WorldWideScience

Sample records for body core competencies

  1. Regulatory body core competencies: when should a regulator contract a TSO?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Salati de Almeida, Ivan P.; Almeida, Claudio U.; Costa, Eduardo M.

    2008-01-01

    The main nuclear regulatory functions are authorization, safety review and assessment, inspection and enforcement and development of regulations and guides. Additionally, the following supplementary functions may be executed by the regulatory body: research and development, emergency response and international cooperation. In order to function properly, the regulatory body should also have the following support functions: general management, logistics, training, communication and information, information technology support, institutional relationship, internal controls and audits, ombudsman and legal support. Technical Support Organizations (TSOs) may assist the regulatory body in meeting the challenges in a rapid growing and changing environment. Specially when there is a temporary need for a wider technical expertise diversity, short time to finish a project or when the cost of developing and maintaining infrastructure of their own laboratories for analysis and research is too high and may deviate the focus on the regulator's mission. Decision on the 'size' of the regulatory body and on what can be contracted to a Technical Support Organization (TSO) depends on the resources and capabilities needed to fulfil the regulatory functions efficiently. It is important to establish the core competencies that must be at the regulatory body, keeping the focus on the regulatory goals and define the real need to contract a TSO, weighting the benefits and disadvantages. As a contribution to the definition of the regulatory core competencies, the paper discusses what is essential to be kept at the regulatory body and what can be delegated to a TSO; how to manage and control the work of the TSO; the cost effectiveness of contracting, sharing of tacit knowledge; how to handle eventual conflicts between the parties involved in the licensing process; contract types and risk evaluation, concerning the dependence on a TSO, eventual change of partners and the intellectual capital

  2. Core Competence and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Gary; Hooper, Nick

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the concept of core competence and applies it to postcompulsory education in the United Kingdom. Adopts an educational perspective that suggests accreditation as the core competence of universities. This economic approach suggests that the market trend toward lifetime learning might best be met by institutions developing a core competence…

  3. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators’ required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural...... environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or “core......” requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students’ prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator’s reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence...

  4. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  5. Discovering the Army's Core Competencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudesheim, Frederick

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question, "Has the Army correctly identified its core competencies to ensure the Army can adequately respond to the national military strategy?" FM 1, The Army (Prototype Draft...

  6. Assessing Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marches in 1987. Assessment in the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). It is widely recognized that sophisticated computing technologies are becoming a key element in today's classroom instructional techniques. Regardless, the Professor must be held responsible for creating an instructional environment in which the technology actually supplements learning outcomes of the students. Almost all academic disciplines have found a niche for computer-based instruction in their respective professional domain. In many cases, it is viewed as an essential and integral part of the educational process. Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology

  7. One Health Core Competency Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Frankson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting ‘One Health’ approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education as they describe the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  8. Linking Core Competence, Innovation and Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Gökkaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizational resources and capabilities realized by business practitioners and researchershave significant importanceas they support firmperformance and competitive advantage. However, what exactly core competence is not clearly understood since terms such as resource, capability and compe tence are used interchangeably by researchers. From this point forth, this article provides a framework for separating organization's core competencies from resource and capability. We propose three empirical determiners such as uniqueness,inimitability and extendibilityto the research modelfor separating organization's core competencies from resource and capability.Second, the proposed core competence framework serves as a tool for assessing the relationship between core competencies and innovation. Finally, the paper intended to help leaders and managers about how they can enhance firm performance by means of supporting core competencies and innovation.

  9. What Core Competencies Are Related to Teachers' Innovative Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Wang, Di; Cai, Yonghong; Engels, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' core competencies in relation to their innovative teaching performance. Based on the literature and previous studies in this field, four competencies (learning competency, educational competency, social competency and technological competency) are theorised as core competencies for teachers'…

  10. Core body temperature in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-05-01

    A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) temperature-sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18-25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature-regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500.

  11. The Core Competencies for General Orthopaedic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellam, James F; Archibald, Douglas; Barber, James W; Christian, Eugene P; D'Ascoli, Richard J; Haynes, Richard J; Hecht, Suzanne S; Hurwitz, Shepard R; Kellam, James F; McLaren, Alexander C; Peabody, Terrance D; Southworth, Stephen R; Strauss, Robert W; Wadey, Veronica M R

    2017-01-18

    With the changing delivery of orthopaedic surgical care, there is a need to define the knowledge and competencies that are expected of an orthopaedist providing general and/or acute orthopaedic care. This article provides a proposal for the knowledge and competencies needed for an orthopaedist to practice general and/or acute care orthopaedic surgery. Using the modified Delphi method, the General Orthopaedic Competency Task Force consisting of stakeholders associated with general orthopaedic practice has proposed the core knowledge and competencies that should be maintained by orthopaedists who practice emergency and general orthopaedic surgery. For relevancy to clinical practice, 2 basic sets of competencies were established. The assessment competencies pertain to the general knowledge needed to evaluate, investigate, and determine an overall management plan. The management competencies are generally procedural in nature and are divided into 2 groups. For the Management 1 group, the orthopaedist should be competent to provide definitive care including assessment, investigation, initial or emergency care, operative or nonoperative care, and follow-up. For the Management 2 group, the orthopaedist should be competent to assess, investigate, and commence timely non-emergency or emergency care and then either transfer the patient to the appropriate subspecialist's care or provide definitive care based on the urgency of care, exceptional practice circumstance, or individual's higher training. This may include some higher-level procedures usually performed by a subspecialist, but are consistent with one's practice based on experience, practice environment, and/or specialty interest. These competencies are the first step in defining the practice of general orthopaedic surgery including acute orthopaedic care. Further validation and discussion among educators, general orthopaedic surgeons, and subspecialists will ensure that these are relevant to clinical practice. These

  12. [Essential professional core competencies for nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih

    2010-10-01

    Core competency is vital to the nursing profession. Such helps guarantee the high quality and effectiveness of delivered care and maintains the social value and status of the nursing profession. This article introduces the definition of nursing core competency and its connotations. The core competency profile for the nursing profession embraces basic behavioral attributes as well as mastery of advanced practice skills. The former include such attributes as gentleness, willingness to serve, keen observation and judgment, efficiency, skillfulness, responsibility and accountability. The latter embraces skills in general care, communication and collaboration, management, self-development, innovation and research, and stress-adjustment. To cultivate competent nurses, academic education should emphasize critical thinking skills, integrate problem-based and evidence-based learning approaches into curricula, and use objective structured clinical examination to evaluate learning outcomes. In the healthcare sector, systematic professional training models such as the clinical ladder with multidiscipline rotation hold the potential to train novice nurses as expert professionals. Meanwhile, to advance the professional capabilities of nurses, nursing administrators should provide a positive work environment to fuel and maintain learning motivation. Education and healthcare systems should work closely together to promote the professional competence of nurses and to strengthen the value of the nursing profession.

  13. Core Competencies for Training Effective School Consultants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhouse, Katie Lynn Sutton

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a set of core competencies of effective school-based consultants for preservice school psychology consultation training. With recent changes in service delivery models, psychologists are challenged to engage in more indirect, preventative practices (Reschly, 2008). Consultation emerges as…

  14. Marketing Competencies: A Core Course of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Elric A.

    The document provides a systematic analysis of curriculum in marketing, focusing on the design and evaluation of a vocational course in the distributive education curriculum. The core course, entitled basic marketing, was selected because marketing competencies are essential to every distributive education student. The following areas are…

  15. Information professionals: core competencies and professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We discuss the concept of core competencies applied to policies for teaching and training information professionals, particularly librarians. Method. Sixty graduates of the Institute were employed as information professionals. These sixty were asked to attribute degrees of importance to specific items associated with knowledge and skills that, within the scope of this research, were considered core competencies for meeting the demands of their jobs. Participants were also asked to cite knowledge they acquired in school and knowledge they use in exercising their profession, the skills that they consider necessary but that they did not gain in school, and the difficulties they encounter in exercising their profession and for which they were not sufficiently well prepared. Analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative data analyses were performed. The data were tabulated using Access and several reports and cross-tabulations were generated. Results. The results suggest a gulf between knowledge and skills acquired in library school and those that are required by the job market. In particular, participants lacked the skills they needed to work with information and communication technologies. Conclusion. The concept of core competencies is increasingly taken into account by the productive sector of the economy. The educational system ought to keep up with this change. The empirical research described shows that there is a need to establish advanced and modern policies for the education of librarians, participants in the market for information professionals.

  16. Discusses the core competence of professional information agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tao; Wang Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the connotation of core competence theory, Discusses the definition, composition and main aspects of the theory in professional information agency, And analyzes the core competence of an authoritative information agency-Energy Information Administration, discusses the main measures of improving core competencies in professional information agency. (authors)

  17. Examination of core competencies of agricultural development professionals in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvedi, Murari; Ghimire, Ramjee; Channa, Ty

    2018-04-01

    This cross-sectional study examined perceived level of importance, perceived level of competency in extension core competencies, and whether and how perceptions of competency vary by respondents' demographics; ascertained gaps in competency, if any; and identified ways for agricultural development professionals in Cambodia to acquire core competencies. Data were collected using a group-administered survey among 39 agricultural development professionals participating in a national workshop in December 2015. The survey consisted of 48 competencies representing eight core competencies, and each competency had level of importance and level of competency parts. The findings show that extension workers in Cambodia deemed all competencies highly or very highly important to their extension work; however, their perceived level of competency in those competencies appeared not to meet the expectations. The level of competency in all but communication skills and diversity significantly differed by gender but not by age and experience. Respondents indicated all four methods-preservice, in-service, basic induction training, and participation in seminars, workshops, and webinars-equally appropriate to acquire core competencies. The findings imply that the agricultural development authority in Cambodia should review, update, or design extension education curricula incorporating the competencies highlighted in this study and train its extension cadres on those competencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Information Superiority: Outsourcing an Air Force Core Competency?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McTerman, Hugh

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis explores the perceived relationship between the core competency requirements for information superiority and the tasks defined for the Air Force communication, computer, and information career field...

  19. Update on the Health Services Research Doctoral Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James F; Menachemi, Nir; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2018-03-13

    To present revised core competencies for doctoral programs in health services research (HSR), modalities to deliver these competencies, and suggested methods for assessing mastery of these competencies. Core competencies were originally developed in 2005, updated (but unpublished) in 2008, modestly updated for a 2016 HSR workforce conference, and revised based on feedback from attendees. Additional feedback was obtained from doctoral program directors, employer/workforce experts and attendees of presentation on these competencies at the AcademyHealth's June 2017 Annual Research Meeting. The current version (V2.1) competencies include the ethical conduct of research, conceptual models, development of research questions, study designs, data measurement and collection methods, statistical methods for analyzing data, professional collaboration, and knowledge dissemination. These competencies represent a core that defines what HSR researchers should master in order to address the complexities of microsystem to macro-system research that HSR entails. There are opportunities to conduct formal evaluation of newer delivery modalities (e.g., flipped classrooms) and to integrate new Learning Health System Researcher Core Competencies, developed by AHRQ, into the HSR core competencies. Core competencies in HSR are a continually evolving work in progress because new research questions arise, new methods are developed, and the trans-disciplinary nature of the field leads to new multidisciplinary and team building needs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals: consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moher, David; Galipeau, James; Alam, Sabina; Barbour, Virginia; Bartolomeos, Kidist; Baskin, Patricia; Bell-Syer, Sally; Cobey, Kelly D; Chan, Leighton; Clark, Jocalyn; Deeks, Jonathan; Flanagin, Annette; Garner, Paul; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Groves, Trish; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Habibzadeh, Farrokh; Jewell-Thomas, Stefanie; Kelsall, Diane; Lapeña, José Florencio; MacLehose, Harriet; Marusic, Ana; McKenzie, Joanne E; Shah, Jay; Shamseer, Larissa; Straus, Sharon; Tugwell, Peter; Wager, Elizabeth; Winker, Margaret; Zhaori, Getu

    2017-09-11

    Scientific editors are responsible for deciding which articles to publish in their journals. However, we have not found documentation of their required knowledge, skills, and characteristics, or the existence of any formal core competencies for this role. We describe the development of a minimum set of core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals. The 14 key core competencies are divided into three major areas, and each competency has a list of associated elements or descriptions of more specific knowledge, skills, and characteristics that contribute to its fulfillment. We believe that these core competencies are a baseline of the knowledge, skills, and characteristics needed to perform competently the duties of a scientific editor at a biomedical journal.

  1. The Core Competencies for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…

  2. Developing and implementing core competencies for integrative medicine fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Melinda; Brodsky, Marc; Low Dog, Tieraona; Sierpina, Victor; Bailey, Michelle; Locke, Amy; Kogan, Mikhail; Rindfleisch, James A; Saper, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine defines integrative medicine as "the practice of medicine that reaffirms the importance of the relationship between practitioner and patient, focuses on the whole person, is informed by evidence, and makes use of all appropriate therapeutic approaches, health care professionals, and disciplines to achieve optimal health and healing." Over the past three decades, the U.S. public increasingly has sought integrative medicine approaches. In an effort to train medical professionals to adequately counsel patients on the safe and appropriate use of these approaches, medical schools and residencies have developed curricula on integrative medicine for their trainees. In addition, integrative medicine clinical fellowships for postresidency physicians have emerged to provide training for practitioners interested in gaining greater expertise in this emerging field. Currently, 13 clinical fellowships in integrative medicine exist in the United States, and they are predominantly connected to academic medical centers or teaching affiliate hospitals. In 2010, the Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine, represented by 56 member academic health care institutions with a shared commitment to advance the principles and practices of integrative medicine, convened a two-year task force to draft integrative medicine fellowship core competencies. These competencies would guide fellowship curriculum development and ensure that graduates possessed a common body of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. In this article, the authors discuss the competencies and the task force's process to develop them, as well as associated teaching and assessment methods, faculty development, potential barriers, and future directions.

  3. Organizational Change for Acquisition Reform: Proposed Core Competencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Robert

    1997-01-01

    .... These core competencies are derived from a comparison of theory with actual practice. A discussion of possible change strategies shows various matters/methods to achieve Lewin's framework of organizational change...

  4. Core competencies for pharmaceutical physicians and drug development scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Honorio; Stonier, Peter; Buhler, Fritz; Deslypere, Jean-Paul; Criscuolo, Domenico; Nell, Gerfried; Massud, Joao; Geary, Stewart; Schenk, Johanna; Kerpel-Fronius, Sandor; Koski, Greg; Clemens, Norbert; Klingmann, Ingrid; Kesselring, Gustavo; van Olden, Rudolf; Dubois, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Professional groups, such as IFAPP (International Federation of Pharmaceutical Physicians and Pharmaceutical Medicine), are expected to produce the defined core competencies to orient the discipline and the academic programs for the development of future competent professionals and to advance the profession. On the other hand, PharmaTrain, an Innovative Medicines Initiative project, has become the largest public-private partnership in biomedicine in the European Continent and aims to provide postgraduate courses that are designed to meet the needs of professionals working in medicines development. A working group was formed within IFAPP including representatives from PharmaTrain, academic institutions and national member associations, with special interest and experience on Quality Improvement through education. The objectives were: to define a set of core competencies for pharmaceutical physicians and drug development scientists, to be summarized in a Statement of Competence and to benchmark and align these identified core competencies with the Learning Outcomes (LO) of the PharmaTrain Base Course. The objectives were successfully achieved. Seven domains and 60 core competencies were identified and aligned accordingly. The effective implementation of training programs using the competencies or the PharmaTrain LO anywhere in the world may transform the drug development process to an efficient and integrated process for better and safer medicines. The PharmaTrain Base Course might provide the cognitive framework to achieve the desired Statement of Competence for Pharmaceutical Physicians and Drug Development Scientists worldwide. PMID:23986704

  5. Core Competencies of the Certified Pediatric Doctor of Chiropractic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hewitt, Elise; Hestbaek, Lise; Pohlman, Katherine A

    2016-01-01

    An outline of the minimum core competencies expected from a certified pediatric doctor of chiropractic was developed using a Delphi consensus process. The initial set of seed statements and substatements was modeled on competency documents used by organizations that oversee chiropractic and medic...

  6. Core Competencies for Pharmaceutical Physicians and Drug Development Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honorio eSilva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Professional groups, such as IFAPP (International Federation of Pharmaceutical Physicians and Pharmaceutical Medicine, are expected to produce the defined core competencies to orient the discipline and the academic programs for the development of future competent professionals and to advance the profession. On the other hand, PharmaTrain, an Innovative Medicines Initiative project, has become the largest public-private partnership in biomedicine in the European Continent and aims to provide postgraduate courses that are designed to meet the needs of professionals working in medicines development. A working group was formed within IFAPP including representatives from PharmaTrain, academic institutions and national member associations, with special interest and experience on Quality Improvement through education. The objectives were: to define a set of core competencies for pharmaceutical physicians and drug development scientists, to be summarized in a Statement of Competence and to benchmark and align these identified core competencies with the Learning Outcomes of the PharmaTrain Base Course. The objectives were successfully achieved. Seven domains and 60 core competencies were identified and aligned accordingly. The effective implementation of training programs using the competencies or the PharmaTrain Learning Outcomes anywhere in the world may transform the drug development process to an efficient and integrated process for better and safer medicines. The PharmaTrain Base Course might provide the cognitive framework to achieve the desired Statement of Competence for Pharmaceutical Physicians and Drug Development Scientists worldwide.

  7. Core body temperature in obesity123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C

    2011-01-01

    Background: A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. Design: In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) <30] and obese (BMI ≥30) adults swallowed wireless core temperature–sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18–25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Results: Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Obesity is not generally associated with a reduced core body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature–regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500. PMID:21367952

  8. Development of new core competencies for Taiwanese Emergency Medical Technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Tung; Tsai, Kuang-Chau; Williams, Brett

    2018-01-01

    Core competencies are considered the foundation for establishing Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) and paramedic curricula, and for ensuring performance standards in the delivery of prehospital care. This study surveyed EMT instructors and medical directors to identify the most desirable core competencies for all levels of EMTs in Taiwan. A principal components analysis with Varimax rotation was conducted. An online questionnaire was distributed to obtain perspectives of EMT instructors and medical directors on the most desirable core competencies for EMTs. The target population was EMT training-course instructors and medical directors of fire departments in Taiwan. The questionnaire comprised 61 competency items, and multiple-choice and open-ended questions were used to obtain respondents' perspectives of the Taiwanese EMT training and education system. The results identified three factors at EMT-1 and EMT-2 levels and five factors at the EMT-Paramedic level. The factors for EMT-1 and EMT-2 were similar, and those for EMT-Paramedics identified further comprehensive competence perspectives. The key factors that appear to influence the development of the Taiwanese Emergency Medical Services (EMS) education system are the attitude of authorities, the licensure system, and legislation. The findings present new core competencies for the Taiwanese EMT system and provide capacity to redesign curricula and reconsider roles for EMT-1 and EMT-2 technicians. At the EMT-Paramedic level, the findings demonstrate the importance of incorporating competency standards in the current skills-based curriculum. Moreover, the core-competencies gap that exists between Taiwanese EMT-1s, EMT-2s, and EMT-Paramedics and internationally recognized core competencies needs to be addressed. By identifying the key factors that potentially impact the development of the EMS education system, such as the attitude of authorities, the licensure system, and legislation, these findings will inform

  9. 75 FR 52596 - Financial Education Core Competencies; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    .... Furthermore, the Core Competencies are particularly important in establishing a baseline of knowledge, which... that should be deleted, revised, or expanded. Core concept Knowledge Action/behavior Earning Gross... financial system. Know about financial Comparison shop. assets (savings Balance risk and accounts, bonds...

  10. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  11. The Army’s Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Taxonomy supports the rigorous scientific process of discovery and a common language enables other members of the firm to devise ways to use those...physical assets such as small arms and camels . This competency led to the Arab 43 irregulars being used in a different role than the regulars whose role

  12. CORE COMPETENCES OF PIRACY AND MARITIME TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gawliczek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of the attacks, the level of violence, the scale of destruction in the maritime areas forces creation of certain security conditions. Recognizing the enemy - piracy and maritime terrorism - by identifying their resources, skills and competences is necessary action in building the safety of vessels and maritime infrastructure. Building competence of terrorist organization and maritime piracy requires the involvement of many interrelated resources and their proper coordination. It seems that, as in a business model, in these criminal organizations there are similar resources, skills and competences that determine the advantage and strategic value of the organization. However, the weight of each factor is different. The same assumption can be related to piracy and the activities of the terrorist organization at sea. The results of the study suggest that the main sources of success of analyzed criminal organizations generate harm for national security. In the case of piracy, they result from the following spheres: human capital, attributable to the skills capital; structural capital, belonging to innovation capital; relational capital, depending on customers' capital. As for terrorist activities, they stem from the spheres of: human capital, belonging to social capital; structural capital, attributable to the process capital; relational capital and determined by capital of standing out. In summary, this article is intended to show a terrorist organization and maritime piracy through the prism of resources theory, skills and competences of strategic management. As one of the first, it places many questions, formulate some theses in the area of competences of organizations. Answering the questions, verification of posed theses, requires also in-depth research that will be published in subsequent works.

  13. Consensus on core competencies for preventive medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, D S; Ross, V

    1994-01-01

    Of the currently available literature on assessment of physician competency, very little applies to the needs of preventive medicine specialists. Yet the diversity of the field and the confusion among other medical specialists about the particular expertise of preventive medicine physicians suggest a need for consensus on fundamental competencies expected of graduates of preventive medicine residency training programs. We apply theoretical material on competency-based education from teacher training and instructional development to professional training in preventive medicine. We describe the process by which the Graduate Medical Education Subcommittee of the American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM), a working group of specialists, derived and refined core competencies in working sessions at professional meetings. The drafts produced at these sessions were circulated widely to residency directors and other individuals and groups in preventive medicine before being approved by the ACPM Board of Regents and included in the Residency Training Manual distributed by ACPM. This article includes this list of core competencies for preventive medicine residents. In addition, the article describes assumptions about competency development that guided the process and identifies recurrent problems in competency development. This information may be helpful to readers who wish to develop additional competencies or to tailor these competencies for their own preventive medicine residency programs.

  14. Pennsylvania State Core Competencies for Education on Opioids and Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Michael A; Levine, Rachel L

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop core competencies for education on opioids and addiction to be used in all Pennsylvania medical schools. The Pennsylvania Physician General created a task force that was responsible for the creation of the core competencies. A literature review was completed, and a survey of graduating medical students was conducted. The task force then developed, reviewed, and approved the core competencies. The competencies were grouped into nine domains: understanding core aspects of addiction; patient screening for substance use disorder; proper referral for specialty evaluation and treatment of substance use disorder; proper patient assessment when treating pain; proper use of multimodal treatment options when treating acute pain; proper use of opioids for the treatment of acute pain (after consideration of alternatives); the role of opioids in the treatment of chronic noncancer pain; patient risk assessment related to the use of opioids to treat chronic noncancer pain, including the assessment for substance use disorder or increased risk for aberrant drug-related behavior; and the process for patient education, initiation of treatment, careful patient monitoring, and discontinuation of therapy when using opioids to treat chronic noncancer pain. Specific competencies were developed for each domain. These competencies will be incorporated into the educational process at all Pennsylvania medical schools. It is hoped that these curriculum changes will improve student knowledge and attitudes in these areas, thus improving patient outcomes. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Development of the Learning Health System Researcher Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Chesley, Francis D; Tregear, Michelle L; Mistry, Kamila B

    2017-08-04

    To develop core competencies for learning health system (LHS) researchers to guide the development of training programs. Data were obtained from literature review, expert interviews, a modified Delphi process, and consensus development meetings. The competencies were developed from August to December 2016 using qualitative methods. The literature review formed the basis for the initial draft of a competency domain framework. Key informant semi-structured interviews, a modified Delphi survey, and three expert panel (n = 19 members) consensus development meetings produced the final set of competencies. The iterative development process yielded seven competency domains: (1) systems science; (2) research questions and standards of scientific evidence; (3) research methods; (4) informatics; (5) ethics of research and implementation in health systems; (6) improvement and implementation science; and (7) engagement, leadership, and research management. A total of 33 core competencies were prioritized across these seven domains. The real-world milieu of LHS research, the embeddedness of the researcher within the health system, and engagement of stakeholders are distinguishing characteristics of this emerging field. The LHS researcher core competencies can be used to guide the development of learning objectives, evaluation methods, and curricula for training programs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Core Competence, Distinctive Competence, and Competitive Advantage: What Is the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Core competence, distinctive competence, and competitive advantage are 3 of the most important business concepts that managers, researchers, and educators rely on for decision making, pedagogy, and research. However, little attention has been paid to defining these concepts. As a result, they have become buzzwords that are used so frequently that…

  17. Development of new core competencies for Taiwanese Emergency Medical Technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang YT

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Tung Chang,1,2 Kuang-Chau Tsai,2 Brett Williams1,3 1Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 3Division of Paramedicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Objectives: Core competencies are considered the foundation for establishing Emergency Medical Technician (EMT and paramedic curricula, and for ensuring performance standards in the delivery of prehospital care. This study surveyed EMT instructors and medical directors to identify the most desirable core competencies for all levels of EMTs in Taiwan. Methods: A principal components analysis with Varimax rotation was conducted. An online questionnaire was distributed to obtain perspectives of EMT instructors and medical directors on the most desirable core competencies for EMTs. The target population was EMT training-course instructors and medical directors of fire departments in Taiwan. The questionnaire comprised 61 competency items, and multiple-choice and open-ended questions were used to obtain respondents’ perspectives of the Taiwanese EMT training and education system. Results: The results identified three factors at EMT-1 and EMT-2 levels and five factors at the EMT-Paramedic level. The factors for EMT-1 and EMT-2 were similar, and those for EMT-Paramedics identified further comprehensive competence perspectives. The key factors that appear to influence the development of the Taiwanese Emergency Medical Services (EMS education system are the attitude of authorities, the licensure system, and legislation. Conclusion: The findings present new core competencies for the Taiwanese EMT system and provide capacity to redesign curricula and reconsider roles for EMT-1 and EMT-2 technicians. At the EMT-Paramedic level, the findings demonstrate the importance of

  18. Core skills assessment to improve mathematical competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael; Bowe, Brian; Fhloinn, Eabhnat Ní

    2013-12-01

    Many engineering undergraduates begin third-level education with significant deficiencies in their core mathematical skills. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology, a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students, consistently revealing problems in basic mathematics. It is difficult to motivate students to address these problems; instead, they struggle through their degree, carrying a serious handicap of poor core mathematical skills, as confirmed by exploratory testing of final year students. In order to improve these skills, a pilot project was set up in which a 'module' in core mathematics was developed. The course material was basic, but 90% or higher was required to pass. Students were allowed to repeat this module throughout the year by completing an automated examination on WebCT populated by a question bank. Subsequent to the success of this pilot with third-year mechanical engineering students, the project was extended to five different engineering programmes, across three different year-groups. Full results and analysis of this project are presented, including responses to interviews carried out with a selection of the students involved.

  19. International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis core curriculum project: core competencies in clinical thrombosis and hemostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLintock, C.; Pabinger, I.; Bauer, K. A.; Laffan, M.; Angchaisuksiri, P.; Rezende, S. M.; Middeldorp, S.; Ross, M.

    2016-01-01

    Essentials The priority of ISTH was to establish a global core curriculum in thrombosis and hemostasis. International survey to determine competencies required for clinical specialists was carried out in the field. Competency framework provides a reference point for mapping and developing regional

  20. Core competencies in clinical neuropsychology training across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik; Hokkanen, Laura; Ponsford, Jennie; van Zandvoort, Martine; Watts, Ann; Evans, Jonathan; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2018-05-01

    This work aimed to review main competency requirements from training models in countries with well-established specialties in clinical neuropsychology and to extract core competencies that likely will apply to clinical neuropsychologists regardless of regional and cultural context. We reviewed standards for post-graduate training in clinical neuropsychology from countries in Europe, Australia, and North America based on existing literature, presentations at international conferences, and from description of the training models from national psychological or neuropsychological associations. Despite differences, the reviewed models share similar core competencies considered necessary for a specialty in clinical neuropsychology: (1) In-depth knowledge of general psychology including clinical psychology (post-graduate level), ethical, and legal standards. (2) Expert knowledge about clinically relevant brain-behavioral relationships. (3) Comprehensive knowledge about, and skills in, related clinical disciplines. (4) In-depth knowledge about and skills in neuropsychological assessment, including decision-making and diagnostic competency according to current classification of diseases. (5) Competencies in the area of diversity and culture in relation to clinical neuropsychology. (6) Communication competency of neuropsychological findings and test results to relevant and diverse audiences. (7) Knowledge about and skills in psychological and neuropsychological intervention, including treatment and rehabilitation. All the models have undergone years of development in accordance with requirements of national health care systems in different parts of the world. Despite differences, the common core competency requirements across different regions of the world suggest generalizability of these competencies. We hope this summary can be useful as countries with less established neuropsychology training programs develop their models.

  1. Survival in Transition or Implementing Information Science Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Margaret T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Identifies and examines four information science core competencies of the Du Pont Corporation's information science services: ability to conceptualize information; knowledge of internal and external information resources; understanding of information resource management; and ability to synthesize and tailor information. Describes the…

  2. Factors influencing disaster nursing core competencies of emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Young; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Emergency nurses are expected to provide required nursing services by using their professional expertise to reduce the risk posed by disasters. Thus, emergency nurses' disaster nursing core competencies are essential for coping with disasters. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify factors influencing the disaster nursing core competencies of emergency nurses. A survey was conducted among 231 emergency nurses working in 12 hospitals in South Korea. Data were collected on disaster-related experience, attitude, knowledge, and disaster nursing core competencies by means of a questionnaire. In multiple regression analysis, disaster-related experience exerted the strongest influence on disaster nursing core competencies, followed by disaster-related knowledge. The explanatory power of these factors was 25.6%, which was statistically significant (F=12.189, pcompetencies of emergency nurses could be improved through education and training programs that enhance their disaster preparedness. The nursing profession needs to participate actively in the development of disaster nursing education and training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stability and Change in Markers of Core Numerical Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Robert; Reynolds, Fiona; Humberstone, Judi; Butterworth, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Dot enumeration (DE) and number comparison (NC) abilities are considered markers of core number competence. Differences in DE/NC reaction time (RT) signatures are thought to distinguish between typical and atypical number development. Whether a child's DE and NC signatures change or remain stable over time, relative to other developmental…

  4. A competency-based longitudinal core curriculum in medical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Lisa R; Horak, Holli A; Milligan, Tracey A; Kraakevik, Jeff A; Ali, Imran I

    2014-07-29

    Current medical educational theory encourages the development of competency-based curricula. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 6 core competencies for resident education (medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills, practice-based learning, and systems-based practice) have been embraced by medical schools as the building blocks necessary for becoming a competent licensed physician. Many medical schools are therefore changing their educational approach to an integrated model in which students demonstrate incremental acquisition and mastery of all competencies as they progress through medical school. Challenges to medical schools include integration of preclinical and clinical studies as well as development of learning objectives and assessment measures for each competency. The Undergraduate Education Subcommittee (UES) of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) assembled a group of neuroscience educators to outline a longitudinal competency-based curriculum in medical neuroscience encompassing both preclinical and clinical coursework. In development of this curriculum, the committee reviewed United States Medical Licensing Examination content outlines, Liaison Committee on Medical Education requirements, prior AAN-mandated core curricula for basic neuroscience and clinical neurology, and survey responses from educators in US medical schools. The newly recommended curriculum provides an outline of learning objectives for each of the 6 competencies, listing each learning objective in active terms. Documentation of experiences is emphasized, and assessment measures are suggested to demonstrate adequate achievement in each competency. These guidelines, widely vetted and approved by the UES membership, aspire to be both useful as a stand-alone curriculum and also provide a framework for neuroscience educators who wish to develop a more detailed focus in certain areas of study. © 2014 American Academy

  5. Competence Map of Regulatory Body: Personal and Interpersonal Effectiveness Competencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents implementation stages and outcomes of the project “Nuclear Facility Competences” fulfilled in JSC “Rosenergoatom” and outcomes of the project “Knowledge Management, Training and Staff Retention” fulfilled for Romania regulatory authority. The goal of the project was a development of competence profiles for nuclear power plant and corporate inspectorate key job positions. The paper is focused on personal and interpersonal effectiveness competencies for inspectorate job positions which are a part of well-known 4-Quadrant Competence Model. Each competence is described by one or two behavior scales. One can consider those competencies like common ones for organizations implementing inspection activity and could be used in human resource management processes like personnel selection, job assessment, career planning, training, mentoring. (author

  6. International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis core curriculum project: core competencies in clinical thrombosis and hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLintock, C; Pabinger, I; Bauer, K A; Laffan, M; Angchaisuksiri, P; Rezende, S M; Middeldorp, S; Ross, M

    2016-01-01

    Essentials The priority of ISTH was to establish a global core curriculum in thrombosis and hemostasis. International survey to determine competencies required for clinical specialists was carried out in the field. Competency framework provides a reference point for mapping and developing regional curricula. Core curriculum informs and links to a variety of ISTH educational materials. Background The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) identified the need for an international core curriculum on thrombosis and hemostasis for its society members and the larger thrombosis and hemostasis community. Aims The current research sought consensus on the core competencies required by medical doctors who are ready to practise as independent clinical specialists in thrombosis and hemostasis with the aim of developing a core clinical curriculum for specialists in the field. Method A draft list of competencies was developed by the Working Group and formed the basis of an online survey. ISTH members and the larger thrombosis and hemostasis community were asked to rate the importance of each competency, on a Likert scale, for clinical specialists in thrombosis and hemostasis. Results There were a total of 644 responses to the online survey with broad geographical representation. There was general agreement on what level of competency would be required for clinical specialists in thrombosis and hemostasis at the specified level of training. Conclusions Using the survey to gain consensus on the level of competency required by clinical specialists in the field of thrombosis and hemostasis enabled the development of a core clinical curriculum that has been endorsed by the ISTH Council. The curriculum will offer a framework and international reference that will be used by the society, by national and regional organizations, and for further research. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. Assessing core clinical competencies required of medical graduates in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Keh-Min

    2006-10-01

    Medical students are assumed to be competent to provide basic patient care independently on graduation. However, there is a gap between what students are expected to learn and what they have actually learned. This may be due to the lack of clearly defined learning objectives, well-organized curriculum, and properly administered assessment. In an attempt to tackle this problem, we conducted a three-step study. Firstly, we identified the core clinical competencies required of medical graduates in Taiwan. Secondly, we incorporated these clinical competencies into a new medical curriculum. Finally, we identified the most appropriate assessment methods for each clinical competency. In 2004, a set of minimally required clinical competencies for medical undergraduates in Taiwan was developed, which included 92 clinical skills, four communication skills, and seven kinds of attitudes. In order to prepare 3rd and 4th year medical students at Kaohsiung Medical University (KMU) for later clinical work, the medical curriculum committee integrated the teaching and assessment of the core clinical skills identified previously into relevant organ-system blocks of the new curriculum. To identify appropriate assessment methods for each clinical skill, a structured questionnaire of assessment methods based on the Toolbox of Assessment Methods (Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education) and The Scottish Doctor (Scottish Deans' Medical Curriculum Group) was developed and distributed to 40 senior clinical faculty members at KMU. Simulations and Models, Standardized Patient Examination (SP), and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) were suggested to be most suitable to assess two-thirds of the core clinical skills. These assessment methods are commonly used in American and European medical schools. We believe that the implementation of the new curriculum at KMU accompanied by the use of Simulations and Models, SP, OSCE, and other teaching and assessment methods will

  8. Assessing Core Clinical Competencies Required of Medical Graduates in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical students are assumed to be competent to provide basic patient care independently on graduation. However, there is a gap between what students are expected to learn and what they have actually learned. This may be due to the lack of clearly defined learning objectives, well- organized curriculum, and properly administered assessment. In an attempt to tackle this problem, we conducted a three-step study. Firstly, we identified the core clinical competencies required of medical graduates in Taiwan. Secondly, we incorporated these clinical competencies into a new medical curriculum. Finally, we identified the most appropriate assessment methods for each clinical competency. In 2004, a set of minimally required clinical competencies for medical undergraduates in Taiwan was developed, which included 92 clinical skills, four communication skills, and seven kinds of attitudes. In order to prepare 3rd and 4th year medical students at Kaohsiung Medical University (KMU for later clinical work, the medical curriculum committee integrated the teaching and assessment of the core clinical skills identified previously into relevant organ-system blocks of the new curriculum. To identify appropriate assessment methods for each clinical skill, a structured questionnaire of assessment methods based on the Toolbox of Assessment Methods (Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and The Scottish Doctor (Scottish Deans' Medical Curriculum Group was developed and distributed to 40 senior clinical faculty members at KMU. Simulations and Models, Standardized Patient Examination (SP, and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE were suggested to be most suitable to assess two-thirds of the core clinical skills. These assessment methods are commonly used in American and European medical schools. We believe that the implementation of the new curriculum at KMU accompanied by the use of Simulations and Models, SP, OSCE, and other teaching and

  9. Pediatric hospital medicine core competencies: development and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Erin R; Ottolini, Mary C; Maniscalco, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric hospital medicine is the most rapidly growing site-based pediatric specialty. There are over 2500 unique members in the three core societies in which pediatric hospitalists are members: the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the Academic Pediatric Association (APA) and the Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM). Pediatric hospitalists are fulfilling both clinical and system improvement roles within varied hospital systems. Defined expectations and competencies for pediatric hospitalists are needed. In 2005, SHM's Pediatric Core Curriculum Task Force initiated the project and formed the editorial board. Over the subsequent four years, multiple pediatric hospitalists belonging to the AAP, APA, or SHM contributed to the content of and guided the development of the project. Editors and collaborators created a framework for identifying appropriate competency content areas. Content experts from both within and outside of pediatric hospital medicine participated as contributors. A number of selected national organizations and societies provided valuable feedback on chapters. The final product was validated by formal review from the AAP, APA, and SHM. The Pediatric Hospital Medicine Core Competencies were created. They include 54 chapters divided into four sections: Common Clinical Diagnoses and Conditions, Core Skills, Specialized Clinical Services, and Healthcare Systems: Supporting and Advancing Child Health. Each chapter can be used independently of the others. Chapters follow the knowledge, skills, and attitudes educational curriculum format, and have an additional section on systems organization and improvement to reflect the pediatric hospitalist's responsibility to advance systems of care. These competencies provide a foundation for the creation of pediatric hospital medicine curricula and serve to standardize and improve inpatient training practices. (c) 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  10. Global and public health core competencies for nursing education: A systematic review of essential competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Megan; Raffray, Marie; Hendricks, Kristin; Gagnon, Anita J

    2016-05-01

    Nurses are learning and practicing in an increasingly global world. Both nursing schools and nursing students are seeking guidance as they integrate global health into their learning and teaching. This systematic review is intended to identify the most common global and public health core competencies found in the literature and better inform schools of nursing wishing to include global health content in their curricula. Systematic review. An online search of CINAHL and Medline databases, as well as, inclusion of pertinent gray literature was conducted for articles published before 2013. Relevant literature for global health (GH) and public and community health (PH/CH) competencies was reviewed to determine recommendations of both competencies using a combination of search terms. Studies must have addressed competencies as defined in the literature and must have been pertinent to GH or PH/CH. The databases were systematically searched and after reading the full content of the included studies, key concepts were extracted and synthesized. Twenty-five studies were identified and resulted in a list of 14 global health core competencies. These competencies are applicable to a variety of health disciplines, but particularly can inform the efforts of nursing schools to integrate global health concepts into their curricula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Capability and core competency identification of a knowledge-based organization

    OpenAIRE

    Calle, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of core competencies has been discussed for the last 20 years; however concept itself has yet to be standardized. Using the theories concerning core competencies as laid out by Porter, Prahalad, and Hamel, and using a framework created by Clayton M. Christensen that adds support to the identification of core competencies through the examination of capabilities, this paper illustrates a path that supports a method of identifying core competencies through the capabilities of an orga...

  12. Proposed core competencies and empirical validation procedure in competency modeling: confirmation and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Katarzyna Baczynska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Competency models provide insight into key skills which are common to many positions in an organization. Moreover, there is a range of competencies that is used by many companies. Researchers have developed core competency terminology to underline their cross-organizational value. The article presents a theoretical model of core competencies consisting of two main higher-order competencies called performance and entrepreneurship. Each of them consists of three elements: the performance competency includes cooperation, organization of work and goal orientation, while entrepreneurship includes innovativeness, calculated risk-taking and pro-activeness. However, there is lack of empirical validation of competency concepts in organizations and this would seem crucial for obtaining reliable results from organizational research. We propose a two-step empirical validation procedure: 1 confirmation factor analysis, and 2 classification of employees. The sample consisted of 636 respondents (M = 44.5; SD = 15.1. Participants were administered a questionnaire developed for the study purpose. The reliability, measured by Cronbach’s alpha, ranged from .60 to .83 for six scales. Next, we tested the model using a confirmatory factor analysis. The two separate, single models of performance and entrepreneurial orientations fit quite well to the data, while a complex model based on the two single concepts needs further research. In the classification of employees based on the two higher order competencies we obtained four main groups of employees. Their profiles relate to those found in the literature, including so-called niche finders and top performers. Some proposal for organizations is discussed.

  13. Clinical Core Competency Training for NASA Flight Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, J. D.; Schmid, Josef; Hurst, Victor, IV; Doerr, Harold K.; Doerr, Harold K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The cohort of NASA flight surgeons (FS) is a very accomplished group with varied clinical backgrounds; however, the NASA Flight Surgeon Office has identified that the extremely demanding schedule of this cohort prevents many of these physicians from practicing clinical medicine on a regular basis. In an effort to improve clinical competency, the NASA FS Office has dedicated one day a week for the FS to receive clinical training. Each week, an FS is assigned to one of five clinical settings, one being medical patient simulation. The Medical Operations Support Team (MOST) was tasked to develop curricula using medical patient simulation that would meet the clinical and operational needs of the NASA FS Office. Methods: The MOST met with the Lead FS and Training Lead FS to identify those core competencies most important to the FS cohort. The MOST presented core competency standards from the American Colleges of Emergency Medicine and Internal Medicine as a basis for developing the training. Results: The MOST identified those clinical areas that could be best demonstrated and taught using medical patient simulation, in particular, using high fidelity human patient simulators. Curricula are currently being developed and additional classes will be implemented to instruct the FS cohort. The curricula will incorporate several environments for instruction, including lab-based and simulated microgravity-based environments. Discussion: The response from the NASA FS cohort to the initial introductory class has been positive. As a result of this effort, the MOST has identified three types of training to meet the clinical needs of the FS Office; clinical core competency training, individual clinical refresher training, and just-in-time training (specific for post-ISS Expedition landings). The MOST is continuing to work with the FS Office to augment the clinical training for the FS cohort, including the integration of Web-based learning.

  14. Validation of core competencies during residency training in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spies, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and goal: Curriculum development for residency training is increasingly challenging in times of financial restrictions and time limitations. Several countries have adopted the CanMEDS framework for medical education as a model into their curricula of specialty training. The purpose of the present study was to validate the competency goals, as derived from CanMEDS, of the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine of the Berlin Charité University Medical Centre, by conducting a staff survey. These goals for the qualification of specialists stipulate demonstrable competencies in seven areas: expert medical action, efficient collaboration in a team, communications with patients and family, management and organisation, lifelong learning, professional behaviour, and advocacy of good health. We had previously developed a catalogue of curriculum items based on these seven core competencies. In order to evaluate the validity of this catalogue, we surveyed anaesthetists at our department in regard to their perception of the importance of each of these items. In addition to the descriptive acquisition of data, it was intended to assess the results of the survey to ascertain whether there were differences in the evaluation of these objectives by specialists and registrars. Methods: The questionnaire with the seven adapted CanMEDS Roles included items describing each of their underlying competencies. Each anaesthetist (registrars and specialists working at our institution in May of 2007 was asked to participate in the survey. Individual perception of relevance was rated for each item on a scale similar to the Likert system, ranging from 1 (highly relevant to 5 (not at all relevant, from which ratings means were calculated. For determination of reliability, we calculated Cronbach’s alpha. To assess differences between subgroups, we performed analysis of variance.Results: All seven roles were rated as relevant. Three of the seven

  15. Teaching the basics: core competencies in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Megan A M; Battat, Robert; Brewer, Timothy F

    2011-06-01

    Compelling moral, ethical, professional, pedagogical, and economic imperatives support the integration of global health topics within medical school curriculum. Although the process of integrating global health into medical education is well underway at some medical schools, there remain substantial challenges to initiating global health training in others. As global health is a new field, faculties and schools may benefit from resources and guidance to develop global health modules and teaching materials. This article describes the Core Competencies project undertaken by the Global Health Education Consortium and the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada's Global Health Resource Group. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Dentistry, nursing, and medicine: a comparison of core competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Andrew I; Fulmer, Terry; Eisenberg, Elise S; Alfano, Michael C

    2005-11-01

    Health care, including oral health care and oral health education, is under great stress in the United States. The cost of and access to care, the cost of dental education, and a shortage of educators have led leaders in dental education, organized dentistry, and the public sector to underscore the problem. One of the proposed solutions is to find synergies and new health care and education models by building bridges among the health professions. One potential solution is being implemented at the NYU College of Dentistry (NYUCD). Dentistry and nursing are seemingly unrelated professions, and they are rarely if ever modeled together. That is about to change with the joining together of NYUCD and the Division of Nursing of the NYU Steinhardt School of Education in creating a College of Nursing within the College of Dentistry. This process has not been without controversy. Following the Division of Nursing's request to join NYUCD, and the subsequent announcement of the proposed combination by NYU in December 2004, some members of the dental profession responded by questioning the appropriateness of the merger and the similarity of the two programs. Nevertheless, substantial parallels exist in the education and practice of dentists and nurse practitioners (NP) including basic, social, and some clinical science education, practice models, research synergies, and community service. However, similarities in the core competencies of these professions have not been analyzed formally and in detail. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare the core competencies of nurse practitioner and dental education programs. The results show a surprising overlap of the core competencies of the dental and nursing professions (38 percent partial or total overlap). A similar overlap with medicine also exists, albeit lower (25.4 percent). These results are notable because they demonstrate that the three health professions, independently of one another, developed very similar

  17. Core principles of assessment in competency-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Carraccio, Carol; Chan, Ming-Ka; Hart, Danielle; Smee, Sydney; Touchie, Claire; Holmboe, Eric S; Frank, Jason R

    2017-06-01

    The meaningful assessment of competence is critical for the implementation of effective competency-based medical education (CBME). Timely ongoing assessments are needed along with comprehensive periodic reviews to ensure that trainees continue to progress. New approaches are needed to optimize the use of multiple assessors and assessments; to synthesize the data collected from multiple assessors and multiple types of assessments; to develop faculty competence in assessment; and to ensure that relationships between the givers and receivers of feedback are appropriate. This paper describes the core principles of assessment for learning and assessment of learning. It addresses several ways to ensure the effectiveness of assessment programs, including using the right combination of assessment methods and conducting careful assessor selection and training. It provides a reconceptualization of the role of psychometrics and articulates the importance of a group process in determining trainees' progress. In addition, it notes that, to reach its potential as a driver in trainee development, quality care, and patient safety, CBME requires effective information management and documentation as well as ongoing consideration of ways to improve the assessment system.

  18. Facilitating creativity as a core competence in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, P.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    In Engineering Education (EE) there is a growing emphasis on providing students with skills and competences within innovation and entrepreneurship. This development has emerged from an identified need for establishment of new enterprises, creation of new possibilities for employment...... competences in EE [1]. Still it is well known that there is inertia in Engineering Education to develop new structures and traditions in teaching and learning [2]. In the whole education system there is a growing interest in creative engagement of pupils and students, and the body of research in the area...... and to contribute to enhanced growth. Engineers are considered to have a key position in this development, and many engineering challenges call for new solutions. Creativity is a prerequisite for the ability to combine present knowledge into new solutions. Hence, creativity is an important subset in innovation...

  19. Principled, Transformational Leadership: Analyzing the Discourse of Leadership in the Development of Librarianship's Core Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Deborah; Given, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Using discourse analysis, this article explores three questions: (a) Why was "principled, transformational leadership" the leadership style added to Core Competences? (b) What was the discourse of leadership in the profession surrounding the development of the Core Competences? (c) How might this competence affect LIS education? And what measures,…

  20. Extension Organization of the Future: Linking Emotional Intelligence and Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Deliece; Stone, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    A Texas extension survey identified core competencies of outstanding extension educators. The competencies are similar to the characteristics of emotional intelligence, qualities needed in the 21st century workplace. (SK)

  1. Core communication competencies in patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykins, Anita Davis

    2014-01-01

    Effective communication between the patient and nurse is an essential requirement for nursing practice and for patient-centered care. Nursing faculty that teach in undergraduate and graduate nursing programs play a significant role in preparing the nursing workforce to communicate effectively and provide patient-centered care. Patient-centered care, interprofessional collaboration, and informatics are necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes for nurses across educational levels in order to meet the needs of patients, and improve the quality and safety of the health care system environment. The focus of this article is to provide information on core nursing competencies for effective communication and to discuss communication tools used in patient-centered care, interprofessional collaboration, and informatics.

  2. Interrelationship between core interventions and core competencies of forensic psychiatric nursing in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkanen, Helena; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Kinnunen, Juha

    2011-03-01

    The importance of core competencies (CC) and their relationship to core interventions in clinical practice guidelines on schizophrenia (CPGS), and the abilities to master these competencies were studied among registered nurses (RN) and practical mental nurses (PMN) in a forensic psychiatric setting. Data were collected from RNs, PMNs, and managers of all five forensic psychiatric facilities in Finland. The research material was obtained by using a 360-degree feedback method. The response rate was 68% (N = 428). The differences between the nurse groups were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) regarding the importance of and ability to master the following CCs: (1) pharmacotherapy, (2) knowledge in forensic psychiatry and violent behavior, (3) the treatment of violent patients, (4) processing patient's and own emotion, and (5) need-adapted treatment of the patient. Overall, RNs exceeded PMNs in mastering the CCs, however the principles of the CPGS were not achieved within the current resources in Finland. In summary, RNs, rather than PMNs, should be recruited for work in forensic psychiatric nursing, although a considerable amount of specific training would still be required to achieve competence. Implications of our research indicate that all nurses working in this area need to receive further education in forensic psychiatry and in forensic psychiatric nursing. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  3. Research on the Intrinsic Relationship of Customer Value and Corporate Core Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guoping

    The article defined customer value and corporate core competence using induction method and described the characteristics of these two concepts. Then the author analyzed the intrinsic relationship of customer value and corporate core competence via the survey and case analysis methods. The author found that customer value was the basic point to cultivate corporate core competence which was the platform to achieve customer value. The article is of great help to provide some ideas of cultivating and developing corporate core competence based on customer value.

