings in 154 pathologically proven cases of pelvic mass examined at Korea General Hospital from January 1983 to April 1984. The results were as follows: 1. The age distribution was from 12 years to 66 years and the majority of patients were between the ages of 21 and 51 years (91.4%). 2. The incidence of pelvic mass was 27.9% in uterine leiomyoma, 22.7% in ovarian cyst, 13.0% in adenomyosis and 8.4% in serous cystadenoma. 3. Mild to moderately echogenic nodular uterine enlargement with some cystic change (81.4%) of leiomyoma and multiple small vesicular pattern of intrauterine contents with uterine enlargement of H-mole were the most common ultrasonographic findings. The location and type of leiomyoma were most common in the fundus and body (95.3%), and intramural myoma (53.5%). The most frequent findings of ovarian teratoma was cystic mass with echogenic focus (41.7%) but the echogenic appearance of the lesions was extremely variable.The ultrasonographic findings of ectopic pregnancy were cystic or complex adnexal mass (80.0%), with or without fluid in cul-de-sac and deviation of uterus by adnexal mass. 4. Accuracy of ultrasonography i determining the overall correct diagnosis of the pelvic masses compared with proven diagnosis was approximately 61.7%. The diagnostic accuracy was 90.7% in uterine leiomyoma, 100% in H-mole and 80.0% in ectopic pregnancy.

  18. CT of pelvic fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchi, Marco E-mail: marcofalchi@yahoo.it; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2004-04-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging has become the dominant modality for cross-sectional musculo-skeletal imaging, the widespread availability, speed, and versatility of computed tomography (CT) continue to make it a mainstay of emergency room (ER) diagnostic imaging. Pelvic ring and acetabular fractures occur as the result of significant trauma secondary to either a motor vehicle accident or a high-velocity fall. These injuries are correlated with significant morbidity and mortality, both from the complications of pelvic ring fractures and from commonly associated injuries. The most commonly used classification of pelvic and acetabular fractures has been based on conventional radiographs that are, in the majority of cases, sufficient to determine the type of injury. However, because of the complexity of pelvic and acetabular fractures, precise pathological anatomy is not easily demonstrated by routine radiographs and in many cases details of fractures are not visible. Moreover, the insufficient co-operation of the patient or the difficulty of maintaining special positions can be overcome by using computed tomography. Spiral computed tomography provides information regarding the extent of the fractures and is complementary to radiography for ascertaining the spatial arrangement of fracture fragments. Spiral computed tomography is an effective tool for understanding complex fracture patterns, particularly when combined with multi-planar reconstruction two-dimensional (MPR 2D) reformatted images or three-dimensional images (3D) images. Including these techniques of reconstruction in routine pelvic imaging protocols can change management in a significant number of cases. Subtle fractures, particularly those oriented in the axial plane, are better seen on MPR images or 3D volume-rendered images. Complex injuries can be better demonstrated with 3D volume-rendered images, and complicated spatial information about the relative positions of fracture fragments can be easily

  19. CT of pelvic fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although magnetic resonance imaging has become the dominant modality for cross-sectional musculo-skeletal imaging, the widespread availability, speed, and versatility of computed tomography (CT) continue to make it a mainstay of emergency room (ER) diagnostic imaging. Pelvic ring and acetabular fractures occur as the result of significant trauma secondary to either a motor vehicle accident or a high-velocity fall. These injuries are correlated with significant morbidity and mortality, both from the complications of pelvic ring fractures and from commonly associated injuries. The most commonly used classification of pelvic and acetabular fractures has been based on conventional radiographs that are, in the majority of cases, sufficient to determine the type of injury. However, because of the complexity of pelvic and acetabular fractures, precise pathological anatomy is not easily demonstrated by routine radiographs and in many cases details of fractures are not visible. Moreover, the insufficient co-operation of the patient or the difficulty of maintaining special positions can be overcome by using computed tomography. Spiral computed tomography provides information regarding the extent of the fractures and is complementary to radiography for ascertaining the spatial arrangement of fracture fragments. Spiral computed tomography is an effective tool for understanding complex fracture patterns, particularly when combined with multi-planar reconstruction two-dimensional (MPR 2D) reformatted images or three-dimensional images (3D) images. Including these techniques of reconstruction in routine pelvic imaging protocols can change management in a significant number of cases. Subtle fractures, particularly those oriented in the axial plane, are better seen on MPR images or 3D volume-rendered images. Complex injuries can be better demonstrated with 3D volume-rendered images, and complicated spatial information about the relative positions of fracture fragments can be easily

  20. Prospective study of treatment techniques to minimize the volume of pelvic small bowel with reduction of acute and late effects associated with pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume, distribution, and mobility of opacified pelvic small bowel (PSB) were determined by fluoroscopy and orthogonal radiographs in 150 consecutive patients undergoing pelvic irradiation. Various techniques including uteropexy, omental transposition, bladder distention, inclining the patient, and anterior abdominal wall compression in the supine and prone treatment position were studied for their effect on the volume and location of small bowel within the pelvis. Abdominal wall compression in the prone position combined with bladder distention was selected for further investigation because of its simplicity, reproducibility, patient comfort, and ability to displace the small bowel. Factors correlating with the volume of pelvic small bowel (PSB) included prior pelvic surgery, pelvic irradiation (XRT), and body mass index. After pelvic surgery, especially following abdominoperineal resection (APR), there was a greater volume of PSB which was also less mobile. The severity of acute gastrointestinal effects positively correlated with the volume of irradiated small bowel. Overall, 67% of patients experienced little or no diarrhea, 30% developed mild diarrhea, and no patient required treatment interruption. Late gastrointestinal effects correlated with the prior pelvic surgery and with the volume of small bowel receiving greater than 45 Gy. Small bowel obstruction was not observed in 75 patients who had no previous pelvic surgery. However, following pelvic surgery excluding APR, 2/50 patients and following APR, 3/25 patients developed small bowel obstruction

  1. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF ELONGATE SURGEON FISH Acanthurus mata

    OpenAIRE

    Tresnati, Joeharnani

    2010-01-01

    Elongate surgeonfish, Acanthurus mata is a commercial fish targetting by local fishermen in Makassar Strait , South SulawesiThe study aims to analyze reproductive biology of elongate surgeonfish including ., sex ratio, gonad maturity stage (GS), size at first maturity sexual, and gonad maturity index (GI). The specimens were collected from the fishermen. Total length and body-wet weight were measured for each specimen. Sex ratio was determined for each sampling period and the whole samples...

  2. Muscle activity and hydrodynamic function of pelvic fins in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standen, E M

    2010-03-01

    Contrary to the previous premise that pelvic fins lacked obvious function, recent work on three-dimensional fin motions suggests that pelvic fins actively control stability and speed in slowly swimming trout. This study used electromyography to measure pelvic fin muscle activity and particle imaging velocimetry to quantify flow along the ventral body region to test this hypothesis. Fish swam at slow speeds (0.13-1.36 BL s(-1)) while being filmed with three high speed cameras. Three-dimensional kinematics were captured for all trials. During EMG trials pelvic fin muscle activity was synchronized to kinematic motion, during particle imaging velocimetry trials, a laser light-sheet was used to visualize the flow surrounding the ventral aspect of the fish. Four main conclusions are reached: first, pelvic fins are actively oscillated during slow-speed swimming; antagonistic abductor and adductor muscles contracted simultaneously, their collective action producing a unique contralateral oscillating behaviour in the fins. Second, pelvic fins slow the flow along the ventral side affecting pitch and yaw instabilities; flow upstream of the pelvic fins is slowed by 0.02 m s(-1) and flow downstream of the pelvic fins is slowed by 0.034 m s(-1) compared with free stream flow. Third, pelvic fin wake influences anal fin angle of attack; flow angle in the wake of the pelvic fin was 33.84+/-2.4 deg. (max) and -11.83+/-11.2 deg. (min) compared with the free stream flow angle of 1.27+/-0.1 deg. Fourth, pelvic fins appear to actively damp body oscillation during slow-speed swimming, providing drag to help control speed and stabilize the body position during slow-speed swimming. PMID:20154199

  3. Post Pelvic Radiotherapy Bony Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    There has been recent interest in radiation-induced bone injury in clinical conditions, especially for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF). A PIF is caused by the effect of normal or physiological stress on bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) can also contribute to the development of a PIF. A PIF has been regarded as a rare complication with the use of megavoltage equipment. However, recent studies have reported the incidence of PIFs as 8.2{approx}20% after pelvic RT in gynecological patients, an incidence that was higher than previously believed. The importance of understanding a PIF lies in the potential for misdiagnosis as a bony metastasis. If patients complain of pelvic pain after whole-pelvis radiation therapy, the presence of a PIF must be considered in the differential diagnosis. The use of multibeam arrangements and conformal RT to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture. In addition to a PIF, osteonecrosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head can develop after radiation therapy. Osteoradionecrosis of the pelvic bone is a clinical diagnostic challenge that must be differentiated from an osseous metastasis. A post-radiation bone sarcoma can result as a long-term sequela of pelvic irradiation for uterine cervical cancer.

  4. The use of pelvic fins for benthic locomotion during foraging behavior in Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Shibuya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized bipedal movements of the pelvic fins provide propulsion (punting during displacement on the substrate in batoids with benthic locomotion. In skates (Rajidae this mechanism is mainly generated by the crural cartilages. Although lacking these anatomical structures, some stingray species show modifications of their pelvic fins to aid in benthic locomotion. This study describes the use of the pelvic fins for locomotory performance and body re-orientation in the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 during foraging. Pelvic fin movements of juvenile individuals of P. motoro were recorded in ventral view by a high-speed camera at 250-500 fields/s-1. Potamotrygon motoro presented synchronous, alternating and unilateral movements of the pelvic fins, similar to those reported in skates. Synchronous movements were employed during straightforward motion for pushing the body off the substrate as well as for strike feeding, whereas unilateral movements were used to maneuver the body to the right or left during both locomotion and prey capture. Alternating movements of the pelvic fins are similar to bipedal movements in terrestrial and semi-aquatic tetrapods. The pelvic fins showed coordinated movements during feeding even when stationary, indicating that they have an important function in maintaining body posture (station holding during prey capture and manipulation. The use of pelvic fins during prey stalking may be advantageous because it results in less substrate disturbance when compared to movements generated by pectoral fin undulation. The range of pelvic fin movements indicates more complex control and coordination of the pelvic radial muscles.

  5. Asynchronous abdomino-parasacral resection of a giant pelvic lipoma protruding to the left buttock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Sato

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The asynchronous abdomino-parasacral approach with several turnings of the patient's body and plastic bag packing of the tumor were advantageous to manage en bloc resection of the giant pelvic lipoma presented in this case study.

  6. ELONGATED STYLOID PROCESS: A REPORT OF TWO CADAVERIC CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komala Nanjundaiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Styloid process is a part of temporal bone. It measures 2 to 3 cms in length and lies antero-medial to the mastoid process. An elongated styloid process can compress the vital vessels and nerves close to it. This can lead to pain, foreign body sensation in the pharyngeal region and can also cause dysphagia. Observation: During routine dissection, we encountered elongated styloid process in two cadavers. In one it was unilateral and in another it was bilateral. The measurements of the elongated styloid process were taken using digital Vernier slide calipers. Conclusion: The awareness of the embryological cause and the clinical implications of an elongated styloid process are important for accurate diagnosis and treatment

  7. Surgery for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs. Targeting specific symptoms may be another option. Kegel exercises may be recommended in addition to symptom- ... Inability to control bodily functions such as urination. Kegel Exercises: Pelvic muscle exercises that assist in bladder ...

  8. Pelvic floor ultrasonography: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, K L; Dietz, H-P

    2013-02-01

    Female pelvic floor dysfunction encompasses a number of highly prevalent clinical conditions such as female pelvic organ prolapse, urinary and fecal incontinence, and sexual dysfunction. The etiology and pathophysiology of those conditions are, however, not well understood. Recent technological advances have seen a surge in the use of imaging, both in research and clinical practice. Among the techniques available such as sonography, X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound is superior for pelvic floor imaging, especially in the form of perineal or translabial imaging. The technique is safe with no radiation, simple, cheap, easily accessible and provides high spatial and temporal resolutions. Translabial or perineal ultrasound is useful in determining residual urinary volume, detrusor wall thickness, bladder neck mobility and in assessing pelvic organ prolapse as well as levator function and anatomy. It is at least equivalent to other imaging techniques in diagnosing, such diverse conditions as urethral diverticula, rectal intussusception and avulsion of the puborectalis muscle. Ultrasound is the only imaging method capable of visualizing modern slings and mesh implants and may help selecting patients for implant surgery. Delivery-related levator injury seems to be the most important etiological factor for pelvic organ prolapse and recurrence after prolapse surgery, and it is most conveniently diagnosed by pelvic floor ultrasound. This review gives an overview of the methodology. Its main current uses in clinical assessment and research will also be discussed. PMID:23412016

  9. Post partum pelvic floor changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonti, Ylenia; Giordano, Rosalba; Cacciatore, Alessandra; Romano, Mattea; La Rosa, Beatrice

    2009-10-01

    Pelvic-perineal dysfunctions, are the most common diseases in women after pregnancy. Urinary incontinence and genital prolapsy, often associated, are the most important consequences of childbirth and are determined by specific alterations in the structure of neurological and musculo-fascial pelvic support.Causation is difficult to prove because symptom occur remote from delivery.Furthermore it is unclear whether changes are secondary to the method of childbirth or to the pregnancy itself.This controversy fuels the debate about whether or not women should be offered the choice of elective caesarean delivery to avoid the development of subsequent pelvic floor disfunction.But it has been demonstrated that pregnancy itself, by means of mechanical changes of pelvic statics and changes in hormones, can be a significant risk factor for these diseases. Especially is the first child to be decisive for the stability of the pelvic floor.During pregnancy, the progressive increase in volume of the uterus subject perineal structures to a major overload. During delivery, the parties present and passes through the urogenital hiatus leading to growing pressure on the tissues causing the stretching of the pelvic floor with possible muscle damage, connective tissue and / or nervous.In this article we aim to describe genitourinary post partum changes with particular attention to the impact of pregnancy or childbirth on these changes. PMID:22439048

  10. Prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation was carried out in 32 patients with a primary pelvic malignancy and prior weight loss. Both curative and palliative patients were eligible for the study. Seventeen patients were randomized to receive intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) and fifteen patients served as controls who were maintained on their regular diet. Patients were stratified by percent body weight loss. Tolerance to therapy was assessed by evaluation of functional status and by using nutritional parameters of body weight change, change in serum protein levels, and response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests. The curative IVH group tolerated therapy well by both functional and nutritional measurements. All curative IVH patients completed the planned radiation therapy without a treatment break and were fully active following treatment. Patients gained an average of 4.0 kg body weight during irradiation, which was significantly different from the curative control patients. They demonstrated a significant increase in serum transferrin reflecting an improvement in visceral protein. In addition, all showed a positive response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests at the completion of irradiation. The palliative IVH patients often did poorly because of progression of disease and demonstrated only an elevation of serum transferrin during treatment. The results in the curative IVH group suggest a potential adjunctive role for intravenous hyperalimentation in the malnourished cancer patient undergoing pelvic irradiation. Clearly, further study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation is needed using curative patients with a single tumor type and significant prior weight loss

  11. Utilization of Human-Like Pelvic Rotation for Running Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya eOtani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP is used to model human running. It is based on a characteristic feature of human running, in which the linear-spring-like motion of the standing leg is produced by the joint stiffness of the knee and ankle. Although this model is widely used in robotics, it does not include human-like pelvic motion. In this study, we show that the pelvis actually contributes to the increase in jumping force and absorption of landing impact. On the basis of this finding, we propose a new model, SLIP2 (spring loaded inverted pendulum with pelvis, to improve running in humanoid robots. The model is composed of a body mass, a pelvis, and leg springs, and, it can control its springs while running by use of pelvic movement in the frontal plane. To achieve running motions, we developed a running control system that includes a pelvic oscillation controller to attain control over jumping power and a landing placement controller to adjust the running speed. We also developed a new running robot by using the SLIP2 model and performed hopping and running experiments to evaluate the model. The developed robot could accomplish hopping motions only by pelvic movement. The results also established that the difference between the pelvic rotational phase and the oscillation phase of the vertical mass displacement affects the jumping force. In addition, the robot demonstrated the ability to run with a foot placement controller depending on the reference running speed.

  12. Enhanced muscle activity during lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pelvic stabilization affects multifidus (MF) and iliocostalis lumborum (IL) muscle activities during dynamic extension exercise. Nine males (age, 25.1±6.3 yr; height, 176.6±2.4 cm; body mass, 74.9±6.7 kg) performed an isometric lumbar extension strength test and dynamic exercise in an upright seated position with or without pelvic stabilization. The electromyography and muscle strength of the MF and IL muscles were measured when the subjects performed the isometric lumbar extension strength test at the trunk angle 110°, 146°, and 182°. In addition, the trunk extensor muscle activities were measured using 50% muscle strength of maximum isometric strength during a dynamic trunk extension exercise. The MF and IL muscle activities were significantly higher at 110°, 146°, and 182° with pelvic stabilization than that without pelvic stabilization during the isometric lumbar extension strength test (Ppelvic stabilization may be more effective for MF and IL muscle activity compared to that without pelvic stabilization. PMID:26730390

  13. Feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fibre tractography of the normal female pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zijta, F.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Froeling, M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Paardt, M.P. van der; Bipat, S.; Nederveen, A.J.; Stoker, J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lakeman, M.M.E. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Gynaecology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Montauban van Swijndregt, A.D. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Strijkers, G.J. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    To prospectively determine the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fibre tractography as a tool for the three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of normal pelvic floor anatomy. Five young female nulliparous subjects (mean age 28 {+-} 3 years) underwent DTI at 3.0T. Two-dimensional diffusion-weighted axial spin-echo echo-planar (SP-EPI) pulse sequence of the pelvic floor was performed, with additional T2-TSE multiplanar sequences for anatomical reference. Fibre tractography for visualisation of predefined pelvic floor and pelvic wall muscles was performed offline by two observers, applying a consensus method. Three eigenvalues ({lambda}1, {lambda}2, {lambda}3), fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were calculated from the fibre trajectories. In all subjects fibre tractography resulted in a satisfactory anatomical representation of the pubovisceral muscle, perineal body, anal - and urethral sphincter complex and internal obturator muscle. Mean FA values ranged from 0.23 {+-} 0.02 to 0.30 {+-} 0.04, MD values from 1.30 {+-} 0.08 to 1.73 {+-} 0.12 x 10-{sup 3} mm{sup 2}/s. Muscular structures in the superficial layer of the pelvic floor could not be satisfactorily identified. This study demonstrates the feasibility of visualising the complex three-dimensional pelvic floor architecture using 3T-DTI with fibre tractography. DTI of the deep female pelvic floor may provide new insights into pelvic floor disorders. (orig.)

  14. SCREENING PELVIC FLOOR DYSFUNCTION BETWEEN NORMAL AND OVER WEIGHT MENOPAUSE WOMEN USING CASCO SPECULAM, SIMS SPECULAM AND LAYCOCK PALPATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Khanam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic floor dysfunction affects the female urinary genital faecal and is responsible for storing and evocating urine and stool, Physiotherapy helps in the treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction and Kegel exercise is recommended fir women having problems of this dysfunction. In this study the standard method like casco speculum, sims speculum and laycock palpation method. This study proves the use of Kegel’s exercise in the treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. There is marked decreased in muscle testing which shows the subject with high score of body mass index are reliable to get pelvic floor muscle dysfunction.

  15. Elongation Transducer For Tensile Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Stokes, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Extensometer transducer measures elongation of tensile-test specimen with negligible distortion of test results. Used in stress-versus-strain tests of small specimens of composite materials. Clamping stress distributed more evenly. Specimen clamped gently between jaw and facing surface of housing. Friction force of load points on conical tips onto specimen depends on compression of spring, adjusted by turning cover on housing. Limp, light nylon-insulated electrical leads impose minimal extraneous loads on measuring elements.

  16. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Commonly Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress incontinence at the time of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse in women who don't have symptoms of ... I., Majeroni, B. A., & Johnson, D. W. (2010). Pelvic organ prolapse. American Family Physician, 81 , 1111-1117. [top] Shamliyan, ...

  17. Can I prevent Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About "It" Talking About PFD 3 Resources + More Pelvic Organ Prolapse POP Symptoms & Types Can I Prevent POP? POP ... Get Involved About the Campaign Supporters Contact Information Pelvic Organ Prolapse POP Symptoms & Types Can I Prevent POP? Kegel ...

  18. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Treatment and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herpes Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ... is pelvic inflammatory disease treated? Several types of antibiotics can cure PID. Antibiotic treatment does not, however, reverse any ...

  19. Screening Pelvic Examination in Nonpregnant Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the cervix to look for cervical cancer (Papanicolaou [Pap] smear) during the pelvic examination. However, the value of ... have no symptoms and do not need a Pap smear is unclear. The potential benefits of pelvic examination ...

  20. Bone complications after pelvic radiation therapy: evaluation with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence, distribution and MRI characteristics of pelvic bone complications after radiation therapy. The medical charts of 345 patients who received pelvic radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 122 patients, 99 women and 23 men, with a mean age of 57 (range 32–87 years) were included in this study. The MR images were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. Fatty replacement of bone marrow was seen in all patients. Pelvic bone complications and focal red marrow changes were identified in a total of 38 patients (31.1%). Pelvic insufficiency fracture was diagnosed in 17 patients (13.9%, with a total of 64 lesions) and radiation osteitis was diagnosed in 5 patients (4.1%, with a total of 13 lesions). Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was detected in one patient (0.8%). Focal red bone marrow changes were seen in 15 patients (12.3%). The median time from the end of radiotherapy to the diagnosis of pelvic bone complications or changes was 25 months (range 2–45 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cumulative incidences were 22%, 41% and 49%, respectively. The distribution of insufficiency fractures was as follows: sacral ala, sacral body, ilium, acetabulum, pubis and lumbar spinal vertebra. The distribution of radiation osteitis was as follows: sacral ala, ilium and pubis. Radiation-induced pelvic bone complications are not uncommon, and knowledge of characteristic imaging patterns is essential in order to rule out bone metastases and to avoid inaccurate or excessive treatment.

  1. Fracture Detection in Traumatic Pelvic CT Images

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wu; Pavani Davuluri; Kevin R. Ward; Charles Cockrell; Rosalyn Hobson; Kayvan Najarian

    2012-01-01

    Fracture detection in pelvic bones is vital for patient diagnostic decisions and treatment planning in traumatic pelvic injuries. Manual detection of bone fracture from computed tomography (CT) images is very challenging due to low resolution of the images and the complex pelvic structures. Automated fracture detection from segmented bones can significantly help physicians analyze pelvic CT images and detect the severity of injuries in a very short period. This paper presents an automated hie...

  2. Regulation of Transcription Elongation and Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Washburn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will review our current understanding of transcription elongation and termination in E. coli. We discuss why transcription elongation complexes pause at certain template sites and how auxiliary host and phage transcription factors affect elongation and termination. The connection between translation and transcription elongation is described. Finally we present an overview indicating where progress has been made and where it has not.

  3. Elongational dynamics of multiarm polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Nielsen, Jens Kromann;

    2009-01-01

    The startup of uni-axial elongational flow followed by stress relaxation and reversed bi-axial flow has been measured for a branched polystyrene melt with narrow molar mass distribution using the filament stretching rheometer. The branched polystyrene melt was a multiarm A(q)-C-C-A(q) pom......-pom polystyrene with an estimated average number of arms of q=2.5. The molar mass of each arm is about 28 kg/mole with an overall molar mass of M-w=280 kg/mole. An integral molecular stress function constitutive formulation within the "interchain pressure" concept agrees reasonably well with the experiments....

  4. Pelvic spleen with uterovaginal prolapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of wandering (pelvic) spleen associated with third degree uterovaginal prolapse and ascaris in the biliary and intestinal tract is being presented here. On laparotomy; congested splenomegaly was found in the pelvis. Splenectomy, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-ophrectomy was performed. (author)

  5. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrou...

  6. Synchronized swimming: coordination of pelvic and pectoral fins during augmented punting by the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon orbignyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesic, Laura J; Mulvaney, Dana; Blevins, Erin L

    2013-06-01

    Benthic animals live at the juncture of fluid and solid environments, an interface that shapes many aspects of their behavior, including their means of locomotion. Aquatic walking and similar substrate-dependent forms of underwater propulsion have evolved multiple times in benthic invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, including batoid elasmobranchs. Skates (Rajidae) use the pelvic fins to punt across the substrate, keeping the pectoral fin disc still. Other batoids combine pelvic fin motions with pectoral fin undulation in augmented punting, but the coordination of these two modes has not been described. In this study of an augmented punter, the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon orbignyi, we demonstrate the synchrony of pelvic and pectoral fin cycles. The punt begins as the pelvic fins, held in an anterior position, are planted into the substrate and used to push the body forward. Meanwhile, a wave of pectoral fin undulation begins, increasing to maximum height just before the cycle's halfway point, when the pelvic fins reach their furthest posterior extension. The pectoral fin wave subsides as the pelvic fins return to their starting position for subsequent punts. Despite definitive links between pectoral and pelvic fin activity, we find no significant relationship between pectoral fin kinematics (frequency, wave height, and wave speed) and punt performance. However, slip calculations indicate that pectoral undulation can produce thrust and augment punting. Pelvic fin kinematics (frequency and duty factor) have significant effects, suggesting that while both sets of fins contribute to thrust generation, the pelvic fins likely determine punt performance. PMID:23477972

  7. Calcineurin Links Mitochondrial Elongation with Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfluger, Paul T; Kabra, Dhiraj G; Aichler, Michaela; Schriever, Sonja C; Pfuhlmann, Katrin; García, Verónica Casquero; Lehti, Maarit; Weber, Jon; Kutschke, Maria; Rozman, Jan; Elrod, John W; Hevener, Andrea L; Feuchtinger, Annette; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Walch, Axel; Rollmann, Stephanie M; Aronow, Bruce J; Müller, Timo D; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Jastroch, Martin; De Luca, Maria; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2015-11-01

    Canonical protein phosphatase 3/calcineurin signaling is central to numerous physiological processes. Here we provide evidence that calcineurin plays a pivotal role in controlling systemic energy and body weight homeostasis. Knockdown of calcineurin in Drosophila melanogaster led to a decrease in body weight and energy stores, and increased energy expenditure. In mice, global deficiency of catalytic subunit Ppp3cb, and tissue-specific ablation of regulatory subunit Ppp3r1 from skeletal muscle, but not adipose tissue or liver, led to protection from high-fat-diet-induced obesity and comorbid sequelæ. Ser637 hyperphosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in skeletal muscle of calcineurin-deficient mice was associated with mitochondrial elongation into power-cable-shaped filaments and increased mitochondrial respiration, but also with attenuated exercise performance. Our data suggest that calcineurin acts as highly conserved pivot for the adaptive metabolic responses to environmental changes such as high-fat, high-sugar diets or exercise. PMID:26411342

  8. Validation of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 in Danish women with pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    To translate the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 (PFIQ-7) and to evaluate their psychometric properties in Danish women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse.......To translate the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 (PFIQ-7) and to evaluate their psychometric properties in Danish women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse....

  9. Chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Though there are myriad etiologies of CPP, common therapeutic targets include inflammation, somatic dysfunction, and psychological disturbances. Inflammation may be addressed not only with dietary changes including nutritional and botanical supplements but also with mind-body therapies. Somatic dysfunction may respond to manipulative therapies provided by osteopaths, naturopaths, chiropractors, and some physical therapists. Therapists may also offer visceral, craniosacral, myofascial, and other whole-body therapies, as can highly trained massage therapists and bodyworkers. Mental health care may be key in many cases. Integrative medicine heralds the return to a sense of the human being's intrinsic capacity for healing, incorporating the vitalism of many of the therapies' origins (traditional Chinese medicine, indigenous medicine, ayurveda, osteopathy, chiropractic, etc) with the gains made by a more reductionistic tradition. Given the complexity and wide variation of etiologies and symptoms of CPP, using an integrative approach may offer expanded therapeutic solutions. We must expand our capacity to listen to each patient-with ears, eyes, mind, heart, and hands. Each treatment plan may then be tailored to the unique history and perspective that lie within the individual. Doing so requires the essential elements of time, skill, and love. PMID:20085175

  10. [Ultrasonography in acute pelvic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupesić, Sanja; Aksamija, Alenka; Vucić, Niksa; Tripalo, Ana; Kurjak, Asim

    2002-01-01

    Acute pelvic pain may be the manifestation of various gynecologic and non-gynecologic disorders from less alarming rupture of the follicular cyst to life threatening conditions such as rupture of ectopic pregnancy or perforation of inflamed appendix. In order to construct an algorithm for differential diagnosis we divide acute pelvic pain into gynecologic and non-gynecologic etiology, which is than subdivided into gastrointestinal and urinary causes. Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency and should always be considered in differential diagnosis if appendix has not been removed. Apart of clinical examination and laboratory tests, an ultrasound examination is sensitive up to 90% and specific up to 95% if graded compression technique is used. Still it is user-depended and requires considerable experience in order to perform it reliably. Meckel's diverticulitis, acute terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and functional bowel disease are conditions that should be differentiated from other causes of low abdominal pain by clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging tests. Dilatation of renal pelvis and ureter are typical signs of obstructive uropathy and may be efficiently detected by ultrasound. Additional thinning of renal parenchyma suggests long-term obstructive uropathy. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy, salpingitis and hemorrhagic ovarian cysts are three most commonly diagnosed gynecologic conditions presenting as an acute abdomen. Degenerating leiomyomas and adnexal torsion occur less frequently. For better systematization, gynecologic causes of acute pelvic pain could be divided into conditions with negative pregnancy test and conditions with positive pregnancy test. Pelvic inflammatory disease may be ultrasonically presented with numerous signs such as thickening of the tubal wall, incomplete septa within the dilated tube, demonstration of hyperechoic mural nodules, free fluid in the "cul-de-sac" etc. Color Doppler ultrasound contributes to more

  11. Pelvic sepsis after stapled hemorrhoidopexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Remco JA van Wensen; Maarten H van Leuken; Koop Bosscha

    2008-01-01

    Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is a surgical procedure used worldwide for the treatment of grade Ⅲ and Ⅳ hemorrhoids in all age groups. However, life-threatening complications occur occasionally. The following case report describes the development of pelvic sepsis after stapled hemorrhoidopexy. A literature review of techniques used to manage major septic complications after stapled hemorrhoidopexy was performed. There is no standardized treatment currently available. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is a safe, effective and time-efficient procedure in the hands of experienced colorectal surgeons.

  12. Pelvic morphology in ischiofemoral impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Azevedo, Debora C.; Oliveira, Adriana L.; Simeone, Frank J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, Allston J. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2014-11-06

    To assess MRI measures to quantify pelvic morphology that may predispose to ischiofemoral impingement (IFI). We hypothesized that patients with IFI have a wider interischial distance and an increased femoral neck angle compared with normal controls. The study was IRB-approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. IFI was diagnosed based on clinical findings (hip or buttock pain) and ipsilateral edema of the quadratus femoris muscle on MRI. Control subjects did not report isolated hip/buttock pain and underwent MRI for surveillance of neoplasms or to exclude pelvic fractures. Two MSK radiologists measured the ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) distance, the ischial angle as a measure of inter-ischial distance, and the femoral neck angle. The quadratus femoris muscle was evaluated for edema. Groups were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate standard least-squares regression modeling was used to control for age and gender. The study group comprised 84 patients with IFI (53 ± 16 years, 73 female, 11 male) and 51 controls (52 ± 16 years, 33 female, 18 male). Thirteen out of 84 patients (15 %) had bilateral IFI. Patients with IFI had decreased IF and QF distance (p < 0.0001), increased ischial angle (p = 0.004), and increased femoral neck angle (p = 0.02) compared with controls, independent of age and gender. Patients with IFI have increased ischial and femoral neck angles compared with controls. These anatomical variations in pelvic morphology may predispose to IFI. MRI is a useful method of not only assessing the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities associated with IFI, but also of quantifying anatomical variations in pelvic morphology that can predispose to IFI. (orig.)

  13. Pelvic morphology in ischiofemoral impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess MRI measures to quantify pelvic morphology that may predispose to ischiofemoral impingement (IFI). We hypothesized that patients with IFI have a wider interischial distance and an increased femoral neck angle compared with normal controls. The study was IRB-approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. IFI was diagnosed based on clinical findings (hip or buttock pain) and ipsilateral edema of the quadratus femoris muscle on MRI. Control subjects did not report isolated hip/buttock pain and underwent MRI for surveillance of neoplasms or to exclude pelvic fractures. Two MSK radiologists measured the ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) distance, the ischial angle as a measure of inter-ischial distance, and the femoral neck angle. The quadratus femoris muscle was evaluated for edema. Groups were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate standard least-squares regression modeling was used to control for age and gender. The study group comprised 84 patients with IFI (53 ± 16 years, 73 female, 11 male) and 51 controls (52 ± 16 years, 33 female, 18 male). Thirteen out of 84 patients (15 %) had bilateral IFI. Patients with IFI had decreased IF and QF distance (p < 0.0001), increased ischial angle (p = 0.004), and increased femoral neck angle (p = 0.02) compared with controls, independent of age and gender. Patients with IFI have increased ischial and femoral neck angles compared with controls. These anatomical variations in pelvic morphology may predispose to IFI. MRI is a useful method of not only assessing the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities associated with IFI, but also of quantifying anatomical variations in pelvic morphology that can predispose to IFI. (orig.)

  14. Pelvic floor rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, D; Vermeulen, C; Ketelaer, P; Van Poppel, H; Baert, L

    1999-03-01

    Although primarily used for treatment of stress incontinence, pelvic floor rehabilitation has been reported to have some value in the treatment of detrusor instability and urgency. In neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to Multiple Sclerosis, many authors have suggested the possible use of pelvic floor rehabilitation as a treatment modality. Therefore, we designed an open prospective trial to look at the possible role of pelvic floor rehabilitation in voiding dysfunction due to MS, concentrating upon the clinical and neurological parameters in relation to the outcome. A new scoring system for pelvic floor dysfunction is introduced. Thirty female patients were evaluated. In 25, the strength of the pelvic floor was significantly improved after one month (p rehabiltation has a place in the treatment of MS patients with a low Kurtzke score and without pelvic floor spasticity. PMID:10218095

  15. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Appearance of Pelvic Floor in Nulliparous Women and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Tao; Li, Qin; Xu, Lian; LIU, FEIFEI; Hu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 50 pelvic organ prolapse (POP) women using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The levator hiatus in POP women was significantly different from that in nullipara women. In POP women, the size of pelvic floor increased, with a circular shape, and the axis of levator hiatus departed from the normal position in 36 (72%) cases. The puborectalis was avulsed in 18 (36%) cases and the pelvic ...

  16. Pelvic fixation for neuromuscular scoliosis deformity correction

    OpenAIRE

    Dayer, Romain; Ouellet, Jean Albert; Saran, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic fixation is most frequently indicated in the pediatric population for the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis with significant pelvic obliquity. Neuromuscular scoliosis surgery is associated with a high risk of complications, and this is further increased by extension of fusion to the sacrum. Numerous techniques have been described for pelvic fixation associated with a long spine fusion each with its own set of specific benefits and risks. This article reviews the contemporary surgica...

  17. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bulb here, the round ligaments, the pelvic cul-de-sac. We see some radiation fibrosis, the mottled ... And freeing up this pelvic peritoneum, pelvic cul-de-sac. De facto already free the ureter off ...

  18. Assessment of pelvic floor dysfunctions using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Salah Darwish

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Dynamic MRI is an ideal, non invasive technique which does not require patient preparation for evaluation of pelvic floor. It acts as one stop shop for diagnosing single or multiple pelvic compartment involvement in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction.

  19. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... just to clarify. And freeing up this pelvic peritoneum, pelvic cul-de-sac. De facto already free the ureter off the pelvic peritoneum somewhat. Sara, this is going to be easier, ...

  20. Retrospective review of pelvic malignancies undergoing total pelvic exenteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhrt Maureen P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with locally advanced or recurrent pelvic malignancies, total pelvic exenteration (TPE may be necessary for curative treatment. Despite improvements in mortality rates since TPE was first described, morbidity rates remain high due to the extensive resection and the aggressiveness of these tumors. We have studied the outcomes of TPE surgery performed at our institution. Methods Fifty-three patients with various pelvic pathologies underwent TPE between 2004 and 2010. Patients were divided into two groups based on pathology: colorectal (n = 36 versus non-colorectal (n = 17 malignancies. Demographics, operative reports, pathology reports, periprocedural events, and outcomes were analyzed. Comparison of the two groups was performed using student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log rank test. Results The colorectal and non-colorectal groups were similar in demographics, operative times, length of stay, estimated blood loss, and rates of preoperative and intraoperative radiation use. Chemotherapy use was increased in the colorectal group compared with the non-colorectal group (55.6% vs. 23.5%, P = 0.04. Complication rates were similar: 86% in the colorectal group and 76% in the non-colorectal group. In the colorectal group, 27.8% of patients developed perineal abscesses, whereas no patients developed these complications in the non-colorectal group (P = 0.02. No survival difference was seen in primary versus recurrent colorectal tumors; however, within the colorectal group there was a survival advantage when comparing R0 resection to R1 and R2 resection combined. Median survival rates were 27.3 months for R0 resection and 10.7 months for R1 and R2 resection combined. The median survival was 21.4 months for the colorectal group and 6.9 months for the non-colorectal group (P = 0.002. Conclusions

  1. Retroperitoneal and pelvic infections complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retroperitoneal and pelvic infections complications are the major types of genito-urinary complications in Crohn's disease. CT has been shown to be a sensitive, non invasive method of documenting these infectious complications. On the other hand, conventional studies are more sensitive than CT to detect genitourinary fistulae. Some complications may manifest few or no symptom as urinary obstruction and nephrolithiasis, detected easily by sonography. For these reasons, it is important for radiologists to be aware of the genito-urinary complications of Crohn's disease. (authors). 42 refs., 20 figs

  2. Incidence of postoperative urinary retention after pelvic organ prolapse surgery in Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyas Priyatini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After vaginal delivery, every woman has 50% risk for pelvic organ prolapse (POP. The lifetime risk for a woman to undergo surgical treatment for POP was 11%, with the incidence of postoperative urinary retention (POUR after POP surgery of 2%-43%. The aim of our study is to identify the incidence of POUR after POP surgery in Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital (RSCM and the risk factors.Methods: Medical records of 124 women undergoing pelvic prolapse surgery between 2010 and 2013 were analyzed. The incidence of POUR and the risk factors were identified by performing univariate and bivariate analysis using chi-Square test and its alternative with using SPSS 20.0. Independent variables include age, body mass index (BMI, parity, degree of prolapse, type of surgery technique, type of anesthesia, type of suture material, amount of intra-operative blood loss, and duration of surgery. POUR defined as urine residual volume more than 100cc.Results: The incidence of urinary retention after pelvic prolapse surgery was 29%. There was no correlation between age, BMI, parity, degree of prolapse, type of surgery technique, anesthesia, suture, intra-operative blood loss, duration of surgery, and the occurrence of urinary retention after pelvic organ prolapse surgery.Conclusion: The incidence of urinary retention after pelvic organ prolapse surgery was 29%. There was no correlation between the risk factors and the occurrence of urinary retention after pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

  3. Pelvic Arterial Embolisation in a Trauma Patient with a Pre-Existing Aortobifemoral Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic fractures secondary to blunt trauma are associated with a significant mortality rate due to uncontrolled bleeding. Interventional radiology (IR) can play an important and central role in the management of such patients, offering definitive minimally invasive therapy and avoiding the need for high-risk surgery. Rapid access to whole-body computed tomography has been shown to improve survival in polytrauma patients and allows rapid diagnosis of vascular injury and assessment of suitability for endovascular therapy. IR can then target and treat the specific area of bleeding. Embolisation of bleeding pelvic arteries has been shown to be highly effective and should be the treatment of choice in this situation. The branches of the internal iliac artery (IIA) are usually involved, and these arteries are accessed by way of IIA catheterisation after abdominal aortography. Occasionally these arteries cannot be accessed by way of this conventional route because of recent IIA ligation carried out surgically in an attempt to stop the bleeding or because (in the rare situation we describe here) these vessels are excluded secondary to previous aortoiliac repair. In this situation, knowledge of pelvic arterial collateral artery pathways is important because these will continue to supply pelvic structures whilst making access to deep pelvic branches challenging. We describe a rare case, which has not been previously reported in the literature, in which successful embolisation of a bleeding pelvic artery was carried out by way of the collateral artery pathways.

  4. Evolutionary considerations in the development of chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, John; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is common among women of reproductive age and is associated with significant morbidity and comorbidities. In this Viewpoint, we explore the evolutionary cause of pelvic pain and summarize evidence that supports a menstruation-related evolutionary cause of chronic visceral pelvic pain: (1) lifetime menstruation has increased; (2) severe dysmenorrhea is common in the chronic pelvic pain population, particularly among those with pain sensitization; and (3) a potential biological mechanism can be identified. Thus, chronic pelvic pain may arise from the mismatch between the slow pace of biological evolution in our bodies and the relatively rapid pace of cultural changes that have resulted in increased menstrual frequency due to earlier menarche, later mortality, and lower fecundity. One possible mechanism that explains the development of persistent pain from repeated episodes of intermittent pain is hyperalgesic priming, a physiological process defined as a long-lasting latent hyperresponsiveness of nociceptors to inflammatory mediators after an inflammatory or neuropathic insult. The repetitive severely painful menstrual episodes may play such a role. From an evolutionary perspective the relatively rapid increase in lifetime menstruation experience in contemporary society may contribute to a mismatch between lifetime menstruation and the physiological pain processes, leading to a maladaptive state of chronic visceral pelvic pain. Our current physiology does not conform to current human needs. PMID:27269450

  5. Pseudomonas pelvic osteomyelitis in a healthy child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Akhras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare entity. The diagnosis is frequently delayed due to difficulty in confirming the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of Pseudomonas pelvic osteomyelitis in a previously healthy adolescent boy. The diagnosis was made radiographically and confirmed by culture. The patient was treated with Levofloxacin and Gentamicin resulting in a complete recovery.

  6. Pseudomonas pelvic osteomyelitis in a healthy child

    OpenAIRE

    Akhras, Nour; Blackwood, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare entity. The diagnosis is frequently delayed due to difficulty in confirming the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of Pseudomonas pelvic osteomyelitis in a previously healthy adolescent boy. The diagnosis was made radiographically and confirmed by culture. The patient was treated with Levofloxacin and Gentamicin resulting in a complete recovery.

  7. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I., Majeroni, B. A., & Johnson, D. W. (2010). Pelvic organ prolapse. American Family Physician, 81 , 1111-1117. [top] American Urogynecologic Society. (2008). Bladder tests. Retrieved May 18, 2012, from ... of the anorectal and pelvic floor area. Retrieved May 18, 2012, from http:// ...

  8. 38 CFR 4.67 - Pelvic bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pelvic bones. 4.67 Section 4.67 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.67 Pelvic bones. The variability of...

