WorldWideScience

Sample records for body constitution

  1. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney. Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies found in SCM.

  2. [Pain as an experience constituting body and identity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, O; Tambornino, L

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the philosophical perspective of what pain actually is, how pain is defined and what functions pain has. It is unclear, for example, whether pain generally correlates with physical harm, if it is categorically unpleasant, if it can be objectified and how observable neuronal processes correlate with different experiences of pain. Particular attention is paid to investigations concerning neuro-imaging, as well as phenomenological and psychoanalytical considerations. The different functions of pain are presented, especially regarding the extent to which pain represents an experience that constitutes both the body and the identity. Some functions of pain discussed here are: defense and indicator, immediate bodily sensation, perceptibility of the body, self-reassurance of existence, congregating and materializing, psychological regulatory mechanism and communication. PMID:27351758

  3. Association between Albuminuria and Different Body Constitution in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Taichung Diabetic Body Constitution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients increases the risk of diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Because albuminuria is modifiable, identifying relevant risk factors could facilitate prevention and/or management. This cross-sectional study investigated whether body constitution (BC independently predicts albuminuria. Method. Patients with T2DM (n=846 received urinalysis, a blood test, and diabetic retinopathy examination. Albuminuria was defined by an elevated urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (≥30 μg/mg. BC type (Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, and Phlegm stasis was assessed using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ. Traditional risk factors for albuminuria were also recorded. Odds ratios (ORs of albuminuria for BC were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Albuminuria was more prevalent in patients with Yang deficiency or Phlegm stasis (both P<0.01. After adjustment, patients with both Yang deficiency and Phlegm stasis exhibited a significantly higher risk of albuminuria (OR = 3.037; 95% confidence interval = 1.572–5.867, and P<0.001. Conclusion. BC is strongly associated with albuminuria in T2DM patients. Using a BCQ to assess BC is noninvasive, convenient, and inexpensive and can provide information for health care professionals to identify T2DM patients who are at a high risk of albuminuria.

  4. Repeatability of pulse diagnosis and body constitution diagnosis in traditional Indian Ayurveda medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurande, Vrinda; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon;

    2012-01-01

    In Ayurveda, pulse and body constitution diagnosis have a long historical use; still there is lack of quantitative measure on e.g. reliability of this diagnostic method. Reliability means consistency of information. Consistent diagnosis leads to consistent treatment and is important for clinical ...

  5. Need of integrated dietary therapy for persons with diabetes mellitus and "unhealthy" body constitution presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yee Chi Peggy

    2016-07-01

    From a perspective of Chinese medicine (CM), persons with unregulated "unhealthy" body constitution (BC) will further develop chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Conventional dietary therapy with nutrition component has its limitations in the regulation of "unhealthy" BC. However, empirical evidence supports that "unhealthy" BC can be regulated with food natures and flavors from a perspective of CM. Presentations of "unhealthy" BC types, such as Yin-deficiency, Yang-deficiency and Yin-Yang-deficiency were found in persons with DM. It would be necessary to regulate the "unhealthy" BC presentations with integration of conventional dietary therapy and Chinese food therapy. The ultimate goal is to either stabilize glycaemic control or prevent the development of other chronic diseases leading to reduction of disease burden, such as disease-related poor quality of life, stress of healthcare professionals and the rising of healthcare cost. PMID:27417172

  6. Individual variability in the core interthreshold zone as related to body physique, somatotype, and physical constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakitsuba, Naoshi; Mekjavic, Igor B; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2009-11-01

    For evaluating the effect of body physique, somatotype, and physical constitution on individual variability in the core interthreshold zone (CIZ), data from 22 healthy young Japanese male subjects were examined. The experiment was carried out in a climatic chamber in which air temperature was maintained at 20-24 degrees C. The subjects' body physique and the maximum work load were measured. Somatotype was predicted from the Heath-Carter Somatotype method. In addition, factors reflecting physical constitution, for example, susceptibility to heat and cold, and quality of sleep were obtained by questionnaire. The subjects wore a water-perfused suit which was perfused with water at a temperature of 25 degrees C and at a rate of 600 cc/min, and exercised on an ergometer at 50% of their maximum work rate for 10-15 min until their sweating rate increased. They then remained continuously seated without exercise until shivering increased. Rectal temperature (T(re)) and skin temperatures at four sites were monitored by thermistors, and sweating rate was measured at the forehead with a sweat rate monitor. Oxygen uptake was monitored with a gas analyzer. The results showed individual variability in the CIZ. According to the reciprocal cross-inhibition (RCI) theory, thermoafferent information from peripheral and core sensors is activated by T(re), mean skin temperature (T(sk)), and their changes. Since T(sk) was relatively unchanged, the data were selected to eliminate the influence of the core cooling rate on the sensor-to-effector pathway before RCI, and the relationship between the CIZ and the various factors was then analyzed. The results revealed that susceptibility to heat showed a good correlation with the CIZ, indicating that individual awareness of heat may change the CIZ due to thermoregulatory behavior. PMID:20009375

  7. Evaluation Of Low Level Laser Therapy On Body Constitution And Leptin Hormone By Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymmetric fat distribution with excessive fat accumulation in particular areas often affects a person's self-image, self esteem, and overall quality of life. Purpose of the study: to investigate the efficacy of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on body constitution and leptin hormone by radioimmunoassay. Methods: Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30- 40 years. They were divided into two groups of equal number. Procedures: -Group A (Overweight group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 25- 29.9-Group B (Obese group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 30.both groups received LLLT, for 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. BMI, WC, HC, WHR, serum Leptin, cholesterol and triglyceride level were measured before and after finishing the study. Results: There was significant improvement in anthropometric measurements( on both abdomen and thigh fats) of both groups treated with low level laser therapy, decrease in serum leptin level in over weight group and increase in triglyceride serum level in both groups within normal level Conclusion: low level laser therapy is effective as a noninvasive and safe method of body contouring .

  8. 证与病、体质关系的探讨%Discussion on Syndrome, Disease and Body Constitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 邓正明

    2012-01-01

    中医学中的“证”包含着对疾病、药物及体质等多方面相互作用的认识,关于病及体质失衡的知识是构成证的两大基本内容;现代医学是一种暗含所有人体质都相同的简化理论,在现代对疾病认识的基础上,从疾病与体质相互作用角度来研究人体与疾病,可以获得更全面的认识,从而弥补现代疾病理论的不足,是现代疾病理论的发展方向.%Traditional Chinese Medicine "Syndrome" is an interactive cognition about disease, medicine and body constitution. It is the basic content of "Syndrome" about disease and disequilibrium of body constitution. Modern medicine is a reducing theory that supposes body constitution of all peoples are identical. On the basis of modern medicine, we can explore disease from the interaction of disease and body constitution and get the more knowledge. It is the direction of development of theory of modern diseases.

  9. Gender operations: the film XXY (2007 and the constitution of the body and sex as “natural”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fogaça Monteiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on Foucault’s concept of the body as the surface of inscription of history, and on the work of Judith Butler, this article questions the way that binary and normative conceptions of gender operate in the constitution of a field of intelligibility for subjects and their bodies. We analyse the film XXY (2007 that tells the story of Alex, an intersexual adolescent. We use the main character's story to see how gender norms act to shape bodies and limit their pleasures. We argue that subjects and bodies that do not correspond to the normative ideal are seen as “abject bodies”, following Butler’s definition. The argument is that gender norms operate on all bodies: the normal and the abject.

  10. FE FORMULATION FOR THE VISCOELASTIC BODY MODELED BY FRACTIONAL CONSTITUTIVE LAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei(张卫); Nobuyuki Shimizu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents finite element (FE) fornulation of the viscoelastic materials described by fractional constitutive law. The time-domain threedimensional constitutive equation is constructed. The FE equations are set up by treating the fractional operator as a special case of the hereditary integration. The equations are solved by numerical integration method. The numerical algorithm de veloped by the authors for Liouville-Riemann's fractional derivative was adopted to formulate FE procedures and extended to solve the more general case of the hereditary integration. The numerical examples were given to show the correctness and effectiveness of the integration algorithm.

  11. Pure-jump processes and constitutive equations for simple thermodinamic bodies with fading memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Montanaro

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available Can it be useful to use discontinuous jump-processes in order to formulate a somewhat different thermodynamic theory for a general simple body with fading memory? In this communication I will present the results of paper [9], where the above question is investigated. By means of a certain well defined class of quasi-processes of local pure-jump, there I set up a thermodynamic theory T* for such a body in which only the dynamic part of entropy is assumed to exist.

  12. Frail bodies: geriatric medicine and the constitution of the fourth age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Clinical discourses of frailty are central both to the construction of the social category of the fourth age and to the role and identity of hospital geriatric medicine. However, the influence of such clinical discourses is not just from science to the social sphere and nor do these discourses have their source in a putative truth of the old body but emerge from an interplay between physiological facts, discourses of governmentality, productive processes associated with late modern capitalism and the professional ambitions of geriatric medicine. The article explores this interplay in the two key discourses of frailty that have emerged in the clinical literature during the past 15 years, that of the phenotype and the accumulation of deficits, respectively. Outlining the development of the discourse of senescence from its origins to the more recent emergence of a nosological category of frailty the article explores how these key discourses capture the older body according to particular sets of norms. These norms link physiological understanding with broader discourses of governmentality, including the professional project of geriatric medicine. In particular, metaphorical representations in the discourses of frailty convey key cultural and clinical assumptions concerning both older bodies and old age more generally. PMID:25650444

  13. Need of integrated dietary therapy for persons with diabetes mellitus and “unhealthy” body constitution presentations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yee Chi Peggy Wong

    2016-01-01

    From a perspective of Chinese medicine (CM), persons with unregulated “unhealthy” body constitution (BC) wil further develop chronic diseases, such as diabetes melitus (DM). Conventional dietary therapy with nutrition component has its limitations in the regulation of “unhealthy” BC. However, empirical evidence supports that “unhealthy” BC can be regulated with food natures and fl avors from a perspective of CM. Presentations of “unhealthy” BC types, such as Yin-defi ciency, Yang-defi ciency and Yin-Yang-defi ciency were found in persons with DM. It would be necessary to regulate the “unhealthy” BC presentations with integration of conventional dietary therapy and Chinese food therapy. The ultimate goal is to either stabilize glycaemic control or prevent the development of other chronic diseases leading to reduction of disease burden, such as disease-related poor quality of life, stress of healthcare professionals and the rising of healthcare cost.

  14. Neuropeptide Y and α-MSH circadian levels in two populations with low body weight: anorexia nervosa and constitutional thinness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Galusca

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN presents an adaptive appetite regulating profile including high levels of ghrelin and 26RFa (orexigenic and low levels of leptin and PYY (anorexigenic. However, this adaptive mechanism is not effective in promoting food intake. The NPY/proopiomelanocortin (POMC system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding behavior as NPY is the most potent orexigenic neuropeptide identified so far and as the POMC-derived peptide α-MSH drastically reduces food intake, and this peptidergic system has not been thoroughly studied in AN.The aim of the present study was thus to investigate whether a dysfunction of the NPY/POMC occurs in two populations with low body weight, AN and constitutional thinness (CT.This was a cross-sectional study performed in an endocrinological unit and in an academic laboratory.Three groups of age-matched young women were studied: 23 with AN (AN, 22 CT and 14 normal weight controls.Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma NPY and α-MSH levels were measured in the three groups of investigated subjects.No significant circadian variation of NPY was detected between the three groups. Plasma α-MSH levels were significantly lower in AN (vs controls all over the day. The CT group, compared to controls, presented lower levels of α-MSH in the morning and the evening, and an important rise during lunchtime.In AN patients, the NPY system is not up-regulated under chronic undernutrition suggesting that this may play a role in the inability of anorectic women to adapt food intake to their energy demand. In contrast, low circadian α-MSH levels integrate the adaptive profile of appetite regulation of this disease. Finally, in CT women, the important α-MSH peak detected during lunchtime could explain why these patients are rapidly food satisfied.

  15. Rethink of body constitution of colleges and umiversities students%对大学生身体素质问题的再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滨

    2001-01-01

    身体素质和健身素质两者之间在锻炼目的、内容和方法等方面都有很大的区别。大学生的身体素质应主要体现在健身素质方面,以发展有氧代谢能力,增强心脑血管系统机能为主线,尽快扭转大学生健身素质普遍下降的趋势。%The author considers that body constitution contains two meaning,one is the kind of sports,it strengthens sports'ability for sportsman;the other is the kind of health, its goal is health for people. there is big difference in meaning between the two words. the body constitution of colleges and universities students ought to embody health, and develop aerobic metabolism ability. PE.in colleges and universities ought to improve body constitution of health to colleges and universties students.

  16. Exact calculation of the number of degrees of freedom of a rigid body constituted by n particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bernal, Jorge; Carbajal-Dominguez, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    In this work we discuss how to correctly obtain the number of degrees of freedom of a system constituted by n particles with fixed relative distances and which are immerse in a three-dimensional space. As a result of our analysis, we develop expressions which yield the number of degrees of freedom of an analogous system, not only in three, but in any arbitrary number D of dimensions.

  17. 中医体质干预研究的方法学探讨%Methodological Exploration on TCM Intervention of Body Constitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠敏; 倪诚; 李英帅; 王济; 王琦

    2012-01-01

    Many clinical practices showed thai regulating hody constitution can pretent disease and improve the prognosis and lite quality. Evidence based medicime can be used to evaluate the effect of intervention of body constitution. Effccts of inlervenlion should he evaluated by randomized controfled lrial, cohort study, case-conlro study, case senes, single case randomized controlled trial, evidence-based case report and qualitative research. Combined with characteriseties ot body constitution research, this paper discusses the application of clinir.al n-seareh method on TCM intervention of body constitution. We hope to supply methodological enlightenment for clinical research on budy constiuution%大量的临床实践显示对偏颇体质进行调理可以防止疾病的发生发展、改善预后,提高患者的生存质量.评价体质干预的效果需要运用循证医学的方法进行科学评价.评价干预措施效果的研究方法主要有随机对照试验、队列研究、病例对照研究、病例系列研究、单病例随机对照试验、循证病例报告以及定性研究等.结合中医体质研究的特点,对以上临床研究方法在中医体质干预研究中的应用进行了探讨,希望能够为中医体质临床研究者提供方法学上的启示.

  18. Constitutive expression of cytochrome P450 in foetal and adult porcine livers-Effects of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Theil, Peter Kappel; Oksbjerg, Niels

    2016-09-01

    The liver hosts a great number of enzymatically driven processes, including detoxification. The super-family of enzymes named cytochrome P450 (CYP) is the major participant in that process. The expression of CYPs is affected by several factors including life-stage (foetal vs. adult). In the present study we investigated the impact of birth-weight (high or low birth weight) and life-stage on constitutive expression of porcine hepatic CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A19, CYP2B22, CYP2C33, CYP2D25, CYP2E1 and CYP3A29, as well as the transcription factors controlling their expression; aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor, C/EBP and hepatocyte nuclear factors 1 and 4. Both RT-PCR and western blotting showed a marked increase in the expression of the adult pigs compared with prenatal pigs. Moreover, CYP2E1 mRNA expression was 7.5 fold higher in foetuses with low birth weight compared with foetuses with high birth weight. Gender did not affect the mRNA expression within the different life-stages. These results indicate a similarity to what is observed in humans and porcine foetuses may therefore be a model for humans when studying expression of CYPs. PMID:27320961

  19. Constitutional Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Richard Henry

    2009-01-01

    The main ambition of "Constitutional Constraints" is to open up the subject of constitutional constraints on government officials, including Presidents and Supreme Court Justices, as a topic for discussion within the field of Constitutional Theory. The subject has so far received little comprehensive discussion in the law reviews, in part because of a division between scholarly approaches that treat constitutional law as a system of norms and political scientific theories that portray judges ...

  20. Constitutional Hardball

    OpenAIRE

    Tushnet, Mark V.

    2004-01-01

    This Essay develops the idea that there is a practice called constitutional hardball. The practice has three characteristics: it involves arguments and behavior by political actors (including judges, although their role is less interesting than that of other political actors) that are defensible - though sometimes only barely so - by standard constitutional doctrine; it is inconsistent with settled pre-constitutional understandings; and it involves extremely high stakes (control over the nati...

  1. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON ANTHROPROMETRIC AND METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN OBESE TYPE-2 DIABETICS WITH REFERENCE TO SPECIFIC BODY CONSTITUTION (PRAKRITI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Kavita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to assess the effect of exercise in obese type-2 diabetics on anthroprometric and metabolic parameters with respect to prakriti. For the purpose of study, 30 Obese Type Diabetes Mellitus subjects were enrolled (30-55 years of both sex. BMI, Blood sugar level, serum insulin level, HOMA-IR, HOMA-% S and HOMA-% B were done to assess the effect of exercise. Significant decrease in BMI, weight and PPBS was observed in both kapha and pitta prakriti group individuals. Statistically significant change in terms of decrease in FBS, serum insulin level, HOMA-IR and increase in HOMA-%S was seen in kapha prakriti group individuals whereas as per prakriti, no change was seen in HOMA-%B. Aerobic exercise has shown immense impact on anthroprometric and metabolic parameters on OTDM patients with relation to specific body constitution (prakriti.

  2. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina;

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...

  3. 青年男性中医体质分类与生殖健康的相关性研究%The correlation study on TCM body constitution classification and the reproductive system diseases in young man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉保民; 胡海翔; 罗少波

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究青年男性中医体质辨证分类与生殖健康的相关性。方法 对749例调查对象通过填写“男性体质调查表”,结合查体进行体质辨证,以期了解男性体质类型的构成及其与生殖健康的关系。结果 接受调查者年龄在18~35岁。包皮过长者中,气郁质、瘀血质明显多于平和质(P<0.01);前列腺炎患者中,湿热质、气郁质明显多于平和质(P<0.01);精索静脉曲张患者中,气虚质、瘀血质多于平和质(P<0.01);包茎患者中,阳虚质明显多于平和质(P<0.01);早泄患者中,气虚质、阴虚质、特禀质明显多于平和质(P<0.01);勃起功能障碍患者中,阴虚质、特禀质明显多于平和质(P<0.01);不育症患者中,阳虚质、阴虚质、瘀血质明显多于平和质(P<0.01)。结论 青年男性中医体质辨证类型与生殖系统健康状况有一定相关性。%Objective To study the correlation between the body constitution classifications of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)and the reproductive system diseases in young man. Methods All 749 objects took physical examination about the reproductive system diseases, filled in the questionnaire of male body constitution, and differentiated TCM classifications of body constitution. Results The incidence rate of redundant prepuce of depressed vital energy constitution and stagnant blood constitution was obviously higher than balance constitution (P<0.01) , the incidence rate of prostatitis of dampness-heat constitution and depressed vital energy constitution was obviously higher than balance constitution (P<0.01), the incidence rate of varicocele of Qi asthonia constitution and stagnant blood constitution was obviously higher than balance constitution(P<0.01), the incidence rate of phimosis of Yang deficiency constitution was obviously higher than balance constitution (P<0.01) , the incidence rote of prospermia of Qi asthenia constitution

  4. Constitutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig Van den Hauwe

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the main points discussed at the seminar ?Constitutional Economics: Cinderella in the Czech Economic Community? held by the Czech Economic Association in February 2000. The main speaker at the seminar was Prof. Karel Kouba (Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague), who characterized constitutional economics as a still relatively new and promising research program. The ensuing discussion concerned several topics, including the relationship between public ...

  5. Constitutional Conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    After their dismal performance in election 2008, conservatives are taking stock. As they examine the causes that have driven them into the political wilderness and as they explore paths out, they should also take heart. After all, election 2008 shows that America's constitutional order is working as designed. Indeed, while sorting out their errors…

  6. 中医阳虚型体质现代研究概述%A review of modern studies of body constitution deficient of Yang energy in terms of traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许瑞旭; 窦思东

    2015-01-01

    体质现象是人体生命活动中的重要表现形式之一,与健康和疾病密切相关,阳虚体质为临床常见的偏颇体质类型。文章就近年来中医阳虚型体质的研究进行总结和归纳,旨在为本领域的研究提供文献参考和思路。%The phenomenon of body constitution is an important form of human life activities.It is closely related to health and disease.The constitution deficient of Yang energy is a common type of abnormal constitution.The paper presents a review of the studies on the constitution deficient of Yang energy in recent years.It attempts to provide theoretical framework for future research work in the field.