  4. Geriatric core competencies for family medicine curriculum and enhanced skills: care of elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Lesley; Triscott, Jean A C; Dobbs, Bonnie M; McKay, Rhianne

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing mandate for Family Medicine residency programs to directly assess residents' clinical competence in Care of the Elderly (COE). The objectives of this paper are to describe the development and implementation of incremental core competencies for Postgraduate Year (PGY)-I Integrated Geriatrics Family Medicine, PGY-II Geriatrics Rotation Family Medicine, and PGY-III Enhanced Skills COE for COE Diploma residents at a Canadian University. Iterative expert panel process for the development of the core competencies, with a pre-defined process for implementation of the core competencies. Eighty-five core competencies were selected overall by the Working Group, with 57 core competencies selected for the PGY-I/II Family Medicine residents and an additional 28 selected for the PGY-III COE residents. The core competencies follow the CanMEDS Family Medicine roles. Both sets of core competencies are based on consensus. Due to demographic changes, it is essential that Family Physicians have the required skills and knowledge to care for the frail elderly. The core competencies described were developed for PGY-I/II Family Medicine residents and PGY-III Enhanced Skills COE, with a focus on the development of geriatric expertise for those patients that would most benefit.

  5. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Lappin-Fortin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French and French immersion graduates was compared based on total output and several measures of grammatical and syntactical accuracy. Few statistically significant differences emerge. However, a subgroup of core French learners who had benefitted from an authentic immersion experience appears to outperform both regular core French and French immersion groups. The purpose of this quantitative study is primarily diagnostic; the results should help universities better serve the needs of first-year students. Résumé Les études comparant la compétence écrite des étudiants de programmes d’immersion française et de français cadre sont peu nombreuses—particulièrement au niveau postsecondaire. Mon corpus consiste en des échantillons du français écrit de 255 étudiants issus de ces deux formations qui commencent un cours de français à l’université. J’ai comparé leur production globale et leur précision sur le plan morphosyntaxique. Peu de différences statistiquement significatives en émergent. Toutefois, un sous-groupe d’étudiants cadre ayant bénéficié d’une expérience d’immersion authentique se révèle comme le plus compétent selon plusieurs des mesures utilisées. Les résultats de cette étude quantitative devraient aider les universités à mieux répondre aux besoins des étudiants de première année.

  6. Core Competences of River Ports: Case Study of Pearl River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hui Lisa Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the sound development of ASEAN, more and more attention is paid to hub ports that support cargo and information flows in this marine region. However there are few studies on river and feeder ports. To fill this gap, this study takes a river port as an example to illustrate how to utilize the Balanced Scorecard for evaluating the Core Competences of river and feeder ports. Core competences are helpful for terminal operators when focusing on core strategies, core business and core products / services development for resource limitation. The business pattern which regards core competences as a foundation is beneficial for terminal operators to achieve sustainable competitive advantages. A questionnaire survey has been conducted. The Cronbach alpha method confirms testing reliability of the questionnaire. Study results reveal that two core competences are “capabilities of valuing employee and organization improvement” and “national and municipal government support” for a river port.

  7. [Construction of the addiction prevention core competency model for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young

    2013-12-01

    This study was done to provide fundamental data for the development of competency reinforcement programs to prevent addictive behavior in adolescents through the construction and examination of an addiction prevention core competency model. In this study core competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling were identified, and the addiction prevention core competency model was developed. It was validated methodologically. Competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents as defined by the addiction prevention core competency model are as follows: positive self-worth, self-control skill, time management skill, reality perception skill, risk coping skill, and positive communication with parents and with peers or social group. After construction, concurrent cross validation of the addiction prevention core competency model showed that this model was appropriate. The study results indicate that the addiction prevention core competency model for the prevention of addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling can be used as a foundation for an integral approach to enhance adolescent is used as an adjective and prevent addictive behavior. This approach can be a school-centered, cost-efficient strategy which not only reduces addictive behavior in adolescents, but also improves the quality of their resources.

  8. The CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Margaret M.; Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Dempsey, Colette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The CompHP Project on Developing Competencies and Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe was developed in response to the need for new and changing health promotion competencies to address health challenges. This article presents the process of developing the CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion across…

  9. Evolution dynamics modeling and simulation of logistics enterprise's core competence based on service innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Tong, Yuting

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid development of economy, the development of logistics enterprises in China is also facing a huge challenge, especially the logistics enterprises generally lack of core competitiveness, and service innovation awareness is not strong. Scholars in the process of studying the core competitiveness of logistics enterprises are mainly from the perspective of static stability, not from the perspective of dynamic evolution to explore. So the author analyzes the influencing factors and the evolution process of the core competence of logistics enterprises, using the method of system dynamics to study the cause and effect of the evolution of the core competence of logistics enterprises, construct a system dynamics model of evolution of core competence logistics enterprises, which can be simulated by vensim PLE. The analysis for the effectiveness and sensitivity of simulation model indicates the model can be used as the fitting of the evolution process of the core competence of logistics enterprises and reveal the process and mechanism of the evolution of the core competence of logistics enterprises, and provide management strategies for improving the core competence of logistics enterprises. The construction and operation of computer simulation model offers a kind of effective method for studying the evolution of logistics enterprise core competence.

  10. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AS A CORE COMPETENCE IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN THE CITY OF CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Lynda Priscilla Vincent

    2012-01-01

    A core competence is a competitively important activity which a company performs better than other internal activities. Information and communication technology (ICT) is one of the core competencies that an organization possesses. The study focuses on the extent to which ICT as core competency is contributing to the success of hospitality industry in Cape Town, South Africa. The researcher reckoned that that ICT stands out to be a core competence in the hospitality industry in Cape Town, Sout...

  11. Athletic Training Student Core Competency Implementation During Patient Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallario, Julie M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew; Manspeaker, Sarah A; Pribesh, Shana L

    2018-02-08

      Health care research evidence suggests that early patient encounters (PEs), as well as the purposeful implementation of professional core competencies (CCs), for athletic training students (ATSs) may be beneficial to their ability to provide care. However, no investigators have related facets of the clinical education experience with CC implementation as a form of summative assessment of the clinical experience.   To determine the relationship between the frequency and length of PEs, as well as the student's role and clinical site during PEs, and the students' perceived CC implementation during these encounters.   Cross-sectional study.   Professional athletic training program, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution.   We purposefully recruited 1 athletic training program that used E*Value software; 40 participants (31 females, 9 males) enrolled in the professional phase (12 first year, 14 second year, 14 third year) participated.   Participants viewed a 20-minute recorded CC educational module followed by educational handouts, which were also posted online for reference throughout the semester. The E*Value software was used to track Pes, including the type of encounter (ie, actual patient, practice encounter, didactic practice scenario), the type of site where the encounter occurred (university, high school), and the participant's role (observed, assisted, performed), as well as responses to an added block of questions indicating which, if any, of the CCs were implemented during the PE.   Variables per patient were PE length (minutes), participant role, site at which the encounter occurred, and whether any of the 6 CCs were implemented ( yes/ no). Variables per participant were average encounter length (minutes), encounter frequency, modal role, clinical site assignment, and the number of times each CC was implemented. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were used to examine the relationships between role or clinical site

  12. Redefining E-3 Core Competencies for Dominant Battlespace Knowledge in Future Combat Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkendall, David A

    2005-01-01

    .... The study focuses on how E-3 training is driven by the maintenance of a set of battle management core competencies rooted in the basics of aircraft tactical fluid control force accountability and aerial refueling...

  13. Otolaryngology Resident Education and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Core Competencies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucett, Erynne A; Barry, Jonnae Y; McCrary, Hilary C; Saleh, Ahlam A; Erman, Audrey B; Ishman, Stacey L

    2018-03-08

    To date, there have been no reports in the current literature regarding the use of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in otolaryngology residency training. An evaluation may help educators address these core competencies in the training curriculum. To examine the quantity and nature of otolaryngology residency training literature through a systematic review and to evaluate whether this literature aligns with the 6 core competencies. A medical librarian assisted in a search of all indexed years of the PubMed, Embase, Education Resources Information Center (via EBSCOhost), Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Methodology Register), Thomson Reuters Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Social Science and Humanities), Elsevier Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to identify relevant English-language studies. Included studies contained original human data and focused on otolaryngology resident education. Data regarding study design, setting, and ACGME core competencies addressed were extracted from each article. Initial searches were performed on May 20, 2015, and updated on October 4, 2016. In this systematic review of 104 unique studies, interpersonal communication skills were reported 15 times; medical knowledge, 48 times; patient care, 44 times; practice-based learning and improvement, 31 times; professionalism, 15 times; and systems-based practices, 10 times. Multiple studies addressed more than 1 core competency at once, and 6 addressed all 6 core competencies. Increased emphasis on nonclinical core competencies is needed, including professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills, and systems-based practices in the otolaryngology residency training curriculum. A formal curriculum

  14. Exploring LIS Students' Beliefs in Importance and Self-Efficacy of Core Information Literacy Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Maria; Pascual, Rosaura Fernandez

    2016-01-01

    Understanding perceptions of Library and Information Science (LIS) students on two dimensions--belief in the importance (BIM) of a set of core information competencies, and Self-Efficacy (SE)--is pursued. Factor analysis implementation raises a clear distinction between BIM and SE results. This analysis points to two sets of competencies:…

  15. Lunar Fluid Core and Solid-Body Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2-5] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening has been improving [3,5] and now seems significant. This strengthens the case for a fluid lunar core.

  16. The CompHP core competencies framework for health promotion in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Margaret M; Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Dempsey, Colette

    2012-12-01

    The CompHP Project on Developing Competencies and Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe was developed in response to the need for new and changing health promotion competencies to address health challenges. This article presents the process of developing the CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion across the European Union Member States and Candidate Countries. A phased, multiple-method approach was employed to facilitate a consensus-building process on the development of the core competencies. Key stakeholders in European health promotion were engaged in a layered consultation process using the Delphi technique, online consultations, workshops, and focus groups. Based on an extensive literature review, a mapping process was used to identify the core domains, which informed the first draft of the Framework. A consultation process involving two rounds of a Delphi survey with national experts in health promotion from 30 countries was carried out. In addition, feedback was received from 25 health promotion leaders who participated in two focus groups at a pan-European level and 116 health promotion practitioners who engaged in four country-specific consultations. A further 54 respondents replied to online consultations, and there were a number of followers on various social media platforms. Based on four rounds of redrafting, the final Framework document was produced, consisting of 11 core domains and 68 core competency statements. The CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion provides a resource for workforce development in Europe, by articulating the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities that are required for effective practice. The core domains are based on the multidisciplinary concepts, theories, and research that make health promotion distinctive. It is the combined application of all the domains, the knowledge base, and the ethical values that constitute the CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health

  17. Recommendations for Training in Pediatric Psychology: Defining Core Competencies Across Training Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, David M.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Mullins, Larry L.; Robins, Paul M.; Wu, Yelena P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective As a field, pediatric psychology has focused considerable efforts on the education and training of students and practitioners. Alongside a broader movement toward competency attainment in professional psychology and within the health professions, the Society of Pediatric Psychology commissioned a Task Force to establish core competencies in pediatric psychology and address the need for contemporary training recommendations. Methods The Task Force adapted the framework proposed by the Competency Benchmarks Work Group on preparing psychologists for health service practice and defined competencies applicable across training levels ranging from initial practicum training to entry into the professional workforce in pediatric psychology. Results Competencies within 6 cluster areas, including science, professionalism, interpersonal, application, education, and systems, and 1 crosscutting cluster, crosscutting knowledge competencies in pediatric psychology, are presented in this report. Conclusions Recommendations for the use of, and the further refinement of, these suggested competencies are discussed. PMID:24719239

  18. Identifying Core Mobile Learning Faculty Competencies Based Integrated Approach: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbarbary, Rafik Said

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on the integrated approach as a concept framework to identify, categorize, and rank a key component of mobile learning core competencies for Egyptian faculty members in higher education. The field investigation framework used four rounds Delphi technique to determine the importance rate of each component of core competencies…

  19. Core competencies for shared decision making training programs: insights from an international, interdisciplinary working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Moumjid-Ferdjaoui, Nora; Drolet, Renée; Stacey, Dawn; Härter, Martin; Bastian, Hilda; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Borduas, Francine; Charles, Cathy; Coulter, Angela; Desroches, Sophie; Friedrich, Gwendolyn; Gafni, Amiram; Graham, Ian D; Labrecque, Michel; LeBlanc, Annie; Légaré, Jean; Politi, Mary; Sargeant, Joan; Thomson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Shared decision making is now making inroads in health care professionals' continuing education curriculum, but there is no consensus on what core competencies are required by clinicians for effectively involving patients in health-related decisions. Ready-made programs for training clinicians in shared decision making are in high demand, but existing programs vary widely in their theoretical foundations, length, and content. An international, interdisciplinary group of 25 individuals met in 2012 to discuss theoretical approaches to making health-related decisions, compare notes on existing programs, take stock of stakeholders concerns, and deliberate on core competencies. This article summarizes the results of those discussions. Some participants believed that existing models already provide a sufficient conceptual basis for developing and implementing shared decision making competency-based training programs on a wide scale. Others argued that this would be premature as there is still no consensus on the definition of shared decision making or sufficient evidence to recommend specific competencies for implementing shared decision making. However, all participants agreed that there were 2 broad types of competencies that clinicians need for implementing shared decision making: relational competencies and risk communication competencies. Further multidisciplinary research could broaden and deepen our understanding of core competencies for shared decision making training. Copyright © 2013 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  20. Core Competencies for Pain Management: Results of an Interprofessional Consensus Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Scott M; Young, Heather M; Lucas Arwood, Ellyn; Chou, Roger; Herr, Keela; Murinson, Beth B; Watt-Watson, Judy; Carr, Daniel B; Gordon, Debra B; Stevens, Bonnie J; Bakerjian, Debra; Ballantyne, Jane C; Courtenay, Molly; Djukic, Maja; Koebner, Ian J; Mongoven, Jennifer M; Paice, Judith A; Prasad, Ravi; Singh, Naileshni; Sluka, Kathleen A; St Marie, Barbara; Strassels, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this project was to develop core competencies in pain assessment and management for prelicensure health professional education. Such core pain competencies common to all prelicensure health professionals have not been previously reported. Methods An interprofessional executive committee led a consensus-building process to develop the core competencies. An in-depth literature review was conducted followed by engagement of an interprofessional Competency Advisory Committee to critique competencies through an iterative process. A 2-day summit was held so that consensus could be reached. Results The consensus-derived competencies were categorized within four domains: multidimensional nature of pain, pain assessment and measurement, management of pain, and context of pain management. These domains address the fundamental concepts and complexity of pain; how pain is observed and assessed; collaborative approaches to treatment options; and application of competencies across the life span in the context of various settings, populations, and care team models. A set of values and guiding principles are embedded within each domain. Conclusions These competencies can serve as a foundation for developing, defining, and revising curricula and as a resource for the creation of learning activities across health professions designed to advance care that effectively responds to pain. PMID:23577878

  1. Identifying Core Competencies of Infection Control Nurse Specialists in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Fong; Bond, Trevor G; Adamson, Bob; Chow, Meyrick

    2016-01-01

    To confirm a core competency scale for Hong Kong infection control nurses at the advanced nursing practice level from the core competency items proposed in a previous phase of this study. This would serve as the foundation of competency assurance in Hong Kong hospitals. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All public and private hospitals in Hong Kong. All infection control nurses in hospitals of Hong Kong. The 83-item proposed core competency list established in an earlier study was transformed into a questionnaire and sent to 112 infection control nurses in 48 hospitals in Hong Kong. They were asked to rate the importance of each infection prevention and control item using Likert-style response categories. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. The response rate of 81.25% was achieved. Seven items were removed from the proposed core competency list, leaving a scale of 76 items that fit the measurement requirements of the unidimensional Rasch model. Essential core competency items of advanced practice for infection control nurses in Hong Kong were identified based on the measurement criteria of the Rasch model. Several items of the scale that reflect local Hong Kong contextual characteristics are distinguished from the overseas standards. This local-specific competency list could serve as the foundation for education and for certification of infection control nurse specialists in Hong Kong. Rasch measurement is an appropriate analytical tool for identifying core competencies of advanced practice nurses in other specialties and in other locations in a manner that incorporates practitioner judgment and expertise.

  2. Testing of a measurement model for baccalaureate nursing students' self-evaluation of core competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2009-11-01

    Testing of a measurement model for baccalaureate nursing students' self-evaluation of core competencies. This paper is a report of a study to test the psychometric properties of the Self-Evaluated Core Competencies Scale for baccalaureate nursing students. Baccalaureate nursing students receive basic nursing education and continue to build competency in practice settings after graduation. Nursing students today face great challenges. Society demands analytic, critical, reflective and transformative attitudes from graduates. It also demands that institutions of higher education take the responsibility to encourage students, through academic work, to acquire knowledge and skills that meet the needs of the modern workplace, which favours highly skilled and qualified workers. A survey of 802 senior nursing students in their last semester at college or university was conducted in Taiwan in 2007 using the Self-Evaluated Core Competencies Scale. Half of the participants were randomly assigned either to principal components analysis with varimax rotation or confirmatory factor analysis. Principal components analysis revealed two components of core competencies that were named as humanity/responsibility and cognitive/performance. The initial model of confirmatory factor analysis was then converged to an acceptable solution but did not show a good fit; however, the final model of confirmatory factor analysis was converged to an acceptable solution with acceptable fit. The final model has two components, namely humanity/responsibility and cognitive/performance. Both components have four indicators. In addition, six indicators have their correlated measurement errors. Self-Evaluated Core Competencies Scale could be used to assess the core competencies of undergraduate nursing students. In addition, it should be used as a teaching guide to increase students' competencies to ensure quality patient care in hospitals.

  3. Managing Research & Development for Core Competence Building in an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P.S. Ahuja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainties due to globalization of Indian market after economic reforms have led to drastic changes in the approach of manufacturing organizations for developing various competencies to get competitive advantage. These formidable changes have left the organizations with no choice but to upgrade the existing systems, products and technologies for their survival. The external acquisition of technology in the initial stages may be desirable or even necessary in the high technology areas, but no industry can prosper in the long run unless it builds up a self reliant base for carrying out indigenization of process and product technologies. Technology upgradation has become mandatory for economic development, industrial growth, enhanced corporate image, more flexible responses, strategic self-reliance and sustained competitiveness of an enterprise. The present study is aimed at highlighting the need of R&D initiatives in Indian enterprises for harnessing competencies through indigenized R&D.

  4. Core competencies in sexual and reproductive health for the interprofessional primary care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Joyce; Levi, Amy; Nothnagle, Melissa

    2016-05-01

    A primary care workforce that is well prepared to provide high-quality sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care has the potential to enhance access to care and reduce health disparities. This project aimed to identify core competencies to guide SRH training across the primary care professions. A six-member interprofessional expert working group drafted SRH competencies for primary care team members. Primary care providers including family physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners and certified nurse midwives, physician assistants and pharmacists were invited to participate in a three-round electronic Delphi survey. In each round, participants voted by email to retain, eliminate or revise each competency, with their suggested edits to the competencies incorporated by the researchers after each round. Fifty providers from six professions participated. In Round 1, 17 of 33 draft competencies reached the 75% predetermined agreement level to be accepted as written. Five were combined, reducing the total number to 28. Based on Round 2 feedback, 21 competencies were reworded, and 2 were combined. In Round 3, all 26 competencies reached at least 83.7% agreement, with 9 achieving 100% agreement. The 33 core competencies encompass professional ethics and reproductive justice, collaboration, SRH services and conditions affecting SRH. These core competencies will be disseminated and adapted to each profession's scope of practice to inform required curricula. SRH competencies for primary care can inform the required curricula across professions, filling the gap between an established standard of care necessary to meet patient needs and the outcomes of that care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Outsourcing of mutual funds' non-core competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Sorhage, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Fund families strategically shape their member funds' behavior to target specific groups of investors with varying performance and service needs. In this paper I introduce a new measure to identify performance-oriented and service-oriented funds. Matching theories from the industrial organization literature, I suggest that funds whose families outsource the execution of services unrelated to portfolio management to external specialists are the same funds with an emphasis on their core busines...

  6. Nonclinical core competencies and effects of interprofessional teamwork in disaster and emergency response training and practice: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Jennifer; Schwartz, Brian; Kitto, Simon

    2013-08-01

    To define and delineate the nontechnical core competencies required for disaster response, Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members were interviewed regarding their perspectives and experiences in disaster management. Also explored was the relationship between nontechnical competencies and interprofessional collaboration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 Canadian DMAT members to explore how they viewed nontechnical core competencies and how their experiences influenced their perceptions toward interprofessonalism in disaster response. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Nontechnical core competencies were categorized under austere skills, interpersonal skills, and cognitive skills. Research participants defined interprofessionalism and discussed the importance of specific nontechnical core competencies to interprofessional collaboration. The findings of this study established a connection between nontechnical core competencies and interprofessional collaboration in DMAT activities. It also provided preliminary insights into the importance of context in developing an evidence base for competency training in disaster response and management. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1-8).

  7. An Interprofessional Consensus of Core Competencies for Prelicensure Education in Pain Management: Curriculum Application for Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Keela; St. Marie, Barbara; Gordon, Debra B.; Paice, Judith A.; Watt-Watson, Judy; Stevens, Bonnie J.; Bakerjian, Debra; Young, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ineffective assessment and management of pain is a significant problem. A gap in prelicensure health science program pain content has been identified for the improvement of pain care in the United States. Method Through consensus processes, an expert panel of nurses, who participated in the interdisciplinary development of core competencies in pain management for prelicensure health professional education, developed recommendations to address the gap in nursing curricula. Results Challenges and incentives for implementation of pain competencies in nursing education are discussed, and specific recommendations for how to incorporate the competencies into entry-level nursing curricula are provided. Conclusion Embedding pain management core competencies into prelicensure nursing education is crucial to ensure that nurses have the essential knowledge and skills to effectively manage pain and to serve as a foundation on which clinical practice skills can be later honed. PMID:26057425

  8. Core health promotion competencies in Australia: are they compatible with climate change action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rebecca; Smith, James A

    2011-12-01

    Health promotion principles for practice are closely aligned with that of environmental sustainability. Health promotion practitioners are well positioned to take action on climate change. However, there has been scant discussion about practice synergies and subsequently the type and nature of professional competencies that underpin such action. This commentary uses the Australian Health Promotion Association (AHPA) national core competencies for Health Promotion Practitioners as a basis to examine the synergies between climate change and health promotion action. We demonstrate that AHPA core competencies, such as program planning, evaluation and partnership building, are highly compatible for implementing climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. We use food security examples to illustrate this case. There appears to be considerable synergy between climate change and health promotion action. This should be a key focus of future health promotion competency development in Australia.

  9. Examining the importance of incorporating emergency preparedness and disaster training core competencies into allied health curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Preparation for responding to emergency events that does not warrant outside help beyond the local community resources or responding to disaster events that is beyond the capabilities of the local community both require first responders and healthcare professionals to have interdisciplinary skills needed to function as a team for saving lives. To date, there is no core emergency preparedness and disaster planning competencies that have been standardized at all levels across the various allied health curricula disciplines. To identify if emergency preparedness and disaster training content are currently being taught in allied health program courses, to identify possible gaps within allied health curricula, and to explore the perceptions of allied health college educators for implementing emergency preparedness and disaster training core competencies into their existing curricula, if not already included. A quantitative Internet-based survey was conducted in 2013. Convenient sample. Fifty-one allied health college educators completed the survey. Descriptive statistics indicated that the majority of allied health college instructors do not currently teach emergency preparedness and disaster training core competency content within their current allied health discipline; however, their perceived level of importance for inclusion of the competencies was high. The results of this study supported the need for developing and establishing a basic national set of standardized core emergency preparedness and disaster planning competencies at all levels across various allied health curricula disciplines to ensure victims receive the best patient care and have the best possible chance of survival.

  10. [Development and validation of a tool for evaluating core competencies in nursing cancer patients on chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hae; Park, Jae Hyun

    2012-10-01

    This study was done to develop tool to evaluate the core competencies regarding nursing cancer patients on chemotherapy, and to verify the reliability and efficacy of the developed tool. A tool to evaluate the core competencies was developed from a preliminary tool consisting of 112 items verified by expert groups. The adequacy of the preliminary tool was analyzed and refined to the final evaluation tool containing 76 items in 8 core competencies and 18 specific competencies. The evaluation tool is in the form of a self-report, and each item is evaluated according to a 3-point scale. From September 22 to October 14, 2011, 349 survey responses were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and the WINSTEPS program that employs the Rasch model. Results indicated that there were no inappropriate items and the items had low levels of difficulty in comparison with the knowledge levels of the study participants. The results of factor analysis yielded 18 factors, and the reliability of the tools was very high with Cronbach's α=.97. The results of this study can be used for training and evaluation of core competencies for nursing cancer patients, and for standardizing nursing practices associated with chemotherapy.

  11. Learning theories and tools for the assessment of core nursing competencies in simulation: A theoretical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Patrick; Michaud, Cécile; Bélisle, Marilou; Boyer, Louise; Gosselin, Émilie; Grondin, Myrian; Larue, Caroline; Lavoie, Stéphan; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2018-02-01

    To identify the theories used to explain learning in simulation and to examine how these theories guided the assessment of learning outcomes related to core competencies in undergraduate nursing students. Nurse educators face the challenge of making explicit the outcomes of competency-based education, especially when competencies are conceptualized as holistic and context dependent. Theoretical review. Research papers (N = 182) published between 1999-2015 describing simulation in nursing education. Two members of the research team extracted data from the papers, including theories used to explain how simulation could engender learning and tools used to assess simulation outcomes. Contingency tables were created to examine the associations between theories, outcomes and tools. Some papers (N = 79) did not provide an explicit theory. The 103 remaining papers identified one or more learning or teaching theories; the most frequent were the National League for Nursing/Jeffries Simulation Framework, Kolb's theory of experiential learning and Bandura's social cognitive theory and concept of self-efficacy. Students' perceptions of simulation, knowledge and self-confidence were the most frequently assessed, mainly via scales designed for the study where they were used. Core competencies were mostly assessed with an observational approach. This review highlighted the fact that few studies examined the use of simulation in nursing education through learning theories and via assessment of core competencies. It also identified observational tools used to assess competencies in action, as holistic and context-dependent constructs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Friday Forum and the AICPA Core Competency Framework: Honing Students' Personal Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grace F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shares one learning technique for honing undergraduate students' personal competencies. The senior accounting capstone course at a small Midwestern private liberal college includes a weekly seminar series, called the Friday Forum, where students and practitioners meet to discuss a current professional accounting article. Since Spring…

  13. Core competency requirements among extension workers in peninsular Malaysia: Use of Borich's needs assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sulaiman; Man, Norsida; Nawi, Nolila Mohd; Latif, Ismail Abd; Samah, Bahaman Abu

    2017-06-01

    The study described the perceived importance of, and proficiency in core agricultural extension competencies among extension workers in Peninsular Malaysia; and evaluating the resultant deficits in the competencies. The Borich's Needs Assessment Model was used to achieve the objectives of the study. A sample of 298 respondents was randomly selected and interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Thirty-three core competency items were assessed. Instrument validity and reliability were ensured. The cross-sectional data obtained was analysed using SPSS for descriptive statistics including mean weighted discrepancy score (MWDS). Results of the study showed that on a scale of 5, the most important core extension competency items according to respondents' perception were: "Making good use of information and communication technologies/access and use of web-based resources" (M=4.86, SD=0.23); "Conducting needs assessments" (M=4.84, SD=0.16); "organizing extension campaigns" (M=4.82, SD=0.47) and "Managing groups and teamwork" (M=4.81, SD=0.76). In terms of proficiency, the highest competency identified by the respondents was "Conducting farm and home visits (M=3.62, SD=0.82) followed by 'conducting meetings effectively' (M=3.19, SD=0.72); "Conducting focus group discussions" (M=3.16, SD=0.32) and "conducting community forums" (M=3.13, SD=0.64). The discrepancies implying competency deficits were widest in "Acquiring and allocating resources" (MWDS=12.67); use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and web-based resources in agricultural extension (MWDS=12.59); and report writing and sharing the results and impacts (MWDS=11.92). It is recommended that any intervention aimed at developing the capacity of extension workers in Peninsular Malaysia should prioritize these core competency items in accordance with the deficits established in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Body Crystallization in Asteroidal Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J. T.

    1993-07-01

    Large fractionations (factors of 2000-6000) in Ir/Ni and other ratios demonstrate that the magmatic groups of iron meteorites formed by fractional crystallization, and thus that the residual liquid remained well stirred during core crystallization. Past models have relied on solidification at the base or the top of the core, but body crystallization offers an attractive alternative. The simplest of the earlier models involved convective maxing induced by the liberation of heat and light elements (especially S) during upward crystallization from the center of the core. Other models involving downward crystallization from the core-mantle interface are based on the fact that temperatures at this location are slightly lower than those at the center; no whole-core stirring mechanism is provided by these models. Haack and Scott recently published a variant of the downward crystallization model involving the growth of giant (kilometer-scale) dendrites. Because crystallization creates a boundary layer enriched in S that does not participate in the convection, these models require several K of supercooling to induce crystallization (this undercooling is much greater than the temperature difference between the center of the core and the core-mantle interface). Buoyant forces will occasionally remove droplets of the basal boundary fluid; thus it was thinner and its degree of undercooling less than in that at the ceiling of the magma chamber. Homogeneous nucleation of metals is difficult to achieve; generally 200-300 K of undercooling is required, much more than could possibly occur in an asteroidal core. Crystals could, however, nucleate in the magma body on chromite, probably the first liquidus phase (A. Kracher, personal communication, notes that this is required to explain why Cr behaved like a compatible element despite having a solid/liquid D crystallize. The rate of core crystallization is limited by the rate of heat transport across the core-mantle interface. If

  15. Validation of a New Instrument for Self-Assessment of Nurses’ Core Competencies in Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Slåtten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Competence can be seen as a prerequisite for high quality nursing in clinical settings. Few research studies have focused on nurses’ core competencies in clinical palliative care and few measurement tools have been developed to explore these core competencies. The purpose of this study was to test and validate the nurses’ core competence in palliative care (NCPC instrument. A total of 122 clinical nurse specialists who had completed a postbachelor program in palliative care at two university colleges in Norway answered the questionnaire. The initial analysis, with structural equation modelling, was run in Mplus 7. A modified confirmatory factor analysis revealed the following five domains: knowledge in symptom management, systematic use of the Edmonton symptom assessment system, teamwork skills, interpersonal skills, and life closure skills. The actual instrument needs to be tested in a practice setting with a larger sample to confirm its usefulness. The instrument has the potential to be used to refine clinical competence in palliative care and be used for the training and evaluation of palliative care nurses.

  16. A core competency model for Chinese baccalaureate nursing graduates: a descriptive correlational study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang Yu; Zhao, Rong Rong; Liu, Yi Si; Wu, Ying; Jin, Ning Ning; Li, Rui Ying; Shi, Shu Ping; Shao, Yue Ying; Guo, Ming; Arthur, David; Elliott, Malcolm

    2013-12-01

    A review of the literature showed that the core competencies needed by newly graduated Chinese nurses were not as of yet undocumented. To develop a psychometrically sound instrument for identifying and measuring the core competencies needed by Chinese nursing baccalaureate graduates. Descriptive correlational and multicentre study. Seven major tertiary teaching hospitals and three major medical universities in Beijing. 790 subjects, including patients, nursing faculty members, doctors and nurses. A reliable and valid self-report instrument, consisting of 58 items, was developed using multiple methods. It was then distributed to 790 subjects to measure nursing competency in a broader Chinese context. The psychometric characteristics of reliability and validity were supported by descriptive and inferential analyses. The final instrument consists of six dimensions with 47 items. The content validity index was 0.90. The overall scale reliability was 0.97 with dimensions range from 0.87 to 0.94. Six domains of core competencies were identified: professionalism; direct care; support and communication; application of professional knowledge; personal traits; and critical thinking and innovation. The findings of this study provide valuable evidence for a psychometrically sound measurement tool, as well as for competency-based nursing curriculum reform. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The core competencies for mental, neurological, and substance use disorder care in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Pamela Y.; Musisi, Seggane; Frehywot, Seble; Patel, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study points to a changing landscape in which non-communicable diseases, such as mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders, account for an increasing proportion of premature mortality and disability globally. Despite evidence of the need for care, a remarkable deficit of providers for MNS disorder service delivery persists in sub-Saharan Africa. This critical workforce can be developed from a range of non-specialist and specialist health workers who have access to evidence-based interventions, whose roles, and the associated tasks, are articulated and clearly delineated, and who are equipped to master and maintain the competencies associated with providing MNS disorder care. In 2012, the Neuroscience Forum of the Institute of Medicine convened a meeting of key stakeholders in Kampala, Uganda, to discuss a set of candidate core competencies for the delivery of mental health and neurological care, focusing specifically on depression, psychosis, epilepsy, and alcohol use disorders. This article discusses the candidate core competencies for non-specialist health workers and the complexities of implementing core competencies in low- and middle-income country settings. Sub-Saharan Africa, however, has the potential to implement novel training initiatives through university networks and through structured processes that engage ministries of health. Finally, we outline challenges associated with implementing competencies in order to sustain a workforce capable of delivering quality services for people with MNS disorders. PMID:25783229

  18. The core competencies for mental, neurological, and substance use disorder care in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Pamela Y; Musisi, Seggane; Frehywot, Seble; Patel, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study points to a changing landscape in which non-communicable diseases, such as mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders, account for an increasing proportion of premature mortality and disability globally. Despite evidence of the need for care, a remarkable deficit of providers for MNS disorder service delivery persists in sub-Saharan Africa. This critical workforce can be developed from a range of non-specialist and specialist health workers who have access to evidence-based interventions, whose roles, and the associated tasks, are articulated and clearly delineated, and who are equipped to master and maintain the competencies associated with providing MNS disorder care. In 2012, the Neuroscience Forum of the Institute of Medicine convened a meeting of key stakeholders in Kampala, Uganda, to discuss a set of candidate core competencies for the delivery of mental health and neurological care, focusing specifically on depression, psychosis, epilepsy, and alcohol use disorders. This article discusses the candidate core competencies for non-specialist health workers and the complexities of implementing core competencies in low- and middle-income country settings. Sub-Saharan Africa, however, has the potential to implement novel training initiatives through university networks and through structured processes that engage ministries of health. Finally, we outline challenges associated with implementing competencies in order to sustain a workforce capable of delivering quality services for people with MNS disorders.

  19. 78 FR 22527 - Army Science Board Request for Information on Technology and Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background. The Terms of Reference (TOR) provided by the Office of the Secretary of... Technology (S&T) Essential Core Competencies.'' In accordance with the TOR, this study will analyze the... Security Service (DSS) Site for the NISPOM is: http://www.dss.mil/isp/fac_clear/download_nispom.html...

  20. Core Competencies and the Prevention of High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…

  1. Teaching through Research: Alignment of Core Chemistry Competencies and Skills within a Multidisciplinary Research Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Eman; Long, S. Reid; Rodenbusch, Stacia E.; Shear, Ruth I.; Beckham, Josh T.; Procko, Kristen; DePue, Lauren; Stevenson, Keith J.; Robertus, Jon D.; Martin, Stephen; Holliday, Bradley; Jones, Richard A.; Anslyn, Eric V.; Simmons, Sarah L.

    2018-01-01

    Innovative models of teaching through research have broken the long-held paradigm that core chemistry competencies must be taught with predictable, scripted experiments. We describe here five fundamentally different, course-based undergraduate research experiences that integrate faculty research projects, accomplish ACS accreditation objectives,…

  2. [Self-evaluation of core competencies and related factors among baccalaureate nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Ting; Hsieh, Suh-Ing; Hsu, Li-Ling

    2013-02-01

    Evaluations of higher education programs are increasingly centered on the learner and designed to assess learning effectiveness and core competencies. Although the Taiwan Nursing Accreditation Council (TNAC) has established eight core competencies for college nursing departments, little research has been done to identify the most salient contributors to undergraduate nursing students' perceived competency levels. This paper investigates the influence of student demographic factors and learning experience on students' development in terms of a selected sample of core nursing competencies and then identifies factors that significantly predicts such development. This is a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study. We collected data from a sample of freshmen students currently enrolled in a two-year nursing bachelor degree program at a private vocational university in Taipei, Taiwan. Participants self-assessed abilities in designated core nursing competencies using the Competency Inventory of Nursing Students (CINS). A total of 279 of 290 distributed questionnaires were returned and used in data collection, giving this study a valid return rate of 96.2%. Participants earned a mean CINS score of 5.23 (SD = 0.49). Scale dimensions from highest to lowest mean score rank were: ethics, accountability, caring spirit, communication and cooperation, lifelong learning, general clinical nursing skills, critical thinking, and basic biomedical science. Differentiated analysis revealed that nursing students who expressed a strong interest in nursing, had a clear career plan, held aspirations to pursue higher nursing education, designated "major hospital" as their first workplace of choice, designated a post-college department / workplace preference, had participated in campus activities, were outspoken in classroom discussions and debates, made consistent effort to complete homework assignments and prepare for examinations, and performed relatively strong academically earned

  3. Emergency Preparedness Education for Nurses: Core Competency Familiarity Measured Utilizing an Adapted Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgino, Madeline M; Kress, Terri; Alexander, Sheila; Beach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to measure trauma nurse improvement in familiarity with emergency preparedness and disaster response core competencies as originally defined by the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire after a focused educational program. An adapted version of the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire was utilized to measure familiarity of nurses with core competencies pertinent to first responder capabilities. This project utilized a pre- and postsurvey descriptive design and integrated education sessions into the preexisting, mandatory "Trauma Nurse Course" at large, level I trauma center. A total of 63 nurses completed the intervention during May and September 2014 sessions. Overall, all 8 competencies demonstrated significant (P in familiarity. In conclusion, this pilot quality improvement project demonstrated a unique approach to educating nurses to be more ready and comfortable when treating victims of a disaster.

  4. Core areas of practice and associated competencies for nurses working as professional cancer navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sandra; Fillion, Lise; Fitch, Margaret; Veillette, Anne-Marie; Matheson, Tanya; Aubin, Michèle; de Serres, Marie; Doll, Richard; Rainville, François

    2013-01-01

    Fillion et al. (2012) recently designed a conceptual framework for professional cancer navigators describing key functions of professional cancer navigation. Building on this framework, this study defines the core areas of practice and associated competencies for professional cancer navigators. The methods used in this study included: literature review, mapping of navigation functions against practice standards and competencies, and validation of this mapping process with professional navigators, their managers and nursing experts and comparison of roles in similar navigation programs. Associated competencies were linked to the three identified core areas of practice, which are: 1) providing information and education, 2) providing emotional and supportive care, and 3) facilitating coordination and continuity of care. Cancer navigators are in a key position to improve patient and family empowerment and continuity of care. This is an important step for advancing the role of oncology nurses in navigator positions and identifying areas for further research.

  5. Role understanding and effective communication as core competencies for collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Arndt, Julia; Arthur, Nancy; Parboosingh, John; Taylor, Elizabeth; Deutschlander, Siegrid

    2009-01-01

    The ability to work with professionals from other disciplines to deliver collaborative, patient-centred care is considered a critical element of professional practice requiring a specific set of competencies. However, a generally accepted framework for collaborative competencies is missing, which makes consistent preparation of students and staff challenging. Some authors have argued that there is a lack of conceptual clarity of the "active ingredients" of collaboration relating to quality of care and patient outcomes, which may be at the root of the competencies issue. As part of a large Health Canada funded study focused on interprofessional education and collaborative practice, our goal was to understand the competencies for collaborative practice that are considered most relevant by health professionals working at the front line. Interview participants comprised 60 health care providers from various disciplines. Understanding and appreciating professional roles and responsibilities and communicating effectively emerged as the two perceived core competencies for patient-centred collaborative practice. For both competencies there is evidence of a link to positive patient and provider outcomes. We suggest that these two competencies should be the primary focus of student and staff education aimed at increasing collaborative practice skills.

  6. Core competencies of radiographers working in rural hospitals of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Mung'omba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural radiographers require, over and above traditional radiographic expertise, additional competencies which to a certain degree are unique however not limited to rural practice. Previous studies, however, have focused more attention primarily on other rural health professionals such as doctors and nurses leaving a research need in this field. This article focuses on the additional competencies that may be required for rural radiographers.Aim: To investigate and identify additional core competencies required by radiographers working in rural hospitals of KwaZulu-Natal in order to propose a continuous professional development strategy aimed at rural radiographers.Methods: An exploratory sequential design was utilised with qualitative (Phase I and quantitative (Phase II strands involving seven participants and 109 respondents, respectively. Only radiographers working in rural KwaZulu-Natal hospitals were included in the study. The four major themes and categories identified in Phase I were used to develop data collection instrument for Phase II of the study.Results: Collectively, the results revealed that there were a number of additional core competencies such as, but not limited to, teamwork, ability to do basic obstetric ultrasound scans, leadership, management and reporting on plain radiographs, all of which are required by rural radiographers. In 2014 when these competencies were checked against a single curriculum, it was found that majority of them were either partially covered or not at all covered.Conclusion: The study provides additional information on context specific core competencies and, therefore, may act as a catalyst to influence the future of radiographers working in rural areas of South Africa.

  7. Toward validation of a minimal competence core of morphosyntax for African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Ida J; Guillory, Barbara; Seibert, Marilyn; Boult, Johanna

    2013-02-01

    The authors set out to determine (a) whether African American children's spontaneous spoken language met use criteria for a revised minimal competence core with original and added morphosyntactic patterns at different geographical locations, and (b) whether pass/fail status on this core was differentiated on other criterion measures of language maturity. The authors used a common set of activities and stimuli to elicit spontaneous speech samples from Head Start students, age 3;0 (years; months). The 119 participants were distributed at a northern (Lansing, MI) and a southern (Baton Rouge, LA) location. More than 80% of the children at each location met criteria for 10 core competencies. They included sentence length, type, complexity, and morphosyntactic elaborations of sentences at the lexical, phrasal, and clausal levels. The 2 most significant predictors of pass/fail outcomes in a regression analysis were (a) clinical referral status and (b) the number of different words (NDW(100)) spoken in a speech sample. A minimal competence core analyses of spontaneous oral language samples may help to identify delayed spoken grammars in African American children.

  8. Developing core competencies for monitoring and evaluation tracks in South Asian MPH programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negandhi, Himanshu; Negandhi, Preeti; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay; Kulatilaka, Hemali; Tikyani, Sangeeta

    2015-08-05

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) provides vital information for decision-making and its structures, systems and processes are expected to be integrated throughout the life-cycle of public health programs. The acquisition of these skills should be developed in a structured manner and needs educational systems to identify core competencies in M&E teaching. This article presents our work on harmonizing M&E competencies for Masters level programs in the South Asian context and undertaking the global review of M&E track/ concentration offered in various Masters of Public Health (MPH) programs. Through an online search and snow-balling, we mapped institutions offering M&E tracks/ concentrations in Masters of Public Health (MPH) programs globally. We obtained detailed information about their M&E curriculum from university websites and brochures. The data on curricular contents was extracted and compiled. We analyzed the curricular contents using the framework for core competencies developed by the Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH); and the Miller's triangle. This data was then used to inform a consultative exercise aimed at identifying core competencies for an M&E track/ concentration in MPH programs in the South Asian context. Our curricular review of M&E content within MPH programs globally showed that different domains or broad topic areas relating to M&E are covered differently across the programs. The quantitative sciences (Biostatistics and Epidemiology) and Health Policy and Management are covered in much greater depth than the other two domains (Social & Behavioral Sciences and Environmental Health Sciences). The identification of core competencies for an M&E track/ concentration in the South Asian context was undertaken through a consultative group exercise involving representation from 11 institutions across Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. During the consultation, the group engaged in a focused discussion to reach consensus on a set of 15

  9. Core Competencies in Integrative Pain Care for Entry-Level Primary Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick, Heather; Chauvin, Sheila W; Brown, Michael; Haramati, Aviad

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to develop a set of core competencies for graduating primary care physicians in integrative pain care (IPC), using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) domains. These competencies build on previous work in competencies for integrative medicine, interprofessional education, and pain medicine and are proposed for inclusion in residency training. A task force was formed to include representation from various professionals who are involved in education, research, and the practice of IPC and who represent broad areas of expertise. The task force convened during a 1.5-day face-to-face meeting, followed by a series of surveys and other vetting processes involving diverse interprofessional groups, which led to the consensus of a final set of competencies. The proposed competencies focus on interprofessional knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) and are in line with recommendations by the Institute of Medicine, military medicine, and professional pain societies advocating the need for coordination and integration of services for effective pain care with reduced risk and cost and improved outcomes. These ACGME domain compatible competencies for physicians reflect the contributions of several disciplines that will need to be included in evolving interprofessional settings and underscore the need for collaborative care. These core competencies can guide the incorporation of KSAs within curricula. The learning experiences should enable medical educators and graduating primary care physicians to focus more on integrative approaches, interprofessional team-based, patient-centered care that use evidence-based, traditional and complementary disciplines and therapeutics to provide safe and effective treatments for people in pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of Team-Based Learning on the Core Competencies of Nursing Students: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Eun

    2018-04-01

    An important goal of nursing education is helping students achieve core competencies efficiently. One proposed way of improving nursing education is team-based learning (TBL). The aim of this study was to assess the comparative effectiveness of TBL and lecture-style classes in terms of teaching core competencies in nursing education, which include clinical competence skills, problem-solving ability, communication competencies, critical thinking ability, and self-leadership. This quasi-experimental study enrolled 183 students as participants, with 95 and 88 in the experimental and control groups, respectively. These two groups attended 6 hours (2 hours weekly for 3 weeks) of TBL and lecture-style classes, respectively. Differences in core competencies between the two groups were compared before and after the intervention. The experimental group achieved significantly higher scores for clinical competence skills, communication competence, critical thinking ability, and self-leadership at posttest than at pretest, whereas the control group achieved significantly higher scores for clinical competence skills and critical thinking ability at posttest than at pretest. After the intervention, the experimental group had significantly better clinical competence skills, communication competence, and self-leadership than the control group. TBL is an effective approach method to teaching core competencies in nursing education.

  11. [Core values in nursing education enhances nursing competence: example of oxygen administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Li; Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Lin, Li-Chuan; Chang, Pei-Rong

    2010-10-01

    The goal of nursing education is to enhance the capabilities of nurses for the benefit of patients and their families. Training toward this goal should begin from the nursing school curriculum, with courses addressing professional knowledge, psychomotor skills, and appropriate attitudes. However, course design has traditionally focused largely on psychomotor skills only. The purpose of this study was to describe the core value infused teaching strategy for nursing competency using nasal cannula oxygen administration as an example. Oxygen therapy standard procedures comprise twenty-eight nursing care steps. Six main nursing behaviors enforced in the enhanced curricula covered cleansing and asepsis, physical comfort and safety, psychological well-being, interpersonal interaction, caring, and critical thinking and reasoning concepts. The teaching method covered teaching goals, content, strategies, and evaluation. Findings support the efficacy of improving student nursing competency using teaching courses infused with core nursing values and enhanced through simulation-based teaching.

  12. A novel Internet-based blended learning programme providing core competency in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugihashi, Yukio; Kakudate, Naoki; Yokoyama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Mishina, Hiroki; Fukumori, Norio; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Takegami, Misa; Ohno, Shinya; Wakita, Takafumi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2013-04-01

    We developed a novel Internet-based blended learning programme that allows busy health care professionals to attain core competency in clinical research. This study details the educational strategies and learning outcomes of the programme. This study was conducted at Kyoto University and seven satellite campuses from September 2009 to March 2010. A total of 176 health care professionals who had never attempted to attain core competency in clinical research were enrolled. The participants were supplied with a novel programme comprising the following four strategies: online live lectures at seven satellite campuses, short examinations after each lecture, an Internet-based feedback system and an end-of-course examination. We assessed the proportion of attendance at the lectures as the main outcome. In addition, we evaluated interaction via the feedback system and scores for end-of-course examination. Of the 176 participants, 134 (76%) reported working more than 40 hours per week. The mean proportion of attendance over all 23 lectures was 82%. A total of 156 (89%) participants attended more than 60% of all lectures and were eligible for the end-of-course examination. A total of the participants accessed the feedback system 3564 times and asked 284 questions. No statistically significant differences were noted in the end-of-course scores among medical doctors, pharmacists, registered nurses and other occupations. We developed an Internet-based blended learning programme providing core competency in clinical research. Most busy health care professionals completed the programme successfully. In addition, the participants could attain the core competency effectively, regardless of their occupation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. ACGME core competency training, mentorship, and research in surgical subspecialty fellowship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca Monn, M; Wang, Ming-Hsien; Gilson, Marta M; Chen, Belinda; Kern, David; Gearhart, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    To determine the perceived effectiveness of surgical subspecialty training programs in teaching and assessing the 6 ACGME core competencies including research. Cross-sectional survey. ACGME approved training programs in pediatric urology and colorectal surgery. Program Directors and recent trainees (2007-2009). A total of 39 program directors (60%) and 57 trainees (64%) responded. Both program directors and recent trainees reported a higher degree of training and mentorship (75%) in patient care and medical knowledge than the other core competencies (peffective to a lesser degree. Specifically, in the areas of teaching residents and medical students and team building, program directors, compared with recent trainees, perceived training to be more effective, (p = 0.004, p = 0.04). Responses to questions assessing training in systems based practice ubiquitously identified a lack of training, particularly in financial matters of running a practice. Although effective training in research was perceived as lacking by recent trainees, 81% reported mentorship in this area. According to program directors and recent trainees, the most effective method of teaching was faculty supervision and feedback. Only 50% or less of the recent trainees reported mentorship in career planning, work-life balance, and job satisfaction. Not all 6 core competencies and research are effectively being taught in surgery subspecialty training programs and mentorship in areas outside of patient care and research is lacking. Emphasis should be placed on faculty supervision and feedback when designing methods to better incorporate all 6 core competencies, research, and mentorship. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Core Competencies at a Community Teaching Hospital: Is There a Gap in Awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Temimi, Mohammed; Kidon, Michael; Johna, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Reports evaluating faculty knowledge of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in community hospitals without a dedicated residency program are uncommon. Faculty evaluation regarding knowledge of ACGME core competencies before a residency program is started. Physicians at the Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center (N = 480) were surveyed for their knowledge of ACGME core competencies before starting new residency programs. Knowledge of ACGME core competencies. Fifty percent of physicians responded to the survey, and 172 (71%) of respondents were involved in teaching residents. Of physicians who taught residents and had complete responses (N = 164), 65 (39.7%) were unsure of their knowledge of the core competencies. However, most stated that they provided direct teaching to residents related to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes stated in each of the 6 competencies as follows: medical knowledge (96.3%), patient care (95.7%), professionalism (90.7%), interpersonal and communication skills (86.3%), practice-based learning (85.9%), and system-based practice (79.6%). Physician specialty, years in practice (1-10 vs > 10), and number of rotations taught per year (1-6 vs 7-12) were not associated with knowledge of the competencies (p > 0.05); however, full-time faculty (teaching 10-12 rotations per year) were more likely to provide competency-based teaching. Objective assessment of faculty awareness of ACGME core competencies is essential when starting a residency program. Discrepancy between knowledge of the competencies and acclaimed provision of competency-based teaching emphasizes the need for standardized teaching methods that incorporate the values of these competencies.