  9. The screening pelvic radiograph in pediatric trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Pelvic radiographs are routinely obtained in adult trauma to optimise early management. In adults, pelvic fractures are associated with high early transfusion requirement, high injury severity scores and an increased incidence of other abdominal and thoracic injuries. It is unclear whether this holds true in children. Objective. To determine whether the screening pelvic radiograph is necessary in paediatric trauma. Materials and methods. The notes of all patients who presented after trauma to the Starship Children's Hospital and were triaged to the resuscitation room during 1997 were reviewed. Results of initial radiography were obtained and correlated with later imaging. Results. Our review of 444 injured children seen over a period of 1 year revealed that of 347 children who had screening pelvic radiographs, only 1 had a pelvic fracture. The fracture in this child was clinically apparent and required no specific treatment. Conclusions. The presence of a pelvic fracture is rare in injured children. By omitting screening pelvic radiographs there are potential benefits, including reduced radiation exposure to children and cost savings. Uninterpretable or abnormal clinical examination or haematuria requires further investigation, but routine screening for pelvic fracture is unnecessary. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of the female pelvic floor in pelvic organ prolapse using 3.0-Tesla diffusion tensor imaging and fibre tractography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zijta, F.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam and Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam, AZ (Netherlands); Lakeman, M.M.E.; Roovers, J.P. [University of Amsterdam the Netherlands and Biomedical NMR, Amsterdam and Department of Gynaecology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Froeling, M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Paardt, M.P. van der; Borstlap, C.S.V.; Bipat, S.; Nederveen, A.J.; Stoker, J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Montauban van Swijndregt, A.D. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam and Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Strijkers, G.J. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    To prospectively explore the clinical application of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tractography in evaluating the pelvic floor. Ten patients with pelvic organ prolapse, ten with pelvic floor symptoms and ten asymptomatic women were included. A two-dimensional (2D) spin-echo (SE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence of the pelvic floor was acquired. Offline fibre tractography and morphological analysis of pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. Inter-rater agreement for quality assessment of fibre tracking results was evaluated using weighted kappa ({kappa}). From agreed tracking results, eigen values ({lambda}1, {lambda}2, {lambda}3), mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated. MD and FA values were compared using ANOVA. Inter-rater reliability of DTI parameters was interpreted using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Substantial inter-rater agreement was found ({kappa} = 0.71 [95% CI 0.63-0.78]). Four anatomical structures were reliably identified. Substantial inter-rater agreement was found for MD and FA (ICC 0.60-0.91). No significant differences between groups were observed for anal sphincter, perineal body and puboperineal muscle. A significant difference in FA was found for internal obturator muscle between the prolapse group and the asymptomatic group (0.27 {+-} 0.05 vs 0.22 {+-} 0.03; P = 0.015). DTI with fibre tractography permits identification of part of the clinically relevant pelvic structures. Overall, no significant differences in DTI parameters were found between groups. circle Diffusion tensor MRI offers new insights into female pelvic floor problems. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of the female pelvic floor in pelvic organ prolapse using 3.0-Tesla diffusion tensor imaging and fibre tractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prospectively explore the clinical application of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tractography in evaluating the pelvic floor. Ten patients with pelvic organ prolapse, ten with pelvic floor symptoms and ten asymptomatic women were included. A two-dimensional (2D) spin-echo (SE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence of the pelvic floor was acquired. Offline fibre tractography and morphological analysis of pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. Inter-rater agreement for quality assessment of fibre tracking results was evaluated using weighted kappa (κ). From agreed tracking results, eigen values (λ1, λ2, λ3), mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated. MD and FA values were compared using ANOVA. Inter-rater reliability of DTI parameters was interpreted using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Substantial inter-rater agreement was found (κ = 0.71 [95% CI 0.63-0.78]). Four anatomical structures were reliably identified. Substantial inter-rater agreement was found for MD and FA (ICC 0.60-0.91). No significant differences between groups were observed for anal sphincter, perineal body and puboperineal muscle. A significant difference in FA was found for internal obturator muscle between the prolapse group and the asymptomatic group (0.27 ± 0.05 vs 0.22 ± 0.03; P = 0.015). DTI with fibre tractography permits identification of part of the clinically relevant pelvic structures. Overall, no significant differences in DTI parameters were found between groups. circle Diffusion tensor MRI offers new insights into female pelvic floor problems. (orig.)

  12. Imaging pelvic floor disorders. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume builds on the success of the first edition of imaging pelvic floor disorders and is aimed at those practitioners with an interest in the imaging, diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Concise textual information from acknowledged experts is complemented by high-quality diagrams and images to provide a thorough update of this rapidly evolving field. Introductory chapters fully elucidate the anatomical basis underlying disorders of the pelvic floor. State of the art imaging techniques and their application in pelvic floor dysfunction are then discussed in detail. Additions since the first edition include consideration of the effect of aging and new chapters on perineal ultrasound, functional MRI and MRI of the levator muscles. The closing sections of the book describe the modern clinical management of pelvic floor dysfunction, including prolapse, urinary and faecal incontinence and constipation, with specific emphasis on the integration of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. (orig.)

  13. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Diane K

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been recommended for urinary incontinence since first described by obstetrician gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel more than six decades ago. These exercises are performed to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, provide urethral support to prevent urine leakage, and suppress urgency. In clinical urology practice, expert clinicians also teach patients how to relax the muscle to improve bladder emptying and relieve pelvic pain caused by muscle spasm. When treating lower urinary tract symptoms, an exercise training program combined with biofeedback therapy has been recommended as first-line treatment. This article provides clinical application of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback as a technique to enhance pelvic floor muscle training. PMID:25233622

  14. The relationship between pelvic alignment and dysmenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-jeong; Baek, Il-hun; Goo, Bong-oh

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pelvic alignment and dysmenorrhea in general women. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred two females participated in this study. They were divided into a dysmenorrhea group and a normal group based on the results of a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). The survey data was collecting from 5th July to 20th September, 2014. Formetric 4D was used to measure the pelvic alignment, including the values of Trunk Imbalance, Pelvic Tilt, Surface Rotation, Lateral Deviation, Kyphosis Angle, Lordosis Angle. [Results] There was a difference in the spine alignments of each group. The value of pelvic torsion was 2.4 ± 1.8 degree in those with dysmenorrhea, while it was 1.7 ± 1.1 degree in those without. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the results suggest that there is a relationship between menstrual pain and pelvic torsion. PMID:27134354

  15. Imaging pelvic floor disorders. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, Jaap [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Specialist X-Ray; DeLancey, John O.L. (eds.) [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). L4000 Women' s Hospital

    2008-07-01

    This volume builds on the success of the first edition of imaging pelvic floor disorders and is aimed at those practitioners with an interest in the imaging, diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Concise textual information from acknowledged experts is complemented by high-quality diagrams and images to provide a thorough update of this rapidly evolving field. Introductory chapters fully elucidate the anatomical basis underlying disorders of the pelvic floor. State of the art imaging techniques and their application in pelvic floor dysfunction are then discussed in detail. Additions since the first edition include consideration of the effect of aging and new chapters on perineal ultrasound, functional MRI and MRI of the levator muscles. The closing sections of the book describe the modern clinical management of pelvic floor dysfunction, including prolapse, urinary and faecal incontinence and constipation, with specific emphasis on the integration of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. (orig.)

  16. Occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Juhl, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pelvic pain during pregnancy is a common ailment, and the disease is a major cause of sickness absence during pregnancy. It is plausible that occupational lifting may be a risk factor of pelvic pain during pregnancy, but no previous studies have examined this specific exposure. The aim...... of this study was to examine the association between occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy. METHODS: The study comprised 50 143 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort in the period from 1996-2002. During pregnancy, the women provided information on occupational...... lifting (weight load and daily frequency), and six months post partum on pelvic pain. Adjusted odds ratios for pelvic pain during pregnancy according to occupational lifting were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: Any self-reported occupational lifting (>1 time/day and loads weighing >10 kg) was...

  17. Effects of Mechanical Stretching on the Morphology and Cytoskeleton of Vaginal Fibroblasts from Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Sumei Wang; Zhenyu Zhang; Dongyuan Lü; Qiuxiang Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical load and postmenopausal hypoestrogen are risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). In this study, we applied a 0.1-Hz uniaxial cyclic mechanical stretching (CS) with 10% elongation and 10−8 M 17-β-estradiol to vaginal fibroblasts isolated from postmenopausal women with or without POP to investigate the effects of CS and estrogen on cell morphology and cytoskeletons of normal and POP fibroblasts. Under static culture condition, POP fibroblasts exhibited lower cell circularity an...

  18. Weight loss during pelvic irradiation: Cobalt-60 vs. 10 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radiotherapy treatment unit and technique on body weight loss during 5 to 6 weeks of pelvic irradiation was assessed in 129 patients with cervix or endometrial cancer. The patients treated with the 60Co APPA technique lost 2.91 +- 2.28 percent, whereas the patients treated with the 10-MV APPA technique lost only 1.30 +- 2.58 percent (P = 0.003). The patients treated with the 60Co box technique lost 4.36 +- 3.85 percent and the patients treated with the 10-MV box technique lost 2.00 +- 2.69 percent (P = 0.04). Patients treated with 60Co experienced more nausea during treatment than the 10-MV patients but the incidence of diarrhea was similar for the treatment units. Weight loss during radiotherapy was somewhat greater for cervix patients and for patients having advanced disease but was not adversely affected by previous pelvic surgery. We conclude technical factors such as treatment unit and technique can influence the amount of weight lost by patients during pelvic irradiation. (orig.)

  19. Pelvic Floor Support Defect in Apical Anterior Vaginal Prolapse with Cervical Hypertrophy. Review with Case Report in a 20-year-old Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Kalpana

    2015-10-01

    Apical anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP) with central defect is uncommon in young non hysterectomized patients causing considerable mortality after the fourth decade of life. Its high propensity to recurrence poses the greatest challenge to pelvic reconstructive surgeons. Approximately 40% of women with prolapse have hypertrophic cervical elongation and the extent of elongation increases with greater degrees of prolapse. Women with prolapse either have inherent hypertrophic elongation of the cervix which predisposes them to prolapse or the downward traction in prolapse leads to cervical elongation. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) examination includes measurement of the location of the posterior fornix (point D) with the assumption that this measurement is associated with cervical elongation. Multifocal site involvement with apical and perineal descent primarily afflicts elderly, postmenopausal women after the fourth decade while cervical hypertrophic elongation with prolapse is observed in younger women less than 40 years of age. A review of the anatomical implication of the association of cervical hypertrophy in prolapse is carried out in this article. We observed a combination of distension type anterior vaginal prolapse with apical descent and cervical hypertrophy in a 20-year-old cadaver during routine dissection for undergraduate medical students at Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences in 2013. Distension type anterior vaginal prolapse with central defect is rarer as most reported cases are of the displacement type, paravaginal defect. Hypertrophic cervical elongation is either the cause or consequence of prolapse and its identification before reconstructive surgery is paramount as uterine suspension in the face of cervical elongation is contraindicated. Inappropriate identification of all support defects and breaking of tissues is the primary cause of failure of laparoscopic pelvic reconstructive surgery. PMID:26557506

  20. The association of pelvic organ prolapse severity and improvement in overactive bladder symptoms after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Gee Hoon; Na, Eun Duc; Jang, Ji Hyon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair on overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in women with POP and the effect of baseline POP severity on improvement in OAB after surgical repair of POP. And we also tried to identify any preoperative factors for persistent postoperative OAB symptoms. Methods A total of 87 patients with coexisting POP and OAB who underwent surgical correction of POP were included and retrospectively analyzed and postoperative data was obtained by telephone interview. OAB was defined as an affirmative response to item no. 15 (urinary frequency) and item no. 16 (urge incontinence) of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory. POP severity was dichotomized by Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification stage 1 to 2 (n=22) versus stage 3 to 4 (n=65). Results OAB symptoms were significantly improved after surgical treatment (P<0.001). But there was no significant differences in postoperative improvement of frequency and urge incontinence between stage 1 to 2 group versus stage 3 to 4 group. Preoperative demographic factors (age, parity, and POP stage) were not significantly related to persistent postoperative OAB symptoms. Conclusion Women with coexisting POP and OAB who undergo surgical repair experience significant improvement in OAB symptoms after surgery, but severity of POP had no significant difference in improvement of OAB symptoms. Postoperative persistent OAB symptoms were not related to age, parity, body mass index, and POP stage. PMID:27200312

  1. Effects of elongation delay in transcription dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Jin, Huiqin; Yang, Zhuoqin; Lei, Jinzhi

    2014-12-01

    In the transcription process, elongation delay is induced by the movement of RNA polymerases (RNAP) along the DNA sequence, and can result in changes in the transcription dynamics. This paper studies the transcription dynamics that involved the elongation delay and effects of cell division and DNA replication. The stochastic process of gene expression is modeled with delay chemical master equation with periodic coefficients, and is studied numerically through the stochastic simulation algorithm with delay. We show that the average transcription level approaches to a periodic dynamics over cell cycles at homeostasis, and the elongation delay can reduce the transcription level and increase the transcription noise. Moreover, the transcription elongation can induce bimodal distribution of mRNA levels that can be measured by the techniques of flow cytometry. PMID:25365608

  2. Extensometer automatically measures elongation in elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, C. D.

    1966-01-01

    Extensometer, with a calibrated shaft, measures the elongation of elastomers and automatically records this distance on a chart. It is adaptable to almost any tensile testing machine and is fabricated at a relatively low cost.

  3. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...... viscosity, of up to a factor of 7 times the Trouton limit of 3 times the zero-shear viscosity....

  4. Can Transabdominal Sonography Predict Pelvic Relaxation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pelvic relaxation and cystocele is a common problem in middle to old age women. Transabdominal ultrasound (TAS is a noninvasive, available routine procedure in many situations. We evaluated whether TAS can predict pelvic relaxation or not. "nMaterials and Methods: In a cross sectional case- control study one hundred women 30 years or older were enrolled into the study. An expert female urologist examined the cases for the presence of signs and the grading of pelvic relaxation. A single radiologist blinded to pelvic exam results performed TAS. In the full bladder state the following criteria were recorded: 1. Bladder outlet funneling at rest and valsalva 2. Bladder base position in relation to the superior edge of the pubis symphysis 3. Bladder wall thickness 4. Pelvicaliceal system stasis 5.Post voiding residual urine ( PVR. "nResults: Bladder outlet funneling can predict pelvic relaxation (Se, 91.3%, both at rest and after valsalva. If the bladder base descent is seen below the superior edge of the pubis with the cut off point of 5 mm,it can predict pelvic relaxation. "nConclusion: TAS can be used as a safe and available modality to predict pelvic relaxation

  5. Radiology of sport injuries of pelvic apophyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic apophyses are places of insertion of strong muscles and tendons and are therefore places of least resistance at the end of skeletal growth. Avulsions and disruptions of pelvic apophyses can be caused by overstrain during different kinds of sport activity. Typical radiological findings in 8 different cases of ruptures of apophyses, osteochondropathies, and resulting conditions of sport injuries are demonstrated. The difficulties of correct diagnosis and different diagnosis are pointed out. The significance of hormonal impairment of ossification for development and stress factor of pelvic apophyses is exposed. Questions of treatment and follow-up studies are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Informed Consent for Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Pakeeza; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2016-03-01

    Informed consent is the process in which a patient makes a decision about a surgical procedure or medical intervention after adequate information is relayed by the physician and understood by the patient. This process is critical for reconstructive pelvic surgeries, particularly with the advent of vaginal mesh procedures. In this article, we review the principles of informed consent, the pros and cons of different approaches in reconstructive pelvic surgery, the current legal issues surrounding mesh use for vaginal surgery, and tips on how to incorporate this information when consenting patients for pelvic floor surgery. PMID:26880513

  7. Pelvic Mass Due to Transmigrated IUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadereh Behtash

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine device (IUD, a conventional method of contraception is rarely associated with uterine perforation and extra uterine dislocation. A 29 years old woman complaining of vaginal bleeding was referred for pelvic mass identified in ultrasound. The mass was confirmed with CT scan. In laparatomy we found an IUD in cul-de-sac and pelvic mass was apparently an organized hematoma. Transmigrated IUD can induce organized hematomas presenting as a pelvic mass."n© 2010 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

  8. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Appearance of Pelvic Floor in Nulliparous Women and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ying, Qin Li, Lian Xu, Feifei Liu, Bing Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 50 pelvic organ prolapse (POP women using translabial three-dimensional (3D ultrasound. The levator hiatus in POP women was significantly different from that in nullipara women. In POP women, the size of pelvic floor increased, with a circular shape, and the axis of levator hiatus departed from the normal position in 36 (72% cases. The puborectalis was avulsed in 18 (36% cases and the pelvic organs arranged abnormally in 23 (46% cases. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor in POP women who presented with abnormalities in the morphology and structure of pelvic floor.

  9. Evaporation of elongated droplets on chemically stripe-patterned surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.P.; Zandvliet, H.J.W.; Kooij, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the evaporation of elongated droplets on chemically striped patterned surfaces. Variation of elongation is achieved by depositing droplets on surfaces with varying ratios of hydrophobic and hydrophilic stripe widths. Elongated droplets evaporate faster than more spherical droplets. Bo

  10. Pelvic floor muscle function in a general population of women with and without pelvic organ prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Slieker-ten Hove, Marijke; Pool-Goudzwaard, Annelies; Eijkemans, René; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine; BURGER, Curt; Vierhout, Mark

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction and hypothesis: This study aims to examine the relationship between pelvic floor muscle function (PFMF) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in a general female population. Methods: Cross-sectional study on women aged 45-85 years. Validated questionnaires were used to assess pelvic floor muscle function. POP and PFMF were evaluated with vaginal examination. For statistical analysis chi-squared test for trend and analysis of variance were used. Results: Response rate to the...

  11. Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz;

    2003-01-01

    Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...... above the linear viscoelastic prediction at intermediate strains, indicating strain hardening. The steady elongational viscosities are monotone decreasing functions of elongation rate. At elongation rates larger than the inverse reptation time, the steady elongational viscosity scales linearly with...

  12. The differential roentgen diagnosis of the pelvic extraperitoneal effusion and the pelvic intraperitoneal effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plain film signs of a perivesical extraperitoneal effusion included displacement of the bladder, loss of normal pelvic soft tissure shadows, and upward-displacement of the peritoneum and pelvic ileal loops out of the pelvis. The roentgen appearances of the intraperitoneal pelvic effusion, were the radiographically discernible curvilinear lucent stripe representing the areolar tissure between the dome of the bladder and the pelvic peritoneum, the normally situated peritoneum, and the homogeneous density between the peritoneum and the displaced loops of bowel, referred to as the ''dog-ear'' sign by MeCort. (author)

  13. Malignant Mesothelioma Presenting as a Giant Chest, Abdominal and Pelvic Wall Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Zhi Hong; Gao, Xiao Long; Yi, Xiang Hua; Wang, Pei Jun [Tongji Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2011-11-15

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a relatively rare carcinoma of the mesothelial cells, and it is usually located in the pleural or peritoneal cavity. Here we report on a unique case of MM that developed in the chest, abdominal and pelvic walls in a 77-year-old female patient. CT and MRI revealed mesothelioma that manifested as a giant mass in the right flank and bilateral pelvic walls. The diagnosis was confirmed by the pathology and immunohistochemistry. Though rare, accurate investigation of the radiological features of a body wall MM may help make an exact diagnosis.

  14. Imaging findings in idiopathic pelvic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients presented with ureteric obstruction, and voiding symptoms and constipation, respectively, and were examined by means of intravenous urography and computed tomography. One patient was additionally examined by means of MR tomography. After CT (performed in both patients) and MRT (performed in one patient) had shown a diffuse, contrast-enhancing, infiltrating process in the small pelvis with infiltration of adjacent organs and vessels, surgical biopsy proved the diagnosis of idopathic pelvic fibrosis. Extension of retroperitoneal fibrosis below the pelvic rim is very rare. Clinical symptoms of pelvic fibrosis are variable and imaging findings may lead to a broad list of differential diagnoses. We present two patients with idiopathic pelvic fibrosis and discuss radiological findings and differential diagnoses of this rare disease. (orig.)

  15. Pelvic Surgical Site Infections in Gynecologic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Lachiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of surgical site infection (SSI remains the most common complication of gynecologic surgical procedures and results in significant patient morbidity. Gynecologic procedures pose a unique challenge in that potential pathogenic microorganisms from the skin or vagina and endocervix may migrate to operative sites and can result in vaginal cuff cellulitis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic abscesses. Multiple host and surgical risk factors have been identified as risks that increase infectious sequelae after pelvic surgery. This paper will review these risk factors as many are modifiable and care should be taken to address such factors in order to decrease the chance of infection. We will also review the definitions, microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of pelvic SSIs after gynecologic surgery.

  16. PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC ELECTRORESECTION OF RENAL PELVIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Komyakov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of percutaneous electroresection of the renal pelvic wall with a tumor in 4 patients. The operation has been made for absolute indications: 3 patients had a single kidney and the fourth patient had a single functioning left kidney (the right pelvic dystopic kidney failed to function. In all the patients, the primary symptom of the disease was macrohematuria, the examination for which revealed a renal pelvic tumor measuring 1.2 to 2.5 cm in size. There were no complications after percutaneous electroresection of the renal pelvic wall with a tumor. Intrarenal BCG therapy was performed in the postoperative period. Percutaneous electroresection is indicated for tumors of the renal pelvis and the upper third of the ureter of the single kidney.

  17. Prevention and management of pelvic organ prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Giarenis, Ilias; Robinson, Dudley

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a highly prevalent condition in the female population, which impairs the health-related quality of life of affected individuals. Despite the lack of robust evidence, selective modification of obstetric events or other risk factors could play a central role in the prevention of prolapse. While the value of pelvic floor muscle training as a preventive treatment remains uncertain, it has an essential role in the conservative management of prolapse. Surgical trends are cu...

  18. Resident behaviors during observed pelvic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, F

    1990-01-01

    The pelvic exam is a procedure frequently complicated by difficult communication, sexual tension, and iatrogenic pain. Observations of family practice residents performing pelvic exams were done to identify ways in which they deal with these issues. Among the majority of residents, there was a failure to identify and deal with patients' discomfort. Several episodes of behavior felt to be dysfunctional to the doctor-patient relationship were observed. Implications of these findings for medical education are discussed. PMID:2323497

  19. A Case of Phosphoglyceride Crystal Deposition Disease in the Pelvic Soft Tissues Recurring after Initial Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Yamada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoglyceride crystal deposition disease (PGDD is a rare disease entity that is characterized by phosphoglyceride crystal deposition that stimulates the formation of masses in soft tissue scars or bones. We report a case of PGDD in the pelvic soft tissues that recurred after initial surgical treatment. A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the evaluation of pelvic masses that were observed on an abdominal ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed masses in the pelvic region, with the largest being 10 cm in diameter. The masses were diagnosed as ovarian malignant tumors, and an exploratory laparotomy was performed. Operative findings revealed them to be foreign body granulomas, and the patient was diagnosed with PGDD. The patient had a history of cesarean delivery at the age of 24 years. PGDD is extremely rare, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses in patients with a history of abdominal surgery.

  20. Diagnostic value of pelvic radiography in the initial trauma series in blunt trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Their, Micael E.A.; Bensch, Frank V.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Toeoeloe Trauma Center, Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Handolin, Lauri [Toeoeloe Trauma Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki (Finland); Kiuru, Martti J. [Toeoeloe Trauma Center, Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Research Institut of Military Medicine, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of pelvic radiography in the initial trauma series when compared to multidetector CT (MDCT) findings in serious blunt trauma. Inclusion criteria were blunt trauma and pelvic radiography in the initial trauma series, followed by a whole-body MDCT. A total of 1386 patients (874 male, 512 female, age 16-91 years, mean 41 years) met the inclusion criteria. Imaging studies were evaluated retrospectively by anatomical region and classified, when possible, using the Tile classification. Based on MDCT, a total of 629 injuries occurred in 226 (16%) of these 1386 patients. Radiography depicted 405 fractures in these 226 patients, giving an overall sensitivity of 55%. In 24 patients (11%) radiography was false-negatively normal. The sensitivity of radiography was mainly good in the anteroinferior parts of the pelvis, fair in the acetabulum and ileum, and poor in the posterior ring. By MDCT 141 (62%) patients were classified using the Tile classification and by radiography 133 patients (59%) were classified. MDCT and radiography showed the same type of pelvic injury in 72 patients (59%) and the subtype in 17 patients (14%). In 48 patients (40%) the pelvis was shown to be stable by radiography but unstable by MDCT. In conclusion, the sensitivity of pelvic radiography is low, and it is not reliable for determining if the pelvic injury is stable or not. (orig.)

  1. Baropodometry on women suffering from chronic pelvic pain - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaercher Carolina W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have associated chronic pelvic pain with a stereotyped pattern of movement and posture, lack of normal body sensations, a characteristic pain distribution. We aimed at evaluating if these postural changes are detectable in baropodometry results in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Methods We performed a prospective study in a university hospital. We selected 32 patients suffering from chronic pelvic pain (study group and 30 women without this pathology (regular gynecological work out - control group. Pain scores and baropodometric analysis were performed. Results As expected, study group presented higher pain scores than control group. Study and control groups presented similar averages for the maximum pressures to the left and right soles as well as soles supports in the forefeet and hind feet. Women suffering from chronic pelvic pain did not present differences in baropodometric analysis when compared to healthy controls. Conclusions This data demonstrates that postural abnormalities resulting from CPP could not be demonstrated by baropodometric evaluation. Other postural measures should be addressed to evaluate pelvic pain patients.

  2. Awareness and timing of pelvic floor muscle contraction, pelvic exercises and rehabilitation of pelvic floor in lifelong premature ejaculation: 5 years experience

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe La Pera

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the cure rate of patients with premature ejaculation who underwent a treatment involving: 1) awareness of the pelvic floor muscles 2) learning the timing of execution and maintenance of contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during the sensation of the pre-orgasmic phase 3) pelvic floor rehabilitation (bio feed back, pelvic exercises and electrostimulation). Materials and methods: We recruited 78 patients with lifelong premature ejaculation who completed the training. T...

  3. Planar elongation of soft polymeric networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Hassager, Ole; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Bach, Anders; Koldbech, Henning Vitus

    2010-01-01

    A new test fixture for the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks with application towards pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The concept of this new geometry is to elongate a tube-like sample by keeping the perimeter constant....... To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation. Particle tracking and video recording were used to detect to what extent the imposed strain rate and the sample perimeter remained constant. It was observed that, by using an...

  4. pix-1 controls early elongation in parallel with mel-11 and let-502 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Martin

    Full Text Available Cell shape changes are crucial for metazoan development. During Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis, epidermal cell shape changes transform ovoid embryos into vermiform larvae. This process is divided into two phases: early and late elongation. Early elongation involves the contraction of filamentous actin bundles by phosphorylated non-muscle myosin in a subset of epidermal (hypodermal cells. The genes controlling early elongation are associated with two parallel pathways. The first one involves the rho-1/RHOA-specific effector let-502/Rho-kinase and mel-11/myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit. The second pathway involves the CDC42/RAC-specific effector pak-1. Late elongation is driven by mechanotransduction in ventral and dorsal hypodermal cells in response to body-wall muscle contractions, and involves the CDC42/RAC-specific Guanine-nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF pix-1, the GTPase ced-10/RAC and pak-1. In this study, pix-1 is shown to control early elongation in parallel with let-502/mel-11, as previously shown for pak-1. We show that pix-1, pak-1 and let-502 control the rate of elongation, and the antero-posterior morphology of the embryos. In particular, pix-1 and pak-1 are shown to control head, but not tail width, while let-502 controls both head and tail width. This suggests that let-502 function is required throughout the antero-posterior axis of the embryo during early elongation, while pix-1/pak-1 function may be mostly required in the anterior part of the embryo. Supporting this hypothesis we show that low pix-1 expression level in the dorsal-posterior hypodermal cells is required to ensure high elongation rate during early elongation.

  5. Lifestyle advice with or without pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of adding pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to a structured lifestyle advice program. METHODS: This was a single-blinded randomized trial of women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage ≥ II. Participants were randomized to a...

  6. Dynamic magnetic resonance of pelvic floor: experience in 38 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To show the experience in the evaluation of dysfunctions of pelvic floor by dynamic magnetic resonance (DMR) and to describe the structural and dynamic disorders of pelvis organs. Material and Methods: From March 2004 to March 2005 38 patients with pelvic floor disorders have been studied, 33/38 women (86, 84 %) and 5/38 men (15,16 %), ages between 16 and 74 years old. An evacuating rectal enema has been indicated 4 hours before the examination with bladder retention of 3 hours. 180-240 cc of semisolid paste (thin oats and saline solution) has been used to distend rectum until patients refer sensation of rectum full or a maximum of 240 cm3. The study has been performed in a Siemens Magnetom Vision (1.5 T) body array and coil CP Body Array Flex. T2 turbo spin eco axial and sagittal (TR 4700, TE1, 32), T1 coronal (TR 580 TE 14) with a 4 mm slice were selected for static sequences and Siemens TRUFI sagittal (TR 4.8 TE 2.3) for dynamic acquisitions during rectal and voiding evacuations. The morphology and symmetry of peri urethral ligaments (PUL), elevator anus muscle (LA), and vagina (V) was evaluated. The organs prolapse was evaluated at rest and maximal pelvis strain in accord with Comiter parameters (Fielding J.R.). Results: At 10/38 (26, 32 %) patients was not detected lesions. In 28/38 P (73,68 %) 75 defects of the pelvic supports (54,6 % of LA, 14,6% of the vagina V, 9,3% of PUL and other 21,3 %). The dynamic sequences show 59 defects, 50, 84 % of posterior compartment and 49,16% of anterior. In 8/38 (28, 57 %) patients the lesions affected both compartment. Conclusion: Dynamic magnetic resonance allows the direct interpretation of the very small pelvic floor structure and its disorders (not available by other methods) and the dynamic study of prolapse, providing a more accurate interpretation of its causes. DRM can be very useful in patients with multi-compartment involvement, complex prolapse or recurrence of symptoms post surgical repair. (author)

  7. Pelvic incidence: a fundamental pelvic parameter for three-dimensional regulation of spinal sagittal curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaye, J; Duval-Beaupère, G; Hecquet, J; Marty, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes an anatomical parameter, the pelvic incidence, as the key factor for managing the spinal balance. Pelvic and spinal sagittal parameters were investigated for normal and scoliotic adult subjects. The relation between pelvic orientation, and spinal sagittal balance was examined by statistical analysis. A close relationship was observed, for both normal and scoliotic subjects, between the anatomical parameter of pelvic incidence and the sacral slope, which strongly determines lumbar lordosis. Taking into account the Cobb angle and the apical vertebral rotation confers a three-dimensional aspect to this chain of relations between pelvis and spine. A predictive equation of lordosis is postulated. The pelvic incidence appears to be the main axis of the sagittal balance of the spine. It controls spinal curves in accordance with the adaptability of the other parameters. PMID:9629932

  8. Effects of pregnancy and childbirth on the pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Naser

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The pelvic floor dysfunctions include urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapsed and anal incontinence. One in ten women will be subjected to surgery for pelvic floor dysfunction during their lifetime. In addition, between 30% and 50% will have a recurrence of these interventions. Motherhood is a factor that contributes significantly to the submission of pelvic dysfunctions. There is still no proven evidence that vaginal delivery is an absolutely crucial factor for the presence of pelvic floor dysfunction. There is extensive research on pregnancy and child birth and their effects on the pelvic floor and if some of the obstetric action scan be modified in order to protect it from potential damage.

  9. Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Aspiration of Pelvic Abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Corsi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the utility of a less invasive approach to the care of women with a pelvic abscess, we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of women with pelvic abscesses managed by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration.

  10. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anterior pelvic exenteration performed with the robotic surgical system on a woman with recurrent cervical cancer developing ... proceed with a pelvic exenteration using the robotic system both to minimize the risk of complications due ...

  11. Imaging of the posterior pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, Jaap [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St. Mark' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    Disorders of the posterior pelvic floor are relatively common. The role of imaging in this field is increasing, especially in constipation, prolapse and anal incontinence, and currently imaging is an integral part of the investigation of these pelvic floor disorders. Evacuation proctography provides both structural and functional information for rectal voiding and prolapse. Dynamic MRI may be a valuable alternative as the pelvic floor muscles are visualised, and it is currently under evaluation. Endoluminal imaging is important in the management of anal incontinence. Both endosonography and endoanal MRI can be used for detection of anal sphincter defects. Endoanal MRI has the advantage of simultaneously evaluating external sphincter atrophy, which is an important predictive factor for the outcome of sphincter repair. Many aspects of constipation and prolapse remain incompletely understood and treatment is partly empirical; however, imaging has a central role in management to place patients into treatment-defined groups. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength evaluations in nulliparous and primiparous women: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Orsi Gameiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength of nulliparous and primiparous women. METHODS: A total of 100 women were prospectively distributed into two groups: Group 1 (G1 (n = 50 included healthy nulliparous women, and Group 2 (G2 (n = 50 included healthy primiparous women. Pelvic floor muscle strength was subjectively evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation. Pelvic floor muscle strength was objectively assessed using a portable perineometer. All of the parameters were evaluated simultaneously in G1 and were evaluated in G2 during the 20th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and 45 days after delivery. RESULTS: In G2, 14 women were excluded because they left the study before the follow-up evaluation. The median age was 23 years in G1 and 22 years in G2; there was no significant difference between the groups. The average body mass index was 21.7 kg/m² in G1 and 25.0 kg/m² in G2; there was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0004. In G2, transvaginal digital palpation evaluation showed significant impairments of pelvic floor muscle strength at the 36th week of pregnancy (p = 0.0006 and 45 days after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001 compared to G1. Objective evaluations of pelvic floor muscle strength in G2 revealed a significant decrease 45 days after vaginal delivery compared to nulliparous patients. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and vaginal delivery may cause weakness of the pelvic floor muscles.

  13. Are routine pelvic radiographs in major pediatric blunt trauma necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening pelvic radiographs to rule out pelvic fractures are routinely used for the initial evaluation of pediatric blunt trauma. Recently, the utility of routine pelvic radiographs in certain subsets of patients with blunt trauma has been questioned. There is a growing amount of evidence that shows the clinical exam is reliable enough to obviate the need for routine screening pelvic radiographs in children. To identify variables that help predict the presence or absence of pelvic fractures in pediatric blunt trauma. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 to January 2010 using the trauma registry at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. We analyzed all level 1 and level 2 trauma victims, evaluating history, exam and mechanism of injury for association with the presence or absence of a pelvic fracture. Of 553 level 1 and 2 trauma patients who presented during the study period, 504 were included in the study. Most of these children, 486/504 (96.4%), showed no evidence of a pelvic fracture while 18/504 (3.6%) had a pelvic fracture. No factors were found to be predictive of a pelvic fracture. However, we developed a pelvic fracture screening tool that accurately rules out the presence of a pelvic fracture P = 0.008, NPV 99, sensitivity 96, 8.98 (1.52-52.8). This screening tool combines eight high-risk clinical findings (pelvic tenderness, laceration, ecchymosis, abrasion, GCS <14, positive urinalysis, abdominal pain/tenderness, femur fracture) and five high-risk mechanisms of injury (unrestrained motor vehicle collision [MVC], MVC with ejection, MVC rollover, auto vs. pedestrian, auto vs. bicycle). Pelvic fractures in pediatric major blunt trauma can reliably be ruled out by using our pelvic trauma screening tool. Although no findings accurately identified the presence of a pelvic fracture, the screening tool accurately identified the absence of a fracture, suggesting that pelvic radiographs are not warranted in this subset of patients. (orig.)

  14. Are routine pelvic radiographs in major pediatric blunt trauma necessary?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagisetty, Jyothi [Memorial Hermann Medical Center, Emergency Medicine Department, Houston, TX (United States); Slovis, Thomas [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States); Thomas, Ronald [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Knazik, Stephen; Stankovic, Curt [Wayne State University of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Screening pelvic radiographs to rule out pelvic fractures are routinely used for the initial evaluation of pediatric blunt trauma. Recently, the utility of routine pelvic radiographs in certain subsets of patients with blunt trauma has been questioned. There is a growing amount of evidence that shows the clinical exam is reliable enough to obviate the need for routine screening pelvic radiographs in children. To identify variables that help predict the presence or absence of pelvic fractures in pediatric blunt trauma. We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 to January 2010 using the trauma registry at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. We analyzed all level 1 and level 2 trauma victims, evaluating history, exam and mechanism of injury for association with the presence or absence of a pelvic fracture. Of 553 level 1 and 2 trauma patients who presented during the study period, 504 were included in the study. Most of these children, 486/504 (96.4%), showed no evidence of a pelvic fracture while 18/504 (3.6%) had a pelvic fracture. No factors were found to be predictive of a pelvic fracture. However, we developed a pelvic fracture screening tool that accurately rules out the presence of a pelvic fracture P = 0.008, NPV 99, sensitivity 96, 8.98 (1.52-52.8). This screening tool combines eight high-risk clinical findings (pelvic tenderness, laceration, ecchymosis, abrasion, GCS <14, positive urinalysis, abdominal pain/tenderness, femur fracture) and five high-risk mechanisms of injury (unrestrained motor vehicle collision [MVC], MVC with ejection, MVC rollover, auto vs. pedestrian, auto vs. bicycle). Pelvic fractures in pediatric major blunt trauma can reliably be ruled out by using our pelvic trauma screening tool. Although no findings accurately identified the presence of a pelvic fracture, the screening tool accurately identified the absence of a fracture, suggesting that pelvic radiographs are not warranted in this subset of patients. (orig.)

  15. Influence of pelvic suspension on beef meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lundesjö Ahnström, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of pelvic suspension on beef with different background and different genders. The response to pelvic suspension was studied in longissimus, semimembranosus, adductor, gluteus and psoas muscles from young bulls, bulls, heifers and cows. Prolonged ageing time until 14 days was evaluated for longissimus from heifers. It was concluded that pelvic suspension reduced shear force values for pelvic- compared to achilles-suspended sides in all muscl...

  16. Soft-tissue CT changes in pelvic venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomographic (CT) changes in the soft tissues of the pelvis are presented in three patients with pelvic venous thrombosis. Pelvic venous thrombosis may lead to swelling of surrounding muscles and may present as a pelvic mass. This mass can simulate a tumor clinically, radiographically, and sonographically, but its origin and cause can be demonstrated by CT. Proper understanding of such changes may prevent an erroneous diagnosis of enlarged pelvic lymph nodes or an inflammatory or neoplastic mass

  17. Functional imaging of the pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienemann, Andreas E-mail: andreaslienemann@web.de; Fischer, Tanja

    2003-08-01

    Introduction/Objective: Pelvic floor dysfunction and associated pelvic organ prolapse represent a major problem in our present-day society, mostly afflicting parous women. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is assuming an increasingly important role in the more accurate delineation of the extent of the problem. This article briefly reviews one of the main radiological methods for the dynamic evaluation of the pelvic floor: functional cine MRI. Methods and Material: Out of the literature the smallest common denominator for functional cine MRI can be defined as follows: high field system; patient either in supine or sitting position; fast gradient echo sequence; midsagittal slice orientation; either a stack of slices or repeated measurements at the same slice position with the patient at rest or straining; image analysis using the pubococcygeal reference line. Results: All except two publications stress the usefulness of functional cine MRI in the evaluation of patients with organ descent and prolapse. This well accepted method allows for the visualization of all relevant structures in the anterior, middle and posterior compartment. It is especially useful in the detection of enteroceles, and provides a reliable postoperative follow-up tool. Isolated urinary or stool incontinence are not an indication for functional cine MRI, as is the case in patients with equivocal clinical findings. To date it does not allow for real 3D imaging of the pelvic floor or sufficient determination of fascial defects. Discussion: Functional cine MRI of the pelvic floor is a promising new imaging method for the detection of organ descent and prolapse in patients with equivocal clinical findings. The combination of function and morphology allows for an innovative view of the pelvic floor, and thus adds to our understanding of the various interactions of the structures.

  18. [Influence of the pelvic trauma registry of the DGU on treatment of pelvic ring fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, J H; Stuby, F M; Herath, S C; Culemann, U; Aghayev, E; Pohlemann, T

    2016-06-01

    Fractures of the pelvic ring are comparatively rare with an incidence of 2-8 % of all fractures depending on the study in question. The severity of pelvic ring fractures can be very different ranging from simple and mostly "harmless" type A fractures up to life-threatening complex type C fractures. Although it was previously postulated that high-energy trauma was necessary to induce a pelvic ring fracture, over the past decades it became more and more evident, not least from data in the pelvic trauma registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU), that low-energy minor trauma can also cause pelvic ring fractures of osteoporotic bone and in a rapidly increasing population of geriatric patients insufficiency fractures of the pelvic ring are nowadays observed with no preceding trauma.Even in large trauma centers the number of patients with pelvic ring fractures is mostly insufficient to perform valid and sufficiently powerful monocentric studies on epidemiological, diagnostic or therapeutic issues. For this reason, in 1991 the first and still the only registry worldwide for the documentation and evaluation of pelvic ring fractures was introduced by the Working Group Pelvis (AG Becken) of the DGU. Originally, the main objectives of the documentation were epidemiological and diagnostic issues; however, in the course of time it developed into an increasingly expanding dataset with comprehensive parameters on injury patterns, operative and conservative therapy regimens and short-term and long-term outcome of patients. Originally starting with 10 institutions, in the meantime more than 30 hospitals in Germany and other European countries participate in the documentation of data. In the third phase of the registry alone, which was started in 2004, data from approximately 15,000 patients with pelvic ring and acetabular fractures were documented. In addition to the scientific impact of the pelvic trauma registry, which is reflected in the numerous national and

  19. Robotic Female Pelvic Floor Reconstruction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Marisa M; Pizarro-Berdichevsky, Javier; Goldman, Howard B

    2016-05-01

    As the surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse has continued to evolve, robotic-assisted abdominal sacrocolpopexy (RASC) has gained increasing popularity. Studies have shown equivalent subjective and objective outcomes compared with the "gold standard" abdominal sacrocolpopexy. Additionally, this approach is associated with a shorter hospital stay and less cost than the traditional open procedure. Although there is a learning curve associated with RASC, the basic principles of the procedure are the same. Herein, we discuss the robotic techniques for repair of pelvic organ prolapse as well as discuss the currently available literature regarding RASC. PMID:26723179

  20. [Imaging of acute pelvic pain in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevois, A; Marouteau, N; Lemercier, E; Dacher, J N; Thiebot, J

    2008-01-01

    Acute pelvic pain in women is a routine situation in any emergency unit. The radiologist should know how to explore the patient with regards to the history and clinical findings. Ultrasonography is the primary and sometimes the only necessary imaging tool in the assessment of acute pelvic pain in women. MRI is the preferred technique in pregnant or young women. CT is more valuable for assessing nongynecologic disorders or post-partum and post-operative infections. This article reviews the contribution of each imaging technique in this clinical situation. Emphasis is put on the importance of age and clinical findings in the diagnostic strategy. PMID:18288036

  1. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  2. Diagnosis and Treatment of Disorders of the Posterior Pelvic Compartment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.J. Oom (Daniëlla)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe pelvic floor is an important structure, mandatory to maintain urinary and faecal continence and to prevent descent of pelvic viscera. Simultaneously it should also permit micturition, defaecation and sexual intercourse. Disorders associated with the pelvic floor are common, especiall

  3. Pelvic congestion syndrome: demonstration and diagnosis by helical CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimpelaere, J H; Seynaeve, P C; Hagers, Y M; Appel, B J; Mortelmans, L L

    1999-01-01

    Pelvic pain is a common gynaecological complaint, sometimes without any obvious etiology. We report a case of pelvic congestion syndrome, an often overlooked cause of pelvic pain, diagnosed by helical computed tomography. This seems to be an effective and noninvasive imaging modality. PMID:9933685

  4. Low Temperature Viscosity in Elongated Ferrofluids

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcon, T.; Perez-Madrid, A.; Rubi, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the relaxation and transport properties of a ferrofluid in an elongational flow. These properties are influenced by the bistable nature of the potential energy. Bistability comes from the irrotational character of the flow together with the symmetry of the dipoles. Additionally, the presence of a constant magnetic field destroys the symmetry of the potential energy magnetizing the system. We have shown that at a moderate temperature, compared to the height of the energy barrie...