  7. Current Situation and Assessment of the Clinical Study on the Chinese Medicine Body Constitution of Diabetes%糖尿病中医体质的临床研究现状与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 金艳蓉; 曹芸; 李雷

    2013-01-01

    文章对近年来发表的糖尿病中医体质临床研究文献,进行了全面的总结及循证医学的分析与评价.相关的研究显示:糖尿病患者的中医体质多以气虚质、阴虚质及痰湿质为主;不同体质类型之间,其血脂水平、血凝指标、体质指数和年龄可能存在差异;在伴有微血管并发症的糖尿病患者中,其主要体质为气虚质、痰湿质、血瘀质和阳虚质;中医体质干预对血糖、糖化血红蛋白、血脂、血压及体重有一定的效果.由于这些研究在研究设计、统计.方法 学的选择和样本的来源方面都存在缺陷,所以其证据强度不够高.因此,需要更多的设计严谨的临床研究,来明确中医体质在糖尿病防治中的作用.%The overall summarization and the analysis and assessment of the evidence-based medicine were conducted in the paper on the literatures of the clinical study of Chinese medicine body constitution of diabetes. The relevant researches indicated; the common Chinese medicine body constitutions of diabetes patients were qi deficiency,yin deficiency and phlegm damp. Among the different body constitutions,the potential differences happened in blood lipid,clotting index,body mass index and age. For the patients with mi-crovascular complications,the main body constitutions were qi deficiency,phlegm damp,blood stagnation and yang deficiency. The intervention of Chinese medicine body constitution has achieved a certain effect on blood glucose,glycosylated hemoglobin, blood lipid, blood pressure and body weight. Because of the limitations on the research design, statistical methodology and source of sample in these researches, the evidences were not strong enough. Hence,the clinical researches of more precise designs arc; required to determine the role of Chinese medicine body constitution in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  8. Sampling survey on body constitution of 499 scientific researchers and officers in Handan%邯郸市科研人员和机关干部499名体质状况的抽样调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于岚; 王学满

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Officers and intellectuals are bearing heavy government affairs and tasks of teaching and scientific research. It is practically important to acknowledge and master their body constitution, which can help to instruct them to scientifically build their bodies.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body function and shape as well as body constitution of scientific researchers and officers in Handan, and analyze the existing problems and bring out the settlement.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Hebei Provincial Committee Party School.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 499 subjects, aged 20-59 years, including238 males and 261 females were selected from government officers, university teachers and scientific researchers of institute and aeademy by using stratified and cluster random sampling. Subjects aged 20-39 were divided into adult group A (50.5%), and those with the age ranged 40-59 were taken as adult group B (49.5%).METHODS: All subjects fulfilled the questionnaire (including whether they had hospitalized history, and the smoking condition, exercise condition, reasons why did not participate in the sports, sports items that patients took part in, the place they conducted athletic activities, time of each exercise and exercise times per week etc.) and were measured of the body constitution.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①Indexes of body function and shape,including body height, body mass, chest circumference, waistline, hip circumference and skinfold at all parts of body as well as the pulse in quiet state, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and lung capacity etc. ②Indexes of body constitution, including grasp force,bend-ahead in sitting, stand up on one leg with eyes closed, choice reaction time simple reaction time, back strength, 10 m×4 shuttle run, and pushup (male)/sit-up (female) etc. The results of test were scaled according to the Report of Monitoring of Chinese Adult Constitution, edited by the State Physical Cultural

  9. Study of the relation between Body Constitution and incidence tendency of depression or anxiety%体质与抑郁、焦虑发病倾向关系的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓红月; 陈玉玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨体质与抑郁、焦虑发病倾向的关系.方法 采用问卷方式对社区居民进行调查.结果 偏颇体质的抑郁、焦虑发病倾向高于平和体质的;气虚、湿热、气郁体质易有抑郁发病倾向,气虚、阳虚、湿热、气郁、特禀体质易有焦虑发病倾向.结论 不同体质的抑郁、焦虑发病倾向差异有统计学意义.在抑郁、焦虑的预防中可以针对体质因素进行干预.%Objective To discuss the relation between Body Constitution and incidence tendency of depres sion or anxiety. Methods The community residents were investigated with questionnaire. Results The incidence tendency of depression and anxiety with Biased Constitution was larger than with Peace. The Qi-asthenia, Damp-heat, Qi-stagnation constitutions had high tendency of depression. The Qi-asthenia, Yang-asthenia, Damp-heat, Qi-stagna tion and allergic constitutions had high tendency of anxiety. Conclusion Different constitution has distinct difference of incidence tendency, which can be used in preventing depression and anxiety.

  10. What Is a Constitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    OAH Magazine of History, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan designed to help students better understand the concept of a constitution, distinguish constitutional law from statutory law, and recognize examples of constitutional government. (BSR)

  11. Nutritional status evaluation before and after treatment in cases of alcoholic liver cirrhosis with different body constitution%酒精性肝硬化不同体质患者治疗前后营养状况评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王睿林; 王葽; 何婷婷; 张萍; 王立福; 王丽苹; 周坤; 肖小河; 李永纲

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对酒精性肝硬化患者中的湿热体质、血瘀体质两种主要体质类型进行中西医结合治疗,判断同种治疗方法对酒精性肝硬化不同体质营养状况的改善情况。方法:通过计算136例酒精性肝硬化患者《中医体质量表》得分情况,统计酒精性肝硬化患者136例中医体质分布,分析其中主要的体质类型即湿热体质、血瘀体质患者的营养状况,包括测定体重指数、三头肌皮褶厚度(triceps skin fold, TSF)、上臂肌围(mid-arm muscle circumference, MAMC)及上臂围( mid-arm circumference , MAC)、血液白蛋白、淋巴细胞总数,对数据结果进行统计分析,比较其差异,均予以黄连解毒汤为主方进行中西医结合治疗,分析治疗前后营养状况差异情况。结果:酒精性肝硬化出现频率较高的中医体质为湿热体质、血瘀体质,经相同的中西医结合治疗后,湿热体质与血瘀体质部分营养状况有所改善,其差异具有统计学意义。结论:尽管同为酒精性肝硬化,但患者因为体质状态的不同(湿热体质状态;血瘀体质状态),经相同的治疗后,其营养状况的改善也有所不同,其差异具有统计学意义,表明辨识体质进行更有针对性的个体化治疗有助于提高治疗效果。%Objective: To compare the nutritional status of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis based on different TCM constitution, investigate the relationship between improvement of nutritional status and different body constitution .Methods: To distinguish different types of TCM constitution by constitution survey scales , analyzing nutritional status distribution characteris-tics of 136 cases of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis , different constitution were evaluated with various indexes , including body mass index ( BMI ) , triceps skin fold ( TSF ) , mid-arm muscle circumference ( MAMC ) , mid-arm circumference

  12. Sampling survey on body constitution of 499 scientific researchers and officers in Handan%邯郸市科研人员和机关干部499名体质状况的抽样调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于岚; 王学满

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Officers and intellectuals are bearing heavy government affairs and tasks of teaching and scientific research. It is practically important to acknowledge and master their body constitution, which can help to instruct them to scientifically build their bodies.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body function and shape as well as body constitution of scientific researchers and officers in Handan, and analyze the existing problems and bring out the settlement.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Hebei Provincial Committee Party School.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 499 subjects, aged 20-59 years, including238 males and 261 females were selected from government officers, university teachers and scientific researchers of institute and aeademy by using stratified and cluster random sampling. Subjects aged 20-39 were divided into adult group A (50.5%), and those with the age ranged 40-59 were taken as adult group B (49.5%).METHODS: All subjects fulfilled the questionnaire (including whether they had hospitalized history, and the smoking condition, exercise condition, reasons why did not participate in the sports, sports items that patients took part in, the place they conducted athletic activities, time of each exercise and exercise times per week etc.) and were measured of the body constitution.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①Indexes of body function and shape,including body height, body mass, chest circumference, waistline, hip circumference and skinfold at all parts of body as well as the pulse in quiet state, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and lung capacity etc. ②Indexes of body constitution, including grasp force,bend-ahead in sitting, stand up on one leg with eyes closed, choice reaction time simple reaction time, back strength, 10 m×4 shuttle run, and pushup (male)/sit-up (female) etc. The results of test were scaled according to the Report of Monitoring of Chinese Adult Constitution, edited by the State Physical Cultural

  13. Conventional Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Judges share conventional understandings about what the Constitution requires, both of themselves and of other constitutional actors. These informal conventions lead to formal decisions, which are then centrally enforced by the state in the same manner as all other judicial decisions. This recognition of conventional constitutional law has three critical implications for our understanding, critique and reform of constitutional law. First, it is unlikely that judges will refer e...

  14. Economic Analysis of Constitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roger B. Myerson

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary draft of an article to appear in Chicago Law Review (2000), as part of a symposium reviewing two new books on economic analysis of constitutions: Dennis Mueller's Constitutional Democracy and Robert Cooter's Strategic Constitution. Some of the basic questions of constitutional analysis are introduced, and the importance of work in this area is shown as one of the major new developments in social theory. The methods of economic theory are then shown to be particular...

  15. Kenya's New Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Kramon, Eric; Posner, Daniel N

    2011-01-01

    On 4 August 2010, Kenyans voted to adopt a new constitution, culminating a process that began as part of a resolution to the violent conflict that followed the December 2007 elections. By reducing executive power, devolving authority, and guaranteeing rights to women, minorities, and marginalized communities, the constitution has the potential to transform Kenyan politics. Political and logistical obstacles will, however, pose a challenge to implementation. Yet that the constitution has been ...

  16. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

  17. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  18. The Constitution's Human Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses traditional concepts of tradition, religion, commerce, and family life. Points out innovative philosophies held by the Founding Fathers which shaped the Constitution. The subsequent moral revolution needs to be reconsidered in light of the Founding Fathers' intent. (PS)

  19. Constitutional and Anatomical Characteristics of Mature Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir NNikolenko; DmitryBNikityuk; SvetlanaVKlochkova; AnastasiaABahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the constitutional and anatomical peculiarities of constitution of women of mature age.Methods There was completed comprehensive anthropometric and bio-electrical survey of 651 mature women ( relative norm) living in the Moscow region .Results The quantitative distribution of women by somatotypological affiliation was revealed;anthropometric and body component composition in representatives of different somatotypes were defined .Conclusion Thus, the performed study revealed and quantiely character-ised the distribution of women according to their constitutional types in the studied population of mature age women living in Moscow region under the relative norm conditions .

  20. CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF JURISDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Jamal Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of our State of Law there is no way to separate the study of the civil procedural law from the Federal Constitution, especially the jurisdiction, because it is in the Constitution that there are the legitimizing foundations of the jurisdiction institute. In this article, we carry on about the constitutional foundations of jurisdiction, such as: the principle of natural justice, principle of access to justice, principle of impartiality, principle of publicity, principle of motivation and principle of submission to res judicata. The conclusion is, after all, that jurisdiction, as one of the bulwarks of the citizen, finds in the “Citizen Constitution” of 1988 its foundations and decisive bases.

  1. 2009~2013年大学生体质状况动态分析--基于某高职院校体质测试%A dynamic analysis of the situation of college students body constitution from 2009~2013--based on higher vocational school body test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐京朝

    2014-01-01

    Aim:analyze and evaluate the situation and develop tendency of college students body constitution from 2009~2013 to provide basis for our school sports and teaching, promote to take effective interventions.Method:carry The national student physical health standard for grade1 and grade2 students in one school and then make a statistics.Result:Overall the quality level and body function has a steadily improvement; students in grade 1 are better than in grade2;girls are better than boys.%目的:分析与评价2009~2013年大学生体质健康状况与发展趋势,为学校体育卫生宏观决策和教育研究提供依据,促进采取有效干预措施。方法:以某高职院校大一、大二全体学生为测试对象,实施《国家学生体质健康标准》测试,对各项测试指标进行基本统计描述。结果:总体上看,学生身体机能、素质水平稳步提高;大一学生成绩好于大二学生成绩;女生成绩好于男生成绩。

  2. 冠心病心血瘀阻证患者不同中医体质类型与血脂水平的关系%Relationship Between Different Body Constitutions of CHD Patients with Blood Stasis Syndrome and Their Blood Lipid Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田松; 祁若可; 程月招; 何茜; 武小雪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the distribution of body constitutions of CHD patients with blood stasis syndrome;To explore the relationship between different body constitutions and their blood lipid levels.Methods WANG’s Constitutional Classification was used to diagnose body constitutions of 600 CHD patients with blood stasis syndrome, and analyze the relationship between the different body constitutions and triglyceride (TG) level, low density cholesterol (LDL-C) level, high density cholesterol (HDL-C) level.Results The four most common body constitutions of CHD patients with blood stasis syndrome in Taiyuan area were the constitutions of blood stasis, yang deficiency, qi deficiency and yin deficiency. The TG levels of the four body constitutions were higher than those of healthy people (P0.05).Conclusion There is a certain difference among the blood lipid levels in different body constitutions of CHD patients with blood stasis syndrome, and the patients of blood stasis syndrome with high LDL-C level are more dangerous than patients with other body costitutions.%目的:观察冠心病心血瘀阻证患者的主要体质类型,探讨不同体质类型与血脂水平的关系。方法运用王氏体质分类法对600例冠心病心血瘀阻证患者进行体质分型,分析主要体质类型与三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平的关系。结果冠心病心血瘀阻证患者排名前4位的体质类型分别为瘀血质、阳虚质、气虚质、阴虚质。4类体质的TG水平均高于健康组(P<0.01),各体质间TG水平无明显差异(P>0.05);瘀血质LDL-C水平高于其他体质及健康组(P<0.01);不同体质类型HDL-C水平无明显差异,与健康组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论冠心病心血瘀阻证不同体质类型间的血脂水平具有差异性,瘀血质LDL-C危险性高于其他体质。

  3. The Constitution in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  4. The Constitution of Partnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    The constitution of partnering. Afhandlingen behandler konstitueringen af ledelseskonceptet partnering og dets anvendelse i dansk byggeri. Partnering er et udbredt koncept i byggeriet som betoner samarbejde, tillid og gensidighed mellem de deltagende parter, og konceptet har de senere år har været...

  5. The Constitution Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Schneider

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with certain questions and problems of the constitutionalization of the European Union which did not receive very much attention from the ‘Convention on the Future of Europe’ and from the observers of that Convention’s work, but which, nevertheless, may be relevant whenever the results of the Convention’s work are assessed and evaluated. The paper mainly deals with ‘background’ problems associated with traditions of political thought in general and with basic understandings of European integration in particular. The paper also expounds on how the more recent constitution discussion, initiated due to the founding of the European Union, manifests continuities with the debates that have taken place over the past decades (since the start of the integration policy based on the ‘Community method’. However, it shows that the discussion context has become more complex. In the last section of the paper, the relationship of ‘statics’ and ‘dynamics’ in relation to European constitutional conceptions is treated as a subject. The question arises as to whether and to what extent the constitution concept itself is in doubt and whether or not, in connection with this, important functions, whose very performance is expected of a constitution of the European Union, remain unfulfilled.

  6. Disputing the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Christopher H.

    1987-01-01

    Constitutional law is a good way to introduce students to fundamental debates over means and ends, over what means work and at what costs, and over what ends are not merely desirable, but may be legitimately achieved even through the application of collective force. It also offers an exciting way to teach logic. (MLW)

  7. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  8. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children. PMID:26016017

  9. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  10. The Constitutional Court and the Imperative of its Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gilia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on the upcoming review of the Constitution have determined us to pay close attention to the basic institution in a democratic state, that is the Constitutional Court. Being caught in the crossfire between power and opposition, the Constitutional Court had a hard time lately, facing severe attacks. The aim of our study is to analyze the evolution of the Constitutional Court within the inland constitutional system, particularly bringing up the flaws describing the Court’s activity. We have also analyzed the proposals put forth by several bodies or experts regarding the constitutional contentious court. At the end of our study, following an analysis of different constitutional types of constitutional review, used by a number of states in Europe, we introduced several resolutions that may improve the role, the course and, last but not least, the activity of the Romanian Constitutional Court.

  11. Judiciary on Russian Constitutional System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Arkhipov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about new constitutional order in Russia emphasizing fundamental areas as the role of judiciary in the Russian Constitutional System from 1993 Constitution, the one which replaced the 1978 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Constitution based on communist ideology. Therefore, it is intended to examine the principle of separation of powers, constitutionally recognized human rights and liberties, relationship between international bodies’ case law of human rights and the Russian Constitutional Court, among others issues.

  12. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  13. Constitutional appeals refused

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Already in the three-judge-appointed preliminary commission, the Fed. Constitutional Court, in several cases unanimously, refused a constitutional appeal against decisions in court cases regarding nuclear power plants with the substantiation that they have no sufficient prospects for success, or that they are inadmissable. These decisions are incontestable. The following orders were issued: 1) Churches must also pay for electricity produced by nuclear power plants. 2) Construction of the Grohnde nuclear power plant will not be interrupted. 3) Limited right of action against nuclear power plant licences (here: Stade) 4) Confirmation of the preliminary site approval for Kruemmel nuclear power plant. The essential reasons for the decisions are given. (orig./HP)

  14. The denied constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Borja, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the luck of the proposals presented by indigenous and afro-Colombian communities, during the National Constituent Assembly of 1991. These proposals were aimed to define a new territorial organization of the State, but they were discarded from the Constitution and the subsequent legislative development. We are, therefore, front of the lack of knowledge of one of the most important realities of the country: the construction of space by the indigenous and afro-Colomb...

  15. [Constitutional requirements of rationing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Winfried

    2008-01-01

    Rationing is an emotive issue in the field of public health. This complicates the rational discourse, which is indispensable for analyzing the rationing conditions as set out by constitutional law and which requires manifold differentiation and consideration that shall briefly be outlined in the following short contribution. Of central significance is the distinction between indirect and direct rationing as well as the reference to the essential responsibility of legislators for rationing decisions. PMID:19004184

  16. What constitutes information integrity?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms

    2008-01-01

    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  17. What constitutes information integrity?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms

    2007-01-01

    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  18. Ethics and constitutional government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  19. The constitutive sofa cushion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Sara

    2009-01-01

    body, space and artefact, thereby revealing the materialization process. Based on results of the analysis, ANT (Actor-Network- Theory) is used in order to discuss how The Danish Folk High School's conception of simplicity as an aesthetic and gendered ideal in the formal education of female handcraft...

  20. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types.

  1. The Australian Constitution and the Aid/Watch Case

    OpenAIRE

    George Williams

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Constitution played a significant role in underpinning the result in the Aid/Watch Case. It was invoked by the majority to support their conclusion that a body can be a ‘charitable institution’ despite engaging in political activities. The use of the Constitution in this way came as a surprise. The case extended an existing constitutional principle relating to freedom of political communication from its electoral base into the protection of the political activities of non-...

  2. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  3. Constitutive models in LAME.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  4. The Constitution and American Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Nathan

    1987-01-01

    Diversity in American constitutional law refers to differences among the laws of the states. However, key phrases in the Constitution have been used to ensure individual rights. The expansion of those rights has led to conflict between community needs and those of the individual, with each side referring to the Constitution for support. (PS)

  5. 中医辨体调质护理对2型糖尿病患者非糖尿病一级亲属的影响%Effects of Nursing by Differentiating and Regulating Body Constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine on First Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忠勤; 王文锐

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of nursing by distinguishing and regulating body constitutions of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) on insulin resistance to the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Adoptting "classifying study about body constitutions of traditional Chinese medicine"questionnaire,we applied the convenient sample drawing method of field investigation at cross section to the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients' parents,offsprings and siblings who were consistent with the internalizing standard concerning mental regulation, dietary health, methods of health-preserving and physical exercise. In addition, we recruited 30 patients with phlegmatic hygrosis body constitutions in the improving plan of TCM body constitution health. The plan was enforced by special messenger regular instruction for three months. Comparisons were conduced on the changes of body mass index(BMI) , fasting plasma glucose(FPG),fasting serum insulin(FINS) , HbAlc,2hPG and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance(HOMA-IR) before and after above-mentioned plan. Results Totally 30 observed objects executed above-mentioned plan. We collected 27 complete numerical data from them. Comparing those before the above-mentioned plan,the values of BMI,2hPG,FINS and HOMA-IR were significantly decreases after intervention(P<0. 05). Conclusion TCM nursing by distinguishing and regulating body constitutions can effectively improve the insulin resistance in the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.%目的 观察中医辨体调质护理干预对2型糖尿病患者无糖尿病一级亲属人群胰岛素抵抗的影响.方法 采用《中医体质分类研究》问卷对2型糖尿病患者父母、子女或同胞兄妹进行方便抽样横断面现场调查,选取痰湿体质者30例参与中医体质健康改善计划,即:由专人定期给予中医体质调护指导,时间为3个月,内容包括精神调摄、饮食养生、起居养生、

  6. Constitution, 1989. [Selected provisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Chapter XII of the Hungarian Constitution, 1989, details the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens. Everyone lawfully within the territory of Hungary has the right to liberty of movement and the freedom to choose his or her residence, except when restricted by law, including the right to leave his or her residence or county. The Republic of Hungary grants asylum to foreign citizens who were persecuted for racial, religious ethnic, linguistic, or political reasons. Men and women shall equally enjoy all civil, political, economic, social and political rights. Mothers are entitled to special care and protection before and after childbirth; women and juveniles are protected at work by special regulations. Every child has the right to special care an assistance from his or her family, the State, and society, for appropriate physical, spiritual, and moral development. Parents shall decide the kind of education their children receive. Hungary grants equal rights to all person within its territories, without regard to race, color, sex, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national, and social origin, property, birth and other status. Prejudicial discrimination shall be severely punished. Everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of employment and profession and to equal pay for equal work. Citizens have the right to social security, including social services necessary in old age, sickness, disability, widowhood, orphanhood an unemployment through no fault of their own. Hungary guarantees the right to culture for its citizens and realized this right by free and compulsory elementary education, by secondary and higher education which is accessible to all on the basis of capacity, and by the financial support of those receiving an education.

  7. Constitution And Bylaws: 2004 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distance Education and Training Council, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the constitution and bylaws of the Distance Education and Training Council. The constitution and bylaws include 13 articles. Sections include: Name; Mission and Goals; Administration of the Council; Membership; Meetings; The Commission; Terms of Office; Officers; Committees; Compensation; Dues and Assessments; Miscellaneous…

  8. The Constitution and Its Critics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

  9. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  10. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  11. [Multifaceted body. 2. The lived body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This second article distinguishes between the body as an object of knowledge or representation and the way the body is lived. This distinction which originates in phenomenological psychiatry aims to understand how the patient experiences his body and to surpass the classical somatic and psychiatric classifications. PMID:25895215

  12. [Multifaceted body. 2. The lived body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This second article distinguishes between the body as an object of knowledge or representation and the way the body is lived. This distinction which originates in phenomenological psychiatry aims to understand how the patient experiences his body and to surpass the classical somatic and psychiatric classifications.

  13. Působení kognitivně-behaviorální psychoterapie na tělesné složení a konstituci Effects of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy on body composition and constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kopecký

    2008-01-01

    esteem and difficulties in the job market field. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of physical activity and the modification of nutrition patterns on the somatic parameters in STOB courses (the courses for weight loss and obesity reduction in women at the age of 20–60 years (n = 114. The standardised anthropometrical methods were used to determine the basic somatic indexes – body weight and height, risk indexes and central obesity indexes, body composition according to Pařízková, and Matiegka and bioelectric impedance methods (QuadScan 4000; Tanita BC 418-MA. Women were divided into the groups according to age decennary. Women were measured at the beginning and at the end of the course, which lasted 12 weeks. STOB courses are led by professionals who are involved not only in physical activity but also in modification of nutrition and food intake patterns. In the groups as a whole, the BMI reached the average values of 31.34 in the initial examination, although the maximal value exceeded the limit of morbid obesity, which is 47.56. On the basis of the BMI categorisation by WHO, only 7.5% of women were in the “standard” category and 57% were obese, of which 5% were morbidly obese. According to the evaluation of subcutaneous adipose tissue using Matiegka methodology, 57.5% had more than 30% fat content, of which 28.75% was in the category of over 40% fat. The values of the centrality index, which are the ratio of the individual skin folds on the trunk and on the extremities and it shows the distribution of fat, reached values from 1.3 to 1.5. These values demonstrate the disproportional distribution of fat, with a dominancy of subcutaneous fat on the trunk. The centrality indexes correlate with WHR values and confirmed the distribution of fat was confirmed, particularly on the trunk part in comparison to the lower extremities – thus we are looking at the abdominal type of obesity. When the course had been completed, all methods used confirmed

  14. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH)

  15. Remarks on turbulent constitutive relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As examples, the constitutive relations for Reynolds stresses and scalar fluxes are derived. The results are consistent with ones from Renormalization Group (RNG) theory and two-scale Direct-Interaction Approximation (DIA) method, but with a more general form.