  15. A goodness of fit and validity study of the Korean radiological technologists' core job competency model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chang Seon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Konyang University College of Medical Sciences, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, A Ra [Dept. of Medical Education, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Yera [Dept. of Medical Education, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Youl [Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Kwangju women’s University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Radiological Technologists deals with the life of a person which means professional competency is essential for the job. Nevertheless, there have been no studies in Korea that identified the job competence of radiologists. In order to define the core job competencies of Korean radiologists and to present the factor models, 147 questionnaires on job competency of radiology were analyzed using 'PASW Statistics Version 18.0' and 'AMOS Version 18.0'. The valid model consisted of five core job competencies ('Patient management', 'Health and safety', 'Operation of equipment', 'Procedures and management') and 17 sub – competencies. As a result of the factor analysis, the RMSEA value was 0.1 and the CFI, and TLI values were close to 0.9 in the measurement model of the five core job competencies. The validity analysis showed that the mean variance extraction was 0.5 or more and the conceptual reliability value was 0.7 or more , And there was a high correlation between subordinate competencies included in each subordinate competencies. The results of this study are expected to provide specific information necessary for the training and management of human resources centered on competence by clearly showing the job competence required for radiologists in Korea's health environment.

  16. A goodness of fit and validity study of the Korean radiological technologists' core job competency model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chang Seon; Cho, A Ra; Hur, Yera; Choi, Seong Youl

    2017-01-01

    Radiological Technologists deals with the life of a person which means professional competency is essential for the job. Nevertheless, there have been no studies in Korea that identified the job competence of radiologists. In order to define the core job competencies of Korean radiologists and to present the factor models, 147 questionnaires on job competency of radiology were analyzed using 'PASW Statistics Version 18.0' and 'AMOS Version 18.0'. The valid model consisted of five core job competencies ('Patient management', 'Health and safety', 'Operation of equipment', 'Procedures and management') and 17 sub – competencies. As a result of the factor analysis, the RMSEA value was 0.1 and the CFI, and TLI values were close to 0.9 in the measurement model of the five core job competencies. The validity analysis showed that the mean variance extraction was 0.5 or more and the conceptual reliability value was 0.7 or more , And there was a high correlation between subordinate competencies included in each subordinate competencies. The results of this study are expected to provide specific information necessary for the training and management of human resources centered on competence by clearly showing the job competence required for radiologists in Korea's health environment

  17. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  18. The Seneca Babcock Business Plan: A Case Study in Using Service Learning to Meet the AICPA Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author explains the trend toward service learning projects in higher education and justifies their use in the field of accounting. He describes a service learning project that was used to directly address the development of the competencies listed in the Core Competency Framework created by the American Institute of Certified…

  19. The development and application of bioinformatics core competencies to improve bioinformatics training and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooksbank, Cath; Morgan, Sarah L.; Rosenwald, Anne; Warnow, Tandy; Welch, Lonnie

    2018-01-01

    Bioinformatics is recognized as part of the essential knowledge base of numerous career paths in biomedical research and healthcare. However, there is little agreement in the field over what that knowledge entails or how best to provide it. These disagreements are compounded by the wide range of populations in need of bioinformatics training, with divergent prior backgrounds and intended application areas. The Curriculum Task Force of the International Society of Computational Biology (ISCB) Education Committee has sought to provide a framework for training needs and curricula in terms of a set of bioinformatics core competencies that cut across many user personas and training programs. The initial competencies developed based on surveys of employers and training programs have since been refined through a multiyear process of community engagement. This report describes the current status of the competencies and presents a series of use cases illustrating how they are being applied in diverse training contexts. These use cases are intended to demonstrate how others can make use of the competencies and engage in the process of their continuing refinement and application. The report concludes with a consideration of remaining challenges and future plans. PMID:29390004

  20. Core Competencies of the Certified Pediatric Doctor of Chiropractic: Results of a Delphi Consensus Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Elise; Hestbaek, Lise; Pohlman, Katherine A

    2016-04-01

    An outline of the minimum core competencies expected from a certified pediatric doctor of chiropractic was developed using a Delphi consensus process. The initial set of seed statements and substatements was modeled on competency documents used by organizations that oversee chiropractic and medical education. These statements were distributed to the Delphi panel, reaching consensus when 80% of the panelists approved each segment. The panel consisted of 23 specialists in chiropractic pediatrics (14 females) from across the broad spectrum of the chiropractic profession. Sixty-one percent of panelists had postgraduate pediatric certifications or degrees, 39% had additional graduate degrees, and 74% were faculty at a chiropractic institution and/or in a postgraduate pediatrics program. The panel were initially given 10 statements with related substatements formulated by the study's steering committee. On all 3 rounds of the Delphi process the panelists reached consensus; however, multiple rounds occurred to incorporate the valuable qualitative feedback received. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Systems Modeling for Crew Core Body Temperature Prediction Postlanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Cynthia; Ochoa, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, NASA s latest crewed spacecraft project, presents many challenges to its designers including ensuring crew survivability during nominal and off nominal landing conditions. With a nominal water landing planned off the coast of San Clemente, California, off nominal water landings could range from the far North Atlantic Ocean to the middle of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. For all of these conditions, the vehicle must provide sufficient life support resources to ensure that the crew member s core body temperatures are maintained at a safe level prior to crew rescue. This paper will examine the natural environments, environments created inside the cabin and constraints associated with post landing operations that affect the temperature of the crew member. Models of the capsule and the crew members are examined and analysis results are compared to the requirement for safe human exposure. Further, recommendations for updated modeling techniques and operational limits are included.

  2. Whole-body cryostimulation increases parasympathetic outflow and decreases core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Pawel; Bitner, Anna; Słomko, Joanna; Szrajda, Justyna; Klawe, Jacek J; Tafil-Klawe, Malgorzata; Newton, Julia L

    2014-10-01

    The cardiovascular, autonomic and thermal response to whole-body cryostimulation exposure are not completely known. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate objectively and noninvasively autonomic and thermal reactions observed after short exposure to very low temperatures. We examined 25 healthy men with mean age 30.1 ± 3.7 years and comparable anthropomorphical characteristic. Each subject was exposed to cryotherapeutic temperatures in a cryogenic chamber for 3 min (approx. -120 °C). The cardiovascular and autonomic parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force Monitor. The changes in core body temperature were determined with the Vital Sense telemetric measurement system. Results show that 3 min to cryotherapeutic temperatures causes significant changes in autonomic balance which are induced by peripheral and central blood volume changes. Cryostimulation also induced changes in core body temperature, maximum drop of core temperature was observed 50-60 min after the stimulation. Autonomic and thermal reactions to cryostimulation were observed up to 6 h after the exposure and were not harmful for examined subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Core Addiction Medicine Competencies for Doctors, An International Consultation on Training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ayu, Astri Parawita

    2017-07-18

    Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorders, associated comorbidities and the evidence-base upon which to base clinical practice, most health systems have not invested in standardised training of healthcare providers in addiction medicine. As a result, people with substance use disorders often receive inadequate care, at the cost of quality of life and enormous direct health care costs and indirect societal costs. Therefore, we undertook this study to assess the views of international scholars, representing different countries, on the core set of addiction medicine competencies that need to be covered in medical education.

  4. Residual morphogenetic competence in the proximal core region of stage 25 chick limbs: Zwilling's hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, D F; Miller, J W; Bentley, P A; Donald, M R

    1986-06-01

    Morphogenetic competence (MC) exists in embryonic limb tissue once thought to have lost this property as a consequence of cytodifferentiation. By stage 25 of chick embryonic development, cells in the proximal core of the limb have committed to the cartilage phenotype and are producing their characteristic extracellular matrix. Recombinant limb-bud grafts constructed using isolated fragments of this tissue produce outgrowths with a limb-like skeletal pattern. Inclusion of proximal peripheral tissue in the grafts (with or without the polarizing tissue) inhibits outgrowth and skeletal morphogenesis, explaining the failure of earlier studies to reveal the MC of the proximal core (chondrogenic) cells. Since definitive chondroblasts express MC in more permissive surroundings, it appears that Zwilling's assertion, that the onset of cytodifferentiation causes the loss of MC, is an oversimplification and that complex tissue interactions are probably involved.

  5. Core competencies for patient safety research: a cornerstone for global capacity strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermann, Anne; Ginsburg, Liane; Norton, Peter; Arora, Narendra; Bates, David; Wu, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Background Tens of millions of patients worldwide suffer disabling injuries or death every year due to unsafe medical care. Nonetheless, there is a scarcity of research evidence on how to tackle this global health priority. The shortage of trained researchers is a major limitation, particularly in developing and transitional countries. Objectives As a first step to strengthen capacity in this area, the authors developed a set of internationally agreed core competencies for patient safety research worldwide. Methods A multistage process involved developing an initial framework, reviewing the existing literature relating to competencies in patient safety research, conducting a series of consultations with potential end users and international experts in the field from over 35 countries and finally convening a global consensus conference. Results An initial draft list of competencies was grouped into three themes: patient safety, research methods and knowledge translation. The competencies were considered by the WHO Patient Safety task force, by potential end users in developing and transitional countries and by international experts in the field to be relevant, comprehensive, clear, easily adaptable to local contexts and useful for training patient safety researchers internationally. Conclusions Reducing patient harm worldwide will require long-term sustained efforts to build capacity to enable practical research that addresses local problems and improves patient safety. The first edition of Competencies for Patient Safety Researchers is proposed by WHO Patient Safety as a foundation for strengthening research capacity by guiding the development of training programmes for researchers in the area of patient safety, particularly in developing and transitional countries, where such research is urgently needed. PMID:21228081

  6. AMIA Board white paper: definition of biomedical informatics and specification of core competencies for graduate education in the discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, Casimir A; Shortliffe, Edward H; Currie, Leanne M; Elkin, Peter L; Hunter, Lawrence E; Johnson, Todd R; Kalet, Ira J; Lenert, Leslie A; Musen, Mark A; Ozbolt, Judy G; Smith, Jack W; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter Z

    2012-01-01

    The AMIA biomedical informatics (BMI) core competencies have been designed to support and guide graduate education in BMI, the core scientific discipline underlying the breadth of the field's research, practice, and education. The core definition of BMI adopted by AMIA specifies that BMI is ‘the interdisciplinary field that studies and pursues the effective uses of biomedical data, information, and knowledge for scientific inquiry, problem solving and decision making, motivated by efforts to improve human health.’ Application areas range from bioinformatics to clinical and public health informatics and span the spectrum from the molecular to population levels of health and biomedicine. The shared core informatics competencies of BMI draw on the practical experience of many specific informatics sub-disciplines. The AMIA BMI analysis highlights the central shared set of competencies that should guide curriculum design and that graduate students should be expected to master. PMID:22683918

  7. Identification of Pediatric Oral Health Core Competencies through Interprofessional Education and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hallas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past seven years, the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at New York University College of Dentistry (NYUCD and the Advanced Practice: Pediatrics and the Pediatric Nurse Practitioner (PNP program at New York University College of Nursing (NYUCN have engaged in a program of formal educational activities with the specific goals of advancing interprofessional education, evidence-based practice, and interprofessional strategies to improve the oral-systemic health of infants and young children. Mentoring interprofessional students in all health care professions to collaboratively assess, analyze, and care-manage patients demands that faculty reflect on current practices and determine ways to enhance the curriculum to include evidence-based scholarly activities, opportunities for interprofessional education and practice, and interprofessional socialization. Through the processes of interprofessional education and practice, the pediatric nursing and dental faculty identified interprofessional performance and affective oral health core competencies for all dental and pediatric primary care providers. Students demonstrated achievement of interprofessional core competencies, after completing the interprofessional educational clinical practice activities at Head Start programs that included interprofessional evidence-based collaborative practice, case analyses, and presentations with scholarly discussions that explored ways to improve the oral health of diverse pediatric populations. The goal of improving the oral health of all children begins with interprofessional education that lays the foundations for interprofessional practice.

  8. Creating value-focused healthcare delivery systems: Part three--Core competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, R N

    1997-01-01

    Value is created through the delivery of high-quality, cost--effective healthcare services. The ability to create value from the providers' perspective is facilitated through the development and implementation of essential, customer-focused core competencies. These core competencies include customer relationship management, payer/provider relationship management, disease management, outcomes management, financial/cost management, and information management. Customer relationship management is the foundation upon which all core competencies must be built. All of the core competencies must focus on the needs of the customers, both internal and external. Structuring all processes involved in the core competencies from the perspective of the customer will ensure that value is created throughout the system. Payer/provider relationship management will become a crucial pillar for healthcare providers in the future. As more vertical integration among providers occurs, the management of the relationships among providers and with payers will become more important. Many of the integration strategies being implemented across the country involve the integration of hospitals, physicians, and payers to form accountable health plans. The relationships must be organized to form "win/win" situations, where all parties are focused on a shared vision of creating value and none of the parties benefits at the expense of the others. Disease management in creating value requires that we begin examining the disease process along the entire continuum. Not only must providers be able to provide high-quality acute and chronic care, but they must also begin to focus more heavily on programs of prevention. Value is created throughout the system through reducing the prevalence and incidence of disease. Only through managing the full continuum of health will value be created throughout the healthcare delivery system. Outcomes management ensures that the outcomes are the highest quality at a cost

  9. Measuring core body temperature with a non-invasive sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazgaoker, Savyon; Ketko, Itay; Yanovich, Ran; Heled, Yuval; Epstein, Yoram

    2017-05-01

    In various occupations, workers may be exposed to extreme environmental conditions and physical activities. Under these conditions the ability to follow the workers' body temperature may protect them from overheating that may lead to heat related injuries. The "Dräger" Double Sensor (DS) is a novel device for assessing body-core temperature (T c ). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the DS in measuring T c under heat stress. Seventeen male participants performed a three stage protocol: 30min rest in a thermal comfort environment (20-22°C, 50% relative humidity), followed by an exposure to a hot environment of 40°C, 40% relative humidity -30min at rest and 60min of exercise (walking on a treadmill at 5km/h and 2% elevation). Simultaneously temperatures measured by the DS (T DS ) and by rectal temperature (T re ) (YSI-401 thermistor) were recorded and then compared. During the three stages of the study the average temperature obtained by the DS was within±0.3°C of rectal measurement. The correlation between T DS and T re was significantly better during the heat exposures phases than during resting under comfort conditions. These preliminary results are promising for potential use of the DS by workers under field conditions and especially under environmental heat stress or when dressed in protective garments. For this goal, further investigations are required to validate the accuracy of the DS under various levels of heat stress, clothing and working levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The Galway Consensus Conference: international collaboration on the development of core competencies for health promotion and health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Margaret M; Allegrante, John P; Lamarre, Marie-Claude; Auld, M Elaine; Taub, Alyson

    2009-06-01

    Developing a competent health promotion workforce is a key component of capacity building for the future and is critical to delivering on the vision, values and commitments of global health promotion. This paper reports on an international consensus meeting to identify core competencies, jointly organized by the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE), the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) and the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), with participation from international leaders in the field, that took place at the National University of Ireland, Galway, in June 2008. The purpose of the meeting is outlined and the outcomes in terms of strengthening global exchange, collaboration and common approaches to capacity building and workforce development are discussed. The Consensus Statement, based on the proceedings of the meeting, outlines core values and principles, a common definition and eight domains of core competency that are required to engage in effective health promotion practice. The core domains of competency agreed to at the meeting are: catalysing change, leadership, assessment, planning, impementation, evaluation, advocacy and partnerships. A summary of the Consensus Statement is presented and further dialogue and discussion are invited in order to continue the process of building international consensus with regard to health promotion core competencies.

  11. A leadership styles competency framework for governing bodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National Governing Bodies in Sport in the United Kingdom increasingly implement the Regional Development Managers Scheme in the quest to promote effective leadership within their organisations. Regional Development Managers need professional leadership development. However, much of what has been done in ...

  12. The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I: The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomko Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

  13. Body Composition and Somatotype in Adolescent Competion Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years and 7 girls (15±1.83 years. A qualified anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the protocol of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, with approved materials according to the methodology of Marfell-Jones et al, 2003. Body composition was calculated according to the consensus of Kinanthropometry and somatotype with Heath-Carter´s method.Results: Of all the variables studied (weight, height, folds, circumferences, diameters and lengths, significant differences were found (P<.05 between the sexes in height, arm span, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, crestailiaca, ileo-spinal, abdominal, thigh, leg, sum of skinfolds, biacromial-bi-iliac index, bone body mass, muscle and fat, ectomorphy, and endomorphy.Conclusions: There are significant anthropometric differences between genders in adolescent swimmers (P<.05. Such differences, resulting in the development of both sexes, might be highly related to athletic performance of young athletes.

  14. Partnering to provide simulated learning to address Interprofessional Education Collaborative core competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Judy I; Nimmagadda, Jayashree

    2015-05-01

    Learning to effectively communicate and work with other professionals requires skill, yet interprofessional education is often not included in the undergraduate healthcare provider curriculum. Simulation is an effective pedagogy to bring students from multiple professions together for learning. This article describes a pilot study where nursing and social work students learned together in a simulated learning activity, which was evaluated to by the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). The RIPLS was used before and after the simulated activity to determine if this form of education impacted students' perceptions of readiness to learn together. Students from both professions improved in their RIPLS scores. Students were also asked to identify their interprofessional strengths and challenges before and after the simulation. Changes were identified in qualitative data where reports of strengths and challenges indicated learning and growth had occurred. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that interprofessional simulation can be an effective method to integrate Interprofessional Education Collaborative core competencies into the curriculum.

  15. Integrating Morbidity and Mortality Core Competencies and Quality Improvement in Otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laury, Adrienne M; Bowe, Sarah N; Lospinoso, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    To date, an otolaryngology-specific morbidity and mortality (M&M) conference has never been reported or evaluated. To propose a novel otolaryngology-specific M&M format and to assess its success using a validated assessment tool. Preintervention and postintervention cohort study spanning 14 months (September 2014 to November 2015), with 32 faculty, residents, and medical students attending the department of otolaryngology M&M conference, conducted at the the San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium. A novel quality assurance conference was implemented in the department of otolaryngology at the San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium. This conference incorporates patient safety reports, otolaryngology-specific quality metrics, and individual case presentations. The revised format integrates the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies and Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (QI/PS) system. This format was evaluated by faculty, residents, and medical students every other month for 14 months to assess changes in attitudes regarding the M&M conference as well as changes in presentation quality. Overall, 13 faculty, 12 residents, and 7 medical students completed 232 evaluations. Summary statistics of both resident and faculty attitudes about the success of the M&M format seem to improve over the 14 months between the prequestionnaires and postquestionnaires. General attitudes for both residents and faculty significantly improved from the pretest to posttest (odds ratio, 0.32 per month; 95% CI, 0.29-0.35). In the pretest period, "established presentation format" was considered the most necessary improvement, whereas in the posttest period this changed to "incorporate more QI." For resident presentations evaluated using the situation, background, assessment, and review/recommendations (SBAR) tool, all evaluations, from all participants, improved over time. The M&M conference is an essential

  16. Critical Competencies To Promote A Customer Service Core Capability In A Human Resources Call Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Grobbelaar

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s information-intensive environment customer service is an important aspect that differentiates one organisation from another. This research focuses on those individual competencies which will lead to a customer service core capability in a Human Resources Call Centre. Data was obtained from Call Centre agents (n=18, supervisors (n=3 and customers (n=25 by means of five focus group-, three individual- and 25 telephonic interviews, respectively. The transcendental realism research procedure was applied within a qualitative research paradigm. Ten key competencies were identified by all groups of participants. Opsomming In vandag se inligtings-intensiewe omgewing is kliëntediens ’n belangrike aspek wat organisasies van mekaar onderskei. Hierdie navorsing fokus op welke individuele bevoegdhede tot ’n kliëntedienssleutelbekwaamheid in ’n Menslikehulpbron-oproepsentrum sal lei. Data is van Oproepsentrumagente (n=18, -toesighouers (n=3 en -kliënte (n=25 ingewin deur middel van onderskeidelik vyf fokusgroep-, drie individuele- en 25 telefoniese onderhoude. Die transendentale realisme navorsingsprosedure is binne ’n kwalitatiewe navorsingsparadigma toegepas. Tien sleutelbevoegdhede is deur al drie groepe deelnemers geïdentifiseer.

  17. Evaluating the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education core clinical competencies: techniques and feasibility in a urology training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David C; Montie, James E; Faerber, Gary J

    2003-10-01

    We describe several traditional and novel techniques for teaching and evaluating the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core clinical competencies in a urology residency training program. The evolution and underpinnings of the ACGME Outcome Project were reviewed. Several publications related to the evaluation of clinical competencies as well as current assessment techniques at our institution were also analyzed. Several tools for the assessment of clinical competencies have been developed and refined in response to the ACGME Outcome project. Standardized patient encounters and expanded patient satisfaction surveys may prove useful with regard to assessing resident professionalism, patient care and communication skills. A feasible and possibly undervalued technique for evaluating a number of core competencies is the implementation of formal written appraisals of the nature and quality of resident performance at departmental conferences. The assessment of competency in practice based learning and systems based practice may be achieved through innovative exercises, such as practice guideline development, that assess the evidence for various urologic interventions as well as the financial and administrative aspects of such care. We describe several contemporary methods for teaching and evaluating the core clinical competencies in a urology training program. While the techniques described are neither comprehensive nor feasible for every program, they nevertheless provide an important starting point for a meaningful exchange of ideas in the urological graduate medical education community.

  18. [A Delphi Method Survey of the Core Competences of Post-Acute-Care Nurses in Caring for Acute Stroke Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shu-Ching; Yeh, Lily; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Lin, Pei-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Post-acute care (PAC) service is becoming increasingly important in Taiwan as a core focus of government policies that are designed to ensure continuity of care. In order to improve PAC nursing education and quality of care, the present study applies a modified Delphi method to identify the core competences of nurses who provide PAC services to acute stroke patients. We surveyed 18 experts in post-acute care and long-term care anonymously using a 29-question questionnaire in order to identify the essential professional skills that are required to perform PAC effectively. The results of this survey indicate that the core competences of PAC may be divided into two categories: Case Management and Care Management. Case Management includes Direct Care, Communication, Health Care Education, Nursing Consulting, and Family Assessment & Health Care. Care Management includes Interdisciplinary Teamwork, Patient Care Management, and Resource Integration. The importance and practicality of each item was evaluated using a 7-point Likert scale. The experts required 2 rounds to reach a consensus about the importance and 3 rounds to determine the practicality of PAC core competences. This process highlighted the differing points of view that are held by professionals in the realms of nursing, medicine, and national health policy. The PAC in-job training program in its current form inadequately cul-tivates core competence in Care Management. The results of the present study may be used to inform the development of PAC nurse orientation training programs and continuing education courses.

  19. Simulation and Representation of Body, Emotion, and Core Consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Henderson-Sellers, B.; Winikoff, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes an analysis and formalisation of Damasio's theory on core consciousness. Three important concepts in this theory are 'emotion', 'feeling', and 'feeling a feeling' (or core consciousness). In particular, a simulation model is described of the neural dynamics leading via emotion

  20. Exposure to ACGME Core Competencies through Mentored Basic Science Research: A Pilot Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Wisco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Short-Term Training Program (STTP at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles has nearly tripled (from 30 to 89 in the number of first-year undergraduate medical students participants. STTP supports mentored research projects in the areas of basic sciences, clinical sciences, medical education, and public health (local and international. Although projects can be very specific in scope, the overall experience in STTP exposes students to some, if not all, of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME six core competencies–-Patient Care, Medical Knowledge, Practice-based Learning and Improvement, Interpersonal and Communication Skills, Professionalism, and Systems-based Practice. Thus, STTP has been an important aspect of medical education to prepare our students for residency programs. We describe and analyze the STTP as a model system to introduce the ACGME core competencies at an early point in undergraduate medical education. We conclude with a call to provide more mentored anatomical sciences basic and clinically applied research opportunities.

  1. Methodology for the Systematic Assessment of the Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) for Regulatory Bodies of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    A regulatory body’s competence is dependent, among other things, on the competence of its staff. A necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a regulatory body to be competent is that its staff can perform the tasks related to the functions of the regulatory body. In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, Training the Staff of the Regulatory Body for Nuclear Facilities: A Competency Framework, which examines the manner in which the recognized regulatory functions of a nuclear regulatory body results in competence needs. Using the internationally recognized systematic approach to training, TECDOC 1254 provides a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing, and maintaining the competence of its staff. It has been successfully used by many regulatory bodies all over the world, including States embarking on a nuclear power programme. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool — Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) — which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2013, the IAEA published Safety Reports Series No. 79, Managing Regulatory Body Competence, which provides generic guidance based on IAEA safety requirements in the development of a competence management system within a regulatory body’s integrated management system. An appendix in the Safety Report deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an embarking State’s regulatory system. This publication provides guidance for the analysis of required and existing competences to identify those required by the regulatory body to perform its functions and therefore associated needs for acquiring competences. Hence, it is equally applicable to the needs of States embarking on nuclear power

  2. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven...... battery. VO2peak was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Body fatness was determined by the sum of four skinfolds. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among PA, MC, VO2peak, and body fatness and the potential mediation effects...

  3. Sticking to core values : The case of the Body Shop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de B.; Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors detail the development of The Body Shop and the importance to it of the social projects it has undertaken. They then discuss the implications of The Body Shop's reorganization, brand repositioning and the L'Oréal takeover, and what the future might hold for The Body

  4. Development of Enriched Core Competencies for Health Services and Policy Research: Training for Stronger Career Readiness and Greater Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Stephen; Heritage, Melissa; Chudak, Amanda; Tamblyn, Robyn; McMahon, Meghan; Brown, Adalsteinn

    2018-03-11

    To develop an enriched set of core competencies for health services and policy research (HSPR) doctoral training that will help graduates maximize their impact across a range of academic and nonacademic work environments and roles. Data were obtained from multiple sources, including literature reviews, key informant interviews, stakeholder consultations, and Expert Working Group (EWG) meetings between January 2015 and March 2016. The study setting is Canada. The study used qualitative methods and an iterative development process with significant stakeholder engagement throughout. The literature reviews, key informant interviews, existing data on graduate career trajectories, and EWG deliberations informed the identification of career profiles for HSPR graduates and the competencies required to succeed in these roles. Stakeholder consultations were held to vet, refine, and validate the competencies. The EWG reached consensus on six sectors and eight primary roles in which HSPR doctoral graduates can bring value to employers and the health system. Additionally, 10 core competencies were identified that should be included or further emphasized in the training of HSPR doctoral students to increase their preparedness and potential for impact in a variety of roles within and outside of traditional academic workplaces. The results offer an expanded view of potential career paths for HSPR doctoral graduates and provide recommendations for an expanded set of core competencies that will better equip graduates to maximize their impact on the health system. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Linking the Prevention of Problem Behaviors and Positive Youth Development: Core Competencies for Positive Youth Development and Risk Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Nancy G.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a brief review of the developmental literature linking healthy adjustment to five core competencies: (1) positive sense of self, (2) self-control, (3) decision-making skills, (4) a moral system of belief, and (5) prosocial connectedness. A central premise of this chapter and the rest of the volume is that promoting…

  6. Core competencies for health care ethics consultants: in search of professional status in a post-modern world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2011-09-01

    The American Society for Bioethics and the Humanities (ASBH) issued its Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation just as it is becoming ever clearer that secular ethics is intractably plural and without foundations in any reality that is not a social-historical construction (ASBH Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation, 2nd edn. American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, Glenview, IL, 2011). Core Competencies fails to recognize that the ethics of health care ethics consultants is not ethics in the usual sense of a morally canonical ethics. Its ethics is the ethics established at law and in enforceable health care public policy in a particular jurisdiction. Its normativity is a legal normativity, so that the wrongness of violating this ethics is simply the legal penalties involved and the likelihood of their being imposed. That the ethics of ethics consultation is that ethics legally established accounts for the circumstance that the major role of hospital ethics consultants is as quasi-lawyers giving legal advice, aiding in risk management, and engaging in mediation. It also indicates why this collage of roles has succeeded so well. This article shows how moral philosophy as it was reborn in the 13th century West led to the ethics of modernity and then finally to the ethics of hospital ethics consultation. It provides a brief history of the emergence of an ethics that is after morality. Against this background, the significance of Core Competencies must be critically reconsidered.

  7. Study of the Results in the Acquisition of Core Competencies in Schools That Integrate Primary Education and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu Duran, Maria; Godall Castell, Pere; Amador Guillem, Miquel; Castro Morera, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research was to carry out an exploratory study on how music education integrated into primary schooling (children from 6 to 12 years old) can help in acquiring the core competencies characteristic of this stage. The study was conducted by developing a validated instrument, pilot-tested for reliability, to assess the eight core…

  8. How core competencies are taught during clinical supervision: participatory action research in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Danielle; Paré, Line; Côté, Luc; Baillargeon, Lucie

    2012-12-01

    The development of professional competence is the main goal of residency training. Clinical supervision is the most commonly used teaching and learning method for the development of core competencies (CCs). The literature provides little information on how to encourage the learning of CCs through supervision. We undertook an exploratory study to describe if and how CCs were addressed during supervision in a family medicine residency programme. We selected a participatory action research design to engage participants in exploring their precepting practices. Eleven volunteer faculty staff and six residents from a large family medicine residency programme took part in a 9-month process which included three focus group encounters alternating with data gathering during supervision. We used mostly qualitative methods for data collection and analysis, with thematic content analysis, triangulation of sources and of researchers, and member checking. Participants realised that they addressed all CCs listed as programme outcomes during clinical supervision, albeit implicitly and intuitively, and often unconsciously and superficially. We identified a series of factors that influenced the discussion of CCs: (i) CCs must be both known and valued; (ii) discussion of CCs occurs in a constant adaptation to numerous contextual factors, such as residents' characteristics; (iii) the teaching and learning of CCs is influenced by six challenges in the preceptor-resident interaction, such as residents' active engagement, and (iv) coherence with other curricular elements contributes to learning about CCs. Differences between residents' and preceptors' perspectives are discussed. This is the first descriptive study focusing on the teaching of CCs during clinical supervision, as experienced in a family medicine residency programme. Content and process issues were equally influential on the discussion of CCs. Our findings led to a representation of factors determining the teaching and

  9. Genetic education and the challenge of genomic medicine: development of core competences to support preparation of health professionals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skirton, Heather; Lewis, Celine; Kent, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    in professional education and regulation between European countries, setting curricula may not be practical. Core competences are used as a basis for health professional education in many fields and settings. An Expert Group working under the auspices of the EuroGentest project and European Society of Human......The use of genetics and genomics within a wide range of health-care settings requires health professionals to develop expertise to practise appropriately. There is a need for a common minimum standard of competence in genetics for health professionals in Europe but because of differences...... health professionals and patient groups. Sets of competences for practitioners working in primary, secondary and tertiary care have been agreed and were approved by the European Society of Human Genetics. The competences provide an appropriate framework for genetics education of health professionals...

  10. Core informatics competencies for clinical and translational scientists: what do our customers and collaborators need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Annette L; Meagher, Emma A; Tachinardi, Umberto; Starren, Justin

    2016-07-01

    Since the inception of the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program in 2006, leaders in education across CTSA sites have been developing and updating core competencies for Clinical and Translational Science (CTS) trainees. By 2009, 14 competency domains, including biomedical informatics, had been identified and published. Since that time, the evolution of the CTSA program, changes in the practice of CTS, the rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHRs), the growth of biomedical informatics, the explosion of big data, and the realization that some of the competencies had proven to be difficult to apply in practice have made it clear that the competencies should be updated. This paper describes the process undertaken and puts forth a new set of competencies that has been recently endorsed by the Clinical Research Informatics Workgroup of AMIA. In addition to providing context and background for the current version of the competencies, we hope this will serve as a model for revision of competencies over time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Core informatics competencies for clinical and translational scientists: what do our customers and collaborators need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Annette L; Meagher, Emma A; Tachinardi, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Since the inception of the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program in 2006, leaders in education across CTSA sites have been developing and updating core competencies for Clinical and Translational Science (CTS) trainees. By 2009, 14 competency domains, including biomedical informatics, had been identified and published. Since that time, the evolution of the CTSA program, changes in the practice of CTS, the rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHRs), the growth of biomedical informatics, the explosion of big data, and the realization that some of the competencies had proven to be difficult to apply in practice have made it clear that the competencies should be updated. This paper describes the process undertaken and puts forth a new set of competencies that has been recently endorsed by the Clinical Research Informatics Workgroup of AMIA. In addition to providing context and background for the current version of the competencies, we hope this will serve as a model for revision of competencies over time. PMID:27121608

  12. Scientific Skills as Core Competences in Medical Education: What do medical students think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Pereira, Margarida; Amélia Ferreira, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Background: Scientific excellence is one of the most fundamental underpinnings of medical education and its relevance is unquestionable. To be involved in research activities enhances students' critical thinking and problem-solving capacities, which are mandatory competences for new achievements in patient care and consequently to the improvement of clinical practice. Purposes: This work aimed to study the relevance given by Portuguese medical students to a core of scientific skills, and their judgment about their own ability to execute those skills. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on students attending the first, fourth and sixth years of medical course in the same period. An assessment istrument, exploring the importance given by Portuguese medical students to scientific skills in high school, to clinical practice and to their own ability to execute them, was designed, adapted and applied specifically to this study. Results: Students' perceptions were associated with gender, academic year, previous participation in research activities, positive and negative attitudes toward science, research integration into the curriculum and motivation to undertake research. The viewpoint of medical students about the relevance of scientific skills overall, and the ability to execute them, was independently associated with motivation to be enrolled in research. Conclusions: These findings have meaningful implications in medical education regarding the inclusion of a structural research program in the medical curriculum. Students should be aware that clinical practice would greatly benefit from the enrollment in research activities. By developing a solid scientific literacy future physicians will be able to apply new knowledge in patient care.

  13. Assessment of the use of temperature-sensitive microchips to determine core body temperature in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrao, N A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L C R; Fick, L G

    2011-03-26

    Body temperature was measured at five different body sites (retroperitoneum, groin, semimembranosus muscle, flank and shoulder) using temperature-sensitive microchips implanted in five female goats, and compared with the core body and rectal temperatures. Body temperature was measured while the goats were kept in different ambient temperatures, with and without radiant heat, as well as during a fever induced experimentally by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Bland-Altman limit of agreement analysis was used to compare the temperature measurements at the different body sites during the different interventions. Temperatures measured by the microchip implanted in the retroperitoneum showed the closest agreement (mean 0.2 °C lower) with core and rectal temperatures during all interventions, whereas temperatures measured by the microchips implanted in the groin, muscle, flank and shoulder differed from core body temperature by up to 3.5 °C during the various interventions.

  14. The Effects of the Heat and Moisture Exchanger on Humidity, Airway Temperature, and Core Body Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delventhal, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Findings from several studies have demonstrated that the use of a heat and moisture exchanger increases airway humidity, which in turn increases mean airway temperature and prevents decreases in core body temperature...

  15. Children's self-perceived bodily competencies and associations with motor skills, body mass index, teachers' evaluations, and parents' concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard-Stoeckel, Jan; Groenfeldt, Vivian; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    ability test "Korperkoordinationstest fur Kinder", while the children's, their parents', and their teachers' evaluations were obtained through questionnaires. Parental concern, teacher evaluation, and a high body mass index were the strongest predictors of low physical competence (motor skill quotient ......The associations between physical competence, self-perceived bodily competence, parental concern for their children's motor skill development, and teachers' evaluation of their bodily competence were assessed in 646 six- to seven-year-olds. Physical competence was assessed by the German motor...

  16. Graduate students' self assessment of competency in grief education and training in core accredited rehabilitation counseling programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Richard Jude

    The study examined whether 93 master's level rehabilitation counselor trainees from select Midwestern CORE-accredited schools report having been adequately trained to identify and work with clients who are having grief-related issues from a loss or disability. Using the Grief Counseling Competency Scale (GCCS), participants showed a wide range of scores regarding personal competency related to grief; however, scores tended to be low when examining skills and knowledge relating to grief, with most respondents scoring between "this barely describes me" and "this somewhat describes me." Although presence or history of a disability was found to be related to personal competency, a number of variables were not related, including: gender, age, race/ethnicity, course work in grief theories and grief interventions, practica/internship setting, and attitudes toward people with disabilities. Implications for further research are discussed.

  17. Improving the biomedical research literature: insights from authors' editors can help journal editors define and refine their core competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarese, Valerie; Shashok, Karen

    2018-01-01

    A team of stakeholders in biomedical publishing recently proposed a set of core competencies for journal editors, as a resource that can inform training programs for editors and ultimately improve the quality of the biomedical research literature. This initiative, still in its early stages, would benefit from additional sources of expert information. Based on our experiences as authors' editors, we offer two suggestions on how to strengthen these competencies so that they better respond to the needs of readers and authors - the main users of and contributors to research journals. First, journal editors should be able to ensure that authors are given useful feedback on the language and writing in submitted manuscripts, beyond a (possibly incorrect) blanket judgement of whether the English is "acceptable" or not. Second, journal editors should be able to deal effectively with inappropriate text re-use and plagiarism. These additional competencies would, we believe, be valued by other stakeholders in biomedical research publication as markers of editorial quality.

  18. Constructing core competency indicators for clinical teachers in Taiwan: a qualitative analysis and an analytic hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ai-Tzu; Lin, Jou-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to construct a framework of core competency indicators of medical doctors who teach in the clinical setting in Taiwan and to evaluate the relative importance of the indicators among these clinical teachers. Methods The preliminary framework of the indicators was developed from an in-depth interview conducted with 12 clinical teachers who had previously been recognized and awarded for their teaching excellence in university hospitals. The framework wa...

  19. Genetic education and the challenge of genomic medicine: development of core competences to support preparation of health professionals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skirton, Heather; Lewis, Celine; Kent, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    The use of genetics and genomics within a wide range of health-care settings requires health professionals to develop expertise to practise appropriately. There is a need for a common minimum standard of competence in genetics for health professionals in Europe but because of differences in profe...... and professions has resulted in an adaptable framework for both pre-registration and continuing professional education. This competence framework has the potential to improve the quality of genetic health care for patients globally....... in professional education and regulation between European countries, setting curricula may not be practical. Core competences are used as a basis for health professional education in many fields and settings. An Expert Group working under the auspices of the EuroGentest project and European Society of Human...... Genetics Education Committee agreed that a pragmatic solution to the need to establish common standards for education and practice in genetic health care was to agree to a set of core competences that could apply across Europe. These were agreed through an exhaustive process of consultation with relevant...

  20. Core competencies for cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention professionals: 2010 update: position statement of the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Larry F; Sanderson, Bonnie K; Ades, Philip A; Berra, Kathy; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Roitman, Jeffrey L; Williams, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention (CR/SP) services are typically delivered by a multidisciplinary team of health care professionals. The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR) recognizes that to provide high-quality services, it is important for these health care professionals to possess certain core competencies. This update to the previous statement identifies 10 areas of core competencies for CR/SP health care professionals and identifies specific knowledge and skills for each core competency. These core competency areas are consistent with the current list of core components for CR/SP programs published by the AACVPR and the American Heart Association and include comprehensive cardiovascular patient assessment; management of blood pressure, lipids, diabetes, tobacco cessation, weight, and psychological issues; exercise training; and counseling for psychosocial, nutritional, and physical activity issues.

  1. Mental state, body image disturbances and social competences in adolescents with strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecylia Smug

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strabismus is a serious ophthalmological and cosmetic disorder which may cause psychological discomfort. An increased incidence of various mental disturbances in patients with squint has been described. Affected children and adolescents experience more difficulties at school and worse results in sport. Squint may cause a disadvantageous social reception and may sometimes make it difficult to get a satisfying job. It may considerably decrease the quality of life. Objective: This study addressed three questions: 1 Is strabismus linked to psychiatric and psychological disorders? 2 Can it influence social competences? 3 Is it linked to dysmorphophobia (DSM-IV? Material and methods: Thirty persons with strabismus at the age of 13-17 years were compared with the control group of 30 persons of the same age, without eye problems. To detect psychiatric problems GHQ-28 scale was used. To assess social competences the Social Competence Questionnaire KKS (Kwestionariusz Kompetencji Społecznych was used. Dysmorphophobia symptoms were measured using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, functioning, social competences or dysmorphophobia in adolescents with strabismus, as compared to the control group. Significantly worse social competences were shown by those adolescents with strabismus who underwent surgical treatment, as compared to other persons with squint (p=0.006. Discussion: In literature, we have not found any studies on social competences in young people with strabismus. The prevalence of dysmorphophobia was not confirmed among them. No higher incidence of psychiatric disorders was observed in our study in adolescents with strabismus.

  2. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-09-01

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 °C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg-1, which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  3. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 deg. C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg -1 , which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio

  4. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)], E-mail: ahirata@nitech.ac.jp

    2008-09-21

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 deg. C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg{sup -1}, which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  5. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  6. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  7. Core competencies in teaching and training for doctors in Scotland: a review of the literature and stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael T; Macrae, Claire; Scott, Jayne; Renwick, Lynne; Moffat, Mandy; Needham, Gillian; Scott, Hazel; Shippey, Ben; Jackson, Catherine; Edgar, Simon; Aitken, Debbie; Evans, Phillip; Irvine, Stewart

    2014-06-01

    The UK General Medical Council requires all registered doctors to be competent in all areas of their work, including teaching and training. The current research sought consensus on core competencies for all consultants and GPs involved in teaching and training in Scotland. A draft list of 80 competencies was developed from the literature and made available as a survey to all consultants and GPs with teaching roles and all final year speciality trainees working in Scotland. Respondents rated the importance of each competency and provided free text comments. There were 1026 responses. Eighteen competencies were rated as "high priority", and are recommended as a baseline for all doctors involved in teaching and training; 55 were rated as "medium priority", and are recommended in relation to specific teaching and training roles; and 7 were rated as "low priority". Free text responses suggested the topic was controversial and emotive, and emphasised the importance of further work to engage trainers. The findings appeared to have face validity, and it was felt these could be used as the basis for developing a "Scottish Trainer Framework" for doctors and others involved in teaching and training in Scotland.

  8. Critical Workplace Competencies: Essential? Generic? Core? Employability? Non-technical? What's in a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the concern over the lack of employability competencies that high school and college graduates bring to the workplace. Suggests that the dissatisfaction is often with what are called "soft skills" or one of many other terms. Attempts to clarify the semantic confusion regarding workplace competencies. (JOW)

  9. Learners' perspective: where and when pre-residency trainees learn more to achieve their core clinical competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eusang; Ahn, Ducksun; Lee, Young-Mee

    2016-12-01

    While it is known that effective clinical education requires active involvement of its participants, regular feedback, communication skills and interprofessional training, limited studies have been conducted in Korea that demonstrate how pre-residency trainees acquire their core clinical skills. This is a cross-sectional study of interns and students across a third-tier university hospital in Korea to examine where and when they acquire core clinical skills. A total of 74 students and 91 interns were asked to participate in a closed-ended questionnaire, and 50 participants (20 students and 30 interns) were involved in semistructured individual interviews. The questionnaire was based on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. The majority of core clinical skills were acquired during their rotations in emergency medicine, general surgery, and cardiothoracic surgery. The semistructured interviews revealed that these departments required their trainees to be highly involved and analytical, and participate in clinical discourse. The common factor among the three departments is an environment in which trainees are highly involved in clinical duties, and are expected to make first-contact patient encounters, participate in clinical discourse, interpret investigative results and arrive at their own conclusions. Work-based learning appear to be key to the trends observed, and further study is warranted to determine whether these findings are indicative of true acquisition of clinical competence.

  10. Learners’ perspective: where and when pre-residency trainees learn more to achieve their core clinical competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusang Ahn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose While it is known that effective clinical education requires active involvement of its participants, regular feedback, communication skills and interprofessional training, limited studies have been conducted in Korea that demonstrate how pre-residency trainees acquire their core clinical skills. This is a cross-sectional study of interns and students across a third-tier university hospital in Korea to examine where and when they acquire core clinical skills. Methods A total of 74 students and 91 interns were asked to participate in a closed-ended questionnaire, and 50 participants (20 students and 30 interns were involved in semistructured individual interviews. The questionnaire was based on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. Results The majority of core clinical skills were acquired during their rotations in emergency medicine, general surgery, and cardiothoracic surgery. The semistructured interviews revealed that these departments required their trainees to be highly involved and analytical, and participate in clinical discourse. Conclusion The common factor among the three departments is an environment in which trainees are highly involved in clinical duties, and are expected to make first-contact patient encounters, participate in clinical discourse, interpret investigative results and arrive at their own conclusions. Work-based learning appear to be key to the trends observed, and further study is warranted to determine whether these findings are indicative of true acquisition of clinical competence.

  11. Core identity e core competence dello psicologo nella cooperazione allo sviluppo e nell’assistenza umanitaria. Una ricerca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Rossi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine in depth the role of psychologists in development cooperation and humanitarian assistance, defining their competence and identity. We aim also at understanding which space can community psychology have in these contexts. The method used is the content analysis, performed on 21 interviews, 12 with psychologists and 9 with humanitarian agencies. Thanks to this research it was possible to define the functions of the psychologist as an operator which works in the field and within humanitarian agencies. The author notices a difficulty in communication between psychology and cooperation world. Moreover, community psychology in general emerges as an effective tool in cooperation field.

  12. The small GTPase Cdc42 modulates the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mai; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Numano, Rika; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Kakeyama, Masaki; Murata, Masayuki; Sato, Ken; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPase Cdc42. ► Cdc42 increases the number of fusion events from newly recruited vesicles. ► Cdc42 increases the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles. -- Abstract: Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal microscope that Cdc42 modulated the number of fusion events and the number of dense-core vesicles produced in the cells. Overexpression of a wild-type or constitutively-active form of Cdc42 strongly facilitated high-KCl-induced exocytosis from the newly recruited plasma membrane vesicles in PC12 cells. By contrast, a dominant-negative form of Cdc42 inhibited exocytosis from both the newly recruited and previously docked plasma membrane vesicles. The number of intracellular dense-core vesicles was increased by the overexpression of both a wild-type and constitutively-active form of Cdc42. Consistently, activation of Cdc42 by overexpression of Tuba, a Golgi-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42 increased the number of intracellular dense-core vesicles, whereas inhibition of Cdc42 by overexpression of the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding domain of neuronal Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein decreased the number of them. These findings suggest that Cdc42 facilitates exocytosis by modulating both the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles and the production of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells.

  13. The small GTPase Cdc42 modulates the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Mai [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kitaguchi, Tetsuya [Cell Signaling Group, Waseda Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore (WABOIS), Waseda University, 11 Biopolis Way, 05-01/02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Numano, Rika [The Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tennpaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Ikematsu, Kazuya [Forensic Pathology and Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Kakeyama, Masaki [Laboratory of Environmental Health Sciences, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Murata, Masayuki; Sato, Ken [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Tsuboi, Takashi, E-mail: takatsuboi@bio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPase Cdc42. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of fusion events from newly recruited vesicles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles. -- Abstract: Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal microscope that Cdc42 modulated the number of fusion events and the number of dense-core vesicles produced in the cells. Overexpression of a wild-type or constitutively-active form of Cdc42 strongly facilitated high-KCl-induced exocytosis from the newly recruited plasma membrane vesicles in PC12 cells. By contrast, a dominant-negative form of Cdc42 inhibited exocytosis from both the newly recruited and previously docked plasma membrane vesicles. The number of intracellular dense-core vesicles was increased by the overexpression of both a wild-type and constitutively-active form of Cdc42. Consistently, activation of Cdc42 by overexpression of Tuba, a Golgi-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42 increased the number of intracellular dense-core vesicles, whereas inhibition of Cdc42 by overexpression of the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding domain of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein decreased the number of them. These findings suggest that Cdc42 facilitates exocytosis by modulating both the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles and the production of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells.

  14. Modeling Snow Regime in Cores of Small Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukaré, C. E.; Ricard, Y. R.; Parmentier, E.; Parman, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of present day magnetic field on small planetary bodies such as Ganymede or Mercury challenge our understanding of planetary dynamo. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the origin of magnetic fields. Among the proposed scenarios, one family of models relies on snow regime. Snow regime is supported by experimental studies showing that melting curves can first intersect adiabats in regions where the solidifying phase is not gravitationaly stable. First solids should thus remelt during their ascent or descent. The effect of the snow zone on magnetic field generation remains an open question. Could magnetic field be generated in the snow zone? If not, what is the depth extent of the snow zone? How remelting in the snow zone drive compositional convection in the liquid layer? Several authors have tackled this question with 1D-spherical models. Zhang and Schubert, 2012 model sinking of the dense phase as internally heated convection. However, to our knowledge, there is no study on the convection structure associated with sedimentation and phase change at planetary scale. We extend the numerical model developped in [Boukare et al., 2017] to model snow dynamics in 2D Cartesian geometry. We build a general approach for modeling double diffusive convection coupled with solid-liquid phase change and phase separation. We identify several aspects that may govern the convection structure of the solidifying system: viscosity contrast between the snow zone and the liquid layer, crystal size, rate of melting/solidification and partitioning of light components during phase change.

  15. [Effects of fitness training and yoga on well-being stress, social competence and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner-Holter, Susanne; Kopp, Martin; Günther, Verena

    2009-01-01

    Aims of our study were to describe and compare influences from a physical activity program and a yoga program on well-being, mood, stresscoping, body-image and social competence in healthy people. 18 persons attending a gym and 21 taking part in a yoga program answered following questionnaires before entering the program and after taking part for 20 units: Body-Image-Questionnaire (25), Symptom-Checklist- 90R (8), Complaint- List (31), Adjective Mood-Scale (32) and a Visual Analogue Scale for assessing stress-level (10). Statistical analyses show significant improvement in social competence in both training groups; the gym-group report reduced sexual discomfort, whereas people taking part in yoga-group show a reduction in somatization and body-related anxiety as well as an improvement in physical and emotional well-being. Our findings support the evidence that physical activity in general improves psychological well-being, however, gym and yoga seem to have different psychological impacts. Future research should focus on comparing the psychological effects of different physical activity interventions in prevention programmes as well as exercise prescriptions in patients with mental illness.

  16. Developing Workforce Capacity in Public Health Informatics: Core Competencies and Curriculum Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Wholey

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a master’s level public health informatics (PHI curriculum to support workforce development. Public health decision-making requires intensive information management to organize responses to health threats and develop effective health education and promotion. PHI competencies prepare the public health workforce to design and implement these information systems. The objective for a Master’s and Certificate in PHI is to prepare public health informaticians with the competencies to work collaboratively with colleagues in public health and other health professions to design and develop information systems that support population health improvement. The PHI competencies are drawn from computer, information, and organizational sciences. A curriculum is proposed to deliver the competencies and result of a pilot PHI program is presented. Since the public health workforce needs to use information technology effectively to improve population health, it is essential for public health academic institutions to develop and implement PHI workforce training programs.

  17. Anisotropic structure of the Inner Core and its uncertainty from transdimensional body-wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, S.; Waszek, L.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of body waves and normal modes have revealed strong quasi-hemispheric variations in seismic velocity, anisotropy and attenuation in the inner core. A rigorous mapping of the hemispheric boundaries and smaller scale heterogeneity within the hemispheres is crucial for distinguishing between hypotheses about inner core formation and evolution. However, the relatively sparse and heterogeneous distribution of paths piercing the inner core creates difficulties in constraining the boundaries and sub-hemispheric variations with body wave tomography. Damped tomographic inversions tend to smooth out strong structural gradients and risk carrying the imprint of sparse path coverage, while under-parametrized models can miss pertinent small-scale variations. For these reasons, we apply a probabilistic and transdimensional (THB) tomography method on core-sensitive differential P-wave traveltimes. The THB approach is well-suited to the problem of inner core tomography since 1) it remains parsimonious by allowing the parametrization to be determined the requirements of the data and 2) it preserves sharp boundaries in seismic properties, allowing it to capture both short-wavelength structure and the strong hemispheric dichotomy. Furthermore, the approach yields estimates of uncertainty in isotropic and anisotropic velocity, hemispheric boundary geometry, anisotropy axis and the tradeoffs between these properties. We quantify the effects of mantle heterogeneity with inner core structure and place constraints on inner core dynamics and minerology.