  5. Rhizome elongation and seagrass clonal growth

    OpenAIRE

    Marbà, N.; C. M. Duarte

    1998-01-01

    A compilation of published and original data on rhizome morphometry, horizontal and vertical elongation rates and branching patterns for 27 seagrass species developing in 192 seagrass stands allowed an examination of the variability of seagrass rhizome and clonal growth programmes across and within species. Seagrass horizontal rhizomes extend at rates ranging between 1.2 and 574 cm yr(-1), develop a branch, with an angle from 19 to 72 degrees, for every 6 to 1800 horizontal internodes, and ad...

  6. Faraday waves in elongated superfluid fermionic clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Capuzzi, P.; Vignolo, P.

    2008-01-01

    We use hydrodynamic equations to study the formation of Faraday waves in a superfluid Fermi gas at zero temperature confined in a strongly elongated cigar-shaped trap. First, we treat the role of the radial density profile in the limit of an infinite cylindrical geometry and analytically evaluate the wavelength of the Faraday pattern. The effect of the axial confinement is fully taken into account in the numerical solution of hydrodynamic equations and shows that the infinite cylinder geometr...

  7. Magnetization Reversal in Elongated Fe Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yongqing; Xiong, Peng; von Molnar, Stephan; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Magnetization reversal of individual, isolated high-aspect-ratio Fe nanoparticles with diameters comparable to the magnetic exchange length is studied by high-sensitivity submicron Hall magnetometry. For a Fe nanoparticle with diameter of 5 nm, the magnetization reversal is found to be an incoherent process with localized nucleation assisted by thermal activation, even though the particle has a single-domain static state. For a larger elongated Fe nanoparticle with a diameter greater than 10 ...

  8. PELVIC ACTINOMYCOSIS MIMICKING A LOCALLY ADVANCED PELVIC MALIGNANCY--CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velenciuc, Natalia; Velenciuc, I; Makkai Popa, S; Roată, C; Ferariu, D; Luncă, S

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a former user of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for 10 years, diagnosed with a bulky, fixed pelvic tumor involving the internal genital organs and the recto sigmoid, causing luminal narrowing of the rectum, interpreted as locally advanced pelvic malignancy, probably of genital origin. Intraoperatively, a high index of suspicion made us collect a sample from the fibrous wall of the tumor mass, large Actinomyces colonies were thus identified. Surgery consisted in debridement, removal of a small amount of pus and appendectomy, thus avoiding a mutilating and useless surgery. Specific antibiotic therapy was administered for 3 months, with favorable postoperative and long-term outcomes. Pelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic tumors in women using an IUD. The association of long-term antibiotic treatment is essential to eradicate the infection and prevent relapses. PMID:27483724

  9. EXAMPLES OF CLINICAL APPLICATION OF ACUPUNCTURE OF ZHONGWAN (CV 12) WITH ELONGATED NEEDLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-hua; YAN Li

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors introduce Professor YAN Li's experience on clinical application of elongated needle for the treatment 12). In addition, they also introduce its operation methods and some points for attention. During operation of the elongated needle, the operator should manipulate it gently, avoiding rude insertion and rash withdrawal; rather, utilize the elasticity of the steel wire to press the needle downward slowly, and cause the favorable needling sensations to spread slowly downward to the affected region along with the movement of the needle body.

  10. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious condition, in women. 1 in 8 women with a history of PID experience difficulties getting pregnant. You can prevent PID if you ... sexually transmitted diseases. The content here can be syndicated (added to ...

  11. Spiral conformation of Vibrio cholerae as determined by scanning electron microscopy of elongated cells induced by cephalexin treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi, H.; Katayama, A.; Ito, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshii, Z

    1986-01-01

    The elongated cells of Vibrio spp. induced by cephalexin treatment were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that Vibrio cholerae has a twisted cell body and a right-handed spiral conformation and that the cell bodies of V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus are straight rather than curved.

  12. Peroperative transperineal brachytherapy for recurrent pelvic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurrent pelvic malignancies represent often a challenge to the therapist due to the limited efficacy of most classical treatment especially in case of prior radiation or lateral extension. Moreover, a surgical resection such as a total pelvic exenteration is only recommended for central recurrence due to the severe mutilation. An innovative approach combining transperineal brachytherapy (BT) with rigid templates and peroperative BT with plastic tubes was developed for the treatment of pelvic recurrence. Plastic tubes were placed during surgery using hollow perineal needles. The laparotomy offers the possibility of a perfect visualisation of the target area to be implanted. Furthermore, a debulking of the tumor mass is possible, limiting the residual volume to be treated. One week after surgery, the loading with 192iridium wires is performed after simulation and dosimetry CTscan. Computed dosimetry is obtained by means of orthogonal radiographs and isodoses are superimposed on the CTslices. Since december 1994, 3 patients were treated for a pelvic relapse of a cervix cancer (2pts) and a sigmoidal cancer (1ppt) to test the feasibility of this approach. Two patients had an history of pelvic irradiation. The third patient was treated with an implant after 40 Gy external beam radiotherapy. A total dose of 60 to 80 Gy was delivered with this technique to a volume ranging from 15 to 24 cm3. One patient had an acute urethritis and another developed a vesicovaginal fistula after a biopsy performed for a slight irregularity of the vaginal mucosa in the highly irradiated area. One relapse in the implanted area is reported within this period of observation. Additional follow up and experience is required to assess the real efficacy of this method. Nevertheless, this approach offers a good alternative for patients relapsing in the pelvis especially in already irradiated area with a good acute and late tolerance and a satisfactory implantation technique

  13. Hormonal treatment for endometriosis associated pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shun Felix Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Endometriosis is a common gynecological problem associated with chronic pelvic pain. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of current hormonal treatments of endometriosis associated pain.Materials and Methods: Randomized Controlled studies identified from databases of Medline and Cochrane Systemic Review groups were pooled. 7 RCTs were recruited for evaluation in this review. Data from these studies were pooled and meta-analysis was performed in three comparison groups: 1 Progestogen versus GnRHa; 2 Implanon versus Progestogen (injection; 3 Combined oral contraceptive pills versus placebo and progestogen. Response to treatment was measured as a reduction in pain score. Pain improvement was defined as improvement ≥1 at the end of treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between treatment groups of progestogen and GnRHa (RR: 0.036; CI:-0.030-0.102 for relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain. Long acting progestogen (Implanon and Mirena are not inferior to GnRHa and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA (RR: 0.006; CI:-0.142-0.162. Combined oral contraceptive pills demonstrated effective treatment of relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain when compared with placebo groups (RR:0.321CI-0.066-0.707. Progestogen was more effective than combined oral contraceptive pills in controlling dysmenorrhea (RR:-0.160; CI:-0.386-0.066, however, progestogen is associated with more side effects like spotting and bloating than the combined contraceptive pills. Conclusion: Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCP, GnRHa and progestogens are equally effective in relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain. COCP and progestogens are relatively cheap and more suitable for long-term use as compared to GnRHa. Long-term RCT of medicated contraceptive devices like Mirena and Implanon are required to evaluate their long-term effects on relieving the endometriosis associated pelvic pain

  14. Radiographic analysis of the development of the pelvic limb of captive-reared cranes (Grus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For captive-reared cranes, pelvic limb abnormalities in chicks have been identified as significant morbidity/mortality factors. An important component of the diagnosis of limb abnormalities is the understanding of the normal limb. This study was undertaken to describe the normal, radiographic development of the femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus, and fibula of the whooping crane (Grus americana), Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis), and Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus). Crane chicks were anesthetized and their pelvic limb bone development evaluated radiographically on a weekly to bimonthly basis from one to fourteen weeks of age. Body weight, bone length, diaphyseal width, and physeal development and closure were evaluated. Based on the radiographic analysis, the gross development of the long bones of the pelvic limb of whooping, Florida sandhill, and Siberian cranes was found to be similar among the three species, and not dissimilar from other avian species which have been studied. Repeated handling, anesthesia, and radiographic exposure did not produce any behavioral, developmental, or physical abnormalities in the studied cranes when compared to cranes of the same species raised using the same methods. This is the first work to describe pelvic limb bone development in these species

  15. Design of Human – Machine Interface and Altering of Pelvic Obliquity with RGR Trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrusinski, Maciej; Unluhisarcikli, Ozer; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Cajigas, Iahn; Bonato, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer targets secondary gait deviations in stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. Using an impedance control strategy and a linear electromagnetic actuator, the device generates a force field to control pelvic obliquity through a Human-Machine Interface (i.e. a lower body exoskeleton). Herein we describe the design of the RGR Trainer Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and we demonstrate the system’s ability to alter the pattern of movement of the pelvis...

  16. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole;

    2006-01-01

    The start-up and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 and 103 kg/mole, and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The monodisperse melts show a maximum in the steady elongational viscosity vs. the elongational...

  17. Faraday waves in elongated superfluid fermionic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzi, P.; Vignolo, P.

    2008-10-01

    We use hydrodynamic equations to study the formation of Faraday waves in a superfluid Fermi gas at zero temperature confined in a strongly elongated cigar-shaped trap. First, we treat the role of the radial density profile in the limit of an infinite cylindrical geometry and analytically evaluate the wavelength of the Faraday pattern. The effect of the axial confinement is fully taken into account in the numerical solution of hydrodynamic equations, and shows that the infinite cylinder geometry provides a very good description of the phenomena.

  18. Natural elongation and triangularity of tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasianalytic formulas are calculated for the elongation κ and triangularity δ of the plasma surface of a free-boundary tokamak equilibrium. The final results give κ and δ as functions of five quantities: the inverse aspect ratio ε, the poloidal beta βp, the internal inductance li, and the quadrupole and hexapole moments of the externally applied field. The agreement with numerically computed equilibria is found to be quite good when A≥3, κ≤1.5, and δ≤0.2 and when the plasma is limited by the vacuum vessel wall and not diverted by the presence of a separatrix on the plasma surface

  19. Qual o índice de massa corporal de mulheres com disfunções dos músculos do assoalho pélvico que procuram tratamento fisioterapêutico? What is the body mass index of women with pelvic floor muscles dysfunctions that seek for physiotherapy treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Faní Fitz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sobrepeso e obesidade são relatados como importantes fatores de risco para desenvolvimento de disfunções do assoalho pélvico (AP feminino. Assim, objetivou-se averiguar o índice de massa corporal (IMC de mulheres com disfunções do AP que procuraram tratamento fisioterapêutico, e comparar com as estatísticas nacionais. Trata-se de um estudo observacional. Foram avaliados os prontuários de mulheres com disfunções do AP atendidas pelo Setor de Fisioterapia no período de 2004 à 2010, e incluídas todas as mulheres com a presença de algum sintoma de disfunção do AP. Calculou-se o IMC de 312 mulheres com disfunção do AP. A média de IMC foi de 28,1 kg/m². Dessas mulheres, cerca de 70% apresentavam sobrepeso ou obesidade, resultado maior do que o índice nacional de 59%. A base fisiopatológica da relação entre obesidade e disfunções do AP está na correlação entre o IMC e a pressão intra-abdominal. A identificação do sobrepeso e da obesidade deve fazer parte dos programas de reabilitação do AP, uma vez que a redução do peso corporal pode contribuir para redução da severidade da disfunção. Com o presente estudo observa-se que as mulheres que procuram tratamento fisioterapêutico para disfunções do AP apresentam índice de obesidade maior do que a população feminina nacional.Overweight and obesity are reported as important risk factors for developing of female pelvic floor (PF dysfunction. Thus, the objective was to verify the body mass index (BMI of women with PF dysfunctions who sought physiotherapy treatment, and comparing it with national statistics. This is an observational study. There were evaluated the records of women with PF dysfunctions served by the Physiotherapy Service from 2004 to 2010, and included all women with the presence of any symptom of PF dysfunction. It was calculated the BMI of 312 women with PF dysfunction. The BMI mean was 28.1 kg/m². Approximately 70% of these women were overweight

  20. Effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and angles of the lower limb joints during walking in female university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Misuk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and lower limb joint angles during walking in female university students. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female university students were randomly assigned to an experimental group (pelvic adjustment group, n = 15) and a control group (stretching group, n = 15). [Methods] Pelvic adjustment was performed three times on the experimental group. The control group performed three sets of pelvic muscle stretching for 15 minutes. A back mapper and motion analysis equipment were used to measure pelvic posture and angles of lower limb joints for the experimental and control group. [Results] The values obtained before and after the intervention were compared. For the experimental group, the results were significantly different in terms of reduced differences in hip flexion between the left and right hips and in knee abduction between the left and right knees. Differences in pelvic position and pelvic torsion were also found in the experimental group. No significant differences in the control group were identified. [Conclusion] Pelvic adjustment affects pelvic position and torsion and this enhancement to pelvic stability decreases hip flexion and knee abduction during walking.

  1. Pelvic actinomycosis presenting as a malignant pelvic mass: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perek Asiye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pelvic actinomycosis constitutes 3% of all human actinomycosis infections. It is usually insidious, and is often mistaken for other conditions such as diverticulitis, abscesses, inflammatory bowel disease and malignant tumors, presenting a diagnostic challenge pre-operatively; it is identified post-operatively in most cases. Here we present a case that presented as pelvic malignancy and was diagnosed as pelvic actinomycosis post-operatively. Case presentation A 48-year-old Caucasian Turkish woman presented to our clinic with a three-month history of abdominal pain, weight loss and difficulty in defecation. She had used an intra-uterine device for 16 years, however it had recently been removed. The rectosigmoidoscopy revealed narrowing of the lumen at 12 cm due to a mass lesion either in the wall or due to an extrinsic lesion that prevented the passage of the endoscope. On examination, there was no gynecological pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass, measuring 5.5 × 4 cm attached to the rectum posterior to the uterus. The ureter on that side was dilated. Surgically there was a pelvic mass adhered to the rectum and uterine adnexes, measuring 10 × 12 cm. It originated from uterine adnexes, particularly ones from the left side and formed a conglomerated mass with the uterus and nearby organs; the left ureter was also dilated due to the pelvic mass. Because of concomitant tubal abscess formation and difficulty in dissection planes, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy was performed (our patient was 48 years old and had completed her childbearing period. The cytology revealed inflammatory cells with aggregates of Actinomyces. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. Conclusions Pelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intra-uterine devices, and who have a history of appendectomy, tonsillectomy

  2. Elongational viscosity of multiarm (Pom-Pom) polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Almdal, Kristoffer;

    2006-01-01

    -Pom was estimated to have 2.5 arms on average, while the estimate is 3.3 for the asymmetric star. The molar mass of each arm is about 27 kg/mol. The melts were characterized in the linear viscoelastic regime and in non-linear elongational rheometry. The transient elongational viscosity for the Pom...... corresponds well with an estimate of the maximum stretchability of the backbone. Time-strain separability was not observed for the 'Asymmetric star' molecule at the elongation rates investigated. The transient elongational viscosity for the 'Pom-Pom' molecule went through a reproducible maximum in the...... viscosity at the highest elongational rate....

  3. Trade studies of plasma elongation for next-step tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, J.D.; Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of elongation on minimum-cost devices is investigated for elongations ranging from 2 to 3. The analysis, carried out with the TETRA tokamak systems code, includes the effects of elongation on both physics (plasma beta limit) and engineering (poloidal field coil currents) issues. When ignition is required, the minimum cost occurs for elongations from 2.3 to 2.9, depending on the plasma energy confinement scaling used. Scalings that include favorable plasma current dependence and/or degradation with fusion power tend to have minimum cost at higher elongation (2.5-2.9); scalings that depend primarily on size result in lower elongation (/approximately/2.3) for minimum cost. For design concepts that include steady-state current-driven operation, minimum cost occurs at an elongation of 2.3. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  4. [Contraception and pelvic infection in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, L; Berger, G S; Brown, E R

    1986-01-01

    Although sexually transmitted diseases are a major public health problem at the international level, the relationship between contraception and pelvic infection is seldom examined. Numerous STDs are more difficult to diagnose, more frequent, and more serious in women than in men. Differential diagnosis between pelvic infection and other intraabdominal syndromes has been a concern for practitioners for years, and many pelvic infections are probably never diagnosed. Lower abdominal pain and sensitivity as well as fever, leucocytosis, accelerated sedimentation rate, inflammatory annexial mass evident on sonography, and microorganisms in the pouch of Douglass and presence of leucocytes in the peritoneal fluid are diagnostic criteria. Apart from errors in treatment resulting from errors in diagnosis, pelvic infections are often inadequately treated, especially in the initial phase before symptoms are confirmed. The exact incidence of pelvic infections in the US is unknown, but pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) accounted for over 200,000 hospitalizations per year between 1970-75. PID carries grave risks of subsequent ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility which is more likely as the number of acute episodes increases. The female genital tract has diverse microenvironments propitious for growth of microorganisms of different types, aerobic and anaerobic. Each anatomic site has specific features conditioning bacterial growth. Histological modifications during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy affect the microbial flora. Except in the case of gonorrhea, it is not known how many female lower genital tract infections spread to the upper tract. Since 1970, several studies have domonstrated a growing diversity of cervical and vaginal flora in asymptomatic subjects. The principal risk factors for PID have been well described in the literature. All contraceptive methods except the IUD provide some degree of protection against PID. Even among IUD users the risk of

  5. Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Associated Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Rizwan; Losco, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and urinary tract infection (UTI) are important problems, estimated to affect around 14 and 40 % of women, respectively, at some point in their lives. Positive urine culture in the presence of symptoms is the cornerstone of diagnosis of UTI and should be performed along with ultrasound assessment of postvoid residual (PVR) in all women presenting with POP and UTI. PVR over 30 mL is an independent risk factor for UTI, although no specific association with POP and UTI has been demonstrated. The use of prophylactic antibiotics remains controversial. The major risk factors for postoperative UTI are postoperative catheterisation, prolonged catheterisation, previous recurrent UTI and an increased urethro-anal distance-suggesting that global pelvic floor dysfunction may play a role. PMID:25170365

  6. Mechanical devices in pelvic organ prolapsed

    OpenAIRE

    Raja AM, Seema SR

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common condition, up to 50% of women will have some degree of prolapse and many are asymptomatic. The pessaries are intended to decrease the symptoms of prolapse and are valid options for patients with stress incontinence. Generally pessaries are safe to use. There are two types of pessaries, support type and space occupying type. Ring pessary is very commonly used, as it is easy to insert and remove. Pessaries can make a significant difference in the quality ...

  7. Pelvic schwannoma in the right parametrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machairiotis N

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Machairiotis,4 Paul Zarogoulidis,3 Aikaterini Stylianaki,1 Eleni Karatrasoglou,4 Georgia Sotiropoulou,4 Alvin Floreskou,4 Eleana Chatzi,4 Athanasia Karamani,4 Georgia Liapi,5 Eleni Papakonstantinou,5 Nikolaos Katsikogiannis,1 Nikolaos Courcoutsakis,2 Christodoulos Machairiotis4 1Surgery Department, 2Radiology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 3Pulmonary Department, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Obstetric Gynecology Department, 5Pathology Department, Thriasio General Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Neurilemomas are benign usually encapsulated nerve sheath tumors derived from the Schwann cells. These tumors commonly arise from the cranial nerves as acoustic neurinomas but they are extremely rare in the pelvis and the retroperitoneal area (less than 0.5% of reported cases, unless they are combined with von Recklinghausen disease (type 1 neurofibromatosis. We report the case of a 58-year-old female with pelvic schwannoma, 6.5 × 5.5 cm in size, in the right parametrium. This is the first case reported in the literature. Based on the rarity of this tumor and in order to ensure optimum treatment and survival for our patient, we performed laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy and en-block tumor excision. A frozen section was taken during the surgery before complete resection of the mass, which was ambiguous. Because of the possibility of malignancy, complete excision of the mass was performed, with pelvic blunt dissection. Histological examination showed a benign neoplasm, originating from the cells of peripheral nerve sheaths; diagnosis was a schwannoma. There were degenerative areas, including cystic degeneration, hemorrhagic infiltrations, ischemic foci with pycnotic cells, and collagen replacement. Pelvic schwannomas are rare neoplasms that can be misdiagnosed. Laparoscopy is a safe

  8. Primary Pelvic Hydatid Cyst Obstructing the Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhya S. Ware; Suwarna B Patil; Dilip S Sarate; Vinod K Sawaitul

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is a common parasitic infection of the liver. Primary pelvic hydatid cyst is an extremely rare condition and occurs in approximately 0.7% of patients. Hydatid disease in pregnancy is a very rare condition with incidence of 1/20000 pregnancies. We report here an unusual case of hydatid cyst of the pelvis in a 30 years old multigravida presenting with obstructed labour. Ultrasonography showed well defined mixechoic c...

  9. Pelvic radiation disease: Updates on treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, Leonardo; La Marca, Marina; Guido, Alessandra; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Bazzoli, Franco; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2015-12-10

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and radiotherapy represents one of the main treatment options. The irradiation field usually encompasses healthy intestinal tissue, especially of distal large bowel, thus inducing gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity. Indeed, up to half of radiation-treated patients say that their quality of life is affected by GI symptoms (e.g., rectal bleeding, diarrhoea). The constellation of GI symptoms - from transient to long-term, from mild to very severe - experienced by patients who underwent radiation treatment for a pelvic tumor have been comprised in the definition of pelvic radiation disease (PRD). A correct and evidence-based therapeutic approach of patients experiencing GI radiation-induced toxicity is mandatory. Therapeutic non-surgical strategies for PRD can be summarized in two broad categories, i.e., medical and endoscopic. Of note, most of the studies have investigated the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding. Patients with clinically significant bleeding (i.e., causing chronic anemia) should firstly be considered for medical management (i.e., sucralfate enemas, metronidazole and hyperbaric oxygen); in case of failure, endoscopic treatment should be implemented. This latter should be considered the first choice in case of acute, transfusion requiring, bleeding. More well-performed, high quality studies should be performed, especially the role of medical treatments should be better investigated as well as the comparative studies between endoscopic and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:26677440

  10. Prophylactic ibuprofed administration during pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-five patients who were to begin pelvic irradiation for malignant disease were randomized to receive ibuprofen 400 mg P.O. q.i.d. during their radiotherapy or standard therapy for radiation-induced gastrointestinal symptoms. Seventeen of 19 patients in the ibuprofen group completed the protocol. There was no significant difference in the daily stool frequency between the ibuprofen and control patients during the 5 to 6 week course of pelvic irradiation; the incidence and severity of diarrhea was the same. There was no significant difference in the incidence of nausea reported by the patients but the severity of nausea was less in the ibuprofen group; none of the 17 patients in the ibuprofen group reported vomiting at any time, whereas, 27% of the patients in the control group reported vomiting. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The data suggest that prophylactic ibuprofen administration may be beneficial in reducing the severity of nausea and preventing radiation-induced vomiting in patients who receive pelvic irradiation

  11. Tachykinin receptors in the equine pelvic flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachykinins, of which substance P (SP) is the prototype, are neuropeptides which are widely distributed in the nervous systems. In the equine gut, SP is present in enteric nerves and is a powerful constrictor of enteric muscle; in other species, SP is also known to have potent vasodilatory and pro-inflammatory effects. The specific effects of SP are determined by the subtype of receptor present in the target tissue. There are 3 known subtypes of tachykinin receptors, distinguished by their relative affinities for SP and other tachykinins. The distribution of SP binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure was determined using 125I-Bolton Hunter SP (I-BHSP) autoradiography. Most I-BHSP binding sites were determined to be saturable and specific, therefore presumably representing tachykinin receptors. The greatest degree of I-BHSP binding occurred over very small vessels, and over the muscularis mucosae; I-BHSP binding was also intense over the circular muscle of the muscularis externa and mucosa, and present, although less intense, over the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa. Competition of I-BHSP with specific receptor agonists for binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure were used to determine the subtypes of tachykinin receptors present. The neurokinin-1 receptor subtype predominated in the equine pelvic flexure, followed by the neurokinin-3 receptor subtype

  12. Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pusiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.

  13. Low temperature viscosity in elongated ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, T.; Pérez-Madrid, A.; Rubí, J. M.

    1997-12-01

    We have studied the relaxation and transport properties of a ferrofluid in an elongational flow. These properties are influenced by the bistable nature of the potential energy. Bistability comes from the irrotational character of the flow together with the symmetry of the dipoles. Additionally, the presence of a constant magnetic field destroys the symmetry of the potential energy magnetizing the system. We have shown that at a moderate temperature, compared to the height of the energy barrier, the viscosity decreases with respect to the value it would have if the potential were stable. This phenomenon is known as the "negative viscosity" effect. Thermal motion induces jumps of the magnetic moment between the two stable states of the system leading to the aforementioned lowered dissipation effect.

  14. Physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Kahr; Backhausen, Mette; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pelvic girdle pain is a frequent cause of sick leave among pregnant women in Denmark. Studies regarding prevention of pelvic girdle pain are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A nested...... case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 5304). METHODS: This study used self-reported data on pelvic girdle pain obtained from an interview six months after childbirth. Information on physical exercise was obtained from the pregnancy interview around gestational week 16....... The association was estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Physical exercise in pregnancy was associated with decreased risk of overall pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99, p = 0.028). Tests for trend indicated decreasing odds for pelvic girdle pain with increasing number of hours per...

  15. IL17 Mediates Pelvic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F Murphy

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS is the most common form of prostatitis, accounting for 90-95% of all diagnoses. It is a complex multi-symptom syndrome with unknown etiology and limited effective treatments. Previous investigations highlight roles for inflammatory mediators in disease progression by correlating levels of cytokines and chemokines with patient reported symptom scores. It is hypothesized that alteration of adaptive immune mechanisms results in autoimmunity and subsequent development of pain. Mouse models of CPPS have been developed to delineate these immune mechanisms driving pain in humans. Using the experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP in C57BL/6 mice model of CPPS we examined the role of CD4+T-cell subsets in the development and maintenance of prostate pain, by tactile allodynia behavioral testing and flow cytometry. In tandem with increased CD4+IL17A+ T-cells upon EAP induction, prophylactic treatment with an anti-IL17 antibody one-day prior to EAP induction prevented the onset of pelvic pain. Therapeutic blockade of IL17 did not reverse pain symptoms indicating that IL17 is essential for development but not maintenance of chronic pain in EAP. Furthermore we identified a cytokine, IL7, to be associated with increased symptom severity in CPPS patients and is increased in patient prostatic secretions and the prostates of EAP mice. IL7 is fundamental to development of IL17 producing cells and plays a role in maturation of auto-reactive T-cells, it is also associated with autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes. More recently a growing body of research has pointed to IL17's role in development of neuropathic and chronic pain. This report presents novel data on the role of CD4+IL17+ T-cells in development and maintenance of pain in EAP and CPPS.

  16. The research of pelvic nerve stimulation%盆神经刺激器的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱秀光; 孙晓明; 杨英波; 刘凤芹; 王振华; 赵升田; 王鑫; 亓天伟

    2000-01-01

    本文介绍了一种部分植入式盆神经刺激器,它主要由体外脉冲发射装置与体内感应接收器和刺激电极组成。文中描述该刺激器的电路设计原理及动物实验结果.%A pelvic nerve stimulater is developed. It consists of a out of body pulse transmission installation and a in body receiving devices and stimulator electrode. The paper describes designprinciple of electric circuit, and the result of animal test.

  17. Animal models of female pelvic organ prolapse: lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Couri, Bruna M.; Lenis, Andrew T.; Borazjani, Ali; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Damaser, Margot S.

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a vaginal protrusion of female pelvic organs. It has high prevalence worldwide and represents a great burden to the economy. The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and includes genetic predisposition, aberrant connective tissue, obesity, advancing age, vaginal delivery and other risk factors. Owing to the long course prior to patients becoming symptomatic and ethical questions surrounding human studies, animal models are necessary and useful. T...

  18. Archosaurian respiration and the pelvic girdle aspiration breathing of crocodyliforms

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Leon P.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Birds and crocodylians, the only living archosaurs, are generally believed to employ pelvic girdle movements as a component of their respiratory mechanism. This in turn provides a phylogenetic basis for inferring that extinct archosaurs, including dinosaurs, also used pelvic girdle breathing. I examined lung ventilation through cineradiography (high-speed X-ray filming) and observed that alligators indeed rotate the pubis to increase tidal volume, but did not observe pelvic girdle movement co...

  19. Hydatidosis of the Pelvic Cavity: A Big Masquerade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Varedi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report and discuss a case of primary hydatidosis of the pelvic cavity in a woman who presented with severe weight loss and abdominal pain. This unusual presentation was initially considered as a tumor process until surgical exploration and microscopic studies confirmed the diagnosis. The gynecologists should be aware of possibility of primary hydatid cyst of the pelvic cavity and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic pelvic masses, especially in areas where the disease is endemic.

  20. Radiodiagnosis of pelvic birth injuries and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konycheva, E.A.; Loskutova, L.A. (Bashkirskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    A study was made of the changes in the pelvic articulations in women with birth injuries 2-5 years following birth on the basis of the clinicoroentgenological findings. Pathological adhesion of birth injuries of the pelvic bones, that manifested itself in the formation of callus and arthrosis of the public and sacroiliac articulations, was noted. The study confirmed incomplete rehabilitation in this group of women. For prognosis of subsequent parturition roentgenopelvimetry is recommended for women with birth injuries of the pelvic girdle.

  1. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain. PMID:26588694

  2. A pelvic retroperitoneal Schwannoma presenting as an adnexal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, R A; Khalil, A M; Saba, M I; Aswad, N K; Mroueh, A M

    1994-05-01

    Solitary nerve sheath tumors such as benign schwannomas arising in the pelvic retroperitoneum are infrequently reported. We report a case of a benign retroperitoneal pelvic schwannoma that presented with pelvic pain and an adnexal mass. Complete surgical excision was achieved only after transection of the S1 nerve root on the left side. The adjacent vascular and urinary channels sustained no injuries and the patient had minimal neurologic deficit. PMID:8188087

  3. Optimising the management of gastrointestinal symptoms following pelvic radiotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Henson, Caroline Claire

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPelvic radiotherapy is a well-established treatment for pelvic malignancies, with 30,000 patients per year in the UK receiving radical pelvic radiotherapy either alone or in combination with other oncological treatments. 80% develop acute gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and 50% develop chronic GI symptoms and in parallel to improvements in survival, increasing numbers of patients are living to develop the long term consequences of treatment. Despite this, less than 20% of patients wh...

  4. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System (POP–Q) – a new era in pelvic prolapse staging

    OpenAIRE

    Persu, C; Chapple, CR; Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Geavlete, P

    2011-01-01

    The prolapse of one or several pelvic organs is a condition that has been known by medicine since its early days, and different therapeutic approaches have been proposed and accepted. But one of the main problems concerning the prolapse of pelvic organs is the need for a universal, clear and reliable staging method. Because the prolapse has been known and recognized as a disease for more than one hundred years, so are different systems proposed for its staging. But none has proved itself to r...

  5. Isolated Pelvic Hyperthermochemotherapeutic Perfusion -An Experimental Study on Isolating Efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Hyperthermochemotherapeutic perfusion model through isolated pelvic vessels was developed to evaluate the leakage of hyperthermia and drugs (such as adriamycin) from the isolated pelvic circulation to systemic circulation and its associated side/toxic effects. The isolated pelvic circulation was perfused through a femoral artery catheter with hyperthermic (48 ℃ to 55 ℃) adriamycin solution (50 μg/ml) for 30 min. The efflux was drained through a femoral vein catheter. And the pelvic temperature was kept at the level of 43±0.5 ℃. The temperature of pelvic circulation was kept at 4 ℃ to 5 ℃ greater than the systemic/core temperature. The adriamycin concentration of pelvic efflux was 12 to 46 folds of that of systemic serum. The difference between them was very significant (P<0.001). As the perfusion pressure was increased, which kept lower than the mean systemic artery pressure, the leakage of the adriamycin from the isolated pelvic circulation to systemic circulation was increased, but there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). During isolated perfusion, the systemic blood dynamics remained stable and there were no organic injuries on the important organs. It was suggested that the isolating efficacy of the modality of isolated pelvic hyperthermochemotherapeutic perfusion through vessels was rather high. The hyperthermia and drugs could be effectively limited in the isolated pelvic region with minor side effects on the systemic circulation and important organs.

  6. The diagnostic value of CT of pelvic masses in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze CT appearances and diagnostic value of pelvic masses in 50 children proved by operation and pathology. Methods: 50 cases of pelvic masses were performed with axial plain CT scan. 32 cases of them underwent contrast-enhanced CT scan. These were 31 girls and 19 boys. The age ranged from 2 hours to 14 years, mean 5.8 years. 47 cases were proved by surgical pathology, 2 cases by biopsy pathology, and 1 case by voiding cystourethrography. Results: The pelvic masses were : 27 germ cell tumors, 7 rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS), 4 tumors of neural origin, 2 hydrometrocolpos, 1 pelvic lipomatosis, 1 ureterocele in bladder, 1 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(NHL), 1 ectopic hyperplasia of prostate in pelvic, 1 appendiceal abscess, 1 prostatic abscess,1 megabladder, 1 mesenteric cyst, 1 duplication of the small intestine, 1 leiomyosarcoma. 46 of 50 cases were correctly diagnosed by CT scan before surgery (92 %), 4 cases were mistaken by CT scan (8 %). 31 cases were benign masses (62%), and 19 cases were malignant masses (38% ), 17 of 19 malignant masses were solid (89.5%). 29 of 31 benign masses were mixed density masses and cystic masses(93. 5%) . Conclusion: CT scan was the best method of choices in showing the size, density, shape, and location of pelvic masses and its relationship to pelvic organs, musculature, and bones. Pelvic CT is the most recent technique utilized in the diagnosis of patients with pelvic masses

  7. Tokamak elongation: how much is too much? I Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Freidberg, Jeff P; Lee, Jungpyo

    2015-01-01

    In this and the accompanying paper the problem of the maximally achievable elongation in a tokamak is investigated. The work represents an extension of many earlier studies, which were often focused on determining the elongation limits due to (1) natural elongation in a simple applied pure vertical field or (2) axisymmetric stability in the presence of a perfectly conducting wall. The extension investigated here includes the effect of the vertical stability feedback system which actually sets the maximum practical elongation limit in a real experiment. A basic resistive wall stability parameter (gammatau) is introduced to model the feedback system which although simple in appearance actually captures the essence of the feedback system. Elongation limits in the presence of feedback are then determined by calculating the maximum elongation against n=0 resistive wall modes for fixed gammatau. The results are obtained by means of a general formulation culminating in a variational principle which is particularly a...

  8. (R)-β-lysine-modified elongation factor P functions in translation elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Zou, S Betty; Rajkovic, Andrei;

    2013-01-01

    also recently been described. The roles of modified and unmodified EF-P during different steps in translation, and how this correlates to its physiological role in the cell, have recently been linked to the synthesis of polyproline stretches in proteins. Polysome analysis indicated that EF-P functions......Post-translational modification of bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) with (R)-β-lysine at a conserved lysine residue activates the protein in vivo and increases puromycin reactivity of the ribosome in vitro. The additional hydroxylation of EF-P at the same lysine residue by the YfcM protein has...... in translation elongation, rather than initiation as proposed previously. This was further supported by the inability of EF-P to enhance the rate of formation of fMet-Lys or fMet-Phe, indicating that the role of EF-P is not to specifically stimulate formation of the first peptide bond. Investigation...

  9. Using dynamic input allocation for elongation control at FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we exploit the dynamic allocation scheme for input redundant control systems proposed in to achieve elongation control on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The scheme first serves as a means for regulating the current in the F coils. Then, due to the quasi-static relationship between the plasma elongation and the F coils current, elongation control is achieved by suitably generalizing the allocation scheme. Both simulation and experimental results are reported.

  10. Analysis of Percent Elongation for Ductile Metal in Uniaxial Tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin; YANG Mei; JIANG Jian

    2005-01-01

    Percent elongation of ductile metal in uniaxial tension due to non-homogeneity was analyzed based on gradient-dependent plasticity. Three assumptions are used to get the analytical solution of percent elongation: one is static equilibrium condition in axial direction; another is that plastic volumetric strain is zero in necking zone;the other is that the diameter in unloading zone remains constant after strain localization is initiated. The strain gradient term was introduced into the yield function of classical plastic mechanics to obtain the analytical solution of distributed plastic strain. Integrating the plastic strain and considering the influence of necking on plastic elongation, a one-dimensional analytical solution of percent elongation was proposed. The analytical solution shows that the percent elongation is inversely proportional to the gauge length, and the solution is formally similar to earlier empirical formula proposed by Barba. Comparisons of existing experimental results and present analytical solutions for relation between load and total elongation and for relation between percent elongation and gauge lengthwere carried out and the new mechanical model for percent elongation was verified. Moreover, higher ductility,toughness and heterogeneity can cause much larger percentage elongation, which coincides with usual viewpoints.

  11. Laparoscopic pelvic sling placement facilitates optimum therapeutic radiotherapy delivery in the management of pelvic malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Joyce, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy has a significant role in the management of pelvic malignancies. However, the small intestine represents the main dose limiting organ. Invasive and non-invasive mechanical methods have been described to displace bowel out of the radiation field. We herein report a case series of laparoscopic placement of an absorbable pelvic sling in patients requiring pelvic radiotherapy. METHODS: Six patients were referred to our minimally invasive unit. Four patients required radical radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer, one was scheduled for salvage localised radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy PSA progression and one patient required adjuvant radiotherapy post-cystoprostatectomy for bladder carcinoma. All patients had excessive small intestine within the radiation fields despite the use of non-invasive displacement methods. RESULTS: All patients underwent laparoscopic mesh placement, allowing for an elevation of small bowel from the pelvis. The presence of an ileal conduit or previous surgery did not prevent mesh placement. Post-operative planning radiotherapy CT scans confirmed displacement of the small intestine allowing all patients to receive safely the planned radiotherapy in terms of both volume and radiation schedule. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic mesh placement represents a safe and efficient procedure in patients requiring high-dose pelvic radiation, presenting with unacceptable small intestine volume in the radiation field. This procedure is also feasible in those that have undergone previous major abdominal surgery.

  12. Mass composition analysis using elongation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochilo, Livingstone; Risse, Markus; Yushkov, Alexey [University of Siegen, Siegen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum has been observed to flatten at around 5.2 x 10{sup 18} eV where the spectral index changes from γ = 3.2 to γ = 2.6, a feature called the ''ankle'' of the spectrum. Cosmic rays with energy around the ankle and beyond, known as ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), have a very low flux and reconstruction of their properties from extensive air shower measurements is subject to uncertainties for instance from hadronic interaction models. Since the year 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has recorded a considerable number of UHECR events beyond the ankle. With the greatly improved statistics, the mass composition of the extreme end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum is now being investigated with improved accuracy. The measured composition of UHECR is an important parameter in validating the models used to explain their sources and acceleration mechanisms. In this study, we perform a mass composition analysis using elongation rate (the rate of change of the depth of shower maximum with energy), measured by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The advantage of this approach is a weak dependence of the results on the choice of the hadronic interaction models.

  13. Trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair using customized prolene mesh: A safe and cost-effective approach for high-grade pelvic organ prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, Samit; Bansal, Rajesh; Ranjan, Priyadarshi; Ansari, M. S.; Kapoor, Deepa; Kapoor, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To assess safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair with customized prolene mesh in patients with high-grade pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 patients, who underwent trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair using a customized prolene mesh from January 2007 to June 2010 for grade III and IV pelvic organ prolapse, were analyzed retrospectively. Prolapse was graded using Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system of Inter...

  14. The etiology of pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, L; Berger, G S

    1984-05-01

    The etiology of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is speculated upon based on reported incidence and epidemiological studies. In Western society, the incidence of PID (annual) is 1% among women aged 15-34 years and 2% in the high risk group of women aged 15-24 years. The annual incidence in the US is higher, at least 2% among fecund sexually active women aged 13-44 years. The medical consequences of PID are infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Causative agents include Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and various other aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms; however, the natural genital flora of females is so varied that determining actual causative agents is difficult. some case-control studies have determined risk factors for PID; these include particularly current or prior use of IUD, prior pelvic surgery, sexual activity (including number of partners), race, and prior PID acute infection. PID is not a sexually transmitted disease, but rather is classified as sexually derived. Use of barrier methods and oral contraceptives protects against PID. IUD use greatly increases the risk of PID, probably because of the avenue the device provides for organisms to ascend from the lower to the upper genital tract. The role of males in PID etiology is currently the subject of much discussion. It is theorized that the mechanical action of penis insertion in intercourse helps to move causative agents to the upper genital region; also, semen may carry vaginal flora through the cervical opening into the uterus and tubes. Menstruation and PID are closely associated, perhaps because the cervix dilates during bleedings. Research areas include: determination of role of sexual activity (and number of partners) in PID etiology; evaluation of events of menstruation that are predisposing; evaluation of relationship between bacteriosperma and lower and upper genital infections; relationship of particular contraceptive methods to PID

  15. Effect of pelvic irradiation of lactose absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four patients undergoing pelvic irradiation for gynecologic malignancies had 14C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of their treatment. The 14C-lactose breath test was performed by administering 2 μCi of 14C-lactose by mouth along with 50 g of lactose. Breath samples were collected in ethanolic hyamine 1, 2, and 3 hr later; the radioactivity of the trapped 14CO2 was determined by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. In the first week of treatment the percentage of administered 14C excreted as 14CO2 at 1, 2, and 3 hr was 1.7 +- 0.8% (mean +- SD), 4.5 +- 1.6%, and 5.8 +- 1.4%, respectively. In the fifth week of treatment the 1-hr, 2-hr, and 3-hr values were 1.2 +- 0.9%, 3.6 +- 2.0%, and 4.7 +- 1.9%, respectively. The difference between the first week and fifth week test results at 1, 2, and 3 hr was statistically significant (t = 2.64, p 14C-lactose breath test results in the fifth week and the stool frequency at that time (r = -0.44, p 14C-lactose breath test results in the fifth week were below normal (<1.2%) had nausea at that time. The data suggest that in some patients, lactose malabsorption as a result of the effect of radiation on small intestinal function may be etiologically related to the symptoms of nausea and diarrhea which occur commonly in patients who are undergoing pelvic irradiation. In addition, the results suggest that lactose-containing foods should be restricted in some patients who are undergoing pelvic irradiation to prevent symptoms resulting from radiation-induced lactose intolerance

  16. [Posttraumatic adhesive ileus following pelvic ring fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmenkov, T; Kasparek, M S; Brumann, M; Bogner, V; Mutschler, W

    2015-09-01

    We report on two cases of posttraumatic ileus after pelvic ring fracture in two patients aged 73 and 74 years, respectively. Although all conservative measures were exhausted, in both cases the ileus resulted in additional operative procedures and a significant extension of the hospital stay. Intraoperatively both patients presented with a mechanical ileus caused by adhesions which were unapparent for decades. Only the trauma-related motility disorder led to a clinical manifestation. Pathophysiological mechanisms and their implications on prophylaxis and therapy are discussed. PMID:25432671

  17. Perineal elevator for postoperative pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A styrofoam block has been used to push or elevate the posterior perineal tissues in a cephalad direction in 5 male patients receiving radiation therapy following abdomino-perineal resection for rectal adenocarcinoma. Following abdomino-perineal resection for rectal adenocarcinoma, the posterior perineum is frequently pendulous, particularly in male patients. In order to include the perineal scar and adjacent tissues in the irradiated volume, the caudal edge of the radiation fields is extended caudally. The external genitalia are frequently within the extended radiation field. A technique has been developed that pushes or elevates the perineum 3-5 cm cephalad during pelvic irradiation

  18. Symptomatic pelvic paraganglioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas are relatively rare in an adults, with most arising from para-aortic sympathetic chain. Paraganglioma localized at the extravesical pelvic cavity is extremely rare, only few case reports are published. We report a case of paravesical paraganglioma in a 45-year-old man who initially presented with irritable bladder and palpitations after voiding for 6 years and was being treated symptomatically for urinary tract infection and anxiety. Cross-sectional imaging showed a paravesical mass and was treated by robotic excision of the mass.