  16. Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Puzrin, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the traditional Geomechanics and Numerical Geotechnical Modelling with applications in science and practice. Geomechanics is rarely taught within the rigorous context of Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, while when it comes to Numerical Modelling, commercially available finite elements or finite differences software utilize constitutive relationships within the rigorous framework. As a result, young scientists and engineers have to learn the challenging subject of constitutive modelling from a program manual and often end up with using unrealistic models which violate the Laws of Thermodynamics.  The book is introductory, by no means does it claim any completeness and state of the art in such a dynamically developing field as numerical and constitutive modelling of soils. The author gives basic understanding of conventional continuum mechanics approaches to constitutive modelling, which can serve as a foundation for exploring more advanced theories....

  17. A survey on constitutional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirollah Parvin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of supervising the conformity of statutory law with constitutional law, is due to necessities rooted in two essential principles: the supremacy of constitution and the hierarchy of the law. Constitution as the supreme law in the sense of status and legal value , is placed at the top of the legal pyramid of every political system and therefore requires a special organization and discipline that will act as the sanction of the principles and the main content incorporated in this legal instrument. this special organization and discipline known as Constitutional justice in legal Literature now and have studing in two main patterns. Firs pattern based on Supervision of courts on rules and other pattern is Apply by Emphasis on role of Political Institutions in Supervision on rules. This two patterns have common purpose but have different backgrounds and methods.

  18. Cleanup liability and the Constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was observed in the July 1992 issue of this Journal that a plain reading of the Constitution's prohibition on open-quotes ex post factoclose quotes suggests that some environmental statutes such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) conflict with Constitutional principles. Like many Constitutional principles, however, the Supreme Court's interpretation of the Constitution's bar on ex post facto laws has a long history. The Court has consistently interpreted this clause as limited to criminal or penal statutes. This article discusses the history of the ex post facto clause, the retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA, the decision that retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA does not violate the ex post facto clause, and laws, regulations, and guidance. 27 refs

  19. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  20. The Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional State to Respect and Support Independent Constitutional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional democracy recognises the ancient democratic principle that government of a country is based on and legitimated by the will and consent of the governed, which is determined by regular multi-party elections based on universal adult franchise. Constitutional democracy limits this principle by subjecting the democratically elected government and the will of the majority subject to a written constitution and the norms embodied in it. Such constitution is enshrined as the supreme law of the country in question. An almost universal feature of modern constitutionalism is a Bill of Rights that forms part of the Constitution and which is designed to protect and enforce individual rights principally, although not exclusively, against the state. Constitutionalism also embodies the principle of the separation of powers. A competent and independent judiciary, with the power to review all legislative and executive conduct that is inconsistent with the Constitution, is regarded, almost universally, as the prime and most effective check on the legislative and executive branches of government. Recently it has come to be realised that for the truly effective and meaningful operation of constitutionalism, other independent state institutions are necessary. The collective objective of these institutions is to ensure that the Constitution in fact produces what it proclaims: that constitutionalism becomes a way of life in all institutional structures. The South African Constitution has clearly designated the judiciary as the prime upholder and enforcer of the Constitution. The Constitution has, however, gone further and makes provision for a variety of independent state institutions whose purpose is to "strengthen constitutional democracy in the Republic". Apart from these state institutions the Constitution also makes provision for other independent bodies designed to play an important checking and balancing role. The regular effective functioning of

  1. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  2. Constitutional Design and Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Xefteris, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    This paper models the constitutional design process, and points out the importance of political communication (defined as the level of information about the social distribution of policy preferences that individuals hold, at the time of this process) on the "extent" of "democratic restraints" of the socially preferred constitution and on the welfare derived by the society from its implementation. The results demonstrate that the level of political communication has a positive effect on the le...

  3. Constitutional aneuploidy and cancer predisposition†

    OpenAIRE

    Ganmore, Ithamar; Smooha, Gil; Izraeli, Shai

    2009-01-01

    Constitutional aneuploidies are rare syndromes associated with multiple developmental abnormalities and the alterations in the risk for specific cancers. Acquired somatic chromosomal aneuploidies are the most common genetic aberrations in sporadic cancers. Thus studies of these rare constitutional aneuploidy syndromes are important not only for patient counseling and clinical management, but also for deciphering the mechanisms by which chromosomal aneuploidy affect cancer initiation and progr...

  4. Valuation in the constitutional era

    OpenAIRE

    Elmien (WJ) du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    The Constitution brought about a new compensation regime for expropriations. Compensation for expropriation must now be "just and equitable". Whereas before the Constitution came into force market value played a central role in compensation for expropriation, market value is now only one factor or aspect of compensation that the court needs to take into account. Yet we find that courts tend to focus on market value and to still employ the valuation methods used to calculate market value. This...

  5. Right Product, Wrong Packaging: Not 'Constitution', but 'Constitutional Charter'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Law

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to locate the principal cause of Europe’s prevailing ratification crisis in the inappropriate title arrived at in the European Convention, Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe. This over-ambitious styling led the media to characterise the text as simply an ‘EU Constitution’. Yet, the text was not a Constitution as we traditionally understand the term, i.e. the founding document of a State: scholars are agreed that the EU is not, and will not become upon ratification, a State.In terms of substance, whilst the text certainly strengthened some emerging constitutional aspects, it was not a major departure from the status quo like the Single European Act and Treaty on European Union had been; and it remained technically a treaty like all its predecessors. Arguably, therefore, it did not require referenda to ratify. However, confusion over the scale and importance of what was proposed, stemming from ambiguity in the title, pushed politicians down this unfortunate path.The article identifies a high level of consensus among commentators as to the true nature of the text: most are happy designating it a treaty (noun with constitutional (adjective aspects. The early proposed title Constitutional Treaty for Europe was arguably, therefore, the correct one; but it is now too late to choose this option, as the terms Constitution and Constitutional Treaty have already been muddled in debate. A more distinctive change is required. One idea could be to follow the principle employed elsewhere in the text of codifying the generally accepted but presently unwritten legal concepts of the European Court of Justice, as was done for example for ‘primacy’ and ‘direct effect’. The Court has characterised the EU treaties as a ‘constitutional charter’ for over twenty years now, and on this basis a modified title could read Treaty Establishing a Constitutional Charter for Europe. Importantly, the term ‘charter’ is recognised

  6. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH)

  7. The Spanish Constitution, the Constitutional Court and the Catalan Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    ; and as a document that organised the offices of a state changed through the history. The Magna Carta, the French and American revolutionaries provided gave the concept a new meaning to the concept. After these historical episodes, constitutions were not simply political or legal norms to knowshowing how to play...

  8. The Spanish Constitution, the Constitutional Court and the Catalan Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    and politeia that Aristotle defined now clashes between two powerful symbolic and romantic phenomena. In the Spanish-Catalan binomial scenario, there are some elements that need to be analysed to obtain a complete picture of the constitutional possibilities to of accommodating a Catalan self...

  9. The Constitutive Power of Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Etter, Michael Andreas

    constituents. Such focus leaves little knowledge concerning the tensions new ICTs bring to organizational life. For a more nuanced understanding of the constitutive role of new ICTs in organizing, this paper unfolds a communication centered perspective and examines the strategic Twitter use in two...... organizations. The analysis illustrates how specific Twitter interactions, i.e., hashtags, become hypertexts—a type of authoritative texts—which simultaneously constitute an organizational actor or act as a pastiche of it. The study contributes to extant research by illustrating how hypertextuality is the...... process through which an organization is constituted in the interactions of both organizational and non-organizational members in both physical and virtual sites....

  10. Constitutional Analysis of Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ van der Walt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Constitutional Court’s treatment of property interests in the face of state regulation to gain an understanding of the type of state interference that is justifiable in terms of section 25(1 of the Bill of Rights. This is done by examining the Constitutional Court’s dicta relating to the meaning of deprivation and how these inform the meaning of property in the constitutional context. The methodology that the Constitutional Court has formulated to assess if state interference complies with the provisions of section 25 is explained to show the type of state regulation that has been found legitimate. We then consider how this understanding of constitutional property and the state’s legitimate exercise of its inherent police power interact in the setting of intellectual property by contrasting the various policy objectives underlying the different statutory regimes governing intellectual property. This theoretical analysis is then applied to two contemporary examples of feasible state interference with existing intellectual property interests, namely the proposed plain packaging measures which severely restrict the use of tobacco trade marks, and a fair dealing exception allowing the use of copyright works for the purpose of parody. These examples serve to illustrate the context and manner in which intellectual property interests may come before the Court and the necessary differentiation with which these interests should be treated. The appropriate judicial assessment of the true impact that state action could have on vested property interests is explained and contrasted with the balancing exercise that is employed at the earlier stage of policy making. This discussion is concluded by highlighting some of the interpretational issues that will arise and how some constitutional values could be curtailed in the absence of legislative intervention.

  11. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology. PMID:25895214

  12. Towards a global climate constitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weikard, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper my concern is the study of the incentives of individual countries to sign an international climate agreement that sets the terms of a climate constitution, that is, it establishes emission rights and rules for trading these rights to combat the climate problem effectively and efficient

  13. Constitutional Change Marks Ideological Breakthrough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The amendments to the Constitution of the People'sRepublic of China, the fourth since the constitutionwas promulgated in 1982 and proposed by theCentral Committee of the Communist Party of China(CPC), are expected to enshrine the respect andprotection of human rights, the protection of private

  14. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  15. A Venture in Constitutional Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, W. Graham; Dillon, Dorothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Senior high girls and boys from two single-sex schools undertook a study of a Supreme Court case that provided insight not only into constitutional law and history but also into how men and women can work together and relate in other ways than dating. (DS)

  16. Constitutional Verbosity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Voigt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A common argument in the trust literature is that high-trust cultures allow efficient commercial contracts to be shorter, covering fewer contingencies. We take this idea to the topic of social contracts. Specifically, we ask whether social trust affects the length and detail of constitutions. Cro...

  17. [Multifaceted body. 3. The contextualised body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This third and last article focuses on the psychosomatic and socio-anthropological facets of the body and their contribution to its understanding. PMID:25895216

  18. [Multifaceted body. 3. The contextualised body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This third and last article focuses on the psychosomatic and socio-anthropological facets of the body and their contribution to its understanding.

  19. A Communicatively Constituted Online Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    2016-01-01

    into specific public crisis perceptions. Drawing from a communicative constitution perspective, the authors argue that if crises are perceptions or experiences of difficult situations that exceed a person’s current resources and coping mechanisms, and if perceptions and experiences in social media are typically......This chapter presents a theoretical proposition that could serve as foundation to explain how people become aware, develop an understanding, and create meanings about specific critical situations through social media conversations and how, eventually, these transform critical situations...... by offering suggestions on how to study online critical conversations through the lens of a communicative constitution perspective that could inform how critical issues eventually transform and become crises and how crisis perceptions evolve and are discursively shaped by communicative practices occurring...

  20. Valuation In The Constitutional Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmien du Plessis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution brought about a new compensation regime for expropriations. Compensation for expropriation must now be "just and equitable". Whereas before the Constitution came into force market value played a central role in compensation for expropriation, market value is now only one factor or aspect of compensation that the court needs to take into account. Yet we find that courts tend to focus on market value and to still employ the valuation methods used to calculate market value. This article argues that the methods used to calculate the market value, once thought to be objective, are not as objective as was believed. While it is impossible to give judges specific tools for the assessment of market value, this article provides guidelines on how the calculation of compensation should be approached.

  1. Technical risks and constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was particularly by the peaceful use of nuclear energy that the topic has raised the interest of the Constitutional Court. The concepts of averting risks, risk precaution and remaining risks have to be differentiated terminologically. The governmental obligation of protecting the citizens and granting the constitutional rights as far as the limit of acceptable risks, which is difficult to determine, is dominating. When applying unavoidable and vague legal concepts these concepts must be specified not only by technical rules or guidelines, expert committees and the like but also by a newr legal basis so that 'the mechanism of the division of power can be set to rights again in the field of technical risk control'. (orig./HP)

  2. European constitution and EURATOM treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Council held in Laeken in December 2001 had decided to call a convention preparing the next conference of the heads of state and government which, among other topics, was to deliberate the question of a fully formulated European constitution. Under the presidency of Giscard d'Estaing, all delegates to the European Convention on July 10, 2003 signed the draft treaty for a European constitution. This final document is the basis of the conference of the heads of state and government to begin in October 2003. On this occasion, the draft of a separate chapter on energy could well come up again for examination. This chapter had been introduced only at the end of the deliberations of the convention and adds to the competences of the EU institutions. Also the Euratom Treaty was a topic of the convention preparing the constitution. As the presidency felt that no specific issues had been raised in the Laeken declaration, it is proposed to adapt the Euratom Treaty to the new provisions of the constitution by adding a protocol. This would mean that the European Atomic Energy Community, for the time being, would retain its independent legal status. The contents would have to be examined at some later date. Consequently, the real discussion of the Euratom Treaty is yet to come. Also, the speedy completion of the single market for electricity would make it desirable for the Community to adopt a uniform, positive stance in the use of nuclear power at the best possible safety standards so as to ensure a level playing field. Current events entailing power failures in the United States and the United Kingdom have alerted the public to the problem of the continuity of power supply. This could well be the beginning of a new, unbiased, balanced energy discussion in a bigger Europe. (orig.)

  3. CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS OF POLITICAL PLURALISM

    OpenAIRE

    ERHARD NICULESCU

    2013-01-01

    In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1) of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary...

  4. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework. PMID:12287889

  5. Nuclear energy as reflected in Constitutional Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyses the Federal Constitutional Court's decision on the Kalkar and Muehlheim-Kaerlich reactors with regard to its content relating to the Atomic Energy Law. He examines the Atomic Energy Law within the system in which power is shared: The legal provisio of the Atomic Energy Law, the application of undetermined legal terms, the involvement of extra-legislative bodies, the statements made on residual risks. He discusses the statutory obligation of the legislator to protect, and the protection of basic rights by means of participation in procedures, the effecting of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures, the translation into action of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures and the interpretation of the elementary (simple) Atomic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court with regard to the interpreation and application of the Atomic Energy Law in conformity with the Basic Law. Finally, he gives his opinion on the practical consequences the decision will have, and on its binding effects for current and future licensing procedures. (HSCH)

  6. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The idea that performance indicators in public management have unintended consequences is almost as old as performance measurement itself. But, is ‘unintended consequences’ an appropriate and insightful idea? The very term rests on an identification of intentions and assumptions about validity...... that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...

  7. Technical risks and Constitutional Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author regards technical risk assessment as a legal problem of increasing importance. He discusses the delimitation of hazard, risk and damage; the protective duty of the state, and security of basic rights; the determination of risk elements; the interpretation of undetermined legal concepts. The essential question is as to what extent the undetermined legal concepts are subject to judicial reviews. A transition from 'subject-related' to 'procedural' reviewing requires corresponding insitutional and procedural rules according to which technical safety rules will be created. Under Constitutional Law, it does not seem to be satisfying to bind the courts to technical rules as long as there are none. (HSCH)

  8. Legal Conflicts and Subnational Constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    DELLEDONNE, Giacomo; MARTINICO, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Paper presented at the World Conference of the International Association of Constitutional Law, Mexico City, 6-10 December 2010. This paper is the result of joint reflections, however Giuseppe Martinico wrote par. 2, 5, 8 and 9, Giacomo Delledonne wrote par. 3, 4 and 7, while par. 1 and 6 were elaborated jointly. We would like to thank Josep Maria Castellà Andreu, François-Xavier Millet and Robert Williams for their comments and Miguel Poiares Maduro and Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann for their supp...

  9. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the program is to evaluate and develop existing constitutive models for use in finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. The class of constitutive equation studied is considered unified in that all inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation are treated in a single term rather than a classical separation of plasticity (time independent) and creep (time dependent) behavior. The unified theories employed also do not utilize the classical yield surface or plastic potential concept. The models are constructed from an appropriate flow law, a scalar kinetic relation between strain rate, temperature and stress, and evolutionary equations for internal variables describing strain or work hardening, both isotropic and directional (kinematic). This and other studies have shown that the unified approach is particularly suited for determining the cyclic behavior of superalloy type blade and vane materials and is entirely compatible with three-dimensional inelastic finite-element formulations. The behavior was examined of a second nickel-base alloy, MAR-M247, and compared it with the Bodner-Partom model, further examined procedures for determining the material-specific constants in the models, and exercised the MARC code for a turbine blade under simulated flight spectrum loading. Results are summarized.

  10. Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii physical features and (iv psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  11. Sasang constitutional medicine as a holistic tailored medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc

    2009-09-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i) sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii) equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii) physical features and (iv) psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids) are equivalent to the process of internal-external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies. PMID:19745007

  12. CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS OF POLITICAL PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERHARD NICULESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1 of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary because the individual alone cannot determine a certain attitude of the political power: structuring gives weight to the action; the organization of citizens contributes to rendering their political participation more efficient. But the organization, structuring limits the freedom of people adhering to the structure.

  13. Constitutive model for overconsolidated clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the relationships between the Hvorslev envelope,the current yield sur-face and the reference yield surface,a new constitutive model for overconsolidated clays is proposed. It adopts the unified hardening parameter,to which the potential failure stress ratio and the characteristic state stress ratio are introduced. The model can describe many characteristics of overconsolidated clays,including stress-strain relationships,strain hardening and softening,stress dilatancy,and stress path dependency. Compared with the Cam-clay model,the model only re-quires one additional soil parameter which is the slope of the Hvorslev envelope. Comparisons with data from triaxial drained compression tests for Fujinomori clay show that the proposed model can rationally describe overconsolidated properties. In addition,the model is also used to predict the stress-strain relationship in the isotropic consolidation condition and the stress paths in the undrained triaxial compression tests.

  14. Constitutive model for overconsolidated clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO YangPing; HOU Wei; ZHOU AnNan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the relationships between the Hvorslev envelope, the current yield surface and the reference yield surface, a new constitutive model for overconsolidated clays is proposed. It adopts the unified hardening parameter, to which the potential failure stress ratio and the characteristic state stress ratio are introduced. The model can describe many characteristics of overconsolidated clays, including stress-strain relationships, strain hardening and softening, stress dilatancy, and stress path dependency. Compared with the Cam-clay model, the model only requires one additional soil parameter which is the slope of the Hvorslev envelope. Comparisons with data from triaxial drained compression tests for Fujinomori clay show that the proposed model can rationally describe overconsolidated properties. In addition, the model is also used to predict the stress-strain relationship in the isotropic consolidation condition and the stress paths in the undrained triaxial compression tests.

  15. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.

  16. Constitutional Analysis of Educational Vouchers in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Voucher plans that involve payments of tax funds to private schools are suspect on both constitutional and public policy grounds. Analyzes the constitutional issues raised by a recent attempt at voucher legislation in Minnesota. (MLF)

  17. Written Constitution or None: Which Works Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Zelman

    1987-01-01

    Explores the differences between the U.S. Constitution and British constitutional law. Specifically examines the concept of the U.S. Bill of Rights in relation to the United Kingdom common law doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. (BSR)

  18. The communicative constitution of representation and exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the light of current debate on representation, specifically engaging with literature showing how representation is communicatively constituted, this paper empirically shows how exclusion also can be seen as communicatively constituted. The interpretive approach toward communication employed in th

  19. Non-linear constitutive equations for gravitoelectromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Duplij, Steven; Di Grezia, Elisabetta; Esposito, Giampiero; Kotvytskiy, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies non-linear constitutive equations for gravitoelectromagnetism. Eventually, the problem is solved of finding, for a given particular solution of the gravity-Maxwell equations, the exact form of the corresponding non-linear constitutive equations.

  20. Constitution of the White Earth Nation

    OpenAIRE

    Vizenor, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    The Constitution of the White Earth Nation was ratified by sworn delegates on April 4, 2009. The Constitution declares a separation from the current federal constitution that consolidated six Anishinaabe or Chippewa reservations in Minnesota. This federal constitutional association has not served the specific interests of the citizens of the White Earth Reservation. The disposition of treaty land, for instance, and the uses of natural resources cannot equitably be decided by any o...

  1. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.54 Constitutional... against any infringement of the constitutional rights, privileges, or immunities of those who are...

  2. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Constitutional torts. 536.42 Section 536.42... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim... any subpart. A constitutional claim will be scrutinized in order to determine whether it is totally...

  3. The Constitutional Politics of Charitable Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippenberg, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    Clarifies the constitutional issue raised by government efforts to cooperate with faith-based organizations, noting that while programs can be constitutional without necessarily being good public policy, too frequently political and constitutional controversies mix these two considerations, thus confusing those trying to understand and resolve…

  4. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  5. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  6. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  7. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  8. Theoretical Issues of the Constitutional Regulation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhussupova, Guldaray B.; Zhailyaubayev, Rassul T.; Ukin, Symbat K.; Shunayeva, Sylu M.; Nurmagambetov, Rachit G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to define the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism." The definition of the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism" will give jurists and legislators a theoretical framework for developing legal sciences, such as the constitutional law and the theory of state and law. The…

  9. Constitutions, social rights and sovereign debt states in Europe : a challenging new area of constitutional inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    KILPATRICK, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Constitutions, social rights and sovereign debt states in Europe is a rich new seam of constitutional inquiry that challenges existing constitutional scholarship in various ways. I make five claims about how it expands and challenges existing constitutional and EU scholarship. 1. It is new terrain for constitutional social scholarship. 2. Middle-class and public sector entitlements are a deeply problematic area for constitutional social scholarship. 3. Juristocracy charges cannot be the same ...

  10. The Australian Constitution and the Aid/Watch Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Williams

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Constitution played a significant role in underpinning the result in the Aid/Watch Case. It was invoked by the majority to support their conclusion that a body can be a ‘charitable institution’ despite engaging in political activities. The use of the Constitution in this way came as a surprise. The case extended an existing constitutional principle relating to freedom of political communication from its electoral base into the protection of the political activities of non-government organisations. This may have future ramifications for those organisations in other areas, as well as further implications for the development of what it means to be a charity in Australia. This article examines the use of the Australian Constitution in the Aid/Watch Case. It explains how the High Court was able to invoke the Constitution in defining what it means to be a ‘charitable institution’. It also examines the implications of that reasoning for the development of charitable law in Australia.

  11. 78 FR 39721 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC (Constitution), having its principal place of...\\ Constitution further requests that the Commission grant Constitution a blanket certificate...