  18. Absence of positive eigenvalues for hard-core N-body systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, K.; Skibsted, Erik

    We show absence of positive eigenvalues for generalized 2-body hard-core Schrödinger operators under the condition of bounded strictly convex obstacles. A scheme for showing absence of positive eigenvalues for generalized N-body hard-core Schrödinger operators, N≥ 2, is presented. This scheme...... involves high energy resolvent estimates, and for N=2 it is implemented by a Mourre commutator type method. A particular example is the Helium atom with the assumption of infinite mass and finite extent nucleus....

  19. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  1. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.

  2. Core body temperature control by total liquid ventilation using a virtual lung temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Micheau, Philippe; Robert, Raymond; Avoine, Olivier; Tissier, Renaud; Germim, Pamela Samanta; Vandamme, Jonathan; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Herve

    2014-12-01

    In total liquid ventilation (TLV), the lungs are filled with a breathable liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) while a liquid ventilator ensures proper gas exchange by renewal of a tidal volume of oxygenated and temperature-controlled PFC. Given the rapid changes in core body temperature generated by TLV using the lung has a heat exchanger, it is crucial to have accurate and reliable core body temperature monitoring and control. This study presents the design of a virtual lung temperature sensor to control core temperature. In the first step, the virtual sensor, using expired PFC to estimate lung temperature noninvasively, was validated both in vitro and in vivo. The virtual lung temperature was then used to rapidly and automatically control core temperature. Experimentations were performed using the Inolivent-5.0 liquid ventilator with a feedback controller to modulate inspired PFC temperature thereby controlling lung temperature. The in vivo experimental protocol was conducted on seven newborn lambs instrumented with temperature sensors at the femoral artery, pulmonary artery, oesophagus, right ear drum, and rectum. After stabilization in conventional mechanical ventilation, TLV was initiated with fast hypothermia induction, followed by slow posthypothermic rewarming for 1 h, then by fast rewarming to normothermia and finally a second fast hypothermia induction phase. Results showed that the virtual lung temperature was able to provide an accurate estimation of systemic arterial temperature. Results also demonstrate that TLV can precisely control core body temperature and can be favorably compared to extracorporeal circulation in terms of speed.

  3. Developing Core Competencies for the Prevention and Management of Prescription Drug Misuse: A Medical Education Collaboration in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Karen H; Berman, Harris A; Flotte, Terence R; Flier, Jeffrey; Dimitri, Dennis M; Bharel, Monica

    2016-10-01

    Drug overdose has become the leading cause of injury death in the United States. More than half of those deaths involve prescription drugs, specifically opioids. A key component of addressing this national epidemic is improving prescriber practices.A review of the curricula at the four medical schools in Massachusetts revealed that, although they taught components of addiction medicine, no uniform standard existed to ensure that all students were taught prevention and management strategies for prescription drug misuse. To fill this gap, the governor and the secretary of health and human services invited the deans of the state's four medical schools to convene to develop a common educational strategy for teaching safe and effective opioid-prescribing practices. With leadership from the Department of Public Health and Massachusetts Medical Society, the deans formed the Medical Education Working Group in 2015. This group reviewed the relevant literature and current standards for treating substance use disorders and defined 10 core competencies for the prevention and management of prescription drug misuse.The medical schools have incorporated these competencies into their curricula and have committed to assessing students' competence in these areas. The members of the Medical Education Working Group have agreed to continue to work together on key next steps, including connecting these competencies to those for residents, equipping interprofessional teams to address prescription drug misuse, and developing materials in pain management and opioid misuse for practicing physicians. This first-in-the-nation partnership has yielded cross-institutional competencies that aim to address a public health emergency in real time.

  4. Increased core body temperature in astronauts during long-duration space missions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahn, A. C.; Werner, A.; Opatz, O.; Maggioni, M. A.; Steinach, M.; von Ahlefeld, V. W.; Moore, A.; Crucian, B. E.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Schlabs, T.; Mendt, S.; Trippel, T.; Koralewski, E.; Koch, J.; Chouker, A.; Reitz, Guenther; Shang, P.; Rocker, L.; Kirsch, K. A.; Gunga, H-C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 16180. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : core body temperature * astonauts' CBT * spaceflights Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  5. The correlation between the amplitude of Osborn wave and core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hesham R; Camporesi, Enrico M

    2015-08-01

    Several reports illustrate an inverse correlation between the Osborn wave (J wave) amplitude and core body temperature. We attempted to study the strength of this correlation. We reviewed all articles reporting hypothermic J waves from 1950-2014 for patient demographics, core body temperature in Celsius (°C), amplitude of the J wave in millimeters (mm), lead with the highest amplitude of J wave, presence of acidosis, PO2, electrolytes and outcome. In cases with more than one electrocardiogram (ECG), the respective core body temperature and J wave amplitude of each ECG were recorded. The main study outcome is to evaluate the correlation between the J wave amplitude and core body temperature in the admission ECG. We have also examined the strength of this relationship in cases with more than one ECG. We attempted to find the most frequent lead that recorded the highest amplitude of the J wave in addition to the correlation between the amplitude of J wave and pH. We found 64 articles comprising a total of 68 cases. When analyzing only cases with more than one reported ECG, there was a strong inverse correlation (r = - 0.682, ptemperature: however, when analyzing admission ECG of all cases, the correlation was only moderate (r = - 0.410, ptemperature. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  6. Endogenous and exogenous components in the circadian variation of core body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, AE; Beersma, DGM; VandenHoofdakker, RH

    Core body temperature is predominantly modulated by endogenous and exogenous components. In the present study we tested whether these two components can be reliably assessed in a protocol which lasts for only 120 h. In this so-called forced desynchrony protocol, 12 healthy male subjects (age 23.7

  7. Selective SWS suppression does not affect the time course of core body temperature in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    1992-01-01

    In eight healthy middle-aged men, sleep and core body temperature were recorded under baseline conditions, during all-night SWS suppression by acoustic stimulation, and during undisturbed recovery sleep. SWS suppression resulted in a marked reduction of sleep stages 3 and 4 but did not affect the

  8. An IR Sensor Based Smart System to Approximate Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Partha Pratim

    2017-08-01

    Herein demonstrated experiment studies two methods, namely convection and body resistance, to approximate human core body temperature. The proposed system is highly energy efficient that consumes only 165 mW power and runs on 5 VDC source. The implemented solution employs an IR thermographic sensor of industry grade along with AT Mega 328 breakout board. Ordinarily, the IR sensor is placed 1.5-30 cm away from human forehead (i.e., non-invasive) and measured the raw data in terms of skin and ambient temperature which is then converted using appropriate approximation formula to find out core body temperature. The raw data is plotted, visualized, and stored instantaneously in a local machine by means of two tools such as Makerplot, and JAVA-JAR. The test is performed when human object is in complete rest and after 10 min of walk. Achieved results are compared with the CoreTemp CM-210 sensor (by Terumo, Japan) which is calculated to be 0.7 °F different from the average value of BCT, obtained by the proposed IR sensor system. Upon a slight modification, the presented model can be connected with a remotely placed Internet of Things cloud service, which may be useful to inform and predict the user's core body temperature through a probabilistic view. It is also comprehended that such system can be useful as wearable device to be worn on at the hat attachable way.

  9. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  10. Meeting Tomorrow's Expectations: In Search of Core Competencies and Ways of Assessing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolskiy, O. A.; Pogozhina, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Today, experts agree that the level of cognitive development of modern young people affects the long-term life goals and outcomes that they set for themselves. During the course of numerous studies experts have identified such key competencies as problem solving, information literacy, and critical thinking. However, there are still many unanswered…

  11. Core characteristics of the competent general practice trainer, a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boendermaker, P.M.; Schuling, J.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.; Zwierstra, R.P.; Metz, J.C.; Conradi, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The specific skills, attitude, knowledge, and personality characteristics, which should define the competent GP-trainer have been subject of research for many years. What are the most important of these characteristics have yet to be delineated. Aim: The aim of this study is to

  12. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C; Klaessens, John H G M; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J

    2013-09-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature using different readout measurements. In two independent studies, male and female participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a non-stressful control task. Core temperature (intestinal and temporal artery) and peripheral temperature (facial and body skin temperature) were measured. Compared to the control condition, stress exposure decreased intestinal temperature but did not affect temporal artery temperature. Stress exposure resulted in changes in skin temperature that followed a gradient-like pattern, with decreases at distal skin locations such as the fingertip and finger base and unchanged skin temperature at proximal regions such as the infra-clavicular area. Stress-induced effects on facial temperature displayed a sex-specific pattern, with decreased nasal skin temperature in females and increased cheek temperature in males. In conclusion, the amplitude and direction of stress-induced temperature changes depend on the site of temperature measurement in humans. This precludes a direct translation of the preclinical stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, in which core temperature uniformly rises in response to stress to the human situation. Nevertheless, the effects of stress result in consistent temperature changes. Therefore, the present study supports the inclusion of body temperature as a physiological readout parameter of stress in future studies.

  13. Internal Medicine Residency Program Directors' Views of the Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency: An Opportunity to Enhance Communication of Competency Along the Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Steven V; Vu, T Robert; Willett, Lisa L; Call, Stephanie; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Chaudhry, Saima

    2017-06-01

    To examine internal medicine (IM) residency program directors' (PDs') perspectives on the Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency (Core EPAs)-introduced into undergraduate medical education to further competency-based assessment-and on communicating competency-based information during transitions. A spring 2015 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine survey asked PDs of U.S. IM residency programs for their perspectives on which Core EPAs new interns must or should possess on day 1, which are most essential, and which have the largest gap between expected and observed performance. Their views and preferences were also requested regarding communicating competency-based information at transitions from medical school to residency and residency to fellowship/employment. The response rate was 57% (204/361 programs). The majority of PDs felt new interns must/should possess 12 of the 13 Core EPAs. PDs' rankings of Core EPAs by relative importance were more varied than their rankings by the largest gaps in performance. Although preferred timing varied, most PDs (82%) considered it important for medical schools to communicate Core EPA-based information to PDs; nearly three-quarters (71%) would prefer a checklist format. Many (60%) would be willing to provide competency-based evaluations to fellowship directors/employers. Most (> 80%) agreed that there should be a bidirectional communication mechanism for programs/employers to provide feedback on competency assessments. The gaps identified in Core EPA performance may help guide medical schools' curricular and assessment tool design. Sharing competency-based information at transitions along the medical education continuum could help ensure production of competent, practice-ready physicians.

  14. New Hybrid Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Model for Improving Competence Sets: Enhancing a Company’s Core Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Wei Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A company’s core competitiveness depends on the strategic allocation of its human resources in alignment with employee capabilities. Competency models can identify the range of capabilities at a company’s disposal, and this information can be used to develop internal or external education training policies for sustainable development. Such models can ensure the importation of a strategic orientation reflecting the growth of its employee competence set and enhancing human resource sustainably. This approach ensures that the most appropriate people are assigned to the most appropriate positions. In this study, we proposed a new hybrid multiple attributed decision-making model by using the Decision-making trial and Evaluation Laboratory Technique (DEMATEL to construct an influential network relation map (INRM and determined the influential weights by using the basic concept of the analytic network process (called DEMATEL-based ANP, DANP; the influential weights were then adopted with a modified Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method. A simple forecasting technique as an iteration function was also proposed. The proposed model was effective. We expect that the proposed model can facilitate making timely revisions, reflecting the growth of employee competence sets, reducing the performance gap toward the aspiration level, and ensuring the sustainability of a company.

  15. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olopade FE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Funmilayo Eniola Olopade,1 Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye,2 Yinusa Raji,3 Abiodun Olubayo Fasola,4 Emiola Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa5 1Department of Anatomy, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Physiology, 4Department of Oral Pathology, 5Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract: The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula

  16. Training the staff of the regulatory body for nuclear facilities: A competency framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The uncertainties about the future of nuclear power in many countries, the ageing of the existing work force, and the consequential lack of interest of new professionals to engage in the nuclear field represent developments of major current international concern. The situation is compounded by the great reduction in higher education opportunities in the field of nuclear engineering and the elimination of nuclear engineering departments and research reactors in many universities and the loss of nuclear research facilities generally. Competence of regulatory staff is one of the prerequisites for the safety of nuclear facilities in the IAEA Member States. Recruitment of competent regulatory staff is difficult in many countries. Also, replacement of retiring staff members requires active efforts from the management of regulatory bodies for establishing staff qualification and training programmes. International support is needed in this domain. In 2000, the General Conference resolution GC(44)IRES/13 on education and training in radiation protection, nuclear safety and waste management urged the secretariat to 'strengthen, within available financial resources, its current efforts in this area' Several elements required for the implementation of the above resolution are already in place. A strategy paper on training in nuclear, radiation and waste safety, including specialized training courses for specific target groups, has been developed at the IAEA. The international working group on training and qualification recommended in its March meeting in 2000 that a technical document be produced on good training practices of regulatory bodies with advanced training programmes. Such a technical document would be of considerable value to many bodies. The technical document would address how training programmes for regulatory staff have been developed and implemented and include examples of training currently available. Of particular interest to regulatory agencies that have

  17. Constructing core competency indicators for clinical teachers in Taiwan: a qualitative analysis and an analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Tzu; Lin, Jou-Wei

    2014-04-11

    The objective of this study was to construct a framework of core competency indicators of medical doctors who teach in the clinical setting in Taiwan and to evaluate the relative importance of the indicators among these clinical teachers. The preliminary framework of the indicators was developed from an in-depth interview conducted with 12 clinical teachers who had previously been recognized and awarded for their teaching excellence in university hospitals. The framework was categorized into 4 dimensions: 1) Expertise (i.e., professional knowledge and skill); 2) Teaching Ability; 3) Attitudes and Traits; and 4) Beliefs and Values. These areas were further divided into 11 sub-dimensions and 40 indicators. Subsequently, a questionnaire built upon this qualitative analysis was distributed to another group of 17 clinical teachers. Saaty's eigenvector approach, or the so-called analytic hierarchy process (AHP), was applied to perform the pairwise comparisons between indicators and to determine the ranking and relative importance of the indicators. Fourteen questionnaires were deemed valid for AHP assessment due to completeness of data input. The relative contribution of the four main dimensions was 31% for Attitudes and Traits, 30% for Beliefs and Values, 22% for Expertise, and 17% for Teaching Ability. Specifically, 9 out of the 10 top-ranked indicators belonged to the "Attitudes and Traits" or "Beliefs and Values" dimensions, indicating that inner characteristics (i.e., attitudes, traits, beliefs, and values) were perceived as more important than surface ones (i.e., professional knowledge, skills, and teaching competency). We performed a qualitative analysis and developed a questionnaire based upon an interview with experienced clinical teachers in Taiwan, and used this tool to construct the key features for the role model. The application has also demonstrated the relative importance in the dimensions of the core competencies for clinical teachers in Taiwan.

  18. Proficiency in identifying, managing and communicating medical errors: feasibility and validity study assessing two core competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Dabrh, Abd Moain; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Newcomb, Richard D; Buchta, William G; Steffen, Mark W; Wang, Zhen; Lovett, Amanda K; Steinkraus, Lawrence W

    2016-09-02

    Communication skills and professionalism are two competencies in graduate medical education that are challenging to evaluate. We aimed to develop, test and validate a de novo instrument to evaluate these two competencies. Using an Objective Standardized Clinical Examination (OSCE) based on a medication error scenario, we developed an assessment instrument that focuses on distinctive domains [context of discussion, communication and detection of error, management of error, empathy, use of electronic medical record (EMR) and electronic medical information resources (EMIR), and global rating]. The aim was to test feasibility, acceptability, and reliability of the method. Faculty and standardized patients (SPs) evaluated 56 trainees using the instrument. The inter-rater reliability of agreement between faculty was substantial (Fleiss k = 0.71) and intraclass correlation efficient was excellent (ICC = 0.80). The measured agreement between faculty and SPs evaluation of resident was lower (Fleiss k = 0.36). The instrument showed good conformity (ICC = 0.74). The majority of the trainees (75 %) had satisfactory or higher performance in all six assessed domains and 86 % found the OSCE to be realistic. Sixty percent reported not receiving feedback on EMR use and asked for subsequent training. An OSCE-based instrument using a medical error scenario can be used to assess competency in professionalism, communication, using EMRs and managing medical errors.

  19. Normative values of functional competence, speed and lower body power for youth football players at different stages of biological maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Professional football clubs place great emphasis on development of young players to attain first team squad membership, yet despite extensive research on senior teams there is limited knowledge the assessment of functional competence and the development of elite youth players (Brownlee, et al. 2015). This study aimed to assess normative values of functional competence, speed and lower body power for elite youth players at different stages of biological maturity as these factors have significa...

  20. Core personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school: what are they and how could they be assessed early in the admission process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Thomas W; Parrish, Samuel K; Terregino, Carol A; Williams, Joy P; Dunleavy, Dana M; Volsch, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    Assessing applicants' personal competencies in the admission process has proven difficult because there is not an agreed-on set of personal competencies for entering medical students. In addition, there are questions about the measurement properties and costs of currently available assessment tools. The Association of American Medical College's Innovation Lab Working Group (ILWG) and Admissions Initiative therefore engaged in a multistep, multiyear process to identify personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school as well as ways to measure them early in the admission process. To identify core personal competencies, they conducted literature reviews, surveyed U.S and Canadian medical school admission officers, and solicited input from the admission community. To identify tools with the potential to provide data in time for pre-interview screening, they reviewed the higher education and employment literature and evaluated tools' psychometric properties, group differences, risk of coaching/faking, likely applicant and admission officer reactions, costs, and scalability. This process resulted in a list of nine core personal competencies rated by stakeholders as very or extremely important for entering medical students: ethical responsibility to self and others; reliability and dependability; service orientation; social skills; capacity for improvement; resilience and adaptability; cultural competence; oral communication; and teamwork. The ILWG's research suggests that some tools hold promise for assessing personal competencies, but the authors caution that none are perfect for all situations. They recommend that multiple tools be used to evaluate information about applicants' personal competencies in deciding whom to interview.

  1. Long-term calorie restriction, but not endurance exercise, lowers core body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Andreea; Cangemi, Roberto; Omodei, Daniela; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased lifespan in calorie restricted animals and mice overexpressing the uncoupling protein-2 in hypocretin neurons. However, nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of calorie restriction (CR) with adequate nutrition on body temperature in humans. In this study, 24-hour core body temperature was measured every minute by using ingested telemetric capsules in 24 men and women (mean age 53.7±9.4 yrs) consuming a CR diet for an average of 6 years, 24 age- and sex-matched sedentary (WD) and 24 body fat-matched exercise-trained (EX) volunteers, who were eating Western diets. The CR and EX groups were significantly leaner than the WD group. Energy intake was lower in the CR group (1769±348 kcal/d) than in the WD (2302±668 kcal/d) and EX (2798±760 kcal/d) groups (Pbody temperatures were all significantly lower in the CR group than in the WD and EX groups (P≤0.01). Long-term CR with adequate nutrition in lean and weight-stable healthy humans is associated with a sustained reduction in core body temperature, similar to that found in CR rodents and monkeys. This adaptation is likely due to CR itself, rather than to leanness, and may be involved in slowing the rate of aging. PMID:21483032

  2. Core Temperature and Surface Heat Flux During Exercise in Heat While Wearing Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    other was used as a suppository (Tc2). Other data included height, weight, HF and Ts from 6 locations (forehead, sternum, pectoral muscle , scapula...from the changes in clothed weights. Instrumentation for Chamber Testing Heart rate (including ECG waveform), skin temperature, respiration ...rate (including respiration effort waveform), activity level using accelerometry data, and body core temperature were measured every 15 s by a chest

  3. Disturbances in melatonin, cortisol and core body temperature rhythms after major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Ocak, Ubbat; Altunpinar, Omer; Middleton, Benita; Skene, Debra J; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2007-02-01

    It has been suggested that circadian rhythm disturbances are present after major surgery and that this may play a role in the development of postoperative sleep disturbances, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. The objective of this study was to examine the profile of melatonin, cortisol and core body temperature rhythms before and after major surgery. Blood samples (melatonin and cortisol) and core body temperature readings were collected every hour in the 24-h period prior to surgery and the 48 h after surgery from 11 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. All patients had private rooms. Light exposure was controlled and monitored. Phase markers [50% dim light melatonin onset (DLMO 50%) and offset (DLMOff 50%), cortisol and core body temperature acrophase] for the three circadian rhythm profiles were calculated before and after surgery. The correlation between the melatonin rhythm and time of surgery, duration of surgery and opioid use was examined. A median delay in the onset of melatonin was seen on the first postoperative day [median DLMO 50% 22:46 hours (range: 21:15-01:08 hours) on the preoperative day compared with 23:54 hours (range: 19:09-02:46 hours) on the first postoperative day; P melatonin onset (r = 0.67, P melatonin immediately after surgery, with a subsequent significant increase in maximum melatonin values on the second postoperative night. A median delay of up to 4 h was seen in the timing of the peak of the temperature rhythm on the second postoperative day. Both cortisol secretion and core body temperature were increased after surgery and did not return to preoperative values in the 48 h of the postoperative study period. No significant correlation between opioid dose and the basal or maximum melatonin levels or the time of melatonin onset was found. We found disturbances in three circadian markers after major surgery. The clinical consequences of postoperative circadian disturbances should be investigated

  4. Effects of peripheral cold application on core body temperature and haemodynamic parameters in febrile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgar Pour, Hossein; Yavuz, Meryem

    2014-04-01

    This study designed to assess the effects of peripheral cold application (PCA) on core body temperature and haemodynamic parameters in febrile patients. This study was an experimental, repeated-measures performed in the neurosurgical intensive-care unit. The research sample included all patients with fever in postoperative period. PCA was performed for 20 min. During fever, systolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation (O2 Sat) decreased by 5.07 ± 7.89 mm Hg, 0.191 ± 6.00 mm Hg and 0.742% ± 0.97%, respectively, whereas the pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure increased by 8.528 ± 4.42 beats/ min and 1.842 ± 6.9 mmHg, respectively. Immediately after PCA, core body temperature and pulse rate decreased by 0.3°C, 3.3 beats/min, respectively, whereas systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and O2 Sat increased by, 1.40 mm Hg, 1.87 mm Hg, 0.98 mmHg and 0.27%, respectively. Thirty minutes after the end of PCA, core body temperature, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate decreased by 0.57°C, 0.34 mm Hg, 0.60 mm Hg and 4.5 beats/min, respectively, whereas systolic blood pressure and O2 Sat increased by 0.98 mm Hg and 0.04%, respectively. The present results showed that PCA increases systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and O2 Sat, and decreases core body temperature and pulse rate. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. 'I feel fat': weight-related stigma, body esteem, and BMI as predictors of perceived competence in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Dorothy L

    2010-02-01

    Efforts toward increasing participation in physical activity to prevent and treat overweight and obesity have as yet proved unsuccessful. Among the many barriers that discourage participation are weight-related stigmas. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between consciousnesses of weight-related stigma and perceived competence in physical activity. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore the potential mediation effects of body esteem and body mass index (BMI) on the relationship. Consciousness of weight stigma, body esteem, and BMI are explored as predictors of perceived competence in physical activity. Participants included 76 adults who were enrolled in a weight management program. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Path modeling was used to assess the relationships between stigma consciousness and perceived physical activity competence, and the potential mediation effects of BMI and body esteem. Tests indicated that body esteem, but not BMI, mediated the relationship of consciousness of weight-related stigma and perceived physical activity competence. Consciousness of weight stigma, regardless of objective weight status, may negatively affect individuals' willingness to participate in physical activity. Findings such as these are important in furthering understanding the factors that affect behavior, and subsequently conducting programs to overcome perceptions of weight and physical activity to encourage participation. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Core competencies in the science and practice of knowledge translation: description of a Canadian strategic training initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Sharon E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, healthcare systems are attempting to optimize quality of care. This challenge has resulted in the development of implementation science or knowledge translation (KT and the resulting need to build capacity in both the science and practice of KT. Findings We are attempting to meet these challenges through the creation of a national training initiative in KT. We have identified core competencies in this field and have developed a series of educational courses and materials for three training streams. We report the outline for this approach and the progress to date. Conclusions We have prepared a strategy to develop, implement, and evaluate a national training initiative to build capacity in the science and practice of KT. Ultimately through this initiative, we hope to meet the capacity demand for KT researchers and practitioners in Canada that will lead to improved care and a strengthened healthcare system.

  7. Cross-sectional area of the murine aorta linearly increases with increasing core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, A Colleen; Manders, Adam B; Cao, Amos A; Scheven, Ulrich M; Greve, Joan M

    2017-11-06

    The cardiovascular (CV) system plays a vital role in thermoregulation. To date, the response of core vasculature to increasing core temperature has not been adequately studied in vivo. Our objective was to non-invasively quantify the arterial response in murine models due to increases in body temperature, with a focus on core vessels of the torso and investigate whether responses were dependent on sex or age. Male and female, adult and aged mice were anaesthetised and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were acquired from the circle of Willis (CoW), heart, infrarenal aorta and peripheral arteries at core temperatures of 35, 36, 37 and 38 °C (±0.2 °C). Vessels in the CoW did not change. Ejection fraction decreased and cardiac output (CO) increased with increasing temperature in adult female mice. Cross-sectional area of the aorta increased significantly and linearly with temperature for all groups, but at a diminished rate for aged animals (p temperature are biologically important because they may affect conductive and convective heat transfer. Leveraging non-invasive methodology to quantify sex and age dependent vascular responses due to increasing core temperature could be combined with bioheat modelling in order to improve understanding of thermoregulation.

  8. Current Market Demand for Core Competencies of Librarianship—A Text Mining Study of American Library Association’s Advertisements from 2009 through 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As librarianship evolves, it is important to examine the changes that have taken place in professional requirements. To provide an understanding of the current market demand for core competencies of librarianship, this article conducts a semi-automatic methodology to analyze job advertisements (ads posted on the American Library Association (ALA Joblist from 2009 through 2014. There is evidence that the ability to solve unexpected complex problems and to provide superior customer service gained increasing importance for librarians during those years. The authors contend that the findings in this report question the status quo of core competencies of librarianship in the US job market.

  9. AAOHN Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The AAOHN Competency document is one of the core documents that define occupational health nursing practice. This article provides a description of the process used to update the competencies, as well as a description of the new competencies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Core Competencies for Medical Teachers (KLM)--A Position Paper of the GMA Committee on Personal and Organizational Development in Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlitz, Anja; Ebert, Thomas; Bauer, Daniel; Grasl, Matthäus; Hofer, Matthias; Lammerding-Köppel, Maria; Fabry, Götz

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in medical education have created increasing challenges for medical teachers which is why the majority of German medical schools already offer educational and instructional skills trainings for their teaching staff. However, to date no framework for educational core competencies for medical teachers exists that might serve as guidance for the qualification of the teaching faculty. Against the background of the discussion about competency based medical education and based upon the international literature, the GMA Committee for Faculty and Organizational Development in Teaching developed a model of core teaching competencies for medical teachers. This framework is designed not only to provide guidance with regard to individual qualification profiles but also to support further advancement of the content, training formats and evaluation of faculty development initiatives and thus, to establish uniform quality criteria for such initiatives in German-speaking medical schools. The model comprises a framework of six competency fields, subdivided into competency components and learning objectives. Additional examples of their use in medical teaching scenarios illustrate and clarify each specific teaching competency. The model has been designed for routine application in medical schools and is thought to be complemented consecutively by additional competencies for teachers with special duties and responsibilities in a future step.

  11. Moving Spent Fuel and Wastes in the USA: Concentrating on Core Competencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V. H.; Gallo, B.

    2003-01-01

    With the study progress toward a US national reporting at Yucca Mountain, organizing the transport system becomes a more pressing necessity. The present paper will try to provide operators whose core business is not transport a frame of reference through which a transport supplier/system can be selected, not only on the mere criterion of regulatory compliance, but also beyond, taking into account the resilience of the system, the ability for the operator to protect its image by fulfilling its general duty to society and sustainable development. For that purpose the paper will take us through the basics up to the ''post graduate level'' of what transport and associated services should look like, from a theoretical point of view and also from illustrations from the current European field will be presented, illustrating the evolution of practice and interfacing of the actors

  12. A Study of Core Humanistic Competency for Developing Humanism Education for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Seunghee; Yoo, Seong Ho; Jeon, Ju-Hong; Kim, Tae-Woo; Park, Joong Shin; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Oh, Seo Jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Shin, Min-Sup

    2016-06-01

    The authors conducted a survey on essential humanistic competency that medical students should have, and on teaching methods that will effectively develop such attributes. The participants consisted of 154 medical school professors, 589 medical students at Seoul National University College of Medicine, 228 parents, and 161 medical school and university hospital staff. They answered nine questions that the authors created. According to the results, all groups chose "morality and a sense of ethics," a "sense of accountability," "communication skills," and "empathic ability" were selected as essential qualities. According to the evaluation on the extent to which students possess each quality, participants believed students had a high "sense of accountability" and "morality," whereas they thought students had low "empathic ability," "communicate," or "collaborate with others". In terms of effective teaching methods, all sub-groups preferred extracurricular activities including small group activities, debates, and volunteer services. With regard to the speculated effect of humanism education and the awareness of the need for colleges to offer it, all sub-groups had a positive response. However the professors and students expressed a relatively passive stance on introducing humanism education as a credited course. Most participants responded that they preferred a grading method based on their rate of participation, not a relative evaluation. In order to reap more comprehensive and lasting effects of humanism education courses in medical school, it is necessary to conduct faculty training, and continuously strive to develop new teaching methods.

  13. The NGWA Experience with Education and Core Competencies for Groundwater Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1988, the National Ground Water Association has formally supported recognition, through certification or some other means, of the unique qualifications necessary to perform hydrogeologic investigations. NGWA has believed reliance on professional engineers or individuals certified in an allied field without a determination as to their knowledge of groundwater science is not a justified position. Observation today suggests a need remains for greater hydrogeologic awareness among those that may create infrastructure intrusions into the groundwater environment, such as those designing and installing large-scale installations of geothermal heating and cooling systems. NGWA has responded with development of hydrogeologic guidelines for such projects. Also in partial response to the above named circumstances, the Association has begun development of an ANSI/NGWA standard defining the skills and competencies of groundwater personnel - from the trades to the science, and has explored the potential value of creating a career pathways guidance document for groundwater science professionals. Historically, NGWA scientific members have resisted the idea of accreditation of academic geosciences programs, including those for hydrogeology, although such discussions continue to be raised from time to time by groups such as the Geological Society of America and the American Geosciences Institute. The resistance seems to have been born out of recognition of the multi-disciplinary reality of groundwater science. NGWA funded research found that more than half of the respondents to a study of the business development practices for consulting groundwater professionals had been involved with groundwater issues for more than 20 years, and less than one percent had worked in the field for fewer than two years, raising the question of whether too few young people are being attracted to hydrogeology. Some speculate the seemingly minor emphasis on Earth science education in the U.S. K-12

  14. Developing a Consensus-Driven, Core Competency Model to Shape Future Audio Engineering Technology Curriculum: A Web-Based Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this online study was to create a ranking of essential core competencies and technologies required by AET (audio engineering technology) programs 10 years in the future. The study was designed to facilitate curriculum development and improvement in the rapidly expanding number of small to medium sized audio engineering technology…

  15. The effects of core-reflected waves on finite fault inversions with teleseismic body wave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yunyi; Ni, Sidao; Wei, Shengji; Almeida, Rafael; Zhang, Han

    2017-11-01

    Teleseismic body waves are essential for imaging rupture processes of large earthquakes. Earthquake source parameters are usually characterized by waveform analyses such as finite fault inversions using only turning (direct) P and SH waves without considering the reflected phases from the core-mantle boundary (CMB). However, core-reflected waves such as ScS usually have amplitudes comparable to direct S waves due to the total reflection from the CMB and might interfere with the S waves used for inversion, especially at large epicentral distances for long duration earthquakes. In order to understand how core-reflected waves affect teleseismic body wave inversion results, we develop a procedure named Multitel3 to compute Green's functions that contain turning waves (direct P, pP, sP, direct S, sS and reverberations in the crust) and core-reflected waves (PcP, pPcP, sPcP, ScS, sScS and associated reflected phases from the CMB). This ray-based method can efficiently generate synthetic seismograms for turning and core-reflected waves independently, with the flexibility to take into account the 3-D Earth structure effect on the timing between these phases. The performance of this approach is assessed through a series of numerical inversion tests on synthetic waveforms of the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal earthquake. We also compare this improved method with the turning-wave only inversions and explore the stability of the new procedure when there are uncertainties in a priori information (such as fault geometry and epicentre location) or arrival time of core-reflected phases. Finally, a finite fault inversion of the 2005 Mw8.7 Nias-Simeulue earthquake is carried out using the improved Green's functions. Using enhanced Green's functions yields better inversion results as expected. While the finite source inversion with conventional P and SH waves is able to recover large-scale characteristics of the earthquake source, by adding PcP and ScS phases

  16. Computational model for calculating body-core temperature elevation in rabbits due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Sugiyama, Hironori; Kojima, Masami; Kawai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Yoko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    In the current international guidelines and standards with regard to human exposure to electromagnetic waves, the basic restriction is defined in terms of the whole-body average-specific absorption rate. The rationale for the guidelines is that the characteristic pattern of thermoregulatory response is observed for the whole-body average SAR above a certain level. However, the relationship between energy absorption and temperature elevation was not well quantified. In this study, we improved our thermal computation model for rabbits, which was developed for localized exposure on eye, in order to investigate the body-core temperature elevation due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz. The effect of anesthesia on the body-core temperature elevation was also discussed in comparison with measured results. For the whole-body average SAR of 3.0 W kg-1, the body-core temperature in rabbits elevates with time, without becoming saturated. The administration of anesthesia suppressed body-core temperature elevation, which is attributed to the reduced basal metabolic rate.

  17. Occupational therapy students’ perspectives on the core competencies of graduates to practise in the field of neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jacobs-Nzuzi Khuabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The South African (SA health system is characterised by limited resources, high bed turnover rates and a high therapist-to-patient ratio. Patients with neurological dysfunction form a large majority of the caseload of occupational therapists. Feedback from stakeholders alluded to some discrepancies between the content taught in the Stellenbosch University undergraduate curriculum and what is expected within the clinical setting. This raises questions regarding the relevance and applicability of what undergraduate occupational therapists are taught, given the nature and demands of the SA public health system. Objective. To explore the perspectives of final-year occupational therapy students with regard to the core competencies required for optimal preparation of students for practice in the field of neurology. Methods. This explorative study used three focus groups to obtain the perspectives of 18 final-year students who had experienced clinical placements in neurology. Information from the focus groups was transcribed and analysed thematically to determine the findings. Results. Analysis of the data revealed four themes, i.e. core knowledge and skills; attitude; resource and time constraints in clinical areas; and factors influencing optimal learning experiences. Conclusion. The curriculum should prepare students to be well equipped for the current climate of the profession. While the current neurology curriculum may be viewed as having some positive features, there are some aspects that need to be updated and revised. Key considerations to optimise learning include a more regular interface between clinical areas and the university, scheduling of teaching blocks, and applying relevant teaching methods.

  18. Changes in body core temperatures and heat balance after an abrupt release of lower body negative pressure in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Minoru; Shido, Osamu

    1994-03-01

    Changes in body core temperature ( T cor) and heat balance after an abrupt release of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were investigated in 5 volunteers under the following conditions: (1) an ambient temperature ( T a) of 20 °C or (2) 35 °C, and (3) T a of 25 °C with a leg skin temperature of 30°C or (4) 35°C. The leg skin temperature was controlled with water perfusion devices wound around the legs. Rectal ( T re), tympanic ( T ty) and esophageal ( T es) temperatures, skin temperatures (7 sites) and oxygen consumption were measured. The intensity of LBNP was adjusted so that the amount of blood pooled in the legs was the same under all conditions. When a thermal balance was attained during LBNP, application of LBNP was suddenly halted. The skin temperatures increased significantly after the release of LBNP under all conditions, while oxygen consumption hardly changed. The release of LBNP caused significant falls in T cor s under conditions (1) and (3), but lowered T cor s very slightly under conditions (2) and (4). The changes in T es were always more rapid and greater than those of T ty and T re. The falls in T ty and T re appeared to be explained by changes in heat balance, whereas the sharp drop of T es could not be explained especially during the first 8 min after the release of LBNP. The results suggest that a fall in T cor after a release of LBNP is attributed to an increase in heat loss due to reflexive skin vasodilation and is dependent on the temperature of venous blood returning from the lower body. It is presumed that T es may not be an appropriate indicator for T cor when venous return changes rapidly.

  19. The effect of lower body cooling on the changes in three core temperature indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, F A; Cahill, F; Handrigan, G; DuCharme, M B; Cheung, S S

    2011-01-01

    Rectal (T re ), ear canal (T ear ) and esophageal (T es ) temperatures have been used in the literature as core temperature indices in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate if localized lower body cooling would have a different effect on each of these measurements. We hypothesized that prolonged lower body surface cooling will result in a localized cooling effect for the rectal temperature not reflected in the other core measurement sites. Twelve participants (mean ± SD; 26.8 ± 6.0 years; 82.6 ± 13.9 kg; 179 ± 10 cm, BSA = 2.00 ± 0.21 m 2 ) attended one experimental session consisting of sitting on a rubberized raft floor surface suspended in 5 °C water in a thermoneutral air environment (∼21.5 ± 0.5 °C). Experimental conditions were (a) a baseline phase during which participants were seated for 15 min in an upright position on an insulated pad (1.408 K . m 2 . W −1 ); (b) a cooling phase during which participants were exposed to the cooling surface for 2 h, and (c) an insulation phase during which the baseline condition was repeated for 1 h. Temperature data were collected at 1 Hz, reduced to 1 min averages, and transformed from absolute values to a change in temperature from baseline (15 min average). Metabolic data were collected breath-by-breath and integrated over the same temperature epoch. Within the baseline phase no significant change was found between the three indices of core temperature. By the end of the cooling phase, T re was significantly lower (Δ = −1.0 ± 0.4 °C) from baseline values than from T ear (Δ = −0.3 ± 0.3 °C) and T es (Δ = −0.1 ± 0.3 °C). T re continued to decrease during the insulation phase from Δ −1.0 ± 0.4 °C to as low as Δ −1.4 ± 0.5 °C. By the end of the insulation phase T re had slightly risen back to Δ −1.3 ± 0.4 °C but remained significantly different from baseline values and from the other two core measures. Metabolic data showed no variation throughout the experiment. In

  20. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on core body temperature and inflammatory response during arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyun; Ye, Luyou; Liu, Zhongtang; Wen, Hong; Hu, Yuezheng; Xu, Xinxian

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of irrigation fluid on the patients' physiological response to arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients who were scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were prospectively included in this study. They were randomly assigned to receive warm arthroscopic irrigation fluid (Group W, n = 33) or room temperature irrigation fluid (Group RT, n = 33) intraoperatively. Core body temperature was measured at regular intervals. The proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10 were measured in drainage fluid and serum. The changes of core body temperatures in Group RT were similar with those in Group W within 15 min after induction of anesthesia, but the decreases in Group RT were significantly greater after then. The lowest temperature was 35.1 ± 0.4 °C in Group RT and 35.9 ± 0.3 °C in Group W, the difference was statistically different (P irrigation fluid compared with warm irrigation fluid. And local inflammatory response is significantly reduced by using warm irrigation fluid. It seems that warm irrigation fluid is more recommendable for arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  1. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Epidermal Heat Flux Sensors for Measurements of Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihui; Webb, Richard Chad; Luo, Hongying; Xue, Yeguang; Kurniawan, Jonas; Cho, Nam Heon; Krishnan, Siddharth; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2016-01-07

    Long-term, continuous measurement of core body temperature is of high interest, due to the widespread use of this parameter as a key biomedical signal for clinical judgment and patient management. Traditional approaches rely on devices or instruments in rigid and planar forms, not readily amenable to intimate or conformable integration with soft, curvilinear, time-dynamic, surfaces of the skin. Here, materials and mechanics designs for differential temperature sensors are presented which can attach softly and reversibly onto the skin surface, and also sustain high levels of deformation (e.g., bending, twisting, and stretching). A theoretical approach, together with a modeling algorithm, yields core body temperature from multiple differential measurements from temperature sensors separated by different effective distances from the skin. The sensitivity, accuracy, and response time are analyzed by finite element analyses (FEA) to provide guidelines for relationships between sensor design and performance. Four sets of experiments on multiple devices with different dimensions and under different convection conditions illustrate the key features of the technology and the analysis approach. Finally, results indicate that thermally insulating materials with cellular structures offer advantages in reducing the response time and increasing the accuracy, while improving the mechanics and breathability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Epidermal Heat Flux Sensors for Measurements of Core Body Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihui; Webb, Richard Chad; Luo, Hongying; Xue, Yeguang; Kurniawan, Jonas; Cho, Nam Heon; Krishnan, Siddharth; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Long-term, continuous measurement of core body temperature is of high interest, due to the widespread use of this parameter as a key biomedical signal for clinical judgment and patient management. Traditional approaches rely on devices or instruments in rigid and planar forms, not readily amenable to intimate or conformable integration with soft, curvilinear, time-dynamic, surfaces of the skin. Here, materials and mechanics designs for differential temperature sensors are presented which can attach softly and reversibly onto the skin surface, and also sustain high levels of deformation (e.g., bending, twisting, and stretching). A theoretical approach, together with a modeling algorithm, yields core body temperature from multiple differential measurements from temperature sensors separated by different effective distances from the skin. The sensitivity, accuracy, and response time are analyzed by finite element analyses (FEA) to provide guidelines for relationships between sensor design and performance. Four sets of experiments on multiple devices with different dimensions and under different convection conditions illustrate the key features of the technology and the analysis approach. Finally, results indicate that thermally insulating materials with cellular structures offer advantages in reducing the response time and increasing the accuracy, while improving the mechanics and breathability. PMID:25953120

  3. Organizational Learning, Building and Sustaining Core Competencies: Knowledge Management Initiatives on Inspection and Regulatory Enforcement in BAPETEN Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeng Beta, W. P.; Nurwidi Astuti, Y. H.; Hermawan, A. S.; Syaifulloh, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Regulatory inspection and law enforcement are among the core competencies of the Indonesia Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN). Knowledge management (KM) initiatives are based on strategic planning of BAPETEN. KM in BAPETEN is in its early stage, it is realized since 2015–2016, although its elements have stayed in service for 18 years. Its architecture and performance-information are: to conduct risk based inspection for medical, industrial and research facilities; to plan, monitor and evaluate of effective inspection, including standard operating procedures (SOPs); to utilize inspectors for safety security of radiation sources along with coordination with related stakeholders; to enforce the safety and security facilities report to users; to optimize reliable data communication, processing and information technology (B@LIS); to perform regulatory enforcement along with other related stakeholders. KM processes are performed through the “Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization” (SECI) model. Technical knowledge for inspectors are based on the IAEA–TECDOC–1526 plus supporting knowledge. With KM, innovation products can easily be used, because they are documented, distributed in a KM portal, knowledge is shared through the BAPETEN website, B@LIS database and others. Our challenge is that KM initiatives still need a tremendous effort, not only internally, but also externally, especially in coordination and collaboration. Information access brings about not only positive but also negative impacts. Innovations in regulatory inspection and law enforcement in BAPETEN are planned innovations, sustained, and systematically performed. (author

  4. Risk communication as a core public health competence in infectious disease management: Development of the ECDC training curriculum and programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Abraham, Thomas; Sarkar, Satyajit; Wysocki, Piotr; Cecconi, Sabrina; Apfel, Franklin; Nurm, Ülla-Karin

    2016-01-01

    Risk communication has been identified as a core competence for guiding public health responses to infectious disease threats. The International Health Regulations (2005) call for all countries to build capacity and a comprehensive understanding of health risks before a public health emergency to allow systematic and coherent communication, response and management. Research studies indicate that while outbreak and crisis communication concepts and tools have long been on the agenda of public health officials, there is still a need to clarify and integrate risk communication concepts into more standardised practices and improve risk communication and health, particularly among disadvantaged populations. To address these challenges, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) convened a group of risk communication experts to review and integrate existing approaches and emerging concepts in the development of a training curriculum. This curriculum articulates a new approach in risk communication moving beyond information conveyance to knowledge- and relationship-building. In a pilot training this approach was reflected both in the topics addressed and in the methods applied. This article introduces the new conceptual approach to risk communication capacity building that emerged from this process, presents the pilot training approach developed, and shares the results of the course evaluation.

  5. Comparison of African American Children's Performances on a Minimal Competence Core for Morphosyntax and the Index of Productive Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Ida J; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L; Swartzlander, Elaina; Morris, Lekeitha R

    2016-02-01

    This study is a response to the need for evidence-based measures of spontaneous oral language to assess African American children under the age of 4 years. We determined if pass/fail status on a minimal competence core for morphosyntax (MCC-MS) was more highly related to scores on the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn)-the measure of convergent criterion validity-than to scores on 3 measures of divergent validity: number of different words (Watkins, Kelly, Harbers, & Hollis, 1995), Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised (Shriberg, Austin, Lewis, McSweeney, & Wilson, 1997), and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Roid & Miller, 1997). Archival language samples for 68 African American 3-year-olds were analyzed to determine MCC-MS pass/fail status and the scores on measures of convergent and divergent validity. Higher IPSyn scores were observed for 60 children who passed the MCC-MS than for 8 children who did not. A significant positive correlation, rpb = .73, between MCC-MS pass/fail status and IPSyn scores was observed. This coefficient was higher than MCC-MS correlations with measures of divergent validity: rpb = .13 (Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised), rpb = .42 (number of different words in 100 utterances), and rpb = .46 (Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised). The MCC-MS has convergent criterion validity with the IPSyn. Although more research is warranted, both measures can be potentially used in oral language assessments of African American 3-year-olds.

  6. CORE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Hundebøll, Martin

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art in network coding for wireless, meshed networks typically considers two problems separately. First, the problem of providing reliability for a single session. Second, the problem of opportunistic combination of flows by using minimalistic coding, i.e., by XORing packets from...... different flows. Instead of maintaining these approaches separate, we propose a protocol (CORE) that brings together these coding mechanisms. Our protocol uses random linear network coding (RLNC) for intra- session coding but allows nodes in the network to setup inter- session coding regions where flows...

  7. A Wearable Thermometry for Core Body Temperature Measurement and Its Experimental Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Tamura, Toshiyo; Tang, Zunyi; Chen, Wenxi; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2017-05-01

    A wearable thermometry for core body temperature (CBT) measurement has both healthcare and clinical applications. On the basis of the mechanism of bioheat transfer, we earlier designed and improved a wearable thermometry using the dual-heat-flux method for CBT measurement. In this study, this thermometry is examined experimentally. We studied a fast-changing CBT measurement (FCCM, 55 min, 12 subjects) inside a thermostatic chamber and performed long-term monitoring of CBT (LTM, 24 h, six subjects). When compared with a reference, the CoreTemp CM-210 by Terumo, FCCM shows 0.07 °C average difference and a 95% CI of [-0.27, 0.12] °C. LTM shows no significant difference in parameters for the inference of circadian rhythm. The FCCM and LTM both simulated scenarios in which this thermometry could be used for intensive monitoring and daily healthcare, respectively. The results suggest that because of its convenient design, this thermometry may be an ideal choice for conventional CBT measurements.

  8. Core formation in the shergottite parent body and comparison with the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Jones, John H.; Drake, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Abundances of elements in shergottite, nakhlite, and Chassigny meteorites which originated on a single planet, the shergottite parent body (SPB), were examined with the aim of elucidating the chemical conditions of metal separation and core formation in the SPB and of testing present models of planetary core formation. Using partition coefficients and the SPB mantle composition determined in earlier studies, the abundances of Ag, Au, Co, Ga, Mo, Ni, P, Re, S, and W were modeled, with free parameters being oxygen fugacity, proportion of solid metal formed, proportion of metallic liquid formed, and proportion of silicate that is molten. It is shown that the abundances of all elements (except Mo) could be reproduced using models with these four free parameters. In contrast to the SPB, an equivalent model used to predict element abundances in the earth's mantle was shown by Jones and Drake (1986) to be inadequate; there is at present no hypothesis capable of quantitatively reproducing the elemental abundances of the earth's mantle. The contrast suggests that these two terrestrial planets (assuming that the SPB is Mars) may have accreted or differentiated differently.

  9. Individualized estimation of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Rakesh, Vineet; Oyama, Tatsuya; Kazman, Josh B; Yanovich, Ran; Ketko, Itay; Epstein, Yoram; Morrison, Shawnda A; Reifman, Jaques

    2018-02-08

    A rising core body temperature (Tc) during strenuous physical activity is a leading indicator of heat-injury risk. Hence, a system that can estimate Tc in real time and provide early warning of an impending temperature rise may enable proactive interventions to reduce the risk of heat injuries. However, real-time field assessment of Tc requires impractical invasive technologies. To address this problem, we developed a mathematical model that describes the relationships between Tc and non-invasive measurements of an individual's physical activity, heart rate, and skin temperature, and two environmental variables (ambient temperature and relative humidity). A Kalman filter adapts the model parameters to each individual and provides real-time personalized Tc estimates. Using data from three distinct studies, comprising 166 subjects who performed treadmill and cycle ergometer tasks under different experimental conditions, we assessed model performance via the root mean squared error (RMSE). The individualized model yielded an overall average RMSE of 0.33{degree sign}C [standard deviation (SD) = 0.18], allowing us to reach the same conclusions in each study as those obtained using the Tc measurements. Furthermore, for 22 unique subjects whose Tc exceeded 38.5{degree sign}C, a potential lower core body temperature limit of clinical relevance, the average RMSE decreased to 0.25{degree sign}C (SD = 0.20). Importantly, these results remained robust in the presence of simulated real-world operational conditions, yielding no more than 16% worse RMSEs when measurements were missing (40%) or laden with added noise. Hence, the individualized model provides a practical means to develop an early warning system for reducing heat-injury risk.

  10. Effects of high-fidelity patient simulation led clinical reasoning course: Focused on nursing core competencies, problem solving, and academic self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Lee, Yoonju; Lee, Senah; Bae, Juyeon

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of high-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) led clinical reasoning course among undergraduate nursing students. A quasi-experimental study of non-equivalent control group pretest-post test design was applied. A total of 49 senior nursing students participated in this study. The experimental group consisted of the students who took the "clinical reasoning" course (n = 23) while the control group consisted of students who did not (n = 26). Self-administered scales including the nursing core competencies, problem solving, academic self-efficacy, and Kolb learning style inventory were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS version 20.0. Data analysis was conducted using one-way ancova due to a significant difference in nursing core competencies between the experimental group and control group. There was a significant improvement in nursing core competencies in the experimental group (F = 7.747, P = 0.008). The scores of problem solving and academic self-efficacy were higher in the experimental group after the HFPS led clinical reasoning course without statistical difference. There is a need for the development of effective instructional methods to improve learning outcomes in nursing education. Future research is needed related to simulation education as well as management strategies so that learning outcomes can be achieved within different students' learning style. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  11. Ab initio many-body perturbation theory and no-core shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B. S.; Wu, Q.; Xu, F. R.