  19. Aggressive angiomyxoma in female pelvic cavity : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare neoplasm occuring in the female pelvic cavity or perineum, and tends to recur. The radiographic findings of angiomyxoma have not been previously reported in Korea; we describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma in the female pelvic cavity, with emphasis on the pathologic and radiologic findings, and review the literature. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  20. Aggressive angiomyxoma in female pelvic cavity : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eo, Geun; Hwang, Ho Kyung; Kim, Jang Min; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Don Young [Kwangmyung Sungae Hospital, Kwangmyung (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare neoplasm occuring in the female pelvic cavity or perineum, and tends to recur. The radiographic findings of angiomyxoma have not been previously reported in Korea; we describe a case of aggressive angiomyxoma in the female pelvic cavity, with emphasis on the pathologic and radiologic findings, and review the literature. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Navicular bone fracture in the pelvic limb in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case history, radiographic and scintigraphic findings of two horses with pelvic limb navicular bone fractures are presented. In both cases the fractures were of traumatic origin. One horse had a bilateral fracture of the navicular bone, distal border, the other horse had a fracture of the proximal articular border in one pelvic limb navicular bone

  2. Pelvic actinomycosis associated with intrauterine device use: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfuhaid, T. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Univ. Health Centre and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Reinhold, C. [Radiology, Gastroenterology and Gynecology, McGill Univ. Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare disease that may complicate longstanding intrauterine device (IUD) use. Its timely recognition is crucial to minimize morbidity and avoid the erroneous diagnosis of malignancy with subsequent, unnecessary surgery. We describe a case of pelvic actinomycosis. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in recognizing this infectious disease process is stressed. (author)

  3. Blastocyst Elongation, Trophoblastic Differentiation and Embryonic Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular basis behind elongation and concomitant gastrulation in ungulates that occurs during pre-implantation is still poorly understood. In-depth transcriptome analysis of the elongating porcine conceptus at specific stages has demonstrated that protein synthesis, protein trafficking, cell g...

  4. Does pelvic injury trigger erectile dysfunction in men?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Hüseyin Ceylan; Ersin Kuyucu; Remzi Erdem; G(o)khan Polat; Ferit Y(i)lmaz; Bilal Gümü(s); Mehmet Erdil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:Pelvic ring fractures constitute 3%-8% of all fractures of the skeletal system and are generally related with high energy trauma.Sexual dysfunction following pelvic fracture has a high incidence,and affects the male patients both physically and psychologically.In this study,we aimed to investigate the impact and frequencies of comorbidities such as erectile dysfunction (ED) with adverse sociocultural and psychological consequences for the patient who had a pelvic ring fracture.Methods:This study included 26 men who corresponded to the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate our study.Results:According to fracture types,most of our cases were Tile type A1 and type A2.Severe and moderate ED were detected in 46.1% (12/26) of these patients via the International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire.Conclusion:ED develops following pelvic fractures,especially in Tile type B and C pelvic fractures.

  5. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19-21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25-75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  6. Pelvic orientation and assessment of hip dysplasia in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Lund, B;

    2004-01-01

    on the measurements of radiographic indices of hip dysplasia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated the effect of varying pelvic orientation on radiographic measurements of acetabular dysplasia using a cadaver model. Results from the cadaver study were used to validate the radiographic assessments of...... pelvic radiograph was recorded at each 3 degrees increment. The most widely used radiographic parameters of hip dysplasia were assessed. 2) Critical limits of acceptable rotation and inclination/reclination of pelvises were determined on 4151 standing, standardised pelvic radiographs of the CCHS cohort......BACKGROUND: The study was performed to qualify the source material of 4151 pelvic radiographs for the research into the relationship between unrecognised childhood hip disorders and the development of hip osteoarthrosis, and to investigate the effect of varying degrees of pelvic tilt and rotation...

  7. The role of spiral CT in pelvic trauma management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid and accurate assessment of pelvic injury is critical for good patient management. Plain X-ray is often used as a preliminary evaluation of the injury but this may not give adequate diagnosis of the acetabulum fracture, subtle fracture of the pelvic bone and the associated soft tissue injuries. Nowadays, spiral CT has taken an increasing role in the evaluation of pelvic trauma. It gives a rapid assessment of the bone and soft tissue injuries as compared to conventional CT. Besides, 2-D (multiplanar imaging) and 3-D image reconstruction with multiple angle views, provide the maximum information which facilitates detailed pelvic trauma evaluation. Three cases were used to illustrate the role of spiral CT in pelvic trauma management. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. High-n ballooning modes in highly elongated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytic study of stability against high-n ballooning modes is highly elongated axisymmetric plasmas is presented and compared with computational results. - From the equation for the marginal pressure gradient, it is found that local shear has an important effect on the stability of elongated plasmas, and that stability deteriorates through high elongation since the stabilizing effects of field line bending and local shear are reduced. The net contribution of the local shear to stability decreases with elongation for strong ballooning modes (eigenfunctions strongly localized near the outer edge of the toroidal flux surfaces) but increases for interchange modes (eigenfunctions more uniform along the flux surfaces). - The computational study of high-n ballooning modes in a highly elongated plasma reveals that lowering the aspect ratio and broadening the pressure profile enhance the marginal beta for βsub(p) less than unity but severely reduce the marginal beta for βsub(p) larger than unity. (author)

  9. Penile Rehabilitation after Pelvic Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed.

  10. Penile rehabilitation after pelvic cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed. PMID:25785286

  11. Immune mediators of chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Stephen F; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-05-01

    The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526

  12. Management of severe pelvic injury following road traffic accident in a resource-limited setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 34 year old woman involved in road traffic accident with severe anterior and posterior pelvic fractures with associated soft tissue injury was referred from Wa Regional Hospital 18 hours after the accident to Tania Specialist Hospital in Tamale. Emergency resuscitative measures such as catheterization and management of pain with analgesics were initiated. Computed tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic resonance imaging has been recommended as the appropriate tools for risk assessment in such cases however none of this was available at the time of the accident. The only assessment tool available was the C-arm machine which was used to X-ray the pelvis in the following plane; anterio - posterior pelvic - inlet and pelvic - outlet. Early internal reduction and stabilization of pelvis was immediately carried out using the procedure of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Approximately 2 weeks after the operation, radiographs showed signs of healing and the patient was discharged on partial body weight bearing. Upon second review 12 weeks post operatively, complete recovery was accomplished.

  13. Use of an antigravity treadmill for rehabilitation of a pelvic stress injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Watanabe, Laine M; Moreno, Tamara J; Fredericson, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Pelvic stress injuries are a relatively uncommon form of injury that require high index of clinician suspicion and usually MRI for definitive diagnosis. We present a case report of a 21-year-old female elite runner who was diagnosed with pelvic stress injury and used an antigravity treadmill during rehabilitation. She was able to return to pain-free ground running at 8 weeks after running at 95% body weight on the antigravity treadmill. Ten weeks from time of diagnosis, she competed at her conference championships and advanced to the NCAA Championships in the 10,000-meters. She competed in both races without residual pain. To our knowledge, this is the first published case report on use of an antigravity treadmill in rehabilitation of bone-related injuries. Our findings suggest that use of an antigravity treadmill for rehabilitation of a pelvic stress injury may result in appropriate bone loading and healing during progression to ground running and faster return to competition. Future research may identify appropriate protocols for recovery from overuse lower extremity injuries and other uses for this technology, including neuromuscular recovery and injury prevention. PMID:22920318

  14. Do women with pelvic floor dysfunction referred by gynaecologists and urologists at hospitals complete a pelvic floor muscle training programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    For decades women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) have been referred to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), but there is only little information on whether the women complete the programmes and why. The objectives of this study were to investigate to which extent women completed a PFMT...

  15. Pelvic floor muscle training as a persistent nursing intervention: Effect on delivery outcome and pelvic floor myodynamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Persistent nursing intervention for pregnant/postpartum women helped to shorten the second stage of labour and contributed to the recovery of postpartum pelvic floor myodynamia. The influence of this intervention on the delivery mode, and rates of episiotomy and perineal laceration remains unknown. Medical staff should strengthen health education programmes that involve pelvic floor functional rehabilitation.

  16. Limbic associated pelvic pain: a hypothesis to explain the diagnostic relationships and features of patients with chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Bradford W

    2007-01-01

    Limbic associated pelvic pain is a proposed pathophysiology designed to explain features commonly encountered in patients with chronic pelvic pain, including the presence of multiple pain diagnoses, the frequency of previous abuse, the minimal or discordant pathologic changes of the involved organs, the paradoxical effectiveness of many treatments, and the recurrent nature of the condition. These conditions include endometriosis, interstitial cystitis, irritable bowel syndrome, levator ani syndrome, pelvic floor tension myalgia, vulvar vestibulitis, and vulvodynia. The hypothesis is based on recent improvements in the understanding of pain processing pathways in the central nervous system, and in particular the role of limbic structures, especially the anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus and amygdala, in chronic and affective pain perception. Limbic associated pelvic pain is hypothesized to occur in patients with chronic pelvic pain out of proportion to any demonstrable pathology (hyperalgesia), and with more than one demonstrable pain generator (allodynia), and who are susceptible to development of the syndrome. This most likely occurs as a result of childhood sexual abuse but may include other painful pelvic events or stressors, which lead to limbic dysfunction. This limbic dysfunction is manifest both as an increased sensitivity to pain afferents from pelvic organs, and as an abnormal efferent innervation of pelvic musculature, both visceral and somatic. The pelvic musculature undergoes tonic contraction as a result of limbic efferent stimulation, which produces the minimal changes found on pathological examination, and generates a further sensation of pain. The pain afferents from these pelvic organs then follow the medial pain pathway back to the sensitized, hypervigilant limbic system. Chronic stimulation of the limbic system by pelvic pain afferents again produces an efferent contraction of the pelvic muscles, thus perpetuating the cycle. This cycle is

  17. Musculoskeletal determinants of pelvic sucker function in Hawaiian stream gobiid fishes: interspecific comparisons and allometric scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Gobiid fishes possess a distinctive ventral sucker, formed from fusion of the pelvic fins. This sucker is used to adhere to a wide range of substrates including, in some species, the vertical cliffs of waterfalls that are climbed during upstream migrations. Previous studies of waterfall-climbing goby species have found that pressure differentials and adhesive forces generated by the sucker increase with positive allometry as fish grow in size, despite isometry or negative allometry of sucker area. To produce such scaling patterns for pressure differential and adhesive force, waterfall-climbing gobies might exhibit allometry for other muscular or skeletal components of the pelvic sucker that contribute to its adhesive function. In this study, we used anatomical dissections and modeling to evaluate the potential for allometric growth in the cross-sectional area, effective mechanical advantage (EMA), and force generating capacity of major protractor and retractor muscles of the pelvic sucker (m. protractor ischii and m. retractor ischii) that help to expand the sealed volume of the sucker to produce pressure differentials and adhesive force. We compared patterns for three Hawaiian gobiid species: a nonclimber (Stenogobius hawaiiensis), an ontogenetically limited climber (Awaous guamensis), and a proficient climber (Sicyopterus stimpsoni). Scaling patterns were relatively similar for all three species, typically exhibiting isometric or negatively allometric scaling for the muscles and lever systems examined. Although these scaling patterns do not help to explain the positive allometry of pressure differentials and adhesive force as climbing gobies grow, the best climber among the species we compared, S. stimpsoni, does exhibit the highest calculated estimates of EMA, muscular input force, and output force for pelvic sucker retraction at any body size, potentially facilitating its adhesive ability. PMID:23450656

  18. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Sexology and Acupressure Through the Vagina (Hippocratic Pelvic Massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many gynecological and sexological problems (like urine incontinence, chronic pelvic pains, vulvodynia, and lack of lust, excitement, and orgasm are resistant to standard medical treatment. In our work at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen, we have found that vaginal acupressure, or Hippocratic pelvic massage, can help some of these problems. Technically, it is a very simple procedure as it corresponds to the explorative phase of the standard pelvic examination, supplemented with the patient's report on the feelings it provokes and the processing and integration of these feelings. Sometimes it can be very difficult to control the emotions released by the technique, i.e., regression to earlier traumas from childhood sexual abuse. This review discusses the theory behind vaginal acupressure, ethical aspects, and presentation of a case story. This procedure helped the patient to become present in her pelvis and to integrate old traumas with painful emotions. Holistic gynecology and sexology can help the patient to identify and let go of negative feelings, beliefs, and attitudes related to sex, gender, sexual organs, body, and soul at large. Shame, guilt, helplessness, fear, disgust, anxiety, anger, hatred, and other strong feelings are almost always an important part of a sexual or functional problem as these feelings are “held” by the tissue of the pelvis and sexual organs. Acupressure through the vagina/pelvic massage must be done with great care by an experienced physician, with a third person present, after obtaining consent and the necessary trust of the patient. It must be followed by conversational therapy and further holistic existential processing.

  19. Bone anatomy of the pelvic girdle, the thigh and the leg of Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Myrmecophagidae: Pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is the largest anteater species in the world. It is an animal of terrestrial habits, however, it has some ability to climb tall trees and termite mounds. The hard skeletal structures are of crucial importance, since they join and protect the soft organs and help support the body, shape, and get involved in movement. The appendicular skeleton is an important part of the locomotor apparatus, whose anatomical information in wild species is scarce, making it difficult to interpret data on these bones. This paper aims to describe the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg skeleton in the giant anteater. We used two specimens of Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus (1758, fixed in a 3.7% aqueous formaldehyde solution. At first, the limbs were disjointed and we removed the skin, viscera, and muscles associated to the bones of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg in the specimens. Then, they were macerated in boiling water, and, subsequently, placed in a hydrogen peroxide solution. Once clean and dry, the bones were identified and described. The pelvic girdle skeleton in the giant anteater consists of the hip bone, formed by the ilium, pubis, and ischium bones; the thigh consists of the femur bone, and the leg consists of the tibia and fibula bones. In the knee joint region there is the patella, a relatively small sesamoid bone, considering the large size of this animal. The giant anteater have osteological features of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg similar to those in domestic carnivores, however, some morphological differences are made evident, something which may reflect differences in locomotor patterns.

  20. Pelvic floor muscle dysfunctions are prevalent in female chronic pelvic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loving, S; Thomsen, Thordis; Jaszczak, Poul P.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No current standardized set of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) outcome measures have been specifically tested for their applicability in a general female chronic pelvic pain (CPP) population. We aimed to compare PFM function between a randomly selected population-based sample of women with...... CPP and age-matched pain-free controls using multiple standardized intravaginal examination measures recommended by the International Continence Society. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, population-based and controlled study with randomly selected participants among women in Denmark. We reported...... blinded findings from a set of standardized vaginal PFM examination manoeuvres in 50 female participants (24 with CPP, 26 pain free). A preliminary pilot study ensured the intra- and intertester reliability of the test procedure. PFM outcomes were resting tone, relaxation capacity, strength, surface...

  1. A new tilt on pelvic radiographs: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pelvic tilt on commonly performed measurements on radiography in primary protrusio acetabuli and developmental dysplasia of the hip. A dry assembled pelvis and spine skeleton was positioned in an isocentric skull unit and films exposed with increasing degrees of angulation of pelvic tilt. The films were then read by two independent readers for seven different measurements used to evaluate the hips and acetabular: acetabular line to ilioischial line, teardrop appearance, intercristal/intertuberous ratio, co-ordinates of femoral head, centre edge angle, acetabular depth/width ratio and acetabular angle. There was so much variation in the protrusio results that no formal recommendation of any standard radiographic test can be given. Only the inter tuberous distance is not effected by pelvic tilt. The acetabular angles for developmental dysplasia of the hip showed the most potential with pelvic tilt below 15 . As pelvic tilt increases, measurements used in protusio become unreliable, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging are probably going to be more accurate as one can directly visualise pelvic intrusion. We recommend a lateral view to assess the degree of pelvic tilt in patients with protrusion to ensure these measurements are valid. (orig.)

  2. Knowledge of the pelvic floor in nulliparous women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neels, Hedwig; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Michel; Vermandel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Proper pelvic floor function is important to avoid serious dysfunctions including incontinence, prolapse, and sexual problems. The current study evaluated the knowledge of young nulliparous women about their pelvic floor and identified what additional information they wanted. [Subjects and Methods] In this cross-sectional survey, a validated, 36 item questionnaire was distributed to 212 nulliparous women. The questionnaire addressed demography, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor dysfunction, and possible information sources. Descriptive statistics were generated for all variables. Stability and validity testing were performed using Kappa statistics and intra class correlation coefficients to define agreement for each question. The study was approved by the ethics Committee (B300201318334). [Results] Using a VAS scale (0 to 10), the women rated their knowledge about the pelvic floor as a mean of 2.4 (SD 2.01). A total of 93% of the women were insufficiently informed and requested more information; 25% had concerns about developing urinary incontinence, and 14% about fecal incontinence. Many of the women were unaware what pelvic floor training meant. [Conclusion] There was a significant lack of knowledge about pelvic floor function among nulliparous women. The majority of nulliparous women expressed a need for education, which might offer a way to reduce dysfunction. PMID:27313364

  3. A new tilt on pelvic radiographs: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, P.J. [North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Pattison, J.M. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Department of Radiology, Stoke on Trent (United Kingdom); Belcher, J. [Keele University, Department of Mathematics, Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); DeCann, R.W. [IMECS, Department of Radiology, Market Drayton, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Anderson, Suzanne [University of Melbourne, Department of Radiology, Melbourne (Australia); Wynn-Jones, C. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stoke on Trent (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pelvic tilt on commonly performed measurements on radiography in primary protrusio acetabuli and developmental dysplasia of the hip. A dry assembled pelvis and spine skeleton was positioned in an isocentric skull unit and films exposed with increasing degrees of angulation of pelvic tilt. The films were then read by two independent readers for seven different measurements used to evaluate the hips and acetabular: acetabular line to ilioischial line, teardrop appearance, intercristal/intertuberous ratio, co-ordinates of femoral head, centre edge angle, acetabular depth/width ratio and acetabular angle. There was so much variation in the protrusio results that no formal recommendation of any standard radiographic test can be given. Only the inter tuberous distance is not effected by pelvic tilt. The acetabular angles for developmental dysplasia of the hip showed the most potential with pelvic tilt below 15 . As pelvic tilt increases, measurements used in protusio become unreliable, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging are probably going to be more accurate as one can directly visualise pelvic intrusion. We recommend a lateral view to assess the degree of pelvic tilt in patients with protrusion to ensure these measurements are valid. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of perspective elongation for sodium laser guide star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Tianjiang; Zhou, Wenchao; Yan, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optical systems become an established technique at telescope facilities with large apertures. At these aperture diameters, such as 8m class telescope facilities, the finite distance and vertical extend of an artificial excited guide star result in perspective elongation, which produces errors in wave-front reconstruction and could influence the performance of adaptive optical systems seriously. In this paper, we shall briefly introduce and explain the effect of the perspective elongation, and show some results of theoretical simulation and experiment. First of all, we analyzed how the perspective elongation of sodium LGS changes, and gave the results of simulation which indicated the relation between the perspective elongation and some related parameters. The aberration caused by the elongation was analyzed, and the possibility of aberration correction was discussed. Based on the results of the theoretical simulation, we designed an experiment to observe the perspective elongation. A transmitting and receiving system has been set up. The system consisted of a 300mJ sodium LGS laser, a telescope with an aperture diameter of 450mm, a beam expander with an aperture diameter of 200mm, a LGS detecting device, etc. Based on the pulsed laser and the mobile LGS projector, we operated the experiment at different distance between the telescope and the laser projector. A series of elongated images, corresponding the distance from 5m to 30m, was obtained. The analytic results of the image data agreed with the theoretical simulation. Based on the experimental data, we deduced the aberration of wave-front at 30m separation. According to theoretical simulation of the perspective elongation, the effects including the aberration of wave-front could be achieved, which had been partially verified in the experiment. We suggest that one could improve the reconstruction accuracy in a sodium or Rayleigh LGS adaptive optical system by eliminating the influence of

  5. Intrauterine device infection causing concomitant streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and pelvic abscess with Actinomyces odontolyticus bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Carolyn M Yu; Noska, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are rarely associated with serious infections. We report an unusual concomitant infection of group A Streptococcus (GAS) causing toxic shock syndrome and pelvic abscess with Actinomyces odontolyticus associated with an IUD in a healthy 50-year-old patient. The IUD was subsequently removed and the patient recovered on the appropriate antibiotics. This case highlights the importance of clinicians' high index of suspicion of an IUD infection and prompt removal of the infected foreign body to obtain source control. PMID:26965406

  6. Coordination of leg swing, thorax rotations, and pelvis rotations during gait: The organisation of total body angular momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Meijer, Onno G.; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Kingma, Idsart; Lamoth, Claudine J.C.

    2008-01-01

    In walking faster than 3 km/h, transverse pelvic rotation lengthens the step ("pelvic step"). It is often assumed that the thorax then starts to counter rotate to limit total body angular momentum around the vertical. But the relative timing of pelvis and thorax rotation during gait is insufficientl

  7. Role of laparoscopy in evaluation of chronic pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebbar Shripad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a common medical problem affecting women. Too often the physical signs are not specific. This study aims at determining the accuracy of diagnostic laparoscopy over clinical pelvic examination. Settings and Design: A retrospective study of patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for CPP. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 86 women who underwent laparoscopic evaluation for CPP of at least 6-month duration were reviewed for presentation of symptoms, pelvic examination findings at the admission, operative findings and follow up when available. Statistical analysis used: McNemar Chi-square test for frequencies in a 2 x 2 table. Results: The most common presentation was acyclic lower abdominal pain (79.1%, followed by congestive dysmenorrhoea (26.7%. 61.6% of women did not reveal any significant signs on pelvic examination. Pelvic tenderness was elicited in 27.9%. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed significant pelvic pathology in 58% of those who essentially had normal pervaginal findings. The most common pelvic pathology by laparoscopy was pelvic adhesions (20.9%, followed by pelvic congestion (18.6%. Laparoscopic adhesiolyis achieved pain relief only in one-third of the women. Conclusion: The study revealed very low incidence of endometriosis (4.7%. Overall clinical examination could detect abnormality in only 38% of women, where as laparoscopy could detect significant pathology in 66% of women with CPP. This shows superiority of diagnostic laparoscopy over clinical examination in detection of aetiology in women with CPP (P < 0.001. Adhesiolysis helps only small proportion of women in achieving pain control.

  8. Reduced BMP Signaling Results in Hindlimb Fusion with Lethal Pelvic/Urogenital Organ Aplasia: A New Mouse Model of Sirenomelia

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Adachi, Yasuha; Numata, Tomokazu; Nakada, Shoko; Yanagita, Motoko; Nakagata, Naomi; Evans, Sylvia M.; Graf, Daniel; Economides, Aris; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Moon, Anne M.; Yamada, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of pheno...

  9. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, John R.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Jonas Rubenson; Kate H. Rosenbluth; Siston, Robert A.; Scott L. Delp

    2015-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles) that optimize the moment-generating capacities ...

  10. Pelvic-peritoneal tuberculosis mimicking ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic-peritoneal tuberculosis is a common extrapulmonary site in young females mimicking an advanced ovarian malignancy. We present 2 cases with the classical triad of advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma-ascites, abdominopelvic masses and elevated serum CA-125 levels. Laparoscopic examination revealed peritoneal nodules which on biopsy showed granulomatous inflammation and no malignant cells. Patients were started on anti-tuberculous therapy and on follow-up their symptoms as well as CA-125 levels normalized. Medical awareness of peritoneal tuberculosis is lacking and many young women with this disease undergo unnecessary extended surgery. Diagnostic laparoscopy combined with peritoneal biopsy seems to be a sufficient and safe method to provide a definitive diagnosis for this curable infection. If left untreated, the disease may disseminate and result in significant organ dysfunctions particularly infertility. (author)

  11. Extensive colonic stricture due to pelvic actinomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Cho, M K; Yook, J W; Choe, G Y; Lee, I C

    1995-04-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented with a palpable tender mass at the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. She had suffered from constipation for five years and had a previous history of intrauterine device-use for one year. Preoperative barium enema and abdominopelvic CT showed a compatible finding of rectosigmoid colon cancer or left ovary cancer. She underwent segmental resection of the sigmoid colon along with the removal of left distal ureter, left ovary and salpinx. Pathologic examination revealed actinomycotic abscesses containing sulfur granules. Thereafter, she took parenteral ampicillin (50mg/kg/day) for one month and oral amoxicillin (250mg, tid) for 2 months consecutively. The patient has no specific problems for 6 months after surgical resection and long-term antibiotic therapy. This report may be the first of intrauterine device-associated pelvic actinomycosis involving both sigmoid colon and rectum extensively. PMID:7576294

  12. Pelvic radiotherapy and sexual dysfunction in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Tine; Froeding, Ligita Paskeviciute

    2015-01-01

    focus on late effects and an increasing awareness that patient reported outcomes (PROs) i.e., patient assessment of physical, social, psychological, and sexual functioning provides the most valid information on the effects of cancer treatment. Following cure of cancer allow survivors focus on quality of...... life (QOL) issues; sexual functioning has proved to be one of the most important aspects of concern in long-term survivors. METHODS: An updated literature search in PubMed was performed on pelvic radiotherapy and female sexual functioning/dysfunction. Studies on gynaecological, urological and...... gastrointestinal cancers were included. The focus was on the period from 2010 to 2014, on studies using PROs, on potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where female sexual dysfunction (FSD) at least constituted a secondary outcome, and on studies reporting from modern radiotherapy modalities. RESULTS: The...

  13. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: omitting a pelvic drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Canes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess outcomes of a selective drain placement strategy during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with a running urethrovesical anastomosis (RUVA using cystographic imaging in all patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients undergoing LRP between January 2003 and December 2004. The anastomosis was performed using a modified van Velthoven technique. A drain was placed at the discretion of the senior surgeon when a urinary leak was demonstrated with bladder irrigation, clinical suspicion for a urinary leak was high, or a complex bladder neck reconstruction was performed. Routine postoperative cystograms were obtained. RESULTS: 208 patients underwent LRP with a RUVA. Data including cystogram was available for 206 patients. The overall rate of cystographic urine leak was 5.8%. A drain was placed in 51 patients. Of these, 8 (15.6% had a postoperative leak on cystogram. Of the 157 undrained patients, urine leak was radiographically visible in 4 (2.5%. The higher leak rate in the drained vs. undrained cohort was statistically significant (p = 0.002. Twenty-four patients underwent pelvic lymph node dissection (8 drained, 16 undrained. Three undrained patients developed lymphoceles, which presented clinically on average 3 weeks postoperatively. There were no urinomas or hematomas in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Routine placement of a pelvic drain after LRP with a RUVA is not necessary, unless the anastomotic integrity is suboptimal intraoperatively. Experienced clinical judgment is essential and accurate in identifying patients at risk for postoperative leakage. When suspicion is low, omitting a drain does not increase morbidity.

  14. Amyloid-like fibril elongation follows michaelis-menten kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katazyna Milto

    Full Text Available A number of proteins can aggregate into amyloid-like fibrils. It was noted that fibril elongation has similarities to an enzymatic reaction, where monomers or oligomers would play a role of substrate and nuclei/fibrils would play a role of enzyme. The question is how similar these processes really are. We obtained experimental data on insulin amyloid-like fibril elongation at the conditions where other processes which may impact kinetics of fibril formation are minor and fitted it using Michaelis-Menten equation. The correlation of the fit is very good and repeatable. It speaks in favour of enzyme-like model of fibril elongation. In addition, obtained [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] values at different conditions may help in better understanding influence of environmental factors on the process of fibril elongation.

  15. Elongation of confined ferrofluid droplets under applied fields

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, S.; Fasnacht, M.; Garoff, S.; Widom, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ferrofluids are strongly paramagnetic liquids. We study the behavior of ferrofluid droplets confined between two parallel plates with a weak applied field parallel to the plates. The droplets elongate under the applied field to reduce their demagnetizing energy and reach an equilibrium shape where the magnetic forces balance against the surface tension. This elongation varies logarithmically with aspect ratio of droplet thickness to its original radius, in contrast to the behavior of unconfin...

  16. Observation of improved ohmic confinement in highly elongated TCV discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goals of the TCV tokamak are to produce plasmas with high elongation and to investigate confinement behaviour for a variety of plasma shapes. A spontaneous transition to an improved ohmic confinement regime has recently been observed in moderately and highly elongated discharges limited by the central column. The observed features are similar to those observed in ASDEX (IOC regime). (author) 5 tab., 5 refs

  17. New Insights on Plant Cell Elongation: A Role for Acetylcholine

    OpenAIRE

    Gian-Pietro Di Sansebastiano; Silvia Fornaciari; Fabrizio Barozzi; Gabriella Piro; Laura Arru

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and...

  18. Awareness and timing of pelvic floor muscle contraction, pelvic exercises and rehabilitation of pelvic floor in lifelong premature ejaculation: 5 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Pera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the cure rate of patients with premature ejaculation who underwent a treatment involving: 1 awareness of the pelvic floor muscles 2 learning the timing of execution and maintenance of contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during the sensation of the pre-orgasmic phase 3 pelvic floor rehabilitation (bio feed back, pelvic exercises and electrostimulation. Materials and methods: We recruited 78 patients with lifelong premature ejaculation who completed the training. The patients were informed of the role of the pelvic floor. They were taught to carry out the execution and maintenance of contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during the sensation of the pre-orgasmic phase to control the ejaculatory reflex. In order to improve the awareness, the tone and the endurance of the pelvic floor muscles, patients were treated with the rehabilitation of pelvic floor (RPF consisting mainly in biofeedback, pelvic exercises and in some cases also in electro-stimulation (ES. The training was carried out for a period of about 2-6 months with an average of 2-5 visits per cycle. Results: 54% of patients who completed the training were cured of premature ejaculation and learned over time to be able to postpone the ejaculation reflex. In a subgroup of 26 patients was also measured the IELT which on the average increased from < 2 minutes to >10 minutes. The best results occurred mainly in patients aged less than 35 where the cure rate was 65%. There were no side effects. Conclusions: In this study, approximately half of patients with premature ejaculation were cured after applying the above treatment.This therapy, necessitates a fairly long period of time (2-6 months and a great commitment on the part of the patient, nevertheless it can be a valid and effective treatment for patients with premature ejaculation. This treatment makes the patient independent in that he is not bound to specific times for taking medication. Furthermore there are no

  19. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aortic lymph node dissection, allowing him not only access to the lower pelvic lymph node dissections but ... robot, he’s having a real hard time getting access into this plane and yet you can still ...

  20. Whole pelvic osteomyelitis: Unusual finding in staphylococcal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an infrequent case of combined infection of bone, articulation and lung by staphylococcus aureus, with affectation of all pelvic bones. Studies with 99m Tc pyrophosphate were repeatedly negative, becoming positive following the appearance of radiological signs. (orig.)

  1. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anterior Pelvic Exenteration January 22, 2009 From Pennsylvania Hospital Welcome to this "OR Live" Webcast presentation brought ... And I'm a gynecologic oncologist at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. My colleague, Dr. Daniel Eun and ...

  2. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and uterine arteries and opened the recto-vaginal space posteriorly, taken down much of those pelvic side ... anterior extent, coming down in the pre-vesicle space and doing the cystectomy and connecting that cystectomy ...

  3. 'Women get this': gendered meanings of chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Victoria M; MacBride-Stewart, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain in women is a key site through which explorations of the meanings of female gender and pain might further insights into the broader question of the embodied experience of women in relation to pain. A biocultural approach is used to present an analysis of interviews with 40 New Zealand women in which they reflect on 'how come' they have chronic pelvic pain. Women consistently employ a mechanistic rendition of medical discourse and understandings in their constructions of 'how come' they have pain, accompanied by a reiteration of 'not knowing' and a normalizing of their pelvic pain. We explore how this normalizing works within the narratives to establish women's pelvic pain as intrinsically gendered. Etiological meanings that are constructed in medical terms and yet are unable to be interpreted within a dualist frame of normality and pathology, we argue, permeate and shape gendered experience of chronic pain conditions. PMID:17158831

  4. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... going to do a little bit of a water ballast there to keep that in the pelvis ... and uterine arteries and opened the recto-vaginal space posteriorly, taken down much of those pelvic side ...

  5. Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their pelvic pain. There are several types of psychosocial support: ● Psychotherapy involves meeting with a psychologist, psychiatrist, ... mostly for endometriosis pain and has additional surgical risks, so it is not recommended for most women. ...

  6. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to proceed with a pelvic exenteration using the robotic system both to minimize the risk of complications due to the precision of the instrumentation and of our vision as well last our ability to minimize bleeding ...

  7. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to proceed with a pelvic exenteration using the robotic system both to minimize the risk of complications due to the precision of the instrumentation and of our vision as well last our ability to minimize bleeding ...

  8. Pelvic orientation and assessment of hip dysplasia in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Lund, Bjarne;

    2004-01-01

    on the measurements of radiographic indices of hip dysplasia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated the effect of varying pelvic orientation on radiographic measurements of acetabular dysplasia using a cadaver model. Results from the cadaver study were used to validate the radiographic assessments of acetabular...... radiograph was recorded at each 3 degrees increment. The most widely used radiographic parameters of hip dysplasia were assessed. 2) Critical limits of acceptable rotation and inclination/reclination of pelvises were determined on 4151 standing, standardised pelvic radiographs of the CCHS cohort. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: The study was performed to qualify the source material of 4151 pelvic radiographs for the research into the relationship between unrecognised childhood hip disorders and the development of hip osteoarthrosis, and to investigate the effect of varying degrees of pelvic tilt and rotation...

  9. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... without any transfusions. Typically, what’s performed in this clinical situation is a procedure called a pelvic exenteration. In this case, since the rectum is not involved, we would ...

  10. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to me, I felt that with her given history of prior pelvic radiation and being a Jehovah’s ... due to our limitations and a prior radiation history. We hope that you guys enjoy our case ...

  11. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aortic lymph node dissection, allowing him not only access to the lower pelvic lymph node dissections but ... few more questions in from viewers over the Internet, one from Kristin Connelly, “What is the mortality ...

  12. PELVIC EXENTERATION – RESULTS FROM A SINGLE INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Capalna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Analyse the initial experience of pelvic exenteration for gynaecological malignancies in a tertiary referralcenter. Material and method. Between 2011 and 2013, 15 patients underwent a pelvic exenteration for gynaecologicalmalignancies. Results. Out of the 15 exenterations, 6 were total, 4 anterior and 5 posterior. The indication was cervical(9 patients, advanced vaginal (1 patient and ovarian cancer (in 5 patients. A Bricker non-continent ileal urinary conduitwas performed in all 10 anterior and total exenterations. In-hospital complications occurred in 6 patients (40% of whomtwo perioperative deaths (13%. Among the 15 patients, at this moment, 8 are alive; 6 are dead because of the disease,and one is lost to follow-up. Conclusion. Pelvic exenterantion for recurrent or advanced pelvic malignancies can beassociated with long-term survival and even cure without high perioperative mortality in properly selected patients.However, postoperative complications are common and can be lethal.

  13. Pelvic Organ Support in Animals with Partial Loss of Fibulin-5 in the Vaginal Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haolin; Balgobin, Sunil; Montoya, T. Ignacio; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Word, R. Ann

    2016-01-01

    Compromise of elastic fiber integrity in connective tissues of the pelvic floor is most likely acquired through aging, childbirth-associated injury, and genetic susceptibility. Mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse demonstrate systemic deficiencies in proteins that affect elastogenesis. Prolapse, however, does not occur until several months after birth and is thereby acquired with age or after parturition. To determine the impact of compromised levels of fibulin-5 (Fbln5) during adulthood on pelvic organ support after parturition and elastase-induced injury, tissue-specific conditional knockout (cKO) mice were generated in which doxycycline (dox) treatment results in deletion of Fbln5 in cells that utilize the smooth muscle α actin promoter-driven reverse tetracycline transactivator and tetracycline responsive element-Cre recombinase (i.e., Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre+, cKO). Fbln5 was decreased significantly in the vagina of cKO mice compared with dox-treated wild type or controls (Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre-/-). In controls, perineal body length (PBL) and bulge increased significantly after delivery but declined to baseline values within 6–8 weeks. Although overt prolapse did not occur in cKO animals, these transient increases in PBL postpartum were amplified and, unlike controls, parturition-induced increases in PBL (and bulge) did not recover to baseline but remained significantly increased for 12 wks. This lack of recovery from parturition was associated with increased MMP-9 and nondetectable levels of Fbln5 in the postpartum vagina. This predisposition to prolapse was accentuated by injection of elastase into the vaginal wall in which overt prolapse occurred in cKO animals, but rarely in controls. Taken together, our model system in which Fbln5 is conditionally knock-downed in stromal cells of the pelvic floor results in animals that undergo normal elastogenesis during development but lose Fbln5 as adults. The results indicate that vaginal fibulin-5 during

  14. Pelvic Organ Support in Animals with Partial Loss of Fibulin-5 in the Vaginal Wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Chin

    Full Text Available Compromise of elastic fiber integrity in connective tissues of the pelvic floor is most likely acquired through aging, childbirth-associated injury, and genetic susceptibility. Mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse demonstrate systemic deficiencies in proteins that affect elastogenesis. Prolapse, however, does not occur until several months after birth and is thereby acquired with age or after parturition. To determine the impact of compromised levels of fibulin-5 (Fbln5 during adulthood on pelvic organ support after parturition and elastase-induced injury, tissue-specific conditional knockout (cKO mice were generated in which doxycycline (dox treatment results in deletion of Fbln5 in cells that utilize the smooth muscle α actin promoter-driven reverse tetracycline transactivator and tetracycline responsive element-Cre recombinase (i.e., Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre+, cKO. Fbln5 was decreased significantly in the vagina of cKO mice compared with dox-treated wild type or controls (Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre-/-. In controls, perineal body length (PBL and bulge increased significantly after delivery but declined to baseline values within 6-8 weeks. Although overt prolapse did not occur in cKO animals, these transient increases in PBL postpartum were amplified and, unlike controls, parturition-induced increases in PBL (and bulge did not recover to baseline but remained significantly increased for 12 wks. This lack of recovery from parturition was associated with increased MMP-9 and nondetectable levels of Fbln5 in the postpartum vagina. This predisposition to prolapse was accentuated by injection of elastase into the vaginal wall in which overt prolapse occurred in cKO animals, but rarely in controls. Taken together, our model system in which Fbln5 is conditionally knock-downed in stromal cells of the pelvic floor results in animals that undergo normal elastogenesis during development but lose Fbln5 as adults. The results indicate that vaginal fibulin-5

  15. Tracheal compression due to an elongated aortic arch in patients with congenital heart disease: evaluation using multidetector-row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Noriko; Hayabuchi, Yasunobu; Inoue, Miki; Sakata, Miho; Nabo, Manal Mohamed Helmy; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Saijo, Takahiko; Kagami, Shoji [University of Tokushima, Department of Pediatrics, Tokushima (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    The airway can become obstructed as a result of compression by an elongated aortic arch. In this study we evaluated tracheal compression using multidetector-row CT in patients with congenital heart disease and an elongated aortic arch. The trachea was measured at the level of the aortic arch in 205 children and young adults and then the severity of tracheal compression was determined by measuring the tracheal diameter ratio (short axis diameter/long axis diameter). Patients were divided as follows: group I (normal aortic arch; n=166), group II (transversely running aortic arch; n=22), and group III (elongated aortic arch; n=17). From the viewpoint of the relationship of the great arteries, group II had D-malposition, and group III had L-malposition. Age, height, weight and body surface area were significantly correlated with the short and long axis diameter in group I. There was a negative correlation between tracheal diameter ratio and the physical size parameters. The tracheal diameter ratio in group III was 0.50{+-}0.13, which was significantly lower than in groups I and II (P<0.01 and 0.05, respectively). Even apparently asymptomatic patients with an elongated aortic arch can have tracheal compression. An elongated aortic arch may be a useful predictor of tracheal compression. (orig.)

  16. Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women with pelvic floor disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Preethi Raja Navaneethan; Aruna Kekre; Kuruthukulangara Sebastian Jacob; Lilly Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of vitamin D deficiency and pelvic floor disorders (PFD) including pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case control study on 120 women with or without symptoms of PFD. Relevant history and clinical examination were conducted. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were measured in all women. Chi square and student t test were used to test ...

  17. Gerota's fascia over a pelvic ectopic kidney: Myth or reality?

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Apul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate for the presence or absence of Gerota's fascia in a pelvic ectopic kidney, as this is not well documented. Materials and Methods: Between January 2007 and July 2011, all patients with normal renal functions presenting to the Urology Clinic with pelvic ectopic kidney were evaluated for the presence of fascia similar to Gerota's fascia. Specific evaluation included a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and open surgery where indicated. A literatu...

  18. New considerations regarding pelvic organ prolapse treatment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lan; G Willy Davila

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is non-fatal conditions which can markedly affect a patient's quality of life.Multiple recently developed pelvic reconstructive surgeries have led to a recent expansion in China.In this study,we would like to discuss various aspects of the evaluation and management of POP and raise the question of what is sufficient evidence for the adoption of innovative treatments for POP.

  19. Clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment for pelvic cryptorchid seminoma

    OpenAIRE

    Li; Coucke, Philippe; Qian,, S.J..; Huang, Yi-Rong; Gu, Da-Zhong; Mirimanoff, René-Olivier; Yu, Zi-Hao

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the clinical characteristics, prognosis, and treatment outcome of pelvic cryptorchid seminoma (PCS), and to determine whether whole abdominal-pelvic irradiation for Stage I disease is necessary. Methods and Materials: From 1958 to 1991,60 patients with PCS were treated at the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing. They presented with a lower abdominal mass and showed a predominance for the right side. A high proportion of patients with...

  20. European guideline for the management of pelvic inflammatory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, J; Judlin, P; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains one of the most important consequences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) resulting in severe morbidity and acting as the economic justification for STI screening programmes. Early and appropriate therapy has the potential to significantly reduce the...... long-term complications of PID, and these evidence-based guidelines provide advice on the management of pelvic infection including the use of appropriate antimicrobial regimens....

  1. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Dongwook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19–21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal volunta...

  2. Female Pelvic Vein Embolization: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, the main indication for pelvic vein embolization (PVE) in women was to treat pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVC) but increasingly, patients with refluxing pelvic veins associated with leg varicosities are also being treated. A more unusual reason for PVE is to treat pelvic venous malformations, although such lesions may be treated with sclerotherapy alone. Embolotherapy for treating PVC has been performed for many years with several published studies included in this review, whilst an emerging indication for PVE is to treat lower limb varicosities associated with pelvic vein reflux. Neither group, however, has been subjected to an adequate randomized, controlled trial. Consequently, some of the information presented in this review should be considered anecdotal (level III evidence) at this stage, and a satisfactory ‘proof’ of clinical efficacy remains deficient until higher-level evidence is presented. Furthermore, a wide range of techniques not accepted by all are used, and some standardization will be required based on future mandatory prospective studies. Large studies have also clearly shown an unacceptably high recurrence rate of leg varicose veins following venous surgery. Furthermore, minimally or non-invasive imaging is now revealing that there is a refluxing pelvic venous source in a significant percentage of women with de novo leg varicose veins, and many more with recurrent varicosities. Considering that just over half the world’s population is female and a significant number of women not only have pelvic venous reflux, but also have associated leg varicosities, minimally invasive treatment of pelvic venous incompetence will become a common procedure

  3. European guideline for the management of pelvic inflammatory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, J; Judlin, P; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains one of the most important consequences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) resulting in severe morbidity and acting as the economic justification for STI screening programmes. Early and appropriate therapy has the potential to significantly reduce t...... long-term complications of PID, and these evidence-based guidelines provide advice on the management of pelvic infection including the use of appropriate antimicrobial regimens....