  12. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2009 8418 Proclamation 8418 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009 Proc. 8418 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2009By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The United...

  13. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-23898 Filed 9-21-10; 11:15 am] Billing... Proclamation 8562--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 Proclamation 8563--National... President ] Proclamation 8562 of September 16, 2010 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution...

  14. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  15. National Constitutional Avenues for further EU Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Claes, M.; Imamovic, Š.; Reestman, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates national constitutional limits to further EU integration and explores ways to overcome them. It includes an in-depth examination of the constitutional systems of 12 Member States (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom) and a bird’s eye view of all Member States. EU integration can be advanced by avoiding substantive constitutional obstacles in various ways. Overcoming...

  16. Is There a Constitutional Right to Clone?

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    2002-01-01

    Recent scientific innovations, and proposed legislation, have raised questions about the nature of the constitutional right to reproductive freedom, and in particular about whether there is a constitutional “right to clone.” This essay urges that as a matter of substantive due process, rationality review is probably appropriate, and that restrictions on both reproductive and therapeutic cloning would and should survive constitutional scrutiny. At the same time, many of the arguments for banni...

  17. Enslaved Constitution: Obstructing the Freedom to Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell F. Crusto

    2008-01-01

    Does the Constitution protect a citizen’s intra-state travel (within a state) from unjustified state prohibition? To date, the Supreme Court has not ruled directly on the issue, and many federal courts believe that the right to intrastate travel is not constitutionally protected. This Article explores the constitutional right of intra-state travel that is free from wrongful state infringement along public roadways by law-abiding citizens. Using critical legal history, this Article poses...

  18. POWER OF TAXATION CONCEPT FROM CONSTITUTION PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    KARTALCI, Kadir; DOĞAN, Mübeyna

    2013-01-01

    Today, for advanced democracies internalizing social law state, it seems impossible to tax without depending on the constitution. The terms of taxing and the power of taxing were put into the constitutions during republican period of our country. Hence, in 1982 constitution, article 73, subclause 3, the sentence`all taxes and fees are enacted, changed and repealed by law` emphasizes the legality of taxing.However, in a country experiencing martial laws and state emergencies heavily, by inter...

  19. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been ...

  20. Statistical Constitutive Equation of Aramid Fiber Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊杰; 顾伯洪; 王善元

    2003-01-01

    Tensile impact tests of aramid (Twaron) fiber bundles were carried om under high strain rates with a wide range of 0. 01/s~1000/s by using MTS and bar-bar tensile impact apparatus. Based on the statistical constitutive model of fiber bundles, statistical constitutive equations of aramid fiber bundles are derived from statistical analysis of test data at different strain rates. Comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental data indicates statistical constitutive equations fit well with the experimental data, and statistical constitutive equations of fiber bundles at different strain rates are valid.

  1. Culture (and religion in constitutional adjudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rautenbach

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the constitutional court’s interpretation and application of the Bill of Rights. The second aim is to develop practical guidelines (based on the findings during the analysing process for South African courts confronted with issues of a political, socio-economic and cultural nature. This article is concerned with initiating discussions of the decisions of the constitutional court with regard to cultural and religious rights.Before we can explore the role of political, socio-economic and cultural (and religious rights in the decisions of the constitutional court it is important to discuss a few preliminary issues. In this article the meaning of culture and religion within the South African context receives some attention. Secondly, some preliminary comments regarding constitutional protection of culturally and religiously based rights will be made.We are well aware that this is a daunting task, not only in view of the seemingly abysmal gap between the applicable constitutional rights and values enshrined in the 1996 Constitution that, in some instances over centuries, brought about customs and practices within “traditional” communities which, seemingly, infringe on certain constitutional values and rights.

  2. National Constitutional Avenues for Further EU Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.F.M. Besselink; M. Claes; Š. Imamovic; J.H. Reestman

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates national constitutional limits to further EU integration and explores ways to overcome them. It includes an in-depth examination of the constitutional systems of 12 Member States (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Net

  3. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point...

  4. An Internet Guide to Teaching the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, Congress passed and President Bush signed legislation designating every September 17 as Constitution Day and suggesting that all schools teach about the Constitution on that day. There are innumerable websites, countless lesson plans and a multitude of other teaching resources on the topic. Teachers were inundated with brochures,…

  5. Subsidiarity under the Constitution for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.N.J. Goudappel (Flora)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe principle of subsidiarity lies at the heart of the European Union’s strife to bring the EU closer to the citizen. Yet, it appears to be failing to do so in its present form. Therefore, the new Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe [hereafter: European Constitution] has the i

  6. Constitutional Provisions for Community Junior Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Marshall W.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the role of the federal and state constitutions in community college law. Discusses the lack of state constitutional law pertaining explicitly to these institutions and suggests a probable reason for this void. Gives examples of extant state laws and discusses implications for the community college field. (AYC)

  7. CONSTITUTIONAL TRADITIONALISM IN THE ROBERTS COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J Virelli III

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The debate over the role of traditionalism in constitutional interpretation has itself become a tradition. It remains a popular and controversial topic among constitutional scholars and presents normative questions that are as divisive, difficult, and important today as at the Founding. Missing from the discussion, however, is a comprehensive account of how the Supreme Court has employed traditionalism-an approach that looks for meaning in present manifestations of longstanding practices or beliefs-in its constitutional jurisprudence. This project is the first to fill this gap by providing an exhaustive and systematic analysis of the Court's use of constitutional traditionalism. This article focuses on the Roberts Court's first five terms to provide an empirical foundation that will not only offer previously unavailable insights into the Court's current traditionalist practices, but will also set forth a useful framework for the ongoing normative debate over traditionalism. This project uses content analysis of key terms to identify every instance in which the Roberts Court employed traditionalism to interpret the Constitution. More specifically, this project set out to answer the following three questions: First, how frequently does the Roberts Court employ traditionalism in its constitutional jurisprudence? Second, how robust is the Court's use of traditionalism (i.e., is it used to interpret a broad or narrow range of constitutional provisions? And finally, how often and in what contexts do individual Justices on the Roberts Court rely on traditionalism in their own constitutional opinions? The research provided here suggests answers to all three of these questions. First, the data indicate that traditionalism has been relied upon regularly by the Roberts Court, appearing in nearly half of the Court's constitutional cases. Second, traditionalism is frequently applied to a wide variety of constitutional provisions: Two-thirds of the

  8. Constitutional Interpretation as Constitutional Creation: The 1999-2000 Harry Eckstein Lecture

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Walter

    2000-01-01

    This paper starts from what I take as two plain facts of political life: First, the maintenance of any constitutional order whatsoever requires some constitutional interpretation; and, second, the complex normative bases of constitutional democracy cause this necessity to operate especially often. Next comes the gist of the paper, the argument that, in a constitutional democracy, interpreters must exercise a wide range of discretion that inevitably allows, in fact frequently requires, a degre...

  9. MINISTERIAL LIABILITY IN THE ROMANIAN CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE PAVEL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available What seems relevant to us for highlighting in this study is the approach of the ministerial liability within the Romanian constitutional and legal system starting with the first document of constitutional value, namely the Developing Statute of the Paris Convention of 1858 until today, that is the Constitution of Romania, revised in 2003 and republished. Having in view that this is a generous study topic covering over 150 years of constitutional and legal evolution of ministerial liability in Romania, it is necessary to specify from the very beginning the need of a diachronic approach of this topic by identifying all Romanian Constitutions that have regulated the constitutional system during this period of time. Moreover, we have to specify that, during this period of time, Romania has experienced several forms of governance, namely monarchy, people’s republic, socialist republic and semi-presidential republic. With this approach, the proposed study opens a complex and complete yet not exhaustive vision in the current scope of the ministerial liability. It is also the reason why the study begins with preliminary considerations in which the terminology used in the content of the study is justified. Following a key-scheme, there are successively examined the two major parts of the study, namely the general theory regarding the concepts of ministerial responsibility and liability and the Romanian constitutional, legal and doctrinaire milestones of the ministerial liability.

  10. Constitutional notes on the atomic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both in jurisdiction and in literature increasingly more individuals are doubling the constitutionality of the atomic law, especially its terms concerning permissions, because as they say, the legislator has not made the necessary guiding decisions. The following essay proves that, within the frame of the atomic law, the legislation has made the decisions which are necessary according to the Federal Constitutional Law. This shows that a legal alteration of the terms concerning permissions is not necessary, at least as far as constitutional reasons are concerned. (orig.)

  11. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been and are institutions of our capital social and democratic state of law.

  12. Biometrics Bodies, Technologies, Biopolitics

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Biometric technologies, such as finger- or facial-scan, are being deployed across a variety of social contexts in order to facilitate and guarantee identity verification and authentication. In the post-9/11 world, biometric technologies have experienced an extraordinary period of growth as concerns about security and screening have increased. This book analyses biometric systems in terms of the application of biopolitical power - corporate, military and governmental - on the human body. It deploys cultural theory in examining the manner in which biometric technologies constitute the body as a

  13. The moral reading of the British constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Lakin, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the philosophical assumptions which underpin established theories of the British constitution, paying particular attention to the influence of traditional (and sometimes outdated) theories of legal positivism. I attempt to identify, analyze and challenge these assumptions, exploring how recent developments in legal theory can inform and enrich our approach to British constitutional theory. Drawing, in particular, on the anti-positivist theory of Ronald Dworkin, I cont...

  14. Towards a Constitutional Theory of Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Benz; Frey, Bruno S.

    2006-01-01

    The idea that there is a uniformly �optimal� governance structure for corporations features prominently in current debates and policy proposals. In this paper, we propose a different, constitutional theory of corporate governance: the criterion for a good corporate governance structure is whether it is freely chosen by the shareholders. We illustrate our approach by comparing the constitutional rights of shareholders under US corporate law and Swiss corporate law. Moreover, we discuss the...

  15. Constitutional exceptionalism and the common law

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of exceptionalism, currently pervasive within constitutional discourse. The term ‘exceptionalist’ is used in this context to indicate a measure which deviates from normal constitutional standards and is, by virtue of that deviation, seen as inappropriate or regrettable. The paper avoids a direct focus on the debate about terrorism, concentrating instead on more conceptual matters – and particularly the ‘fit’ between this discourse and the ‘common law constitutio...

  16. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constitution's explicit reinstatement of ethnicity in law coincides with a politico-economic situation which has made ethnoregional groups more interdependent than ever before, and where the central State ha...

  17. Spanish Constitution and Education. Parliamentary debates

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Hernández Beltrán

    2008-01-01

    Alter thirty years of being passed the spanish Constitution in 1978, the aim of this paper try to remind the on-going debates celebrated at the House of Representatives about one of the most controversy issues: the education. Through the parliamentary debates we can take into account the political figh- ting between the differents parties on how education should be set up in Spanish democracy. Finally, the Constitution shows a balance between the recognition of right of education and the free...

  18. The Democratic Constitutional State of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Mohamad Faiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The political reform in Indonesia started in 1998 when President Soeharto was forced to resign from his presidential office after 32 years in power. This momentum has transformed Indonesian political culture from an authoritarian state to the third largest democracy in the world after India and United States. It also led to Indonesian constitutional reform which was marked by the amendments of 1945 Constitution for the first time in 1999.

  19. Urgency of Attorney Governed by the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommy Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attorney existence in the Indonesian constitutional structure has a dilemma for this position. On one side is the Prosecutor’s law enforcement agencies to exercise power independently prosecution while on the other hand is part of a government institution under Law No. 16 of 2004 regarding the Attorney. The position of Attorney as an institution of government has been led to the independence of the Prosecutor is not optimal so that it appears stigma that the Prosecutor merely as a tool of the ruling power. In addition the terms of the arrangement just under the Act, the Attorney General has no legal standing as a constitutional organ that has the constitutional authority so that the current position does not reflect the urgency of its duties and functions. In an effort to organize the next Attorney institutions should be regulated directly by the Constitution. It is intended to make the Attorney as part of the main state organs have the same legal standing as other law enforcement agencies, the police and the courts (Supreme Court and Constitutional Court. As well as to strengthen and clarify the position as a state institution, prosecution authorities are focusing on the Attorney as central of authority, to fix the institutional relations between the members of law enforcement and related agencies and strengthen the independence of the Prosecutor in performing the function of prosecution in the constitutional structure of Indonesia.

  20. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2013-09-01

    The paper considers developments of constitutive theories in Eulerian description for compressible as well as incompressible ordered homogeneous and isotropic thermofluids in which the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, and the convected time derivatives of the strain tensors of up to a desired order. The fluids described by these constitutive theories are called ordered thermofluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor and heat vector are dependent on the convected time derivatives of the strain tensor up to a desired order, the highest order of the convected time derivative of the strain tensor in the argument tensors defines the `order of the fluid'. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, that is, Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second law of thermodynamics provides no mechanism for deriving the constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. In the development of the constitutive theories in Eulerian description, the covariant and contravariant convected coordinate systems, and Jaumann measures are natural choices. Furthermore, the mathematical models for fluids require Eulerian description in which material point displacements are not measurable. This precludes the use of displacement

  1. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  2. Enslaved Constitution: Obstructing the Freedom to Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell F. Crusto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Does the Constitution protect a citizen’s intra-state travel (within a state from unjustified state prohibition? To date, the Supreme Court has not ruled directly on the issue, and many federal courts believe that the right to intrastate travel is not constitutionally protected. This Article explores the constitutional right of intra-state travel that is free from wrongful state infringement along public roadways by law-abiding citizens. Using critical legal history, this Article poses that federal courts’ denial of the right to intrastate travel consciously or unconsciously reflects the antebellum, Southern legal doctrine of people as property, which regulated the travel of enslaved African descendants.The constitutionality of intra-state travel arose most recently during the Hurricane Katrina Crisis when the City of Greta, Louisiana police barricaded a federal highway, denying would-be evacuees the ability to flee from the flooding City of New Orleans. In an ensuing action for infringement of the would-be evacuees’ constitutional right to intra-state travel, Federal District Judge Mary Ann Vial Lemmon dismissed the matter in Dickerson v. City of Gretna, holding that “[w]hile there is no doubt that a fundamental right of interstate travel exists, the Supreme Court has not ruled on whether a right of intra[-]state travel exists. This Court declines to find that there is a fundamental right to intra[-]state travel.” The Fifth Circuit affirmed the ruling.This Article recommends that when federal courts assess whether there is a constitutional right to intra-state travel, they should embrace the American paradigm of liberty and abandon the antebellum, Southern paradigm of enslavement. Consistent with Professor Derrick Bell’s “interestconvergence” principle, all Americans benefit when the Constitution protects the human rights of the least powerful American.

  3. 36 CFR 1206.41 - What is a state historical records advisory board and how is it constituted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records advisory board and how is it constituted? 1206.41 Section 1206.41 Parks, Forests, and Public... how is it constituted? (a) Responsibilities. The Board is the central advisory body for historical... Board engages in planning; it develops, revises, and submits to the Commission a state plan...

  4. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  5. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

  6. Nuclear energy and the constitutional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article puts the main emphasis on the problems of the constitutional principles of democracy, federalism, peaceful living together of peoples and constitutional state, i.e. problems caused by the development of nuclear energy. The fact that these problems are explained by way of the example of Switzerland, does not reduce the validity of the findings also for the German constitutional system, since the problems are identical and comparable. A long-term goal is a state theory which helps to define the aims and tasks of the state under technical, social, economic and cultural conditions of the end of the 20th and perhaps of the 21st century. Nuclear technology challenges the modern Western state and puts to the test the firmness of its legitimacy basis and the efficiency of its principles. It was conceived in a time which is separated from the present by technological revolutions. Safeguarding of humanity is aim and obligation of the modern constitutional state; the constitutional state stipulates the rules of conduct and, if the state remains true to its claim, it sets the procedures and the organization which give due priority order to the development of modern technology. (orig./HSCH)

  7. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  8. Linguistic Diversity within the Integrated Constitutional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Palermo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The language issue within the European constitutional space is one of the most fascinating challenges to supranational integration. On the one hand, the principle of equal standing of all official and working languages is constantly reaffirmed; on the other hand the necessity to simplify the European Babel on the basis of a more functional consideration of the language issue seems unavoidable. Several solutions have been proposed both by scholars and by European institutions. The paper argues that there is an intimate contradiction in today’s linguistic policy in the EU, oscillating between the need to simplification and the constitutional duty to respect linguistic pluralism as imposed by the member states. In fact, the language issue is just the mirror of the constitutional law of integration as a whole. Looking closer at the constitutional dimension of supranational integration cal help better address the language issue too. The analysis is divided in four parts, dealing respectively with the role and the limits of law in matters of language, the present allocation of competences in language-issues, the development of the concept of “integrated constitutional space”, and its legal nature under the viewpoint of the language dimension, elaborating some tentative proposals.

  9. Between constitution and interpretation: Identity as history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilt Annette

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the possibilities to constitute meaning in the „borderline- situations“ (Jaspers of the social sphere, such as the loss of validity of orientation within and experience of reality in the socially shared structures of the lifeworld. On the one hand, I will refer to A. Schutz’ and his constitution-analysis of foreign understanding and of shared meaning; on the other hand, I bear onto I. Kertész literary project to narrate the biography of an Auschwitz-survivor as close to his experiential perspective as possible. I will focus both on the concept of constitution and of interpretation with respect to their enabling of the transcending of a typologized everyday’s world which suppresses subjective meaning and its individual articulation. The main guideline is the problem how identity – i.e. a life-story – is configured out of subjective meaning without recourse to everyday reality. A. Schutz’s and Th. Luckmann’s note on a range of social transcendences and on biographical categories referring to the constitution of a socially shared meaning offer a theoretical perspective for dealing with constitutive differences within the reach of understanding social meaning; Kertész’ narrative mode expandes this theoretical stance as it problematizes exemplary subjective experience.

  10. The constitutional momentum of European contract law (II): The DCFR and the European constitutional order

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential impact of the recently published Draft Common Frame of Reference for European contract law (DCFR) on the European constitutional process. Looking at the combination of characteristics of codification and aspects of constitutionalism reflected in the DCFR, it is submitted that the further harmonisation of European contract law may contribute to the definition of the European constitutional order both on the institutional level (regarding the forms in which Eur...

  11. Cultural, social and economic rights in the Constitution corpus and Constitutional Court’s Case Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Rubio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Cultural, Social and Economic Rights established in the Constitution and in Constitutional Case Law. So, after explaining its nature, state’s role according preservation and enforceability,relationship with other fundamental rights, among other key points, it isi ntended to answer, dealing with those rights, which of two scenarios have prevailed: internationalization of constitutional law or constitutionalization of international law.

  12. Constitutional Fundamentals of Conscription and Some Aspects of the Ordinary Legal Regulation of Constitutionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenstavičienė Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 139 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania is one of the constitutional fundamentals of state defense and stipulates the defense of the state as the right of citizens on the one hand and the duty on the other. This article of the Constitution gives the legislative power the right of discretion to detail by law the order of the implementation of citizens’ duty to perform military or alternative country defense service. Due to the reorganization of the armed forces into a professional and volunteer army, the issue of some ordinary regulation rules concerning the constitutionality of nationwide conscription, though at present suspended but not abolished, is becoming urgent. Though the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania presented their ruling on the constitutionality of the suspension of military conscription, it does not mean that all problems related to conscription have been settled. The aim of this article is to analyze the constitutional basis of nationwide conscription as well as the constitutionality of some ordinary regulation provisions related to nationwide conscription. Therefore, the issue to be analyzed is whether nationwide conscription, if it were to be implemented, complies with the constitutional principles of human equality and military justice1. Consequently, the question is posed how the constitutional objective of ensuring the defense of the state determines conscription. Because of the growing employment of the army abroad, yet the dwindling demand for conscripts, it should be explored whether the suspension of the nationwide conscription as a part of the defense reform is further feasible in order to guarantee the defense of the state. In answering the raised questions, the author will analyze the abundant and long-lasting constitutional doctrine of Germany which provides clarifications of the Basic Law, as the legal act of the establishing power, which can doubtless be of assistance in

  13. Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Deuk Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.

  14. Constitutionality of the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma locuta, causa finita. The Federal Constitutional Court declared in its decree of 8 August 1978 the peaceful uses of nuclear energy (Paragraph 7 sub-section 1 and 2 Atomic Energy Act) in NPPs of the so-called fast breeder type as constitutional for the time being. The excellent simplicity of the explanations, namely about the anavoidability and social adequancy of the so-called residual risk in a highly technical society and about the determining influence of practical ratio as a measure for the estimation of the residual risk which must be born by all citizens, creates a good clarification on the level of constitutional law. However, it remains, to be seen whether the decree can give the administrative courts any orientation help in the future and whether it will lead to an improved legal protection of all participants and a more effective handling of administrative processes. (orig.)

  15. Acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation from surrounding medium into a soft material can generate acoustic radiation stress due to acoustic momentum transfer inside the medium and material, as well as at the interface between the two. To analyze acoustic-induced deformation of soft materials, we establish an acoustomechanical constitutive theory by combining the acoustic radiation stress theory and the nonlinear elasticity theory for soft materials. The acoustic radiation stress tensor is formulated by time averaging the momentum equation of particle motion, which is then introduced into the nonlinear elasticity constitutive relation to construct the acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials. Considering a specified case of soft material sheet subjected to two counter-propagating acoustic waves, we demonstrate the nonlinear large deformation of the soft material and analyze the interaction between acoustic waves and material deformation under the conditions of total reflection, acoustic transparency, and acoustic mismatch.

  16. The Constitution of a Transnational Policy Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Erik; Frankel, Christian

    outside EU political and administrative control - in the constitution of the internal market. Second, the delegation raises important analytical questions concerning the identification of the institutional locus of European integration, when the realization of the political goals with the internal market...... is dependent on an inter-organizational coordination between the EU and ESO. Applying the analytical concept of a `policy field' the analysis shows how the completion of the internal market fundamentally challenges institutionalized conceptions of the role of politics in constituting markets.Keywords: Internal...

  17. The Role of Traditional Authorities in Developing Customary Laws in Accordance with the Constitution: Shilubana and Others v Nwamitwa 2008 (9) BCLR 914 (CC)

    OpenAIRE

    Mmusinyane, B

    2009-01-01

    South African customary law is a body of law by which many South Africans regulate their lives in a multicultural society. South Africa's constitutional dispensation is based on the premise that all existing laws are subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996, including African customary law, and that all laws are limited only by the Constitution. Customary law existed long before the adoption of the Constitution which, among other things, aims at harmonising the differe...