    2017-10-01

    In many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) we always introduce a parameter N shell to measure the maximal allowed major harmonic-oscillator (HO) shells for the single-particle basis, while the no-core shell model (NCSM) uses N maxℏΩ HO excitation truncation above the lowest HO configuration for the many-body basis. It is worth comparing the two different methods. Starting from “bare” and Okubo-Lee-Suzuki renormalized modern nucleon-nucleon interactions, NNLOopt and JISP16, we show that MBPT within Hartree-Fock bases is in reasonable agreement with NCSM within harmonic oscillator bases for 4He and 16O in “close” model space. In addition, we compare the results using “bare” force with the Okubo-Lee-Suzuki renormalized force. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB834402), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235001, 11320101004, 11575007) and the CUSTIPEN (China-U.S. Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei) funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science (DE-SC0009971)

  12. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD...... these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three...

  13. Health Versus Appearance Versus Body Competence: A Content Analysis Investigating Frames of Health Advice in Women's Health Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Hahn, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which women's health magazines advise readers to adopt healthy behaviors in order to look good (appearance frame), in order to feel good (health frame), or in order to perform better (body competence frame). A content analysis of 5 years of the 6 highest circulating U.S. women's health magazines revealed a higher frequency of health frames (32.6%) than appearance frames (24.8%) overall, but when beauty/health hybrid magazines (i.e., Shape and Self) were examined separately, appearance frames (32.8%) outnumbered health frames (26.5%). Compared to appearance and health frames, body competence frames were underrepresented (13.3% in the full sample). The visual sexual objectification of female models in women's health magazines was also investigated. Appearance-framed articles (43.2%) were significantly more likely to visually depict women with a high degree of skin exposure than health-framed articles (17.4%), and appearance-framed articles (34.8%) were more likely to focus on individual body parts than health-framed articles (21.3%). In addition, despite the magazines' editorial focus on health, the most frequent category of products advertised was appearance-enhancing products. Results are discussed in light of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997).

  14. Researcher readiness for participating in community-engaged dissemination and implementation research: a conceptual framework of core competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Christopher M; Young, Tiffany L; Powell, Byron J; Rohweder, Catherine; Enga, Zoe K; Scott, Jennifer E; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-09-01

    Participating in community-engaged dissemination and implementation (CEDI) research is challenging for a variety of reasons. Currently, there is not specific guidance or a tool available for researchers to assess their readiness to conduct CEDI research. We propose a conceptual framework that identifies detailed competencies for researchers participating in CEDI and maps these competencies to domains. The framework is a necessary step toward developing a CEDI research readiness survey that measures a researcher's attitudes, willingness, and self-reported ability for acquiring the knowledge and performing the behaviors necessary for effective community engagement. The conceptual framework for CEDI competencies was developed by a team of eight faculty and staff affiliated with a university's Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). The authors developed CEDI competencies by identifying the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors necessary for carrying out commonly accepted CE principles. After collectively developing an initial list of competencies, team members individually mapped each competency to a single domain that provided the best fit. Following the individual mapping, the group held two sessions in which the sorting preferences were shared and discrepancies were discussed until consensus was reached. During this discussion, modifications to wording of competencies and domains were made as needed. The team then engaged five community stakeholders to review and modify the competencies and domains. The CEDI framework consists of 40 competencies organized into nine domains: perceived value of CE in D&I research, introspection and openness, knowledge of community characteristics, appreciation for stakeholder's experience with and attitudes toward research, preparing the partnership for collaborative decision-making, collaborative planning for the research design and goals, communication effectiveness, equitable distribution of resources and credit, and

  15. The Medical Mission and Modern Core Competency Training: A 10-Year Follow-Up of Resident Experiences in Global Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caroline A; Swanson, Jordan; McCullough, Meghan; Taro, Trisa B; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Bradshaw, Allison; Campbell, Alex; Magee, William P; Magee, William P

    2016-09-01

    The emphasis on cultural competency for physicians and surgeons is increasingly important, as communication with both patients and other providers significantly affects individual and system-wide outcomes. International surgical training has been shown to improve leadership skills, cultural competency, and technical proficiency of participants in short-term follow-up. This study explores the long-term impact of international surgical mission experiences on developing participants' core competencies, professional outcomes, and commitment to global health. All 208 plastic and reconstructive surgeons who completed the Operation Smile Regan/Stryker fellowship programs between 2006 and 2015 were surveyed electronically. One hundred sixty-five surveys were returned, for an overall response rate of 79.3 percent. The majority of participants reported that the fellowship positively impacted all six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. Most participants who were attending physicians at the time of the survey were practicing general plastic surgery, with 42 percent in an academic/teaching environment, 32 percent in assistant/associate professor positions, and 6 percent in either a program director or department chairman position. The majority currently volunteer on local or international missions, and all respondents would consider volunteering again. Carefully structured and rigorously proctored programs such as the Regan/Stryker Fellowship offer plastic surgery residents the opportunity to gain valuable professional and personal experiences that benefit them long after their service experience. Programs of this nature can not only effectively improve cultural competency of physicians, but also positively influence their attitudes toward leadership and direct that potential to meet the growing need for surgical care in low- and middle-income countries.

  16. Re-visiting the tympanic membrane vicinity as core body temperature measurement site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wui Keat Yeoh

    Full Text Available Core body temperature (CBT is an important and commonly used indicator of human health and endurance performance. A rise in baseline CBT can be attributed to an onset of flu, infection or even thermoregulatory failure when it becomes excessive. Sites which have been used for measurement of CBT include the pulmonary artery, the esophagus, the rectum and the tympanic membrane. Among them, the tympanic membrane is an attractive measurement site for CBT due to its unobtrusive nature and ease of measurement facilitated, especially when continuous CBT measurements are needed for monitoring such as during military, occupational and sporting settings. However, to-date, there are still polarizing views on the suitability of tympanic membrane as a CBT site. This paper will revisit a number of key unresolved issues in the literature and also presents, for the first time, a benchmark of the middle ear temperature against temperature measurements from other sites. Results from experiments carried out on human and primate subjects will be presented to draw a fresh set of insights against the backdrop of hypotheses and controversies.

  17. Re-visiting the tympanic membrane vicinity as core body temperature measurement site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Chee Wee; Liang, Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Core body temperature (CBT) is an important and commonly used indicator of human health and endurance performance. A rise in baseline CBT can be attributed to an onset of flu, infection or even thermoregulatory failure when it becomes excessive. Sites which have been used for measurement of CBT include the pulmonary artery, the esophagus, the rectum and the tympanic membrane. Among them, the tympanic membrane is an attractive measurement site for CBT due to its unobtrusive nature and ease of measurement facilitated, especially when continuous CBT measurements are needed for monitoring such as during military, occupational and sporting settings. However, to-date, there are still polarizing views on the suitability of tympanic membrane as a CBT site. This paper will revisit a number of key unresolved issues in the literature and also presents, for the first time, a benchmark of the middle ear temperature against temperature measurements from other sites. Results from experiments carried out on human and primate subjects will be presented to draw a fresh set of insights against the backdrop of hypotheses and controversies. PMID:28414722

  18. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltmeijer, M.T.W.; Veeneman, D.; Bongers, C.C.W.G.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated

  19. Importance-truncated no-core shell model for fermionic many-body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, Helena

    2017-03-15

    The exact solution of quantum mechanical many-body problems is only possible for few particles. Therefore, numerical methods were developed in the fields of quantum physics and quantum chemistry for larger particle numbers. Configuration Interaction (CI) methods or the No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) allow ab initio calculations for light and intermediate-mass nuclei, without resorting to phenomenology. An extension of the NCSM is the Importance-Truncated No-Core Shell Model, which uses an a priori selection of the most important basis states. The importance truncation was first developed and applied in quantum chemistry in the 1970s and latter successfully applied to models of light and intermediate mass nuclei. Other numerical methods for calculations for ultra-cold fermionic many-body systems are the Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo method (FN-DMC) and the stochastic variational approach with Correlated Gaussian basis functions (CG). There are also such method as the Coupled-Cluster method, Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) method, et cetera, used for calculation of many-body systems. In this thesis, we adopt the IT-NCSM for the calculation of ultra-cold Fermi gases at unitarity. Ultracold gases are dilute, strongly correlated systems, in which the average interparticle distance is much larger than the range of the interaction. Therefore, the detailed radial dependence of the potential is not resolved, and the potential can be replaced by an effective contact interaction. At low energy, s-wave scattering dominates and the interaction can be described by the s-wave scattering length. If the scattering length is small and negative, Cooper-pairs are formed in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime. If the scattering length is small and positive, these Cooper-pairs become strongly bound molecules in a Bose-Einstein-Condensate (BEC). In between (for large scattering lengths) is the unitary limit with universal properties. Calculations of the energy spectra

  20. Determinants and effects of medical students' core self-evaluation tendencies on clinical competence and workplace well-being in clerkship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Kai Lin

    Full Text Available Core self-evaluation (CSE is a personality trait that involves a person's evaluation of his or her own worth, competence, and capability. The objective of this study was to determine whether medical students' CSEs exert beneficial effects on their adaptation to their clerkship in terms of their clinical competence and workplace well-being and whether their preclinical academic performance can be a trait-relevant situation that enhances their CSE expression. In total, 127 medical students from 2 cohorts were included as participants in this study. We analyzed complete measures of personal background, objective and subjective preclinical academic performance (course evaluation grades and self-reported efficacy, CSE tendencies, and clinical competence (as objective structured clinical examination scores and workplace well-being (as compassion satisfaction and burnout during their 2-year clerkship. Mixed linear models for repeated measures and multiple regressions were employed. Participants' CSE tendencies had positive effects on their workplace compassion satisfaction and burnout but not on their clinical competence during their clerkship. Additionally, using the objective and subjective preclinical academic performance of the medical students as indicators, we observed that neither could be trait-relevant situations to enhance their CSE expression. CSE personality tendencies might be key to medical students' ability to noncognitively adapt to clinical training during their clerkships. These tendencies should be identified earlier so that mentors can provide prompt care and support to mentees (medical students during clerkships.

  1. Nonequilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional hard-core anyons following a quench: complete relaxation of one-body observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tod M; Rigol, Marcos; Davis, Matthew J; Kheruntsyan, Karén V

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate the role of interactions in driving the relaxation of an isolated integrable quantum system following a sudden quench. We consider a family of integrable hard-core lattice anyon models that continuously interpolates between noninteracting spinless fermions and strongly interacting hard-core bosons. A generalized Jordan-Wigner transformation maps the entire family to noninteracting fermions. We find that, aside from the singular free-fermion limit, the entire single-particle density matrix and, therefore, all one-body observables relax to the predictions of the generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). This demonstrates that, in the presence of interactions, correlations between particles in the many-body wave function provide the effective dissipation required to drive the relaxation of all one-body observables to the GGE. This relaxation does not depend on translational invariance or the tracing out of any spatial domain of the system.

  2. Assessing medical students' performance in core competencies using multiple admission programs for colleges and universities: from the perspective of multi-source feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ji-Tseng; Ko, Yu-Shien; Chien, Chu-Chun; Yu, Kuang-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Since 1994, Taiwanese medical universities have employed the multiple application method comprising "recommendations and screening" and "admission application." The purpose of this study is to examine whether medical students admitted using different admission programs gave different performances. To evaluate the six core competencies for medical students proposed by Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), this study employed various assessment tools, including student opinion feedback, multi-source feedback (MSF), course grades, and examination results.MSF contains self-assessment scale, peer assessment scale, nursing staff assessment scale, visiting staff assessment scale, and chief resident assessment scale. In the subscales, the CronbachÊs alpha were higher than 0.90, indicating good reliability. Research participants consisted of 182 students from the School of Medicine at Chang Gung University. Regarding studentsÊ average grade for the medical ethics course, the performance of students who were enrolled through school recommendations exceeded that of students who were enrolled through the National College University Entrance Examination (NCUEE) p = 0.011), and all considered "teamwork" as the most important. Different entry pipelines of students in the "communication," "work attitude," "medical knowledge," and "teamwork" assessment scales showed no significant difference. The improvement rate of the students who were enrolled through the school recommendations was better than that of the students who were enrolled through the N CUEE in the "professional skills," "medical core competencies," "communication," and "teamwork" projects of self-assessment and peer assessment scales. However, the students who were enrolled through the NCUEE were better in the "professional skills," "medical core competencies," "communication," and "teamwork" projects of the visiting staff assessment scale and the chief resident assessment scale. Collectively

  3. Assessing medical students' performance in core competencies using multiple admission programs for colleges and universities: From the perspective of multi-source feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Tseng Fang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1994, Taiwanese medical universities have employed the multiple application method comprising "recommendations and screening" and "admission application." The purpose of this study is to examine whether medical students admitted using different admission programs gave different performances. Methods: To evaluate the six core competencies for medical students proposed by Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME, this study employed various assessment tools, including student opinion feedback, multi-source feedback (MSF, course grades, and examination results.MSF contains self-assessment scale, peer assessment scale, nursing staff assessment scale, visiting staff assessment scale, and chief resident assessment scale. In the subscales, the CronbachÊs alpha were higher than 0.90, indicating good reliability. Research participants consisted of 182 students from the School of Medicine at Chang Gung University. Results: Regarding studentsÊ average grade for the medical ethics course, the performance of students who were enrolled through school recommendations exceeded that of students who were enrolled through the National College University Entrance Examination (NCUEE p = 0.011, and all considered "teamwork" as the most important. Different entry pipelines of students in the "communication," "work attitude," "medical knowledge," and "teamwork" assessment scales showed no significant difference. The improvement rate of the students who were enrolled through the school recommendations was better than that of the students who were enrolled through the N CUEE in the "professional skills," "medical core competencies," "communication," and "teamwork" projects of self-assessment and peer assessment scales. However, the students who were enrolled through the NCUEE were better in the "professional skills," "medical core competencies," "communication," and "teamwork" projects of the visiting staff assessment scale and the

  4. Body size mediated coexistence of consumers competing for resources in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, A.; Angelis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Body size is a major phenotypic trait of individuals that commonly differentiates co-occurring species. We analyzed inter-specific competitive interactions between a large consumer and smaller competitors, whose energetics, selection and giving-up behaviour on identical resource patches scaled with individual body size. The aim was to investigate whether pure metabolic constraints on patch behaviour of vagile species can determine coexistence conditions consistent with existing theoretical and experimental evidence. We used an individual-based spatially explicit simulation model at a spatial scale defined by the home range of the large consumer, which was assumed to be parthenogenic and semelparous. Under exploitative conditions, competitive coexistence occurred in a range of body size ratios between 2 and 10. Asymmetrical competition and the mechanism underlying asymmetry, determined by the scaling of energetics and patch behaviour with consumer body size, were the proximate determinant of inter-specific coexistence. The small consumer exploited patches more efficiently, but searched for profitable patches less effectively than the larger competitor. Therefore, body-size related constraints induced niche partitioning, allowing competitive coexistence within a set of conditions where the large consumer maintained control over the small consumer and resource dynamics. The model summarises and extends the existing evidence of species coexistence on a limiting resource, and provides a mechanistic explanation for decoding the size-abundance distribution patterns commonly observed at guild and community levels. ?? Oikos.

  5. The effect of humidified heated breathing circuit on core body temperature in perioperative hypothermia during thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hue Jung; Moon, Ho Sik; Moon, Se Ho; Do Jeong, Hyeon; Jeon, Young Jae; Do Han, Keung; Koh, Hyun Jung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: During general anesthesia, human body easily reaches a hypothermic state, which is mainly caused by heat redistribution. Most studies suggested that humidified heated breathing circuits (HHBC) have little influence on maintenance of the core temperature during early phase of anesthesia. This study was aimed at examining heat preservation effect with HHBC in case of undergoing surgery with less exposure of surgical fields and short surgical duration. Methods: Patients aged 19 to 70 yr - old, ASA-PS I or II who were scheduled for elective thyroidectomy were assigned and divided to the group using HHBC (G1) and the group using conventional circuit (G2) by random allocation. During operation, core, skin, and room temperatures were measured every 5minutes by specific thermometer. Results: G1 was decreased by a lesser extent than G2 in core temperature, apparently higher at 30 and 60 minutes after induction. Skin and room temperatures showed no differences between the two groups (p>0.05). Consequently, we confirmed HHBC efficiently prevented a decrease in core temperature during early period in small operation which has difficulty in preparing warming devices or environments were not usually considered. Conclusions: This study showed that HHBC influences heat redistribution in early period of operation and can lessen the magnitude of the decrease in core body temperature. Therefore, it can be applied efficiently for other active warming devices in mild hypothermia.

  6. Genetic education and the challenge of genomic medicine: development of core competences to support preparation of health professionals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skirton, Heather; Lewis, Celine; Kent, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    health professionals and patient groups. Sets of competences for practitioners working in primary, secondary and tertiary care have been agreed and were approved by the European Society of Human Genetics. The competences provide an appropriate framework for genetics education of health professionals...... across national boundaries, and the suggested learning outcomes are available to guide development of curricula that are appropriate to the national context, educational system and health-care setting of the professional involved. Collaboration between individuals from many European countries...... and professions has resulted in an adaptable framework for both pre-registration and continuing professional education. This competence framework has the potential to improve the quality of genetic health care for patients globally....

  7. Zero-Heat-Flux Thermometry for Non-Invasive Measurement of Core Body Temperature in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guschlbauer, Maria; Maul, Alexandra C; Yan, Xiaowei; Herff, Holger; Annecke, Thorsten; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Böttiger, Bernd W; Schroeder, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia is a severe, unpleasant side effect during general anesthesia. Thus, temperature surveillance is a prerequisite in general anesthesia settings during experimental surgeries. The gold standard to measure the core body temperature (Tcore) is placement of a Swan-Ganz catheter in the pulmonary artery, which is a highly invasive procedure. Therefore, Tcore is commonly examined in the urine bladder and rectum. However, these procedures are known for their inaccuracy and delayed record of temperatures. Zero-heat-flux (ZHF) thermometry is an alternative, non-invasive method quantifying Tcore in human patients by applying a thermosensoric patch to the lateral forehead. Since the porcine cranial anatomy is different to the human's, the optimal location of the patch remains unclear to date. The aim was to compare three different patch locations of ZHF thermometry in a porcine hypothermia model. Hypothermia (33.0 °C Tcore) was conducted in 11 anesthetized female pigs (26-30 kg). Tcore was measured continuously by an invasive Swan-Ganz catheter in the pulmonary artery (Tpulm). A ZHF thermometry device was mounted on three different defined locations. The smallest average difference between Tpulm and TZHF during stable temperatures was 0.21 ± 0.16 °C at location A, where the patch was placed directly behind the eye. Also during rapidly changing temperatures location A showed the smallest bias with 0.48 ± 0.29 °C. Location A provided the most reliable data for Tcore. Therefore, the ZHF thermometry patch should be placed directly behind the left temporal corner of the eye to provide a non-invasive method for accurate measurement of Tcore in pigs.

  8. The molecular architecture of the yeast spindle pole body core determined by Bayesian integrative modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Shruthi; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Kim, Seung Joong; Klenchin, Vadim A; Taylor, Keenan C; Yabut, King C; Umbreit, Neil T; Van Epps, Heather A; Meehl, Janet; Jones, Michele H; Russel, Daniel; Velazquez-Muriel, Javier A; Winey, Mark; Rayment, Ivan; Davis, Trisha N; Sali, Andrej; Muller, Eric G

    2017-11-07

    Microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) form, anchor, and stabilize the polarized network of microtubules in a cell. The central MTOC is the centrosome that duplicates during the cell cycle and assembles a bipolar spindle during mitosis to capture and segregate sister chromatids. Yet, despite their importance in cell biology, the physical structure of MTOCs is poorly understood. Here we determine the molecular architecture of the core of the yeast spindle pole body (SPB) by Bayesian integrative structure modeling based on in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), x-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and two-hybrid analysis. The model is validated by several methods that include a genetic analysis of the conserved PACT domain that recruits Spc110, a protein related to pericentrin, to the SPB. The model suggests that calmodulin can act as a protein cross-linker and Spc29 is an extended, flexible protein. The model led to the identification of a single, essential heptad in the coiled-coil of Spc110 and a minimal PACT domain. It also led to a proposed pathway for the integration of Spc110 into the SPB. © 2017 Viswanath, Bonomi, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Toward core inter-professional health promotion competencies to address the non-communicable diseases and their risk factors through knowledge translation: curriculum content assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Elizabeth; Moffat, Marilyn; Skinner, Margot; Dornelas de Andrade, Armele; Myezwa, Hellen; Söderlund, Anne

    2014-07-14

    To increase the global impact of health promotion related to non-communicable diseases, health professionals need evidence-based core competencies in health assessment and lifestyle behavior change. Assessment of health promotion curricula by health professional programs is a first step. Such program assessment is a means of 1. demonstrating collective commitment across health professionals to prevent non-communicable diseases; 2. addressing the knowledge translation gap between what is known about non-communicable diseases and their risk factors consistent with 'best' practice; and, 3. establishing core health-based competencies in the entry-level curricula of established health professions. Consistent with the World Health Organization's definition of health (i.e., physical, emotional and social wellbeing) and the Ottawa Charter, health promotion competencies are those that support health rather than reduce signs and symptoms primarily. A process algorithm to guide the implementation of health promotion competencies by health professionals is described. The algorithm outlines steps from the initial assessment of a patient's/client's health and the indications for health behavior change, to the determination of whether that health professional assumes primary responsibility for implementing health behavior change interventions or refers the patient/client to others.An evidence-based template for assessment of the health promotion curriculum content of health professional education programs is outlined. It includes clinically-relevant behavior change theory; health assessment/examination tools; and health behavior change strategies/interventions that can be readily integrated into health professionals' practices. Assessment of the curricula in health professional education programs with respect to health promotion competencies is a compelling and potentially cost-effective initial means of preventing and reversing non-communicable diseases. Learning evidence

  10. From Embodiment to Emplacement: Re-Thinking Competing Bodies, Senses and Spatialities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In this article I discuss how a shift from theories of embodiment to one of emplacement can inform how we understand the performing body in competitive and pedagogical contexts. I argue that recent theoretical advances concerning the senses, human perception and place offer new analytical possibilities for understanding skilled performances and…

  11. Learners? perspective: where and when pre-residency trainees learn more to achieve their core clinical competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eusang; Ahn, Ducksun; Lee, Young-Mee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While it is known that effective clinical education requires active involvement of its participants, regular feedback, communication skills and interprofessional training, limited studies have been conducted in Korea that demonstrate how pre-residency trainees acquire their core clinical skills. This is a cross-sectional study of interns and students across a third-tier university hospital in Korea to examine where and when they acquire core clinical skills. Methods A total of 74 stud...

  12. Medical student self-reported confidence in obstetrics and gynaecology: development of a core clinical competencies document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical competencies in obstetrics and gynaecology have not been clearly defined for Australian medical students, the growing numbers of which may impact clinical teaching. Our aim was to administer and validate a competencies list, for self-evaluation by medical students of their confidence to manage common clinical tasks in obstetrics and gynaecology; to evaluate students’ views on course changes that may result from increasing class sizes. Methods A draft list of competencies was peer-reviewed, and discussed at two student focus groups. The resultant list was administered as part of an 81 item online survey. Results Sixty-eight percent (N = 172) of those eligible completed the survey. Most respondents (75.8%) agreed or strongly agreed that they felt confident and well equipped to recognise and manage most common and important obstetric and gynaecological conditions. Confidence was greater for women, and for those who received a higher assessment grade. Free-text data highlight reasons for lack of clinical experience that may impact perceived confidence. Conclusions The document listing competencies for medical students and educators is useful for discussions around a national curriculum in obstetrics and gynaecology in medical schools, including the best methods of delivery, particularly in the context of increasing student numbers. PMID:23634953

  13. Competing Cultural Worldviews in the United States: A Phenomenological Examination of the Essential Core Elements of Transnationalism and Transculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbe, Mark P.; Drummond, Darlene K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore inductively the complex ways in which everyday discourse reflects larger--and often competing--cultural worldviews. A phenomenological framework was used to analyze transcripts generated through 13 focus group discussions involving 100 individuals. This particular analysis highlights how individuals who…

  14. Core Competencies for 4-H Volunteer Leaders Differentiated by Occupation, Level of Education, and College Major: Implications for Leadership Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Patrick; McKee, Renee K.; Culp, Ken, III

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demographically describe 4-H volunteer leaders' competencies for effective delivery of 4-H youth development programs. As a subset of the data, occupation, level of education, college major of the volunteer leaders, staff and faculty were gathered as the primary focus of the article. The study was descriptive and…

  15. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  16. Conceptual Framework of Crisis Negotiation Competency Development in Managers of Internal Affairs Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhnina V.V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors examine the psychological features of the development of an integral psychological concept of crisis negotiation activities from the perspective of system-situational and reflexive approaches.This research forms the basis of a new scientific direction in legal psychology, the psychology of crisis negotiation activities of employees of internal affairs bodies, as a system of coping with and preventing crisis in negotiations.The data was collected and analysed in several stages from 1995 to 2014 and included a survey of managers of internal affairs bodies as well as a systematic analysis of the data pool of 1705 crisis situations.Basing on the analysis the authors propose a matrix of negotiations which identifies priority strategies and possible crisis zones at various stages of the negotiation process depending on the characteristics of the situation, thus helping to carry out crisis negotiations effectively.

  17. Body shape shifting during growth permits tests that distinguish between competing geometric theories of metabolic scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Glazier, Douglas S.; Atkinson, David

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism fuels all of life’s activities, from biochemical reactions to ecological interactions. According to two intensely debated theories, body size affects metabolism via geometrical influences on the transport of resources and wastes. However, these theories differ crucially in whether...... theory, but contradicting the negative correlations predicted by resource-transport network models. This finding explains strong deviations from predictions of widely adopted theory, and underpins a new explanation for mass-invariant metabolic scaling during ontogeny in animals and plants...

  18. An international survey and modified Delphi process revealed editors’ perceptions, training needs, and ratings of competency-related statements for the development of core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Galipeau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific editors (i.e., those who make decisions on the content and policies of a journal have a central role in the editorial process at biomedical journals. However, very little is known about the training needs of these editors or what competencies are required to perform effectively in this role. Methods: We conducted a survey of perceptions and training needs among scientific editors from major editorial organizations around the world, followed by a modified Delphi process in which we invited the same scientific editors to rate the importance of competency-related statements obtained from a previous scoping review. Results: A total of 148 participants completed the survey of perceptions and training needs. At least 80% of participants agreed on six of the 38 skill and expertise-related statements presented to them as being important or very important to their role as scientific editors. At least 80% agreed on three of the 38 statements as necessary skills they perceived themselves as possessing (well or very well.  The top five items on participants’ list of top training needs were training in statistics, research methods, publication ethics, recruiting and dealing with peer reviewers, and indexing of journals. The three rounds of the Delphi were completed by 83, 83, and 73 participants, respectively, which ultimately produced a list of 23 “highly rated” competency-related statements and another 86 “included” items. Conclusion: Both the survey and the modified Delphi process will be critical for understanding knowledge and training gaps among scientific editors when designing curriculum around core competencies in the future.

  19. An international survey and modified Delphi process revealed editors' perceptions, training needs, and ratings of competency-related statements for the development of core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, James; Cobey, Kelly D; Barbour, Virginia; Baskin, Patricia; Bell-Syer, Sally; Deeks, Jonathan; Garner, Paul; Shamseer, Larissa; Sharon, Straus; Tugwell, Peter; Winker, Margaret; Moher, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Scientific editors (i.e., those who make decisions on the content and policies of a journal) have a central role in the editorial process at biomedical journals. However, very little is known about the training needs of these editors or what competencies are required to perform effectively in this role. Methods: We conducted a survey of perceptions and training needs among scientific editors from major editorial organizations around the world, followed by a modified Delphi process in which we invited the same scientific editors to rate the importance of competency-related statements obtained from a previous scoping review. Results: A total of 148 participants completed the survey of perceptions and training needs. At least 80% of participants agreed on six of the 38 skill and expertise-related statements presented to them as being important or very important to their role as scientific editors. At least 80% agreed on three of the 38 statements as necessary skills they perceived themselves as possessing (well or very well).  The top five items on participants' list of top training needs were training in statistics, research methods, publication ethics, recruiting and dealing with peer reviewers, and indexing of journals. The three rounds of the Delphi were completed by 83, 83, and 73 participants, respectively, which ultimately produced a list of 23 "highly rated" competency-related statements and another 86 "included" items. Conclusion: Both the survey and the modified Delphi process will be critical for understanding knowledge and training gaps among scientific editors when designing curriculum around core competencies in the future.

  20. An international survey and modified Delphi process revealed editors’ perceptions, training needs, and ratings of competency-related statements for the development of core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, James; Cobey, Kelly D.; Barbour, Virginia; Baskin, Patricia; Bell-Syer, Sally; Deeks, Jonathan; Garner, Paul; Shamseer, Larissa; Sharon, Straus; Tugwell, Peter; Winker, Margaret; Moher, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Scientific editors (i.e., those who make decisions on the content and policies of a journal) have a central role in the editorial process at biomedical journals. However, very little is known about the training needs of these editors or what competencies are required to perform effectively in this role. Methods: We conducted a survey of perceptions and training needs among scientific editors from major editorial organizations around the world, followed by a modified Delphi process in which we invited the same scientific editors to rate the importance of competency-related statements obtained from a previous scoping review. Results: A total of 148 participants completed the survey of perceptions and training needs. At least 80% of participants agreed on six of the 38 skill and expertise-related statements presented to them as being important or very important to their role as scientific editors. At least 80% agreed on three of the 38 statements as necessary skills they perceived themselves as possessing (well or very well).  The top five items on participants’ list of top training needs were training in statistics, research methods, publication ethics, recruiting and dealing with peer reviewers, and indexing of journals. The three rounds of the Delphi were completed by 83, 83, and 73 participants, respectively, which ultimately produced a list of 23 “highly rated” competency-related statements and another 86 “included” items. Conclusion: Both the survey and the modified Delphi process will be critical for understanding knowledge and training gaps among scientific editors when designing curriculum around core competencies in the future. PMID:28979768

  1. Influence of composition and rate heating on formation of black core in bodies obtained with red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, L.N.L.; Goncalves, W.P.; Silva, B.J. da; Macedo, R.S.; Santos, R.C.; Lisboa, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the heating of pieces of red pottery can the defect known as black core, this may deteriorate the technical and aesthetic characteristics of the final product. This study evaluated the influence of chemical composition and heating rate on the formation of black core in bodies red ceramic. The masses were treated and samples were extruded, dried, sintered at 900 °C, with heating rates of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 °C / min. and determined the following properties: water absorption, linear shrinkage and flexural strength. The pieces made with the mass containing lower content of iron oxide showed better resistance to bending when subjected to rapid heating. The presence of the black core was identified through visual analysis of the pieces after the break, being more apparent in parts subject to rates above 5 °C / min. (author)

  2. Pulmonary asbestos body counts and electron probe analysis of asbestos body cores in patients with mesothelioma: a study of 25 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggli, V.L.; McGavran, M.H.; Subach, J.; Sybers, H.D.; Greenberg, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas of the pleura and peritoneum are well-recognized risks of asbestos exposure. We determined the asbestos body content of the lungs from 24 cases of malignant mesothelioma (19 pleural, five peritoneal) and compared such to the content of lungs from 50 consecutive adult autopsies and four cases of overt asbestosis using a Clorox-digestion concentration technique. The cores of 90 asbestos bodies were examined by energy dispersive x-ray analysis and compared with similar data from 120 standard asbestos fibers and 20 fiberglass fibers. The malignant mesothelioma patients had asbestos body counts intermediate between those of the general population and those of patients with asbestosis, although some of the mesothelioma cases overlapped with the general population. These latter cases often lacked an identifiable occupational exposure to asbestos. EDXA studies demonstrated an amphibole core in 88 of the 90 asbestos bodies (amosite or crocidolite in 80 of 88, anthophyllite or tremolite in eight of 88), and chrysotile in two instances

  3. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD...... these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three...... parameters when placed under constant conditions (of either light or darkness). Furthermore, although 24-h rhythms for three parameters are retained in VPAC2-deficient mice during the LD cycle, the temperature rhythm displays markedly altered time course and profile, rising earlier and peaking ~4-6 h prior...

  4. Alterations in core body temperature, locomotor activity, and corticosterone following acute and repeated social defeat of male NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, A J; Hogg, S; Marsden, C A

    Repeated social defeat of male NMRI mice, coupled with the stress of continuously living opposite a dominant animal, induces a citalopram-reversible increase in anxiety. The experiments reported in the present paper were performed in an attempt to further validate this paradigm by studying the effects of acute and repeated social defeat on corticosterone and the circadian rhythms of core body temperature and locomotor activity, measured by telemetry. Acute social defeat induced a large (controls: 37.14+/-0.29 degrees C; subordinates: 39.79+/-0.33 degrees C) increase in core body temperature and corticosterone (controls: 30.14+/-2.70 ng/ml; subordinates: 89.62+/-9.25 ng/ml). Repeated social defeat (24 defeats) induced a chronic elevation in core body temperature across 24-h (controls: 36.62+/-0.04 degrees C; subordinates: 37.11+/-0.16 degrees C) in subordinate animals and a very large increase in corticosterone (controls: 28.60+/-1.27 ng/ml; subordinates: 441.52+/-8.86 ng/ml). These results illustrate that the chronic social defeat procedure described in this paper induces a state of chronic stress in the subordinate animals. Further studies are warranted to ascertain if the chronic hyperthermia and increases in corticosterone observed in the subordinate animals could be attenuated by chronic antidepressant treatment, thus further extending the predictive validity of this model.

  5. Comparison of rectal and aural core body temperature thermometry in hyperthermic, exercising individuals: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert; Glaviano, Neal; Negishi, Naoki; Casa, Douglas J; Hertel, Jay

    2012-01-01

    To compare mean differences in core body temperature (T(core)) as assessed via rectal thermometry (T(re)) and aural thermometry (T(au)) in hyperthermic exercising individuals. PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library in English from the earliest entry points to August 2009 using the search terms aural, core body temperature, core temperature, exercise, rectal, temperature, thermistor, thermometer, thermometry, and tympanic. Study Selection: Original research articles that met these criteria were included: (1) concurrent measurement of T(re) and T(au) in participants during exercise, (2) minimum mean temperature that reached 38°C by at least 1 technique during or after exercise, and (3) report of means, standard deviations, and sample sizes. Nine articles were included, and 3 independent reviewers scored these articles using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale (mean = 5.1 ± 0.4). Data were divided into time periods pre-exercise, during exercise (30 to 180 minutes), and postexercise, as well as T(re) ranges 39.00°C. Means and standard deviations for both measurement techniques were provided at all time intervals reported. Meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled and weighted mean differences between T(re) and T(au). The T(re) was conclusively higher than the T(au) pre-exercise (mean difference [MD] = 0.27°C, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15°C, 0.39°C), during exercise (MD = 0.96°C, 95% CI = 0.84°C, 1.08°C), and postexercise (MD = 0.71°C, 95% CI = 0.65°C, 0.78°C). As T(re) measures increased, the magnitude of difference between the techniques also increased with an MD of 0.59°C (95% CI = 0.53°C, 0.65°C) when T(re) was 39.0°C. The T(re) was consistently greater than T(au) when T(core) was measured in hyperthermic individuals before, during, and postexercise. As T(core) increased, T(au) appeared to underestimate T(core) as determined by T(re). Clinicians should be aware of this critical difference in

  6. Assistência pré-natal: competências essenciais desempenhadas por enfermeiros Atención prenatal: competencias esenciales desempeñadas por enfermeros Prenatal care: core competencies performed by nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida de Aquino Cunha

    2009-03-01

    para mejorar la calidad de los servicios a fin de alcanzar un nivel óptimo de competencia en la atención prenatal.This research aimed to analyze the core competencies developed in practice by nurses working in prenatal care. This descriptive study with a quantitative approach was carried out at 16 basic health network units in Rio Branco-AC, Brazil, in 2006. Data were collected through systematic and non-participant observation. Only two (11.76% of the nurses working in prenatal consultations had taken a specialization course in obstetrics. Although the large majority of core competencies expected in prenatal care were developed, some were practiced with low frequency levels, that is, not in all consultations. The results revealed that, despite the nurses' good performance, the need for clarifications should be assessed, about the importance of incorporating care protocols to improve service quality, with a view to reach an excellent competency level in prenatal care.

  7. Driving Competence in Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies: In Search of Cognitive Predictors Using Driving Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Yamin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving is a multifactorial behaviour drawing on multiple cognitive, sensory, and physical systems. Dementia is a progressive and degenerative neurological condition that impacts the cognitive processes necessary for safe driving. While a number of studies have examined driving among individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, less is known about the impact of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB on driving safety. The present study compared simulated driving performance of 15 older drivers with mild DLB with that of 21 neurologically healthy control drivers. DLB drivers showed poorer performance on all indicators of simulated driving including an increased number of collisions in the simulator and poorer composite indicators of overall driving performance. A measure of global cognitive function (i.e., the Mini Mental State Exam was found to be related to the overall driving performance. In addition, measures of attention (i.e., Useful Field of View, UFOV and space processing (Visual Object and Space Perception, VOSP, Test correlated significantly with a rater’s assessment of driving performance.

  8. An Analysis of Ethics Laws, Compliance with Ethical Standards, and Ethical Core Competency within the Department of the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    set of core principles, were determined to be ineffective in altering unethical behavior because compliance-based ethics training courses are less...leadership by DA personnel to assess the health of the organization . The impact and effectiveness of ethics training achievements should be addressed in...Cohen & Burns, 2006). Others believe that while ethics courses have “a very low chance of changing people’s behavior in the long run, they are still an

  9. Core Body Temperature as Adjunct to Endpoint Determination in Murine Median Lethal Dose Testing of Rattlesnake Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Charles C; McCabe, James G; Lawson, Gregory W; Couto, Marcelo A

    2014-01-01

    Median lethal dose (LD50) testing in mice is the ‘gold standard’ for evaluating the lethality of snake venoms and the effectiveness of interventions. As part of a study to determine the murine LD50 of the venom of 3 species of rattlesnake, temperature data were collected in an attempt to more precisely define humane endpoints. We used an ‘up-and-down’ methodology of estimating the LD50 that involved serial intraperitoneal injection of predetermined concentrations of venom. By using a rectal thermistor probe, body temperature was taken once before administration and at various times after venom exposure. All but one mouse showed a marked, immediate, dose-dependent drop in temperature of approximately 2 to 6 °C at 15 to 45 min after administration. The lowest temperature sustained by any surviving mouse was 33.2 °C. Surviving mice generally returned to near-baseline temperatures within 2 h after venom administration, whereas mice that did not survive continued to show a gradual decline in temperature until death or euthanasia. Logistic regression modeling controlling for the effects of baseline core body temperature and venom type showed that core body temperature was a significant predictor of survival. Linear regression of the interaction of time and survival was used to estimate temperatures predictive of death at the earliest time point and demonstrated that venom type had a significant influence on temperature values. Overall, our data suggest that core body temperature is a useful adjunct to monitoring for endpoints in LD50 studies and may be a valuable predictor of survival in venom studies. PMID:25527024

  10. A cross-species translational pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic evaluation of core body temperature reduction by the TRPM8 blocker PF-05105679.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, James R; Beaumont, Kevin; Matsuura, Tomomi; Winchester, Wendy; Attkins, Neil; Glatt, Sophie; Lightbown, Ian; Ulrich, Kristina; Roberts, Sonia; Harris, Jolie; Mesic, Emir; van Steeg, Tamara; Hijdra, Diana; van der Graaf, Piet H

    2017-11-15

    PF-05105679 is a moderately potent TRPM8 blocker which has been evaluated for the treatment of cold pain sensitivity. The TRPM8 channel is responsible for the sensation of cold environmental temperatures and has been implicated in regulation of core body temperature. Consequently, blockade of TRPM8 has been suggested to result in lowering of core body temperature. As part of the progression to human studies, the effect of PF-05105679 on core body temperature has been investigated in animals. Safety pharmacology studies showed that PF-05105679 reduced core body temperature in a manner that was inversely related to body weight of the species tested (greater exposure to PF-05105679 was required to lower temperature by 1°C in higher species). Based on an allometric (body weight) relationship, it was hypothesized that PF-05105679 would not lower core body temperature in humans at exposures that could exhibit pharmacological effects on cold pain sensation. On administration to humans, PF-05105679 was indeed effective at reversing the cold pain sensation associated with the cold pressor test in the absence of effects on core body temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The relation between information processing strategies and the development of the body of knowledge of students in competence-based pre-vocational secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. M. Koopman; Dr P.J. Teune; W.M.G. Jochems

    2007-01-01

    The preference of students in competence-based Pre-Vocational Secondary Education (PVSE) for information processing strategies and the development of their body of knowledge were measured in a study that was carried out with 31 participants. The students' information processing strategies were

  12. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral...... these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three...

  13. The effects of floor heating on body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence around parturition in loose-housed sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B M; Malmkvist, J; Pedersen, L J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study whether floor heating from 12 h after onset of nest building until 48 h after birth of the first piglet had any effect on measures related to body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence in loose-housed sows (n = 23......). In conclusion, the present results indicate that floor heating for a limited period around parturition did not compromise physiological and immunological parameters, water intake and body temperature in loose-housed sows. The water intake peaked the day before parturition and the body temperature peaked...

  14. [Perspectives on nursing education, licensing examinations and professional core competence in Taiwan in the context of globalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Mei Yu; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Mei-Chang

    2010-10-01

    There are today some 130,000 nurses in Taiwan, practicing in different specialties and in various capacities and positions. Good nurses are society's "guardian angels of health" who provide protection and safe healthcare for the people. Improving nursing education quality and ensuring nurse competency by licensure examination are essential to both helping nurses realize the full potential of their role and earning recognition for Taiwan healthcare as positive contributors to the global community of nations. Three themes were explored in this paper, including: (1) Issues and problems with the current nursing education, license examination and nursing education quality monitoring systems in Taiwan; (2) Comparing Taiwan's situation with that in certain other countries; and (3) Recommending changes ÷ revisions in Taiwan's nursing educational system and license examinations based on comparative findings. In order to plug into the rapid pace of globalization, Taiwan should upgrade and limit its pre-licensure nursing programs at the bachelor level. Also, nursing education quality should be continuously improved through peer-review.

  15. No effects of huddling on core body temperature in rock hyrax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huddling is a behavioural energy conservation mechanism that is widely used by many small endotherms at low ambient temperatures. Huddling has many benefits, including decreasing the metabolic cost of maintaining body temperature (Tb), reducing the amount of heat lost to the environment, and increasing the local ...

  16. Tattoos, body piercings, and self-injury: is there a connection? Investigations on a core group of participants practicing body modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, Aglaja; Hinz, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    Reliable psychosocial data about practitioners of body piercing and tattooing are few and controversial. The goal of this study was to reinvestigate the issue by studying a large sample of individuals with body modifications (BMs), focusing on the motives and relations to biographical events. A 55-item anonymous self-report questionnaire was distributed among volunteers of what is considered to be a core group of individuals wearing BMs (N=432). Results show that BMs changed the participants' attitude toward their body considerably, and 34% of all participants reported BM practices in conjunction with decisive biographical events. Twenty-seven percent of the participants admitted self-cutting during childhood. This group differed from the group without self-cutting with respect to several features before, during, and after BM. The rate of medical complications of BM was 16% in the total sample, with a remarkably higher rate (26%) among participants with a history of self-cutting. The data suggest that the significance of BMs ranges from simple peer group imitations to highly informative symptoms of possibly severe psychopathological conditions. In the latter case, BMs sometimes serve as therapeutic substitutes.

  17. Ab initio translationally invariant nonlocal one-body densities from no-core shell-model theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M.; Elster, Ch.; Popa, G.; Launey, K. D.; Nogga, A.; Maris, P.

    2018-02-01

    Background: It is well known that effective nuclear interactions are in general nonlocal. Thus if nuclear densities obtained from ab initio no-core shell-model (NCSM) calculations are to be used in reaction calculations, translationally invariant nonlocal densities must be available. Purpose: Though it is standard to extract translationally invariant one-body local densities from NCSM calculations to calculate local nuclear observables like radii and transition amplitudes, the corresponding nonlocal one-body densities have not been considered so far. A major reason for this is that the procedure for removing the center-of-mass component from NCSM wave functions up to now has only been developed for local densities. Results: A formulation for removing center-of-mass contributions from nonlocal one-body densities obtained from NCSM and symmetry-adapted NCSM (SA-NCSM) calculations is derived, and applied to the ground state densities of 4He, 6Li, 12C, and 16O. The nonlocality is studied as a function of angular momentum components in momentum as well as coordinate space. Conclusions: We find that the nonlocality for the ground state densities of the nuclei under consideration increases as a function of the angular momentum. The relative magnitude of those contributions decreases with increasing angular momentum. In general, the nonlocal structure of the one-body density matrices we studied is given by the shell structure of the nucleus, and cannot be described with simple functional forms.

  18. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-06-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= -0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance.

  19. Permeability analysis of Asbuton material used as core layers of water resistance in the body of dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, H.; Tjaronge, M. W.; Thaha, A.; Djamaluddin, R.

    2017-11-01

    In order to increase consumption of the local materials and national products, large reserves of Asbuton material about 662.960 million tons in the Buton Islands became an alternative as a waterproof core layer in the body of dam. The Asbuton material was used in this research is Lawele Granular Asphalt (LGA). This study was an experimental study conducted in the laboratory by conducting density testing (content weight) and permeability on Asbuton material. Testing of the Asbuton material used Falling Head method to find out the permeability value of Asbuton material. The data of test result to be analyzed are the relation between compaction energy and density value also relation between density value and permeability value of Asbuton material. The result shows that increases the number of blow apply to the Asbuton material at each layer will increase the density of the Asbuton material. The density value of Asbuton material that satisfies the requirements for use as an impermeable core layer in the dam body is 1.53 grams/cm3. The increase the density value (the weight of the contents) of the Asbuton material will reduce its permeability value of the Asbuton material.

  20. The Combined Strength of Thermodynamics and Comparative Planetology: Application of Activity Models to Core Formation in Terrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent models for accretion of terrestrial bodies involve metal-silicate equilibrium as the metallic core formed during growth. Most elements considered are either refractory or well studied elements for which effects of pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and metallic liquid composition are well known. There are a large number of elements that are both siderophile and volatile, whose fate in such models is unknown, largely due to a lack of data at comparable conditions and com-positions (FeNi core with light elements such as S, C, Si, and O). We have focused on Ge, In, As, Sb and determined the effect of Si and C on metal-silicate partitioning, and developed a thermo-dynamic model that allows application of these new data to a wide range of planetary bodies. New experiments: We have previously carried out experiments with FeSi metallic liquid at C-saturated conditions at 1600 and 1800 C [4]. In a new series of experiments we investigate the effect of Si in carbon-free systems at 1600 C for comparison. Experiments were carried out at 1 GPa in MgO capsules using the same basaltic starting composition as in previous studies. The MgO capsule reacts with the silicate melt to form more MgO-rich liquids that have 22-26 wt% MgO. Experimental met-als and silicates were analyzed using a combination of electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS. Results: The new results can be interpreted by considering Ge as an example, in the simple exchange equilibrium Fe + GeO = FeO + Ge, where the equilibrium constant Kd can be examined as a function of Si content of the metal. The slope of lnKd vs. (1-XSi) for this new series allows derivation of the epsilon interaction parameter for each of these four elements and Si (both C-saturated and C-free).All four elements have positive epsilon values, indicating that Si causes a decrease in the partition coefficients; values are 6.6, 6.5, 27.8 and 25.2 for In, Ge, As, and Sb, respectively, at 1 GPa and 1600 C. As an example of

  1. Relationship between functional movement screen scores, core strength, posture, and body mass index in school children in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Johnson, A Wayne; Adamson, Brynn

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of functionality should include parameters that consider postural control, limb asymmetries, range of motion limitations, proprioceptive deficits, and pain. An increasingly popular battery of tests, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), is purported to assess the above named parameters. The purpose of our study was twofold: (a) to report differences in total FMS scores in children, provide preliminary normative reference values of each of the 7 individual FMS scores for both genders and report on asymmetries and (b) to evaluate the relationship between total FMS scores, age, body mass index (BMI), core strength/stability, and postural angles to explore the possibility of using the FMS in the assessment of children's functional fitness. Descriptive data on 77 children aged 8-11 years were collected. The children performed core strength/stability exercises. Photographs were taken from a lateral view for later calculation of postural angles. The children performed the FMS while being videotaped for later review. The average total FMS score (of 21) was 14.9 (+1.9), and BMI was 16.4 (+2.2). Static posture is not related to results of the FMS. Core strength was positively correlated to the total FMS score (r = 0.31; p = 0.006). Over 60% demonstrated at least 1 asymmetry. The individual test scores indicate that none of the test items is too difficult for the children. Based on the screen's correlation to core strength, and the fact that it identifies areas of asymmetry, we suggest to further investigate its possible use in the assessment of children's functional fitness.

  2. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  3. Head-camera video recordings of trauma core competency procedures can evaluate surgical resident's technical performance as well as colocated evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Colin F; Pasley, Jason; Garofalo, Evan; Shackelford, Stacy; Chen, Hegang; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Granite, Guinevere; Pugh, Kristy; Hagegeorge, George; Tisherman, Samuel A

    2017-07-01

    Unbiased evaluation of trauma core competency procedures is necessary to determine if residency and predeployment training courses are useful. We tested whether a previously validated individual procedure score (IPS) for individual procedure vascular exposure and fasciotomy (FAS) performance skills could discriminate training status by comparing IPS of evaluators colocated with surgeons to blind video evaluations. Performance of axillary artery (AA), brachial artery (BA), and femoral artery (FA) vascular exposures and lower extremity FAS on fresh cadavers by 40 PGY-2 to PGY-6 residents was video-recorded from head-mounted cameras. Two colocated trained evaluators assessed IPS before and after training. One surgeon in each pretraining tertile of IPS for each procedure was randomly identified for blind video review. The same 12 surgeons were video-recorded repeating the procedures less than 4 weeks after training. Five evaluators independently reviewed all 96 randomly arranged deidentified videos. Inter-rater reliability/consistency, intraclass correlation coefficients were compared by colocated versus video review of IPS, and errors. Study methodology and bias were judged by Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument and the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies criteria. There were no differences (p ≥ 0.5) in IPS for AA, FA, FAS, whether evaluators were colocated or reviewed video recordings. Evaluator consistency was 0.29 (BA) - 0.77 (FA). Video and colocated evaluators were in total agreement (p = 1.0) for error recognition. Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.73 to 0.92, dependent on procedure. Correlations video versus colocated evaluations were 0.5 to 0.9. Except for BA, blinded video evaluators discriminated (p Education Research Study Quality Instrument criteria scored 15.5/19, Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 showed low bias risk. Video evaluations of AA, FA, and FAS procedures with IPS are unbiased, valid, and

  4. Igneous Evolution of the Core and Mantle in the Parent Body of Group IVA Iron and Stony-Iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E. R. D.; McCoy, T. J.; Haack, H.; Taylor, G. J.