  4. Female Pelvic Vein Embolization: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony James, E-mail: consultant@radiologist.co.uk [The Imaging Clinic (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Until recently, the main indication for pelvic vein embolization (PVE) in women was to treat pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVC) but increasingly, patients with refluxing pelvic veins associated with leg varicosities are also being treated. A more unusual reason for PVE is to treat pelvic venous malformations, although such lesions may be treated with sclerotherapy alone. Embolotherapy for treating PVC has been performed for many years with several published studies included in this review, whilst an emerging indication for PVE is to treat lower limb varicosities associated with pelvic vein reflux. Neither group, however, has been subjected to an adequate randomized, controlled trial. Consequently, some of the information presented in this review should be considered anecdotal (level III evidence) at this stage, and a satisfactory ‘proof’ of clinical efficacy remains deficient until higher-level evidence is presented. Furthermore, a wide range of techniques not accepted by all are used, and some standardization will be required based on future mandatory prospective studies. Large studies have also clearly shown an unacceptably high recurrence rate of leg varicose veins following venous surgery. Furthermore, minimally or non-invasive imaging is now revealing that there is a refluxing pelvic venous source in a significant percentage of women with de novo leg varicose veins, and many more with recurrent varicosities. Considering that just over half the world’s population is female and a significant number of women not only have pelvic venous reflux, but also have associated leg varicosities, minimally invasive treatment of pelvic venous incompetence will become a common procedure.

  5. Pelvic Floor Disorders Registry: Study Design and Outcome Measures.

    OpenAIRE

    Weber LeBrun, E; Adam, RA; Barber, MD; Boyles, SH; Iglesia, CB; Lukacz, ES; Moalli, P; Moen, MD; Richter, HE; Subak, LL; Sung, VW; Visco, AG; Bradley, CS

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders affect up to 24% of adult women in the United States, and many patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) choose to undergo surgical repair to improve their quality of life. While a variety of surgical repair approaches and techniques are utilized, including mesh augmentation, there is limited comparative effectiveness and safety outcome data guiding best practice. In conjunction with device manufacturers, federal regulatory organizations, and professional societies, the...

  6. Male Pelvic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Chiec; Sadhna Verma; Ady Kendler; Nagla Abdel Karim

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelv...

  7. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Halim; Jung, SangWoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...

  8. The Theory and Technique of Yamuna Body Rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This paper provides information about the theory and technique of Yamuna Body Rolling. In order to treat physical problems, using the specialized Yamuna Body Rolling balls, people can target superficial skin, fasciae, muscle fibers, tendons, ligaments, bones, internal organs, and the nervous system by themselves. The extraordinary effect of Yamuna Body Rolling is its multidimensional elongation of muscle fibers. In addition to the regular longitudinal elongation by the conventional ...

  9. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

  10. Effect of pelvic floor muscle training compared with watchful waiting in older women with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse : randomised controlled trial in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegersma, Marian; Panman, Chantal M. C. R.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Dekker, Janny H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of pelvic floor muscle training and watchful waiting on pelvic floor symptoms in a primary care population of women aged 55 years and over with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Dutch primary care. Participants Women

  11. The 12-month effects of structured lifestyle advice and pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    of a randomized controlled trial comparing a structured lifestyle advice program alone (lifestyle group) or in combination with pelvic floor muscle training (training and lifestyle group). Both programs consisted of six separate group sessions within 12 weeks. RESULTS: Data were available from 83 (76%) of the 109...... surgery. More severe anterior prolapse and more bladder symptoms at the 3-month follow up were significantly associated with having sought further treatment in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: At 12-month follow up, the effects of adding pelvic floor muscle training to a structured lifestyle advice program were......INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the 12-month effects of adding pelvic floor muscle training to a lifestyle advice program in women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse stage II-III and the number of women who had sought further treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was a 12-month follow up...

  12. Transcription impairment and cell migration defects in elongator-depleted cells: Implication for familial dysautonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Close, Pierre; Hawkes, Nicola; Cornez, Isabelle; Creppe, Catherine; Lambert, Charles A.; Rogister, Bernard; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Merville, Marie-Paule; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.; Bours, Vincent; Svejstrup, Jesper Q.; Chariot, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in IKBKAP, encoding a subunit of Elongator, cause familial dysautonomia (FD), a severe neuro-developmental disease with complex clinical characteristics. Elongator was previously linked not only with transcriptional elongation and histone acetylation but also with other cellular processes. Here, we used RNA interference (RNAi) and fibroblasts from FD patients to identify Elongator target genes and study the role of Elongator in transcription. Strikingly, whereas Elongator is recruit...

  13. Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Priyanka; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Seibert, Anthony; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Coulter, Kevin [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Sacramento, CA (United States); Li, Chin-Shang [University of California Davis Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Skeletal surveys for non-accidental trauma (NAT) include lateral spinal and pelvic views, which have a significant radiation dose. To determine whether pelvic and lateral spinal radiographs should routinely be performed during initial bone surveys for suspected NAT. The radiology database was queried for the period May 2005 to May 2011 using CPT codes for skeletal surveys for suspected NAT. Studies performed for skeletal dysplasia and follow-up surveys were excluded. Initial skeletal surveys were reviewed to identify fractures present, including those identified only on lateral spinal and/or pelvic radiographs. Clinical information and MR imaging was reviewed for the single patient with vertebral compression deformities. Of the 530 children, 223 (42.1%) had rib and extremity fractures suspicious for NAT. No fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs. Only one child (<0.2%) had vertebral compression deformities identified on a lateral spinal radiograph. This infant had rib and extremity fractures and was clinically paraplegic. MR imaging confirmed the vertebral body fractures. Since no fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs and on lateral spinal radiographs in children without evidence of NAT, nor in nearly all with evidence of NAT, inclusion of these views in the initial evaluation of children for suspected NAT may not be warranted. (orig.)

  14. Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal surveys for non-accidental trauma (NAT) include lateral spinal and pelvic views, which have a significant radiation dose. To determine whether pelvic and lateral spinal radiographs should routinely be performed during initial bone surveys for suspected NAT. The radiology database was queried for the period May 2005 to May 2011 using CPT codes for skeletal surveys for suspected NAT. Studies performed for skeletal dysplasia and follow-up surveys were excluded. Initial skeletal surveys were reviewed to identify fractures present, including those identified only on lateral spinal and/or pelvic radiographs. Clinical information and MR imaging was reviewed for the single patient with vertebral compression deformities. Of the 530 children, 223 (42.1%) had rib and extremity fractures suspicious for NAT. No fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs. Only one child (<0.2%) had vertebral compression deformities identified on a lateral spinal radiograph. This infant had rib and extremity fractures and was clinically paraplegic. MR imaging confirmed the vertebral body fractures. Since no fractures were identified solely on pelvic radiographs and on lateral spinal radiographs in children without evidence of NAT, nor in nearly all with evidence of NAT, inclusion of these views in the initial evaluation of children for suspected NAT may not be warranted. (orig.)

  15. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Suzuki

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox and the Isl1 (Islet1-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  16. Pelvic Fractures in Children Results from the German Pelvic Trauma Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwingmann, Jörn; Aghayev, Emin; Südkamp, Norbert P;

    2015-01-01

    (ISS) did not differ statistically. Lethality in the pediatric group was 6.3%, not statistically different from the adults' 4.6%. In all, 18.3% of the pediatric pelvic fractures were treated surgically as compared to 22.7% in the adult group. No child suffered any thrombosis/embolism, acute respiratory...... distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan failure (MOF), or neurologic deficit, nor was any septic MOF detected. The differences between adults and children were statistically significant in that the children suffered less frequently from thrombosis/embolism (P = 0.041) and ARDS and MOF (P = 0.006).This...

  17. Low rate of lymphedema after extended pelvic lymphadenectomy followed by pelvic irradiation of node-positive prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of lower limb lymphedema after pelvic lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy to the pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer. Twenty-six patients underwent combined treatment for high-risk node-positive prostate cancer at Skåne University Hospital between April 2008 and March 2011. The treatment consisted of extended pelvic lymphadenectomy followed by androgen deprivation therapy and radiotherapy. The pelvic lymphnodes, prostate and seminal vesicles were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to an absorbed dose of 50 Gy followed by a brachytherapy (BT) boost of 2x10 Gy to the prostate only. Twenty-two patients accepted an invitation to a clinical examination with focus on lower limb swelling. The median time between the end of radiotherapy and examination was 2.2 years (range 1.2–4.1). Six patients (27%) experienced grade 1 lymphedema and two patients (9%) grade 2 while none had grade 3 or 4 according to the CTC Common Toxicity Criteria scale 4.0. Three patients required treatment with compression stockings. Brachytherapy and pelvic EBRT have a low incidence of lymphedema (at median 2.2 y after treatment) in patients with high-risk node-positive prostate cancer that have undergone pelvic lymph node dissection

  18. Transvaginal sonography of acute pelvic inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the value of transvaginal sonography in evaluating women with acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Transvaginal sonography was performed in 25 patients with clinically suggested PID during recent 36 months. The sonographic findings of fallopian tubes and ovaries were analyzed and correlated with pathological findings of 2 fallopian tubes and 19 ovaries in 16 patients who had operations. The correct diagnosis of acute PID was made in 20/25 (80%) by transvaginal sonography. the abnormal sonographic findings of the fallopian tube include tubal thickening or dilatation with internal echo. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for tubal abnormality were 88%, 96%, and 86% , respectively. Ovarian changes were seen on TVS in 14/19 (73%), which include multiple follicular enlargement in 5, tubo-ovarian complex in 9 (tubo-ovarian adhesion in 3, tubo-ovarian abscess in 6). At surgery, the ovay was not involved in all three women who showed tubo-ovarian adhesion on TVS. Among 6 women who showed tubo-ovarian abscess on TVS, tubo-ovarian abscess was confirmed in 3 and the remaining 3 had ovarian cysts. Trandvaginal sonography, a facilitative and accurate modality, is highly sensitive in detecting the abnormality of the tube and useful in differentiating the tubo-ovarian complex in patients with acute PID.

  19. URETERO PELVIC JUNCTION OBSTRUCTION IN THE NEWBORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kouranloo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Uretero pelvic junction (UPJ obstruction is a common cause of hydronephrosis in infants. The frequent use of fetal ultrasound is allowing early (prenatal diagnosis of numerous uropathies previously delayed until the child either became symptomatic or had a palpable mass. Newborn with severe obstruction often has marked improvement following correction, therefore, early diagnosis and operation are important. From 1993 to 2002, 21 patients were operated on for severe UPJ obstruction who were diagnosed before 6 weeks of age. Only 10 patients (63% had antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis, the remaining were diagnosed by postnatal ultrasound and IVP or radionuclide scan for palpable renal enlargement or for associated anomalies. Eighteen of them had unilateral and three had bilateral obstruction. Twenty-four pyeloplasties were done; all pyeloplasties were dismembered with tailoring of the dilatated renal pelvis. Postoperative renal function was followed with laboratory blood test, urine test or radionuclide scan or IVP. Postoperative complications included urinary tract infection in three patients and postoperative stenosis in one patient were seen. No mortality occurred on infants in unilateral but one occurred in bilateral obstruction. Also, there was one unrelated late death. We report documented functional improvement with minimal complications in unilateral or bilateral pyeloplasty in newborns with UPJ obstruction. We recommend that if the initial scan shows substantially reduced function in the obstructed kidney, a pyeloplasty (rather than nephrectomy generally should be performed, because the newborn kidney has tremendous capacity for improvement in renal function following decompression.

  20. Pelvic insufficiency fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, W C; Evans, N S

    1993-09-01

    Insufficiency fractures are a subgroup of stress fractures which occur when normal or physiological stresses are placed on weakened bone. Occurrences of these fractures in the pelvis are difficult to detect clinically and the appropriate radiological investigation is necessary for diagnosis. Osteoporosis is the main underlying cause of these fractures. The clinical and radiological features of three elderly patients with varying presentations of pelvic insufficiency fractures are described. Together with images from three other patients, the radiological spectrum of these fractures is illustrated. The current literature on this subject is reviewed. Plain radiographs are usually unhelpful or may be misleading. Isotope bone scans are the most sensitive modality, demonstrating complete or partial H-shaped sacral uptake, parasymphyseal uptake, or a combination of both. CT is useful for confirming these fractures and excluding malignant disease. Patients invariably improve with bed rest. Awareness of this entity should lead to utilisation of the appropriate imaging modalities for its diagnosis, the proper patient management and avoidance of unnecessary invasive procedures. PMID:8267368

  1. Effect of pelvic irradiation of ileal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three patients with gynecological neoplasms undergoing radiotherapy to the pelvis had cholyl[1-14C]glycine breath tests to assess ileal function. Breath tests were performed on each patient in the first and fifth weeks of treatment and 19 of the patients had a third test three months post-treatment. In the first test, 29.9 +- 16.8 percent (mean +- SD) of the administered dose was excreted in breath 14C in 24 hours. This rose to 47.3 +- 15.9 percent (t = 6.08; p less than .001) in the fifth week and fell to 36.3 +- 16 percent (t = 2.29; p less than .05) at three months post-treatment. Eight patients had breath tests performed one year post-treatment and the test percentages were 32.7 +- 7.8 percent (t = 1.19; p greater than .10). The increase in 14CO2 excretion in the fifth week of treatment occurred at a time when most patients were having diarrhea. The data suggest that bile acid malabsorption due to ileal dysfunction may be a factor in radiation-induced diarrhea which occurs in nearly all patients during pelvic irradiation

  2. Deepwater rice: A model plant to study stem elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kende, H.; Knaap, E. van der; Cho, H.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Plant Research Lab.

    1998-12-01

    Semiaquatic plants grow mostly in flood plains and along river beds and are adapted to survive partial submergence during periods of flooding. Among their adaptive features are the development of internal air channels (aerenchyma) that facilitate aeration of submerged organs and the capacity for rapid elongation when the plants become partially covered by floodwaters. In addition to its importance as a crop plant, deepwater rice is also excellent for studying basic aspects of plant growth. The growth response is induced by an environmental signal and is mediated by at least three interacting hormones, namely ethylene, ABA, and GA. Internodal elongation is based on increased cell-division activity and enhanced cell elongation in well-delineated zones of the internode. This allows one to study both processes of growth in an integrated manner. Also, the unusually high growth rates magnify growth-related cellular, physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes, thereby facilitating their analysis. In addition to yielding fundamental insights into the growth process, studies of internodal elongation in deepwater rice may ultimately help to identify genes that could confer at least limited elongation capacity onto modern, high-yielding cultivars.

  3. Correlation Between NDE Measurements and Elongation of Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex aluminum forgings can have engineering properties which vary with position due to changes in the underlying local metal microstructure. Consequently, the material properties may be in compliance with production requirements in some regions of the forging, but out of compliance in others. One conical Al-7050 forging of interest was found to have elongation properties which failed required tests in certain regions. NDE measurements sensitive to microstructural changes were carried out to search for correlations with elongation properties. The results of a set of initial feasibility experiments will be reported. Both ultrasonic and eddy current NDE methods were used, with the goal being to determine which properties were sensitive to the elongation. Ultrasonic testing included the measurement of longitudinal and shear-wave velocity, longitudinal wave attenuation, and longitudinal and shear-wave backscattered grain noise. All tests were performed with the sonic beam entering through the coupon face that would be adjacent to the outer surface of the forging. Only modest differences in wave speed and attenuation values were seen among the suite of coupons, but significant differences were seen in backscattered noise levels. These appeared to indicate changes in grain structure but only exhibited partial correlation with elongation. The eddy current measurements were designed to be sensitive to the electrical resistivity. Included were a number of measurement configurations and frequencies. The signals exhibited a significant correlation with elongation

  4. Comparison of the main body of the external anal sphincter muscle cross-sectional area between women with and without prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Yvonne; HUEBNER, Markus; Chen, Luyun; Fenner, Dee E.; DeLANCEY, John O.L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the main body of the external anal sphincter (EAS) cross-sectional area (CSA) of women with and without pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 40 women were selected for analysis. Of these women, 20 had pelvic organ prolapse and 20 had normal support. Of the women with normal support, 10 had known major levator ani (LA) muscle defects and 10 had normal LA muscles. The same was true for the women with pelvic prolapse: half ha...

  5. Three Cases of Elongated Mandibular Coronoid Process with Different Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal elongation of the mandibular coronoid process is rare and its etiology is not yet elucidated. The aim of this report is to demonstrate and discuss the relationship between elongated mandibular coronoid process and limitation of mouth opening with cone beam computed tomography. Although the clinical characteristic of elongation of the coronoid process is mandibular limitation, in this report, one case had problem with mouth opening. Axial scans revealed that the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may cause limitation in mouth opening. In conclusion, instead of the length, the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may be the actual reason for limitation of mouth opening. This may prevent misdiagnosis

  6. Tokamak elongation: how much is too much? II Numerical results

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jungpyo; Freidberg, Jeffrey P

    2015-01-01

    The analytic theory presented in Paper I is converted into a form convenient for numerical analysis. A fast and accurate code has been written using this numerical formulation. The results are presented by first defining a reference set of physical parameters based on experimental data from high performance discharges. Numerically obtained scaling relations of maximum achievable elongation versus inverse aspect ratio are obtained for various values of poloidal beta, wall radius and feedback capability parameter in ranges near the reference values. It is also shown that each value of maximum elongation occurs at a corresponding value of optimized triangularity, whose scaling is also determined as a function of inverse aspect ratio. The results show that the theoretical predictions of maximum elongation are slightly higher than experimental observations for high performance discharges as measured by high average pressure. The theoretical optimized triangularity values are noticeably lower. We suggest that the e...

  7. Wnt5a is essential for intestinal elongation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Sara; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Summary Morphogenesis of the mammalian small intestine entails extensive elongation and folding of the primitive gut into a tightly coiled digestive tube. Surprisingly, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate the morphological aspects of small intestine formation. Here, we demonstrate that Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt family of secreted proteins, is essential for the development and elongation of the small intestine from the midgut region. We found that the small intestine in mice lacking Wnt5a was dramatically shortened and duplicated, forming a bifurcated lumen instead of a single tube. In addition, cell proliferation was reduced and re-intercalation of post-mitotic cells into the elongating gut tube epithelium was disrupted. Thus, our study demonstrates that Wnt5a functions as a critical regulator of midgut formation and morphogenesis in mammals. PMID:19100728

  8. Referred pain patterns provoked on intra-pelvic structures among women with and without chronic pelvic pain: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Torstensson

    Full Text Available To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment.In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for eligibility from a midwifery surgery. Inclusion criterion for CPP was: moderate pain in the sacral region persisting at least six months after childbirth confirmed by pelvic pain provocation tests. Exclusion criteria in groups with and without CPP were: persistent back or pelvic pain with onset prior to pregnancy, previous back surgery and positive neurological signs. Pain was provoked by palpation of 13 predetermined intra-pelvic anatomical landmarks. The referred pain distribution was expressed in pain drawings and described in pain maps and calculated referred pain areas.Pain provoked by palpation of the posterior intra-pelvic landmarks was mostly referred to the sacral region and pain provoked by palpation of the ischial and pubic bones was mostly referred to the groin and pubic regions, with or without pain referred down the ipsilateral leg. The average pain distribution area provoked by palpation of all 13 anatomical landmarks was 30.3 mm² (19.2 to 53.7 in women with CPP as compared to 3.2 mm² (1.0 to 5.1 in women without CPP, p< 0.0001.Referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic landmarks in women with CPP are consistent with sclerotomal sensory innervation. Magnification of referred pain patterns indicates allodynia and central sensitization. The results suggest that pain mapping can be used to evaluate and confirm the pain experience among women with CPP and contribute to diagnosis.

  9. Expression of estrogen receptors in the pelvic floor of pre- and post-menopausal women presenting pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Laure Kottler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The precise role of estrogen in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse (POP is still unclear, while the results concerning the effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators on pelvic organ prolapse are contradictory. Our aim was to test whether alteration in the expression of estrogen receptors in the pelvic floor of preand post-menopausal women is related to genital prolapse status. The mRNA levels of ERα and ERβ in 60 biopsy specimens were measured. Significantly higher expression of ERα and higher ERα/ERβ ratio were demonstrated in post-menopausal women compared to pre-menopausal women. Higher expression of ERα and higher ERα/ERβ ratio were detected in all studied groups with POP, thus it did not reach significance in the post-menopausal group. Pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women presenting pelvic organ prolapse had no difference in the ERα expression. Our preliminary study may indicate that pelvic organ prolapse is associated with higher expression of ERα/ERβ in the pelvic floor of both pre- and post-menopausal women; thus not reaching statistical significance in the post-menopausal women was probably due to the group’s size. We believe that the inevitable changes in the estrogen receptor expression over women’s different lifetimes may affect the risk of genital prolapse progression, and might contribute to the further search for appropriate selective estrogen receptor modulators as a treatment for women with pelvic organ prolapse. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 521–527

  10. Possible Removal of Rival Sperm by the Elongated Genitalia of the Earwig, Euborellia plebeja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Y

    2000-07-01

    Sperm displacement is a sperm competition avoidance mechanism that reduces the paternity of males that have already mated with the female. Direct anatomical sperm removal or sperm flushing is known to occur in four insect orders: Odonata, Orthoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. In a fifth order, Dermaptera (earwigs), I found that the virga (the elongated rod of the male genitalia) of Euborellia plebeja seems to be used to remove rival sperm from the spermatheca (a fine-tubed female sperm storage organ). In this species, copulation lasted on average 4.6 minutes, during which time the male inserted the virga deep into the spermatheca, and then extracted it ejaculating semen from the opening of the virgal tip. The extraction of virgae (with its brim-like tip) appeared to cause removal of stored sperm in the spermatheca. The virga was as long as the body length of males, and the spermatheca was twice the female body length. The long length of the spermatheca and the possible removal function of the virga may select for virgal elongation. PMID:18517303

  11. Pelvic Floor Muscle Training: Underutilization in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamin, Eliza; Parrillo, Lisa M; Newman, Diane K; Smith, Ariana L

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are highly prevalent in women of all ages and can greatly impair quality of life. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is a viable treatment option for several pelvic floor conditions including urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. PFMT is a program of therapy initiated by an experienced clinician (e.g., women's health or urology nurse practitioner (NP), physical therapist (PT)) that involves exercises for women with stress urinary incontinence (UI) and exercises combined with behavioral or conservative treatments (lifestyle changes, bladder training with urge suppression) for women with urgency or mixed UI. These exercise programs are more comprehensive than simple Kegel exercises. Despite evidence-based research indicating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness for treatment of urinary incontinence, PFMT is not commonly used as a first-line treatment in clinical practice in the USA (Abrams et al., 2012). This article will review PFMT for the treatment of UI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and theorize how this conservative therapy can be utilized more effectively in the USA. PMID:26757904

  12. Personalizing pelvic floor reconstructive surgery in aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannella, Paolo; Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Naldini, Gabriele; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-09-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is a growingly frequent condition in aging individuals. Urinary or rectal incontinence, constipation, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic pain or sexual dysfunction are common problems in this age range. Such conditions carry a severe impact on quality of life, but also limit individual independence in daily activities, favor social isolation and carry health risks. Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction in aging women is tricky, since multiple interfering conditions affecting muscle tone and nerve function are common in these individuals. Diabetes mellitus, sarcopenia, use of drugs that affect cognition or impact bowel or urinary function are just a few examples. These conditions need to be thoroughly taken into account during pre-operative work up for their potential impact on the success of surgery and vice versa. Functional reconstruction aimed at treating symptoms rather than anatomic defects is key to success. The recent advancements in surgical treatment of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse allow for more options to achieve the best surgery in each patient. PMID:26142653

  13. PELVIC INJURY IN CHILDHOOD: WHAT IS ITS CURRENT IMPORTANCE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUERRA, MARÍA ROXANA VIAMONT; BRAGA, SUSANA REIS; AKKARI, MIGUEL; SANTILI, CLAUDIO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the importance of pelvic fractures in childhood by analyzing epidemiological characteristics and associated injuries. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed between 2002 and 2012 at two trauma referral centers in São Paulo. We identified 25 patients aged 16 years old or younger with pelvic fracture. Results: The main mechanism of trauma was traffic accident (80%), followed by fall from height (16%). At hospital admission, 92% had traumatic brain injury and 40% had hemodynamic instability. Besides pelvic fractures, 56% of the children had other associated injuries (genitourinary, abdominal, vascular, chest and neurological), and 79% of them required operative treatment. According to the Torode and Zieg classification, the majority of cases were types III and IV. Seventy-two percent of all pelvic fractures were treated by surgery; 52% involved external fixation and 20% involved open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusions: The pelvic fractures in childhood can be considered a marker for injury severity, because the associated injuries usually are severe, needing operative treatment and leading to a high mortality rate (12%). Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27217818

  14. Radiologic imaging and percutaneous treatment of pelvic lymphocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic lymphocele, also known as lymphocyst, is a cystic structure caused by lymphatic injury usually secondary to pelvic lymphadenectomy and renal transplantation. Lymphoceles can cause morbidity and rarely mortality by compression of adjacent structures and infectious complications. This review discusses etiology and treatment options for pelvic lymphoceles including surgical and percutaneous methods with emphasis on percutaneous techniques particularly in conjunction with sclerotherapy. Percutaneous catheter drainage with sclerotherapy procedure with various sclerosing agents is described in detail. Ethanol, povidone-iodine, tetracycline, doxycycline, bleomycin, talc and fibrin glue can be used as sclerosing agents. Combination of sclerosing agents to percutaneous catheter drainage significantly improves success rate in the treatment of pelvic lymphoceles. Infected lymphoceles are usually treated solely with percutaneous catheter drainage. Percutaneous treatment can be tailored according to volume of lymphoceles. We generally prefer single session sclerotherapy and 1 day catheter drainage in lymphoceles less than 150 mL, and larger ones are treated by multi-session sclerotherapy until daily drainage decreases below 10 mL. Percutaneous treatment preferably with sclerotherapy should be considered as the first-line treatment modality for pelvic lymphoceles due to its effectiveness, widespread applicability on an outpatient basis, ease of procedure and low complication rate

  15. Pelvic organ prolapse: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, M; Amundsen, C L

    2007-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse has afflicted women since the beginning of mankind. Even though we have been faced with this problem for so many centuries, we still have not found a way to overcome gravity and prevent prolapse. We continue to make efforts to manage prolapse, modifying our techniques based on burgeoning research. This knowledge helps us to avoid repetitive complications from surgery and to improve techniques to prevent recurrent prolapse. In addition, we are constantly adapting our methods depending on available technology. With an aging population, the demand for physicians and surgeons trained in management of pelvic organ prolapse will increase. The rapidly evolving literature on pelvic organ prolapse makes a comprehensive review difficult. However, based on the current literature, randomized controlled trials are needed to compare new prolapse repair techniques to traditional techniques. Physicians specializing in surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse will need to work together to complete quality clinical trials. The primary focus of this review will be on the recent research concerning the epidemiology, etiology, presenting symptoms, and diagnosis of pelvic organ prolapse. We will also discuss the different types of prolapse by compartments of the vagina in which they occur and how each of these types of prolapse can be managed. Finally, we will review recent literature evaluating surgical repairs using transvaginal mesh kits. PMID:18043574

  16. The Relationship Between Foot and Pelvic Alignment While Standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Sam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A normal motion and segmental interrelationship has been determined as a significant factor in normal function. Yet, the relationship between distal segments and pelvic alignment needs further investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between distal and proximal lower extremity segments while standing and during induced feet hyperpronation. Changes in alignment of the pelvis and lower extremities were measured at a gait laboratory using the VICON 612 computerized motion analysis system. Thirty-five healthy volunteer subjects were recruited. Four randomized repeated-measure standing modes were used: standing directly on the floor and then on three wedges angled at 10°, 15° and 20° to induce bilateral hyperpronation for 20 seconds. A significant (p<0.05 bi-variate relationship was found between the anterior pelvic tilt and thigh internal rotation, in all four standing positions (.41≤r≤.46, in all p<0.014. A combined effect of rotational alignment between segments and the cumulative effect of foot hyperpronation on pelvic tilt revealed that only the shank significantly affected pelvic alignment, acting as a mediator between a foot and a thigh with the thigh having a crude significant effect on the pelvis. When internal rotation of the shank occurs, calcaneal eversion couples with thigh internal rotation and anterior pelvic tilt. It can be concluded that in response to induced hyperpronation, the shank is a pivotal segment in postural adjustment.

  17. Radiologic imaging and percutaneous treatment of pelvic lymphocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay [Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal and Interventional Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal and Interventional Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)]. E-mail: oakhan@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2005-09-01

    Pelvic lymphocele, also known as lymphocyst, is a cystic structure caused by lymphatic injury usually secondary to pelvic lymphadenectomy and renal transplantation. Lymphoceles can cause morbidity and rarely mortality by compression of adjacent structures and infectious complications. This review discusses etiology and treatment options for pelvic lymphoceles including surgical and percutaneous methods with emphasis on percutaneous techniques particularly in conjunction with sclerotherapy. Percutaneous catheter drainage with sclerotherapy procedure with various sclerosing agents is described in detail. Ethanol, povidone-iodine, tetracycline, doxycycline, bleomycin, talc and fibrin glue can be used as sclerosing agents. Combination of sclerosing agents to percutaneous catheter drainage significantly improves success rate in the treatment of pelvic lymphoceles. Infected lymphoceles are usually treated solely with percutaneous catheter drainage. Percutaneous treatment can be tailored according to volume of lymphoceles. We generally prefer single session sclerotherapy and 1 day catheter drainage in lymphoceles less than 150 mL, and larger ones are treated by multi-session sclerotherapy until daily drainage decreases below 10 mL. Percutaneous treatment preferably with sclerotherapy should be considered as the first-line treatment modality for pelvic lymphoceles due to its effectiveness, widespread applicability on an outpatient basis, ease of procedure and low complication rate.

  18. Pelvic ultrasonography of obstetric and gynecologic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrasonography is a very useful diagnostic procedure in obstetric and gynecologic mass. So we analyzed total 153 cases of pelvic ultrasonogram with pathologic diagnoses. The results were as follows: 1. The ages of patients were distributed from 16 to 70 years-old, and the third decade was the most prevalent. 2. Of 153 cases, the ovarian masses were 85 cases, the tubal ones were 49 cases, and the uterine were 19 cases. 3. Of 85 ovarian masses, physiologic ovarian cysts were 44 cases, and cystic teratoma were 14 cases, Of 49 tubal masses, tubal pregnancies were 35 cases and the most prevalent. Of 19 uterine masses, leiomyomas were 11 cases and most prevalent. 4. Of 153 cases, the echo-complex masses were 103 cases, the cystic ones were 34 cases, and the solid ones were 19 cases. 5. The characteristic findings of frequent masses were as follows: (1) The physiologic ovarian cysts were 44 cases, and show mainly cystic or pure cystic masses in 42 cases. (2) The ectopic pregnancy were 36 cases, and show echo-complex masses in 21 cases, and cul-de-sac fluid echo in 22 cases. (3) The cystic teratomas were 14 cases, and reveal mainly cystic or pure cystic masses in 10 cases, and calcification with posterior acoustic shadowing in 6 cases. (4) The uterine leiomyma were 11 cases, and reveal solid mass with abnormal uterine contour in 8 cases. (5) The malignant or borderline malignant lesions were 6 cases. (6) Of 153 cases, the pathologic diagnosis was possible in 98 cases (64.1%).

  19. Pelvic ultrasonography of obstetric and gynecologic mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Ock Lyeoun; Yoo, Seon Young [Incheoun Christian Hospital, Incheoun (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-08-15

    The ultrasonography is a very useful diagnostic procedure in obstetric and gynecologic mass. So we analyzed total 153 cases of pelvic ultrasonogram with pathologic diagnoses. The results were as follows: 1. The ages of patients were distributed from 16 to 70 years-old, and the third decade was the most prevalent. 2. Of 153 cases, the ovarian masses were 85 cases, the tubal ones were 49 cases, and the uterine were 19 cases. 3. Of 85 ovarian masses, physiologic ovarian cysts were 44 cases, and cystic teratoma were 14 cases, Of 49 tubal masses, tubal pregnancies were 35 cases and the most prevalent. Of 19 uterine masses, leiomyomas were 11 cases and most prevalent. 4. Of 153 cases, the echo-complex masses were 103 cases, the cystic ones were 34 cases, and the solid ones were 19 cases. 5. The characteristic findings of frequent masses were as follows: (1) The physiologic ovarian cysts were 44 cases, and show mainly cystic or pure cystic masses in 42 cases. (2) The ectopic pregnancy were 36 cases, and show echo-complex masses in 21 cases, and cul-de-sac fluid echo in 22 cases. (3) The cystic teratomas were 14 cases, and reveal mainly cystic or pure cystic masses in 10 cases, and calcification with posterior acoustic shadowing in 6 cases. (4) The uterine leiomyma were 11 cases, and reveal solid mass with abnormal uterine contour in 8 cases. (5) The malignant or borderline malignant lesions were 6 cases. (6) Of 153 cases, the pathologic diagnosis was possible in 98 cases (64.1%)

  20. Viscosity overshoot in the start-up of uniaxial elongation of low density polyethylene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Bach, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The transient uniaxial elongational viscosity of BASF Lupolen 1840D and 3020D melts has been measured on a filament stretch rheometer up to Hencky strains of 6-7. The elongational viscosity of both melts was measured at 130 degrees C within a broad range of elongational rates. At high elongation...

  1. Elongation Factor 1β' Gene from Spodoptera exigua: Characterization and Function Identification through RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Zhao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elongation factor (EF is a key regulation factor for translation in many organisms, including plants, bacteria, fungi, animals and insects. To investigate the nature and function of elongation factor 1β' from Spodoptera exigua (SeEF-1β', its cDNA was cloned. This contained an open reading frame of 672 nucleotides encoding a protein of 223 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.04 kDa and pI of 4.53. Northern blotting revealed that SeEF-1β' mRNA is expressed in brain, epidermis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, ovary and tracheae. RT-PCR revealed that SeEF-1β' mRNA is expressed at different levels in fat body and whole body during different developmental stages. In RNAi experiments, the survival rate of insects injected with SeEF-1β' dsRNA was 58.7% at 36 h after injection, which was significantly lower than three control groups. Other elongation factors and transcription factors were also influenced when EF-1β' was suppressed. The results demonstrate that SeEF-1β' is a key gene in transcription in S. exigua.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Abdominal and Pelvic Pain in the Pregnant Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, Akshay D; Nicola, Refky; Bennett, Genevieve L; Bordia, Ritu; Moshiri, Mariam; Katz, Douglas S; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-05-01

    The utility of MR imaging in evaluating abdominal and pelvic pain in the pregnant patient is discussed. Details regarding the indications, technical aspects, and imaging findings of various common abdominal and pelvic abnormalities in pregnancy are reviewed. PMID:27150326

  3. High toughness alumina ceramics with elongated grains developed from seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Zhipeng; (谢志鹏); GAO; Lichun; (高立春); LI; Wenchao; (李文超); XU; Lihua; (徐利华); WANG; Xidong; (王习东)

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, the influence of α-Al2O3 seeds and sintering methods on elongated grain growth and fracture toughness is investigated. The preparation of alumina ceramics started with commercial aluminum hydroxide. Abrasives were introduced to the starting materials by wet-grinding of high-purity alumina milling balls. Abrasives, playing the role of seeds, lowered the transformation temperature of aluminum hydroxide to alumina. Microstructures with elongated grains were developed by hot-pressing for the above calcined powders containing α-Al2O3 seeds, and alumina grain shapes changed with the amount of seeds introduced. However, only equiaxed grains were observed for the samples pressureless sintered. Fracture toughness of the alumina ceramics was dramatically improved by elongated grains. For the sample hot-pressed at 1600℃ for 2 h under 40 MPa pressure, fracture toughness reached 7.1 MPa·m1/2, which is much higher than that of normal alumina ceramics without elongated grains. In addition, high flexural strength of 630 MPa for the hot-pressed samples was also obtained.

  4. Twin loops for vertical control of highly elongated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma shape in the proposed ITER tokamak will be highly elongated, necessitating stabilization of the vertical instability. A method of passive stabilization using twin loops has been examined as part of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities. Results are given in this report. Comparison with the saddle loop concept details the advantages of the twin loops. 5 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids(VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones

  6. Visualization of elongation measurements using an SER universal testing platform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr; Zelenková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-8. ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/2342 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : elongational viscosity * Universal Testing Platform (SER) * polymer melts * LDPE Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2014

  7. Longitudinal domain wall formation in elongated assemblies of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varón, Miriam; Beleggia, Marco; Jordanovic, Jelena;

    2015-01-01

    Through evaporation of dense colloids of ferromagnetic ~13 nm ε-Co particles onto carbon substrates, anisotropic magnetic dipolar interactions can support formation of elongated particle structures with aggregate thicknesses of 100-400 nm and lengths of up to some hundred microns. Lorenz microsco...

  8. Auxin, H/sup +/-excretion and cell elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, R.E.; Rayle, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    By the use of Avena coleoptiles, the biochemical reactions of auxin-induced plant cell elongation are studied. A biological model of H/sup +/ as a cell wall loosening factor is presented for auxin-induced plant growth in the acid-growth theory. (DS)

  9. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B;

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  10. On the measurement of elongational viscosity of polyethylene materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švrčinová, Petra; Kharlamov, Alexander; Filip, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2009), s. 49-57. ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Elongational viscosity * SER Universal * Testing Platform * LDPE Escorene Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. Bilateral elongated styloid process: Its anatomical, embryological and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagoji Ishwar B, Hadimani Gavishiddappa A, Patil Balasaheb G, Bannur Balappa M,Ambadasu B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The styloid process is a slender, elongated, cylindrical bony projection from temporal bone. It normally varies in length from 2 cm to 3 cm. During a routine demonstration of skull for MBBS students we found the bilateral elongated styloid process in dry human skull. The length of elongation measured on the right and left side was 6.0 & 5.9 cms respectively. Such abnormal elongation of the styloid process may cause compression on a number of vital vessels and nerves related to it, producing inflammatory changes that include continuous chronic pain in the pharyngeal region. Mechanical stresses stretching the second brachial arch during fetal development probably induce variable involvement of Reichert’s cartilage in morphogenesis of the styloid process. It is important that clinicians especially dentists and otolaryngologists are aware of the natural variations of the styloid process and do not consider the styloid process with a length of 30 mm as an abnormality or as an anomaly.

  12. Ultrasound-guided drainage of deep pelvic abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Torben; Nolsøe, Christian; Skjoldbye, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate the ultrasound-guided drainage of deep pelvic abscesses in which transabdominal percutaneous access could not be performed because of overlying structures. A retrospective analysis of 32 consecutive patients with 33 deep pelvic abscesses was......: perirectal (n=13), presacral (n=9), pouch of Douglas (n=7), internal genitals (n=2) and between the bowel loops (n=2). The abscesses were all drained using ultrasound (US) guidance with a transrectal (n=18), transvaginal (n=11), transperineal ( n=2) or transgluteal (n=2) approach. Of the larger abscesses...... the subsequent in-dwelling catheter period, there were no serious complications related to the drainage procedures. We conclude that ultrasound-guided transrectal, transvaginal, transperineal and transgluteal drainage of deep pelvic abscesses are safe and effective treatment approaches. Based on our...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in deep pelvic endometriosis: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Coutinho, Elisa Pompeu Dias; Lima, Claudio Marcio Amaral de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Erica Barreiros; Aidar, Marisa Nassar [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); E-mail: cmaol@br.inter.net; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2008-03-15

    Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of normal endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. In patients with deep pelvic endometriosis, uterosacral ligaments, rectum, rectovaginal septum, vagina or bladder may be involved. Clinical manifestations may be variable, including pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, urinary symptoms and infertility. Complete surgical excision is the gold standard for treating this disease, and hence the importance of the preoperative work-up that usually is limited to an evaluation of sonographic and clinical data. Magnetic resonance imaging is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of endometriosis, considering its high accuracy in the identification of lesions intermingled with adhesions, and in the determination of peritoneal lesions extent. The present pictorial review describes the main magnetic resonance imaging findings in deep pelvic endometriosis. (author)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in deep pelvic endometriosis: iconographic essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of normal endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. In patients with deep pelvic endometriosis, uterosacral ligaments, rectum, rectovaginal septum, vagina or bladder may be involved. Clinical manifestations may be variable, including pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, urinary symptoms and infertility. Complete surgical excision is the gold standard for treating this disease, and hence the importance of the preoperative work-up that usually is limited to an evaluation of sonographic and clinical data. Magnetic resonance imaging is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of endometriosis, considering its high accuracy in the identification of lesions intermingled with adhesions, and in the determination of peritoneal lesions extent. The present pictorial review describes the main magnetic resonance imaging findings in deep pelvic endometriosis. (author)

  15. Unstable pelvic insufficiency fracture in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yuichi; Doita, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Masaho; Hirayama, Kenichi; Sha, Norihide; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of pelvic insufficiency fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis has not previously been well emphasized. These fractures are difficult to detect clinically, and appropriate radiological investigation is necessary for diagnosis. A 72-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis presented with severe left groin pain. Pelvic radiographs showed parasymphyseal fractures, and marked instability of these fractures was observed at the follow-up 2 weeks later. Computed tomographic scan of the sacrum showed a widened linear fracture gap in the left sacral ala. Because the patient's pain was so severe that she could not change position, external fixation was performed to achieve rapid pain relief and early mobilization. Although most patients with these fractures respond well to simple conservative treatments, parasymphyseal fractures combined with sacral fractures may cause disruption of the pelvic ring and occasionally need operative management. PMID:12748811

  16. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA-IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75-80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs, unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People′s Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI, depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00 was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00, the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04 and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03 had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00, depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00 and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03 were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  17. Extraperitoneally Ruptured, Everted, and Prolapsed Bladder: A Very Rare Complication of Pelvic Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rufus Wale Ojewola; Kehinde Habeeb Tijani; Olakunle Olaleke Badmus; Abisola Ekundayo Oliyide; Chukwudi Emmanuel Osegbe

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of the bladder with eversion and protrusion via the perineum is a rare complication of pelvic injury. We present a 36-year-old lady who sustained severe pelvic injury with a bleeding right-sided deep perineal laceration. She had closed reduction of pelvic fracture with pelvic banding and primary closure of perineal laceration at a private hospital. She subsequently had dehiscence of repaired perineal laceration with protrusion of fleshy mass from vulva and leakage of urine p...

  18. Training in exercises for pelvic floor muscles of patients with an urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Glybochko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Training of muscles of a pelvic bottom under control of biofeedback is applied at 87 patients with an urinary incontinence after a radical prostatectomy. Biofeedback increases management and control of a pelvic floor. At good ability of management of muscles of a pelvic floor the median of restoration was 4 months. Without opportunity of management of muscles of pelvic floor restoration was 9.4 months.