  18. 78 FR 57777 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-23014 Filed 9-18-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... September 19, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9019--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013 Proclamation 9020--Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy at the Washington Navy Yard...

  19. 77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... September 18, 2012 Part VI The President Proclamation 8862--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No....

  20. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Çeço

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of constitutional revision in the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, as a complex process accompanied by limitations on constitutional revision. The historical evolution of constitutional drafting, modern constitutions, relevant issues, political and social circumstances as well as drafting and adoption procedures, dynamism of constitutions to cope with the course of time achieved by revisions for the purpose of their stability as well as consolidation of the role of constitutions as a factor that facilitates and precedes social development, comprise the pillar of this study addressed in a comparative point of view.

  1. The negotiation of The Constitution of Romania of 1923 and The Constitution of Romania of 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Ivona-Arina Raef

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the author is trying to find if there was a negotiation between main parties regarding The Constitution of Romania of 1923 and The Constitution Of Romania of 1991 or if there was a project imposed by one party to the others.

  2. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  3. Constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Siersma, Volkert;

    2004-01-01

    divergent models for TCR down-regulation and degradation have been suggested. The aims of this study were to determine the rate constants for constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation and to determine whether the TCR subunits segregate or are processed as an intact unit during TCR down-regulation and...

  4. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  5. The European Constitution; La constitucion Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, A.

    2004-07-01

    The convention on the Future of Europe, convened after the European Council of Laeken, in December 2001, has submitted the complete project to the European Council for a Treaty to create a Constitution for Europe which is aimed at developing an economic and political European Union, defining its specific competencies and the roles of the various national parliaments. (Author)

  6. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  7. A New Perspective on Teaching Constitutional Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Robert

    1977-01-01

    The author suggests that a major failure of most law schools and traditional undergraduate constitutional law courses is that they omit an adequate analysis of the political nature of the judicial process. Political influences on a variety of court cases are discussed. (LBH)

  8. Children's Constitutional Rights: Interpretations and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sametz, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a brief historical overview of constitutional law as it applies to children, delineated in the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Emphasizes the need for school psychologists and educators to have an understanding of children's developing legal rights. Specific court cases are cited. (Author/JAC)

  9. The Constitutionality of DNA Sampling of Arrestees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anip Patel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses whether the DNA Act (which requires DNA samples from arrestees passes constitutional muster. I argue that the act is constitutional and that if society believes the collection of DNA from arrestees violates an individual’s privacy, it should seek legislative resolution and not seek the protection of the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution. Throughout my analysis, I demonstrate why DNA collection is constitutional and how it is necessary. Part I of this article examines the history of DNA sampling, case law establishing an arrestee’s expectation of privacy, and the applicable Fourth Amendment tests. Part II examines the arguments for and against DNA sampling by considering case law at the state and federal level, and explores the significance of junk DNA and the treatment of abandoned DNA. Part III is the personal analysis section, which argues that the totality of circumstances test is the proper test. I apply the test to determine that there is minimal intrusion of an arrestee’s expectation of privacy through DNA sampling, a legitimate governmental interest, and that warrants are unnecessary. Further, the section demonstrates why DNA sampling is a natural progression from fingerprint collection, and the section analyzes abandoned DNA and DNA sampling. Part IV concludes the article by stating that the Fourth Amendment is not violated and that society must turn to Congress to seek greater protection.

  10. The Search for Constitutional School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauknight, Suzanne H.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the constitutionality of tuition-voucher programs that provide access to private, parochial schools. Surveys Establishment Clause jurisprudence of the United States Supreme Court. Examines the Cleveland, Ohio, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, tuition-voucher programs, currently being litigated in the respective state courts, in an attempt to…

  11. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constituti

  12. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  13. The constitutive equation for membrane tether extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yao, Da-Kang; Shao, Jin-Yu

    2010-12-01

    Membrane tethers or nanotubes play a critical role in a variety of cellular and subcellular processes such as leukocyte rolling and intercellular mass transport. The current constitutive equations that describe the relationship between the pulling force and the tether velocity during tether extraction have serious limitations. In this article, we propose a new phenomenological constitutive equation that captures all known characteristics of nanotube formation, including nonlinearity, nonzero threshold force, and possible negative tether velocity. We used tether extraction from endothelial cells as a prototype to illustrate how to obtain the material constants in the constitutive equation. With the micropipette aspiration technique, we measured tether pulling forces at both positive and negative tether velocities. We also determined the threshold force of 55 pN experimentally for the first time. This new constitutive equation unites two established ones and provides us a unified platform to better understand not only the physiological role of tether extraction during leukocyte rolling and intercellular or intracellular transport, but also the physics of membrane tether growth or retraction.

  14. From particle simulations to macroscopic constitutive relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göncü, F.; Luding, S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal is to determine the constitutive behavior of granular packings under various deformations (isotropic and anisotropic) from particle simulations. For this we consider deformations, stress, structure and the contact forces as the basis. In a previous study [6,7] we investigated using DEM, the

  15. Science popularization and the Indian constitution - Correspondence

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Article 51A (h) of the Indian Constitution reads as follows, (citizens have a duty) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform. This item under basic duties is of great importance to those popularising science...

  16. Comparison of Constitutional Spirit Between United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琅琅

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the differences in constitutional spirit between United States and China, and then brings out the influence of the constitutional spirit in United States to the constitutional spirit in China.

  17. Europe’s Constitutional Law in Times of Crisis: A Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to survey representative constitutional amendments in the European Union’s area, whether attempted or accomplished, as well as significant adjudications by constitutional bodies, since the outset of the ongoing international economic crisis, 2008-2015. We assess these legal phenomena in light of human rights jurisprudence. Pivotal reference in our work is the recently released 7th volume of the Annuaire international des droits de l’homme, edited by G. Katrougalos, M. Figueiredo and P. Pararas under the aegis of the International Association of Constitutional Law. Have European constitutions continued to function qua civil commons in the crisis years? That, at the deepest level of value scrutiny, is the question that our joint survey and analysis aim to answer.

  18. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Diaper-Changing Steps for Childcare Settings Body Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and ... spread of hygiene-related diseases . Topics for Body Hygiene Facial Cleanliness Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Fish Pedicures and Fish Spas ...

  19. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  20. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  1. Body embellishment

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition Body Embellishment explores the most innovative artistic expression in the 21st-century international arenas of body extension, augmentation, and modification, focusing on jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. The areas of focus are jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. Avant-garde jewelry consciously engages the body by intersecting and expanding the planes of the human form. Tattoos are at once on and in the body. Nail art, from manicures to pedicures, has humble ...

  2. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  3. In quest of constitutional principles of "neurolaw".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzetti, Federico Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of brain imaging technology and the developing of cognitive neuroscience pose unaccustomed challenges to legal systems. Until now, the fields of Law much affected are the civil and criminal law and procedure, but the constitutional dimension of "neurolaw" cannot be easily underestimated. As the capacity to investigate and to trace brain mechanisms and functional neural activities increases, it becomes urgent the recognition and definition of the unalienable rights and fundamental values in respect of this new techno-scientific power, that must be protected and safeguard at "constitutional level" of norms such as: human dignity, personal identity, authenticity and the pursuit of individual "happiness". As the same as for the law regulating research and experimentation on human genome adopted in the past years, one may also argue if the above mentioned fundamental principles of "neurolaw" must be fixed and disciplined also at European and International level.

  4. Constitutional change, legislative performance and institutional consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Argelina Cheibub

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the effects of changes in constitutional and internal legislative regulations on the performance of the House of Representatives in law making. It presents an analysis of the flow of bills in the Lower House and the legal output in the post 1988 Constitution period, showing, on the one hand, the importance of the executive in the definition of the legislative agenda and its preponderance in legislative outcomes and, on the other hand, the role of the college of leaders, to the detriment of the standing committees, in the organization of the legislative work. The authors argue, against the conventional wisdom on Brazilian politics, that the legislature cannot be viewed as an obstacle to executive action.

  5. Canada's constitutional separation of (wind) power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning.

  6. Thermodynamic watershed hydrological model: Constitutive relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The representative elementary watershed (REW) approach proposed by Reggiani et al. was the first attempt to develop scale adaptable equations applicable directly at the macro scale. Tian et al. extended the initial definition of REW for simulating the energy related processes, and re-organized the deriving procedure of balance equations so that additional sub-regions and substances could be easily incorpo-rated. The resultant ordinary differential equation set can simulate various hydro-logical processes in a physically reasonable way. However, constitutive and geo-metric relationships have not been developed for Tian et al.’s equation set, which are necessary for the thermodynamic watershed hydrological model to apply in hydrological modeling practice. In this work, the constitutive equations for mass exchange terms and momentum exchange terms were developed as well as geo-metric relationships. The closed ordinary differential equation set with nine equa-tions was finally obtained.

  7. Thermodynamic watershed hydrological model: Constitutive relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN FuQiang; HU HePing; LEI ZhiDong

    2008-01-01

    The representative elementary watershed (REW) approach proposed by Reggiani et al. Was the first attempt to develop scale adaptable equations applicable directly at the macro scale. Tian et al. Extended the initial definition of REW for simulating the energy related processes, and re-organized the deriving procedure of balance equations so that additional sub-regions and substances could be easily incorpo- rated. The resultant ordinary differential equation set can simulate various hydro- logical processes in a physically reasonable way. However, constitutive and geo- metric relationships have not been developed for Tian et al.'s equation set, which are necessary for the thermodynamic watershed hydrological model to apply in hydrological modeling practice. In this work, the constitutive equations for mass exchange terms and momentum exchange terms were developed as well as geo- metric relationships. The closed ordinary differential equation set with nine equations was finally obtained.

  8. Linguistic Diversity within the Integrated Constitutional Space

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Palermo

    2006-01-01

    The language issue within the European constitutional space is one of the most fascinating challenges to supranational integration. On the one hand, the principle of equal standing of all official and working languages is constantly reaffirmed; on the other hand the necessity to simplify the European Babel on the basis of a more functional consideration of the language issue seems unavoidable. Several solutions have been proposed both by scholars and by European institutions. The paper argues...

  9. Tunnel modelling: stress release and constitutive aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Gerheim Souza Dias, Tiago; Bezuijen, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Tunnel construction in soft ground has evolved significantly over the last 20 years, especially on the matter of settlement control. This was achieved by guiding theTBM operation to control the main factors that induced soil displacements, like the face pressure and the soil-lining void closure. However, the design methods and numerical modeling procedures where not adapted to these new conditions, sometimes applying boundary conditions, constitutive parameters or state variables with no phys...

  10. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sting

    2015-01-01

    “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU) in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty) have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the EU and its Member States. The crisis has also inspired many European legal s...

  11. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sting

    2015-01-01

    “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU) in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty) have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the E...

  12. Constitutive relations for multiphase flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.; Vaeth, L.; Thurnay, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    The constitutive relations that are used in the three-field fluid dynamics code IVA-KA for determining the drag in three-phase mixtures and the heat transferred by radiation are described together with some comparisons of calculational results with experiments. In these experiments (QUEOS), large quantities of solid particles are injected into water. Potential deficiencies of the present drag model are discussed. (author)

  13. Unified viscoplastic constitutive equations and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, U. S.

    1987-01-01

    Unified constitutive equations for time- and temperature-dependent metallic plastic deformation have been applied in FEM simulations of forming processes; increasingly powerful computational tools and physical models are being used to numerically model complex engineering problems. Once confidence has been gained through adequate verification, these numerical models will increasingly replace experimental models. Attention is presently given to the contributions made by physical metallurgy, continuum mechanics, and computational mechanics.

  14. Rapid implementation of advanced constitutive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starman, Bojan; Halilovič, Miroslav; Vrh, Marko; Štok, Boris

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology based on the NICE integration scheme [1, 2] for simple and rapid numerical implementation of a class of plasticity constitutive models. In this regard, an algorithm is purposely developed for the implementation of newly developed advanced constitutive models into explicit finite element framework. The methodology follows the organization of the problem state variables into an extended form, which allows the constitutive models' equations to be organized in such a way, that the algorithm can be optionally extended with minimal effort to integrate also evolution equations related to a description of other specific phenomena, such as damage, distortional hardening, phase transitions, degradation etc. To confirm simplicity of the program implementation, computational robustness, effectiveness and improved accuracy of the implemented integration algorithm, a deep drawing simulation of the cylindrical cup is considered as the case study, performed in ABAQUS/Explicit. As a fairly complex considered model, the YLD2004-18p model [3, 4] is first implemented via external subroutine VUMAT. Further, to give additional proof of the simplicity of the proposed methodology, a combination of the YLD2004-18p model and Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model (GTN) is considered. As demonstrated, the implementation is really obtained in a very simple way.

  15. A constitutive law for degrading bioresorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a constitutive law that predicts the changes in elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and ultimate tensile strength of bioresorbable polymers due to biodegradation. During biodegradation, long polymer chains are cleaved by hydrolysis reaction. For semi-crystalline polymers, the chain scissions also lead to crystallisation. Treating each scission as a cavity and each new crystal as a solid inclusion, a degrading semi-crystalline polymer can be modelled as a continuum solid containing randomly distributed cavities and crystal inclusions. The effective elastic properties of a degrading polymer are calculated using existing theories for such solid and the tensile strength of the degrading polymer is predicted using scaling relations that were developed for porous materials. The theoretical model for elastic properties and the scaling law for strength form a complete constitutive relation for the degrading polymers. It is shown that the constitutive law can capture the trend of the experimental data in the literature for a range of biodegradable polymers fairly well. PMID:26971070

  16. Constitutive modelling of dual phase steel sheet and tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. C.; Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.

    2006-08-01

    Automobile manufacturers are currently striving to improve vehicle fuel efficiency through reduction of vehicle weight. Dual phase steels are good candidates for automotive bodies due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, and good formablity and weldability. As part of a project on the interaction between forming and crashworthiness, constitutive parameters of a dual phase steel were determined for both sheet and tube stock in order to support analysis of the tube response throughout forming processes and in crash simulations. Stress - strain data was collected at a quasi-static rate as well as rates from 0.1 to 1500 s - 1. The intermediate strain rate response was captured using an instrumented falling weight tensile tester (35 100 s - 1), while a tensile split Hopkinson bar (500 1500 s - 1) was used to capture the high-rate response. This range of strain rates is typical of the rates seen in a crash simulation. Tests were also performed at higher temperatures (150°C and 300°C) at rates of 500 and 1500 s - 1 to capture the thermal softening response. The dual phase steel sheet and tube show an appreciable amount of strain rate sensitivity throughout the complete range of strain rates. It also exhibited a large amount of thermal softening. The thermal sensitivity is identical for the sheet and tube. Fits to the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were obtained from the experimental results.

  17. Federal Constitutional Court, decision of 8 July 1982 ('Whyl')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Constitutional Court with its decision of July 8, 1982 dismissed the action of the Sasbach Gemeinde which launched an appeal against the judgments of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Higher Administrative Court (of Oct. 17, 1980) and the Federal Administrative Court (of July 17, 1980), by which actions of said Gemeinde to annul the construction licence for unit I (South) of the Wyhl reactor were dismissed. The Federal Constitutional Court decision states that the Gemeinde as a corporate body, and not acting to perform its duties as a local authority, may not claim legal protection on the basis of Art. 14, para. 1, sentence 1 of the Basic Law. Also, the decision states, the interpretation and appropriate application of section 3, (1) of the Nuclear Installations Ordinance does not represent an infringement of the rights guaranteed by Art. 19, para. 4, sencentence 1 of the Basic Law. Nor could the Court see any reasons indicating an offense against Art. 103, (1) of the Basic Law. (HP)

  18. The Embryology and Evolution of Political Constitutions. About some Recent Studies in the English Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Luzzatti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We reedit in the dossier of this issue an essay of Luigi Luzzatti first came out in «Nuova Anthologia» in 1880. In it Luzzatti rereads the British constitutional history thanks to a set of biological metaphors and analogies, which are analyzed and historically framed in the introduction of Luca Ciancio. This approach of Luzzatti further enhances the reconstruction of history of Constitutions he offers analyzing the works of the greatest historians of his time.

  19. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  20. The constitutional implications of the rise of the SNP

    OpenAIRE

    McHarg, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    The UK Constitutional Law Association blog has asked constitutional lawyers to review the main party manifestos ahead of the May elections, drawing out key constitutional proposals. Below Aileen McHarg discussed the constitutional implications of the rise of the SNP.

  1. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when...

  2. The Law of the Constitution: A Bicentennial Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, Edwin, III

    This paper discusses the distinction between the Constitution and constitutional law. The Constitution is the fundamental law of the United States. It creates the institutions of government, enumerates the powers of these institutions, and delineates areas government may not enter. The Constitution is the instrument by which the consent of the…

  3. Power: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The fourth in a special series of handbooks dealing with constitutional themes, this document looks at power in the context of the U.S. Constitution. "The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom" (L. Peach) examines the separation of powers provided for in the Constitution. "The Concept of Power" (C. Roach) is a series of strategies, some using…

  4. The Constitutional Deficiencies of the German 'Rechtsgutslehre'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Friedrich Stuckenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the theoretical merits and constitutional validity of the “Rechtsgutslehre” (doctrine of the protection of legal goods, a widely held doctrine about the limits of legitimate criminalization in Germany and some other jurisdictions. The immediate cause for this reassessment is a recent decision of the German constitutional court which upheld the German incest prohibition and simultaneously rejected the traditional “Rechtsgutslehre” as constitutionally irrelevant, thereby stirring up considerable controversy among academic criminal lawyers. The paper tries to show why the court’s view is correct by pointing out the main deficiencies of the doctrine and what criteria a better theory must fulfil. Este artículo cuestiona los méritos teóricos y la validez constitucional de la "Rechtsgutslehre" (doctrina de la protección de los bienes jurídicos, una doctrina muy extendida acerca de los límites de la criminalización legítima en Alemania y algunas otras jurisdicciones. La causa inmediata de esta nueva valoración es una decisión reciente del Tribunal Constitucional alemán que ratificó la prohibición del incesto en Alemania y al mismo tiempo rechazó el tradicional "Rechtsgutslehre" por ser constitucionalmente irrelevante, lo que provocó una considerable controversia entre la comunidad académica de abogados criminalistas. El artículo trata de mostrar por qué la decisión de la corte es correcta, señalando las deficiencias principales de la doctrina y los criterios que una teoría más adecuada debe cumplir. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200870

  5. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  6. Constitutional aspects of a nuclear power phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current political debate in Germany about the Federal Government's plans to opt out of nuclear power, the time horizon for implementation of the policy and the nuclear power phaseout is a focal point of interest. This aspect is discussed from the angle of German constitutional law. The author analyses in this context the protective scope of Art. 14 GG (German Basic Law), relating to the protection of ownership rights and the principle of legal protection for bona fide acts, which is a vital aspect for the nuclear industry and the power industry. (orig./CB)

  7. The Right to Water: A Constitutional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Jayna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This paper examines the justiciability of social rights, looking particularly at the Right to Water as part of the all encompassing Right to Life. The Right to water in India has been protected as a fundamental human right by the Indian Supreme Court emanating from the Right to Life guaranteed under Article 21 of the constitution. The right to life has been expanded to include the right to health and the right to a clean environment. In India, there have also been significant dev...

  8. Identification of constitutive parameters for fractional viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhao; Haitian, Yang; Yiqian, He

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a numerical model to identify constitutive parameters in the fractional viscoelastic field. An explicit semi-analytical numerical model and a finite difference (FD) method based numerical model are derived for solving the direct homogenous and regionally inhomogeneous fractional viscoelastic problems, respectively. A continuous ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm is employed to solve the inverse problem of identification. The feasibility of the proposed approach is illustrated via the numerical verification of a two-dimensional identification problem formulated by the fractional Kelvin-Voigt model, and the noisy data and regional inhomogeneity etc. are taken into account.

  9. Labour’s 'Juridification' of the Constitution.

    OpenAIRE

    Masterman, R.M.W.

    2009-01-01

    This article responds to a number of points made by Mark Bevir in his article ‘The Westminster Model, Governance and Judicial Reform’ [Parliamentary Affairs 61 (2008), 559–77], in which Bevir highlights the ‘increasing role of the courts in the processes of collective decision-making’ which has been the result of, inter alia (but of particular importance to Bevir's argument), the passage and implementation of the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. This article puts ...

  10. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Condition and body constitution of soccer players in category U19 before and after completing a preparatory period [Kondice a tělesné složení u fotbalistů kategorie U19 před a po absolvování přípravného období

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Langer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The level of one's conditioning predisposition and somatic factors are one of the main components determining the quality of an individual's performance in soccer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in selected motor, functional and somatic parameters of soccer players in category U19, who completed the long used model of a training program employed in the preparatory period of soccer players. METHODS: The monitored group was composed of 14 players from SK Sigma Olomouc in category U19. The categories being evaluated comprised: their starting and acceleration speeds in the 10 m, 30 m and 30 m sprint with a flying start, the vertical jump, the isokinetic muscular strength of the knee joint and their maximum aerobic capacity. Of the monitored somatic factors attention was mainly focused on body height and weight, percentage of body fat, quantity of fat free mass and the overall amount of water in their bodies. RESULTS: From the spectrum of examined motor and functional parameters the only value that changed significantly with the players was the average value of VO2max from 56.65 to 58.85 ml.kg–1.min–1 (p = 0.04. Among the somatic factors a significant decrease was seen with the values of the Body Mass Index from 22.51 to 22.28 kg.m–2 (p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of the players' performance the expected changes of the monitored parameters were not observed. It is believed that the traditional model of soccer players' preparation does not lead to the desired changes in conditioning and somatic parameters.[VÝCHODISKA: Úroveň kondičních předpokladů a somatických faktorů je jednou z hlavních komponent rozhodujících o kvalitě výkonu jednotlivce ve fotbale. CÍLE: Cílem studie bylo posoudit změny vybraných motorických, funkčních a somatických parametrů u fotbalistů kategorie U19, kteří absolvovali dlouhodobě využívaný model tréninkového programu uplatňovaného v p

  12. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sting

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the EU and its Member States. The crisis has also inspired many European legal scholars to critically analyse the EU’s system of economic governance, as have other events throughout the history of the European Union, from the Empty Chair Crisis to the referenda in the aftermath of the Treaty of Maastricht and the failure of the Constitution for the European Union. What does seem to be different is the way in which scholars approach the issue of the Eurozone crisis. Instead of a purely legal perspective on economic governance, European legal scholars have realised that in order to understand and analyse the euro crisis, interdisciplinarity is the word of the moment.