    1992-07-01

    peritectic liquids. Discussion: From the observed size and homogeneity of the Gibeon shower and our fractional crystallization modeling, we can infer that the parental liquid pool was at least many meters in size. Pools this big quickly sink through silicate (unless very reduced), so IVA metal very probably comes from a core. The wide range of metallographic cooling rates that is correlated with Ni concentration in IVA irons must therefore be an artefact. Liquids of pyroxene-silica compositions could be formed in the mantle (Prinz et al., 1984) but trapping them in the core at different stages of core crystallization seems very difficult. We prefer an origin for IVA stony irons by mixing olivine-pyroxene mantle material into the core during core solidification by processes like those that mixed olivine mantle into Fe,Ni cores to make pallasites, followed by addition of silica formed by oxidation of Si from the metal. Pieces of olivine-pyroxene, possibly in the form of a Brenham-like sponge, could be mixed into a crystallizing Fe,Ni core with about 2-4% S at temperatures around 1400 C. Pyroxene might be abundant in the mantle because small body size caused inefficient removal of trapped silicate liquid from an olivine cumulate. Alternatively, temperatures were never high enough to melt the mantle entirely. References: Haack H. and Scott E.R.D. (1992) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, submitted. Jones J.H. and Malvin (1990) Metall. Trans., 21B, 697-706. Prinz M., Nehru C.E., Delaney J.S., Fredriksson K., and Palme H. (1984) Meteoritics (abstract) 19, 291-292.

  5. Competence is Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramming, Pia

    2004-01-01

    The article will address competence, its' diffusion, application, and the consequence of this application within the field of Human Resource Management (HRM). The concept competence-in-practice will be presented and in conclusion the article will consider implications and possibilities...... of competence-in-practice as an alternative approach to Competence Development within Human Resource Management....

  6. Effects of vigorous walking exercise on core body temperature and inhibitory control in thermosensitive persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W; Davis, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Acute, moderate intensity aerobic exercise might improve cognition in multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unknown if increases in core body temperature (Ctemp) that negates those effects in thermosensitive persons with MS. Fourteen fully ambulatory, thermosensitive persons with MS completed 20-min bouts of vigorous intensity treadmill walking exercise and seated quiet rest in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Ctemp was measured throughout each experimental condition. Inhibitory control (i.e., an executive function) was measured immediately prior to and following each condition. Ctemp was elevated (~0.6 °C) with vigorous exercise versus quiet rest (p control for vigorous exercise versus quiet rest (ηp(2) = 0.29). Exercise-related increases in Ctemp do not nullify the potential acute exercise benefits on inhibitory control in MS.

  7. Impact of an Event Reporting System on Resident Complication Reporting in Plastic Surgery Training: Addressing an ACGME and Plastic Surgery Milestone Project Core Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Rajiv P; Snyder-Warwick, Alison; Naidoo, Sybill; Skolnick, Gary B; Patel, Kamlesh B

    2017-11-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and Plastic Surgery Milestone Project has identified practice-based learning and improvement, which involves systematically analyzing current practices and implementing changes, as a core competency in residency education. In surgical care, complication reporting is an essential component of practice-based learning and improvement as complications are analyzed in morbidity and mortality conference for quality improvement. Unfortunately, current methods for capturing a comprehensive profile of complications may significantly underestimate the true occurrence of complications. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to evaluate an intervention for complication reporting and compare this to current practice, in a plastic surgery training program. This is a preintervention and postintervention study evaluating resident reporting of complications on a plastic surgery service. The intervention was an online event reporting system developed by department leadership and patient safety experts. The cohorts consisted of all patients undergoing surgery during two separate 3-month blocks bridged by an implementation period. A trained reviewer recorded complications, and this served as the reference standard. Fisher's exact test was used for binary comparisons. There were 32 complications detected in 219 patients from June to August of 2015 and 35 complications in 202 patients from October to December of 2015. The proportion of complications reported in the preintervention group was nine of 32 (28.1 percent). After the intervention, this significantly increased to 32 of 35 (91.4 percent) (p plastic surgery residents.

  8. Rising to the Challenge: The Ebola Outbreak in Sierra Leone and How Insights Into One Nongovernmental Organization's Response Can Inform Future Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Elin A

    2015-10-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) play a critical humanitarian role in the developing world. Over 100 NGOs currently operate in Sierra Leone, a country in West Africa that ranks 183 out of 187 in the United Nation's Human Development Index. Following a brutal 11-year war that ended in January 2002, the country has been unsuccessful at building a sufficiently resourced, robust, and anticipatory public health and medical care infrastructure. Consequently, Sierra Leone suffers from high levels of poverty, infant mortality, and limited access to safe drinking water, as well as morbidity from malnutrition, diarrheal diseases, hepatitis A, cholera, and typhoid fever. Large international NGOs such as Doctors Without Borders have attempted to fill the void left by fragile and fragmented government health services but have been overwhelmed and saturated by the continual spread of Ebola virus disease and growing numbers of cases and deaths. Smaller NGOs endeavored to assist during this crisis as well. One of them, Caritas, has actively sought public health knowledge and has applied public health principles to reduce and contain Ebola virus disease transmission. The Ebola outbreak illuminates the importance of building basic public health capabilities within the core competences of NGOs.

  9. Mathematical prediction of core body temperature from environment, activity, and clothing: The heat strain decision aid (HSDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Adam W; Blanchard, Laurie A; Friedl, Karl E; Cadarette, Bruce S; Hoyt, Reed W

    2017-02-01

    Physiological models provide useful summaries of complex interrelated regulatory functions. These can often be reduced to simple input requirements and simple predictions for pragmatic applications. This paper demonstrates this modeling efficiency by tracing the development of one such simple model, the Heat Strain Decision Aid (HSDA), originally developed to address Army needs. The HSDA, which derives from the Givoni-Goldman equilibrium body core temperature prediction model, uses 16 inputs from four elements: individual characteristics, physical activity, clothing biophysics, and environmental conditions. These inputs are used to mathematically predict core temperature (T c ) rise over time and can estimate water turnover from sweat loss. Based on a history of military applications such as derivation of training and mission planning tools, we conclude that the HSDA model is a robust integration of physiological rules that can guide a variety of useful predictions. The HSDA model is limited to generalized predictions of thermal strain and does not provide individualized predictions that could be obtained from physiological sensor data-driven predictive models. This fully transparent physiological model should be improved and extended with new findings and new challenging scenarios. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The Effect of Paracetamol on Core Body Temperature in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Manoj K; Taylor, Colman; Billot, Laurent; Bompoint, Severine; Gowardman, John; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffery; Myburgh, John

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to prevent pyrexia in patients with acute neurological injury may reduce secondary neuronal damage. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of the routine administration of 6 grams/day of intravenous paracetamol in reducing body temperature following severe traumatic brain injury, compared to placebo. A multicentre, randomised, blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients were randomised to receive an intravenous infusion of either 1g of paracetamol or 0.9% sodium chloride (saline) every 4 hours for 72 hours. The primary outcome was the mean difference in core temperature during the study intervention period. Forty-one patients were included in this study: 21 were allocated to paracetamol and 20 to saline. The median (interquartile range) number of doses of study drug was 18 (17-18) in the paracetamol group and 18 (16-18) in the saline group (P = 0.85). From randomisation until 4 hours after the last dose of study treatment, there were 2798 temperature measurements (median 73 [67-76] per patient). The mean ± standard deviation temperature was 37.4±0.5°C in the paracetamol group and 37.7±0.4°C in the saline group (absolute difference -0.3°C; 95% confidence interval -0.6 to 0.0; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences in the use of physical cooling, or episodes of hypotension or hepatic abnormalities, between the two groups. The routine administration of 6g/day of intravenous paracetamol did not significantly reduce core body temperature in patients with TBI. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000444280.

  11. Temporal thermometry fails to track body core temperature during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, David A; Vu, Albert; Brown, Marilee; Davis, Scott L; Keller, David M; Levine, Benjamin D; Crandall, Craig G

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of temporal scanning thermometry in monitoring internal temperature increases during passive heating. Sixteen subjects (5 males and 11 females) underwent a whole-body passive heat stress (water-perfused suit) to increase internal temperature. Temperatures were obtained with a temporal scanner and with an ingestible-pill telemetry system that tracks intestinal temperature. Temperatures were recorded while subjects were normothermic (34 degrees C water-perfusing suit) and every 10 min during passive heating (48 degrees C water-perfusing suit). Heart rate (ECG), mean skin temperature (weighted six-site average), skin blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry), and sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were all significantly elevated at the end of heating (all P heat stress temporal-derived temperature was not different from intestinal temperature (36.98 +/- 0.09 vs 37.01 +/- 0.09 degrees C, respectively, P = 0.76). However, after 30 min of heating (the greatest duration of heating completed by all subjects), temporal-derived temperature decreased to below the pre-heat stress baseline (-0.22 +/- 0.11), whereas intestinal temperature increased by 0.39 +/- 0.07 degrees C (P heating (N = 11), intestinal-derived internal temperature increased by 0.70 +/- 0.09 degrees C, whereas temporal-derived temperature decreased by 0.29 +/- 0.10 degrees C (P heating. Given these findings, it is recommended that this technique not be used to assess temperature in hyperthermic diaphoretic subjects.

  12. Effects of Re-heating Tissue Samples to Core Body Temperature on High-Velocity Ballistic Projectile-tissue Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Henneberg, Maciej; Wachsberger, Christian; Maiden, Nicholas; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2017-11-01

    Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. This research investigates whether heating 50-mm-cube samples of porcine liver, kidney, and heart to 37°C for varying durations (maximum 7 h) can affect the penetration response of a high-speed, steel sphere projectile. Longer conditioning times for heart and liver resulted in a slight loss of velocity/energy of the projectile, but the reverse effect occurred for the kidney. Possible reasons for these trends include autolytic changes causing softening (heart and liver) and dehydration causing an increase in density (kidney). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Effects of perioperative warm socks-wearing in maintaining core body temperature of patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui Yeon; Kim, Gaeun; Shin, Yeonghee

    2018-02-03

    To investigate whether warming the feet with socks would prevent hypothermia among patients undergoing spinal surgery. Perioperative hypothermia is a common health problem among spinal surgery patients. This study used a quasi-experimental design. Seventy-two patients were assigned to two groups. The control group (n = 36) received usual care without the warmed socks. The intervention group (n = 36) received usual care plus warmed socks during operation and recovery period. Data were collected during (180 min) and after the surgery (30 min) during the period of 7 February-10 April 2015. Core body temperature, shivering response and subjective thermal comfort of the two groups were compared over time using the repeated-measures ANOVA. The oesophageal temperature of the socks-wearing group was maintained between 36.36-36.45°C during surgery (mean = 36.41 ± 0.03, 95% CI = 36.34-36.47), whereas that of the control was between 35.75-35.97°C (mean = 35.98 ± 0.03, 95% CI = 35.92-36.04). The tympanic temperature in the recovery room of the socks-wearing group was between 36.28-36.38°C (mean = 36.37 ± 0.04, 95% CI = 36.29-36.45) and that of the control group was 35.90-36.04°C (mean = 35.95 ± 0.04, 95% CI = 35.88-36.05). Shivering response of the intervention group (mean = 0.04 ± 0.08, 95% CI = -0.13 to 0.21) was significantly lower than that of the control group (mean = 0.47 ± 0.08, 95% CI = 0.30-0.64) in the recovery room (F = 4.28, p warmed socks for spinal surgery patients was effective in maintaining perioperative core temperature, preventing shivering and maintaining subjective thermal comfort. Considering cost-effectiveness of warmed socks, it might be worth trying option for the maintenance of core temperature in spinal surgery patients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Diet-induced obesity reduces core body temperature across the estrous cycle and pregnancy in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rachael C; Waddell, Brendan J; Maloney, Shane K; Mark, Peter J

    2018-04-16

    Obesity during pregnancy causes adverse maternal and fetal health outcomes and programs offspring for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Obesity also disrupts core body temperature (T c ) regulation in nonpregnant rodents; however, it is unknown whether obesity alters normal maternal T c adaptations to pregnancy. Since T c is influenced by the circadian system, and both obesity and pregnancy alter circadian biology, it was hypothesized that obesity disrupts the normal rhythmic patterns of T c before and during gestation. Obesity was induced by cafeteria (CAF) feeding in female Wistar rats for 8 weeks prior to and during gestation, whereas control (CON) animals had free access to chow. Intraperitoneal temperature loggers measured daily T c profiles throughout the study, while maternal body composition and leptin levels were assessed near term. Daily temperature profiles were examined for rhythmic features (mesor, amplitude and acrophase) by cosine regression analysis. CAF animals exhibited increased fat mass (93%) and associated hyperleptinemia (3.2-fold increase) compared to CON animals. CAF consumption reduced the average T c (by up to 0.29°C) across the estrous cycle and most of pregnancy; however, T c for CAF and CON animals converged toward the end of gestation. Obesity reduced the amplitude of T c rhythms at estrus and proestrus and on day 8 of pregnancy, but increased the amplitude at day 20 of pregnancy. Photoperiod analysis revealed that obesity reduced T c exclusively in the light period during pre-pregnancy but only during the dark period in late gestation. In conclusion, obesity alters rhythmic T c profiles and reduces the magnitude of the T c decline late in rat gestation, which may have implications for maternal health and fetal development.

  15. The Human Embryoid Body Cystic Core Exhibits Architectural Complexity Revealed by use of High Throughput Polymer Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Martin L; Olmsted, Zachary T; Paluh, Janet L

    2015-07-01

    In pluripotent stem cell differentiation, embryoid bodies (EBs) provide a three-dimensional [3D] multicellular precursor in lineage specification. The internal structure of EBs is not well characterized yet is predicted to be an important parameter to differentiation. Here, we use custom SU-8 molds to generate transparent lithography-templated arrays of polydimethylsiloxane (LTA-PDMS) for high throughput analysis of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) EB formation and internal architecture. EBs formed in 200 and 500 μm diameter microarray wells by use of single cells, 2D clusters, or 3D early aggregates were compared. We observe that 200 μm EBs are monocystic versus 500 μm multicystic EBs that contain macro, meso and microsized cysts. In adherent differentiation of 500 μm EBs, the multicystic character impairs the 3D to 2D transition creating non-uniform monolayers. Our findings reveal that EB core structure has a size-dependent character that influences its architecture and cell population uniformity during early differentiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Remote long-term registrations of sleep-wake rhythms, core body temperature and activity in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kerstin; Coolen, Alex; Schlumbohm, Christina; Meerlo, Peter; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2012-12-01

    Initial studies in the day active marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) indicate that the sleep-wake cycle of these non-human primates resembles that of humans and therefore conceivably represent an appropriate model for human sleep. The methods currently employed for sleep studies in marmosets are limited. The objective of this study was to employ and validate the use of specific remote monitoring system technologies that enable accurate long-term recordings of sleep-wake rhythms and the closely related rhythms of core body temperature (CBT) and locomotor activity in unrestrained group-housed marmosets. Additionally, a pilot sleep deprivation (SD) study was performed to test the recording systems in an applied experimental setup. Our results show that marmosets typically exhibit a monophasic sleep pattern with cyclical alternations between NREM and REM sleep. CBT displays a pronounced daily rhythm and locomotor activity is primarily restricted to the light phase. SD caused an immediate increase in NREM sleep time and EEG slow-wave activity as well as a delayed REM sleep rebound that did not fully compensate for REM sleep that had been lost during SD. In conclusion, the combination of two innovative technical approaches allows for simultaneous measurements of CBT, sleep cycles and activity in multiple subjects. The employment of these systems represents a significant refinement in terms of animal welfare and will enable many future applications and longitudinal studies of circadian rhythms in marmosets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of an improved wearable device for core body temperature monitoring based on the dual heat flux principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingjie; Zhou, Congcong; He, Cheng; Li, Yuan; Ye, Xuesong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a miniaturized wearable core body temperature (CBT) monitoring system based on the dual heat flux (DHF) principle was developed. By interspersing calcium carbonate powder in PolyDimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a reformative heat transfer medium was produced to reduce the thermal equilibrium time. Besides, a least mean square (LMS) algorithm based active noise cancellation (ANC) method was adopted to diminish the impact of ambient temperature fluctuations. Theoretical analyses, finite element simulation, experiments on a hot plate and human volunteers were performed. The results showed that the proposed system had the advantages of small size, reduced initial time (~23.5 min), and good immunity to fluctuations of the air temperature. For the range of 37-41 °C on the hot plate, the error compared with a Fluke high accuracy thermometer was 0.08  ±  0.20 °C. In the human experiments, the measured temperature in the rest trial (34 subjects) had a difference of 0.13  ±  0.22 °C compared with sublingual temperature, while a significant increase of 1.36  ±  0.44 °C from rest to jogging was found in the exercise trial (30 subjects). This system has the potential for reliable continuous CBT measurement in rest and can reflect CBT variations during exercise.

  18. Core Body and Skin Temperature in Type 1 Narcolepsy in Daily Life; Effects of Sodium Oxybate and Prediction of Sleep Attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Astrid; Werth, Esther; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Lammers, Gert Jan; Van Someren, Eus J W; Baumann, Christian R; Fronczek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Previous laboratory studies in narcolepsy patients showed altered core body and skin temperatures, which are hypothesised to be related to a disturbed sleep wake regulation. In this ambulatory study we assessed temperature profiles in normal daily life, and whether sleep attacks

  19. 18F-FDG uptake in the colon is modulated by metformin but not associated with core body temperature and energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahler, Lonneke; Holleman, Frits; Chan, Man-Wai; Booij, Jan; Hoekstra, Joost B.; Verberne, Hein J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Physiological colonic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake is a frequent finding on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Interestingly, metformin, a glucose lowering drug associated with moderate weight loss, is also associated with an increased colonic 18F-FDG uptake. Consequently, increased colonic glucose use might partly explain the weight losing effect of metformin when this results in an increased energy expenditure and/or core body temperature. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether metformin modifies the metabolic activity of the colon by increasing glucose uptake. Methods In this open label, non-randomized, prospective mechanistic study, we included eight lean and eight overweight males. We measured colonic 18F-FDG uptake on PET-CT, energy expenditure and core body temperature before and after the use of metformin. The maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake was measured in 5 separate segments (caecum, colon ascendens,—transversum,—descendens and sigmoid). Results The maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake increased significantly in all separate segments after the use of metformin. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure or core body temperature after the use of metformin. There was no correlation between maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake and energy expenditure or core body temperature. Conclusion Metformin significantly increases colonic 18F-FDG uptake, but this increased uptake is not associated with an increase in energy expenditure or core body temperature. Although the colon might be an important site of the glucose plasma lowering actions of metformin, this mechanism of action does not explain directly any associated weight loss. PMID:28464031

  20. Melting phase relations in the Fe-S and Fe-S-O systems at core conditions in small terrestrial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Anne; Laurenz, Vera; Davies, Christopher J.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2018-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Fe-S and Fe-S-O systems. Experiments were performed at high temperatures (1400-1850 °C) and high pressures (14 and 20 GPa) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The results of this study are used to understand the effect of sulfur and oxygen on core dynamics in small terrestrial bodies. We observe that the formation of solid FeO grains occurs at the Fe-S liquid - Fe solid interface at high temperature ( > 1400 °C at 20 GPa). Oxygen fugacities calculated for each O-bearing sample show that redox conditions vary from ΔIW = -0.65 to 0. Considering the relative density of each phase and existing evolutionary models of terrestrial cores, we apply our experimental results to the cores of Mars and Ganymede. We suggest that the presence of FeO in small terrestrial bodies tends to contribute to outer-core compositional stratification. Depending on the redox and thermal history of the planet, FeO may also help form a transitional redox zone at the core-mantle boundary.

  1. Getting to the core: Internal body temperatures help reveal the ecological function and thermal implications of the lions' mane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trethowan, Paul; Fuller, Andrea; Haw, Anna; Hart, Tom; Markham, Andrew; Loveridge, Andrew; Hetem, Robyn; du Preez, Byron; Macdonald, David W

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that there is a thermal cost of the mane to male lions, potentially leading to increased body surface temperatures ( T s ), increased sperm abnormalities, and to lower food intake during hot summer months. To test whether a mane imposes thermal costs on males, we measured core body temperature ( T b ) continuously for approximately 1 year in 18 free-living lions. There was no difference in the 24-hr maximum T b of males ( n  = 12) and females ( n  = 6), and males had a 24-hr mean T b that was 0.2 ± 0.1°C lower than females after correcting for seasonal effects. Although feeding on a particular day increased 24-hr mean and 24-hr maximum T b , this phenomenon was true of both male and female lions, and females had higher 24-hr mean and 24-hr maximum T b than males, on both days when lions did not feed, and on days when lions did feed. Twenty-four-hour T b was not influenced by mane length or color, and 24-hr mean T b was negatively correlated with mane length. These data contradict the suggestion that there exists a thermal cost to male lions in possessing a long dark mane, but do not preclude the possibility that males compensate for a mane with increased heat loss. The increased insulation caused by a mane does not necessarily have to impair heat loss by males, which in hot environments is primarily through respiratory evaporative cooling, nor does in necessarily lead to increased heat gain, as lions are nocturnal and seek shade during the day. The mane may even act as a heat shield by increasing insulation. However, dominant male lions frequent water points more than twice as often as females, raising the possibility that male lions are increasing water uptake to facilitate increased evaporative cooling. The question of whether male lions with manes compensate for a thermal cost to the mane remains unresolved, but male lions with access to water do not have higher T b than females or males with smaller manes.

  2. Pregnancy Suppresses the Daily Rhythmicity of Core Body Temperature and Adipose Metabolic Gene Expression in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharfe, Michaela D; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Waddell, Brendan J; Mark, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Maternal adaptations in lipid metabolism are crucial for pregnancy success due to the role of white adipose tissue as an energy store and the dynamic nature of energy needs across gestation. Because lipid metabolism is regulated by the rhythmic expression of clock genes, it was hypothesized that maternal metabolic adaptations involve changes in both adipose clock gene expression and the rhythmic expression of downstream metabolic genes. Maternal core body temperature (Tc) was investigated as a possible mechanism driving pregnancy-induced changes in clock gene expression. Gonadal adipose tissue and plasma were collected from C57BL/6J mice before and on days 6, 10, 14, and 18 of pregnancy (term 19 d) at 4-hour intervals across a 24-hour period. Adipose expression of clock genes and downstream metabolic genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and Tc was measured by intraperitoneal temperature loggers. Adipose clock gene expression showed robust rhythmicity throughout pregnancy, but absolute levels varied substantially across gestation. Rhythmic expression of the metabolic genes Lipe, Pnpla2, and Lpl was clearly evident before pregnancy; however, this rhythmicity was lost with the onset of pregnancy. Tc rhythm was significantly altered by pregnancy, with a 65% decrease in amplitude by term and a 0.61°C decrease in mesor between days 6 and 18. These changes in Tc, however, did not appear to be linked to adipose clock gene expression across pregnancy. Overall, our data show marked adaptations in the adipose clock in pregnancy, with an apparent decoupling of adipose clock and lipolytic/lipogenic gene rhythms from early in gestation.

  3. Superficial cooling does not decrease core body temperature before, during, or after exercise in an American football uniform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Eberman, Lindsey E; Cleary, Michelle A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of superficial cooling on thermoregulatory responses while exercising in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform. Nine male and female subjects wore a superficial cooling garment while in a cooling (CS) experimental condition or a no cooling (NCS) control condition during an exercise task consisting of warm-up (WU), exercise (EX), and recovery (R). The exercise task simulated an American football conditioning session with subjects wearing a full American football uniform and performing anaerobic and aerobic exercises in a hot humid environment. Subjects were allowed to drink water ad libitum during rest breaks. During the WU, EX, and R periods, core body temperature (T(c)) was measured to assess the effect of the cooling garment. Neither baseline resting before warm-up T(c) nor after warm-up T(c) was significantly different between trials. No significant differences in exercise T(c) between conditions were found. Time to return to baseline T(c) revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions. The authors found that the volume of fluid consumed was 34% less in the experimental condition (711.1 ± 188.0 ml) compared with the control condition (1,077.8 ± 204.8 ml). The findings indicate that the cooling garment was not effective in blunting the rise in T(c) during warm-up, attenuating a rise in T(c) during intermittent exercise, or in increasing a return to baseline T(c) during a resting recovery period in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform.

  4. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltmeijer, Matthijs T W; Veeneman, Dineke; Bongers, Coen C C W; Netea, Mihai G; van der Meer, Jos W; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Hopman, Maria T E

    2017-05-01

    Exercise increases core body temperature (T C ) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in T C by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated whether the exercise-induced increase in T C is partly caused by an altered hypothalamic temperature set point. Fifteen healthy, active men age 36 ± 14 y were recruited. Subjects performed submaximal treadmill exercise in 3 randomized test conditions: (1) 400 mg ibuprofen and 1000 mg acetaminophen (IBU/APAP), (2) 1000 mg acetaminophen (APAP), and (3) a control condition (CTRL). Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were used to block the effect of IL-6 at a central and peripheral level, respectively. T C , skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously during the submaximal exercise tests. Baseline values of T C , skin temperature, and heart rate did not differ across conditions. Serum IL-6 concentrations increased in all 3 conditions. A significantly lower peak T C was observed in IBU/APAP (38.8°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL (39.2°C ± 0.5°C, P = .02) but not in APAP (38.9°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL. Similarly, a lower ΔT C was observed in IBU/APAP (1.7°C ± 0.3°C) vs CTRL (2.0°C ± 0.5°C, P exercise compared with a CTRL. This observation suggests that a prostaglandin-E2-induced elevated hypothalamic temperature set point may contribute to the exercise-induced rise in T C .

  5. New Graduate Nurses' Developmental Trajectories for Capability Beliefs Concerning Core Competencies for Healthcare Professionals: A National Cohort Study on Patient-Centered Care, Teamwork, and Evidence-based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Anna; Gustavsson, Petter; Wallin, Lars; Boström, Anne-Marie; Rudman, Ann

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to describe the developmental trajectories of registered nurses' capability beliefs during their first 3 years of practice. The focus was on three core competencies for health professionals-patient-centered care, teamwork, and evidence-based practice. A national cohort of registered nurses (n = 1,205) was recruited during their nursing education and subsequently surveyed yearly during the first 3 years of working life. The survey included 16 items on capability beliefs divided into three subscales for the assessment of patient-centered care, teamwork, and evidence-based practice, and the data were analyzed with linear latent growth modeling. The nurses' capability beliefs for patient-centered care increased over the three first years of working life, their capability beliefs for evidence-based practice were stable over the 3 years, and their capability beliefs for teamwork showed a downward trend. Through collaboration between nursing education and clinical practice, the transition to work life could be supported and competence development in newly graduated nurses could be enhanced to help them master the core competencies. Future research should focus on determining which factors impact the development of capability beliefs in new nurses and how these factors can be developed by testing interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Sigma Theta Tau International The Honor Society of Nursing.

  6. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials of the effects of warmed irrigation fluid on core body temperature during endoscopic surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinghui; Tian, Jinhui; Sun, Mei; Yang, Kehu

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to establish whether warmed irrigation fluid temperature could decrease the drop of body temperature and incidence of shivering and hypothermia. Irrigation fluid, which is used in large quantities during endoscopic surgeries at room temperature, is considered to be associated with hypothermia and shivering. It remains controversial whether using warmed irrigation fluid to replace room-temperature irrigation fluid will decrease the drop of core body temperature and the occurrence of hypothermia. A comprehensive search (computerised database searches, footnote chasing, citation chasing) was undertaken to identify all the randomised controlled trials that explored temperature of irrigation fluid in endoscopic surgery. An approach involving meta-analysis was used. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SCI, China academic journals full-text databases, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese scientific journals databases and Chinese Medical Association Journals for trials that meet the inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed using standards recommended by Cochrane Library Handbook 5.0.1. Disagreement was resolved by consensus. Thirteen randomised controlled trials including 686 patients were identified. The results showed that room-temperature irrigation fluid caused a greater drop of core body temperature in patients, compared to warmed irrigation fluid (p temperature fluid. In endoscopic surgeries, irrigation fluid is recommended to be warmed to decrease the drop of core body temperature and the risk of perioperative shivering and hypothermia. Warming irrigating fluid should be considered standard practice in all endoscopic surgeries. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Asymmetric competition, body size, and foraging tactics: testing the ideal free distribution in two competing fish species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, M.; Křivan, Vlastimil; Berec, Luděk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2006), s. 929-942 ISSN 1522-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007303; GA AV ČR IAA100070601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : allopatric species * asymmetric competititon * body size Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.785, year: 2006

  8. Self-objectification, body shame, and disordered eating: Testing a core mediational model of objectification theory among White, Black, and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lauren M; Burke, Natasha L; Calogero, Rachel M; Menzel, Jessie E; Krawczyk, Ross; Thompson, J Kevin

    2018-03-01

    Objectification theory asserts that self-objectification, which manifests as self-surveillance, leads to increased body shame and subsequent eating pathology. Although evidence supports the core mediational model, the majority of this work utilizes primarily White samples, limiting generalizability to other ethnic groups. The current study examined whether the core tenets of objectification theory generalize to Black and Hispanic women. Participants were 880 college women from the United States (71.7% White, 15.1% Hispanic, 13.2% Black) who completed self-report measures of self-surveillance, body shame, and disordered eating. Multivariate analysis of variance tests indicated lower levels of self-surveillance and disordered eating among Black women. Moreover, body shame mediated the relationship between self-surveillance and disordered eating for White and Hispanic women, but not for Black women. These analyses support growing evidence for the role of body shame as a mediator between body surveillance and eating pathology, but only for women in certain ethnic groups. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A Histological Analysis of Visceral Organs to Evaluate the Effect of Duration of Heating From Refrigeration to Core Body Temperature for Ballistics Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2017-12-01

    Animal organs have been used in ballistics research to investigate the effects on human organs. Such organs are refrigerated until the investigation to minimize autolytic degradation and at times have been reheated to the human core body temperature to simulate the in situ environment. The aim of this investigation was to study the microstructural changes that may occur in fresh chilled visceral organs of the thorax and abdomen (ie, heart, lung, liver, and kidney) during the period of reheating to 37°C. Fifty-millimeter cubes of porcine heart, lung, liver, and kidney were taken rapidly after slaughter, chilled overnight, and the next morning were reheated to core body temperature (37°C). Histological changes occurring in the tissues during the reheating phase were investigated. The findings indicated that no cytoplasmic or nuclear changes occurred in any of the tissues during the period of reheating. Therefore, reheating of animal organs to the human core body temperature is not necessary, if the organs are refrigerated.

  10. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  11. The effect of melt composition on metal-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements and constraints on core formation in the angrite parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenstra, E. S.; Sitabi, A. B.; Lin, Y. H.; Rai, N.; Knibbe, J. S.; Berndt, J.; Matveev, S.; van Westrenen, W.

    2017-09-01

    We present 275 new metal-silicate partition coefficients for P, S, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Ge, Mo, and W obtained at moderate P (1.5 GPa) and high T (1683-1883 K). We investigate the effect of silicate melt composition using four end member silicate melt compositions. We identify possible silicate melt dependencies of the metal-silicate partitioning of lower valence elements Ni, Ge and V, elements that are usually assumed to remain unaffected by changes in silicate melt composition. Results for the other elements are consistent with the dependence of their metal-silicate partition coefficients on the individual major oxide components of the silicate melt composition suggested by recently reported parameterizations and theoretical considerations. Using multiple linear regression, we parameterize compiled metal-silicate partitioning results including our new data and report revised expressions that predict their metal-silicate partitioning behavior as a function of P-T-X-fO2. We apply these results to constrain the conditions that prevailed during core formation in the angrite parent body (APB). Our results suggest the siderophile element depletions in angrite meteorites are consistent with a CV bulk composition and constrain APB core formation to have occurred at mildly reducing conditions of 1.4 ± 0.5 log units below the iron-wüstite buffer (ΔIW), corresponding to a APB core mass of 18 ± 11%. The core mass range is constrained to 21 ± 8 mass% if light elements (S and/or C) are assumed to reside in the APB core. Incorporation of light elements in the APB core does not yield significantly different redox states for APB core-mantle differentiation. The inferred redox state is in excellent agreement with independent fO2 estimates recorded by pyroxene and olivine in angrites.

  12. Relations between BMI, body mass and height, and sports competence among participants of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games: does sport metabolic demand differentiate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanula, Arkadiusz; Roczniok, Robert; Gabryś, Tomasz; Szmatlan-Gabryś, Urszula; Maszczyk, Adam; Pietraszewski, Przemysław

    2013-12-01

    This study characterizes the athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in terms of body height, body mass and BMI. The studied sample consisted of athletes in the top 20 places of each of 14 sports disciplines (1460 cases). Data on the athletes' age, height, body mass, and sports specialization were obtained from the Olympic Games' official website and from the International Ski Federation. The sampled athletes were grouped according to the predominant type of energy metabolism during competition. The anaerobic-glycolytic disciplines, such as cross-country sprint, figure skating, short track, and speed skating (500, 1000 and 1500 m), were found to have the youngest female athletes: 25.0 yr. (SD = 4.7). In the endurance sports (aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic), the female athletes were the oldest, being respectively 28.6 yr. (SD = 4.9) and 28.1 yr. (SD = 4.5) old. In the speed disciplines (anaerobic-alactic), the female athletes were the tallest (M = 172 cm; SD = 8.3). The male athletes in the anaerobic-alactic sports were the tallest (M = 181.8 cm, SD = 6.7) and those in the anaerobic-glycolytic sports were the shortest (M = 179.2 cm, SD = 6.7). The large differences in body mass among the groups of athletes, which appear to be related to the predominant type of metabolism during competition, show that this parameter is partly correlated with the level of sports competence, but only in disciplines where the athletes need larger muscle mass. The largest average values of BMI were found for males and females in the anaerobic-alactic group.

  13. Developing skills and competence of employees of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie regional operational programme managing body – research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalcewicz-Kaniowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world it is the employees or the human capital of any company who are responsible for effective management and caring for the future of their business. Organisations change all the time which means that continual staff training should be provided. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the training policy of the managing body of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Regional Operational Programme (IZ RPO WK-P and its employees’ development potential. The research participants preferred mentoring (47%, coaching (27% and briefing (26% techniques. They also benefited from a range of educational techniques such as training courses, post-graduate studies etc. and a wide choice of subjects. Thus, it is necessary to conduct periodic research on training requirements, focusing on subjects and training techniques.

  14. Investigating factors affecting the body temperature of dogs competing in cross country (canicross) races in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anne J; Hall, Emily J

    2018-02-01

    Increasing numbers of people are running with their dogs, particularly in harness through the sport canicross. Whilst canicross races are typically held in the winter months, some human centred events are encouraging running with dogs in summer months, potentially putting dogs at risk of heat related injuries, including heatstroke. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of ambient conditions and running speed on post-race temperature of canicross dogs in the UK, and investigate the potential risk of heatstroke to canicross racing dogs. The effects of canine characteristics (e.g. gender, coat colour) were explored in order to identify factors that could increase the risk of exercise-induced hyperthermia (defined as body temperature exceeding the upper normal limit of 38.8°C).108 dogs were recruited from 10 race days, where ambient conditions ranged from - 5 to 11°C measured as universal thermal comfort index (UTCI). 281 post race tympanic membrane temperatures were recorded, ranging from 37.0-42.5°C. There was a weak correlation between speed and post-race temperature (r = 0.269, P coated dogs (χ(2) = 8.234, P = 0.014), were significantly more likely to finish the race with a temperature exceeding 40.6°C. Prolonged elevati°n of body temperature above this temperature is likely to cause heatstroke. At every race dogs exceeded this critical temperature, with 10.7% (n = 30) of the overall study population exceeding this temperature throughout the study period. The results suggest male dogs, dark coloured dogs, and increased speed of running all increase the risk of heatstroke in racing canicross dogs. Further research is required to investigate the impact of environmental conditions on post-race cooling, to better understand safe running conditions for dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CORE annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gut, A.

    2007-04-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE in 2006. The six main areas of work during the period 2004 - 2007 are examined, including a review of the SFOE's energy research programme, a road-map for the way towards the realisation of a 2000-watt society, the formulation of an energy research concept for 2008 - 2011, international co-operation, the dissemination of information and the assessment of existing and new instruments. International activities and Switzerland's involvement in energy research within the framework of the International Energy Agency IEA are discussed. New and existing projects are listed and the work done at the Competence Centre for Energy and Mobility noted. The Swiss Technology Award 2007 is presented. Information supplied to interested bodies to help improve knowledge on research work being done and to help make discussions on future energy supply more objective is discussed

  16. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  17. Alternative Energy: Production of H{sub 2} by Radiolysis of Water in the Rocky Cores of Icy Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquet, Alexis; Waite, J. Hunter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Glein, Christopher R.; Wyrick, Danielle [Southwest Research Institute, Space Science and Engineering Division, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We applied a model of radiolysis in earthly rock–water mixtures to several known or suspected ocean worlds: Enceladus, Ceres, Europa, Titania, Oberon, Pluto, and Charon. In this model, radiation emitted by the long-lived radionuclides ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U) contained in the ordinary chondrite-like rocks is partly absorbed by the water permeating the material of each body’s core. The physical and chemical processes that follow release molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), which is a molecule of astrobiological interest. We compared the calculated production of H{sub 2} by radiolysis in each body’s core to published estimates of production by serpentinization. This study presents production calculations over 4.5 Gyr for several values of rock porosity. We found that radiolysis can produce H{sub 2} quantities equivalent to a few percent of what is estimated from serpentinization. Higher porosity, which is unlikely at the scale of a body’s entire core but possible just under the seafloor, can increase radiolytic production by almost an order of magnitude. The products of water radiolysis also include several oxidants, allowing for production of life-sustaining sulfates. Though previously unrecognized in this capacity, radiolysis in an ocean world’s outer core could be a fundamental agent in generating the chemical energy that could support life.

  18. Infrared thermal imaging of the inner canthus of the eye as an estimator of body core temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the temperature of the inner canthus of the eye (Tca), determined with infrared thermal imaging, is an appropriate method for core temperature estimation in mass screening of fever. However, these studies used the error prone tympanic temperature as a reference.

  19. ACCP Clinical Pharmacist Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saseen, Joseph J; Ripley, Toni L; Bondi, Deborah; Burke, John M; Cohen, Lawrence J; McBane, Sarah; McConnell, Karen J; Sackey, Bryan; Sanoski, Cynthia; Simonyan, Anahit; Taylor, Jodi; Vande Griend, Joseph P

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) is to advance human health by extending the frontiers of clinical pharmacy. Consistent with this mission and its core values, ACCP is committed to ensuring that clinical pharmacists possess the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors necessary to deliver comprehensive medication management (CMM) in team-based, direct patient care environments. These components form the basis for the core competencies of a clinical pharmacist and reflect the competencies of other direct patient care providers. This paper is an update to a previous ACCP document and includes the expectation that clinical pharmacists be competent in six essential domains: direct patient care, pharmacotherapy knowledge, systems-based care and population health, communication, professionalism, and continuing professional development. Although these domains align with the competencies of physician providers, they are specifically designed to better reflect the clinical pharmacy expertise required to provide CMM in patient-centered, team-based settings. Clinical pharmacists must be prepared to complete the education and training needed to achieve these competencies and must commit to ongoing efforts to maintain competence through ongoing professional development. Collaboration among stakeholders will be needed to ensure that these competencies guide clinical pharmacists' professional development and evaluation by educational institutions, postgraduate training programs, professional societies, and employers. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.

  1. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2007-08-21

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg{sup -1} is 0.25 {sup 0}C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 {sup 0}C was 4.5 W kg{sup -1} in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the

  2. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg -1 is 0.25 0 C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 0 C was 4.5 W kg -1 in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of

  3. Addressing electron-hole correlation in core excitations of solids: An all-electron many-body approach from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorwerk, Christian; Cocchi, Caterina; Draxl, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    We present an ab initio study of core excitations of solid-state materials focusing on the role of electron-hole correlation. In the framework of an all-electron implementation of many-body perturbation theory into the exciting code, we investigate three different absorption edges of three materials, spanning a broad energy window, with transition energies between a few hundred to thousands of eV. Specifically, we consider excitations from the Ti K edge in rutile and anatase TiO2, from the Pb M4 edge in PbI2, and from the Ca L2 ,3 edge in CaO. We show that the electron-hole attraction rules x-ray absorption for deep core states when local fields play a minor role. On the other hand, the local-field effects introduced by the exchange interaction between the excited electron and the hole dominate excitation processes from shallower core levels, separated by a spin-orbit splitting of a few eV. Our approach yields absorption spectra in good agreement with available experimental data and allows for an in-depth analysis of the results, revealing the electronic contributions to the excitations, as well as their spatial distribution.

  4. Circadian changes in core body temperature, metabolic rate and locomotor activity in rats on a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Ippei; Hagi, Mieko; Doi, Masako

    2009-12-01

    Ingestion of a high-protein meal results in body weight loss due to elevated energy expenditure, while also increasing satiety and decreasing subsequent food intake. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet (HPCFD) on these physiological indicators from a circadian perspective. Rats were given HPCFD or a pair-fed normal protein content diet (20% protein; NPD) for 4 d. The HPCFD group lost more body weight than the NPD group. Oxygen consumption (VO(2)) in the HPCFD group did not change during the experimental period, and tended to be higher during the light (L) phase than in the NPD group. Carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)) during the L phase was higher in the HPCFD group than in the NPD group, where VCO(2) was gradually decreased during the last dark (D) phase and throughout the L phase. The HPCFD group exhibited higher daily core body temperature (T(b)), particularly during the late D phase and throughout the L phase when compared to the NPD group. Locomotor activities during the D phase of the NPD group tended to gradually increase and were thus significantly higher than in the HPCFD group. These results suggest that HPCFD, even if energy intake is insufficient, maintains circadian changes in metabolic rates, resulting in maintenance of elevated daily T(b) and body weight reduction without increasing activity.

  5. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  6. Three-dimensional gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation of plasmas on a massively parallel computer: Final report on LDRD Core Competency Project, FY 1991--FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, J.A.; Williams, T.J.; Cohen, B.I.; Dimits, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the programs of the Magnetic fusion Energy (MFE) Theory and computations Program is studying the anomalous transport of thermal energy across the field lines in the core of a tokamak. We use the method of gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation in this study. For this LDRD project we employed massively parallel processing, new algorithms, and new algorithms, and new formal techniques to improve this research. Specifically, we sought to take steps toward: researching experimentally-relevant parameters in our simulations, learning parallel computing to have as a resource for our group, and achieving a 100 x speedup over our starting-point Cray2 simulation code's performance

  7. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTgAD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysse M. Knight

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD and non-transgenic (Non-Tg control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4–10 months, 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD.

  8. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTgAD) mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Elysse M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Gümüsgöz, Sarah; Smith, Jennifer C. M.; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Allan, Stuart M.; Lawrence, Catherine B.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD) and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4–10 months), 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD. PMID:22864021

  9. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTgAD) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Elysse M; Brown, Timothy M; Gümüsgöz, Sarah; Smith, Jennifer C M; Waters, Elizabeth J; Allan, Stuart M; Lawrence, Catherine B

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD) and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4-10 months), 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD.

  10. Mathematical Competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphael, Henning; Mogensen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students.......In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students....

  11. Teacher competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Svatošová, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with adult teacher competencies. It describes current situation in adult education and it focuses on measuring quality level of teacher competencies. There is given the main overview of adult education specifics. These are the prerequisites for defining adult teacher competencies. There is given specific adult teacher competencies and related roles which are generally based on teacher's activities during educational courses. Next part describes present conception of ...

  12. Short communication: using infrared thermography as an in situ measure of core body temperature in lot-fed Angus steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Angela M.; Lees, J. C.; Sejian, V.; Wallage, A. L.; Gaughan, J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Thirty-six Black Angus steers were used in a replicated study; three replicates of 12 steers/replicate. Steers had an initial non-fasted BW of 392.3 ± 5.1, 427.5 ± 6.3, and 392.7 ± 3.7 kg for each replicate, respectively. Steers were housed outside in individual animal pens (10 m × 3.4 m). Each replicate was conducted over a 6-day period where infrared thermography (IRT) images were collected at 3-h intervals, commencing at 0600 h on day 1 and concluding at 0600 h on day 6. Rumen temperatures ( T RUM) were measured at 10-min intervals for the duration of each replicate using a radio-frequency identification (RFID) rumen bolus. These data were used to determine the relationship with surface temperature of the cattle, which was determined using IRT. Individual T RUM were converted to an hourly average. The relationship between T RUM and surface temperature was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. There were no linear trends between mean hourly T RUM and mean surface temperature. Pearson's correlation coefficient indicated that there were weak associations ( r ≤ 0.1; P < 0.003) between T RUM and body surface temperature. These data suggest that there was little relationship between the surface temperature and T RUM.

  13. A heterogeneous system based on GPU and multi-core CPU for real-time fluid and rigid body simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Junior, José Ricardo; Gonzalez Clua, Esteban W.; Montenegro, Anselmo; Lage, Marcos; Dreux, Marcelo de Andrade; Joselli, Mark; Pagliosa, Paulo A.; Kuryla, Christine Lucille

    2012-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in simulation has become an important field not only for physics and engineering areas but also for simulation, computer graphics, virtual reality and even video game development. Many efficient models have been developed over the years, but when many contact interactions must be processed, most models present difficulties or cannot achieve real-time results when executed. The advent of parallel computing has enabled the development of many strategies for accelerating the simulations. Our work proposes a new system which uses some successful algorithms already proposed, as well as a data structure organisation based on a heterogeneous architecture using CPUs and GPUs, in order to process the simulation of the interaction of fluids and rigid bodies. This successfully results in a two-way interaction between them and their surrounding objects. As far as we know, this is the first work that presents a computational collaborative environment which makes use of two different paradigms of hardware architecture for this specific kind of problem. Since our method achieves real-time results, it is suitable for virtual reality, simulation and video game fluid simulation problems.

  14. Competencies for disaster mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S

    2015-03-01

    Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.

  15. Competence articulation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Bo; Bardram, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Many studies and concepts within CSCW deal with the temporal, spatial, social, and computational aspects of supporting collaborative work. In this paper we want to pay attention to another central aspect to the achievement of collaborative work, namely the competence of the people involved....... In particular, we want to look at the dynamic quality of competences, and investigate how competence is mutually developed in coordinated work. We have termed this process competence articulation, a concept which tries to emphasize competence as well as social development of competence as part of cooperation....... The concept has emerged out of a longitudinal participatory design process investigating telemedical treatment of diabetic foot ulcers using video phones. We analyze the transitions occurring with the introduction of synchronous telemedical consultations and detail how the online video facilitates...

  16. Effect of core body temperature, time of day, and climate conditions on behavioral patterns of lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J D; Hall, L W; Collier, R J; Smith, J F

    2015-01-01

    Cattle show several responses to heat load, including spending more time standing. Little is known about what benefit this may provide for the animals. Data from 3 separate cooling management trials were analyzed to investigate the relationship between behavioral patterns in lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress and their body temperature. Cows (n=157) were each fitted with a leg data logger that measured position and an intravaginal data logger that measures core body temperature (CBT). Ambient conditions were also collected. All data were standardized to 5-min intervals, and information was divided into several categories: when standing and lying bouts were initiated and the continuance of each bout (7,963 lying and 6,276 standing bouts). In one location, cows were continuously subjected to heat-stress levels according to temperature-humidity index (THI) range (THI≥72). The THI range for the other 2 locations was below and above a heat-stress threshold of 72 THI. Overall and regardless of period of day, cows stood up at greater CBT compared with continuing to stand or switching to a lying position. In contrast, cows lay down at lower CBT compared with continuing to lie or switching to a standing position, and lying bouts lasted longer when cows had lower CBT. Standing bouts also lasted longer when cattle had greater CBT, and they were less likely to lie down (less than 50% of lying bouts initiated) when their body temperature was over 38.8°C. Also, cow standing behavior was affected once THI reached 68. Increasing CBT decreased lying duration and increased standing duration. A CBT of 38.93°C marked a 50% likelihood a cow would be standing. This is the first physiological evidence that standing may help cool cows and provides insight into a communally observed behavioral response to heat. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. International Evolution of TIGER Informatics Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensmeier, Joyce; Anderson, Christel; Shaw, Toria

    2017-01-01

    The TIGER Initiative aims to explain how to equip practicing nurses with informatics competencies. This chapter describes a collaborative effort to identify global informatics requirements in relation to core competencies and to match them with national and regional needs. Recommendations from the TIGER Informatics Competency Synthesis Project, described here, have implications for an international framework of informatics competencies for all types of health care professionals including nurses.

  18. Competencies, skills and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the challenge of assessing student learning and how that is affected by using descriptions of competencies as a core element when describing the aims of the learning process. Assessment is modelled as a three step process; characterising, identifying and judging, to a...... the characterisation part of an assessment process. From a teaching and teachers' perspective, the latter is far more important than the former.......This paper is an analysis of the challenge of assessing student learning and how that is affected by using descriptions of competencies as a core element when describing the aims of the learning process. Assessment is modelled as a three step process; characterising, identifying and judging......, to allow for the following argument: Working with competency descriptions is rightly said to make judging more difficult. This potentially lowers the reliability of the assessment. But competency descriptions also carry a great potential of raising the validity of the assessment by focusing...

  19. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...

  20. Outsourcing competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.; Delen, G.; van Vlijmen, B.

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this paper, competences needed for outsourcing, is organized by first providing a generic competence scheme, which is subsequently instantiated to the area of sourcing and outsourcing. Sourcing and outsourcing are positioned as different areas of activity, neither one of which is

  1. Timespacing competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on Kramsch’s (2009) conceptualization of the multilingual subject and the symbolic self, in this paper, we explore how multilingual children re-signify three intertwined myths about the bilingual student, linguistic diversity and language competence, when, in the researcher......-generated activity My linguistic world 2014, they are invited to map and talk about their lived experiences as multiple language users seen in the light of place and movement. By demythifying themselves and their linguistic worlds, the children also raise important questions about the notion of linguistic competence....... By perceiving competences from a subjective child perspective, we learn how children do what we call timespacing competence. On that basis, we suggest paying attention to how children themselves timespace competence by focusing (more consistently) on the subjective, social, spatial and temporal dimensions...

  2. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  3. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Detection of Successful and Unsuccessful Pregnancies in Mice within Hours of Pairing through Frequency Analysis of High Temporal Resolution Core Body Temperature Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarr, Benjamin L; Zucker, Irving; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

    2016-01-01

    Many controllable factors negatively impact fetal development, underscoring the importance of early pregnancy detection and identification of events that reliably predict potential complications. Clinically, core body temperature (CBT) is used to aid family planning and pregnancy detection. However, such temperature data typically are gathered in single, daily measurements. In animal studies, interventions or cell/tissue harvesting at defined stages of fetal development are arduous, requiring timed mating by trained observers. The value of continuous temperature measurements remains largely unexplored, but the advent of small, inexpensive, and increasingly ubiquitous, accurate sensor devices makes continuous measures feasible. Here, using a mouse model, we show that continuous, 1-min resolution CBT measurements reliably allow for the earliest and most accurate detection of pregnancy (100%, within 14 h of initial pairing), without requiring interaction with the animal for data collection. This method also reveals a subset of females that exhibit a pregnancy-like response following pairing that persists for a variable number of days. Application of wavelet analysis that permits frequency analysis while preserving temporal resolution, uncovers significant differences in ultradian frequencies of CBT; these rhythms are significantly increased in the 12 h after the day of pairing for pregnancies carried to term compared to apparent pregnancies that failed. High temporal resolution CBT and wavelet analysis permit strikingly early detection and separation of successful pregnancies and pregnancy-like events.