  19. Research progress of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in pelvic organ prolapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common disease in older women. As the most promising assisted inspection technique, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can simultaneously evaluate the shape, movement and function of pelvic floor. It can make accurately preoperative assessment of the location, type, and degree of pelvic floor defects, therefore provide more valuable information for clinical diagnosis and treatment. This essay reviews the clinical application and research progress of dynamic MRI imaging in pelvic organ prolapse. (authors)

  20. The value of hyoscine butylbromide in pelvic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom); Taylor, M.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ben.taylor@christie-tr.nwest.nhs.uk; Carrington, B.M.; Bonington, S.C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom); Swindell, R. [Department of Medical Statistics, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on image quality and lesion and organ visualization in pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Materials and methods: A prospective, ethically approved study was undertaken of 47 patients attending for pelvic MRI at a cancer centre. T2-weighted transverse and sagittal sequences were performed before and after intravenous injection of 20 mg HBB. Three radiologists independently scored anonymized image series for overall image quality, visualization of pelvic lesions and visualization of individual pelvic organs. Statistical analysis was performed to assess improvements in radiologists' scores post-HBB administration. Radiologists also assessed pre-HBB administration T1-weighted images for degree of bowel peristalsis to determine whether this could predict improvement in post-HBB T2-weighted image scores. Side effects of HBB were recorded using a patient questionnaire. Results: Radiologists' scores for image quality and lesion visualization were significantly higher on the post-HBB administration T2-weighted series (p < 0.0005). Scores for the visualization of the bladder, rectum, pelvic bowel, prostate, and seminal vesicles (all p < 0.0005), cervix (p = 0.019) and vagina (p = 0.0001) were also significantly higher post-HBB administration. Scores for the degree of peristalsis on T1-weighted images were not related to improvement in image quality or lesion visualization on T2-weighted images post-HBB administration. Side effects of HBB were mild and self-limiting. Conclusion: Intravenous HBB administration improves image quality and lesion visualization in oncological pelvic MRI and is recommended for routine use.

  1. Evaluation of pelvic ring injuries using SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheyerer, Max J. [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Trauma Surgery, Department of Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); University Medical Center, Centre for Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Huellner, Martin; Pietsch, Carsten [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Werner, Clement M.L. [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Trauma Surgery, Department of Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Veit-Haibach, Patrick [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-08-12

    The incidence of pelvic fractures is relatively low compared with other fracture locations. The low incidence is in great contrast to the high morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the elderly, with apparently isolated fractures of the pubic rami, these observations are believed to be due to additional occult lesions of the posterior pelvic ring. In these cases diagnosis cannot be established by conventional imaging alone and SPECT/CT is considered as a diagnostic adjunct. The aim of this study was to assess concomitant bony or soft tissue lesions within the pelvic ring in a population of patients with fractures of the anterior elements. In all patients with no obvious lesions of the posterior pelvic ring on X-rays and CT or with suspicious but inconclusive findings on CT an additional SPECT/CT was carried out in a non-acute setting within 3 days of the trauma. In all cases additional lesions within the pelvic ring were found. Most lesions were vertical sacral fractures, followed by transverse fractures, one non-dislocated fracture of the acetabulum on the side of the pubic rami fracture, and one post-traumatic dilatation of the sacroiliac joint with increased tracer uptake. According to our results after SPECT/CT all patients with pubic rami fracture suffered additional lesions, none detectable previously by X-ray or CT, within the pelvic ring. In this context SPECT/CT has proved to be very helpful in the clinical routine to visualize occult fractures and instability within the sacroiliac joint. (orig.)

  2. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Pelvic Examination and Holistic Treatment of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical holistic practice, it is recommended that ample time is spent with the gynecological or pelvic examination, especially in cases of women with suspected old emotional traumas following early childhood cases of incest or sexual abuse. The holistic principles of holding and processing should be followed with the purpose of healing the patient, re-establishing the natural relationship with the body, sexuality, and reproductive organs. Sexual violations are often forcibly repressed. It appears that the tissues that were touched during the violation often bear the trauma. It is characteristic of these patients that their love lives are often problematic and do not provide the necessary support to heal the old wounds in the soul and therapy is therefore indicated. When this is concerned with the reproductive organs, it poses particular difficulties, as the therapy can easily be experienced as a repetition of the original violation, not least due to the risk of projection and transference. There is, therefore, a need for a procedure that is familiar to and safe for the patient, for all work that involves therapeutic touching of sexual organs over and beyond what is standard medical practice. This paper presents one case story of earlier child sexual abuse and one case of temporary infertility. We have established a procedure of slow or extended pelvic examination, where time is spent to make the patient familiar with the examination and accept the whole procedure, before the treatment is initiated. The procedure is carried out with a nurse, and 3 h are set aside. It includes conversation on the present condition and symptoms; concept of boundaries; about how earlier assaults can be projected into the present; establishment of the therapeutic room as a safe place; exercises on when to say “stop”; therapeutic touch; visualization of the pelvic examination step by step beforehand; touching on the outside of the clothes with repetition of the

  3. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Rattner, Jerome B. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Hoorn, Frans A. van der, E-mail: fvdhoorn@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  4. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  5. Pelvic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor mimicking a rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Roque-Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 50-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with large bowel obstruction and anemia. The initial imaging study suggested an inoperable rectal tumor with involvement of surrounding structures. In this paper, we discuss the diagnostic work-up of this patient with a diagnosis of pelvic/perirectal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT. IMT is a rare tumor with intermediate malignant potential that frequently mimics clinical and imaging features of malignancy. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a pelvic IMT that regressed without surgical excision.

  6. Giant Ectopic Ureter Mimicking Pelvic Organ Prolapse: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Simsir; Fuat Kizilay; Bilbasar Yildiz; Oktay Nazli

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic ureter is one of the most common urinary tract anomalies. We, herein, present a case of a giant ureter with ectopic orifice, mimicking pelvic organ prolapse, which is the first in the literature. A 59-year-old female patient presenting with frequently recurrent urinary tract infection had grade 3 pelvic organ prolapse. On examination, the organ producing the appearance of prolapse was found to be a right ureter of giant size and was obstructed by a large stone at the distal segment. T...

  7. Pregnancy Related Low Back and Pelvic Pain: a surgical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zwienen, C.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMore than half of all pregnant women experience low back and/or pelvic pain of whom one-third has severe complaints. In most cases the pelvic pain disap­pears within a few months after delivery, either spontaneously or after con­servative treatment. In a minority of patients the pain persists even after a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program and may cause severe disability. Some patients may even be wheelchair bound or bedridden. After failure of all con­servative treatment, s...

  8. Giant Pelvic Retroperitoneal Epidermoid Cyst: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Z. Fdili Alaoui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cyst is a frequent benign cutaneous tumor. The pelvic localization does not occur very often. The literature that taps into such cases is very limited in scope. Here is a report of a 27-year-old woman with a giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst. The use of ultrasound exploration and computed tomography has indicated ovarian origins. The surgery also revealed a retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst, uterus and ovaries were all intact. The evacuation of a cyst was found to contain lamellas of keratin. Histology permitted us to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was faring well after two years of followup.

  9. Giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdili Alaoui, F Z; Oussaden, A; Bouguern, H; El Fatemi, H; Melhouf, M A; Amarti, A; Ait Taleb, K

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst is a frequent benign cutaneous tumor. The pelvic localization does not occur very often. The literature that taps into such cases is very limited in scope. Here is a report of a 27-year-old woman with a giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst. The use of ultrasound exploration and computed tomography has indicated ovarian origins. The surgery also revealed a retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst, uterus and ovaries were all intact. The evacuation of a cyst was found to contain lamellas of keratin. Histology permitted us to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was faring well after two years of followup. PMID:23150734

  10. Two Pelvic Digits on Same Side: Double Trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Kavin; Goyal, Darsh; Paul, Rajesh; Sandhu, H S

    2015-06-01

    Pelvic digit is a rare congenital anomaly of pelvis usually discovered incidentally on plain radiography. It usually develops in the soft tissue adjacent to the normal skeletal tissue. Its importance lays in its differentiation from heterotopic ossification, osteochondroma, Fong's disease and traumatic avulsion injuries of pelvis to avoid any unnecessary investigations and interventions. Here, we report a 32-year-old male presenting with complain of pain in right hip, was subjected to radiographic examination and two pelvic digits were noticed arising from the iliac bone in addition to features of osteoarthritis of hip joint. The symptomatology was attributed to osteoarthritis of hip after thorough physical examination and imaging investigations. PMID:26266172

  11. Isolated type I pelvic cystic echinococcosis mimicking ovarian tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Vural

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Cystic echinococcosis is an endemic infestation with unique clinical and laboratory manifestations. Isolated pelvic type 1 cystic echinococcosis is a rare form of the disease with diagnostic pitfalls mainly based on non-diagnostic imaging findings. Case Report : We present an isolated pelvic cystic echinococcosis resembling ovarian tumor which was diagnosed during operation. Conclusions : Characteristic findings of hydatid disease lacks in type 1 and cause diagnostic difficulties. This rare entity should be considered for differential diagnosis due to varied examination findings especially in type 1 cystic echinococcosis.

  12. A standard for terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doggweiler, Regula; Whitmore, Kristene E; Meijlink, Jane M;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Terms used in the field of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are poorly defined and often confusing. An International Continence Society (ICS) Standard for Terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS) has been developed with the aim of improving diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by...... domain from 1980 to 2014. Existing ICS Standards for terminology were utilized where appropriate to ensure transparency, accessibility, flexibility, and evolution. Consensus was based on majority agreement. RESULTS: The multidisciplinary CPPS Standard reports updated consensus terminology in nine domains...

  13. A prospective study of urinary tract infection during pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of urinary tract infection before and during pelvic radiotherapy was studied prospectively in 172 patients who were not catherised and had not had instrumentation for at least 4 weeks prior to radiotherapy. The incidence of urinary tract infection prior to radiotherapy was 17% and a further 17% of patients develped a urinary tract infection during radiotherapy. Mid-stream specimens of urine (MSU) should be examined for infection on a weekly basis during pelvic radiotherapy not only to identify this additional 17% of patients but also to detect those patients who have persistent urinary tract infection in spite of treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  14. Ontogenetic scaling patterns and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb musculature in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Lamas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae are exclusively terrestrial, bipedal and cursorial ratites with some similar biomechanical characteristics to humans. Their growth rates are impressive, as their body mass increases eighty-fold from hatching to adulthood whilst maintaining the same mode of locomotion throughout life. These ontogenetic characteristics stimulate biomechanical questions about the strategies that allow emus to cope with their rapid growth and locomotion, which can be partly addressed via scaling (allometric analysis of morphology. In this study we have collected pelvic limb anatomical data (muscle architecture, tendon length, tendon mass and bone lengths and calculated muscle physiological cross sectional area (PCSA and average tendon cross sectional area from emus across three ontogenetic stages (n = 17, body masses from 3.6 to 42 kg. The data were analysed by reduced major axis regression to determine how these biomechanically relevant aspects of morphology scaled with body mass. Muscle mass and PCSA showed a marked trend towards positive allometry (26 and 27 out of 34 muscles respectively and fascicle length showed a more mixed scaling pattern. The long tendons of the main digital flexors scaled with positive allometry for all characteristics whilst other tendons demonstrated a less clear scaling pattern. Finally, the two longer bones of the limb (tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus also exhibited positive allometry for length, and two others (femur and first phalanx of digit III had trends towards isometry. These results indicate that emus experience a relative increase in their muscle force-generating capacities, as well as potentially increasing the force-sustaining capacities of their tendons, as they grow. Furthermore, we have clarified anatomical descriptions and provided illustrations of the pelvic limb muscle–tendon units in emus.

  15. Pelvic insufficiency fractures in postmenopausal woman with advanced cervical cancer treated by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the predisposing factors and clinical characteristics of pelvic insufficiency fractures (PIF) in postmenopausal women with pelvic irradiation. Material and methods: A total 335 postmenopausal patients with cervical cancer of the intact uterus treated with radiation therapy between 1983 and 1998 were reviewed. Total external dose was delivered between 45 and 50.4 Gy with parallel opposed anteroposterior portals. Total brachytherapy dose at point A was delivered between 10 and 36 Gy. PIF were diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and confirmed by computed tomography. The cumulative incidence of symptomatic PIF was estimated by actuarial methods. Potential risk factors (age, weight, type II diabetes, delivery, menopause, total external dose, total brachytherapy dose) were assessed. Results: Fifty-seven (17.0%) of 335 patients were diagnosed as having PIF. Forty-seven patients were symptomatic and ten were asymptomatic. Parameters carrying a significant association with PIF were body weight 49 kg or below (P=0.044) in stepwise logistic regression analysis. The cumulative incidence of symptomatic PIF at 5 years was 17.9% calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. A body weight of 49 kg or below and more than three deliveries were identified as having a significant effect on symptomatic PIF in univariate analysis (P=0.021, P=0.003, log-rank test) and Cox life table regression analysis (P=0.038, P=0.013). Five patients required narcotic agents and eight patients required hospital admission. Conclusions: We should consider reducing the dose contribution to the sacrum and sacroilac joints, without underdosing the tumor, especially in postmenopausal women with many deliveries or low body weight

  16. Pelvic Floor Function and Dysfunction in a General Female Population in a General Female Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.P. Slieker-ten Hove (Marijke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe pelvic floor is a complex of connective tissue, ligaments, fascia and muscle fibres that form a hammock at the bottom of the abdomino-pelvic cavity [1-2]. In women, the function of the pelvic floor is to stabilize the bladder, urethra, bowel and uterus within the pelvis, which is of

  17. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we demonstr......We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. We see this as an example of the stability of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori. These observations of an atmosphere around a moving body with no circulation around it appear to be new. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics...

  18. An Extremely Rare and Unusual Case of Retroperitoneal and Pelvic Metastasis from Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Vallecula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Purkayastha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare and unusual case of retroperitoneal and pelvic metastasis from primary squamous cell carcinoma of vallecula. Generally carcinoma oropharynx metastasizes to lungs, liver and bone while retroperitoneal and pelvic metastasis is rarely heard of. To the best of our knowledge this case is one of the scantly reported cases ever of this kind in the world.  A 60-year-old male presented with dysphagia and hoarseness of voice of four month duration.  Computed tomography (CT scan face and neck showed growth right vallecula. Biopsy of lesion showed squamous cell carcinoma. Metastatic work up was negative. He received definitive chemo-radiation. Patient during follow up presented with dyspepsia, abdominal discomfort and weight loss. Whole body positron emission tomography (WB PET scan revealed retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph node deposits which were confirmed as metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma by CT guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Patient was exhibited palliative chemotherapy but his general condition deteriorated and he finally succumbed to his metastatic illness. This case is being reported to highlight its extreme rarity, the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges it presented and its overall dismal prognosis.

  19. The modified Thomas test is not a valid measure of hip extension unless pelvic tilt is controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Lehman, Gregory J; Beardsley, Chris; Contreras, Bret; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H

    2016-01-01

    The modified Thomas test was developed to assess the presence of hip flexion contracture and to measure hip extensibility. Despite its widespread use, to the authors' knowledge, its criterion reference validity has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion reference validity of the modified Thomas test for measuring peak hip extension angle and hip extension deficits, as defined by the hip not being able to extend to 0º, or neutral. Twenty-nine healthy college students (age = 22.00 ± 3.80 years; height = 1.71 ± 0.09 m; body mass = 70.00 ± 15.60 kg) were recruited for this study. Bland-Altman plots revealed poor validity for the modified Thomas test's ability to measure hip extension, which could not be explained by differences in hip flexion ability alone. The modified Thomas test displayed a sensitivity of 31.82% (95% CI [13.86-54.87]) and a specificity of 57.14% (95% CI [18.41-90.10]) for testing hip extension deficits. It appears, however, that by controlling pelvic tilt, much of this variance can be accounted for (r = 0.98). When pelvic tilt is not controlled, the modified Thomas test displays poor criterion reference validity and, as per previous studies, poor reliability. However, when pelvic tilt is controlled, the modified Thomas test appears to be a valid test for evaluating peak hip extension angle. PMID:27602291

  20. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Sunao, E-mail: tokumaru@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); and others

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  1. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  2. Binary asteroid population. 3. Secondary rotations and elongations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravec, P.; Scheirich, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Galád, A.; Naidu, S. P.; Pray, D. P.; Világi, J.; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Cooney, W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Gaftonyuk, N.; Pollock, J.; Husárik, M.; Chiorny, V.; Stephens, R. D.; Durkee, R.; Reddy, V.; Dyvig, R.; Vraštil, J.; Žižka, J.; Mottola, S.; Hellmich, S.; Oey, J.; Benishek, V.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Higgins, D.; Ries, J.; Marchis, F.; Baek, M.; Macomber, B.; Inasaridze, R.; Kvaratskhelia, O.; Ayvazian, V.; Rumyantsev, V.; Masi, G.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Montaigut, R.; Leroy, A.; Brown, P.; Krzeminski, Z.; Molotov, I.; Reichart, D.; Haislip, J.; LaCluyze, A.

    2016-03-01

    We collected data on rotations and elongations of 46 secondaries of binary and triple systems among near-Earth, Mars-crossing and small main belt asteroids. 24 were found or are strongly suspected to be synchronous (in 1:1 spin-orbit resonance), and the other 22, generally on more distant and/or eccentric orbits, were found or are suggested to have asynchronous rotations. For 18 of the synchronous secondaries, we constrained their librational angles, finding that their long axes pointed to within 20° of the primary on most epochs. The observed anti-correlation of secondary synchroneity with orbital eccentricity and the limited librational angles agree with the theories by Ćuk and Nesvorný (Ćuk, M., Nesvorný, D. [2010]. Icarus 207, 732-743) and Naidu and Margot (Naidu, S.P., Margot, J.-L. [2015]. Astron. J. 149, 80). A reason for the asynchronous secondaries being on wider orbits than synchronous ones may be longer tidal circularization time scales at larger semi-major axes. The asynchronous secondaries show relatively fast spins; their rotation periods are typically synchronous secondaries with greater elongations appears consistent, considering uncertainties of the axis ratio estimates, with the theory by Ćuk and Nesvorný that predicts large regions of chaotic rotation in the phase space for a2 /b2 ≳√{ 2 } . Alternatively, secondaries may not form or stay very elongated in gravitational (tidal) field of the primary. It could be due to the secondary fission mechanism suggested by Jacobson and Scheeres (Jacobson, S.A., Scheeres, D.J. [2011]. Icarus 214, 161-178), as its efficiency is correlated with the secondary elongation. Sharma (Sharma, I. [2014]. Icarus 229, 278-294) found that rubble-pile satellites with a2 /b2 ≲ 1.5 are more stable to finite structural perturbations than more elongated ones. It appears that more elongated secondaries, if they originally formed in spin fission of parent asteroid, are less likely to survive intact and they more

  3. Node-positive cervical cancer: impact of pelvic irradiation and patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The roles of postoperative pelvic and prophylactic paraaortic irradiation in pelvic node positive cervical cancer are currently controversial. A retrospective study was undertaken to examine the effect of pelvic irradiation on pelvic control and survival and to analyze the patterns of recurrence to determine whether indications exist for prophylactic paraaortic irradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1964 to 1991, 143 cases of FIGO Stage I and II cervical cancer undergoing exploratory laparotomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and radical hysterectomy had positive pelvic lymph nodes. Postoperatively, 108 cases were treated with whole pelvic irradiation while 35 patients were observed. Prophylactic paraaortic irradiation was not given. Results: Patients who received postoperative whole pelvic irradiation compared with those treated with radical hysterectomy alone had a significantly improved pelvic control rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival. The 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate was 78% vs. 45% (p = <0.0001), respectively. The 5-year actuarial DFS was 65% vs. 41% (p = 0.0004). The 5-year actuarial overall survival was 58% vs. 46% (p 0.02). In multivariate analysis, pelvic irradiation continued to show a positive effect on DFS (p = 0.0001) and overall survival (p = 0.0035). Lymphatic invasion and the total number of positive lymph nodes were the only other independent predictors of overall survival and DFS. The actuarial 5-year pelvic, paraaortic, and distant failure rates were 30%, 10%, and 28%, respectively. An isolated first recurrence in the paraaortic nodes occurred in only three cases. Conclusion: Postoperative pelvic irradiation significantly improves pelvic control, DFS, and overall survival, and should be used in patients with early stage cervical cancer and pathologically proven pelvic nodal metastases. The low incidence of isolated paraaortic nodal failure calls into question the value of routine prophylactic paraaortic

  4. Spontaneous occurrence of synergistic bacterial gangrene following external pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of spontaneous synergistic bacterial gangrene occurring after external pelvic irradiation is presented in a 25-year-old woman with invasive cervical cancer. Treatment consisted of aggressive antibiotic therapy and extensive excision and debridement followed by split-thickness skin grafting. Both recovery and cosmetic results were satisfactory. The pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and treatment modalities are presented

  5. Pelvic floor muscle thickness measured by perineal ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Juul, N; Grønvall, S;

    1991-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle thickness was assessed in nine healthy female physiotherapists by perineal sonography. All measurements were performed as triple-measurements. The aims were to assess the reliability of the measurements and to establish a reference material. The muscle thickness at rest and at...

  6. Pelvic floor muscle thickness measured by perineal ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Juul, N; Grønvall, S;

    1991-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle thickness was assessed in nine healthy female physiotherapists by perineal sonography. All measurements were performed as triple-measurements. The aims were to assess the reliability of the measurements and to establish a reference material. The muscle thickness at rest...

  7. Pelvic reconstructive surgery in geriatric urogynaecology: an uphill task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Pipara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Female ageing and ldquo;Geripause and rdquo; is receiving much attention from the health care community due to worldwide increase in proportion of elderly population as a result of improved health services and awareness. Pelvic floor disorder such as urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse disproportionately affect geriatric population and undermines the quality of life. Surgery remains an important and effective therapeutic option for many women with pelvic floor disorders. Operative outcome can be adversely affected in elderly because of physiologic changes associated with aging and the increased number of comorbidities. To present date there is limited information on morbidity and mortality following urogynaecology surgery in geriatric patients. A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients of age more than 60 years old who underwent urogynaecologic surgery in urogynaecology unit from January 2011 to December 2014. Total 551 patients of all age underwent pelvic reconstructive surgery and Out of 121 patients were of age more than 60 years. Overall in our series 66% patients had one or more than one risk factors and 23% of patients had one or more than one perioperative complications. Intraoperative and postoperative complications rate was 4.9% and 18.1% respectively. Elderly women can undergo urogynecologic surgery with an acceptable rate of complications and should not be excluded from interventions that may improve their quality of life. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1678-1681

  8. Chronic pelvic pain: clinical dilemma or clinician's nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaly, A.; Chien, P

    2000-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common problem presenting a major challenge to healthcare professionals. This is partly due to the lack of understanding of the aetiology and natural history of the disease. This condition is best managed using a multidisciplinary approach. In recent years, the emphasis in the clinical management has tended towards psychosocial or psychosexual involvement after organic disease has been excluded.

  9. Efficient radiologic diagnosis of pelvic and acetabular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the widespread availability of CT scanners, conventional X-ray radiographs remain the basic imaging modality in patients with pelvic and/or acetabular trauma. However, the extent of their use will depend on local utilities (e.g., availability of CT scanners) and on the patient's clinical condition. Regarding the inaccuracy of conventional radiography in the diagnosis of injuries of the dorsal pelvic ring and of the acetabulum, computed tomography represents the most important imaging modality in the clinically stable patient. CT provides an exact staging of the extent of trauma and allows for differentiation of pelvic instabilities. CT clearly demonstrates the severity of acetabular trauma and is superior in the detection of local complicating factors, i.e., impressions fractures and (sub-)luxations of the femoral head as well as free intraarticular fragments. CT findings provide the basis for definite treatment regimens of the injured patient. By extension of the examination, all relevant organs and systems (craniospinal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, genitourinary) can be imaged during one session. The speed of spiral CT scanners and their diagnostic accuracy will play a major role in the management of, especially, polytraumatized patients. The indication for angiography with the option of therapeutic embolization exists if a pelvic bleeding persists even after reposition and operative fixation of the injury. (orig.)

  10. Medical Treatments for Endometriosis-Associated Pelvic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Zito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main sequelae of endometriosis are represented by infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain causes disability and distress with a very high economic impact. In the last decades, an impressive amount of pharmacological agents have been tested for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. However, only a few of these have been introduced into clinical practice. Following the results of the controlled studies available, to date, the first-line treatment for endometriosis associated pain is still represented by oral contraceptives used continuously. Progestins represent an acceptable alternative. In women with rectovaginal lesions or colorectal endometriosis, norethisterone acetate at low dosage should be preferred. GnRH analogues may be used as second-line treatment, but significant side effects should be taken into account. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used, but there is inconclusive evidence for their efficacy in relieving endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Other agents such as GnRH antagonist, aromatase inhibitors, immunomodulators, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors seem to be very promising, but there is not enough evidence to support their introduction into routine clinical practice. Some other agents, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-γ ligands, antiangiogenic agents, and melatonin have been proven to be efficacious in animal studies, but they have not yet been tested in clinical studies.

  11. Role of diagnostic laparoscopy in chronic pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Bhatia

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Laparoscopy is a gold standard tool in evaluation of women with chronic pelvic pain, because diagnosis and often treatment can be accomplished in one sitting, without subjecting them to exploratory laparotomy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1152-1157

  12. Transosseous Access for Decompression of an Obstructed Pelvic Kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of an obstructed pelvic kidney which was decompressed using a transosseous access route. The patient presented with obstructive uropathy and fever, necessitating decompression. Initial access was gained to the kidney by traversing the ilium, allowing subsequent retrograde placement of a double-Jureteric catheter

  13. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for this procedure in comparison to a standard operative procedure?” by which I'm assuming, Claudio, you ... a Foley catheter through this for a post-operative drain. See the pelvic nodal areas look pretty ...

  14. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Caijuan; Sardina, Gaetano; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microorganisms that can vary their shape and their preferential orientation.

  15. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YU-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones including ethylene,gibberellin,and brassinolide have been reported to be involved in this process.Here we first identified by proteomic analysis a cotton cytosolic APX1 (GhAPX1) that was specifically accumulated during cotton fiber elongation.GhAPX1 expression was up-regulated in response to cellular H2O2 and ethylene,and it was involved in modulating the stead-state level of H2O2.

  16. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam

  17. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Reyes, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)], E-mail: reyesm@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx; Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Arenas-Alatorre, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garibay-Alonso, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Carroll, D.L. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics. Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem NC 27109 (United States); Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-11-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam.

  18. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Caijuan; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microor...

  19. Efficient fidelity control by stepwise nucleotide selection in polymerase elongation

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Polymerases select nucleotides before incorporating them for chemical synthesis during gene replication or transcription. How the selection proceeds stepwise efficiently to achieve sufficiently high fidelity and speed is essential for polymerase function. We examined step-by-step selections that have conformational transition rates tuned one at time in the polymerase elongation cycle, with a controlled differentiation free energy at each checkpoint. The elongation is sustained at non-equilibrium steady state with constant free energy input and heat dissipation. It is found that error reduction capability does not improve for selection checkpoints down the reaction path. Hence, it is essential to select early to achieve an efficient fidelity control. In particular, for two consecutive selections that reject the wrong substrate back and inhibit it forward from a same kinetic state, the same error rates are obtained at the same free energy differentiation. The initial screening is indispensible for maintaining t...

  20. Influence of lead on auxin-induced cell elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Burzyński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of lead chloride on plant tissue growth is described. Lead reduced elongation of etiolated wheat coleoptile segments, green pea epicotyl fragments and etiolated and green sunflower hypocotyls. Green tissues were more susceptible to lead than etiolated ones. PbCl2 in a 10-4 M concentration significantly reduced plastic and elastic extensibility of the wheat coleoptile cell walls and diminished the hydration of sunflower hypocotyl segments. Auxin (indolyl-3-acetic acid - IAA applied in concentration optimal for growth of the particular tissues partly attenuated the inhibitory action of lead on elongation, plastic and elastic extensibility and water absorption. Auxin applied in supraoptimal concentrations did not abolish the inhibitory action of lead on tissue growth.

  1. New Insights on Plant Cell Elongation: A Role for Acetylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian-Pietro Di Sansebastiano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response.

  2. New insights on plant cell elongation: a role for acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Fornaciari, Silvia; Barozzi, Fabrizio; Piro, Gabriella; Arru, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response. PMID:24642879

  3. Quantifying elongation rhythm during full-length protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gabriel; Chen, Chunlai; Kaur, Jaskiran; Cui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Haibo; Asahara, Haruichi; Chong, Shaorong; Smilansky, Zeev; Goldman, Yale E; Cooperman, Barry S

    2013-07-31

    Pauses regulate the rhythm of ribosomal protein synthesis. Mutations disrupting even minor pauses can give rise to improperly formed proteins and human disease. Such minor pauses are difficult to characterize by ensemble methods, but can be readily examined by single-molecule (sm) approaches. Here we use smFRET to carry out real-time monitoring of the expression of a full-length protein, the green fluorescent protein variant Emerald GFP. We demonstrate significant correlations between measured elongation rates and codon and isoacceptor tRNA usage, and provide a quantitative estimate of the effect on elongation rate of replacing a codon recognizing an abundant tRNA with a synonymous codon cognate to a rarer tRNA. Our results suggest that tRNA selection plays an important general role in modulating the rates and rhythms of protein synthesis, potentially influencing simultaneous co-translational processes such as folding and chemical modification. PMID:23822614

  4. Elongation and current scalings of local and global energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scaling of local and global energy confinement with elongation κ and current in L- and H-mode plasmas is explored. It is shown that the elongation enters global confinement only through the geometrical quantities of plasma volume and surface area, while local transport does not contribute. The global scaling τE∝κ0.8 is caused by W∝nT0V with the volume V∝κ and the surface area leading to T0∝κ-0.2. Empirical scalings of the effective heat diffusivity χ with κ, the current inside a flux surface I(x), Bp and q are presented. Applying I(x) makes χ independent of κ, while a formulation with q yields strong implicit and explicit κ dependences. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  5. MANAGEMENT OF PELVIC FRACTURE URETHRAL DIS TRACTION DEFECT (PFUDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Posterior pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect is a challenging urologic problem that may result in complications such as urinary incontinence and inability to void due to recurrent stricture leading to a lifelong disabling condition. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : T o evaluate the outcome of primary realignment after pelvic fracture urethral injury a nd the outcome of urethroplasty after development of urethral stricture. T o study the outcome of simple trocar spc after pelvic fracture urethral injury and the results of stricture management. T o compare the results of primary realignment versus simple trocar spc after pelvic fracture urethral injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS : 50 patients with pelvic fracture urethral injury who attended emergency department were included in the study. All patients were subjected to RGU , USG and CECT Abdomen with delayed films in selected cases with high probability of rectal , bladder neck injury. In our study subjects undergoing primary catheter realignment are included in group A. and those undergoing simple emerge ncy SPC are included in group B. Both were followed up for the development of complications and managed accordingly. RESULTS : Out of 50 patients with pelvic fracture 26 (52% were in in 20 - 30 years age group. Trocar SPC was done in 40 patients (80% and ma naged conservatively. They are grouped as Group B. All of them underwent RGU after three weeks. When there was no demonstrable stricture , suprapubic catheter was clamped and voiding trial given. If the patient was not voiding well , SPC catheter continued f or 3 - 6 months until the healing of orthopedic injuries. If RGU shows stricture , SPC catheter is continued for 3 - 6 months. Patients with total block underwent combined RGU and VCUG ( up and downogram before planning for delayed urethroplasty. The remaining 10 patients (20% were included in Group A who underwent primary catheter realignment simultaneously when laparotomy is

  6. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Caijuan; Sardina, Gaetano; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignmen...

  7. Magnetic properties of ferrofluid emulsions: The effect of droplet elongation

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, A. O.; Kuznetsova, O. B.; Subbotin, I. M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a theoretical explanation of the experimentally observed effect of non-monotonic field dependence of the effective magnetic permeability of ferrofluid emulsion. In a weak magnetic field, the growth of the induced droplet magnetic moment is faster than the linear one due to the droplet elongation accompanied by the reduction of the demagnetizing field. Thus, the emulsion magnetic permeability increases in weak magnetic fields. Further strengthening of the external m...

  8. Simulations of nucleation and elongation of amyloid fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianing; Muthukumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a coarse-grained model for the growth kinetics of amyloid fibrils from solutions of peptides and address the fundamental mechanism of nucleation and elongation by using a lattice Monte Carlo procedure. We reproduce the three main characteristics of nucleation of amyloid fibrils: (1) existence of lag time, (2) occurrence of a critical concentration, and (3) seeding. We find the nucleation of amyloid fibrils to require a quasi-two-dimensional configuration, where a second layer of β ...

  9. Neuroprotective copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato complexes promote neurite elongation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bica

    Full Text Available Abnormal biometal homeostasis is a central feature of many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD, and motor neuron disease. Recent studies have shown that metal complexing compounds behaving as ionophores such as clioquinol and PBT2 have robust therapeutic activity in animal models of neurodegenerative disease; however, the mechanism of neuroprotective action remains unclear. These neuroprotective or neurogenerative processes may be related to the delivery or redistribution of biometals, such as copper and zinc, by metal ionophores. To investigate this further, we examined the effect of the bis(thiosemicarbazonato-copper complex, Cu(II(gtsm on neuritogenesis and neurite elongation (neurogenerative outcomes in PC12 neuronal-related cultures. We found that Cu(II(gtsm induced robust neurite elongation in PC12 cells when delivered at concentrations of 25 or 50 nM overnight. Analogous effects were observed with an alternative copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato complex, Cu(II(atsm, but at a higher concentration. Induction of neurite elongation by Cu(II(gtsm was restricted to neurites within the length range of 75-99 µm with a 2.3-fold increase in numbers of neurites in this length range with 50 nM Cu(II(gtsm treatment. The mechanism of neurogenerative action was investigated and revealed that Cu(II(gtsm inhibited cellular phosphatase activity. Treatment of cultures with 5 nM FK506 (calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor resulted in analogous elongation of neurites compared to 50 nM Cu(II(gtsm, suggesting a potential link between Cu(II(gtsm-mediated phosphatase inhibition and neurogenerative outcomes.

  10. A Note on Elongations of Summable QTAG-Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Alveera; Naji, Sabah A. R. K.

    2013-01-01

    A right module M over an associative ring with unity is a QTAG-module if every finitely generated submodule of any homomorphic image of M is a direct sum of uniserial modules. In this paper we find a suitable condition under which a special ω-elongation of a summable QTAG-module by a (ω+k)-projective QTAG-module is also a summable QTAG-module. PMID:24459429

  11. Connectedness percolation of elongated hard particles in an external field

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, R. H. J.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    A theory is presented of how orienting fields and steric interactions conspire against the formation of a percolating network of, in some sense, connected elongated colloidal particles in fluid dispersions. We find that the network that forms above a critical loading breaks up again at higher loadings due to interaction-induced enhancement of the particle alignment. Upon approach of the percolation threshold, the cluster dimensions diverge with the same critical exponent parallel and perpendi...

  12. Elongation of discotic liquid crystal strands and lubricant effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Surjya Sarathi; Galerne, Yves

    2013-01-01

    International audience After a short review on the physics of pulled threads and their mechanical properties, the paper reports and discusses on the strand elongation of disordered columnar phases, hexagonal or lamello-columnar, of small molecules or polymers. The mechanical properties appear to be relevant to the length of the columns of molecules compared to the thread length, instead of the usual correlation length. When short, the column entanglement being taken into account, the stran...

  13. IAA-glucopyranoside stimulation of corn coleoptiles elongation

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Szmidt-Jaworska; Jacek Kęsy; Jan Kopcewicz

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously suggested that 1-O-IAGIuc growth stimulation occurs as the effect of its hydrolysis into a free IAA. In present experiments castanospermine, a known β-glucosidase inhibitor, was included. 1-O-IAGluc in the presence of castanospermine stimulated growth of corn coleoptiles segments even stronger then free IAA. So, it seems that 1-O-IAGluc itself, is responsible for the observed stimulation of corn coleoptile segments elongation.

  14. Transcription within Condensed Chromatin: Steric Hindrance Facilitates Elongation

    OpenAIRE

    Bécavin, Christophe; Barbi, Maria; Victor, Jean-Marc; Lesne, Annick

    2010-01-01

    During eukaryotic transcription, RNA-polymerase activity generates torsional stress in DNA, having a negative impact on the elongation process. Using our previous studies of chromatin fiber structure and conformational transitions, we suggest that this torsional stress can be alleviated, thanks to a tradeoff between the fiber twist and nucleosome conformational transitions into an activated state named “reversome”. Our model enlightens the origin of polymerase pauses, and leads to the counter...

  15. Saturation conditions in elongated single-cavity boiling water targets

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, G. F.; Vermeulen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is shown that a very simple model reproduces the pressure versus beam current characteristics of elongated single-cavity boiling water targets for 18F production surprisingly well. By fitting the model calculations to measured data, values for a single free parameter, namely an overall heat-transfer coefficient, have been extracted for several IBA Nirta H218O targets. IBA recently released details on their new Nirta targets that have a conical shape, which constitutes an im...

  16. The life and death of translation elongation factor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene; Merrill, A.R.; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) occupies an essential role in protein synthesis where it catalyses the translocation of the two tRNAs and the mRNA after peptidyl transfer on the 80S ribosome. Recent crystal structures of eEF2 and the cryo-EM reconstruction of its 80S complex now provide...... diphthamide residue, which is ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa....

  17. Controlling translation elongation efficiency: tRNA regulation of ribosome flux on the mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoni, Barbara; Marshall, Elizabeth; McFarland, Matthew R; Romano, M Carmen; Stansfield, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Gene expression can be regulated by a wide variety of mechanisms. One example concerns the growing body of evidence that the protein-production rate can be regulated at the level of translation elongation by controlling ribosome flux across the mRNA. Variations in the abundance of tRNA molecules cause different rates of translation of their counterpart codons. This, in turn, produces a variable landscape of translational rate across each and every mRNA, with the dynamic formation and deformation of ribosomal queues being regulated by both tRNA availability and the rates of translation initiation and termination. In the present article, a range of examples of tRNA control of gene expression are reviewed, and the use of mathematical modelling to develop a predictive understanding of the consequences of that regulation is discussed and explained. These findings encourage a view that predicting the protein-synthesis rate of each mRNA requires a holistic understanding of how each stage of translation, including elongation, contributes to the overall protein-production rate. PMID:24450645

  18. Elongation factor Ts of Chlamydia trachomatis: structure of the gene and properties of the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Tao, J; Zhou, M; Meng, Q; Zhang, L; Shen, L; Klein, R; Miller, D L

    1997-08-01

    A putative structural gene cluster containing four open reading frames (ORFs) located downstream of the omp1 gene of Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) was cloned and sequenced. A GenBank survey indicated that the identified cluster is similar to the rpsB-tsf-pyrH(smbA)-frr region of Escherichia coli. The second ORF was 846 bp encoding a 282-amino-acid polypeptide with a calculated M(r) 30,824. Alignment of this deduced protein sequence and E. coli elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts, product of tsf) demonstrated 34% identity and an additional 14% similarity. The putative chlamydial tsf gene was expressed in E. coli as a nonfusion protein and as a 6x His-tagged fusion protein. By SDS-PAGE analysis, the molecular weights of the nonfusion recombinant protein and a protein of chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs), which was recognized by monoclonal antibodies derived from the nonfusion recombinant protein, are 34 kDa. The purified recombinant 6x His-tagged fusion protein increased the rate of GDP exchange with both Chlamydia and E. coli elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). These data show that the second gene of the identified cluster is tsf. Unlike EF-Ts from any other species, its activity was comparable to that of E. coli EF-Ts in exchange reaction with E. coli EF-Tu. PMID:9244380

  19. Diffusion weighted imaging of female pelvic cancers: Concepts and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punwani, Shonit, E-mail: shonit.punwani@gmail.com [Department of Academic Radiology, 2nd Floor Podium, University College London Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Early applications of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) were limited to neuroimaging, concentrating either on stroke or brain tumours. With recent advances in MRI hardware and software DWI is now increasingly being investigated for cancer assessment throughout the body. Clinical applications of DWI relating to female pelvic cancers have largely concentrated on detection, localisation and staging of disease. More recently investigators have started to evaluate the ability of DWI for determining tumour histology and even predicting the outcome of chemoradiation treatment. This article reviews the physical concepts of MR diffusion weighting, illustrates the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast and reports the clinical applications of DWI for cervical, endometrial, ovarian, rectal and bladder tumours.

  20. Inflammatory pseudotumor in the liver and right omentum caused by pelvic inflammatory disease: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory pseudotumor can develop in any part of the human body. It is one of the most important tumor-mimicking lesions that require differential diagnosis. There are various causes of inflammatory pseudotumor, one of which is infection and its resultant inflammation. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) often causes perihepatitis, which is called Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. In Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, bacteria spread along the right paracolic gutter, causing inflammation of the right upper quadrant peritoneal surfaces and the right lobe of the liver. We experienced a case of PID with accompanying inflammatory pseudotumor in the liver and the right omentum. This case identically correlates with the known intraperitoneal spreading pathway involved in Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, and hence, we present this case report

  1. Acute wiiitis representing as thrombosis of the inferior vena cava and left pelvic veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, M; Gary, T; Hafner, F; Eller, P; Deutschmann, H; Pilger, E; Seinost, G

    2015-08-01

    Deep venous thrombosis as a result of venous wall injury provoked by trauma is a common finding. It often occurs in patients with sportive overstraining, caused by over fatigue of the body structures. In 2007, the entity of "acute wiiitis" was first described in a letter to the New England Journal of Medicine. Acute wiiitis sums up all affections, mainly skeletal and muscle affections, provoked by playing Nintendo Wii, a very common and loved video-game system. Deep venous thrombosis as a consequence of Nintendo Wii has not been described so far. We present a patient with a massive free floating thrombus of the left pelvic veins originating from the gluteal veins and reaching into the inferior vena cava after playing Nintendo Wii. PMID:24681523

  2. Surgical management of penetrating pelvic trauma: a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; HU Jing-mei; ZHOU Dong-sheng

    2012-01-01

    High-velocity penetrating pelvic injury is one of the most difficult challenges to trauma surgeons.The injury sites frequently include soft tissue,pelvis,genitourinary tract,vascular structures and intraabdominal viscera.We present an unusual case of a male patient suffering a collision at night with a deformed steel bar penetrating into his right groin.Careful planning of the surgical approach is important before extracting the foreign body.The possibility of multiorgan damage to intrapelvic structures such as colon,urinary bladder,vessels and nerves,frequently necessitates a multidisciplinary involvement and systematic approach.Besides,limited incision as well as modification should be considered,and debridement and perioperative antibiotics can be used to reduce the risk of serious wound infection.

  3. Inflammatory pseudotumor in the liver and right omentum caused by pelvic inflammatory disease: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hyuk Jun; Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Inflammatory pseudotumor can develop in any part of the human body. It is one of the most important tumor-mimicking lesions that require differential diagnosis. There are various causes of inflammatory pseudotumor, one of which is infection and its resultant inflammation. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) often causes perihepatitis, which is called Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. In Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, bacteria spread along the right paracolic gutter, causing inflammation of the right upper quadrant peritoneal surfaces and the right lobe of the liver. We experienced a case of PID with accompanying inflammatory pseudotumor in the liver and the right omentum. This case identically correlates with the known intraperitoneal spreading pathway involved in Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, and hence, we present this case report.

  4. Diffusion weighted imaging of female pelvic cancers: concepts and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwani, Shonit

    2011-04-01

    Early applications of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) were limited to neuroimaging, concentrating either on stroke or brain tumours. With recent advances in MRI hardware and software DWI is now increasingly being investigated for cancer assessment throughout the body. Clinical applications of DWI relating to female pelvic cancers have largely concentrated on detection, localisation and staging of disease. More recently investigators have started to evaluate the ability of DWI for determining tumour histology and even predicting the outcome of chemoradiation treatment. This article reviews the physical concepts of MR diffusion weighting, illustrates the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast and reports the clinical applications of DWI for cervical, endometrial, ovarian, rectal and bladder tumours. PMID:20801592

  5. Diffusion weighted imaging of female pelvic cancers: Concepts and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early applications of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) were limited to neuroimaging, concentrating either on stroke or brain tumours. With recent advances in MRI hardware and software DWI is now increasingly being investigated for cancer assessment throughout the body. Clinical applications of DWI relating to female pelvic cancers have largely concentrated on detection, localisation and staging of disease. More recently investigators have started to evaluate the ability of DWI for determining tumour histology and even predicting the outcome of chemoradiation treatment. This article reviews the physical concepts of MR diffusion weighting, illustrates the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast and reports the clinical applications of DWI for cervical, endometrial, ovarian, rectal and bladder tumours.