  13. Constitutive equations for an electroactive polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Mireille; Pouget, Joël

    2016-07-01

    Ionic electroactive polymers can be used as sensors or actuators. For this purpose, a thin film of polyelectrolyte is saturated with a solvent and sandwiched between two platinum electrodes. The solvent causes a complete dissociation of the polymer and the release of small cations. The application of an electric field across the thickness results in the bending of the strip and vice versa. The material is modeled by a two-phase continuous medium. The solid phase, constituted by the polymer backbone inlaid with anions, is depicted as a deformable porous media. The liquid phase is composed of the free cations and the solvent (usually water). We used a coarse grain model. The conservation laws of this system have been established in a previous work. The entropy balance law and the thermodynamic relations are first written for each phase and then for the complete material using a statistical average technique and the material derivative concept. One deduces the entropy production. Identifying generalized forces and fluxes provides the constitutive equations of the whole system: the stress-strain relations which satisfy a Kelvin-Voigt model, generalized Fourier's and Darcy's laws and the Nernst-Planck equation.

  14. [Animal protection in constitutional law?--On the necessity of including animal protection in the constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, J

    1998-03-01

    The inclusion of animal protection in the constitution poses a lengthy legal-political demand, which is again being vehemently discussed at the present time. Under consideration of juristic aspects, the following treatise attempts to clarify the legal requirements which presently exist for anchoring animal protection in constitutional law. It is therefore necessary in the first instance to explain the present situation regarding animal protection law. The legal situation in this respect is marked by a fundamental collision between special democratic rights guaranteed by the constitution on the one hand, and the norms of animal protection law on the other hand, which tend to restrict these rights. Based on concrete examples taken from court decisions, it is shown that constitutional vacuum surrounding a major part of animal protection law greatly complicates or even renders impossible the application and enforcement of the latter in practice. A prerequisite for a proper legal framework for animal protection is that the different special basic democratic rights governing animal use must be counterpoised by animal protection laws backed up by the constitution. Only by this means it is possible to prevent the ineffectiveness of animal protection legislative norms in the long term. PMID:9581372

  15. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...... with an analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  16. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along with an...... analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  17. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  18. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  19. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or serves on an executive board or similar governing body. 17 Cf. NLRB v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co., 350... Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING...

  20. Constitutional and thermal defects in UAl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the point defect structure of oI20 UAl4 in order to study aluminum diffusion. We performed ab initio calculations within a pseudopotentials method implemented in the Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) to obtain point defect formation energies: vacancies (VU and VAl ) and antisites (AlU and UAl ). Using a statistical-thermodynamic model we calculated defects concentrations as function of temperature and deviation from stoichiometry. For stoichiometric UAl4, the dominant thermal defects are composed of two antisites. In off-stoichiometric UAl4, antisites are the constitutional defects. For U-rich UAl4, the thermal defect is called interbranch, where one antisite U atom is replaced by five Al vacancies. For Al-rich UAl4, the thermal defect is also an interbranch, where four antisite Al atoms are replaced by five U vacancies

  1. [Constitutions and generalities in traditional Tibetan medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, P M

    1986-04-28

    The present work is the result of a preliminary study promoted by C.I.S.ME.T. (the International Tibetan Medicine Study Centre) and aims to unify the diagnostic and therapeutic language of various medical cultures. In line with the spirit of the W.H.O. aimed at safeguarding the cultural heritage represented by popular and traditional medicine, encouraged by the Tibetan Medical Centre and under the auspices of His Holiness the Dalai Lama a terminological and conceptual integration of the basic elements of traditional Tibetan medicine is proposed. The Rlung, Bad Kan, Mkris Pa constitution is correlated with embryological anatomy. The 5 exhalations, 5 biles and 5 phlegbs are analysed from a tissue viewpoint with a search for parallels with embryological tissues.

  2. What Constitutes 'Failure to Notify' National Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2013-01-01

    “The inclusion of article 260(3) TFEU adopted as part of the Lisbon Treaty changed the landscape of infringement proceedings. The provision grants the Commission the power to propose monetary sanctions already during the initial Court litigation against a Member State that ‘failed to notify......’ national measures transposing a directive. This article analyses the concept of ‘failure to notify’ and points out that the current interpretation adopted by the Commission is only one of several possible interpretations. The author concludes that article 260(3) TFEU as it stands now is vaguely drafted and...... is prone to lead to judicial uncertainty. It further increases the already heavily criticized Commission discretion. Furthermore, the lack of proper guidelines of what constitutes ‘failure to notify’ can lead to the arbitrary launching of non-communication proceedings as well as further complicate...

  3. Mood-congruent cognitions constitute mood experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemer, Matthias

    2005-09-01

    Three studies tested the assumption of a dispositional theory of moods that mood-related cognitions constitute essential parts of the phenomenal mood experience. In Study 1, after a hot- versus a cold-, sad-, or angry-mood induction, participants reported their momentary moods and their momentary mood-related cognitions. Self-reported moods and mood-related cognitions changed in a strictly parallel fashion in all mood induction groups. A mediation analysis showed that the influences of distraction on moods were completely mediated by changes in mood-related cognitions. Study 2 replicated the central findings of Study 1 with a musical mood induction procedure. Study 3 showed that the findings do not depend on the explicit manipulation of moods. The results support the tested assumption. PMID:16187865

  4. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma...... and shrink, leading to potential pitfalls in paleopathological diagnostics. Bog bodies have in several instances been crucial in determining the last meal, as gut contents may be preserved, and thus augment our knowledge on pre-historic diet by adding to, for example, stable isotope analyses. This article...

  5. 76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... commemorate Constitution Day and Citizenship Day by becoming American citizens. These men and women have... America's promise to citizens of every race, gender, and creed. Americans are defined not by bloodlines or... Framers provided a model of American leadership for generations to come. Through controversy and...

  6. Pinning down the Constitution: Interactively Teaching Congress's Power, Federalism, and Constitutional Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "Pin-the-Tail-on-the-Constitution" is an engaged-learning activity that has been conducted in 26 classes over the past four years. The activity teaches multiple themes commonly included in a variety of courses on American politics such as federalism, congressional powers, the role of the federal courts, and the relevance of the commerce…

  7. Understanding Legal Evolution Through Constitutional Theory: The Concept of Constitutional (In-)Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mak (Elaine)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Why do legal arrangements for the institutions of government (legislative, executive, judicial branches) in Western liberal democracies develop faster, or in a different way, in one jurisdiction in comparison to another? In this article, it is argued that constitutional

  8. An approach to the legal structural problems of the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Colombian Constitution as a source of law can be made after consideration of four legal structural problems: norms, epistemology, logics, and hermeneutics. These problems may be stated as follows: Is the Constitution a source of applicable law? Does the Constitution have a determined or determinable content? Is the Constitution the prevalent norm in the legal system?, and, how is the Constitution interpreted and what is the value of this interpretation as a source? To study them, phenomena such as the crisis in Law, the constitutionality block, the fundamental rights, the human rights, preceding laws and jurisprudential lines must be taken into account. All of these have been duly addressed by the Constitutional Court’s jurisprudence. The goal of this essay is to perform an intellectual, truthful and scientifically verifiable approach to the existence, coexistence, implications and solution hypotheses to the aforementioned problems, from the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court.

  9. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  10. Positive Constitutional Economics II—A Survey of Recent Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the economic effects of constitutional rules has made substantial progress over the last decade. This survey provides an overview of this rapidly growing research area and also discusses a number of methodological issues and identifies underresearched areas. It argues that the next logical step of Positive Constitutional Economics is to endogenize constitutional rules.

  11. Constitution Day: Start the School Year with Civics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Eli J.

    2006-01-01

    The celebration and recognition of Constitution Day on September 17th is now required by federal law. The new law, known colloquially as the Byrd Amendment, requires all schools receiving any federal assistance, from kindergarten to higher education, to teach students about the Constitution on Constitution Day. The concept of a school's civic…

  12. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  13. Frederick Douglass Changed My Mind about the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, James

    2008-01-01

    Frederick Douglass dramatically and publicly changed his own mind about the Constitution. Like Frederick Douglass, the author had originally viewed the Constitution as pro-slavery. Yet a close look at Douglass's writings revealed a Constitution that empowered the federal government to abolish slavery.

  14. Constitutive Laws for Geomaterials Lois constitutives pour les géomatériaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamichos E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An abundance of constitutive laws exists to approximate the behavior of geomaterials under various stresses, boundary conditions and loading paths, pore pressures, temperatures and so on. The construction of constitutive laws is driven by two competing trends: the tendency for a unifying law describing the material behavior under the most general conditions, and the need for laws that can be used efficiently in practice. The latter incorporates both the possibility of calibration from available specimens and the user-friendliness of the law. For engineering purposes, the second tendency dominates and the engineer scientist has to evaluate the problem and select the most appropriate model to describe the dominant phenomena on hand. A review of various constitutive laws for geomaterials is presented with an emphasis on their application. Various examples of engineering problems and geomaterials with emphasis on petroleum applications are used to demonstrate that the law must be as simple as possible but not simpler. Il existe un nombre important de lois constitutives permettant d'approcher le comportement des géomatériaux sous diverses contraintes, conditions aux limites et divers chemins de chargement, pressions de pore, températures, etc. L'élaboration de lois constitutives suit deux tendances concurrentes : la tendance à élaborer une loi unifiée décrivant le comportement du matériau sous les conditions les plus générales, et le besoin de lois justifié par une utilisation efficace dans la pratique. La dernière tendance inclut à la fois la possibilité d'une calibration par des essais sur des échantillons disponibles, et la convivialité de la loi. À des fins d'ingénierie, la seconde tendance domine, l'ingénieur doit évaluer le problème et sélectionner le modèle le plus approprié pour décrire le phénomène dominant observé. Dans cet article, un examen des diverses lois constitutives pour les géomatériaux, et en

  15. Improvements to constitutive material model for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morea, Mihai I.

    2011-12-01

    The high strength to weight ratio of woven fabric offers a cost effective solution to be used in a containment system for aircraft propulsion engines. Currently, Kevlar is the only Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved fabric for usage in systems intended to mitigate fan blade-out events. This research builds on an earlier constitutive model of Kevlar 49 fabric developed at Arizona State University (ASU) with the addition of new and improved modeling details. Latest stress strain experiments provided new and valuable data used to modify the material model post peak behavior. These changes reveal an overall improvement of the Finite Element (FE) model's ability to predict experimental results. First, the steel projectile is modeled using Johnson-Cook material model and provides a more realistic behavior in the FE ballistic models. This is particularly noticeable when comparing FE models with laboratory tests where large deformations in projectiles are observed. Second, follow-up analysis of the results obtained through the new picture frame tests conducted at ASU provides new values for the shear moduli and corresponding strains. The new approach for analysis of data from picture frame tests combines digital image analysis and a two-level factorial optimization formulation. Finally, an additional improvement in the material model for Kevlar involves checking the convergence at variation of mesh density of fabrics. The study performed and described herein shows the converging trend, therefore validating the FE model.

  16. Mesoscale constitutive modeling of magnetic dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandar, Anand S; Wiest, John M

    2003-01-15

    A constitutive model for dispersions of acicular magnetic particles has been developed by modeling the particles as rigid dumbbells dispersed in a solvent. The effects of Brownian motion, anisotropic hydrodynamic drag, a steric force in the form of the Maier-Saupe potential, and, most importantly, a mean-field magnetic potential are included in the model. The development is similar to previous models for liquid-crystalline polymers. The model predicts multiple orientational states for the dispersion, and this phase behavior is described in terms of an orientational order parameter S and an average alignment parameter J; the latter is introduced because the magnetic particles have distinguishable direction due to polarity. A transition from isotropic to nematic phases at equilibrium is predicted. Multiple nematic phases-both prolate and oblate-are predicted in the presence of steady shear flow and external magnetic field parallel to the flow. The effect of increasing magnetic interparticle interactions and particle concentration is also presented. Comparisons with experimental data for the steady shear viscosity show very good agreement. PMID:16256493

  17. A nonlinear constitutive model for magnetostrictive materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin'en Liu; Xiaojing Zheng

    2005-01-01

    A general nonlinear constitutive model is proposed for magnetostrictive materials, based on the important physical fact that a nonlinear part of the elastic strain produced by a pre-stress is related to the magnetic domain rotation or movement and is responsible for the change of the maximum magnetostrictive strain with the pre-stress. To avoid the complicity of determining the tensor function describing the nonlinear elastic strain part, this paper proposes a simplified model by means of linearizing the nonlinear function.For the convenience of engineering applications, the expressions of the 3-D (bulk), 2-D (film) and 1-D (rod) models are, respectively, given for an isotropic material and their applicable ranges are also discussed. By comparison with the experimental data of a Terfenol-D rod, it is found that the proposed model can accurately predict the magnetostrictive strain curves in low, moderate and high magnetic field regions for various compressive pre-stress levels. The numerical simulation further illustrates that, for either magnetostrictive rods or thin films, the proposed model can effectively describe the effects of the pre-stress or residual stress on the magnetization and magnetostrictive strain curves, while none of the known models can capture all of them. Therefore, the proposed model enjoys higher precision and wider applicability than the previous models, especially in the region of the high field.

  18. Financial Accounting Constitution or its Referential Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a simplified approach it may be stated that the financial accounting theoretical framework is structured on three levels. At the first level, reference is made to the accounting objectives. These objectives are fundamental for the theoretical framework. At the second level, we find the accounting information characteristics and explicit mentions about the headings of financial statements. The mentioned characteristics of accounting information represent the basic issues for ensuring its utility. The headings represent the main categories of elements disclosed in the financial statements, like assets and liabilities – these two elements’ definitions brought radical changes both in the accounting thinking and practices. Overall, the second level’s components represent the basis for building the practice directives as a matter of recognition (identification and measurement (evaluation. Inside the third level, the recognition and measurement directives are being detailed, which will be further used by the accounting specialist in order to identify and apply the accounting standards. These two directives enclose postulates, principles and restrictions. Such specifications prove to be useful whenever precise answers must be given to relative financial information issues. Usually, it is accepted that the theoretical framework, also called the accounting framework is the standard-setting, metaphorically speaking is actually the constitution of financial accounting, or in other words, its reference matrix.

  19. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    ­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based...... on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  20. Politics of (In)visibility: Governance-Resistance and the Constitution of Refugee Subjectivities in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ansems De Vries, Leonie

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationality of governance and resistance in the context of the constitution of refugee subjectivities in Malaysia. Whilst recognising their precarity, the article moves away from conceiving of refugees merely as victims subjected to violence and control, and to contribute to an emerging body of literature on migrant resistance. Its contribution lies in examining practices of resistance, and the specific context in which they emerge, without conceptualising power-re...

  1. Women as a sign of the new? Appointments to the South African Constitutional Court since 1994.

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel E. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to develop our understanding of the role bodies play in processes of institutional change. It does so through developing an approach to the politics of institutional newness that highlights the way in which raced and gendered bodies can become entangled with claims to, or judgements of, “being new.” These questions are explored through South Africa's Constitutional Court, newly established as part of South Africa's transition to democracy in the 1990s and at the cent...

  2. On Constitutional Review%论违宪审查制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮麟; 刘士军

    2012-01-01

    Constitutional review is institutional guarantee mechanism which safeguards the constitution and constitutional order. This mechanism has already settled in many countries, and played an irreplaceable role in securing the constitutional order. Through the observation and study of Constitutional review mechanism in various countries, the text investigate the origin and the effect of two review mode, the centralized mode and the decentralized mode, from the review body to the review procedure, and analyze the advantages and the disadvantages of these two mode.%违宪审查制度是对宪法本身乃至于宪政秩序进行维护的制度性保障机制,该制度已经在世界上大多数国家生根落户,并在维护宪政秩序方面发挥着不可替代的作用。通过对世界各国违宪审查制度进行审视和考察,可以从审查机构到审查程序两个方面,对分散式违宪审查和集中式违宪审查这两种审查模式的产生原因及实际效果进行探究分析,以期对我国违宪审查制度的建构起到参考作用。

  3. Kelsen in Paris: France’s constitutional reform and the introduction of a posteriori constitutional review of legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbrini, Federico

    2008-01-01

    The article analyzes the recent French constitutional reform introducing a system of a posteriori constitutional review of legislation. The article places the reform in the context of the tradition French opposition toward judicial review, explains the reform in light of the pressures of EU and ECHR law and assess its revolutionary impact within the French constitutional system.

  4. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

    OpenAIRE

    Makbule Çeço

    2014-01-01

    In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of cons...

  5. Constitutional foundations of the property rights of citizens and organizations for real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Kamilevna Kondratenko

    2015-09-01

    of national defense and state security. Scientific novelty the article presents the study of the Russian constitutional court and the European court on human rights practices relatedto the issues of property rights of citizens and organizations on real estate. The author discusses the legal positions of the above judicial bodies in order to identify the legal challenges and gaps in the Russian legislation as well as to identify the areas for improvement of the civil legislation. Practical significance the research results can be used for the purposes of lawmaking to improve the standards of domestic constitutional and civil law. Certain provisions may be usedin judicial practice for the consideration and resolution of cases. Research proposals may also find application in the preparation of curricula textbooks and teaching courses on quotCivil lawquot quotLand lawquot quotProprietary rights for real estatequot. nbsp

  6. Feliform carnivores have a distinguished constitutive innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja K. Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the immunological phenotype of endangered and threatened populations is important to identify those vulnerable to novel pathogens. Among mammals, members of the order Carnivora are particularly threatened by diseases. We therefore examined the constitutive innate immune system, the first line of protection against invading microbes, of six free-ranging carnivore species; the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas, the brown hyena (Hyena brunnea, the caracal (Caracal caracal, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, the leopard (Panthera pardus and the lion (Panthera leo using a bacterial killing assay. The differences in immune responses amongst the six species were independent of their foraging behaviour, body mass or social organisation but reflected their phylogenetic relatedness. The bacterial killing capacity of black-backed jackals, a member of the suborder Caniformia, followed the pattern established for a wide variety of vertebrates. In contrast, the five representatives of the suborder Feliformia demonstrated a killing capacity at least an order of magnitude higher than any species reported previously, with a particularly high capacity in caracals and cheetahs. Our results suggest that the immunocompetence of threatened felids such as the cheetah has been underestimated and its assessment ought to consider both innate and adaptive components of the immune system.

  7. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  8. Nonlinear constitutive behavior of ferroelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaiJun; LIU Feng; WANG TzuChiang

    2008-01-01

    The ferroelectric specimen is considered as an aggregation of many randomly oriented domains. According to this mechanism, a multi-domain mechanical model is developed in this paper. Each domain is represented by one element. The applied stress and electric field are taken to be the stress and electric field in the formula of the driving force of domain switching for each element in the specimen. It means that the macroscopic switching criterion is used for calculating the volume fraction of domain switching for each element. By using the hardening relation between the driving force of domain switching and the volume fraction of domain switching calibrated, the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated. Substituting the stress and electric field and the volume fraction of domain switching into the constitutive equation of ferroelectric material, one can easily get the strain and electric displacement for each element. The macroscopic behavior of the ferroelectric specimen is then directly calculated by volume averaging. Mean-while, the nonlinear finite element analysis for the ferroelectric specimen is carried out. In the finite element simulation, the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated by using the same method mentioned above. The in-teraction between different elements is taken into account in the finite element simulation and the local stress and electric field for each element is obtained. The macroscopic behavior of the specimen is then calculated by volume averaging. The computation results involve the electric butterfly shaped curves of axial strain versus the axial electric field and the hysteresis loops of electric displacement versus the electric field for ferroelectric specimens under the uniaxial coupled stress and electric field loading. The present theoretical prediction agrees reasonably with the experimental results.

  9. Nonlinear constitutive behavior of ferroelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ferroelectric specimen is considered as an aggregation of many randomly oriented domains. According to this mechanism,a multi-domain mechanical model is developed in this paper. Each domain is represented by one element. The applied stress and electric field are taken to be the stress and electric field in the formula of the driving force of domain switching for each element in the specimen. It means that the macroscopic switching criterion is used for calculating the volume fraction of domain switching for each element. By using the hardening relation between the driving force of domain switching and the volume fraction of domain switching calibrated,the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated. Substituting the stress and electric field and the volume fraction of domain switching into the constitutive equation of ferroelectric material,one can easily get the strain and electric displacement for each element. The macroscopic behavior of the ferroelectric specimen is then directly calculated by volume averaging. Mean-while,the nonlinear finite element analysis for the ferroelectric specimen is carried out. In the finite element simulation,the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated by using the same method mentioned above. The in-teraction between different elements is taken into account in the finite element simulation and the local stress and electric field for each element is obtained. The macroscopic behavior of the specimen is then calculated by volume averaging. The computation results involve the electric butterfly shaped curves of axial strain versus the axial electric field and the hysteresis loops of electric displacement versus the electric field for ferroelectric specimens under the uniaxial coupled stress and electric field loading. The present theoretical prediction agrees reasonably with the experimental results.

  10. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  11. Large deformations of a new class of incompressible elastic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, R.; Orellana, O.; Meneses, R.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2016-06-01

    The consequences of the constraint of incompressibility is studied for a new class of constitutive relation for elastic bodies, for which the left Cauchy-Green tensor is a function of the Cauchy stress tensor. The requirement of incompressibility is imposed directly in the constitutive relation, and it is not necessary to assume a priori that the stress tensor should be divided into two parts, a constraint stress and a constitutively specified part, as in the classical theory of nonlinear elasticity.

  12. A Method for the Construction of Hereditary Constitutive Equations of Laminates Bases on a Hereditary Constitutive Equation for a Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumansky, Alexander M.; Tairova, Lyudmila P.

    2008-09-01

    A method for the construction of hereditary constitutive equation is proposed for the laminate on the basis of hereditary constitutive equations of a layer. The method is developed from the assumption that in the directions of axes of orthotropy the layer follows elastic behavior, and obeys hereditary constitutive equations under shear. The constitutive equations of the laminate are constructed on the basis of classical laminate theory and algebra of resolvent operators. Effective matrix algorithm and relationships of operator algebra are used to derive visco-elastic stiffness and compliance of the laminate. The example of construction of hereditary constitutive equations of cross-ply carbon fiber-reinforced plastic is presented.

  13. Susceptible Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünenberg, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    is understood as ‘susceptible bodies’ by acupuncturists and reflexologists, are brought into being through various bodily and narrative practices. From a practitioners’ perspective, these practices potentially influence treatment outcomes and enables the emergence of not just new bodies, but also potentially...