  5. Rochester Focuses: A Community's Core Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Andrea

    1991-01-01

    Rochester, New York, is globally competitive in optics manufacturing because of cooperative, strategic use of community resources: (1) collaboration of the University of Rochester and industry in the Center for Optics Manufacturing; (2) business cooperation in reform of the schools system; and (3) emphasis on total quality. (SK)

  6. Competence at the core of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricker, L.

    2008-01-01

    This series of slides presents the viewpoint of EDF on the renaissance of nuclear power in the world. This presentation is divided into 5 main parts. Part 1: energy a necessity; huge investment for the production of electricity are expected throughout the world for instance 1300 GW in China or 660 GW in Europe by 2030. Because of its stable costs and weak environmental impact nuclear power will have to take its part. Part 2: Nuclear power throughout the world; today 439 reactors are operating in the world generating 17% of the amount of the whole electricity produced. Some exceptions France (80%), Belgium (55%), Japan, Sweden and finland (50%). EDF is the world leader in nuclear power production operating 58 reactors ( 34 * 900 MW + 20 * 1300 MW + 4 * 1450 MW). Part 3: the renaissance of nuclear power; in most countries new legislation favourable to nuclear power have been implemented. From now to 2030 about 300 GW of nuclear power will installed: 50% to replace today's operating reactors and 50% to create new units. In 2050 the world nuclear power capacity will have increased by a factor between 1.5 and 3.8. Part 4: new projects of nuclear power plants; EDF aspires to be co-owner and co-operator of 10 EPR in 10 years and international cooperation has been set up with China, United-Kingdom, Usa and South-Africa for new plants. The technological assets of the EPR are: -) an increase of 36% of the annual power output compared to existing reactors, -) a higher level of safety, -) occupational dosimetry lower by 40%, and -) a sharp reduction of gas and liquid waste releases. Part 5: Skills, The nuclear sector is expected to recruit very much in the years to come but is likely to face a shortage in skilled workers, engineers... A master dedicated to nuclear engineering and another to nuclear safety have been set. EDF has launched a program to promote nuclear sciences in the universities and in engineer curricula. (A.C.)

  7. Body image and peer relationships: Unique associations of adolescents' social status and competence with peer- and self-reported appearance victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Webb, Haley J

    2017-12-01

    Adolescents were asked to nominate peers who experience appearance-related victimization or engage in appearance-related aggression, in order to examine the peer social status and competency correlates of receiving more nominations. Moreover, the correlates of peer-report vs. self-report appearance-related victimization were considered. Participants were 371 young Australian adolescents (55% girls, M age  = 12.0 years) who completed surveys. Results showed that victimized adolescents were rated as less liked, prosocial, popular and good-looking, and perceived themselves to be less attractive, less competent at sport and more teased by peers about appearance. Aggressive adolescents were rated as more popular and better looking, but also less prosocial. Aggressive adolescents also perceived themselves to be less academically but more romantically competent, and reported more appearance anxiety symptoms. Findings from peer-report measures generally support previous research findings using self-report measures, but the significant correlates did appear to differ between peer- and self-report of appearance victimization. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and prediction of the fertile window with a new web-based medical device using a vaginal biosensor for measuring the circadian and circamensual core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Pedro-Antonio; Kaczmarczyk, Marta; Schiweck, Esther; Goeckenjan-Festag, Maren; Alexander, Henry

    2018-03-01

    Fertility awareness-based (FAB) methods represent a term that includes all family planning methods that are based on the identification of the fertile window. They are based on the woman's observation of physiological signs of the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. The first approach consists basically in symptothermal methods accompanied by cervical mucus measurements and clinical menstrual cycling data recording. The second most often used methods are the urinary measurement of E3G and luteinizing hormone (LH) with a personalized computer system. Hence these systems lack the efficacy of the continuous circadian and circamensual measurement of the core body temperature. Only this approach enables the accurate detection of the ovulation during the fertile window. A new medical device called OvulaRing has been developed to fill this gap. In the present study, the system and its first clinical results are presented. OvulaRing is a medical device used just like a tampon. The device is a vaginal ring of evatane that contains an integrated biosensor. This sensor measures continuously every 5 min the core body temperature throughout the entire cycle. This device allows a circadian and circamensual intravaginal exact measurement. With this system, 288 measurements are created per day. The system can detect retrospectively and predict prospectively the fertile window of the users. One hundred and fifty eight women aged between 18 and 45 years used this medical device in an open non-randomized clinical study for 15 months. A total of 470 cycles could be recorded and were able for analysis. By the same time in a subgroup of patients, hormonal assessments of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol and progesterone as well as vaginal ultrasound were performed in parallel between the 9th and the 36th day of the cycle. The validation error due to software errors was 0.89% for the retrospective analysis; that means that the accuracy for the detection of

  9. Effects of black cohosh and estrogen on core body and tail-skin temperatures in ovariectomized rats by telemetric monitoring with dual thermistor probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Qin, L H; Chen, X; Yan, X; Mao, L; Bai, W; Kang, J

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of black cohosh and estrogen on the temperature in ovariectomized rats, the core body temperature (CBT) and tail-skin temperature (TST) were simultaneously monitored and the relationship between these two temperatures was explored. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operated (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX treated with estradiol valerate (OVX + E), and OVX treated with isopropanolic black cohosh extract (OVX + ICR). Rats were sham-operated or ovariectomized and were implanted with telemetry transmitters with dual thermistor probes. Two weeks after surgery, the animals were treated with drugs for 4 weeks. During the last week of the treatments, the dynamic temperature profiles of the CBT and TST were collected. The average CBT and TST, TST fluctuation frequency, and the average amplitude fluctuation were significantly higher in OVX than in SHAM rats. In addition, dramatic fluctuations of TST in OVX rats occurred at the time points of the day when the CBTs were lower in OVX rats than in SHAM rats. Treatment of OVX rats with estradiol valerate or isopropanolic black cohosh extract markedly decreased the average CBT and TST, TST fluctuation frequency, and the average amplitude fluctuation. Moreover, CBT was found to be significantly higher, while TST was lower in OVX + E than in OVX + ICR rats. Both black cohosh and estradiol treatments ameliorated the abnormal thermoregulation in OVX rats. In particular, black cohosh reduced CBT better than estradiol and estradiol reduced TST better than black cohosh.

  10. Acquiring New Competencies Through Continuing Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , specify core competencies to be acquired by all practicing librarians, that the Nigerian Library Association must take the issue of library continuing education seriously to enable librarians to retain their jobs and global job mobility and that ...

  11. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  12. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  13. Development and validation of health service management competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhanming; Howard, Peter F; Leggat, Sandra; Bartram, Timothy

    2018-04-09

    Purpose The importance of managerial competencies in monitoring and improving the performance of organisational leaders and managers is well accepted. Different processes have been used to identify and develop competency frameworks or models for healthcare managers around the world to meet different contextual needs. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a validated process in management competency identification and development applied in Australia - a process leading to a management competency framework with associated behavioural items that can be used to measure core management competencies of health service managers. Design/methodology/approach The management competency framework development study incorporated both qualitative and quantitative methods, implemented in four stages, including job description analysis, focus group discussions and online surveys. Findings The study confirmed that the four-stage process could identify management competencies and the framework developed is considered reliable and valid for developing a management competency assessment tool that can measure management competence amongst managers in health organisations. In addition, supervisors of health service managers could use the framework to distinguish perceived superior and average performers among managers in health organisations. Practical implications Developing the core competencies of health service managers is important for management performance improvement and talent management. The six core management competencies identified can be used to guide the design professional development activities for health service managers. Originality/value The validated management competency identification and development process can be applied in other countries and different industrial contexts to identify core management competency requirements.

  14. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  15. Rapid phase adjustment of melatonin and core body temperature rhythms following a 6-h advance of the light/dark cycle in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Erin L

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid displacement across multiple time zones results in a conflict between the new cycle of light and dark and the previously entrained program of the internal circadian clock, a phenomenon known as jet lag. In humans, jet lag is often characterized by malaise, appetite loss, fatigue, disturbed sleep and performance deficit, the consequences of which are of particular concern to athletes hoping to perform optimally at an international destination. As a species renowned for its capacity for athletic performance, the consequences of jet lag are also relevant for the horse. However, the duration and severity of jet lag related circadian disruption is presently unknown in this species. We investigated the rates of re-entrainment of serum melatonin and core body temperature (BT rhythms following an abrupt 6-h phase advance of the LD cycle in the horse. Methods Six healthy, 2 yr old mares entrained to a 12 h light/12 h dark (LD 12:12 natural photoperiod were housed in a light-proofed barn under a lighting schedule that mimicked the external LD cycle. Following baseline sampling on Day 0, an advance shift of the LD cycle was accomplished by ending the subsequent dark period 6 h early. Blood sampling for serum melatonin analysis and BT readings were taken at 3-h intervals for 24 h on alternate days for 11 days. Disturbances to the subsequent melatonin and BT 24-h rhythms were assessed using repeated measures ANOVA and analysis of Cosine curve fitting parameters. Results We demonstrate that the equine melatonin rhythm re-entrains rapidly to a 6-h phase advance of an LD12:12 photocycle. The phase shift in melatonin was fully complete on the first day of the new schedule and rhythm phase and waveform were stable thereafter. In comparison, the advance in the BT rhythm was achieved by the third day, however BT rhythm waveform, especially its mesor, was altered for many days following the LD shift. Conclusion Aside from the temperature

  16. The timing of the human circadian clock is accurately represented by the core body temperature rhythm following phase shifts to a three-cycle light stimulus near the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, M. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    A double-stimulus experiment was conducted to evaluate the phase of the underlying circadian clock following light-induced phase shifts of the human circadian system. Circadian phase was assayed by constant routine from the rhythm in core body temperature before and after a three-cycle bright-light stimulus applied near the estimated minimum of the core body temperature rhythm. An identical, consecutive three-cycle light stimulus was then applied, and phase was reassessed. Phase shifts to these consecutive stimuli were no different from those obtained in a previous study following light stimuli applied under steady-state conditions over a range of circadian phases similar to those at which the consecutive stimuli were applied. These data suggest that circadian phase shifts of the core body temperature rhythm in response to a three-cycle stimulus occur within 24 h following the end of the 3-day light stimulus and that this poststimulus temperature rhythm accurately reflects the timing of the underlying circadian clock.

  17. Intercultural competence

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, MD

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural competence is the set of attitudes, skills, knowledge and behaviours which are required for appropriate and effective interaction and communication with people who are perceived to be from a different cultural background from oneself. The term ‘appropriate’ means that the interactions do not violate the cultural rules and norms which are valued by one’s interlocutors, while the term ‘effective’ means that one is able to achieve one’s objectives in the interactions. Intercultural...

  18. [Competence based medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabó, Jorge G; Buraschi, Jorge; Olcese, Juan; Buraschi, María; Duro, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The strategy of curriculum planning in the majority of the Schools of Medicine has shifted, in the past years, from curriculum models based in contents to outcome oriented curricula. Coincidently the interest in defining and evaluating the clinical competences that a graduate must have has grown. In our country, and particularly in the Associated Hospitals belonging to the Unidad Regional de Enseñanza IV of the UBA School of Medicine, evidence has been gathered showing that the acquisition of clinical competences during the grade is in general insufficient. The foundations and characteristics of PREM (Programa de Requisitos Esenciales Mínimos) are described. PREM is a tool to promote the apprenticeship of abilities and necessary skills for the practice of medicine. The objective of the program is to promote the apprenticeship of a well defined list of core competences considered indispensable for a general practitioner. An outcome oriented curriculum with a clear definition of the expected knowledge, skills and attitudes of a graduate of the programme, the promotion of learning experiences centered in the practice and evaluation tools based in direct observation of the student's performance should contribute to close the gap between what the Medicine Schools traditionally teach and evaluate, and what the doctor needs to know and needs to do to perform correctly its profession.

  19. Competency-based education: the essential basis of pre-service education for the professional midwifery workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Judith T; Thompson, Joyce B; Johnson, Peter

    2013-10-01

    many articles published in the decade since promulgation of the Millennium Development Goals have acknowledged the distinct advantages to maternal and newborn health outcomes that can be achieved as a result of expanding access to skilled birth attendant (including midwifery) services. However, these advantages are often predicated on the assumption that the midwifery workforce shares a common definition and identity. Regrettably, a clear delineation of midwifery competencies is rarely addressed. A core set of midwifery competencies is essential to providing the high quality services that lead to the desirable health outcomes described in that body of research. Attribution of improved outcomes to access to midwifery cannot be made without a common understanding of a defined set of services provided to standard by the midwifery workforce across the inter-conceptional and childbearing time frame. The International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) has developed a clear list of competencies that delineate the domains of practice for the fully qualified, professional midwife. These domains frame the educational outcomes that must be conveyed within competency-based education programmes. this article explores the concept of competency-based education for midwives; first exploring the concept of competency itself, then providing examples of what is already known about competency-based approaches to curriculum design, teacher preparation, teacher support and assessment of student learning. These concepts are linked to the ICM competencies as the unifying construct for education of individuals who share a common definition and identity as midwives. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of adjustable and stationary fans with misters on core body temperature and lying behavior of lactating dairy cows in a semiarid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S D; Bradford, B J; Harner, J P; Tucker, C B; Choi, C Y; Allen, J D; Hall, L W; Rungruang, S; Collier, R J; Smith, J F

    2013-07-01

    Cows readily seek shade to reduce solar heat load during periods of high ambient temperature. Typically, auxiliary cooling systems are oriented to maximize cooling for shaded cows. However, when a shade structure is oriented north-south, stationary fan and mister cooling systems are unable to track shade as the sun's angle shifts throughout the day, and thus can become ineffective. The FlipFan Dairy Cooling System (Schaefer Ventilation Equipment, Sauk Rapids, MN) employs fans and misters that follow shade and compensate for wind speed by rotating on a horizontal axis. Multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (n=144) on a commercial dairy in Arizona were cooled by a fixed system comprised of stationary fans and misters acting as control or the adjustable FlipFan operated for 16.5 h/d (0830 to 0100 h). Core body temperatures (CBT) of 64 cows (4 pens/treatment; 8 cows/pen; 6d) and lying behavior of 144 cows (4 pens/treatment; 18 cows/pen; 5d) were collected by intravaginal and leg data loggers, respectively. Cows were balanced by milk production, blocked by days in milk, and randomly assigned to pen within block. Pen was the experimental unit. In a second experiment, isothermal maps were developed using a fixed system of thermal data loggers arranged in the shaded areas of the pens at different times of day and were analyzed for differences in the temperature-humidity index (THI) achieved by each cooling treatment. Ambient conditions consisted of a mean temperature of 33.0°C, mean relative humidity of 40.3%, and mean THI of 80.2. Mean 24-h CBT for FlipFan was lower than control (38.9 vs. 39.1±0.04°C). A treatment × time interaction was observed in which CBT of FlipFan was 0.4°C lower than control from 0600 to 0800h and 1500 to 1600h. Cows cooled by FlipFan spent more time lying down compared with those cooled by control (9.5 vs. 8.6 h/d). Cows under FlipFan had more frequent lying bouts than did those under control (12.8 vs. 10.7 bouts/d). Lower CBT and decreased

  1. The Dancing Nurses and the Language of the Body: Training Somatic Awareness, Bodily Communication, and Embodied Professional Competence in Nurse Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Helle; Grøntved, Susanne Næsgaard; Kold Gravesen, Eva; Ilkjær, Ingeborg

    2015-09-01

    At first glance, dance and movement may appear foreign to the idea of nurse education. On closer inspection, it could be high time. The flow of words may stop, but the body is always in movement--always communicating. Still, the language of the body, and certainly movement, is an often overlooked potential in education. This is also true for nurse education: in spite of the often bodily close meetings with vulnerable and crisis-stricken patients. These meetings make great demands on the nurse to both contain own feelings and be able to "read" and understand patients' often only sense-based communication. This dimension of the nursing profession can be overwhelming, touching, and shocking for young nursing students. This research project examines, whether a course composed of theory, dance and movement lessons, and increased focus on the bodily communication between students and patients may be developmental for the nursing students' beginning embodied professionality. Results from the project have innovative educational potentials. They also give concrete indications of how nursing educations can develop new holistic anchored embodied training in a very accessible, as well as essential, ancient, and unavoidably present part of the nursing profession. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Evaluation of a novel noninvasive continuous core temperature measurement system with a zero heat flux sensor using a manikin of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Ivo F; Perl, Thorsten; Bauer, Martin; Bräuer, Anselm

    2015-02-01

    Reliable continuous perioperative core temperature measurement is of major importance. The pulmonary artery catheter is currently the gold standard for measuring core temperature but is invasive and expensive. Using a manikin, we evaluated the new, noninvasive SpotOn™ temperature monitoring system (SOT). With a sensor placed on the lateral forehead, SOT uses zero heat flux technology to noninvasively measure core temperature; and because the forehead is devoid of thermoregulatory arteriovenous shunts, a piece of bone cement served as a model of the frontal bone in this study. Bias, limits of agreements, long-term measurement stability, and the lowest measurable temperature of the device were investigated. Bias and limits of agreement of the temperature data of two SOTs and of the thermistor placed on the manikin's surface were calculated. Measurements obtained from SOTs were similar to thermistor values. The bias and limits of agreement lay within a predefined clinically acceptable range. Repeat measurements differed only slightly, and stayed stable for hours. Because of its temperature range, the SOT cannot be used to monitor temperatures below 28°C. In conclusion, the new SOT could provide a reliable, less invasive and cheaper alternative for measuring perioperative core temperature in routine clinical practice. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate these results.

  3. The assessment of medical competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda-Demeulemeester, E; Ramis-Palmer, C; Sesé-Abad, A

    2017-12-01

    To describe the most widely used tools in the assessment of medical competencies, analyse their prevalence of use, their advantages and disadvantages and propose an appropriate model for our context. We conducted a narrative review of articles from MEDLINE, following the PRISM protocol, and analysed a total of 62 articles. The assessment of competencies is heterogeneous, especially in the educational and professional settings. The specific and technical competencies acquired during university education are mainly assessed using the objective structured clinical assessment. In the professional setting, core competencies are assessed using the 360° technique. We need a rigorous empiric comparison of the efficiency of the tools according to the type of competency. We propose a competency management model for the «undergraduate/graduate/active professional» continuum, whose goal is to improve training and professional practice and thereby increase the quality of patient care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. Core stability and bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Chad; Ross, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Bicycling is a popular fitness activity in the United States and around the world. Because of the nature of the bicycling position, the neck and back are at risk for injury. One method to prevent these injuries is to ensure that the body's "core" is strong and stable. A strong and stable core also provides a platform to maximize power transfer, improving performance. Core exercises also may enhance recovery from intense bicycling efforts. Simple stability exercises can improve performance and may prevent injuries in bicyclists.

  5. Relaxation in a completely integrable many-body quantum system: an ab initio study of the dynamics of the highly excited states of 1D lattice hard-core bosons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Marcos; Dunjko, Vanja; Yurovsky, Vladimir; Olshanii, Maxim

    2007-02-02

    In this Letter we pose the question of whether a many-body quantum system with a full set of conserved quantities can relax to an equilibrium state, and, if it can, what the properties of such a state are. We confirm the relaxation hypothesis through an ab initio numerical investigation of the dynamics of hard-core bosons on a one-dimensional lattice. Further, a natural extension of the Gibbs ensemble to integrable systems results in a theory that is able to predict the mean values of physical observables after relaxation. Finally, we show that our generalized equilibrium carries more memory of the initial conditions than the usual thermodynamic one. This effect may have many experimental consequences, some of which have already been observed in the recent experiment on the nonequilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional hard-core bosons in a harmonic potential [T. Kinoshita et al., Nature (London) 440, 900 (2006)10.1038/nature04693].

  6. Competências essenciais como fator determinante de competitividade em ambientes hipercompetitivos: um estudo do setor de telefonia celular de Minas Gerais Competencias esenciales como elemento determinante de la competitividad en ambientes hiper-competitivos: un estudio en el sector de telefonía móvil de Minas Gerais Core competencies as a determinant in highly competitive environments: the mobile telephone sector in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane de Almeida Ribeiro

    2009-03-01

    ón consigue implementar. En contextos hipercompetitivos, existen evidencias de que un liderazgo efectivo estratégico por medio de las CE vuelve las empresas más dinámicas y capaces de obtener un desempeño más elevado (BARNEY; MUHANNA, 2004; PENG, 2008. El artículo describe los resultados de una investigación en empresas del sector de telefonía móvil del estado de Minas Gerais, realizando un estudio de los procesos de formulación y gestión de Competencias Esenciales como elementos determinantes de la competencia y de la obtención del liderazgo en ese sector. Se ha adoptado el método de análisis de casos múltiplos y han sido realizadas encuestas semiestructuradas con los gerentes de las empresas. Ha sido posible constatar que las CE son blancos de grande atención y preocupación del cuadro directivo de las organizaciones, aunque no existan metodologías formales que promuevan su desarrollo.In competitive environments it is essential that companies continuously innovate resources, capabilities and skills to quickly face demands from external sources. Some authors such as Hitt, Ireland and Hoskinsson, 200 and Hamel e Prahalad, 1995, state that core competencies promote competitive advantages and above average returns that persist until competition imitates or surpasses them. Others, Barney and Muhanna, 2004 and Peng, 2008, understand them as a set of capabilities that are valuable, rare, difficult to imitate and ones that the organization succeeds in implementing. In highly competitive environments there is evidence that effective strategic leadership by means of core competencies makes companies more agile and capable of superior performance (BARNEY; MUHANNA, 2004; PENG, 2008. This article describes the results of a survey of companies of the mobile telephone sector in Minas Gerais that investigated processes for formulation and management of core competencies as determinants in sector competition and achievement of leadership. A multi-case study was made with

  7. Enhancing cultural competence in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Janne; Norredam, Marie; Dogra, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    the project Culturally Competent in Medical Education involving 13 partners from 11 countries.4 The project aimed to support the implementation of CC in medical curricula. First, a Delphi Study involving 34 experts was conducted to develop a framework of core cultural competencies for medical school teachers...... The proposed guidelines were presented in September 2015 in Amsterdam at a workshop entitled: “How to integrate cultural competence in medical education”. A range of participants attended the workshop, including the project partners, deans and faculty members of Dutch medical schools, physicians, and students...

  8. Cultural competencies for graduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lauren; Calvillo, Evelyn; Dela Cruz, Felicitas; Fongwa, Marie; Kools, Susan; Lowe, John; Mastel-Smith, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Nursing is challenged to meet the health needs of ethnic and socioculturally diverse populations. To this end, American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) charged an expert nursing faculty advisory group to formulate competencies for graduate nursing education, expanding them to integrate leadership and scholarship. The Cultural Competency in Baccalaureate Nursing Education served as the springboard for the initiative. In formulating the graduate cultural competencies and the toolkit, the advisory group reviewed all AACN Essentials documents and the cultural competency literature, drew upon their collective experiences with cultural diversity, and used cultural humility as the supporting framework. Six core competencies were formulated and endorsed by the AACN board of directors and key professional nursing organizations. A companion toolkit was compiled to provide resources for the implementation of the competencies. A 1-day conference was held in California to launch the cultural competencies and toolkit. Dissemination to graduate nursing programs is in process, with emphasis on faculty readiness to undertake this graduate educational transformation. The AACN Cultural Competencies for Graduate Nursing Education set national standards to prepare culturally competent nurses at the graduate level who will contribute to the elimination of health disparities through education, clinical practice, research, scholarship, and policy. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  10. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  11. A scoping review of competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, James; Barbour, Virginia; Baskin, Patricia; Bell-Syer, Sally; Cobey, Kelly; Cumpston, Miranda; Deeks, Jon; Garner, Paul; MacLehose, Harriet; Shamseer, Larissa; Straus, Sharon; Tugwell, Peter; Wager, Elizabeth; Winker, Margaret; Moher, David

    2016-02-02

    Biomedical journals are the main route for disseminating the results of health-related research. Despite this, their editors operate largely without formal training or certification. To our knowledge, no body of literature systematically identifying core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals exists. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a scoping review to determine what is known on the competency requirements for scientific editors of biomedical journals. We searched the MEDLINE®, Cochrane Library, Embase®, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases (from inception to November 2014) and conducted a grey literature search for research and non-research articles with competency-related statements (i.e. competencies, knowledge, skills, behaviors, and tasks) pertaining to the role of scientific editors of peer-reviewed health-related journals. We also conducted an environmental scan, searched the results of a previous environmental scan, and searched the websites of existing networks, major biomedical journal publishers, and organizations that offer resources for editors. A total of 225 full-text publications were included, 25 of which were research articles. We extracted a total of 1,566 statements possibly related to core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals from these publications. We then collated overlapping or duplicate statements which produced a list of 203 unique statements. Finally, we grouped these statements into seven emergent themes: (1) dealing with authors, (2) dealing with peer reviewers, (3) journal publishing, (4) journal promotion, (5) editing, (6) ethics and integrity, and (7) qualities and characteristics of editors. To our knowledge, this scoping review is the first attempt to systematically identify possible competencies of editors. Limitations are that (1) we may not have captured all aspects of a biomedical editor's work in our searches, (2) removing redundant and overlapping items may have led to the

  12. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  13. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    extensions. Combined with the fact that the language definition does not provide a formal semantics, it is an arduous task to work formally with the language (e.g. to give an implementation). In this paper we identify a core subset of the language, called Core BPEL, which has fewer and simpler constructs......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...... formally with WS-BPEL, as one, without loss of generality, need only consider the much simpler Core BPEL. This report may also be viewed as an addendum to the WS-BPEL standard specification, which clarifies the WS-BPEL syntax and presents the essential elements of the language in a more concise way...

  14. Conceptualizations of professional competencies in school health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the conceptualization and discussion of professional competencies needed for supporting the development of the whole-school approach in school health promotion (SHP). Design: The paper is based a conceptual synthesis of literature, guided...... by a theoretical perspective on health promotion agency and professional competencies to identify core competency domains and elements. This is followed by a discussion of focus, gaps, and links in conceptualizations of competency domains and elements. Findings: The synthesis identifies five core competency...... domains: 1) policy-development, 2) organizational development, 3) professional development, 4) development of students’ learning, and 5) development of health promotion activities. Three critical gaps in the conceptualizations of competency domains and elements are identified and discussed: 1...

  15. Competence Requirements in Early Childhood Education and Care. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mathias; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Lazzari, Arianna; Van Laere, Katrien; Peeters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a European research project jointly conducted by the University of East London (UEL) and the University of Ghent (UGent). The "study on competence requirements in early childhood education and care" (CoRe) explored conceptualisations of "competence" and professionalism in early childhood…

  16. Market strategies and core capabilities in the building industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Job; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Joosten, Geert-Jan

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show that the core competence approach has validity when applied to construction. The focus is on the analysis ofthe fit between market strategies of firms in the building industry and their core capabilities. Certain strategies require specific core capabilities

  17. Assessment of Innovation Competency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2015-01-01

    of the recorded talk in interaction that occurred in teacher group discussion sessions at 5 upper secondary schools. Based on the analysis, it was possible to extrapolate assessment criteria for 5 subcompetencies relevant to innovation (creative competency, collaboration competency, navigation competency, action...... competency, and communication competency) as well as assessment criteria for a number of skills relevant to these subcompetencies. These assessment criteria, it is argued, largely resonate with existing literature and they provide a detailed glimpse into how assessment of innovation competency could...

  18. SAP Nuclear Competence Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue we continue and introduce the SAP Nuclear Competence Centre and its head Mr. Igor Dzama. SAP Nuclear Competence Centrum is one of the fi rst competence centres outside ENEL headquarters. It should operate in Slovakia and should have competencies within the whole Enel group. We are currently dealing with the issues of organisation and funding. We are trying to balance the accountability to the NPP directors and to the management of the competence centres at Enel headquarters; we are looking at the relations between the competence centres within the group and defining the services that we will provide for the NPPs. author)

  19. Coring apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, W.W.

    1967-11-14

    This invention relates to coring equipment and has special reference to such as are intended to be driven or otherwise inserted into sand or other loose formations to obtain a true sample of the formation. The device includes a plurality of elongated angular members positioned to form an elongated core receptacle between them. A plurality of links are each pivotally mounted at each end on an adjacent member to hold the members in spaced-apart relation in one position. The receptable is driven into the sand, and the members are moved toward one another when they are longitudinally moved with respect to one another to close the receptable. (3 claims)

  20. Developing mathematical modelling competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten; Jensen, Tomas Højgaard

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of mathematical modelling competence, by which we mean being able to carry through a whole mathematical modelling process in a certain context. Analysing the structure of this process, six sub-competences are identified. Mathematical modelling competence...... cannot be reduced to these six sub-competences, but they are necessary elements in the development of mathematical modelling competence. Experience from the development of a modelling course is used to illustrate how the different nature of the sub-competences can be used as a tool for finding...... the balance between different kinds of activities in a particular educational setting. Obstacles of social, cognitive and affective nature for the students' development of mathematical modelling competence are reported and discussed in relation to the sub-competences....

  1. Organizational cultural competence consultation to a mental health institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kenneth; Lo, Hung-Tat Ted; Srivastava, Rani; Andermann, Lisa

    2012-04-01

    Cultural competence is increasingly recognized as an essential component of effective mental health care delivery to address diversity and equity issues. Drawing from the literature and our experience in providing cultural competence consultation and training, the paper will discuss our perspective on the foundational concepts of cultural competence and how it applies to a health care organization, including its programs and services. Based on a recent consultation project, we present a methodology for assessing cultural competence in health care organizations, involving mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Key findings and recommendations from the resulting cultural competence plan are discussed, including core principles, change strategies, and an Organizational Cultural Competence Framework, which may be applicable to other health care institutions seeking such changes. This framework, consisting of eight domains, can be used for organizational assessment and cultural competence planning, ultimately aiming at enhancing mental health care service to the diverse patients, families, and communities.

  2. Building Project Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiora, Anna

    This research investigates the development of project competence, and particularly, three related dynamic capabilities (shifting, adapting, leveraging) that contribute to project competence development. In doing so, we make use of the emerging literature on knowledge governance and theorize how...... of dynamic capability building promoting project competence development....

  3. Core and Lumbopelvic Stabilization in Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Carlos E

    2016-02-01

    Core muscles provide stability that allows generation of force and motion in the lower extremities, as well as distributing impact forces and allowing controlled and efficient body movements. Imbalances or deficiencies in the core muscles can result in increased fatigue, decreased endurance, and injury in runners. Core strengthening should incorporate the intrinsic needs of the core for flexibility, strength, balance, and endurance, and the function of the core in relation to its role in extremity function and dysfunction. Specific exercises are effective in strengthening the core muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nursing competency assessment across the continuum of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Lori L; Neumann, Julie A

    2005-01-01

    Establishing a thorough and effective competency assessment program is essential to meeting standards of regulatory bodies and providing quality care. Nursing education specialists continue to strive to provide a competency assessment process that is meaningful and uncomplicated. This article describes the implementation of a nursing competency assessment program in a large midwestern medical center that spans the continuum of care and incorporates all nursing roles that require nursing licensure, including advanced practice nurses, into one centralized nursing competency program. Competency program infrastructure, topic identification, documentation to support the evaluation and validation process, and continuous improvement opportunities are described.

  5. Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competences (SARCON) V18a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Why Competence Management? • Arrangements for competence management is a key factor to: • Support the implementation of article 8 of CNS (Convention on Nuclear Safety – “regulatory body with adequate competence and human resources”); • Support the implementation of Modules 3 and 4 of the IRRS and other IAEA Safety Standards (Module 3: “Responsibilities and functions of the regulatory body”, Module 4: “Management system of the regulatory body”); • Identify gaps between regulatory required competences and the existing resources; • Develop and implement tools and programmes to fill the gaps; • Review periodically the competence needs and training programmes

  6. Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Technology Course: Sustainable Growth of Professional Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Ermac, Eugenio A; Malabago, Nolasco K

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore a practical discussion on helping the students' professional competency. More specifically, this study conducted two studies developing a competency analysis profile on refrigeration and air conditioning technology, and examining the essential core competencies for training undergraduate students in Bachelor of Science in Industrial Technology specializing Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology at Cebu Technological University. The qualitative and qu...

  7. Level of Competence of Food & Beverage Services NC II Passers: Basis for Strengthening the Training Program in Western Visayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the level of competence of Food and Beverage Services NC II certified passers in Western Visayas as part of ensuring that what industry wants (stated as a competency standards comes back in outcomes of training (represented by a credential issued to a learner. Moreover, the result of the study serves as the basis for designing a proposed training plan in strengthening the Food and Beverage Services NC II Training Program in Western Visayas. The study surveyed 50 Food and Beverage Services Certified NC II Passers and 8 supervisors assigned in different hotel establishments in Western Visayas using the survey questionnaire based from TESDA’s training regulations for Food and Beverage Services NC II to collect relevant data from the population of the study. The data was analyzed using frequency count, means, standard deviation, ranks and SPSS software for statistical analysis. Results of the study based on the data culled from the respondents’ collated scores showed that NC II passers are fully aware of the competencies required by the industry in their workplace. T –tests indicated that there are significant differences among the responses of participants NC II passers and their respective supervisors. The obtained p value of 0 .008, 0 .006 and 0 .000 for t- test paired differences was less than 0 .05 alpha levels on basic, common and core competencies. Study also showed that there is a varying degree of responses on the perceived level of competence of Food and Beverage Services NC II passers in Western Visayas in all competencies as rated by the NC II passers’ themselves compared to the ratings of their respective supervisors. Thus, this study supported to the thesis that on the perceived level of competence based on the core competencies, both respondents are in agreement in the importance of executive bodies of national systems that work in the field of competencies standardization and/or certification

  8. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  9. Teacher Competencies in Health Education: Results of a Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Sharon; Paakkari, Leena; Välimaa, Raili; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students. A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic field were invited to participate in the study. Twenty participants completed the first round of the Delphi, while eighteen took part in round two and fifteen participated in the final round. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. The first round contained an open ended question in which participants were asked to name and define all the competencies they perceived were important. Thematic analysis was undertaken on these data. A list of 36 competencies was created from this round. This list was then returned to the same participants and they were asked to rate each competency on a 7 point semantic differential scale in terms of importance. The resulting data were then analysed. For the final round, participants were presented with a list of 33 competencies and were asked to rank them again, in order of importance. Twelve core competencies emerged from the analysis and these competencies comprised of a mixture of knowledge, attitude and skills. The authors suggest that how these competencies are achieved and operationalised in the school context can be quite complex and multi-faceted. While the authors do not seek to generalise from the study they suggest that these competencies are an important input for all stakeholders, in order to question national and international teacher guidelines. In addition the competencies identified may provide a useful starting point for others to undertake deeper analysis of what it means to be an effective health educator in schools.

  10. Exploring Integration in Action: Competencies as Building Blocks of Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylopoulos, Maria; Borschel, Debaroti Tina; O'Brien, Tara; Martimianakis, Sofia; Woods, Nicole N

    2017-12-01

    Competency frameworks such as the CanMEDS roles and the ACGME core competencies may lead to the implicit assumption that physicians can learn and practice individual competencies in isolation. In contrast, models of adaptive expertise suggest that the integration of competencies reflects the capabilities of an expert physician. Thus, educational programming aimed at teaching discrete roles or competencies might overlook expert physician capabilities that are central to patient care. To develop expertise, learning opportunities must reflect expert capabilities. To better understand the relationship between competency-based medical education and expert development, the authors sought to explore how integrated competencies are enacted during patient care by postgraduate medical trainees. Using a cognitive ethnographic approach, in 2014-2015 the authors conducted observations and-to refine and elaborate these observations-ad hoc informal interviews with 13 postgraduate trainee participants. Data collection resulted in 92 hours of observation, 26 patient case portraits, and a total of 220 pages of field notes for analysis. Through analysis, the authors identified and examined moments when postgraduate trainees appeared to be simultaneously enacting multiple competencies. The authors identified two key expert capabilities in moments of integrated competence: finding complexity and being patient-centered. They described two mechanisms for these forms of integration: valuing the patient's narrative of their illness, and integrated understanding. Understanding integrated competencies as the building blocks of expert capabilities, along with recognizing the importance of mechanisms that support integration, offers an opportunity to use existing competency-based frameworks to understand and teach adaptive expertise.

  11. Psychiatry Resident Training in Cultural Competence: An Educator's Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Irma; Johnson, Toni L; Shelton, Pheston G; Glass, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Resident physicians training in psychiatry in the U.S. are required to master a body of knowledge related to cultural psychiatry; are expected to adopt attitudes that endorse the principles of cultural competence; and finally are expected to acquire specific cultural competence skills that facilitate working effectively with diverse patients. This article first provides an overview of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies related to cultural competence, as well as the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry's (AACAP) recommendations for the cultural competence training of child/adolescent fellows. Next, numerous print and electronic resources that can be used in cultural competence education in psychiatry are reviewed and discussed. Finally, we conclude by providing recommendations for psychiatry residency programs that we culled from model cultural competence curricula.

  12. Competency frameworks for advanced practice nursing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Fullana, P; De Pedro-Gómez, J E; Bennasar-Veny, M; Serrano-Gallardo, P; Morales-Asencio, J M

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a literature review that identified common traits in advanced practice nursing that are specific to competency development worldwide. There is a lack of international agreement on the definition of advanced practice nursing and its core competencies. Despite the lack of consensus, there is an ongoing process worldwide to establish and outline the standards and competencies for advanced practice nursing roles. International agencies, such as the International Council of Nurses, have provided general definitions for advanced practice nursing. Additionally, a set of competency standards for this aim has been developed. A literature review and a directed search of institutional websites were performed to identify specific developments in advanced practice nursing competencies and standards of practice. To determine a competency map specific to international advanced practice nursing, key documents were analysed using a qualitative approach based on content analysis to identify common traits among documents and countries. The review process identified 119 relevant journal articles related to advanced practice nursing competencies. Additionally, 97 documents from grey literature that were related to advanced practice nursing competency mapping were identified. From the text analysis, 17 worldwide transversal competency domains emerged. Despite the variety of patterns in international advanced practice nursing development, essential competency domains can be found in most national frameworks for the role development of international advanced practice nursing. These 17 core competencies can be used to further develop instruments that assess the perceived competency of advanced practice nurses. The results of this review can help policy developers and researchers develop instruments to compare advanced practice nursing services in various contexts and to examine their association with related outcomes. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  13. A constructivist theoretical proposition of cultural competence development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2015-11-01

    Cultural competence development in healthcare professions is considered an essential condition to promote quality and equity in healthcare. Even if cultural competence has been recognized as continuous, evolutionary, dynamic, and developmental by most researchers, current models of cultural competence fail to present developmental levels of this competence. These models have also been criticized for their essentialist perspective of culture and their limited application to competency-based approach programs. To our knowledge, there have been no published studies, from a constructivist perspective, of the processes involved in the development of cultural competence among nurses and undergraduate student nurses. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical proposition of cultural competence development in nursing from a constructivist perspective. We used a grounded theory design to study cultural competence development among nurses and student nurses in a healthcare center located in a culturally diverse urban area. Data collection involved participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 24 participants (13 nurses and 11 students) working in three community health settings. The core category, 'learning to bring the different realities together to provide effective care in a culturally diverse context', was constructed using inductive qualitative data analysis. This core category encompasses three dimensions of cultural competence: 'building a relationship with the other', 'working outside the usual practice framework', and 'reinventing practice in action.' The resulting model describes the concurrent evolution of these three dimensions at three different levels of cultural competence development. This study reveals that clinical experience and interactions between students or nurses and their environment both contribute significantly to cultural competence development. The resulting theoretical proposition of cultural competence development

  14. Competency-Based Teacher Education in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert

    Some states licensing agencies are seeking to change the way in which all teachers are certified as a result of demands by state legislative bodies and citizens groups who say that they want greater returns from their tax dollars as demonstrated by increased pupil learning. There are several arguments against competency-based teacher education,…

  15. Multi-core Microprocessors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    core processors. Abstract. Multi-core microprocessor is an interconnected set of independentprocessors called cores integrated on a single siliconchip. These processing cores communicate and cooperatewith one another to execute one or more ...

  16. Competencies and Their Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores competencies and methods for their assessment in higher education and in social work's accreditation standards. Many contemporary policy and educational accreditation efforts employ the model of competency assessment. The current emphasis on accountability in higher education, including the Council on Social Work…

  17. Financing Competency Based Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Annette

    Literature on the background, causes, and current prevalence of competency based programs is synthesized in this report. According to one analysis of the actual and probable costs of minimum competency testing, estimated costs for test development, test administration, bureaucratic structures, and remedial programs for students who cannot pass the…

  18. Developing Clinical Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.F. Wimmers (Paul)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe development of clinical competence is the main purpose of medical education. The long road to become clinically competent starts on the first day of medical school, and every institution strives to select the best students. The responsibility of medical schools is to train

  19. Competencies in Ornamental Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Curtis E.

    1974-01-01

    Based on the author's dissertation, this article pertains to the identification of competencies for ornamental horticulture workers in Oregon. Findings were based on interviews with 56 ornamental horticulture business employers regarding 100 competencies. The method used can serve as a model for obtaining occupational information to develop and…

  20. ICT Competences: Algorithmic Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsakó, László; Szlávi, Péter

    2012-01-01

    A lot has been said about what to teach in ICT in primary and secondary education. There are serious discussions even debates about it. Much less has been said about why ICT should be taught. [1] Competences are related actions and tasks done by people (somebody is competent in a certain field if they are able to solve common tasks related to that…

  1. Strengthening Regulatory Competence in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Capacity building of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority is considered an essential element in pursuit of its vision to become a world class regulatory body. Since its inception in 2001, PNRA has continuously endeavoured to invest in its people, develop training infrastructure and impart sound knowledge and professional skills with the aim to improve its regulatory effectiveness. The use of nuclear and radioactive material in Pakistan has increased manifold in recent years, thus induction of more manpower was needed for regulatory oversight. PNRA adopted two pronged approach for meeting the manpower demand (a) employment of university graduates through fast track recruitment drive and (b) induction of graduates by offering fellowships for Master degree programs. Although, the newly employed staff was selected on the basis of their excellent academic qualifications in basic and applied sciences, but they required rigorous knowledge and skills in regulatory perspectives. In order to implement a structured training program, PNRA conducted Training Needs Assessment (TNA) and identified competency gaps of the regulatory staff in legal, technical, regulatory practice and behavioural domains. PNRA took several initiatives for capacity building which included establishment of a training centre for sustainability of trainings, initiation of a fellowship scheme for Master program, attachment of staff at local institutes for on-the-job training and placement at foreign regulatory bodies and organizations for technical development with the assistance of IAEA. The above strategies have been very beneficial in competence building of the PNRA staff to perform all regulatory activities indigenously for nuclear power plants, research reactors and radiation facilities. Provision of vibrant technical support to IAEA and Member States in various programs by PNRA is a landmark of these competence development efforts. This paper summarizes PNRA initiatives and the International Atomic

  2. Strengthening Regulatory Competence through Techno-managerial Knowledge Integration: Indian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchibhotla, S.

    2016-01-01

    Competence development is the process of identifying the competencies required to perform a given job, role or set of tasks successfully at workplace. Strengthening regulatory competence, for the nuclear regulator, is essential to ensure skilled and competent human resources for performing the functions of the Regulatory Body. The strengthening of existing competence level for the Indian nuclear regulator, takes into account the understanding of the elements such as legal basis and regulatory processes governing operations of regulatory body, technological competences for performing regulatory functions, competences pertinent to regulatory practices, and competences related to personal and interpersonal effectiveness within the organization. Competency data from AERB divisions was compiled to identify gaps at various positions with recommendations for making specialized training modules and modifications to basic and refresher training modules. The exercise is aimed at providing continual improvement in skills and knowledge of human resources at AERB in a phased manner. (author)

  3. Ten-Competence: Life-Long Competence Development and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Specht, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    Koper, R., & Specht, M. (2008). Ten-Competence: Life-Long Competence Development and Learning. In M-A. Cicilia (Ed.), Competencies in Organizational e-learning: concepts and tools (pp. 234-252). Hershey: IGI-Global.

  4. Summative clinical competency assessment: A survey of ultrasound practitioners’ views

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Clinical competency and the assessment of core skills is a crucial element of any programme leading to an award with a clinical skills component. This has become a more prominent feature of current reports on quality health care provision. This project aimed to determine ultrasound practitioners’ opinions about how best to assess clinical competency. An on-line questionnaire was sent to contacts from the Consortium for the Accreditation of Sonographic Education and details distributed at the ...

  5. Competency-Based Model for Predicting Construction Project Managers Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dainty, A. R. J.; Cheng, M.; Moore, D. R.

    2005-01-01

    Using behavioral competencies to influence human resource management decisions is gaining popularity in business organizations. This study identifies the core competencies associated with the construction management role and further, develops a predictive model to inform human resource selection and development decisions within large construction organizations. A range of construction managers took part in behavioral event interviews where staffs were asked to recount critical management inci...

  6. Science and Technology Text Mining: Mexico Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A. del Río, and A.M. Ramírez, Analisis De La Evaluacion De Las Revistas Latinoamericanas A Traves Del Factor De Impacto Renormalizado, Rev. Esp. Doc...contam 0.6%, emiss 0.6%, soil 0.5%, mex 0.5%, hidraul 0.5%, epa 0.4%, meteorol 0.4%, concentr 0.4%, ambient 0.4%, ozon 0.4%, toxic 0.4

  7. Incultating Core Competencies in Physiology in a Playful Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Nanaware

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical Council of India emphasizes the need for self directed active learning among undergraduate students. Traditional lectures alone are poor means of transferring/acquiring information less effective at skill development. Hence it is the need of time to incorporate innovative teaching learning strategies in undergraduate MBBS curriculum so we planned to undertake a study to incorporate flipped classroom model in teaching Human Physiology. Methodology: One hundred and fifty students of first MBBS were divided two groups of 75 students each (Batch A and B as per their roll calls. For the present study, students from Batch A (n = 75 were taken as cases and Batch B (n = 75 students were taken as controls. The control group attended traditional classes that involved didactic sessions while study population was exposed to Flipped classroom model. Student’s perceptions to Flipped classroom were obtained. Performance of students in flipped classroom is compared with that of the control population. Result: Students involved in the study group showed better performance and understanding of subject matter. Conclusion: Flipped classroom model make active student participation incultating key concepts in physiology in a playful learning environment making it an enjoyable, lovable learning experience.

  8. Measuring and Reporting Leadership and Core Competency Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-04

    COS·A’RWAOCU.:GO:   PME INFORt.’.\\ATION     PLSTHCO NC:Nf;;Se.lOSNCS   "’’’.,".".   PROJECTED TRAINING OS · A t’.X:NN.A.’:a·STA=<=OCU.:GO: J ONT (SS...alcohol or drug offenses, incidents of domestic or child abuse, financial problems, letters of reprimand, courts martial, eviction notices

  9. Assessment of Anatomical Knowledge and Core Trauma Competency Vascular Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Guinevere; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Garofalo, Evan; Shackelford, Stacy; Shalin, Valerie; Puche, Adam; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin

    2018-03-01

    Surgical residents express confidence in performing specific vascular exposures before training, but such self-reported confidence did not correlate with co-located evaluator ratings. This study reports residents' self-confidence evaluated before and after Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) cadaver-based training, and 12-18 mo later. We hypothesize that residents will better judge their own skill after ASSET than before when compared with evaluator ratings. Forty PGY2-7 surgical residents performed four procedures: axillary artery (AA), brachial artery (BA), femoral artery exposure and control (FA), and lower extremity fasciotomy (FAS) at the three evaluations. Using 5-point Likert scales, surgeons self-assessed their confidence in anatomical understanding and procedure performance after each procedure and evaluators rated each surgeon accordingly. For all the three evaluations, residents consistently rated their anatomical understanding (p < 0.04) and surgical performance (p < 0.03) higher than evaluators for both FA and FAS. Residents rated their anatomical understanding and surgical performance higher (p < 0.005) than evaluators for BA after training and up to 18 mo later. Only for third AA evaluation were there no rating differences. Residents overrate their anatomical understanding and performance abilities for BA, FA, and FAS even after performing the procedures and being debriefed three times in 18 mo.

  10. Emotional intelligence: a core competency for health care administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshman, Brenda; Rubino, Louis

    2002-06-01

    The contemporary concept of emotional intelligence (EI) as a critical set of management skills is traced through time to its current application for health care administration. EI is defined as proficiencies in intrapersonal and interpersonal skills in the areas of self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, social awareness, and social skills. The contributions of EI to effective management are supported by empirical research in the field. The importance of developing these skills in health care organizations is further clarified with examples familiar to health care administrators. Training suggestions and assessment resources are provided.

  11. Rheumatology training experience across Europe: analysis of core competences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivera, Francisca; Ramiro, Sofia; Cikes, Nada; Cutolo, Maurizio; Dougados, Maxime; Gossec, Laure; Kvien, Tore K.; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Mandl, Peter; Moorthy, Arumugam; Panchal, Sonia; Da Silva, José A. P.; Bijlsma, Johannes W.; Ҫollaku, Ledio; Aroyan, Armine; Radner, Helga; Tushina, Anastasyia; de Langhe, Ellen; Sokolovic, Sekib; Shumnalieva, Russka; Baresic, Marko; Senolt, Ladislav; Holland-Fischer, Mette; Kull, Mart; Puolitaival, Antti; Gobejishvili, Nino; Hueber, Axel; Fanouriakis, Antonis; MacMullan, Paul; Rimar, Doron; Bugatti, Serena; Zepa, Julija; Menassa, Jeanine; Karpec, Diana; Misevska-Percinkova, Snezana; Cassar, Karen; Deseatnicova, Elena; Tas, SanderW; Lie, Elisabeth; Sznajd, Jan; Berghea, Florian; Povzun, Anton; Jeremic, Ivica; Mlynarikova, Vanda; Frank-Bertoncelj, Mojca; Chatzidionysiou, Katerina; Dumusc, Alexandre; Hatemi, Gulen; Ozdemirel, Erhan; Biliavska, Iuliia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this project was to analyze and compare the educational experience in rheumatology specialty training programs across European countries, with a focus on self-reported ability. Method: An electronic survey was designed to assess the training experience in terms of

  12. Developing engineering design core competences through analysis of industrial products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2011-01-01

    Most product development work carried out in industrial practice is characterised by being incremental, i.e. the industrial company has had a product in production and on the market for some time, and now time has come to design a new and upgraded variant. This type of redesign project requires...... a course module, in which students develop knowledge, understanding and skills, which will prepare them for being able to participate in and contribute to redesign projects in industrial practice. In the course module Product Analysis and Redesign that has run for 8 years we have developed and refined...

  13. On Verbal Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxin Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored a new concept, verbal competence, to present a challenge to Chomsky’s linguistic competence and Hymes’ communicative competence. It is generally acknowledged that Chomsky concerned himself only with the syntactic/grammatical structures, and viewed the speaker’s generation and transformation of syntactic structures as the production of language. Hymes challenged Chomsky’s conception of linguistic competence and argued for an ethnographic or sociolinguistic concept, communicative competence, but his concept is too broad to be adequately grasped and followed in such fields as linguistics and second language acquisition. Communicative competence can include abilities to communicate with nonverbal behaviors, e.g. gestures, postures or even silence. The concept of verbal competence concerns itself with the mental and psychological processes of verbal production in communication. These processes originate from the speaker’s personal experience, in a certain situation of human communication, and with the sudden appearance of the intentional notion, shape up as the meaning images and end up in the verbal expression.