  6. Experimental study of flow instability in elongated natural circulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The visual experimental study with water as the working substance was performed to investigate the operation behavior of a natural circulation system with elongated loops and long horizontal sections at atmospheric pressure, and the transient operation behavior and instability mechanism of typical experimental phenomenon (P= 1.46 kW) were given. The results show that the single natural circulation in elongated system with the great resistance coefficient is difficult to appear, but the heat can be removed by two-phase intermittent boiling. The driven force caused by the sub-cooled boiling can not drive the fluid to produce the effective natural circulation because of the great loop resistance, and the circular flow occurs only when the fluid in heat section produces the saturation boiling. The big loop resistance and flashing because of pressure drop in boiling process make the elongated natural circulation difficult to maintain a stable flow driven head and they are the fundamental reasons of intermittent boiling and strong flow instability. (authors)

  7. A Geometrically-Constrained Mathematical Model of Mammary Gland Ductal Elongation Reveals Novel Cellular Dynamics within the Terminal End Bud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Paine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is often used to model biological systems. In mammary gland development, mathematical modeling has been limited to acinar and branching morphogenesis and breast cancer, without reference to normal duct formation. We present a model of ductal elongation that exploits the geometrically-constrained shape of the terminal end bud (TEB, the growing tip of the duct, and incorporates morphometrics, region-specific proliferation and apoptosis rates. Iterative model refinement and behavior analysis, compared with biological data, indicated that the traditional metric of nipple to the ductal front distance, or percent fat pad filled to evaluate ductal elongation rate can be misleading, as it disregards branching events that can reduce its magnitude. Further, model driven investigations of the fates of specific TEB cell types confirmed migration of cap cells into the body cell layer, but showed their subsequent preferential elimination by apoptosis, thus minimizing their contribution to the luminal lineage and the mature duct.

  8. A Geometrically-Constrained Mathematical Model of Mammary Gland Ductal Elongation Reveals Novel Cellular Dynamics within the Terminal End Bud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauviere, Arnaud; Landua, John; Sreekumar, Amulya; Cristini, Vittorio; Rosen, Jeffrey; Lewis, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is often used to model biological systems. In mammary gland development, mathematical modeling has been limited to acinar and branching morphogenesis and breast cancer, without reference to normal duct formation. We present a model of ductal elongation that exploits the geometrically-constrained shape of the terminal end bud (TEB), the growing tip of the duct, and incorporates morphometrics, region-specific proliferation and apoptosis rates. Iterative model refinement and behavior analysis, compared with biological data, indicated that the traditional metric of nipple to the ductal front distance, or percent fat pad filled to evaluate ductal elongation rate can be misleading, as it disregards branching events that can reduce its magnitude. Further, model driven investigations of the fates of specific TEB cell types confirmed migration of cap cells into the body cell layer, but showed their subsequent preferential elimination by apoptosis, thus minimizing their contribution to the luminal lineage and the mature duct. PMID:27115287

  9. Expansion of presoldier cuticle contributes to head elongation during soldier differentiation in termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugime, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kota; Watanabe, Dai; Shimoji, Hiroyuki; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miura, Toru

    2015-12-01

    In termites, the soldier caste possesses morphological features suitable for colony defence, despite some exceptions. Soldiers are differentiated via two moultings through a presoldier stage with dramatic morphogenesis. While a number of morphological modifications are known to occur during the presoldier moult, growth and morphogenesis seem to continue even after the moult. The present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, carried out morphological and histological investigations on the developmental processes during the presoldier stage that is artificially induced by the application of a juvenile hormone analogue. Measurements of five body parameters indicated that head length significantly increased during the 14-day period after the presoldier moult, while it did not increase subsequently to the stationary moult (pseudergate moult as control). Histological observations also showed that the cuticular development played a role in the presoldier head elongation, suggesting that the soft and flexible presoldier cuticle contributed to the soldier morphogenesis in termites.

  10. Unified wavelet and gaussian filtering for segmentation of CT images; application in segmentation of bone in pelvic CT images

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background The analysis of pelvic CT scans is a crucial step for detecting and assessing the severity of Traumatic Pelvic Injuries. Automating the processing of pelvic CT scans could impact decision accuracy, decrease the time for decision making, and reduce health care cost. This paper discusses a method to automate the segmentation of bone from pelvic CT images. Accurate segmentation of bone is very important for developing an automated assisted-decision support system for Traumatic Pelvic ...

  11. Relative Mesothelioma Potencies for Unregulated Respirable Elongated Mineral and Synthetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    For decades uncertainties and contradictions have surrounded the issue of whether exposures to respirable elongated mineral and synthetic particles (REMPs and RESPs) present health risks such as those recognized for exposures to elongated asbestiform mineral particles from the fi...

  12. 产后盆底肌肉功能测评及康复护理%Nursing analysis of pelvic floor muscle function assessment and rehabilitation after delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪淑春

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of pelvic floor muscle function and its related factors in pregnancy and childbirth for the female patients. Methods A total of 169 outpatients medical records were collected who visited the Pelvic Floor Muscle Rehabilitation Clinic, Postpartum Rehabilitation Center in ourhospital from January 2014 to December 2014. Results There were 135 women ( 75. 0%) showing symptoms associated with pelvic floor dysfunction during the inquiry. 167 patients showed different degrees of pelvic floor muscle function damage under receiving the pelvic floor muscle function evaluation. Maternal times, newborn birth body mass and fetal position affected maternal pelvic floor muscle function damage degree. Whether to choose the pelvic floor muscles biofeedback therapy was impacted by three factors: the increasing of body mass during pregnancy, whether experienced stress urinary incontinence and the time when received postpartum pelvic floor muscle function assessment. Conclusions Many maternal experience postpartum pelvic floor muscle function damage which has not gained awareness. It should be reinforced that health education and guidance on strengthening the pelvic floor muscles to female patients in pregnancy.%目的 了解就诊女性的盆底肌肌肉功能水平及其在妊娠及分娩中受损的相关影响因素.方法 选择2014年1—12月在产后康复中心盆底肌康复门诊就诊的孕产妇,对其门诊病历资料进行整理,共计169人.结果 在临床症状问诊中发现,共计135名产妇在孕产期间表现出与盆底功能受损相关的症状,比例达75.0%.而在盆底肌肌肉功能检测评估中,167名显示盆底肌肉功能存在不同程度的损伤.孕产次数、新生儿出生体质量和胎位影响孕产妇的盆底肌肌肉功能损伤程度;而孕期体质量增长水平、孕产期是否存在压力性尿失禁现象以及产后的盆底肌肉功能评估时间影响孕产妇是否选择进行

  13. Effect of Elongation on Critical Gradient for Toroidal Electron Temperature Gradient Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Li-Li; GAO Zhe

    2008-01-01

    The electron temperature gradient mode is investigated in elongated toroidal plasmas with a gyrokinetic integral eigenmode equation code. Dependence of the critical electron temperature gradient on the elongation is calculated.It is found that when the elongation increases, the growth rate spectrum is greatly shifted towards shorter poloidal wavelength, and then the poloidal wavenumber at which the mode is destabilizing critically in elongated plasmas will be larger than that in circular plasmas.

  14. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice

    OpenAIRE

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B.; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberell...

  15. Performance of a lateral pelvic cluster technical system in evaluating running kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Bernard X W; Morris, Susan; Robinson, Mark A; Netto, Kevin

    2016-06-14

    Valid measurement of pelvic and hip angles during posterior load carriage gait task requires placement of pelvic markers which will not be occluded or physically displaced by the load. One solution is the use of pure lateral pelvic clusters to track the pelvis segment. However, the validity of this method has not been compared against pelvic marker systems recommended by the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) during high impact tasks, such as running. The purpose of this study was to validate the lateral tracking pelvic clusters against the ISB pelvis during running. Six participants performed overground running at a self-selected running speed with shoes. Three dimensional motion capture and synchronised in-ground force plates were used to determine lower limb joint angles and gait events respectively. Two biomechanical models were used to derive pelvic segment and hip joint angles. The ISB pelvis used the anterior and posterior iliac spines as anatomical and tracking markers, whilst the other model used lateral pelvic clusters as tracking markers. The between participant averaged coefficient of multiple correlation suggested good to excellent agreement between the angle waveforms generated from the two marker protocols. In addition, both marker protocols had similar sensitivity in detecting three dimensional pelvic and hip joint angles during the stance phase. This study suggests that in the event posterior load carriage is involved in running gait, pelvic and hip kinematics can be measured by the use of lateral pelvic clusters. PMID:27207384

  16. Single-Plane Magnetically Focused Elongated Small Field Proton Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Grant A; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    We previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of magnetically focused proton beams shaped by a single quadrapole magnet and thereby created narrow elongated beams with superior dose delivery characteristics (compared to collimated beams) suitable for targets of similar geometry. The present study seeks to experimentally validate these simulations using a focusing magnet consisting of 24 segments of samarium cobalt permanent magnetic material adhered into a hollow cylinder. Proton beams with properties relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications were delivered through the magnet to a water tank containing a diode detector or radiochromic film. Dose profiles were analyzed and compared with analogous Monte Carlo simulations. The focused beams produced elongated beam spots with high elliptical symmetry, indicative of magnet quality. Experimental data showed good agreement with simulations, affirming the utility of Monte Carlo simulations as a tool to model the inherent complexity of a magnetic focusing system. Compared to target-matched unfocused simulations, focused beams showed larger peak to entrance ratios (26% to 38%) and focused simulations showed a two-fold increase in beam delivery efficiency. These advantages can be attributed to the magnetic acceleration of protons in the transverse plane that tends to counteract the particle outscatter that leads to degradation of peak to entrance performance in small field proton beams. Our results have important clinical implications and suggest rare earth focusing magnet assemblies are feasible and could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering enhanced dose to narrow elongated targets (eg, in and around the spinal cord) in less time compared to collimated beams. PMID:25414143

  17. Elongation distribution between tension leveler and temper mill for pickling line 2030 in Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiancui; SU Lanhai; LI Zhongfu; FU Zhilin; ZHANG Qingdong; HE Chun

    2007-01-01

    Research into plate elongation distribution between the tension leveler and temper mill for pickling line 2030 at Baosteel is conducted.The study,which involved performance testing of mechanics,is designed at different elongation distributions and analyzed from many aspects.Finally,the optimal elongation of the tension leveler and temper mill is given.

  18. Time Dependent and Steady Uni-axial Elongational Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens K.; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Here we present measurements of transient and steady uni-axial elongational viscosity, using the Filament Stretching Rheometer1 or FSR1 (see Fig. 1) of the following melts: Four narrow MMD polystyrene (PS) samples with weight-average molar mass Mw in the range of 50k to 390k. Three different bi......-disperse samples, mixed from the narrow MMD PS. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (Lupolen 1840D and 3020D). A steady-state viscosity was kept for 1-2.5 Hencky strain units in all measurements....

  19. Connectedness percolation of elongated hard particles in an external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Ronald H J; van der Schoot, Paul

    2012-02-24

    A theory is presented of how orienting fields and steric interactions conspire against the formation of a percolating network of, in some sense, connected elongated colloidal particles in fluid dispersions. We find that the network that forms above a critical loading breaks up again at higher loadings due to interaction-induced enhancement of the particle alignment. Upon approach of the percolation threshold, the cluster dimensions diverge with the same critical exponent parallel and perpendicular to the field direction, implying that connectedness percolation is not in the universality class of directed percolation. PMID:22463580

  20. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people, especially some old men, appear to have very large ears. This paper presents an investigation on the acoustic significance of the age dependent ear elongation. HRTFs and ear lengths were measured for two groups of young and old people. The older groups had larger ears on average......, corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis) and...

  1. Collisions of Dark Solitons in Elongated Bose-Einstein Condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present experimental data showing the head-on collision of dark solitons generated in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. No discernable interaction can be recorded, in full agreement with the fundamental theoretical concepts of solitons as mutually transparent quasiparticles. Our soliton generation technique allows for the creation of solitons with different depths; hence, they can be distinguished and their trajectories be followed. Simulations of the 1D-Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been performed to compare the experiment with a mean-field description

  2. Peripheral injury of pelvic visceral sensory nerves alters GFRa (GDNF family receptor alpha localization in sensory and autonomic pathways of the sacral spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Lynne Forrest

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin and artemin use their co-receptors (GFRα1, GFRα2 and GFRα3, respectively and the tyrosine kinase Ret for downstream signalling. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG most of the unmyelinated and some myelinated sensory afferents express at least one GFRα. The adult function of these receptors is not completely elucidated but their activity after peripheral nerve injury can facilitate peripheral and central axonal regeneration, recovery of sensation, and sensory hypersensitivity that contributes to pain. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of spinal cord and sciatic nerve injuries in adult rodents have identified characteristic changes in GFRα1, GFRα2 or GFRα3 in central spinal cord axons of sensory neurons located in dorsal root ganglia. Here we extend and contrast this analysis by studying injuries of the pelvic and hypogastric nerves that contain the majority of sensory axons projecting to the pelvic viscera (e.g., bladder and lower bowel. At 7 d, we detected some effects of pelvic but not hypogastric nerve transection on the ipsilateral spinal cord. In sacral (L6-S1 cord ipsilateral to nerve injury, GFRα1-immunoreactivity (IR was increased in medial dorsal horn and CGRP-IR was decreased in lateral dorsal horn. Pelvic nerve injury also upregulated GFRα1- and GFRα3-IR terminals and GFRα1-IR neuronal cell bodies in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus that provides the spinal parasympathetic preganglionic output to the pelvic nerve. This evidence suggests peripheral axotomy has different effects on somatic and visceral sensory input to the spinal cord, and identifies sensory-autonomic interactions as a possible site of post-injury regulation.

  3. Giant Ectopic Ureter Mimicking Pelvic Organ Prolapse: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Simsir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic ureter is one of the most common urinary tract anomalies. We, herein, present a case of a giant ureter with ectopic orifice, mimicking pelvic organ prolapse, which is the first in the literature. A 59-year-old female patient presenting with frequently recurrent urinary tract infection had grade 3 pelvic organ prolapse. On examination, the organ producing the appearance of prolapse was found to be a right ureter of giant size and was obstructed by a large stone at the distal segment. The proximal end of the ureter ended blindly. After exploration, the stone was removed, the ureter was detached from the urethra, and the lumen was tied off and cut 5 cm proximally. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient is being followed up without any clinical problems. In such cases with nonfunctioning renal segment draining proximally, the chance of cure can be obtained without a need for a comprehensive intervention such as total abdominal ureterectomy.

  4. Benign mesothelioma of peritoneum presenting as a pelvic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large solitary multiloculated pelvic cyst in a 40-year-old woman with chronic pelvic pain was diagnosed to be a Multicystic Benign Mesothelioma (MBM) of peritoneum at laparotomy. Operative findings showed dense adhesions between uterus and bladder anteriorly, small intestines and pouch of Douglas posteriorly, a right ovarian cyst cm containing clear serous fluid and two nodular deposits were seen in the pouch of Douglas, small multiple deposits was found over the mesentery of small intestine and parietal peritoneum. Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy and infracolic omentectomy was done. During surgery, there was injury to the small intestine hence, resection of 10 inches of small intestine with re-anastomosis was carried out. Postoperative recovery was satisfactory. At 3 years follow-up, patient is symptom-free. (author)

  5. An unusual cause of pelvic pain: struma ovarii.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D F

    2009-09-01

    A 22 year old female patient presented with a three month history of pelvic discomfort and dysmenorrhoea. A pelvic MRI demonstrated a large mass measuring 10 x 6 cm in size. On T1 and T2 weighted images the mass was noted to be predominantly cystic. The mass also contained peripheral solid components as well as a large fat fluid level. Following excision, histological examination revealed a lesion with mature teratomatous elements but with a significant component (> 50%) being composed of mature thyroid tissue. A 2cm area within the lesion had the morphological pattern of a classical papillary thyroid carcinoma. A diagnosis of struma ovarii was made. Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian neoplasm generally arising in a teratoma and accounts for less than 1% all ovarian neoplasms. Here we present the above case of struma ovarii in a young patient and discuss the radiological characteristics of the disease.

  6. [Translabial ultrasonography in pelvic floor prolapse and urinary incontinence diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrus, Miłosz; Pityński, Kazimierz; Bałajewicz-Nowak, Marta; Wiecheć, Marcin; Knafel, Anna; Ludwin, Artur; Dziechciowski, Marek; Nocuń, Agnieszka

    2012-09-01

    Technological advances in the construction of sonographic devices and increasingly universal access to such tests considerably widens the range of diagnostic application of the sonographic examination. This situation also refers to pelvic organs prolapse. At present, sonographic sets used in everyday obstetrical-gynecological practice allow for insight into the structures forming the female pelvic floor, and the obtained images constitute a valuable addition to the physical examination. Positioning the sonographic transducer on a the perineum enables to visualize the three compartments of the female pelvis minor. After freezing the image, it is possible to assess the position of anatomical structures in relation to bones and designated surfaces, establish mutual distances and measure appropriate angles. Most information can be obtained in this manner within the range of the frontal compartment, whose damage is often linked with urinary incontinence. The examination standards developed so far, including the analysis of the quantitative parameters, greatly minimize the potential subjectivity of the assessment of the existing disorders. Apart from its low costs, the main value of the sonographic examination of the pelvic floor is the possibility to dynamically assess the changes in statics which take place during functional testing. Not only does it have a cognitive significance, but also it allows to adjust the scope of the surgical correction to the existing damages. Thus, indirectly it can contribute to the reduction of a number of subsequent remedial surgeries. Three-dimensional sonography allows to thoroughly examine the construction and functioning of the anal levators and to detect their possible damage. It is the trauma to these muscles--occurring, among others, during childbirth--that is one of the major causes of pelvic organs descent and prolapse in women. Sonographic examination also enables to visualize the artificial material, the use of which is

  7. Pelvic splenosis. Clinical case presentation and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feminine patient of 31 years primigravidas with pregnancy of 6 weeks of gestation by FUM. Splenoctomy antecedent 20 years ago by splenic traumatic rupture. It enters to the service of Gynecology for sudden and intense pelvic pain in iliac left fossa and scarce trans vaginal bled. Ultrasound reports uterine cavity without gestational sack, mass of 3.5x1.4 cm in right annex. She is carried out to laparoscopy with pre surgical diagnosis of 'right ectopic pregnancy'. During the surgery its are found data that indicate probable splenosis in bottom of right sack. It was carried out at simple and contrasted TAC that show vascularized solid tumoration accustomed in bottom of right sack. The hepatosplenic scintillography with colloidal sulfide labelled with 99mTc corroborate the diagnostic of pelvic and abdominal splenosis. (Author)

  8. Body Stalk Syndrome: A Curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Javalgi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Limb body wall complex (LBWC /Body stalk syndrome anomaly refers to a rare complicated polymalformative fetal malformation syndrome of uncertain etiology firstly described by Van Allen et al in 1987. There are very few cases reported in literature and thus we report a rare case of LBWC. Twenty seven years female presented to labour room with 32 weeks of gestation with no prenatal care and delivered a low birth weight still born fetus weighing 1100gms. On fetal autopsy large abdominal wall defect was noted with difficulty in identifying abdomino-pelvic organs and ambiguous genitalia. Placenta weighed 250gms with attached short umbilical cord measuring 7cms, arising from periphery. A cyst noted attached to placental membrane measuring 9x5cms which on dissection retrieved partially maldeveloped organs. Post mortem radiological findings included Absence of right femur with short tibia and right fibula, Complex vestibral malformation, Craniosynostosis and Overcrowding of ribs.

  9. Contact Stress Analysis of Acetabular Component and Pelvic Bone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyčichl, Jan; Jiroušek, Ondřej; Jírová, Jitka

    Wroclaw : Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wroclawskiej, 2006 - (Grygier, D.), s. 73-74 ISSN 1732-0240. [ Students ' Scientific Conference of Biomedical Engineeting /2/. Szklarska Poreba (PL), 20.04.2006-23.04.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : pelvic bone * acetabular component * stress analysis * finite element method Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  10. Metachronous penile metastasis from rectal cancer after total pelvic exenteration

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Yuta; Shida, Dai; Nasu, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Hiroki; Warabi, Masahiro; Inoue, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Despite its abundant vascularization and extensive circulatory communication with neighboring organs, metastases to the penis are a rare event. A 57-year-old male, who had undergone total pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer sixteen months earlier, demonstrated an abnormal uptake within his penis by positron emission tomography/computed tomography. A single elastic nodule of the middle penis shaft was noted deep within Bucks fascia. No other obvious recurrent site was noted except the penile...

  11. Emerging Concepts for Pelvic Organ Prolapse Surgery: What is Cure?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Una; Raz, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss emerging concepts in pelvic organ prolapse, in particular, “What is cure?” In a post-trial data analysis of the CARE (Colpopexy and Urinary Reduction Efforts) trial, treatment success varied tremendously depending on the definition used (19.2%–97.2%). Definitions that included the absence of vaginal bulge symptoms had the strongest relationships with the patients’ assessment of overall improvement and treatment success. As demonstrated by this study,...

  12. Con: bulbomembranous anastomotic urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Timothy J.; Morey, Allen F.

    2015-01-01

    Current literature remains controversial regarding whether to treat patients sustaining pelvic fracture urethral injuries (PFUIs) with primary endoscopic realignment (PER) versus suprapubic tube (SPT) placement alone with elective bulbomembranous anastomotic urethroplasty (BMAU). Success rates for PER following PFUI are wide-ranging, depending on various authors’ definitions of what defines a successful outcome. At our institution, for SPT/BMAU patients, the mean time to definitive resolution...

  13. Three Distinct Urethral Fistulae 35 Years After Pelvic Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arindam; Kurtz, Michael P.; Jairam R. Eswara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: While the development of fistulae is a well-known complication of radiotherapy, such fistulae can often be challenging to manage. Case Presentation: We describe the case of a 37 year old male who developed in succession a urethrocutaneous fistula to the thigh, a rectourethral fistula and a peritoneo-urethral fistula 35 years after radiotherapy for pediatric pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma. These complications were managed successfully after multiple surgical procedures. Discussion: We s...

  14. Severe stress urinary incontinence: pelvic floor muscle training program

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Margarida; Santos, P. C.; Duarte, José A.

    2013-01-01

    International guidelines recommend a first line therapy in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training. This case report assesses the effects of the PFM training program in treating women with severe SUI. The urodynamic parameters allow diagnosed intrinsic sphincter deficiency and urethral hypermobility. The subjective and objective parameters were assessed at the beginning and after six-month of PFM training program. This case...

  15. A case of primary osseous pelvic hydatid disease (echinococcus granulosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary bone involvement in hydatid disease (HD) is rare. Sporadic reports estimate its prevalence to 1%. Only a few cases have been reported where CT has been used. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of primary pelvic skeletal hydatid disease has, to my best knowledge, previously not been published. This report deals with a case of primary hydatid disease of the right ilium and the sacrum examined by plain film radiography. CT and MRI confirmed by pathology. (orig.)

  16. A case of primary osseous pelvic hydatid disease (echinococcus granulosus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-07-01

    Primary bone involvement in hydatid disease (HD) is rare. Sporadic reports estimate its prevalence to 1%. Only a few cases have been reported where CT has been used. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of primary pelvic skeletal hydatid disease has, to my best knowledge, previously not been published. This report deals with a case of primary hydatid disease of the right ilium and the sacrum examined by plain film radiography. CT and MRI confirmed by pathology. (orig.).

  17. Computer tomographic findings in pelvic and abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-two patients with trauma to the pelvis and abdomen were examined by computer tomography. Subcapsular haematomas, haematomas and rupture of organs, intra- and retroperitoneal haematomas and pelvic fractures could be reliably diagnosed in this way. Serial observations on the tissue density of an haematoma allows one to judge its age. Lack of contrast enhancement of an haematoma makes the injection of contrast a useful test. Computer tomography has reduced the indications for angiography in blunt abdominal trauma. (orig.)

  18. Pelvic Floor Disorders Registry: Study Design and Outcome Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber LeBrun, Emily; Adam, Rony A; Barber, Matthew D; Boyles, Sarah Hamilton; Iglesia, Cheryl B; Lukacz, Emily S; Moalli, Pamela; Moen, Michael D; Richter, Holly E; Subak, Leslee L; Sung, Vivian W; Visco, Anthony G; Bradley, Catherine S

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders affect up to 24% of adult women in the United States, and many patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) choose to undergo surgical repair to improve their quality of life. While a variety of surgical repair approaches and techniques are utilized, including mesh augmentation, there is limited comparative effectiveness and safety outcome data guiding best practice. In conjunction with device manufacturers, federal regulatory organizations, and professional societies, the American Urogynecologic Society developed the Pelvic Floor Disorders Registry (PFDR) designed to improve the quality of POP surgery by facilitating quality improvement and research on POP treatments. The PFDR will serve as a resource for surgeons interested in benchmarking and outcomes data and as a data repository for Food and Drug Administration-mandated POP surgical device studies. Provider-reported clinical data and patient-reported outcomes will be collected prospectively at baseline and for up to 3 years after treatment. All data elements including measures of success, adverse events, and surgeon characteristics were identified and defined within the context of the anticipated multifunctionality of the registry, and with collaboration from multiple stakeholders. The PFDR will provide a platform to collect high-quality, standardized patient-level data from a variety of nonsurgical (pessary) and surgical treatments of POP and other pelvic floor disorders. Data from this registry may be used to evaluate short- and longer-term treatment outcomes, patient-reported outcomes, and complications, as well as to identify factors associated with treatment success and failure with the overall goal of improving the quality of care for women with these conditions. PMID:26825404

  19. Associations between chronic pelvic pain and psychiatric disorders and symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    ANA CAROLINA FRANCO CARVALHO; OMERO BENEDITO POLI NETO; JOSÉ ALEXANDRE DE SOUZA CRIPPA; JAIME EDUARDO CECÍLIO HALLAK; FLÁVIA DE LIMA OSÓRIO

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a complex condition wich is associated with emotional factors, specially depression and anxiety. Objectives To make a systematic review to provide a detailed summary of relevant literature on the association between CPP and different psychiatric disorders/symptoms. Methods A systematic review of articles in the international literature published between 2003 and 2014 was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, LILACS, and SciELO using th...

  20. Pelvic insufficiency fractures after radiotherapy of gynecologic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Insufficiency fractures of the pelvis are a well known but rare and frequently misinterpreted radiation sequela. The clinical features and possible risk factors were investigated. Patients and methods: 71 of living 82 patients, who were treated 1986-1994 for gynecologic tumors were clinically examined. 47 patients underwent also bone scan, CT of the pelvis and 13 patients had osteodensitometry. All patients had been treated with adjuvant (n=29) or curative intent (n=18) by d.v. fields with 18-MZ photons, with 46 Gy in 23 fractions plus brachytherapy (15-39 Gy). Median follow-up was 36 months. Results: Seven patients developed pelvic insufficiency fractures 11 months (median, minimum 2 months) after treatment. All patients complained of moderate to severe pelvic pain, which resolved after 5-28 months without specific therapy in five of seven patients. At first examination all but one bone scan showed extremely increased uptake in the os sacrum and/or iliosacral joints, correlating CT scans demonstrated small fractures and bony destruction. Four of the asymptomatic 40 patients with complete radiologic examinations had medium uptake in bone scan (CT normal). Three of four examined patients with insufficiency fractures and seven of nine patients without insufficiency fractures had osteoporosis. Conclusion: In women who present with pelvic pain after radiotherapy for gynecologic tumors bony destruction and fractures may be indicative of a late radiation effect rather than osseous metastasis, even after early onset of symptoms. (orig.)

  1. Triphasic MRI of pelvic organ descent: sources of measurement error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morren, Geert L. [Bowel and Digestion Centre, The Oxford Clinic, 38 Oxford Terrace, Christchurch (New Zealand)]. E-mail: geert_morren@hotmail.com; Balasingam, Adrian G. [Christchurch Radiology Group, P.O. Box 21107, 4th Floor, Leicester House, 291 Madras Street, Christchurch (New Zealand); Wells, J. Elisabeth [Department of Public Health and General Medicine, Christchurch School of Medicine, St. Elmo Courts, Christchurch (New Zealand); Hunter, Anne M. [Christchurch Radiology Group, P.O. Box 21107, 4th Floor, Leicester House, 291 Madras Street, Christchurch (New Zealand); Coates, Richard H. [Christchurch Radiology Group, P.O. Box 21107, 4th Floor, Leicester House, 291 Madras Street, Christchurch (New Zealand); Perry, Richard E. [Bowel and Digestion Centre, The Oxford Clinic, 38 Oxford Terrace, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To identify sources of error when measuring pelvic organ displacement during straining using triphasic dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: Ten healthy nulliparous woman underwent triphasic dynamic 1.5 T pelvic MRI twice with 1 week between studies. The bladder was filled with 200 ml of a saline solution, the vagina and rectum were opacified with ultrasound gel. T2 weighted images in the sagittal plane were analysed twice by each of the two observers in a blinded fashion. Horizontal and vertical displacement of the bladder neck, bladder base, introitus vaginae, posterior fornix, cul-de sac, pouch of Douglas, anterior rectal wall, anorectal junction and change of the vaginal axis were measured eight times in each volunteer (two images, each read twice by two observers). Variance components were calculated for subject, observer, week, interactions of these three factors, and pure error. An overall standard error of measurement was calculated for a single observation by one observer on a film from one woman at one visit. Results: For the majority of anatomical reference points, the range of displacements measured was wide and the overall measurement error was large. Intra-observer error and week-to-week variation within a subject were important sources of measurement error. Conclusion: Important sources of measurement error when using triphasic dynamic MRI to measure pelvic organ displacement during straining were identified. Recommendations to minimize those errors are made.

  2. Transcatheter arterial embolization massive of haemorrhage in pelvic fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical therapeutic effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for treating massive haemorrhage in pelvic fracture (traffic accident 23, fall injury 5, hit trauma 4, crush injury 3). Methods: Thirty five patients with massive haemorrhage of pelvic fracture(traffic accident 23, fall injury 5, hit trauma 4, crush injury 3), also included 18 complicated injury cases. The inguinal region with free of or small hematoma was apt for femoral arterial puncture and followed by transcatheter bilateral iliac arterioangiography in order to confirm the site of haemorrhage. The gelfoam embolization was performed with superselective catheterization, otherwise the trunk of iliac artery would be embolized to slow down the blood flow and then coils with diameter from 5 to 8 mm were used for embolizing the trunk of iliac artery finally. The bilateral iliac arteries were embolized in the case of patients with bilateral or intermediate fracture. Results: Arterial spasm occurred in all patients with different severities and the patchy or linear extravasation of the contrast agent appeared in 29 patients through arteriography. All patients passed a successful embolization with a recovery of normal blood pressure (90-130)/(60-90)mmHg within 24 hours, without serious complications except one person had a minor skin necrosis at the distal part of big toe. Conclusions: The transcatheter arterial embolization is a simple, minimally invasive, safe and effective procedure, for treating the massive haemorrhage of pelvic fracture. (authors)

  3. The Role of Postoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae Sung; Yun, Hyong Geun; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-06-15

    To evaluate the role of postoperative pelvic radiation therapy in rectal cancer, a retrospective analysis was done on 189 patients with modified Astler-Coller stages B2+3, C1, and C2+3 who were treated from February 1979 to June 1986. Forty-seven patients were staged as B2+3, 17 as C1, and 125 as C2+3. As a curative resection, 41 received low anterior resection, 143 received abdomino-perineal resection, and five received pelvic exenteration. The survival and disease-free survival rates of the total patients at five year were 45.3% and 44.1%, respectively. The stage was an important prognostic factor for survival and disease-free survival: the survival rates at five year were 55.7% in B2+3, 65.7% in C1, and 36.4% in C2+3, respectively (p<0.01). The liver was the most frequently involved organ of recurrence followed by the lung and the perineum. The patients who received low anterior resection achieved better disease-free survival but were more prone to late radiation bowel morbidities than those who received abdominoperineal resection. Postoperative pelvic radiation therapy proved to be effective in locoregional disease control but did not prevent the appearance of distant metastasis, which was of major concern in advanced stages. Patterns of treatment failure, and factors relating to radiation morbidity are discussed, and therapeutic options for better results are proposed.

  4. The Role of Postoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the role of postoperative pelvic radiation therapy in rectal cancer, a retrospective analysis was done on 189 patients with modified Astler-Coller stages B2+3, C1, and C2+3 who were treated from February 1979 to June 1986. Forty-seven patients were staged as B2+3, 17 as C1, and 125 as C2+3. As a curative resection, 41 received low anterior resection, 143 received abdomino-perineal resection, and five received pelvic exenteration. The survival and disease-free survival rates of the total patients at five year were 45.3% and 44.1%, respectively. The stage was an important prognostic factor for survival and disease-free survival: the survival rates at five year were 55.7% in B2+3, 65.7% in C1, and 36.4% in C2+3, respectively (p<0.01). The liver was the most frequently involved organ of recurrence followed by the lung and the perineum. The patients who received low anterior resection achieved better disease-free survival but were more prone to late radiation bowel morbidities than those who received abdominoperineal resection. Postoperative pelvic radiation therapy proved to be effective in locoregional disease control but did not prevent the appearance of distant metastasis, which was of major concern in advanced stages. Patterns of treatment failure, and factors relating to radiation morbidity are discussed, and therapeutic options for better results are proposed

  5. [Echo-color-Doppler in male pelvic congestion syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarteschi, Lelio Mario; Simi, Stefano; Turchi, Paolo; DeMaria, Maurizio; Morelli, Girolamo

    2002-12-01

    The pelvic congestion syndrome has been widely studied in the female sex, while there are not many publications on the male equivalent. Prostatitis represent the most frequent affections of the genito-urinary male tract that require the urologic consult, but in the majority of the cases the etiology of such affections remains unknown. Some forms of microscopic hematuria or macroscopic hematuria are also cryptogenetic. Varicocelectomy is widely given in the infertile patients, but not always the intervention achieves a recovery of the semen quality. In this work we revisit the anatomy of the pelvic male venous drain and we depict its objective findings with the echo-color-Doppler sonography (ECD). The purpose of the study is to encourage a polycentric uro-andrologic search on large numbers, with the goal of resolve if the ECD pictures of congestion pelvic syndrome could have relation with some "prostatitis syndromes", with some cryptogenetic hematuria and/or with the prognosis of the infertile patients undergone to varicocelectomy. PMID:12508723

  6. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole (PS52K) and 103 kg/mole (PS103K), and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The bidisperse melts consist of PS103K or PS52K and a monodisperse...... (closed loop proportional regulator) using the laser in such a way that the stretch rate at the neck is kept constant. The rheometer has been described in more detail in (A. Bach, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Journal of Rheology, 47 (2003) 429). PS390K show a decrease in the steady viscosity as a power......-law function of the elongational rate (A. Bach, K. Almdal, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Macromolecules 36 (2003) 5174). PS52K and PS103K show that the steady viscosity has a maximum that is respectively 100% and 50% above 3 times the zero-shear-rate viscosity. The bidisperse melts show a significant...

  7. Granular packings of elongated faceted particles deposited under gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report experimental and theoretical results of the effect that particle shape has on the packing properties of granular materials. We have systematically measured the particle angular distribution, the cluster size distribution and the stress profiles of ensembles of faceted elongated particles deposited in a bidimensional box. Stress transmission through this granular system has been numerically simulated using a two-dimensional model of irregular particles. For grains of maximum symmetry (squares), the stress propagation localizes and forms chain-like forces analogous to those observed for granular materials composed of spheres. For thick layers of grains, a pressure saturation is observed for deposit depths beyond a characteristic length. This scenario correlates with packing morphology and can be understood in terms of stochastic models of aggregation and random multiplicative processes. As grains elongate and lose their symmetry, stress propagation is strongly affected. Lateral force transmission becomes less favored than vertical transfer, and hence, an increase in the pressure develops with depth, hindering force saturation

  8. Local auxin metabolism regulates environment-induced hypocotyl elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zuyu; Guo, Yongxia; Novák, Ondřej; Chen, William; Ljung, Karin; Noel, Joseph P; Chory, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of plants is their adaptability of size and form in response to widely fluctuating environments. The metabolism and redistribution of the phytohormone auxin play pivotal roles in establishing active auxin gradients and resulting cellular differentiation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cotyledons and leaves synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan through indole-3-pyruvic acid (3-IPA) in response to vegetational shade. This newly synthesized auxin moves to the hypocotyl where it induces elongation of hypocotyl cells. Here we show that loss of function of VAS2 (IAA-amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3).17) leads to increases in free IAA at the expense of IAA-Glu (IAA-glutamate) in the hypocotyl epidermis. This active IAA elicits shade- and high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation largely independently of 3-IPA-mediated IAA biosynthesis in cotyledons. Our results reveal an unexpected capacity of local auxin metabolism to modulate the homeostasis and spatial distribution of free auxin in specialized organs such as hypocotyls in response to shade and high temperature. PMID:27249562

  9. Postoperative low-pelvic irradiation for stage I-IIA cervical cancer patients with risk factors other than pelvic lymph node metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively investigate whether postoperative low-pelvic radiotherapy (RT) is an appropriate treatment for node-negative, high-risk Stage I-IIA cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 228 Stage I-IIA cervical cancer patients treated by radical surgery and postoperative RT were included in this study. All patients had histopathologically negative pelvic node metastasis, but at least one of the following risk factors: parametrial involvement, positive or close resection margins, invasion depth two-thirds or greater cervical stromal thickness. Seventy-nine patients (35%) received 30-50 Gy (median 44) to whole pelvis and a boost dose to the low pelvis (whole-pelvic RT group); the other 149 patients (65%) received low-pelvic RT only (low-pelvic RT group). For both groups, the total external RT dose to the low pelvis ranged from 40 to 60 Gy (median 50). The potential factors associated with survival, small bowel (gastrointestinal) complications, and leg lymphedema were analyzed, and patients who had a relapse in the upper pelvis were identified. Results: The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival rate was 84% and 86%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, only bulky tumor (≥4 cm) and non-squamous cell carcinoma were significantly associated with survival. Parametrial involvement, lymph-vascular invasion, ≤50.4 Gy to the low pelvis, positive or close margins, and low-pelvic RT alone did not significantly affect survival. Grade I-V small bowel complications occurred in 33 patients (15%). Whole pelvic RT and >50.4 Gy to the low pelvis, but not old age and treatment technique (AP-PA vs. box), were significantly associated with gastrointestinal complications. Three patients (2%) in the low-pelvic RT group and 6 patients (8%) in the whole-pelvic RT group were found to have Grade III or higher small bowel complications (p=0.023). Thirty-one percent of patients developed lymphedema of the leg. A dose to the low pelvis >50.4 Gy

  10. Predicting Late Effects of Pelvic Radiotherapy: Is There a Better Approach?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Significant chronic symptoms following pelvic radiotherapy occur more frequently than commonly realized. Predictive factors for the development of late symptoms are poorly defined. Moderate sustained acute (cumulative) toxicity might predict severe late effects better than peak reaction. Methods and Materials: To determine prospectively whether peak or cumulative gastrointestinal (GI) acute symptoms better predict late symptoms in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Symptom scores were measured weekly from the start of radiotherapy, and at 1 year using the Modified Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-Bowel subset. The possible prognostic impact of patient-related factors was explored. Results: Three hundred and eight patients were recruited. 100 were excluded due to lack of follow-up data at one year resulting from death, too ill, stoma, relapsed, non-response or withdrawal. A further 15 were excluded for incomplete data, leaving 193 patients with evaluable data. Of these, 28 had GI, 101 urological, and 64 gynecological cancers. Patients' median age was 65 years (range, 23-82), and they were treated with median 60 Gy dose for a median of 6 weeks. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between cumulative acute symptom scores and scores at 1 year (p < 0.001), which was dose-independent (p < 0.001). Acute peak and 1-year scores were not associated (p = 0.431). The correlation coefficient between cumulative acute symptoms and symptoms at 1 year was 0.367 and for peak acute symptoms was weaker at 0.057. Patients with an abnormal body mass index and current smokers were more likely to experience worse symptoms at 1 year. Conclusion: Cumulative acute symptoms are more predictive of late symptoms than peak acute changes in score. This association is independent of the radiotherapy dose delivered and is suggestive of a consequential late effect.

  11. The mechanism of diarrhoea resulting from pelvic and abdominal radiotherapy; a prospective study using selenium-75 labelled conjugated bile acid and cobalt-58 labelled cyanocobalamin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to elucidate the mechanism of diarrhoea resulting from pelvic and abdominal radiotherapy in a prospective study of 10 patients undergoing treatment for curable pelvic malignant tumours using the synthetic trihydroxy 75Se-labelled conjugated bile acid, SeHcat and 58Co-labelled cyanocobalamin (58Co Vit B12). Evidence of malabsorption of vitamin B12 measured as a significant fall in whole body percentage retention of 58Co Vit B12 from baseline levels was found in all nine patients who developed diarrhoea during radiotherapy. Only four out of these nine patients also had malabsorption of the trihydroxy conjugated bile acid, cholic acid, measured as a significant fall in SeHcat whole body percentage retention and these patients had the most severe diarrhoea. The findings are discussed in the light of what is known about the pathophysiology of diarrhoea during pelvic and abdominal radiotherapy and lend support to previous work which implicated increased bowel motility in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced diarrhoea. The hypothesis that local neuroendocrine mechanisms in the gut may be involved is put forward, with possible implications for treatment. (author)

  12. Current Possibilities of Treatment in Pelvic-Perineal Floor Dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Niculescu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To support through personal experience the use on a large scale of the modern techniques of correction of the pelvic floor disorders by using polypropylene prosthetic devices. Objectives: To specify the technical details regarding the correct placement of prostheses in feminine genital prolapse. Show the personal casuistry in order to highlight the indications techniques and results of these types of surgeries. Plead for expending the modern techniques in pelvic-perineal floor dysfunctions. Material and Methods: The study was performed between July 2007 and July 2013, in the second surgical Clinic St.Spiridon Hospital Iasi, on 138 cases with different pelvic floor dysfunctions. Different procedures were practiced, isolated or associated, on the patients in the lot, depending on symptoms, the prolapse type and degree, age, local anatomical situation and the existence or absence of sexual life. Thus they were performed: strip urethrocystopexy or “hammock” device, with four arms transobturator - 68 cases; The sacrosciatic posterior colposuspension or the anal levator floor restoration–29 cases; abdominal colpopexy in 41 cases, 18 of which with hysterectomy or resection of residual cervix. In 5 cases a polypropylene mesh implant has been associated with this procedure at anal levator level; and in 11 cases the doctors used a suburethral transobturator vaginal strip for stress urinary incontinence (SUI. The abdominal approach allows the correct path of skeletonization of the internal genitalia and also of the vagina which is turned inside-out like a glove finger, avoiding damage on the ureters and bladder. The vaginal vault is secured to the promontory with a polypropylene device and it ensures the results maintain in time. Results: The treatment of the different pelvic-perineal floor disorders that are associated or not with stress urinary incontinence has benefited lately from new indications and techniques by using different prosthetic

  13. A Mutation in fat2 Uncouples Tissue Elongation from Global Tissue Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Aurich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global tissue rotation was proposed as a morphogenetic mechanism controlling tissue elongation. In Drosophila ovaries, global tissue rotation of egg chambers coincides with egg chamber elongation. Egg chamber rotation was put forward to result in circumferential alignment of extracellular fibers. These fibers serve as molecular corsets to restrain growth of egg chambers perpendicular to the anteroposterior axis, thereby leading to the preferential egg chamber elongation along this axis. The atypical cadherin Fat2 is required for egg chamber elongation, rotation, and the circumferential alignment of extracellular fibers. Here, we have generated a truncated form of Fat2 that lacks the entire intracellular region. fat2 mutant egg chambers expressing this truncated protein fail to rotate yet display normal extracellular fiber alignment and properly elongate. Our data suggest that global tissue rotation, even though coinciding with tissue elongation, is not a necessary prerequisite for elongation.