  14. Report between the President and Constitutional Court and its influence on the functioning of the Constitutional System in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Muçaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at clarifying the report between the President and the Constitutional Court. If we take as a starting point the constitutional mandate of these two institutions it follows that their final mission is the same, i.e., the protection and safeguarding of the constitutional system. This paper, thus, will clarify the key points in which this report is expressed. Further, this paper examines the theoretical aspects of the report between the President and the Constitutional Court, starting from the debate over this issue between Karl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen. An important part of the paper will examine the Constitution of Kosovo, i.e., the contents of the constitutional norm and its application. The analysis focuses on the role such report between the two institutions has on the functioning of the constitutional system. In analyzing the case of Kosovo, this paper examines Constitutional Court cases in which the report between the President and the Constitutional Court has been an issue of review. Such cases assist us in clarifying the main theme of this paper. Therefore, the reader will be able to understand the key elements of the report between the President as a representative of the unity of the people on the one hand and the Constitutional Court as a guarantor of constitutionality on the other hand.

  15. 77 FR 63309 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping Period for the Planned Constitution Pipeline Project On October 24, 2012, the Federal... Constitution Pipeline Company's (Constitution) Constitution Pipeline Project. This notice also extends...

  16. What constitutes our understanding of a patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, R D

    1993-01-01

    aspects of prevailing ideologies in constituting and determining what we call truth and understanding, including the "understanding" of a patient in psychotherapy. An example of the postmodern blend of philosophy and psychoanalysis is presented by Arlow's emphasis on unconscious fantasies and his insightful comments on how these unconscious fantasies organize and determine what we experience from the very beginning of life. This I believe is most consistent with Rescher's philosophical notion of "conceptual idealism," also briefly reviewed in this paper.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  17. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  18. Division G Commission 35: Stellar Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Marco; Lattanzio, John C.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Dominguez, Inma; Isern, Jordi; Karakas, Amanda; Leitherer, Claus; Marconi, Marcella; Shaviv, Giora; van Loon, Jacco

    2016-04-01

    Commission 35 (C35), ``Stellar Constitution'', consists of members of the International Astronomical Union whose research spans many aspects of theoretical and observational stellar physics and it is mainly focused on the comprehension of the properties of stars, stellar populations and galaxies. The number of members of C35 increased progressively over the last ten years and currently C35 comprises about 400 members. C35 was part of Division IV (Stars) until 2014 and then became part of Division G (Stars and Stellar Physics), after the main IAU reorganisation in 2015. Four Working Groups have been created over the years under Division IV, initially, and Division G later: WG on Active B Stars, WG on Massive Stars, WG on Abundances in Red Giant and WG on Chemically Peculiar and Related Stars. In the last decade the Commission had 4 presidents, Wojciech Dziembowski (2003-2006), Francesca D'Antona (2006-2009), Corinne Charbonnel (2009-2012) and Marco Limongi (2012-2015), who were assisted by an Organizing Committee (OC), usually composed of about 10 members, all of them elected by the C35 members and holding their positions for three years. The C35 webpage (http://iau-c35.stsci.edu) has been designed and continuously maintained by Claus Leitherer from the Space Telescope Institute, who deserves our special thanks. In addition to the various general information on the Commission structure and activities, it contains links to various resources, of interest for the members, such as stellar models, evolutionary tracks and isochrones, synthetic stellar populations, stellar yields and input physics (equation of state, nuclear cross sections, opacity tables), provided by various groups. The main activity of the C35 OC is that of evaluating, ranking and eventually supporting the proposals for IAU sponsored meetings. In the last decade the Commission has supported several meetings focused on topics more or less relevant to C35. Since the primary aim of this document is to

  19. What constitutes our understanding of a patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, R D

    1993-01-01

    aspects of prevailing ideologies in constituting and determining what we call truth and understanding, including the "understanding" of a patient in psychotherapy. An example of the postmodern blend of philosophy and psychoanalysis is presented by Arlow's emphasis on unconscious fantasies and his insightful comments on how these unconscious fantasies organize and determine what we experience from the very beginning of life. This I believe is most consistent with Rescher's philosophical notion of "conceptual idealism," also briefly reviewed in this paper.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8349490

  20. Constitutional Crowdsourcing to Reconcile Demos with Aristos and Nomos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    After the failed Icelandic experience of constitutional crowdsourcing (2009-2012), some of the country’s legal community, parliamentarians and policymakers affirmed that the constitutional draft proposed by the constitutional council of 25 citizens and approved unanimously on 27 July 2011....... This paper first remarks on how revolutionary and innovative the constitutional crowdsourcing experience was. From Solon, Ephialtes and Cleisthenes that laid out the foundation of democratic Athens, to modern constitutions that have been penned by few people men, regardless of the political system in which...... it is framed, been liberal democracies or authoritarian states. Derrida stated there is a sort of “semantic indeterminacy” at the core of democracy and that constitutional crowdsourcing is a way to intervene in this indeterminacy. The Icelandic example enlightened that there is a way to mediate between...

  1. Disentangling Network and Global Effects in Constitutional Political Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad; LeVeck, Brad; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Constitutions reflect the character and history of countries, particularly colonial legacy. While legal systems and constitutional texts are often 'nherited' from a former coloniser, until now this has not been quantified and interplay with global policy trends and horizontal influence not well understood. In this paper we analyse the structure and dynamics of all national constitutions using text similarity measures and network analysis. We attempt to answer the question 'what is the interplay between colonial history and global, time varying trends in determining the characteristics of a country's constitution?'. We identify strong trends, regardless of colonial history, in constitutional activity. We demonstrate that inheritance is strong, that countries with shared colonial history subscribe to `topics` of related constitutional provisions in a predictable manner, with respect to colonial history. Finally, we identify provisions whose adoption is determined by colonial history and others which are determi...

  2. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    In post-revolution Iran, the sacred notion of martyrdom has been transformed into a routine act of government – a moral sign of order and state sovereignty. Moving beyond the debates of the secularisation of the sacred and the making sacred of the secular, this article argues that the moment...... of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  3. Traditional Land Rights before the Indonesian Constitutional Court - Comment

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Butt

    2014-01-01

    In early 2013, the Indonesian Constitutional Court handed down its decision in the Traditional Forest Community case. In what has been heralded as a landmark decision, the Court upheld, as constitutional rights, the traditional rights of indigenous communities over forest resources upon which they had long depended. After introducing the Court and discussing aspects of its decision-making in constitutional review cases, this article demonstrates that the Traditional Forest Community case is i...

  4. The United Nations Charter as Constitution of the International Community

    OpenAIRE

    Fassbender, Bardo

    1998-01-01

    The Charter of the United Nations was brought into existence in the form of an international treaty. In the course of the last fifty years, however, the "constitutional predisposition" of the Charter has been confirmed and strengthened in such a way that today the Instrument must be referred to as the constitution of the international community. In this article, the author suggests that the Charter is the constitution of the international community in ist entirety, i.e., for all subjects of i...

  5. Flags, Constitutions, and the well-being of nations

    OpenAIRE

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory paper estimates the effects on well-being of two very important institutional symbols of 59 countries in 2007: national flags and constitutions. The results indicate that well-being responds positively to investment in material things as well as the existence of flags. However, nationalwell-being is highly inelastic with respect to measures of constitutions and national flag colors. In fact, nations with fewer flag colors, infrequent constitutional changes, and small constitu...

  6. Constitutive phosphorylation of Shc proteins in human tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelicci, G; Lanfrancone, L; Salcini, A E;

    1995-01-01

    cells. In tumor cells with known TK gene alterations Shc proteins were constitutively phosphorylated and complexed with the activated TK. No constitutive Shc phosphorylation was found in primary cell cultures and normal tissues. In 14 of 27 tumor cell lines with no reported TK alterations, Shc proteins...... activated TKs and that the analysis of Shc phosphorylation allow the identification of tumors with constitutive TK activation....

  7. DOUBLE-MEDIUM CONSTITUTIVE MODEL OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL IN UNIAXIAL TENSION AND COMPRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-li; WANG Si-jing; WANG En-zhi; XUE Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Based on elasto-plasticity and damage mechanics, a double-medium constitutive model of geological material under uniaxial tension and compression was presented,on the assumption that rock and soil materials are the pore-fracture double-medium, and porous medium has no damage occurring, while fracture medium has damage occurring with load. To the implicit equation of the model, iterative method was adopted to obtain the complete stress-strain curve of the material. The result shows that many different distributions (uniform distribution, concentrated distribution and random distribution)of fractures in rock and soil material are the essential reasons of the daedal constitutive relations. By the reason that the double-medium constitutive model separates the material to be porous medium part, which is the main body of elasticity, and fracture medium part, which is the main body of damage, it is of important practical values and theoretical meanings to the study on failure of rock and soil or materials containing damage.

  8. Curriculum Materials for the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Emphasizing the educational importance of the bicentennial celebration of the signing of the U.S. Constitution, Miller reviews various curriculum materials related to the topic. Recommends works for all grade levels, citing, among others, LESSONS ON THE CONSTITUTION, LAW AND THE BICENTENNIAL, and computer software entitled THE UNITED STATES…

  9. Review of Resources: Teaching Law and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, Mary Elizabeth, Ed.

    This guide provides analyses of curriculum materials that have been designed for teaching about the U.S. Constitution and law-related education. The guide begins with an editor's introduction and two essays, "Constitution Study and Civic Education" (James B. Giese) and "Thinking about Law-Related Education during the Bicentennial" (Barbara…

  10. The nuclear fuels tax is in conformity with constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are rulings by three courts of finance concerning the conformity of the nuclear fuels tax with German constitutional law. While the FG Hamburg and FG Munich were in some doubt, the FG Baden-Wuerttemberg was of the opinion that the nuclear fuels tax act is compatible with German constitutional law.

  11. Educational Research as a Reflexive Science of Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    "Constitution" is a relationship of mutual formation between people and their form of life. Neither can exist without the other. In the 1970s, proposals were made in various social sciences, including anthropology, political science, and sociology, for a new kind of inquiry that would focus squarely on constitution. It would be an explicitly…

  12. What Constitution Day Means and Why It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2014-01-01

    For almost three quarters of a century, advocates have worked to give comparable federal stature to September 17, the day on which we celebrate the anniversary of the 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution by the nation's founders. As President John F. Kennedy noted in his 1961 Constitution Day proclamation, it is a day for…

  13. Living Democracy: How Constitution High School Molds Better Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasof, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Philadelphia's Constitution High School (CHS) is committed both to the theory of education for democracy, and to its practice, as reflected by a school constitution, student elections, town hall meetings, and active student participation in school government. As its name indicates, CHS is a theme-based high school that focuses on history,…

  14. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insofar as they are not inconsistent with the provisions of title IV. 53 53 Act, sec. 401(e). Under 29 CFR... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of...

  15. Equality v. Liberty v. Pluralism: Latinos in American Constitutional Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Carlos R.

    This paper examines how U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court, have applied constitutional law principles to Latino communities and individuals in three areas: public education, the status of Puerto Rico, and jury selection. Consistent with traditional views of American society as biracial (black and white), constitutional law discussions…

  16. The Constitutionality of School Choice in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Charles G., III; Komer, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Does a "school choice" program, under which state funds are disbursed on a neutral basis to parents in the form of a voucher to defray the cost of sending their children to a school of their choice, run afoul of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, or of the New Hampshire Constitution? No. A school…

  17. Constitutional obligations of a person and a citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Ogurtsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Russian Federation does not contain the list of obligations, but theoretically each legal right is supposed to correspond to a legal obligation. Such conformity is achieved by means of attaching obligations not only by Constitution, but by the branch legislation either.

  18. The Constitutionality of Racial Classifications in Public School Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Revisits the Supreme Court's school desegregation jurisprudence, examining the typical analysis applied to this issue by recent lower federal court decisions. Discusses Supreme Court cases applying constitutional provisions to the public education context, suggesting that the constitutional analysis of the use of racial classifications to further…

  19. Constitutionality of Compulsory Arbitration Statutes in Public Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudohar, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state supreme court rulings on constitutionality issues raised by compulsory arbitration for public employees. Cases are reviewed for the states of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Maine, Michigan, New York, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Washington. Concludes that courts have generally upheld the constitutionality of such…

  20. Stochastic Properties of Plasticity Based Constitutive Law for Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    The purpose of this paper is to obtain a stochastic model for the parameters in a constitutive model for concrete based on associated plasticity theory and with emphasis placed on the pre-failure range. The constitutive model is based on a Drucker Prager yield surface augmented by a Rankine cut...

  1. Stohastic Properties of Plasticity Based Constitutive Law for Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to obtain a stochastic model for the parameters in a constitutive model for concrete based on associated plasticity theory and with emphasis placed on the pre-failure range. The constitutive model is based on a Drucker Prager yield surface augmented by a Rankine cut...

  2. New constitutive model for the study of creeping solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世文; 杨兆建; 冯建玲

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a incremental form of constitutive laws for creeping studies are proposed. The equations are based on the concept of creep hardening surface. Damage effects were introduced to the new constitutive relations to study solids creeping effects with pre-existing damages. The present formula is easy to be adopted into other numerical procedures such as finite element methods.

  3. Europe-building through private law. Lessons from constitutional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Mak

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Questioning the link between private law and the nation-state that is implied by nationalist perceptions of the law, this paper seeks to find support for a transnational (Europeanist,constitutional-patriotist or cosmopolitan) view on private law in constitutional theory. Normative theories

  4. Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials Advances and New Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Zheng, Hong; Yao, Yangping

    2013-01-01

    The Second International Symposium on Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications (IS-Model 2012), is to be held in Beijing, China, during October 15-16, 2012. The symposium is organized by Tsinghua University, the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), the Committee of Numerical and Physical Modeling of Rock Mass, Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering, and the Committee of Constitutive Relations and Strength Theory, China Institution of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, China Civil Engineering Society. This Symposium follows the first successful International Workshop on Constitutive Modeling held in Hong Kong, which was organized by Prof. JH Yin in 2007.   Constitutive modeling of geomaterials has been an active research area for a long period of time. Different approaches have been used in the development of various constitutive models. A number of models have been implemented in the numerical analyses of geote...

  5. Effect of Elastic Constitutive Laws on the Deformation of Two-dimensional Red Blood Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Zhao-xin; LU Chuan-jing

    2009-01-01

    Deformation of two-dimensional red blood cell in linear shear flow is simulated using the immersed boundary method, in which the cell is modeled as a force source instead of a real body. The effect of three constitutive laws, i.e. Hookean, Neo-Hookean and Skalak elasticity, on the deformation is studied by simulating the cell movement in two linear shear flows. The results show that the effect of the constitutive laws gets more obvious as the shear rate increases. Both the aspect ratio and the inclination of the steady shapes get bigger, and the differences between the periods of the cell tank-treading motion become larger. For the same shear flow, the period with Hookean elasticity is less than the period with Neo-Hookean elasticity and bigger than the period with Skalak elasticity.

  6. CONSTITUTIVE RELATION OF UNSATURATED SOIL BY USE OF THE MIXTURE THEORY(I)—NONLINEAR CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND FIELD EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGYi; ZHANGYin-ke

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear constitutive equations and field equations of unsaturated soils were constructed on the basis of mixture theory.The soils were treated as the mixture composed of three constituents.First ,from the researches of soil mechanics,some basic assumptions about the unsaturated soil mixture were mode,and the entropy inequality unsaturated soil mixture was derived.Then,with the common method usually used to deal with the constitutive problems in mixture theory,the nonlinear constitutive equations were obtained.Finally,putting the constiutive equtions of constituents into the balance equations of momentum,the nonlinear field equations of constitutents into the balance equations of momentum,the nonliear field equations of constitutents were set up.The balance equation of energy of unsaturated soil was also given,and thus the complete equations for solving the thermodynamic process of unsaturated soil was formed.

  7. Prospects of the Constitutional State of Indonesia: Ideas and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Zoelva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia since its inception has asserted itself as a constitutional state. It may be inferred through the clear regulation related to powers and functions of each state institution in the form of checks and balances system, the protection of human rights, the clarity of the principles of democratic mechanism, as well as the guarantee of an independent judiciary. Although the constitution has been set in such a way, efforts to achieve a constitutional state is not an easy road. Nowadays, it seems that the trip of the Indonesian as a constitutional state was still hobbled. A variety of legal issues that disturb the sense of justice continues to emerge one after another. The outcomes of the research indicate that over the last decade, Indonesia has made many changes to realize the ideal of a constitutional state. As it turns out in practice, however, legal development was still far short from the expectations. The success of building a constitutional state can not be measured by the ability to produce legislation and to create or revitalize legal institutions. Moreover, the success of a constitutional state must also be measured by the implementation and law enforcement which able to create justice for all people. Therefore, the main focus of various studies of law and legal policy, must be oriented in the judicial institutions and law enforcement.

  8. 足三里与针灸调体规律探析%The Research on Acupoint ST36 in Regulating Constitution with Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新普; 林培挺; 李敏; 薛丹; 傅杰英

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses use of acupoint ST 36 in constitution-regulating involving constitution of yin -yang harmony 、constitu-tion of qi asthenia、constitution of yang asthenia、constitution of yin asthenia 、constitution of phlegm -dampness 、constitution of damp-heat、constitution of blood stasis、constitution of qi stagnation and allergic constitution .It comes to the conclusion that constitution and syndrome are root to curing and preventing disease , while doctor's clinical idea and concrete methods are water to curing and pre-venting disease .The process of watering the root equals to treating patients with correct remedies ..Acupoints where the qi and blood spread and stop are natural entry point , and constitution-regulation using acupuncture & moxabustion could adjust our body to keep our body in balance and health as well as improve the quality of our life .%探析了足三里在平和、气虚、阳虚、阴虚、痰湿、气郁、瘀血、湿热和特禀体质针灸调理中的运用规律。总结出,体、证是治病、治未病必求之本,医者针灸临床思维和具体方法是其标,标本相得是机体状态和干预措施间的应答,是临床疗效提高的保障,具体切入点是经络气血输注、神气游行出入的腧穴。调体就是针灸调动或促使机体功能信息的自我调整来维持稳态、促进健康和提高生存质量和延年益寿。

  9. Elasto-plastic constitutive modeling for granular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芳乐; 李建中

    2004-01-01

    Based on the modified plastic strain energy approach, an elasto-plastic constitutive modeling for sand was proposed. The hardening function between the modified plastic strain energy and a stress parameter was presented, which was independent of stress history and stress paths. The proposed model was related to an isotropically work-hardening and softening, non-associated and elasto-plastic material description. It is shown that the constitutive modeling, the inherent and stress system-induced cross-anisotropic elasticity is also considered. The constitutive model is capable of simulating the effects on the deformation characteristics of stress history and stress path, pressure level and anisotropic strength.

  10. Chang Chien’s Ideas and Activities on Constitutional Monarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Shun-chih Sun

    2009-01-01

    Chang Chien was born on July 1st in 1853 in Haimen Kiangsu and died on August 24th in 1926 in Nant’ung Kiangsu. Chang Chien’s ideas and activities on constitutional monarchy are significant and thus this article is to examine them.Constitutional monarchy, according to Chang Chien, was a separation of the three-power political system under an emperor. In order to accomplish constitutional monarchy, local self-government should be strengthened and therefore without local self-government, consti...

  11. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.

  12. Neural Network Model for the Constitutive Relations of Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Jing; Wang Jing-tao

    2003-01-01

    The soil constitutive relation is one of the important issues in soil mechanics. It is very difficult to establish mathematical models because of the complexity of soil mechanical behavior. We propose a new method of neural network analysis for establishing soil constitutive models. Based on triaxial experiments of sand in the laboratory, the nonlinear constitutive models of sand expressed by the neural network were set up. In comparison with Duncan-Chang's model, the neural network method for sand modeling has been proved to be more convenient, accurate and it has a strong fault-tolerance function.

  13. The constitutional dimension of the Internet : some research paths

    OpenAIRE

    SIMONCINI, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The advent of Internet, as a new super-powered communication technology, has a huge impact on human thinking, therefore, on social relationships and, at the end, on law. Specifically, Internet plays a double interaction with the realm of constitutional law: on the one hand, it is a new powerful tool to pursue constitutional aims (a new way to define, control and regulate power); on the other, it is a new object of the constitutional law (a new power to be defined, controlled, and regulated). ...

  14. Dynamic constitutive equation of GFRP obtained by Lagrange experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The note presents a method of constructing dynamic constitutive equations of material by means of Lagrange experiment and analysis. Tests were carried out by a light gas gun and the stress history profiles were recorded on multiple Lagrange positions. The dynamic constitutive equations were deduced from the regression of a series of data which was obtained by Lagrange analysis based upon recorded multiple stress histories. Here constitutive equations of glass fibre reinforced phenolic resin composite(GFRP) in uniaxil strain state under dynamic loading are given. The proposed equations of the material agree well with experimental results.

  15. Modernity, Rationality and Constitutional Law in Muslim-Majority Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    Are Islamic law, human rights and constitutionalism compatible? In answering this question, this paper first discusses the concept of modernity (understood in terms of rationality and standardization), analysing its abrupt implementation in the MENA countries and the role that the first modern...... constitutions played in institutionalising a new sort of dominion in the newly established states. Against this background, the paper discusses the relationship between constitutionalism and Shari’a law, presenting this as a clash between two competing normative visions that are conceptually difficult...

  16. Constitutive theories on viscoelastoplasticity and damage of frozen soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 程国栋; 朱元林

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive theory on the viscoelastoplasticity and damage of frozen soil is based on the continuous mechanics and thermodynamics. The basic principles of the theory, dissipation potential function and damage model are presented. The constitutive theory explains the mechanical properties of frozen soils under complicated stresses, especially under high confining pressures which make frozen soil harden and soften. The agreement between the calculated results by the constitutive theory and the experimental results of triaxial creep of frozen soil is seen to be very good.

  17. Role of Nuclear Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Regulation of Hepatocyte Proliferation and Hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, Y A; Pustylnyak, Y A; Pustylnyak, V O

    2016-04-01

    Activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in hepatocytes occurs as a body adaptation in response to a number of external influences, and its functional activity is primarily related to induction of enzymes detoxifying xenobiotics. However, special attention was recently given to CAR due to the fact that its key role becomes unveiled in various physiological and pathophysiological processes occurring in the liver: gluconeogenesis, metabolism of fatty acids and bilirubin, hormonal regulation, proliferation of hepatocytes, and hepatocarcinogenesis. Here we review the main pathways and mechanisms that elevate hepatocyte proliferative activity related to CAR and whose disturbance may be a pivotal factor in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  18. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION CONFERENCE (NELAC): CONSTITUTION, BYLAWS, AND STANDARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The principles and operating procedures for the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) are contained in the NELAC Constitution and Bylaws. The major portion of this document (standards) contains detailed requirements for accrediting environmental labo...