  14. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish undergraduate medical degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Barrio-Fernández, José Luis; Porta, Miquel; Benavides, Fernando G; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2016-01-01

    To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into undergraduate medical degrees. The 2nd Forum of University Teachers was held at the Rey Juan Carlos University (Madrid, 11-12 December 2014). Twenty-four university professors and lecturers from 19 Spanish universities imparting medical degrees participated in the forum. They were distributed in three working groups during three working sessions. In the first session, they were asked to identify and classify core public health competencies for medical degrees. In the second, they were asked to propose public health contents for the identified competencies. In the third session, the participants organized these contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in distinct plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the public health functions «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organised into five units: Concept of health, public health and its determinants; Epidemiology and health research; Determinants and health problems; Strategies, interventions and policies; and health systems, clinical and healthcare management. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to improve and update public health training programmes for future medical professionals. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. International organisations assure nuclear safety competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.

    2000-01-01

    Irrespective of current views on the future of nuclear power programmes, concerns are arising with respect to the long-term ability to preserve safety competence because student enrollments in nuclear engineering are decreasing rapidly and experienced staff are reaching retirement age. 'Assuring Nuclear Safety Competence into the 21. Century' was discussed in depth by workshop participants. The need for a long-term strategic view was emphasised, and policy recommendations were made. These proceedings will be of particular interest to those playing a policy role in the nuclear industry, regulatory bodies and the education sector

  16. 工程及科技教育認證制度下的學生核心能力與評估:大學教師、系主任、院長的觀點 A Study of Students’ Core-Competence Evaluation in Engineering Education Quality Assurance: The Perspectives of Faculty Members, Program Chairpersons, and Deans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    林妙真 Miao-Chen Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 歐美國家近幾年皆已建立不同程度的品質保證體系,而國內工程及科技教育認證實施9年,偏向檢視整體教育的品質,缺乏對評估機制的深度檢視。本研究旨在探究工程及科技教育認證對學生核心能力的影響,並瞭解目前國內各工程系所評估學生核心能力的方式。以問卷調查和深度訪談蒐集院長、系主任與教師意見,有效回收問卷共471 份,受訪對象計20位,並以一般歸納法(a general inductive approach)分析質性資料。研究發現:工程系所教師對於學生核心能力的評估仍是陌生的,且大多數系所尚未發展適當的評估工具。本研究以其中1所學校為例,該校將評分規準(rubrics)與數位平臺運用於教學與評量中,一則減輕教師的負擔;二則充分落實學生學習成效品質保證機制,可作為國內成果導向認證提供最佳實務(best practice)。最後針對目前工程系所落實持續改善之困境與未來研究提出建議。 The purpose of this study is to illustrate the impact of engineering education accreditation on evaluations of students’ core competences in Taiwan. The data were collected using a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews. 471 valid questionnaires were analyzed and twenty engineering faculties, program chairpersons, and deans were interviewed afterwards. The results indicated that engineering faculties are unfamiliar with methods of core-competence evaluation. Therefore, the outcomes-based teaching and assessment approach of one university was used to demonstrate how rubrics can be implemented to maintain continuous improvement in curriculum planning and to minimize the workloads of teachers while they prepared for the self-study report during the accreditation process. This study is the pioneer to explore a best practice for the outcome-based accreditation approach in Taiwan. Finally, the implications and

  17. Competence-based demands made of senior physicians: an empirical study to evaluate leadership competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Bosco; Ostermann, Herwig; Schubert, Harald

    2011-01-01

    As a result of more economising in German hospitals, changes evolve in organising the deployment of senior medical staff. New demands are made of senior hospital management. Leadership competencies in the training and development of physicians are of prime importance to the successful perception of managerial responsibilities. The present study investigates the actual and targeted demands of leadership made of senior medical staff in terms of how these demands are perceived. To this end, the demands of leadership were surveyed using a competence-based questionnaire and investigated with a view to potentials in professional development by way of example of the senior management of psychiatric hospitals in Germany. In all, the results show high ratings in personal performance, the greatest significance being attributed to value-oriented competence in the actual assessment of demands on leadership. Besides gender-specific differences in the actual assessments of single fields of competence, the greatest differences between the targeted and the actual demands are, in all, shown to be in the competencies of self-management and communication. Competence-based core areas in leadership can be demonstrated for the professional development of physicians and an adaptive mode of procedure deduced. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. The Australian Health Informatics Competencies Framework and Its Role in the Certified Health Informatician Australasia (CHIA) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Rowlands, David; Schaper, Louise; Hansen, David

    2017-01-01

    The Certified Health Informatician Australasia (CHIA) program consists of an online exam, which aims to test whether a candidate has the knowledge and skills that are identified in the competencies framework to perform as a health informatics professional. The CHIA Health Informatics Competencies Framework provides the context in which the questions for the exam have been developed. The core competencies for health informatics that are tested in the exam have been developed with reference to similar programs by the American Medical Informatics Association, the International Medical Informatics Association and COACH, Canada's Health Informatics Association, and builds on the previous work done by the Australian Health Informatics Education Council. This paper shows how the development of this competency framework is helping to raise the profile of health informaticians in Australasia, contributing to a wider recognition of the profession, and defining more clearly the body of knowledge underpinning this discipline. This framework can also be used as a set of guidelines for recruiting purposes, definitions of career pathways, or the design of educational and training activities. We discuss here the current status of the program, its resultsandprospectsfor the future.

  19. Communication skills competencies: definitions and a teaching toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Elizabeth A; Keefer, Constance H

    2006-07-01

    Doctors' interpersonal and communication skills correlate with improved health care outcomes. International medical organisations require competency in communication skills. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) developed a toolbox for assessing this competency and 5 others, yet none initially for teaching these skills. The original focus in the development of the ACGME competencies was evaluation. This paper represents a significant step toward defining methods for teaching communication skills competencies. A total of 16 medical education leaders from medical schools worldwide, participating in the 2003 Harvard Macy Institute Program for Physician Educators, worked together to: (1) further define the ACGME competency in interpersonal and communication skills; (2) delineate teaching strategies for each level of medical education; and (3) create a teaching toolbox to integrate communication skills competencies into medical curricula. Four subgroups defined subcompetencies, identified teaching strategies for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate medical training and brought their work to the larger group. The expanded communication competencies and teaching strategies were determined by a consensus of the larger group, presented to 80 Harvard Macy Scholars and Faculty for further discussion, then finalised by consensus. The teaching toolbox expands the ACGME core communication competencies, adds 20 subcompetencies and connects these competencies to teaching strategies at each level of medical training. It represents the collaboration and consensus of a diverse international group of medical education leaders in a variety of medical specialities and institutions, all involved in teaching communication skills. The toolbox is applicable globally across different settings and specialities, and is sensitive to different definitions of health care.

  20. TENCompetence Competence Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervenne, Luk

    2010-01-01

    Vervenne, L. (2007) TENCompetence Competence Observatory. Sources available http://tencompetence.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tencompetence/wp8/org.tencompetence.co/. Available under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation.

  1. Competent poverty training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabb, Sally D; Reimers, Faye A

    2013-02-01

    Despite numerous calls to the discipline, attention to poverty and social class remains minimal in psychology even though most human experience is significantly affected by social ranking. As a result, educators lack models for training in the context of poverty. Recent and concerted efforts to define and implement competency-based models for the practice of professional psychology have resulted in the creation of Competency Benchmarks (American Psychological Association, 2011). Here, these Competency Benchmarks frame the integration of best practices in working with poor and working-class clients with what we know about what constitutes good training. The result is a competency-based approach for those who are training psychologists-to-be to work effectively with economically challenged clients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Production competence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szász, Levente; Demeter, Krisztina; Boer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to seek remedy to two major flaws of the production competence literature, which concern: the way the production competence construct is operationalized and the way its effects on performance are measured. Design/methodology/approach – The paper proposes...... to measure production competence as the two-dimensional operational level construct it actually is, and to use Slack’s (1994) importance performance matrix to study its business level performance effects. The three hypotheses developed are tested using a subsample of the International Manufacturing Strategy...... Survey database, which includes 465 manufacturing companies from 21 countries. Findings – The study offers additional empirical support for production competence theory. Going beyond supporting existing theory, the results give more detailed insight by indicating that low operational performance on even...

  3. Developing Leadership Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Lucy; Seemiller, Corey

    2017-12-01

    This chapter provides an overview of leadership competencies including the history of emergence, contemporary uses, common frameworks, challenges, benefits, and future implications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  4. Job competencies for the malaysian consultant project managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ilias Said

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Architects, engineers and quantity surveyors are among the main players in construction.Coming from different background and professional background, these professionals bring in their own respective styles and methods of project management practices. There is now a body of opinion among industry people and academics alike that the industry needs to establish competency standard especially for project managers. Irrespective of their professional background, competent project managers should hypothetically deliver high quality services to the clients. A study was conducted at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, University of Science Malaysia (USM, to develop a job competence model for Consultant Project Managers (CPMs. It attempts to determine a set of minimum standards of skills and competencies for CPMs. This paper reports the findings of the study. It provides an insight into the type of competencies needed by CPMs based on the “Job Competence Model for Consultant Project Managers” developed from the study.

  5. Strategic Leader Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-08

    competencies in line with his "visionary leadership theory ." His concept draws extensively from sound, quantitative research and social learning theory . A key...element of Sashkin’s theory identifies and distinguishes between "behavioral skills" required at the highest leadership levels and "personal... LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES: - drawn from theory and research .... Co, sistent with broad groups of personality characteristics identified by Stogdill (1948

  6. A competency framework for librarians involved in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Whitney A; Anderson, Patricia F; Ginier, Emily C; MacEachern, Mark P; Saylor, Kate M; Shipman, Barbara L; Smith, Judith E

    2017-07-01

    The project identified a set of core competencies for librarians who are involved in systematic reviews. A team of seven informationists with broad systematic review experience examined existing systematic review standards, conducted a literature search, and used their own expertise to identify core competencies and skills that are necessary to undertake various roles in systematic review projects. The team identified a total of six competencies for librarian involvement in systematic reviews: "Systematic review foundations," "Process management and communication," "Research methodology," "Comprehensive searching," "Data management," and "Reporting." Within each competency are the associated skills and knowledge pieces (indicators). Competence can be measured using an adaptation of Miller's Pyramid for Clinical Assessment, either through self-assessment or identification of formal assessment instruments. The Systematic Review Competencies Framework provides a standards-based, flexible way for librarians and organizations to identify areas of competence and areas in need of development to build capacity for systematic review integration. The framework can be used to identify or develop appropriate assessment tools and to target skill development opportunities.

  7. An Electronic Competency-Based Evaluation Tool for Assessing Humanitarian Competencies in a Simulated Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrea B; Hulme, Jennifer M; Nugus, Peter; Cranmer, Hilarie H; Coutu, Melanie; Johnson, Kirsten

    2017-06-01

    The evaluation tool was first derived from the formerly Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies' (CBHA; United Kingdom), now "Start Network's," Core Humanitarian Competency Framework and formatted in an electronic data capture tool that allowed for offline evaluation. During a 3-day humanitarian simulation event, participants in teams of eight to 10 were evaluated individually at multiple injects by trained evaluators. Participants were assessed on five competencies and a global rating scale. Participants evaluated both themselves and their team members using the same tool at the end of the simulation exercise (SimEx). All participants (63) were evaluated. A total of 1,008 individual evaluations were completed. There were 90 (9.0%) missing evaluations. All 63 participants also evaluated themselves and each of their teammates using the same tool. Self-evaluation scores were significantly lower than peer-evaluations, which were significantly lower than evaluators' assessments. Participants with a medical degree, and those with humanitarian work experience of one month or more, scored significantly higher on all competencies assessed by evaluators compared to other participants. Participants with prior humanitarian experience scored higher on competencies regarding operating safely and working effectively as a team member. This study presents a novel electronic evaluation tool to assess individual performance in five of six globally recognized humanitarian competency domains in a 3-day humanitarian SimEx. The evaluation tool provides a standardized approach to the assessment of humanitarian competencies that cannot be evaluated through knowledge-based testing in a classroom setting. When combined with testing knowledge-based competencies, this presents an approach to a comprehensive competency-based assessment that provides an objective measurement of competency with respect to the competencies listed in the Framework. There is an opportunity to advance the use of

  8. Evaluation of psychology practitioner competence in clinical supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalvez, Craig J; Crowe, Trevor P

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing consensus favouring the development, advancement, and implementation of a competency-based approach for psychology training and supervision. There is wide recognition that skills, attitude-values, and relationship competencies are as critical to a psychologist's competence as are knowledge capabilities, and that these key competencies are best measured during placements, leaving the clinical supervisor in an unparalleled position of advantage to provide formative and summative evaluations on the supervisee's progression towards competence. Paradoxically, a compelling body of literature from across disciplines indicates that supervisor ratings of broad domains of competence are systematically compromised by biases, including leniency error and halo effect. The current paper highlights key issues affecting summative competency evaluations by supervisors: what competencies should be evaluated, who should conduct the evaluation, how (tools) and when evaluations should be conducted, and process variables that affect evaluation. The article concludes by providing research recommendations to underpin and promote future progress and by offering practice recommendations to facilitate a more credible and meaningful evaluation of competence and competencies.

  9. Focusing accounting curricula on students' long-run careers: recommendations for an integrated competency-based framework for accounting education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, R.A.; Blocher, E.J.; Brewer, P.C.; Cokins, G.; Sorensen, J.E.; Stout, D.E.; Sundem, G.L.; Wolcott, S.K.; Wouters, M.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Professional organizations, accrediting bodies, and accounting educators have defined the competencies that accounting students need for entry-level success in public accounting. However, definitions of the competencies required by all accounting students for long-term career requirements are

  10. Medical education for a changing world: moving beyond cultural competence into transnational competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Peter H; Swick, Herbert M

    2006-06-01

    Given rapidly changing global demographic dynamics and the unimpressive evidence regarding health outcomes attributable to cultural competence (CC) education, it is time to consider a fresh and unencumbered approach to preparing physicians to reduce health disparities and care for ethnoculturally and socially diverse patients, including migrants. Transnational competence (TC) education offers a comprehensive set of core skills derived from international relations, cross-cultural psychology, and intercultural communication that are also applicable for medical education. The authors discuss five limitations (conceptual, vision, action, alliance, and pedagogical) of current CC approaches and explain how an educational model based on TC would address each problem area.The authors then identify and discuss the skill domains, core principles, and reinforcing pedagogy of TC education. The five skill domains of TC are analytic, emotional, creative, communicative, and functional; core principles include a comprehensive and consistent framework, patient-centered learning, and competency assessment. A central component of TC pedagogy is having students prepare a "miniethnography" for each patient that addresses not only issues related to physical and mental health, but also experiences related to dislocation and adaptation to unfamiliar settings. The TC approach promotes advances in preparing medical students to reduce health disparities among patients with multiple and diverse backgrounds, health conditions, and health care beliefs and practices. Perhaps most important, TC consistently directs attention to the policy and social factors, as well as the individual considerations, that can alleviate suffering and enhance health and well-being in a globalizing world.

  11. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  12. Medical Aesthetics Training: Shifting to Collective Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Iris; Peisachovich, Eva; Da Silva, Celina; Lee, Charlotte; Solomon, Philip

    With increased demands for medical aesthetics procedures and the sudden profusion of newly licensed, and unlicensed, providers who are performing these medical aesthetics procedures also comes the responsibility to shift to collective competence. Collective competence refers to what occurs among professionals in action, emphasizing the sharing of experiences, knowledge, and perceptions among those who are providing services to the medical aesthetics client. Registered nurses and medical students are not taught to perform cosmetic procedures in basic nursing or medical programs and thus require a post-entry-level education to validate their competency. The current medical aesthetics apprenticeship training approach of see one, do one, and teach one focuses on teaching technical skills and thus does not sufficiently address the ever-changing health care context and the ambiguity in practitioner role. Recent scholars highlight that when health care failed or an error has been identified, it is rarely adduced to an individual's competence but rather is more likely to be a failure of the collective team. In this article, we are advocating for a change in how medical aesthetics practitioners are trained. In particular, it advocates creating opportunities within the curricula to train practitioners as a collective body, as opposed to providing training that focuses on the individual's competence and technical skills alone.

  13. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  14. Professional ethics: beyond the clinical competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaki, Zohreh; Memarian, Robabeh

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of clinical competency in professional roles especially in crucial situations can improve the nursing profession. This qualitative research was conducted to determine the process of acquiring clinical competency by nurses in its cultural context and within the health care delivery system in Iran. This study, using grounded theory methodology, took place in universities and hospitals in Tehran. Nurses (36) included nurse managers, tutors, practitioners, and members of the Iranian Nursing Organization. Simultaneous data collection and analysis took place using participant semistructured interviews. Three categories emerged: (a) personal characteristics such as philanthropy, strong conscience, being attentive, accepting responsibility, being committed to and respecting self and others; (b) care environment including appropriate management systems, in-service training provision, employment laws, and control mechanisms, suitable and adequate equipment; and (c) provision of productive work practices including love of the profession, critical thinking, nursing knowledge, and professional expertise. Professional ethics has emerged as the core variable that embodies concepts such as commitment, responsibility, and accountability. Professional ethics guarantees clinical competency and leads to the application of specialized knowledge and skill by nurses. The results can be used to form the basis of guiding the process of acquiring clinical competency by nurses using a systematic process.

  15. Competencies Setup for Nuclear Regulatory Staff in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingish, Panupong; Siripirom, Lopchai; Nakkaew, Pongpan; Manuwong, Theerapatt; Wongsamarn, Vichian

    2010-01-01

    Competencies setup for regulatory bodies oversee a research reactor and nuclear power reactors in Thailand, concentrating on staff development in areas of review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, authorization, and development of regulations and guides. The regulatory body in Thailand is the Bureau of Nuclear Safety Regulation (BNSR) which belongs to the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP). The BNSR is divided into 4 groups according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These groups are the nuclear safety administration group, nuclear safety technical support group, nuclear safety assessment and licensing group, and the nuclear installations inspection group. Each group is divided into senior and junior positions. The competencies model was used for implementation of staff qualification, career planning and professional progression by BNSR. Competencies are related to knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSAs) needed to perform their job. A key issue is obtaining competencies for the regulatory bodies. The systematic approach to training (SAT) has been used in several countries for improvement regulator performance. The SAT contains 5 steps, including analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation, to achieve competencies. The SAT provides a logical progression from the identification of competencies required to perform a job to the design, development and implementation of training using the competencies model. In the first step, BNSR performs an operating analysis of training needs assessment (TNA) by using gap analysis technique, as suggested by IAEA. Individual regulatory bodies address the gap using appropriate training program, after comparing the actual and desired competency profiles to determine the gap. This paper examines competencies setup for regulatory staff of BNSR as a result of gaps analysis to establish a scheme for design characteristics of regulatory staff and training courses, thereby enhancing the regulatory

  16. Crosscutting competencies for occupational health and safety professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Debra K; Lohman, William H; Brosseau, Lisa M; Fredrickson, Ann L; McGovern, Patricia M; Gerberich, Susan G; Nachreiner, Nancy M

    2005-01-01

    A change from a quarter system to a semester system presented a convenient opportunity for faculty at the Midwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety (a 27-year-old National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-sponsored education and research center) to evaluate the current curriculum. As part of this process faculty identified both individual and crosscutting competencies for four programs: Occupational Medicine, Occupational Health Nursing, Industrial Hygiene, and Occupational Injury Epidemiology and Control. Faculty identified potential competency sets using published literature, course objectives, and content summaries. Common themes, termed crosscutting competencies, were identified. Seventy program graduates (58%) responded to a survey designed to assess the value of, and proficiency in, these competencies based on their postgraduation job experience. All 29 crosscutting competencies were rated as valuable or very valuable by respondents in each of the four programs. There was less agreement between respondents in proficiency ratings, with 24 of 29 competencies rated either proficient or very proficient. Comparing value and proficiency provided an opportunity to further refine the curriculum and a model for enhancing the skills, knowledge, and attitudes of future environmental and occupational health professionals. With further testing, we propose this set of crosscutting competencies be considered for adoption as a set of interdisciplinary core competencies for Occupational Health and Safety professionals.

  17. Wound geometry as it relates to tunnel valvular competence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Valvularly competent sclerocorneal tunnel largely contributes to the outcome of sutureless MSICS and takes practice to master. Conclusion: Core to a successful MSICS is the construction of a leak-proof sclerocorneal tunnel. Keywords: Incision anatomy, incisional funnel, sclerocorneal pockets, sclerocorneal tunnel ...

  18. Report of the AACRAO Professional Competencies and Proficiencies Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2015

    2015-01-01

    Interest on the part of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) Board of Directors in the development of a set of descriptions of the core competencies for AACRAO professions goes back several years, with more active discussion beginning in 2011 under the leadership of AACRAO President Nora McLaughlin. At…

  19. Executive Functions Contribute Uniquely to Reading Competence in Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Koriakin, Taylor; Lipkin, Paul; Boada, Richard; Frijters, Jan C.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Hill, Dina; Willcutt, Erik; Gottwald, Stephanie; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2017-01-01

    Competent reading requires various skills beyond those for basic word reading (i.e., core language skills, rapid naming, phonological processing). Contributing "higher-level" or domain-general processes include information processing speed and executive functions (working memory, strategic problem solving, attentional switching).…

  20. A New GISc Framework and Competency Set for Curricula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prototype GISc framework of 16 knowledge areas (KAs), consisting of 20 fundamental and 89 core competencies, was introduced to a group of GISc experts to gauge its usefulness and to determine the relative importance of specific KAs. The responses showed that some KAs, in particular Physics and Organisational and ...

  1. Collaboration, Competencies and the Classroom: A Public Health Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lauren E.; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The University of Guelph Master of Public Health program is a professional degree program that seeks to prepare graduates to meet complex public health needs by developing their proficiency in the 36 public health core competencies. Provision of experiential learning opportunities, such as a semester-long practicum, is part of student development.…

  2. Ohio Legal Office Managment. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document, which lists core business and legal office management competencies identified by representatives from education and business and industry throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary associate degree…

  3. Developing Creative Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a theoretical framework for how to think about and understand creativity – and how to work with the development of creative competencies in design education. Most design students experience recurrent, individual challenges in design work, which have to do with their personal...... from the field of psychology, as well as research-in-practice with students at the Kolding School of Design and presents the outline of a model for how to work with and facilitate the development of creative competencies. While the research is still in its early phases, response from participants...

  4. Competence development in UAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Jørgen; Brodersen, Anne Mygind

    As a University of Applied Science (UAS) University College Lillebaelt in Denmark is addressing education, knowledge production and professional development in perspective of life-long and life-wide learning. It is our basic assumption that that internal competence development ? individually...... and organizationally - among UAS educators should be based on same learning concepts as used in professional development to avoid parallelism. Do for yourself, what you preach for others. Second, competence development of faculty is a central element in transformation of our institutions from schools of higher...

  5. Competencies required for nursing telehealth activities: A Delphi-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houwelingen, Cornelis T M; Moerman, Anna H; Ettema, Roelof G A; Kort, Helianthe S M; Ten Cate, Olle

    2016-04-01

    Telehealth is viewed as a major strategy to address the increasing demand for care and a shrinking care professional population. However, most nurses are not trained or are insufficiently trained to use these technologies effectively. Therefore, the potential of telehealth fails to reach full utilization. A better understanding of nursing telehealth entrustable professional activities (NT-EPAs) and the required competencies can contribute to the development of nursing telehealth education. In a four-round Delphi-study, a panel of experts discussed which NT-EPAs are relevant for nurses and which competencies nurses need to possess to execute these activities effectively. The 51 experts, including nurses, nursing faculty, clients and technicians all familiar with telehealth, were asked to select items from a list of 52 competencies based on the literature and on a previous study. Additionally, the panelists could add competencies based on their experience in practice. The threshold used for consensus was set at 80%. Consensus was achieved on the importance of fourteen NT-EPAs, requiring one or more of the following core competencies; coaching skills, the ability to combine clinical experience with telehealth, communication skills, clinical knowledge, ethical awareness, and a supportive attitude. Each NT-EPA requires a specific set of competencies (at least ten). In total, 52 competencies were identified as essential in telehealth. Many competencies for telehealth, including clinical knowledge and communication skills, are not novel competencies. They are fundamental to nursing care as a whole and therefore are also indispensable for telehealth. Additionally, the fourteen NT-EPAs appeared to require additional subject specific competencies, such as the ability to put patients at ease when they feel insecure about using technology. The NT-EPAs and related competencies presented in this study can be used by nursing schools that are considering including or expanding

  6. Competency-Based Training: Objective Structured Clinical Exercises (OSCE) in Marriage and Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical "Examination" (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to assess…

  7. The Competency Pivot: Introducing a Revised Approach to the Business Communication Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kristen; Rawlins, Jacob D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we outline a competency-based approach to teaching business communication. At the heart of this approach, classroom instruction, assignments, and evaluation center on a goals-oriented and receiver-centric understanding of communication in which students are taught strategies for meeting five core competencies of business…

  8. Second/Foreign Language Lexical Competence: Its Dimensions and Ways of Measuring It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anindya Syam

    2015-01-01

    Although it is a core component of a language user's overall linguistic competence, vocabulary has traditionally not received the kind of attention it deserved, being usually lumped with other kinds of competence till 1980s and 1990s when researchers started focusing on it with great interest. The present paper discusses what the notion of lexical…

  9. Developing Global Competency Skills in Grades 9-12: Implications for School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the phenomenological study was to examine and understand public high schools, grades 9-12, which have implemented the full integration of global competency skills as an integral part of their core mission. This study also explored, how school leaders ensured that global competency skills are developed, implemented and integrated…

  10. Digital Competence--An Emergent Boundary Concept for Policy and Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilomäki, Liisa; Paavola, Sami; Lakkala, Minna; Kantosalo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Digital competence is an evolving concept related to the development of digital technology and the political aims and expectations of citizenship in a knowledge society. It is regarded as a core competence in policy papers; in educational research it is not yet a standardized concept. We suggest that it is a useful boundary concept, which can be…

  11. Unnoticed professional competence in day care work and the challenge of neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Warring, Niels; Schmidt, Camilla

    New Public Management and neoliberalism has had a huge impact on care and health work imposing demands for documentation, standardization and evaluation. These demands seem to be in contrast with core aspects of the professional competence that are unnoticed. The paper explores how social educator...... and developing the professional competences of pedagogues holds the potential to develop alternatives to neoliberal regulation....

  12. Nursing Informatics Competencies Among Nursing Students and Their Relationship to Patient Safety Competencies: Knowledge, Attitude, and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrbo, Amany Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    With implementation of information technology in healthcare settings to promote safety and evidence-based nursing care, a growing emphasis on the importance of nursing informatics competencies has emerged. This study assessed the relationship between nursing informatics and patient safety competencies among nursing students and nursing interns. A descriptive, cross-sectional correlational design with a convenience sample of 154 participants (99 nursing students and 55 interns) completed the Self-assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies and Patient Safety Competencies. The nursing students and interns were similar in age and years of computer experience, and more than half of the participants in both groups had taken a nursing informatics course. There were no significant differences between competencies in nursing informatics and patient safety except for clinical informatics role and applied computer skills in the two groups of participants. Nursing informatics competencies and patient safety competencies were significantly correlated except for clinical informatics role both with patient safety knowledge and attitude. These results provided feedback to adjust and incorporate informatics competencies in the baccalaureate program and to recommend embracing the nursing informatics course as one of the core courses, not as an elective course, in the curriculum.

  13. Pragmatics and Communicative Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin; Su, Simon Chun Feng; Ho, Max Ming Hsuang

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatics is included in one of four communicative competences (Canale, 1980). It is necessary and important to teach pragmatics at school in our globalized world in order to avoid as much as misunderstanding, which is likely to stem from cultural difference. As a result, greater importance should be attached to diverse customs and pragmatics.…

  14. The MUPPLE competence continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, Joanna; Wild, Fridolin; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus; Hofer, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Wild, J., Wild, F., Kalz, M., Specht, M., & Hofer, M. (2009). The MUPPLE competence continuum. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.), Proceedings of 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning Envrionments (MUPPLE'09). Workshop in conjunction with 4th European Conference on Technology

  15. Evolution of subsidiary competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben; Dhanaraj, Charles

    of competitive advantage of nations, we hypothesize the contingencies under which heterogeneity in host environments influences subsidiary competence configuration. We test our model with data from more than 2,000 subsidiaries in seven Western European countries. Our results provide new insights on the evolution...

  16. Competing for Criminal Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawlings, G.; Unger, B.

    2005-01-01

    To compete for criminal money by means of low bank secrecy seems a tempting strategy for countries in order to attract additional funds. We show in a model that this “Seychelles-strategy” can increase national output, in particular if a country takes a (Stackelberg ) leadership in the competition

  17. Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Robert; And Others

    Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

  18. Competence preservation through education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, U.; Koessler, M.

    2013-01-01

    For fulfilling their tasks GNS depends on personnel with specific knowledge and competence. GNS answers to these challenges by various measures for education and training in order to have skilled personnel available nowadays and in the future. By these measures and the internal organisation regarding responsibilities in radiation protection requirements resulting from the expected Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) are met. (orig.)

  19. Promoting Intercultural Competencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachner, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    What is culture? • Culture is the acquired knowledge people use to interpret experience and generate behavior. • It is the way of life a people pass down from one generation to the next through learning. • It is the rules for living and functioning in society that come from growing up in a specific society, and it is a set of acquired skills, habits and society-specific training that gives a group of people its identity. What is intercultural competency? • Cultures can have widely varying perspectives. • These perspectives influence the way that a person develops relationships, responds to situations, and operates in a professional setting. • Intercultural competency is the ability to comprehend and navigate the ways that culture can influence behavior, relationships, and the results of collaboration and interaction. What does becoming interculturally competent entail? • Intercultural preparedness is not merely travelling, learning a foreign language, or being exposed to other cultures. • Developing competency requires thinking about the challenges posed to our work by a multi-cultural workforce in a way that prepares employees and staff for potential incidents or misunderstandings. • It is impossible to avoid all intercultural misunderstandings, but learning to anticipate them and deal with them is key to developing any training program on culture

  20. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  1. Competing Auctions of Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    The model of competing sellers McAfee (1993) is applied to a labor market environment with heterogeneous workers, who differ by outside option and skill type, and heterogeneous firms, who differ by the amount of output produced when matched to each possible worker tyoe. We derive both a static...

  2. Competence and the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Dweck, Carol S.; Yeager, David S.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this chapter on competence at the workplace is on workers’ willingness to perform, which is defined as individuals’ psychological characteristics that affect the degree to which they are inclined to perform their tasks. People may be motivated by either the positive, appetitive

  3. Assessing cataract surgical competency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Andrew G.; Greenlee, Emily; Oetting, Thomas A.; Beaver, Hilary A.; Johnson, A. Tim; Boldt, H. Culver; Abramoff, Michael; Olson, Richard; Carter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has mandated that all residency training programs teach and assess 6 general competencies.1 A.G. Lee and K.D. Carter, Managing the new mandate in resident education: A blueprint for translating a national mandate into local compliance,

  4. Calibrating Communication Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surges Tatum, Donna

    2016-11-01

    The Many-faceted Rasch measurement model is used in the creation of a diagnostic instrument by which communication competencies can be calibrated, the severity of observers/raters can be determined, the ability of speakers measured, and comparisons made between various groups.

  5. Skills and Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasios Orinos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study aimed to investigate the requirements of the business sector in light of the skills and competencies students should have in order to be recruited. In this fashion, the study intended to measure the importance of the skills and competencies sought by the business world, revealing ways through which students can develop such skills. This project portrayed that, some of the required classes will certainly give students a strong theoretical background but they will neither completely prepare this student with all possible skills or competencies nor provide the student with any practical experience that will enable him/her to be more competitive when entering the business market. In some classes, however, like Public Speaking, which is designed to teach presentation skills, successful students are able to build good communication and interpersonal skills. Additionally, an English writing class will certainly attempt to provide them with strong writing skills, and a business class will possibly demand reading skills. Moreover, a calculus and a statistics class will provide basic arithmetic/mathematical skills. However, through this project it is proven that all of these classes will neglect the indoctrination of creative thinking in students, or make students believe in their own self-worth (self-esteem skills; the courses will also fail to develop the sense of urgency, drive and determination that students should possess not just to compete but also to survive in a business world.

  6. Equal opportunity to compete

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    advantage of their customers by fixing prices or skimping on quality. The underlying idea is that true competition in the marketplace produces a range of efficiencies and asso- ciated benefits that the competing firms, in their quest to win customer loyalty, will feel compelled to pass along to consumers. In recent years, many ...

  7. Nursing Informatics Competency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Currently, C Hospital lacks a standardized nursing informatics competency program to validate nurses' skills and knowledge in using electronic medical records (EMRs). At the study locale, the organization is about to embark on the implementation of a new, more comprehensive EMR system. All departments will be required to use the new EMR, unlike…

  8. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f......, and entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  9. Competences of IT Architects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; van Eck, Pascal; Steghuis, Claudia; Proper, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The field of architecture in the digital world uses a plethora of terms to refer to different kinds of architects, and recognises a confusing variety of competences that these architects are required to have. Different service providers use different terms for similar architects and even if they use

  10. Competences of IT Architects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; van Eck, Pascal; Steghuis, C.; Proper, E.

    2008-01-01

    The field of architecture in the digital world uses a plethora of terms to refer to different kinds of architects, and recognizes a confusing variety of competences that these architects are required to have. Different service providers use different terms for similar architects and even if they use

  11. National Undergraduate Medical Core Curriculum in Turkey: Evaluation of Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Budakoğlu, Işıl İrem; Coşkun, Özlem; Ergün, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is very little information available on self-perceived competence levels of junior medical doctors with regard to definitions by the National Core Curriculum (NCC) for Undergraduate Medical Education. Aims: This study aims to determine the perceived level of competence of residents during undergraduate medical education within the context of the NCC. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The survey was conducted between February 2010 and December ...

  12. National Undergraduate Medical Core Curriculum in Turkey: Evaluation of Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Budakoğlu, Işıl İrem; Coşkun, Özlem; Ergün, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is very little information available on self-perceived competence levels of junior medical doctors with regard to definitions by the National Core Curriculum (NCC) for Undergraduate Medical Education. Aims: This study aims to determine the perceived level of competence of residents during undergraduate medical education within the context of the NCC. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The survey was conducted between February 2010 and Dec...

  13. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  14. The Interrelations between Competences for Sustainable Development and Research Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Wim; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how competences for sustainable development and research interrelate within a context of competence-based higher education. Specific focus is oriented towards strengthening research competences for sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Following a hermeneutic-interpretive methodology, this…

  15. Competency Analytics Tool: Analyzing Curriculum Using Course Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottipati, Swapna; Shankararaman, Venky

    2018-01-01

    The applications of learning outcomes and competency frameworks have brought better clarity to engineering programs in many universities. Several frameworks have been proposed to integrate outcomes and competencies into course design, delivery and assessment. However, in many cases, competencies are course-specific and their overall impact on the…

  16. k -core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, P.; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, M.G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  17. k-core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, Peter; Estevez-Fernandez, A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  18. Experts views' on Digital Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2013-01-01

    Janssen, J., & Stoyanov, S. (2012, 20 November). Online Consultation for a Digital Competence Framework: Experts' views on Digital Competence. Workshop presentation at the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, Spain.

  19. New competencies for the 21st century dental public health specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Donald; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina

    2016-09-01

    The American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) currently recognizes 10 core competencies, which identify the skills, knowledge and understanding expected of all dental public health specialists. The last update to the competencies was 1998. The American Board of Dental Public Health, along with the American Association of Public Health Dentistry and its many partners, initiated a process to revise the competencies. This report presents the process and the new competencies for the dental public health specialist of the 21 st century. Each of the developed competencies is supported by a "statement of intent". These competencies take effect immediately. The new competencies will be used in testing candidates for specialty status beginning with the 2018 ABDPH examination. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry and American Board of Dental Public Health.

  20. Identifying interprofessional global health competencies for 21st-century health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogerst, Kristen; Callender, Brian; Adams, Virginia; Evert, Jessica; Fields, Elise; Hall, Thomas; Olsen, Jody; Rowthorn, Virginia; Rudy, Sharon; Shen, Jiabin; Simon, Lisa; Torres, Herica; Velji, Anvar; Wilson, Lynda L

    2015-01-01

    At the 2008 inaugural meeting of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH), participants discussed the rapid expansion of global health programs and the lack of standardized competencies and curricula to guide these programs. In 2013, CUGH appointed a Global Health Competency Subcommittee and charged this subcommittee with identifying broad global health core competencies applicable across disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Subcommittee's work and proposed list of interprofessional global health competencies. After agreeing on a definition of global health to guide the Subcommittee's work, members conducted an extensive literature review to identify existing competencies in all fields relevant to global health. Subcommittee members initially identified 82 competencies in 12 separate domains, and proposed four different competency levels. The proposed competencies and domains were discussed during multiple conference calls, and subcommittee members voted to determine the final competencies to be included in two of the four proposed competency levels (global citizen and basic operational level - program oriented). The final proposed list included a total of 13 competencies across 8 domains for the Global Citizen Level and 39 competencies across 11 domains for the Basic Operational Program-Oriented Level. There is a need for continued debate and dialog to validate the proposed set of competencies, and a need for further research to identify best strategies for incorporating these competencies into global health educational programs. Future research should focus on implementation and evaluation of these competencies across a range of educational programs, and further delineating the competencies needed across all four proposed competency levels. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How can a competency framework for advanced practice support care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Pamela Elizabeth

    2016-11-10

    Aim To explore whether perception of nurse practitioners in relation to whether a competency framework for advanced practice can support their work. Method A qualitative cross-sectional design was used, embedded in an interpretative paradigm of research. A non-probability sample of eight experienced nurse practitioners took part in focus groups and answered questionnaires. A mixture of phenomenological and grounded theory approaches were used to collect the data. Findings Four major themes were identified: competency frameworks can identify individual strengths and weaknesses, they can be used to set clear goals and targets, they can improve how practice is organised, and they have the potential to limit practice in terms of narrowing boundaries. The study also found competency frameworks could provide an structure to guide the development and evaluation of educational programmes. Conclusion Competency frameworks can be used so to target the development of new advanced nurse practitioners. They can address workforce development and governance by ensuring nurse practitioners have the competencies to provide safe, autonomous practice. Competency frameworks have been shown to ensure consistency in clinical practice skills underpinned with nurse practitioners' theoretical knowledge. They provide a clear development structure for career development and advanced practice. However, internationally, there is still a lack of definition of advanced practice and its core competencies.

  2. Selection, competency development and assessment of nuclear power plant managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This publication provides information on proven methods and good practices with respect to the selection, development and assessment of nuclear power plant (NPP) managers. The report is organized into four sections, a glossary, two appendices, and several annexes. The Introduction (Section 1) provides the framework for the report. Section 2 describes how appropriate management competencies can be used for the selection, development and assessment of NPP managers, including: -Selection which includes recruitment, promotion and succession management. -Management development programmes including formal training, job rotation, on the job training, mentoring, and outside assignments. -Assessment of individual performance. Section 3 describes a systematic process for identifying the competencies needed by NPP managers. This section culminates in a set of suggested core competencies for NPP managers which are further expanded in Appendix A. The annexes included provide specific examples of competency-based management selection, development, and assessment programmes in several Member States. -Annex A is one method to organize and display competencies. -Annex B is an example of using competencies for selection of first line managers. -Annex C is an example of using management competencies for succession management. -Annexes -H are examples of management development programmes. -Annexes I and J are examples of management assessment programmes. A glossary of terms is provided at the end of the report to explain the use of some key terms explain the use of some key terms

  3. [Applying the Modified Delphi Technique to Develop the Role of HIV Case Managers and Essential Nursing Competencies in HIV Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nai-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Yin; Chen, Yen-Chin; Tsai, Chen-Hsi; Liu, Hsiao-Ying; Liu, Li-Fang

    2015-08-01

    Since 2005, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) initiated an HIV case management program in AIDS-designated hospitals to provide integrative services and risk-reduction counseling for HIV-infected individuals. In light of the increasingly complex and highly specialized nature of clinical care, expanding and improving competency-based professional education is important to enhance the quality of HIV/AIDS care. The aim of this study was to develop the essential competency framework for HIV care for HIV case managers in Taiwan. We reviewed essential competencies of HIV care from Canada, the United Kingdom, and several African countries and devised descriptions of the roles of case managers and of the associated core competencies for HIV care in Taiwan. The modified Delphi technique was used to evaluate the draft framework of these roles and core competencies. A total of 15 HIV care experts were invited to join the expert panel to review and rank the draft framework. The final framework consisted of 7 roles and 27 competencies for HIV case managers. In Round 1, only 3 items did not receive consensus approval from the experts. After modification based on opinions of the experts, 7 roles and 27 competencies received 97.06% consensus approval in Round 2 and were organized into the final framework for HIV case managers. These roles and associated core competencies were: HIV Care Expert (9 competencies), Communicator (1 competency), Collaborator (4 competencies), Navigator (2 competencies), Manager (4 competencies), Advocate (2 competencies), and Professional (5 competencies). The authors developed an essential competency framework for HIV care using the consensus of a multidisciplinary expert panel. Curriculum developers and advanced nurses and practitioners may use this framework to support developments and to ensure a high quality of HIV care.

  4. Documentation of Improvement Competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørn; Back, Karsten Kristensen; Korsaa, Morten

    2017-01-01

    competences, which should or could be brought into play during the project – and therefor also in one way or another addresses the quality of the activated competences in the improvement project – a kind of qualification. The clue is that the structure of the report follows the units and element in the SPI......This paper demonstrates how a report used in a Master in Project management and Process improvement training at Roskilde University Denmark can be used to evaluate if a student can pass the ECQA SPI Manager exam. It also demonstrates how the structure of the report addresses all necessary...... Manager job role, which is based on the SPI Manifesto and the ImprovAbilityTM model (part of ISO/IEC 33014 Guideline for Process Improvement) among other types of knowledge and research....

  5. Language competence in movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus...... multilingual children's language and literacy acquisition processes, we direct our focus to a single child's active exploration of what it means to know a language. Through analysis of interviews and researcher generated activities, we see how this child both describes and does language competence...... as a phenomenon that has several meanings, is social, is dependent on location and is unpredictable. Thus, we demonstrate how focus on the child's perspective of what it means to ‘know language’ can lead to insights into the creative, complex and dynamic processes that are part of children's active meaning making...

  6. Intercultural Competence: Another Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Barletta Manjarrés

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to draw the attention of language teachers and educational authorities to the area of culture teaching in foreign language education at a time when the recently issued Basic Standards of Competencies in Foreign Language have conferred modest attention to this aspect of language education. The paper first describes the notion of Intercultural communicative competence. It then discusses the tensions between this new understanding of the teaching of culture and the prevailing teaching practices, approaches, beliefs and discourses associated with the learning and teaching of culture. Third, it reports on the results of a study which critically analyzed the academic discourses of in-service teachers in Colombia regarding the cultural component of foreign language programs; finally, it proposes ways to start taking new directions.

  7. WHO NEEDS INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Laura ZARZU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current essay focuses on the need for formal education in the area of intercultural communication and training of intercultural competences. It builds on cultural identity and diversity literature, on the experiment conducted in the Low Countries in introducing a new topic for students from social sciences referring to intercultural communication and on reports and papers of international companies, organizations and agencies. The argument of globalization which should give equal opportunities to each and every world’s citizen adds pressure on managers dealing with multicultural teams. Intercultural competences gain importance in recruiting, while turning cultural diversity in team performance requires skills, knowledge and experience. Managing cultural diversity presupposes that people are aware, recognize, understand and deal with differences. Thus intercultural communication should be studied as a stand-alone topic or imbedded in other subjects in different forms of education or training, so people are prepared for intercultural, social and professional relationships.

  8. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f......This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives...... on the firm. While there has been little direct discussion between the main proponents of these perspectives, both claim that they are reaching for a "strategic theory of the firm". Such a theory would not only shed light on the classical questions considered in the theory of the firm (e.g. why firms exist......, and entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  9. FIRST robots compete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams and their robots work to go through the right motions at the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  10. Spiritual Competency Scale: Further Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…

  11. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  12. Dissociative State and Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the results of forensic evaluation of the civil competence of a case of alleged dissociative identity disorder (DID and discusses whether such dissociative states substantially jeopardize civil competence. A 40-year-old woman claimed that she had had many personalities since her college days. From the age of 37 to 40, she shopped excessively, which left her with millions of dollars of debt. She ascribed her shopping to a certain identity state, over which she had no control. (In this article, we use the term identity state to replace personality as an objective description of a mental state. She thus raised the petition of civil incompetence. During the forensic evaluation, it was found that the identity states were relatively stable and mutually aware of each other. The switch into another identity state was sometimes under voluntary control. The subject showed consistency and continuity in behavioral patterns across the different identity states, and no matter which identity state she was in, there was no evidence of impairment in her factual knowledge of social situations and her capacity for managing personal affairs. We hence concluded that she was civilly competent despite the claimed DID. Considering that the existence and diagnosis of DID are still under dispute and a diagnosis of DID alone is not sufficient to interdict a person's civil right, important clinical and forensic issues remain to be answered.

  13. Essential competencies in entry-level pediatric physical therapy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Mary Jane; Furze, Jennifer; Martin, Kathy; Schreiber, Joe; Dannemiller, Lisa A; Dibiasio, Paula A; Moerchen, Victoria A

    2014-01-01

    The Section on Pediatrics (SoP) convened an Education Summit in July 2012 to examine, discuss, and respond to documented inconsistencies and challenges in teaching pediatric physical therapy (PT) content in entry-level professional education programs. Despite previous attempts by the SoP to provide guidance around teaching pediatric PT, variability continued to be extensive across programs. This article presents the core competencies developed out of the Summit to inform pediatric content in the entry-level PT curriculum. In addition, the core competencies were linked to teaching strategies, learning activities, assessment outcomes, and curricular structures. Consensus was reached on 5 core competencies that represent a knowledge base essential to all graduates of PT programs. In contrast to prior SoP documents, these competencies were specifically designed to focus on knowledge and skills unique to pediatric practice but essential for all graduates of accredited entry-level PT education programs. For more insights from the authors, see Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/PPT/A50.

  14. Nuclear safety and human competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Petre

    2001-01-01

    Competence represents a very well defined ensemble of knowledge and skills, behavior modalities, standard procedures and judgement types that can be used in a given situation, without a priori learning. It is obvious that a person competence should fulfill the needs of the company he works for. For a Nuclear Power Plant operator competence is a constitutive part of his individuality. Competence includes: 1. Knowledge that can be classified in three main items: - procedural and declarative knowledge; - practical knowledge and skills; - fundamental knowledge. 2. 'Non cognitive' knowledge components, such as 'social information', team collective competence, safety education, risks perception and management. The last item presents a special interest for nuclear safety. On the other hand, competence level defines the quality of procedures applied in different operational situations. Competence - procedures relations are presented. Competence fundament results from operator activity analysis. The analyst has to take into consideration several phases of activity in which competence is highlighted like: - genesis, during formation; - transformation, during adaptation to a technical modification; - transfer, from expert to probationer. Competence is subject to a continuous transformation process due to technical and organizational evolutions and 'operator ageing'. Cognitive ageing of operators or the technical ageing of competence often appear to be superimposed. Technical progress acceleration increases the ageing effects of competence. Knowledge - skills dynamic relations are discussed. The changing of organizational form determines appearance of new competence gained from others domains or defined by multidisciplinary studies. Ergonomics can help the changing of organizational form through analysis of operators evolution activity which will generate new competence. Ergonomics can contribute to identify means of raising competence starting from learning process

  15. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  16. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear reactor core catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core catcher is described for containing debris resulting from an accident causing core meltdown and which incorporates a method of cooling the debris by the circulation of a liquid coolant. (U.K.)

  18. Theoretical Analysis of the Professional Competence's Formation and Development in the Light of Ukrainian and Foreign Scientists (In Terms of the Marketers' Professional Skills and Abilities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovych, Uliana

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines formation of the concept of "competence", attaches importance to the invariant of professional qualification, and explains core competencies of the marketer. The general and extensive use of the term "competence" in professional education and training has been indicated. It has been noted that recently the…

  19. Foundational workplace safety and health competencies for the emerging workforce☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Andrea H.; Guerin, Rebecca J.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young workers (aged 15–24) suffer disproportionately from workplace injuries, with a nonfatal injury rate estimated to be two times higher than among workers age 25 or over. These workers make up approximately 9% of the U.S. workforce and studies have shown that nearly 80% of high school students work at some point during high school. Although young worker injuries are a pressing public health problem, the critical knowledge and skills needed to prepare youth for safe and healthy work are missing from most frameworks used to prepare the emerging U.S. workforce. Methods A framework of foundational workplace safety and health knowledge and skills (the NIOSH 8 Core Competencies)was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). Results The proposed NIOSH Core Competencies utilize the HBM to provide a framework for foundational workplace safety and health knowledge and skills. An examination of how these competencies and the HBM apply to actions that workers take to protect themselves is provided. The social and physical environments that influence these actions are also discussed. Conclusions The NIOSH 8 Core Competencies, grounded in one of the most widely used health behavior theories, fill a critical gap in preparing the emerging U.S. workforce to be cognizant of workplace risks. Practical applications Integration of the NIOSH 8 Core Competencies into school curricula is one way to ensure that every young person has the foundational workplace safety and health knowledge and skills to participate in, and benefit from, safe and healthy work. National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:27846998

  20. Self-Perceived and Actual Motor Competence in Young British Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Jones, Victoria; O'Brien, Wesley; Barnett, Lisa M; Eyre, Emma L J

    2018-04-01

    Children's perception of their own motor competence is an important correlate of their actual motor competence. The current study is the first to examine this association in British children and the first to use both product and process measures of actual motor competence. A total of 258 children (139 boys and 119 girls; aged 4 to 7 years, Mean = 5.6, SD = .96) completed measures of self-perceived motor competence using the Pictorial Scale for Perceived Movement Competence in Young Children. Children were classified as "Low," "Medium," or "High" perceived competence based on tertile analysis. Actual motor competence was assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (a process measure) and a composite of 10-m sprint run time, standing long jump distance, and 1-kg seated medicine ball throw (collectively, a product measure). Data for process and product measures were analyzed using a 2 (sex) × 3 (high, medium, low perceived competence) analysis of covariance, with body mass index, calculated from height and mass, and age controlled. Boys obtained significantly higher scores than girls for both the process ( p = .044) and product ( p = .001) measures of actual motor competence. Boys had significantly ( p = .04) higher scores for perceived competence compared to girls. Compared to children classified as medium and high self-perceived competence, children classified as low self-perceived competence had lower process ( p = .001) and product scores (i.e., medium, p = .009 and high, p = .0001) of actual motor competence. Age ( p = .0001) and body mass index ( p = .0001) were significantly associated with product motor competence. Strategies to enhance actual motor competence may benefit children's self-perceived motor competence.