  14. Dynamic MR Imaging of the Pelvic Floor:Technical Considerations and Image Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ The pelvic floor is a complex anatomic and functional unit of multiple muscle layers, fascia and ligaments.In clinical routine, a simple anatomic concept of the female pelvic floor has gained acceptance.Especially for treatment planning,the female pelvic floor may be separated into three functional compartments:.the anterior compartment (bladder and urethra), the middle compartment (vagina,cervix,uterus,and adnexa), and the posterior compartment (anus and rectum).

  15. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging; reliability of assessment and correlation with clinical findings of pelvic organ prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Inas A. Azab; Mohamad A. Nasef; Ahmad M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pelvic floor dysfunction and prolapse affect about 50% of women past middle age. Failure to recognize the complex set of pelvic floor defects in individuals leads to most postsurgical failures. Diagnosis and grading of pelvic floor dysfunction is primarily done by physical examination. Imaging does not have yet an established role in the investigation of prolapse, yet it is expected to play a role in preoperative planning identifying soft tissue abnormalities which will help avo...

  16. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of minimally invasive pelvic floor reconstruction with polypropylene implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegmann, Katja C., E-mail: katja.siegmann@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Reisenauer, Christl, E-mail: christl.reisenauer@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Calwerstr. 7, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Speck, Sina, E-mail: sina.speck@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Barth, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.barth@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Kraemer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.kraemer@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Calwerstr. 7, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Claussen, Claus D., E-mail: claus.claussen@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Introduction: The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of dynamic MRI in patients with pelvic organ prolapse after pelvic floor repair with polypropylene mesh. Materials and methods: Fifteen consecutive patients (mean age 66.5 years) who were scheduled for either anterior (n = 9) or posterior (n = 6) pelvic floor repair were prospectively evaluated by clinical assessment and dynamic MRI 1 day before and 3 months after surgery. MRI diagnoses and MRI measurements of relevant anatomical points at rest and on straining were analysed before and after surgery. Results: At follow-up assessment 93.3% of all patients were clinically cured. Dynamic MRI showed newly developed (n = 6) or increased (n = 6) pelvic organ prolapse in 80% (n = 12) of all patients 3 months after pelvic floor repair. Most of them (n = 11; 91.7%) affected the untreated pelvic floor compartment. On straining anatomical points of reference in the anterior pelvic floor compartment were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated after anterior repair and rectal bulging was significantly (p = 0.036) reduced after posterior pelvic floor repair. Conclusions: In this study dynamic MRI could verify the effective support of anterior and posterior pelvic floor structures by anterior and posterior polypropylene implant respectively. But dynamic MRI demonstrates if one compartment of the pelvic floor is repaired another compartment frequently (73.3%) develops dysfunction. These results did not correspond to clinical symptoms on short-term follow-up (3 months). Studies with long-term follow-up are necessary to prove if dynamic MRI can reliably identify clinically significant pelvic organ prolapse after pelvic floor repair before the onset of symptoms.

  17. Failure of Pelvic Organ Support in Mice Deficient In Fibulin-3

    OpenAIRE

    Rahn, David D.; Acevedo, Jesús F.; Roshanravan, Shayzreen; Keller, Patrick W.; Elaine C Davis; Marmorstein, Lihua Y.; Word, R. Ann

    2009-01-01

    Fibulin-5 is crucial for normal elastic fiber synthesis in the vaginal wall; more than 90% of fibulin-5-knockout mice develop pelvic organ prolapse by 20 weeks of age. In contrast, fibulin-1 and -2 deficiencies do not result in similar pathologies, and fibulin-4-knockout mice die shortly after birth. EFEMP1 encodes fibulin-3, an extracellular matrix protein important in the maintenance of abdominal fascia. Herein, we evaluated the role of fibulin-3 in pelvic organ support. Pelvic organ suppor...

  18. Is There a Relationship Between Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Tissue Fibrillin-1 Levels?

    OpenAIRE

    ESER, AYLA; Unlubilgin, Eylem; HIZLI, Fatih; Acar, Muradiye; KAMALAK, Zeynep; KOSUS, AYDIN; KOSUS, NERMIN; HIZLI, DENIZ; Gunduz, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pelvic organ prolapse is a multifactorial disorder in which extracellular matrix defects are implicated. Fibrillin-1 level is reduced in stress urinary incontinence. In Marfan syndrome, which is associated with mutations in Fibrillin-1, pelvic floor disorders are commonly observed. We hypothesize that Fibrillin-1 gene expression is altered in pelvic organ prolapse. Methods: Thirty women undergoing colporrhaphy or hysterectomy because of cystocele, rectocele, cystorectocele, or uterin...

  19. Vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse using mesh and a vaginal support device

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, M; Slack, M; Higgs, P.; Wynn-Williams, M; Cornish, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe a new surgical procedure for pelvic organ prolapse using mesh and a vaginal support device (VSD) and to report the results of surgery. Design A prospective observational study Setting Two tertiary referral Urogynaecology practices. Population Ninety-five women with International Continence Society pelvic organ prolapse quantification stage 2 or more pelvic organ prolapse who underwent vaginal surgery using mesh augmentation and a VSD. Methods Surgery involved a vaginal ...

  20. Screening of the pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination; (a community based study)

    OpenAIRE

    Tehrani Fahimeh; Hashemi Somayeh; Simbar Masoumeh; Shiva Niloofar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a silent disorder with a huge impact on women's quality of life. There is limited data from community-based studies conducted to determine the prevalence of POP as its assessment needs a pelvic examination. We aimed to develop a simple screening inventory for identification of pelvic organ prolapse and then evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. Methods This study had two phases. In the first phase in order to develop a simple inventory fo...

  1. Closed pelvic fractures: characteristics and outcomes in older patients admitted to medical and geriatric wards

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, R.; Sonibare, A.; Green, D.; Masud, T.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the characteristics and outcomes of older patients with pelvic fracture admitted to medical and geriatric wards.
METHODS—All patients admitted to medical and geriatric wards with a pelvic fracture over a four year period were identified using the hospital clinical coding database. Data were collected from casenotes, hospital and Family Health Services Authority databases. Where available, pelvic radiographs were graded according to the Singh index.
RESULTS—The casenot...

  2. Occult Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Definitive Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Vaughn, David; Keefe, Stephen M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas; Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John P., E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To inform radiation treatment planning for clinically staged, node-negative bladder cancer patients by identifying clinical factors associated with the presence and location of occult pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with clinically staged T1-T4N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy at a single institution were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between preoperative clinical variables and occult pathologic pelvic or common iliac lymph nodes. Percentages of patient with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed within whole bladder (perivesicular nodal region), small pelvic (perivesicular, obturator, internal iliac, and external iliac nodal regions), and extended pelvic clinical target volume (CTV) (small pelvic CTV plus common iliac regions) were calculated. Results: Among 315 eligible patients, 81 (26%) were found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of surgery, with 38 (12%) having involved common iliac lymph nodes. Risk of occult pathologically involved lymph nodes did not vary with clinical T stage. On multivariate analysis, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on preoperative biopsy was significantly associated with occult pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio 3.740, 95% confidence interval 1.865-7.499, P<.001) and marginally associated with occult common iliac nodal involvement (odds ratio 2.307, 95% confidence interval 0.978-5.441, P=.056). The percentages of patients with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed by whole bladder, small pelvic, and extended pelvic CTVs varied with clinical risk factors, ranging from 85.4%, 95.1%, and 100% in non-muscle-invasive patients to 44.7%, 71.1%, and 94.8% in patients with muscle-invasive disease and biopsy LVI. Conclusions: Occult pelvic lymph node rates are substantial for all clinical subgroups, especially patients with LVI on biopsy. Extended

  3. Occult Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Definitive Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To inform radiation treatment planning for clinically staged, node-negative bladder cancer patients by identifying clinical factors associated with the presence and location of occult pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with clinically staged T1-T4N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy at a single institution were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between preoperative clinical variables and occult pathologic pelvic or common iliac lymph nodes. Percentages of patient with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed within whole bladder (perivesicular nodal region), small pelvic (perivesicular, obturator, internal iliac, and external iliac nodal regions), and extended pelvic clinical target volume (CTV) (small pelvic CTV plus common iliac regions) were calculated. Results: Among 315 eligible patients, 81 (26%) were found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of surgery, with 38 (12%) having involved common iliac lymph nodes. Risk of occult pathologically involved lymph nodes did not vary with clinical T stage. On multivariate analysis, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on preoperative biopsy was significantly associated with occult pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio 3.740, 95% confidence interval 1.865-7.499, P<.001) and marginally associated with occult common iliac nodal involvement (odds ratio 2.307, 95% confidence interval 0.978-5.441, P=.056). The percentages of patients with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed by whole bladder, small pelvic, and extended pelvic CTVs varied with clinical risk factors, ranging from 85.4%, 95.1%, and 100% in non-muscle-invasive patients to 44.7%, 71.1%, and 94.8% in patients with muscle-invasive disease and biopsy LVI. Conclusions: Occult pelvic lymph node rates are substantial for all clinical subgroups, especially patients with LVI on biopsy. Extended

  4. MR Imaging in Diagnosis of Pelvic Floor Descent: Supine versus Sitting Position

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Iacobellis; Antonio Brillantino; Adolfo Renzi; Luigi Monaco; Nicola Serra; Beatrice Feragalli; Aniello Iacomino; Luca Brunese; Salvatore Cappabianca

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Functional disorders of the pelvic floor represent have a significant impact on the quality of life. The advent of open-configuration systems allowed for the evaluation of defecation with MR imaging in sitting position. The purpose of the present study is to compare the results of static and dynamic pelvic MR performed in supine position versus sitting position, using a new MR prototype machine, in the diagnosis of pelvic floor descent. Materials and Methods. Thirty-one patients...

  5. Severity, affect, family and environment (safe) approach to evaluate chronic pelvic pain in adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwa Leena; Sharma J; Arora R; Malhotra M; Sharma S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pelvic pain is common in adolescent girls in day-to-day practice. Severity, Affect, Family and Environment (SAFE) is a recent interview strategy to approach these patients and their families.. AIM: 1. To find the prevalence of pelvic pain in adolescent girls. 2. To find out the feasibility and acceptability of ′SAFE′ approach in evaluating chronic pelvic pain in adolescent girls. SETTINGS & DESIGN: 200 adolescent girls aged 13-23 years were selected at random ...

  6. Tryptase - PAR2 axis in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis, a model for Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Kenny; Done, Joseph D.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Murphy, Stephen F.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects up to 15% of the male population and is characterized by pelvic pain. Mast cells are implicated in the murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) model as key to chronic pelvic pain development. The mast cell mediator tryptase-β and its cognate receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) are involved in mediating pain in other visceral disease models. Prostatic secretions and urines from CP/CPPS patients were examined ...

  7. Sagittal alignment of spine and pelvis regulated by pelvic incidence: standard values and prediction of lordosis

    OpenAIRE

    Boulay, C.; Tardieu, C.; Hecquet, J.; Benaim, C; Mouilleseaux, B.; Marty, C.; Prat-Pradal, D.; Legaye, J.; Duval-Beaupère, G.; Pélissier, J.

    2005-01-01

    Pelvis and spinal curves were studied with an angular parameter typical of pelvis morphology: pelvic incidence. A significant chain of correlations between positional pelvic and spinal parameters and incidence is known. This study investigated standards of incidence and a predictive equation of lordosis from selective pelvic and spinal individual parameters. One hundred and forty nine (78 men and 71 women) healthy adults, aged 19–50 years, with no spinal disorders, were included and had a ful...

  8. Decision making in the treatment of pelvic fractures in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic fractures are usually the result of major trauma. In many cases there will be concomitant injuries to other tissues and this, together with the varied configuration of pelvic fractures, can present a challenge to the attending clinician. Careful patient management is a prerequisite for fracture assessment and treatment. Several factors will determine whether conservative or surgical management is appropriate. This article outlines a logical approach to the dog or cat presented with pelvic fractures

  9. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Sexology and Acupressure Through the Vagina (Hippocratic Pelvic Massage)

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Ventegodt; Birgitte Clausen; Hatim A. Omar; Joav Merrick

    2006-01-01

    Many gynecological and sexological problems (like urine incontinence, chronic pelvic pains, vulvodynia, and lack of lust, excitement, and orgasm) are resistant to standard medical treatment. In our work at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen, we have found that vaginal acupressure, or Hippocratic pelvic massage, can help some of these problems. Technically, it is a very simple procedure as it corresponds to the explorative phase of the standard pelvic examination, suppleme...

  10. Ethics, economics and the regulation and adoption of new medical devices: case studies in pelvic floor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Sue

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern has been growing in the academic literature and popular media about the licensing, introduction and adoption of surgical devices before full effectiveness and safety evidence is available to inform clinical practice. Our research will seek empirical survey evidence about the roles, responsibilities, and information and policy needs of the key stakeholders in the introduction into clinical practice of new surgical devices for pelvic floor surgery, in terms of the underlying ethical principals involved in the economic decision-making process, using the example of pelvic floor procedures. Methods/Design Our study involves three linked case studies using, as examples, selected pelvic floor surgery devices representing Health Canada device safety risk classes: low, medium and high risk. Data collection will focus on stakeholder roles and responsibilities, information and policy needs, and perceptions of those of other key stakeholders, in seeking and using evidence about new surgical devices when licensing and adopting them into practice. For each class of device, interviews will be used to seek the opinions of stakeholders. The following stakeholders and ethical and economic principles provide the theoretical framework for the study: Stakeholders - federal regulatory body, device manufacturers, clinicians, patients, health care institutions, provincial health departments, and professional societies. Clinical settings in two centres (in different provinces will be included. Ethics - beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice. Economics - scarcity of resources, choices, opportunity costs. For each class of device, responses will be analysed to compare and contrast between stakeholders. Applied ethics and economic theory, analysis and critical interpretation will be used to further illuminate the case study material. Discussion The significance of our research in this new area of ethics will lie in providing

  11. Standard high-resolution pelvic MRI vs. low-resolution pelvic MRI in the evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scardapane, Arnaldo; Lorusso, Filomenamila; Ferrante, Annunziata; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe [University Hospital ' ' Policlinico' ' of Bari, Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Bari (Italy); Scioscia, Marco [Sacro Cuore Don Calabria General Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Negrar, Verona (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    To compare the capabilities of standard pelvic MRI with low-resolution pelvic MRI using fast breath-hold sequences to evaluate deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Sixty-eight consecutive women with suspected DIE were studied with pelvic MRI. A double-acquisition protocol was carried out in each case. High-resolution (HR)-MRI consisted of axial, sagittal, and coronal TSE T2W images, axial TSE T1W, and axial THRIVE. Low-resolution (LR)-MRI was acquired using fast single shot (SSH) T2 and T1 images. Two radiologists with 10 and 2 years of experience reviewed HR and LR images in two separate sessions. The presence of endometriotic lesions of the uterosacral ligament (USL), rectovaginal septum (RVS), pouch of Douglas (POD), and rectal wall was noted. The accuracies of LR-MRI and HR-MRI were compared with the laparoscopic and histopathological findings. Average acquisition times were 24 minutes for HR-MRI and 7 minutes for LR-MRI. The more experienced radiologist achieved higher accuracy with both HR-MRI and LR-MRI. The values of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy did not significantly change between HR and LR images or interobserver agreement for all of the considered anatomic sites. LR-MRI performs as well as HR-MRI and is a valuable tool for the detection of deep endometriosis extension. (orig.)

  12. MRI-based 3D pelvic autonomous innervation: a first step towards image-guided pelvic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyse pelvic autonomous innervation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison with anatomical macroscopic dissection on cadavers. Pelvic MRI was performed in eight adult human cadavers (five men and three women) using a total of four sequences each: T1, T1 fat saturation, T2, diffusion weighed. Images were analysed with segmentation software in order to extract nervous tissue. Key height points of the pelvis autonomous innervation were located in every specimen. Standardised pelvis dissections were then performed. Distances between the same key points and the three anatomical references forming a coordinate system were measured on MRIs and dissections. Concordance (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient) between MRI and dissection was calculated. MRI acquisition allowed an adequate visualization of the autonomous innervation. Comparison between 3D MRI images and dissection showed concordant pictures. The statistical analysis showed a mean difference of less than 1 cm between MRI and dissection measures and a correct concordance correlation coefficient on at least two coordinates for each point. Our acquisition and post-processing method demonstrated that MRI is suitable for detection of autonomous pelvic innervations and can offer a preoperative nerve cartography. (orig.)

  13. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  14. Standard high-resolution pelvic MRI vs. low-resolution pelvic MRI in the evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the capabilities of standard pelvic MRI with low-resolution pelvic MRI using fast breath-hold sequences to evaluate deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Sixty-eight consecutive women with suspected DIE were studied with pelvic MRI. A double-acquisition protocol was carried out in each case. High-resolution (HR)-MRI consisted of axial, sagittal, and coronal TSE T2W images, axial TSE T1W, and axial THRIVE. Low-resolution (LR)-MRI was acquired using fast single shot (SSH) T2 and T1 images. Two radiologists with 10 and 2 years of experience reviewed HR and LR images in two separate sessions. The presence of endometriotic lesions of the uterosacral ligament (USL), rectovaginal septum (RVS), pouch of Douglas (POD), and rectal wall was noted. The accuracies of LR-MRI and HR-MRI were compared with the laparoscopic and histopathological findings. Average acquisition times were 24 minutes for HR-MRI and 7 minutes for LR-MRI. The more experienced radiologist achieved higher accuracy with both HR-MRI and LR-MRI. The values of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy did not significantly change between HR and LR images or interobserver agreement for all of the considered anatomic sites. LR-MRI performs as well as HR-MRI and is a valuable tool for the detection of deep endometriosis extension. (orig.)

  15. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Luis, E-mail: lmeneseq@gmail.com; Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pia; Andia, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Uribe, Sergio, E-mail: suribe@med.puc.cl [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile)

    2013-02-15

    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  16. MRI-based 3D pelvic autonomous innervation: a first step towards image-guided pelvic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, M.M. [University Montpellier I, Laboratory of Experimental Anatomy Faculty of Medicine Montpellier-Nimes, Montpellier (France); Macri, F.; Beregi, J.P. [Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Radiology Department, Nimes (France); Mazars, R.; Prudhomme, M. [University Montpellier I, Laboratory of Experimental Anatomy Faculty of Medicine Montpellier-Nimes, Montpellier (France); Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Digestive Surgery Department, Nimes (France); Droupy, S. [Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Urology-Andrology Department, Nimes (France)

    2014-08-15

    To analyse pelvic autonomous innervation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison with anatomical macroscopic dissection on cadavers. Pelvic MRI was performed in eight adult human cadavers (five men and three women) using a total of four sequences each: T1, T1 fat saturation, T2, diffusion weighed. Images were analysed with segmentation software in order to extract nervous tissue. Key height points of the pelvis autonomous innervation were located in every specimen. Standardised pelvis dissections were then performed. Distances between the same key points and the three anatomical references forming a coordinate system were measured on MRIs and dissections. Concordance (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient) between MRI and dissection was calculated. MRI acquisition allowed an adequate visualization of the autonomous innervation. Comparison between 3D MRI images and dissection showed concordant pictures. The statistical analysis showed a mean difference of less than 1 cm between MRI and dissection measures and a correct concordance correlation coefficient on at least two coordinates for each point. Our acquisition and post-processing method demonstrated that MRI is suitable for detection of autonomous pelvic innervations and can offer a preoperative nerve cartography. (orig.)

  17. Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia elongate through zones of peptidoglycan synthesis that mark division sites of daughter cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Brandon Lyon; Scott, Molly; Parry, Bradley; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-08-16

    Agents that cause Lyme disease, relapsing fever, leptospirosis, and syphilis belong to the phylum Spirochaetae-a unique lineage of bacteria most known for their long, spiral morphology. Despite the relevance to human health, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of spirochete growth. Here, using quantitative microscopy to track peptidoglycan cell-wall synthesis, we found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi displays a complex pattern of growth. B. burgdorferi elongates from discrete zones that are both spatially and temporally regulated. In addition, some peptidoglycan incorporation occurs along the cell body, with the notable exception of a large region at the poles. Newborn cells inherit a highly active zone of peptidoglycan synthesis at midcell that contributes to elongation for most of the cell cycle. Concomitant with the initiation of nucleoid separation and cell constriction, second and third zones of elongation are established at the 1/4 and 3/4 cellular positions, marking future sites of division for the subsequent generation. Positioning of elongation zones along the cell is robust to cell length variations and is relatively precise over long distances (>30 µm), suggesting that cells ‟sense" relative, as opposed to absolute, cell length to establish zones of peptidoglycan synthesis. The transition from one to three zones of peptidoglycan growth during the cell cycle is also observed in relapsing fever Borrelia. However, this mode of growth does not extend to representative species from other spirochetal genera, suggesting that this distinctive growth mode represents an evolutionary divide in the spirochete phylum. PMID:27506799

  18. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We have explored whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid ``atmosphere'' with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be ``yes''. When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. Since there is a double-island structure for the case of pure rotation, as already found by Morton and Darwin many years ago, we see the existence of an atmosphere for the moving body as an example of the stability...

  19. Screening of the pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination; (a community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehrani Fahimeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a silent disorder with a huge impact on women's quality of life. There is limited data from community-based studies conducted to determine the prevalence of POP as its assessment needs a pelvic examination. We aimed to develop a simple screening inventory for identification of pelvic organ prolapse and then evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. Methods This study had two phases. In the first phase in order to develop a simple inventory for assessment of POP, the Pelvic Floor Disorder Inventory (PFDI was completed for a convenience sample of 200 women, aged 18-45 years, referred for annual gynecologic examination, and their pelvic organ prolapse was assessed using the standard protocol. The most sensitive and specific questions were selected as pelvic organ prolapse simple screening inventory (POPSSI. In the second phase, using a stratified multistage probability cluster sampling method, the sensitivity and specificity of the POPSSI was investigated in a non selected sample of 954 women recruited from among reproductive aged women living in four randomly selected provinces of Iran. Results The sensitivity and specificity of POPSSI for identification of pelvic organ prolapse in the general population were 45.5 and 87.4% respectively; these values were 96.7 and 20% among those women who were aware of their pelvic dysfunction. Conclusion Community based screening studies on pelvic organ prolapse could be facilitated by using the POPSSI, the sensitivity of which would be enhanced through conducting of public awareness programs.

  20. Influence of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents on postural balance during sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Won, Yonggwan; Bok, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Bong-Ok; Kim, Jung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis on postural balance during sitting were studied by measuring inclination angles, pressure distribution, and electromyography. Participants were classified into a control group, pelvic asymmetry group, scoliosis group, and scoliosis with pelvic asymmetry and then performed anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting on the unstable board for 5 seconds to assess their postural balance. Inclination and obliquity angles between the groups were measured by an accelerometer located on the unstable board. Pressure distribution (maximum force and peak pressure) was analyzed using a capacitive seat sensor. In addition, surface electrodes were attached to the abdominal and erector spinae muscles of each participant. Inclination and obliquity angles increased more asymmetrically in participants with both pelvic asymmetry and scoliosis than with pelvic asymmetry or scoliosis alone. Maximum forces and peak pressures of each group showed an asymmetrical pressure distribution caused by the difference in height between the left and right pelvis and curve type of the patients' spines when performing anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting. Muscle contraction patterns of external oblique, thoracic erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, and lumbar multifidus muscles may be influenced by spine curve type and region of idiopathic scoliosis. Asymmetrical muscle activities were observed on the convex side of scoliotic patients and these muscle activity patterns were changed by the pelvic asymmetry. From these results, it was confirmed that pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis cause postural asymmetry, unequal weight distribution, and muscular imbalance during sitting. PMID:26406054

  1. Biomechanics of pelvic system: Towards a definition of the required mechanical properties of implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brieu M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Genital prolapse is a prevalent pelvic disorder inducing hypermobility of organs. Its physiopathology is not well understood as highlighted by the high rate of failure of the surgical treatments. A better definition of the pelvic tissues properties is needed to design more functional prostheses. Image registration is first used to describe the structure of the pelvic system. Experimental characterization is done to have a map of the mechanical properties of pelvic soft tissues and compare healthy and pathologic tissues behaviour. Then a model based on macromolecular approach and histologic composition is proposed.

  2. Dynamics of macroscopic tunneling in elongated Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate macroscopic tunneling from an elongated quasi-one-dimensional trap, forming a 'cigar-shaped' Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using a recently developed formalism we get the leading analytical approximation for the right-hand side of the potential wall, i.e., outside the trap, and a formalism based on Wigner functions, for the left side of the potential wall, i.e., inside the BEC. We then present accomplished results of numerical calculations, which show a 'blip' in the particle density traveling with an asymptotic shock velocity, as resulted from previous works on a dotlike trap but with significant differences from the latter. Inside the BEC a pattern of a traveling dispersive shock wave is revealed. In the attractive case, we find trains of bright solitons frozen near the boundary.

  3. Loss of elongation factor P disrupts bacterial outer membrane integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, S Betty; Hersch, Steven J; Roy, Hervé;

    2012-01-01

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) is posttranslationally modified at a conserved lysyl residue by the coordinated action of two enzymes, PoxA and YjeK. We have previously established the importance of this modification in Salmonella stress resistance. Here we report that, like poxA and yjeK mutants......, Salmonella strains lacking EF-P display increased susceptibility to hypoosmotic conditions, antibiotics, and detergents and enhanced resistance to the compound S-nitrosoglutathione. The susceptibility phenotypes are largely explained by the enhanced membrane permeability of the efp mutant, which exhibits...... increased uptake of the hydrophobic dye 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN). Analysis of the membrane proteomes of wild-type and efp mutant Salmonella strains reveals few changes, including the prominent overexpression of a single porin, KdgM, in the efp mutant outer membrane. Removal of KdgM in the efp mutant...

  4. Observation of Universal Solidification in the Elongated Water Nanomeniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Won, Donghyun; Sung, Baekman; Jhe, Wonho

    2014-02-20

    The ubiquitous capillary water bridge in nature plays an important role in interfacial phenomena under ambient conditions such as adhesion and friction. We present experimental measurements of the mechanical properties of the nanometric water column by using noncontact atomic force microscopy. We observe the universal behaviors that the relaxation time (RT) associated with the meniscus increases with its elongation and ruptures at the same value of RT, independent of the meniscus volume. In particular, the enhancement of RT between formation and rupture of the meniscus is indicative of the increased solid-like response, similar to that observed in nanoconfined water layers. Our results that the longer water column is more solid-like and less stable suggest (i) water at the vapor/liquid interface is more solid-like than that inside the meniscus and (ii) the associated smaller mobility of the interfacial water molecules is responsible for the structural stability of the water meniscus. PMID:26270845

  5. Reconstruction of recurrent diaphragmatic eventration with an elongated polytetrafluoroethylene sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masaki; Sonobe, Makoto; Bando, Toru; Date, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    We report the case of a 31-year old woman with recurrence of left diaphragmatic eventration 3 years after a previous surgery for this condition. At the initial occurrence, she had experienced dyspnoea on exercise and subsequently underwent laparoscopic plication of the diaphragm with an endo-stapler at a local hospital. Immediately after the operation, the diaphragm was torn and the intestine entered the thorax. Therefore, plication involving sewing was performed. Then, 3 years later, the patient again experienced dyspnoea and was diagnosed as having recurrence of left diaphragmatic eventration. Observation under thoracoscopy revealed that the centre of the left diaphragm was thin but not torn. We reconstructed the left diaphragm with an elongated polytetrafluoroethylene sheet on the naïve diaphragm. The patient was discharged from our hospital 5 days after surgery. Her respiratory function improved and she has not experienced recurrence. PMID:23644727

  6. Elongation method for electronic structure calculations of random DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimoto, Yuuichi; Liu, Kai; Aoki, Yuriko

    2015-10-30

    We applied ab initio order-N elongation (ELG) method to calculate electronic structures of various deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) models. We aim to test potential application of the method for building a database of DNA electronic structures. The ELG method mimics polymerization reactions on a computer and meets the requirements for linear scaling computational efficiency and high accuracy, even for huge systems. As a benchmark test, we applied the method for calculations of various types of random sequenced A- and B-type DNA models with and without counterions. In each case, the ELG method maintained high accuracy with small errors in energy on the order of 10(-8) hartree/atom compared with conventional calculations. We demonstrate that the ELG method can provide valuable information such as stabilization energies and local densities of states for each DNA sequence. In addition, we discuss the "restarting" feature of the ELG method for constructing a database that exhaustively covers DNA species. PMID:26337429

  7. Relationship between the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system (POP-Q), the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7), and the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20) before and after anterior vaginal wall prolapse surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, Martin

    2015-01-01

    weak correlations between POP-Q and PFIQ-7, including subscales (r 0.173-0.324, p < 0.05), and PFDI-20, including the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory (POPDI) subscale (r 0.180-0.211, p < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between point Ba and PFIQ-7 (p = 0......The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between the Pelvic Organ Quantification system (POP-Q) measurements and symptom questionnaire scores before and after surgery. This was a part of a randomized controlled study comparing conventional colporrhaphy with mesh repair...... surgery. METHODS: The correlation between POP-Q measurements and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7) and Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20) scores was investigated in 164 women 55 years or older scheduled for primary anterior vaginal wall prolapse surgery at baseline and the correlation...

  8. Elongational rheology and cohesive fracture of photo-oxidated LDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found recently that low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samples with different degrees of photo-oxidation represent an interesting system to study the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture and the aspects of the cohesive rupture in elongational flow. Sheets of LDPE were subjected to photo-oxidation in the presence of air using a xenon lamp to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Characterisation methods included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solvent extraction method, and rheology in shear and uniaxial extensional flows. Linear viscoelasticity was increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by the carbonyl index, acid and aldehydes groups, and gel fraction. The molecular stress function model was used to quantify the experimental data, and the nonlinear model parameter β was found to be correlated with the gel content. The uniaxial data showed that the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture was shifted to lower elongational rates, the higher the gel content was. From 2 weeks photo-oxidation onwards, cohesive rupture occurred at every strain rate investigated. The true strain and true stress at cohesive fracture as well as the energy density applied to the sample up to fracture were analyzed. At low gel content, rupture was mainly determined by the melt fraction while at high gel content, rupture occurred predominantly in the gel structure. The strain at break was found to be independent of strain rate, contrary to the stress at break and the energy density. Thus, the true strain and not the stress at break or the energy density was found to be the relevant physical quantity to describe cohesive fracture behavior of photo-oxidated LDPE. The equilibrium modulus of the gel structures was correlated with the true strain at rupture. The stiffer the gel structure, the lower was the deformation tolerated before the sample breaks

  9. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  10. Biochemical evaluation of the supporting structure of pelvic organs in selected numbers of premenopausal and postmenopausal Malaysian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Sulaiha Syed Aznal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is associated with menopause and changes in the proteins of the pelvic supporting system, but there is scant data on the precise alterations in Malaysian women. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the differences in the extracellular matrices (ECM of uterosacral ligaments in premenopausal and postmenopausal Malaysian women with or without POP. Settings and Design: The observational study was conducted for 9 months in three general hospitals involving 30 women who underwent hysterectomies for various indications except for carcinoma of pelvic organs. Materials and Methods: Three groups were identified: Premenopausal women (Group 1, postmenopausal women without POP (Group 2, and postmenopausal women with POP (Group 3. Age, duration of menopause, body mass index (BMI, parity, and vaginal deliveries were documented. Only 21 samples of the uterosacral ligaments were stained immunohistochemically for collagen I and III, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs 1 and 2, elastin, and tenascin. Statistical Analysis Used: Image J software analysis was utilized for quantification, while non-parametric statistics (Kruskal-Wallis with post-hoc Dunns Multiple Comparison test was used for result analysis. Results: The profile parameters were not significantly different except for mean age and duration of menopause in Group 3. Samples from Group 2 showed lower expression of almost all proteins except MMP1 and tenascin (higher as compared to Group 1. The changes appeared to be exaggerated in Group 3, though statistically insignificant. Conclusion: A significant difference in the expression of ECM was apparent in postmenopausal subjects as compared to premenopausal ( P = 0.05, compromising the uterosacral ligament tensile strength. The findings are proven similar as those changes in women from other studies.

  11. Numerical simulation of anisotropic shrinkage in a 2D compact of elongated particles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braginsky, Michael V.; Olevsky, Eugene A. (San Diego State University, San Diego, CA); Johnson, D. Lynn (Norwest University, Evanston, IL); Tikare, Veena

    2003-08-01

    Microstructural evolution during simple solid-state sintering of two-dimensional compacts of elongated particles packed in different arrangements was simulated using a kinetic, Monte Carlo model. The model used simulates curvature-driven grain growth, pore migration by surface diffusion, vacancy formation, diffusion along grain boundaries, and annihilation. Only the shape of the particles was anisotropic; all other extensive thermodynamic and kinetic properties such as surface energies and diffusivities were isotropic. We verified our model by simulating sintering in the analytically tractable cases of simple-packed and close-packed, elongated particles and comparing the shrinkage rate anisotropies with those predicted analytically. Once our model was verified, we used it to simulate sintering in a powder compact of aligned, elongated particles of arbitrary size and shape to gain an understanding of differential shrinkage. Anisotropic shrinkage occurred in all compacts with aligned, elongated particles. However, the direction of higher shrinkage was in some cases along the direction of elongation and in other cases in the perpendicular direction, depending on the details of the powder compact. In compacts of simple-packed, mono-sized, elongated particles, shrinkage was higher in the direction of elongation. In compacts of close-packed, mono-sized, elongated particles and of elongated particles with a size and shape distribution, the shrinkage was lower in the direction of elongation. The results of these simulations are analyzed, and the implication of these results is discussed.

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Phonation Threshold Pressure as a Function of Vocal Fold Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chao; Regner, Michael F.; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The relationship between the vocal fold elongation and the phonation threshold pressure (PTP) was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The PTP values of seventeen excised canine larynges with 0% to 15% bilateral vocal fold elongations in 5% elongation steps were measured using an excised larynx phonation system. It was found that twelve larynges exhibited a monotonic relationship between PTP and elongation; in these larynges, the 0% elongation condition had the lowest PTP. Five larynges exhibited a PTP minimum at 5% elongation. To provide a theoretical explanation of these phenomena, a two-mass model was modified to simulate vibration of the elongated vocal folds. Two pairs of longitudinal springs were used to represent the longitudinal elastin in the vocal folds. This model showed that when the vocal folds were elongated, the increased longitudinal tension would increase the PTP value and the increased vocal fold length would decrease the PTP value. The antagonistic effects contributed by these two factors were found to be able to cause either a monotonic or a non-monotonic relationship between PTP and elongation, which were consistent with experimental observations. Because PTP describes the ease of phonation, this study suggests that there may exist a nonzero optimal vocal fold elongation for the greatest ease for phonation in some larynges. PMID:25530744

  13. Automated recognition of body cavities in torso X-ray CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, it has become even more important to understand the normal anatomical structures of the human body in the field of radiological image anatomy. The recognition of body cavities is useful when organ extraction is performed. However, it is difficult to perform organ extraction and to obtain a clear understanding of anatomical structures based on CT values. For example, the distributions of the CT numbers of muscle and organs overlap each other. Therefore, the recognition of the body cavity domain can reduce the range of internal organ extraction and simplify organ segmentation. The purpose of the present study was to develop an automated method for recognizing the body cavities in torso X-ray CT images. Our body cavity recognition method is based on skeletal positions and is performed by extracting the borders of the thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, and pelvic cavity. This method detects the initial and final points of such borders and searches for the shortest path on the surfaces of the skeletal structures. It then generates the boundary surfaces of the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities by drawing straight lines between the shortest paths and the centers of the paths. The body cavities located between the superior thoracic aperture and the diaphragm, the diaphragm and the pelvic inlet, and the pelvic inlet and the pelvic outlet are regarded as the thoracic cavity, the abdominal cavity, and the pelvic cavity, respectively. The method was applied to 20 cases in which torso X-ray CT images were obtained. The results showed that the body cavities were extracted correctly in most cases: the thoracic cavity in 17 cases, the abdominal cavity in 19 cases, and the pelvic cavity in 18 cases. We confirmed that our proposed method is effective for recognizing these body cavities. As one of the applications of our study, segmentation of muscle, fat, and the rectum in CT images was performed using the information obtained for body cavity structures. The results

  14. Pelvic floor exercises with biofeedback for stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Capelini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Prospective study to objectively evaluate the benefits of pelvic floor strengthening exercises associated to biofeedback for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence (SUI were selected for this study. All patients underwent a pelvic floor training associated to biofeedback for 12 consecutive weeks. Urodynamic tests, pad test and bladder diary were analyzed at the beginning of the study, at the end and after 3 months. The King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ was applied before and after treatment to assess the impact in the quality of life. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the pad weight (from 14.21 g to 1 g, number of urinary leakage episodes (from 8.14 per day to 2.57 per day and daytime frequency (from 7.93 per day to 5.85 per day. At urodynamics the authors observed a significant increase in Valsalva leak-point pressure (from 103.93 cm H2O to 139.14 cm H2O, cistometric capacity (from 249.29 mL to 336.43 mL, p = 0.0015 and bladder volume at first desire to void (from 145 mL to 215.71 mL. Those differences were kept during the first 3 months of follow up. The KHQ revealed significant differences except in the case of "general health perception", which covers health in general and not exclusively urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION: Treatment of SUI with pelvic floor exercises associated to biofeedback caused significant changes in the parameters analyzed, with maintenance of good results 3 months after treatment.

  15. Dynamic MR colpocystorectography assessing pelvic-floor descent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienemann, A.; Kohz, P.; Reiser, M. [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany); Anthuber, C.; Baron, A. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic resonance colpocystorectography (MR-CCRG) is presented in the evaluation of patients with pelvic-floor disorders. Five healthy volunteers and 44 female patients with isolated or combined visceral descent underwent dynamic MRI and dynamic fluoroscopy (DF). MR-CCRG was performed with the patient in a supine position using a True FISP sequence (1 image/1.2 s; in-plane resolution 1.02 mm) during pelvic floor contraction, relaxation, and straining maneuvers. Relevant organs, such as urethra, bladder, vagina, and rectum, were opacified by using a saline solution, Magnevist (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), and sonography gel, respectively. The clinical evaluation and the intraoperative results (30 cases) were used as reference. MR-CCRG and DF were non-diagnostic in 3 cases each. Most patients had a combined type of visceral prolapse, the most frequent combination being a vaginal vault prolapse and a cystocele. The points of reference were sufficiently outlined by DF and MR-CCRG. In comparison with the clinical and intraoperative results, MR-CCRG proved to be especially beneficial in the diagnosis of different types of enteroceles including a uterovaginal prolapse. MR-CCRG showed an equal or higher sensitivity and specificity for all individual sites when compared with DF. Also, predominant herniation obscuring other concomitant prolapse could be verified in 8 cases. MR-CCRG is superior to DF and accurately depicts pelvic-floor descent and prolapse in women. The possibility of dynamic presentation (see enclosed CD-ROM) allows for a better understanding of the organ movements within a given topographic reference setting. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Obesity and Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomian, Andrzej; Lisik, Wojciech; Kosieradzki, Maciej; Barcz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are becoming a worldwide health problem associated with numerous co-morbidities. National costs of obesity and pelvic flor disorders have been rising since the 1950s across the world. Obesity is thought to have a very strong effect on pelvic floor disorders, and, considering the high prevalence of both problems worldwide, it is of utmost importance to evaluate the association between these pathologies as well as the impact of obesity on treatment efficacy. This review is based on a selection of reports in the literature (PubMed search), including guidelines and Cochrane reviews. Obesity seems to be a well-documented risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and is a predictor of exacerbation of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder (OAB). Weight loss is also associated with improvement or resolution of SUI and OAB. In the case of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), weight loss is associated with improvement in quality of life. Although obesity is associated with POP in general, the exact role of obesity in symptomatic POP remains uncertain. While outcomes of anti-incontinence surgery among obese women are similar to those in non-obese women, postoperative urge incontinence is more likely to occur. It seems that obesity is not a risk factor for postoperative complications or short-term efficacy of POP surgical treatment. Long-term effects are still uncertain. Obesity is a strong risk factor for LUTS, but in most cases it does not affect efficacy of operative treatment. It may be associated with some post-operative complications. Weight loss in many cases allows avoiding surgical intervention. PMID:27255341

  17. Dynamic MR colpocystorectography assessing pelvic-floor descent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance colpocystorectography (MR-CCRG) is presented in the evaluation of patients with pelvic-floor disorders. Five healthy volunteers and 44 female patients with isolated or combined visceral descent underwent dynamic MRI and dynamic fluoroscopy (DF). MR-CCRG was performed with the patient in a supine position using a True FISP sequence (1 image/1.2 s; in-plane resolution 1.02 mm) during pelvic floor contraction, relaxation, and straining maneuvers. Relevant organs, such as urethra, bladder, vagina, and rectum, were opacified by using a saline solution, Magnevist (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), and sonography gel, respectively. The clinical evaluation and the intraoperative results (30 cases) were used as reference. MR-CCRG and DF were non-diagnostic in 3 cases each. Most patients had a combined type of visceral prolapse, the most frequent combination being a vaginal vault prolapse and a cystocele. The points of reference were sufficiently outlined by DF and MR-CCRG. In comparison with the clinical and intraoperative results, MR-CCRG proved to be especially beneficial in the diagnosis of different types of enteroceles including a uterovaginal prolapse. MR-CCRG showed an equal or higher sensitivity and specificity for all individual sites when compared with DF. Also, predominant herniation obscuring other concomitant prolapse could be verified in 8 cases. MR-CCRG is superior to DF and accurately depicts pelvic-floor descent and prolapse in women. The possibility of dynamic presentation (see enclosed CD-ROM) allows for a better understanding of the organ movements within a given topographic reference setting. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Pelvic inflammatory disease: Contemporary diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID is polymicrobial infection in women characterized by inflammation of the upper genital tract, including endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic peritonitis, occasionally leading to the formation of tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA. PID primarily affects young, sexually active women, and it is highly correlated with having several sexual partners, intrauterine contraceptive device and sexually transmited diseases. The spectrum of disease is caused most commonly by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 30-50% of cases. PID is responsible for severe acute morbidity and significant long-term sequelae, including tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. The following clinical features are suggestive of a diagnosis of PID: bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever (higher than 38°C, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, cervical motion tenderness and adnexal tenderness, with or without a palpable mass. In laboratory findings, there is presence of excess leucocytes, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein. Transvaginal ultrasound scanning may be helpful, and its sensitivity is up to 85%. It can identify inflamed and dilated tubes and tubo-ovarian masses. Magnetic resonance imaging can be helpful in a final diagnosis in 95% of cases. In 15-30% of suspected cases, there is no laparoscopic evidence of disease. Treatment regimens for PID include broadspectrum antibiotics, including coverage for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The usage of parenteral or oral therapy, inpatient or outpatient regimens, depends on the patient’s clinical condition. Considering the potential complications of disease, there is a need for good health educational programmes in reproductive period.

  19. Turn-Amplitude Analysis as a Diagnostic Test for Myofascial Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Itza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myofascial pain syndrome of the pelvic floor (MPSPF is a common disease in the context of chronic pelvic pain (CPP; however, there is currently no gold-standard test to diagnose it.

  20. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShalabi, Omar; Alahmar, Fadi Obaied; Aljasem, Hazem; Alsaid, Bayan; AlShalabi, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20-30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17 × 12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal approach was used to enucleate it. This rare location has not been mentioned before. The woman was finally diagnosed by pathologists which was myxoid leiomyoma. PMID:27429825