  19. A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on irreversible thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model for metal materials is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, and an expression for the Helmholtz free energy function involving the parameters reflecting kinematic hardening and isotropic hardening is given. At the same time a non-associated flow potential function including the corresponding state variables is also given, from which the flow equation and the evolution equations of the internal state variables are derived. Thus, a general theoretical framework constructing a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model is given. Compared with the typical unified viscoplasticity constitutive models, the presented model evidently satisfies the irreversible thermodynamics laws. Moreover, this method not only provides a new theoretical foundation for further development of the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, but also gives a new theoretical framework for the stress-strain analysis of more materials.

  20. A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on irreversible thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ChangChun; LV HeXiang; GUAN Ping

    2008-01-01

    A unified viscoplasticity constitutive model for metal materials is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, and an expression for the Helmholtz free energy function involving the parameters reflecting kinematic hardening and isotropic hardening is given. At the same time a non-associated flow potential function including the corresponding state variables is also given, from which the flow equation and the evolution equations of the internal state variables are derived. Thus, a general theoretical framework constructing a unified viscoplasticity con-stitutive model is given. Compared with the typical unified viscoplasticity constitu-tive models, the presented model evidently satisfies the irreversible thermody-namics laws. Moreover, this method not only provides a new theoretical foundation for further development of the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, but also gives a new theoretical framework for the stress-strain analysis of more materials.

  1. GENERAL EXPRESSIONS OF CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ISOTROPIC ELASTIC DAMAGED MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪松; 蒋持平; 郑健龙

    2001-01-01

    The general expressions of constitutive equations for isotropic elastic damaged materials were derived directly from the basic law of irreversible thermodynamics. The limitations of the classical damage constitutive equation based on the well-known strain equivalence hypothesis were overcome. The relationships between the two elastic isotropic damage models(i. e. single and double scalar damage models)were revealed. When a single scalar damage variable defined according to the microscopic geometry of a damaged material is used to describle the isotropic damage state, the constitutive equations contain two "damage effect functions", which describe the different influences of damage on the two independent elastic constants. The classical damage constitutive equation based on the strain equivalence hypothesis is only the first-order approximation of the general expression.It may be unduly simplified and may fail to describe satisfactorily the damage phenomena of practical materials.

  2. Mathematical modeling and the two-phase constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems raised by the mathematical modeling of two-phase flows are summarized. The models include several kinds of equations, which cannot be discussed independently, such as the balance equations and the constitutive equations. A review of the various two-phase one-dimensional models proposed to date, and of the constitutive equations they imply, is made. These models are either mixture models or two-fluid models. Due to their potentialities, the two-fluid models are discussed in more detail. To avoid contradictions, the form of the constitutive equations involved in two-fluid models must be sufficiently general. A special form of the two-fluid models, which has particular advantages, is proposed. It involves three mixture balance equations, three balance equations for slip and thermal non-equilibriums, and the necessary constitutive equations

  3. EU Constitutional Limits and the Open Method of Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Orcalli Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    European constitutionalism is traditionally described as a limited model, oriented towards the commercial and economic objectives of the internal market and controlled under the principle of conferral. In reality, a more complex system of multilevel governance has emerged in recent years, which complicates the constitutional interpretation of the EU but may help explain the novelties and, above all, the difficulties of the evolution of the European integration process. This article uses the i...

  4. Constituting performance : Case studies of performance auditing and performance reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Svärdsten Nymans, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to problematize how and under what conditions organizational performance is constituted in the practices of performance auditing and accounting. Organizational performance disclosure is a world-wide phenomenon for enabling accountability relationships in large organizations regardless of the societal sector they operate in. In constitutive accounting literature, there is a well-established notion that accounting and performance auditing enable “government at a distan...

  5. Constitutive Equation of Superalloy In718 in Hammer Forging Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A constitutive equation reflecting the flow behavior ofSuperalloy In718 during the counter-blow hammer forging process was developed in terms of the relationship of flow stress and hot-deformation parameters, such as strain, strain rate, and deformation temperature. A new simplified approach for the complex multi-pass stress-strain curves has been attempted. The simulation curves calculated by constitutive equation are consistent with the experimental data.

  6. Social Rights, Constitutionalism and the German Social State Principle

    OpenAIRE

    King, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article I focus on the constitutional role of the German social state principle and the questions it generates for foreign jurists. Although the German Basic Law contains no set of social rights, the social state principle has invigorated readings of the basic rights constitutional provisions in a manner that invites comparison with, and raises the same competence questions, as the adjudication of social rights. On the other hand, the principle focuses on a general state duty to take ...

  7. What Roles Can Constitutional Law Play in Investment Arbitration?

    OpenAIRE

    Boisson de Chazournes, Laurence; McGarry, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Interplays between international and domestic legal spheres have attracted increased attention in investor-State dispute settlement. From the treaty ratification process to award execution, constitutional norms play recurring roles before, during and after investment arbitrations. This contribution deals with the manner in which parties to such disputes can rely upon constitutional law or, more broadly speaking, domestic law. Notably, major hurdles to the application of domestic law in transn...

  8. The Paradox of Omnipotence: Courts, Constitutions, and Commitments

    OpenAIRE

    Law, DS

    2005-01-01

    Sovereigns, like individuals, must sometimes make commitments that limit their own freedom of action in order to accomplish their goals. Social scientists have observed that constitutional arrangements can, by restricting a sovereign's power, enable the sovereign to make such commitments. This paper advances several claims about the commitment problems that sovereigns face. First, constitutions do not necessarily solve such problems but can instead aggravate them, by entrenching inalienable g...

  9. International Regionalism and National Constitutions: A Jurimetric Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lombaerde, Philippe de; Lizarazo Rodríguez, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers a large global sample of constitutional texts (i.e. 171 constitutions from 153 countries) and assesses to what extent and how they refer to the increasingly important phenomenon of international regionalism (or regional integration) and how they deal with potential sources of tensions and contradictions between the national legal systems and the emerging regional regulatory universes. A typology of clauses is therefore proposed. In addition, some evidence is presented on ...

  10. Socialism and Democracy : New Labour and the Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Bevir, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests that one way to make sense of New Labour’s constitutional reforms is to show how they draw on concepts of democracy embedded in the British traditions of thought that have inspired New Labour.  In this view, the constitutional reforms draw on a representative concept of democracy that has been characteristic of the liberal and Fabian traditions that have long dominated British socialism. The paper contrasts the dominant liberal and Fabian traditions upon which New Labour h...

  11. Relationships among Constitution, Stress, and Discomfort in the First Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ling Wang

    2012-01-01

    trimester of pregnancy. We adopted a descriptive and correlational research design and collected data from 261 pregnant women during their first trimester in southern Taiwan using structured questionnaires. Results showed that (1 stress was significantly and positively correlated with Yang-Xu, Yin-Xu, and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions, respectively; (2 Yin-Xu and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort, while Yang-Xu had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort except for “running nose”; (3 Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitution and stress were two indicators for “fatigue”; Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi was the indicator for “nausea”; Yang-Xu and Yin-Xu were indicators for “frequent urination.” Our findings also indicate that stress level affects constitutional changes and that stress and constitutional change affect the incidence of discomfort. This research can help healthcare professionals observe these discomforts and provide individualized care for pregnant women, to nurture pregnant women into neutral-type constitution, minimize their levels of discomfort, and promote the health of the fetus and the mother.

  12. A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Constitutional Principles of State Control in the Republic of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel K. Balayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article some of the provision of the RA Constitution’s basic principles of state control, which, in my opinion, should be guided by regulatory authorities during the inspection are discussed. These principles are considered by the author as the basis of the constitutionality of state control. Some of the control principles are divided by the author into positive and negative. Positive defines the principles that provide the freedom of action of man and citizen. Negative same principles are for government agencies, since they restrict their activities. A separate analysis is subject to the presidency on the basis of the principle of separation and balance of powers. In conclusion, author concludes that, based on the interpretation of the constitutional principles discussed, the term "law" applies only to natural and legal persons on the other hand can not be used as an analogue of the terms "authority" and "authority." According to the author, the fundamental constitutional principles of state control are expressed formally in a single system as defined in the first chapter of the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia. Compliance and reform of constitutional principles provide the synergy and the constitutionality of the process of governance.

  14. A macro-mechanical constitutive model for shape memory polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is of theoretical and engineering interest to establish a macro-mechanical constitutive model of the shape memory polymer (SMP), which includes the mechanical constitutive equation and the material parameter function, from the viewpoint of practical application. In this paper, a new three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive equation, which describes the mechanical behaviors associated with the shape memory effect of SMP, is developed based on solid mechanics and the viscoelasticity theorem. According to the results of the DMA test, a new material parameter function is established to express the relationship of the material parameters and temperature during the glass transition of SMP. The new macro-mechanical constitutive equation and material parameter function are used to numerically simulate the process producing the shape memory effect of SMP, which includes deforming at high temperature, stress freezing, unloading at low temperature and shape recovery. They are also used to investigate and analyze the influences of loading rate and temperature change rate on the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP. The numerical results and the comparisons with Zhou’s material parameter function and Tobushi’s mechanical constitutive equation illustrate that the proposed three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive model can effectively predict the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP under the state of complex stress.

  15. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. PMID:27634782

  16. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  17. Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Dementia With Lewy Bodies Information Page Synonym(s): Lewy Body ... and Information Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Dementia With Lewy Bodies? Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) ...

  18. CONSTITUTIVE RELATION OF UNSATURATED SOIL BY USE OF THE MIXTURE THEORY(Ⅰ)-NONLINEAR CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND FIELD EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄义; 张引科

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear constitutive equations and field equations of unsaturated soils were cons tructed on the basis of mixture theory. The soils were treated as the mixture composed of three constituents. First, from the researches of soil mechanics, some basic assumptions about the unsaturated soil mixture were made, and the entropy inequality of unsaturated soil mixture was derived. Then, with the common method usually used to deal with the constitutive problems in mixture theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations were obtained. Finally, putting the constitutive equations of constituents into the balance equations of momentum, the nonlinear field equations of constituents were set up. The balance equation of energy of unsaturated soil was also given, and thus the complete equations for solving the thermodynamic process of unsaturated soil was formed.

  19. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents development of rate constitutive theories for compressible as well as in incompressible ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids, i.e., polymeric fluids in Eulerian description. The polymeric fluids in this paper are considered as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids in which the stress rate of a desired order, i.e., the convected time derivative of a desired order ` m' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor, and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, convected time derivatives of the chosen strain tensor up to any desired order ` n' and the convected time derivative of up to orders ` m-1' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. The development of the constitutive theories is presented in contravariant and covariant bases, as well as using Jaumann rates. The polymeric fluids described by these constitutive theories will be referred to as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories are dependent on the orders ` m' and ` n' of the convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and conjugate strain tensors. The highest orders of the convected time derivative of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain tensors define the orders of the polymeric fluid. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free-energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second

  20. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  1. The Constitutionality of a Biological Father's Recognition as a Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Louw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not

  2. BIOMETRIC INDICES OF CONSTITUTIONAL RISKS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA IN MALE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Е.A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the current study examines features and correlations of particular psychodynamic, dermatoglyphic characteristics and body constitution of men with paranoid schizophrenia. Study groups: 25 men having the "paranoid schizophrenia" (F20.0, 27 men having no mental diseases. Methods: psychodiagnostic tests (Hand test, the Big Five Inventory (BFI, anthropometry; dactyloscopy. Results: there were statistically significant differences in such personality factors as: extroversion and openness among two groups. Significantly smaller sizes of the chest and thigh circumferences were found in men with paranoid schizophrenia. The schizophrenic group exhibited higher frequency of "ulnar loop" and "double loop" finger pattern occurrence. Our study found a number of somato-psychic, dermato-psychic and dermato-somatic correlations, as well as correlations between personality factors and age. Conclusion: the examination of personality features correlated with markers of dermatoglyphic and body constitution helped to identify the predictors of risks for developing paranoid schizophrenia. This makes it possible the identification of at-risk groups with their monitoring and focusing on preventive programs

  3. Introduction to special issue of Body & Society, 'Medicine, Bodies, Politics: Experimentation and Emergence'

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Mike; Rosengarten, Marsha

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction, we address some of the complexities associated with the emergence of medicine’s bodies, not least as a means to ‘working with the body’ rather than simply producing a critique of medicine. We provide a brief review some of the recent discussions on how to conceive of medicine and its bodies, noting the increasing attention now given to medicine as a technology or series of technologies active in constituting a multiplicity of entities—bodies, diseases, experimental objec...

  4. Using Constitutional Provisions to Advance Environmental Justice – Some Reflections on Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camena Guneratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of environmental justice and its potential applicability to developing countries such as Sri Lanka. It first considers the interpretation and application of the principle in its country of origin, the United States, where it is used primarily to address problems of discrimination in the context of pollution. The paper takes the view that while such an interpretation of environmental justice is valid in this particular context, it cannot address issues of environment and development that arise in countries of the global South, which are grappling with development processes. These processes give rise to issues that may be subject to judicial determination, including sustainable development, protection of natural resources, human rights and social equity. The principle must therefore be re-interpreted to encompass all these dimensions. This paper argues that such an expansion and implementation of the principle of environmental justice in a context of environment and development in countries such as Sri Lanka, is most effective within a constitutional framework of human rights. Constitutions provide both the substantive and procedural foundation of rights, which are interpreted, enforced and given validity at the highest level of the judicial process. Even where environmental rights per se are not contained in a constitution, the existing rights can be, and have been, re-formulated to address issues of environment and development and related human rights. This paper analyses constitutional rights in Sri Lanka, which although limited in scope, has nevertheless formed the basis of a wide body of jurisprudence which brings new dimensions to the principle.

  5. The "alternative" choice of constitutive exons throughout evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Lev-Maor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cassette exons are known to originate from two processes-exonization of intronic sequences and exon shuffling. Herein, we suggest an additional mechanism by which constitutively spliced exons become alternative cassette exons during evolution. We compiled a dataset of orthologous exons from human and mouse that are constitutively spliced in one species but alternatively spliced in the other. Examination of these exons suggests that the common ancestors were constitutively spliced. We show that relaxation of the 5' splice site during evolution is one of the molecular mechanisms by which exons shift from constitutive to alternative splicing. This shift is associated with the fixation of exonic splicing regulatory sequences (ESRs that are essential for exon definition and control the inclusion level only after the transition to alternative splicing. The effect of each ESR on splicing and the combinatorial effects between two ESRs are conserved from fish to human. Our results uncover an evolutionary pathway that increases transcriptome diversity by shifting exons from constitutive to alternative splicing.

  6. Non-linear Constitutive Model for the Oligocarbonate Polyurethane Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Pawlikowski

    2014-01-01

    The polyurethane,which was the subject of the constitutive research presented in the paper,was based on oligocarbonate diols Desmophen C2100 produced by Bayer@.The constitutive modelling was performed with a view to applying the material as the inlay of intervertebral disc prostheses.The polyurethane was assumed to be non-linearly viscohyperelastic,isotropic and incompressible.The constitutive equation was derived from the postulated strain energy function.The elastic and rheological constants were identified on the basis of experimental tests,i.e.relaxation tests and monotonic uniaxial tests at two different strain rates,i.e.λ =0.1 min-1 and λ =1.0 min-1.The stiffness tensor was derived and introduced to Abaqus@finite element (FE) software in order to numerically validate the constitutive model.The results of the constants identification and numerical implementation show that the derived constitutive equation is fully adequate to model stress-strain behavior of the polyurethane material.

  7. Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Responses According to Sasang Constitution and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chaeweon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study was performed to compare the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin test reactions among groups with different sexes and Sasang constitutions. Methods: Between July 2012 and June 2013, all 76 patients who underwent bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests and Sasang constitution diagnoses at Oriental Medicine Hospital of Sangji University were included in this study. The skin test was performed on the patient’s forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of sweet bee venom (SBV on their first visit. If the patients showed a positive response, the test was discontinued. On the other hand, if the patient showed a negative response, the test was performed on the opposite forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of bee venom pharmacopuncture 25% on the next day or the next visit. Three groups were made to compare the differences in the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests according to sexual difference and Sasang constitution: group A showed a positive response to SBV, group B showed a positive response to bee venom pharmacopuncture 25%, and group C showed a negative response on all bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests. Fisher’s exact test was performed to evaluate the differences statistically. Results: The results of the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests showed no significant differences according to Sasang constitution (P = 0.300 or sexual difference (P = 0.163. Conclusion: No significant differences on the results of bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests were observed according to two factors, Sasang constitution and the sexual difference.

  8. Coupled elasto-plasticity damage constitutive models for concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang XU; Jian-yun CHEN; Jing LI; Gang XU

    2013-01-01

    The paper is to design and construct a coupled elasto-plasticity damage constitutive model for concrete.Based on the energy dissipation principle,the Hsieh-Ting-Chen four-parameter yield function is used.The model can reflect different strength characteristics of concrete in tension and compression,and reduce the limitation and lacuna of the traditional damage constitutive models for concrete.Furthermore,numerical test for concrete stress-strain relation under uniaxial tension and compression is given.Moreover,the damage process of concrete gravity dam is calculated and analyzed in seismic load.Compared with other damage constitutive models,the proposed model contains only one unknown parameter and the other parameters can be found in the Hsieh-Ting-Chen four-parameter yield function.The same damage evolution law,which is used for tension and compression,is good for determining stress-strain constitutive and damage characteristics in complex stress state.This coupled damage constitutive models can be applied in analyzing damage of concrete gravity dam and arch dam.

  9. The Icelandic media coverage of the constitutional assembly election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Hildur Kolbeins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On November 27, 2010, the people of Iceland elected 25 individuals to the country’s constitutional assembly. As there were 522 candidates for the 25 seats in the assembly, the media were faced with a new dilemma, i.e. how to ensure impartiality and objectivity in their coverage of the candidates and the subject matter. The present study compares the media coverage of the constitutional assembly election to two other national elections; the general election in the spring of 2009 and the municipal election in the spring of 2010. All news stories in the 13 major print, broadcast and online news outlets in Iceland were coded two weeks prior to each election. The results indicate that the national media almost ignored the constitutional assembly election in comparison to the other elections. There were 632 news stories on the general election, 590 stories on the municipal election but only 165 stories on the constitutional assembly election. The lack of coverage of the candidates for the constitutional assembly seems to reveal that the traditional media, i.e. the print and broadcast media, and the online media did not know how to best serve and inform the public in the democratic process.

  10. Detecting constitutive activity and protean agonism at cannabinoid-2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Massimiliano; Brusa, Rossella; Mancini, Isabella; Scandroglio, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Since the cannabinoid system is involved in regulating several physiological functions such as locomotor activity, cognition, nociception, food intake, and inflammatory reaction, it has been the subject of intense study. Research on the pharmacology of this system has enormously progressed in the last 20years. One intriguing aspect that emerged from this research is that cannabinoid receptors (CBs) express a high level of constitutive activity. Investigation on this particular aspect of receptor pharmacology has largely focused on CB1, the CB subtype highly expressed in several brain regions. More recently, research on constitutive activity on the other CB subtype, CB2, was stimulated by the increasing interest on its potential as target for the treatment of various pathologies (e.g., pain and inflammation). There are several possible implications of constitutive activity on the therapeutic action of both agonists and antagonists, and consequently, it is important to have valuable methods to study this aspect of CB2 pharmacology. In the present chapter, we describe three methods to study constitutive activity at CB2: two classical methods relying on the detection of changes in cAMP level and GTPγS binding and a new one based on cell impedance measurement. In addition, we also included a section on detection of protean agonism, which is an interesting pharmacological phenomenon strictly linked to constitutive activity. PMID:21036225

  11. Gospel and constitutional imperatives: the right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Giles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gospel and constitutional imperatives: the right to life In the Republic of South Africa, Christians are called to live out gospel imperatives within the legal framework of the Constitution. Ethical issues about the right to life are considered from the perspectives of selected gospel and constitutional imperatives. Gospel imperatives impose themselves as a consequence of Christian discipleship. These are many and diverse, both explicit and implicit. Christian vocation, discipleship, witness and perseverance, are foundational and integral to the praxis of Christian daily living. These facets of Christian life are illustrated by the selected gospel imperatives, “Follow me” (Matt. 4:19 and synoptic parallels, “Love God, and your neighbour as yourself” (Matt. 22:34-40 and synoptic parallels, and “Take up your cross” (Matt. 10:38 and synoptic parallels. The central theoretical argument of this article is driven from a reformed ethical perspective. Gospel imperatives have priority over constitutional imperatives since gospel imperatives are of divine origin and constitutional imperatives of human origin. Acknowledgement of these priorities informs the Christian ethical perspective on the right to life and on abortion.

  12. Probabilistic estimation of the constitutive parameters of polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviour C.R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mulliken-Boyce constitutive model predicts the dynamic response of crystalline polymers as a function of strain rate and temperature. This paper describes the Mulliken-Boyce model-based estimation of the constitutive parameters in a Bayesian probabilistic framework. Experimental data from dynamic mechanical analysis and dynamic compression of PVC samples over a wide range of strain rates are analyzed. Both experimental uncertainty and natural variations in the material properties are simultaneously considered as independent and joint distributions; the posterior probability distributions are shown and compared with prior estimates of the material constitutive parameters. Additionally, particular statistical distributions are shown to be effective at capturing the rate and temperature dependence of internal phase transitions in DMA data.

  13. New inverse method for identification of constitutive parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new inverse method by coupling iSIGHT and ABAQUS was proposed to determine the constitutive parameters of Al2O3sf/LY12 composite deforming at elevated temperature. It combined the merits of the finite element simulation and optimization technique. The direct model was simulated with finite element code ABAQUS. The inverse problem associated with the identification of the constitutive parameters was expressed as a least square optimization problem. The direct simulation and the parameters optimization were implemented in iSIGHT integrated environment. The aim was to match the output of the direct simulation with the experiment data.The capability of the proposed inverse method was demonstrated through the identification of constitutive parameters of Al2O3sf/LY12composite. The proposed new inverse method is also applicable to other parameters identification which is hardly determined through experiments or direct analytical method.

  14. Digitalization Modeling System for Constitutive Relation of Geomaterial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Tao; WANG Jing-tao; YAN Ke-qin

    2006-01-01

    A digital modeling system method is put forward for modeling constitutive relation of geomaterial including digital image subsystem for deformation measurement, numerical modeling subsystem and numerical simulation subsystem. A non-contact measurement method based on digital image processing is introduced to improve measurement of specimen deformation. Based on the method, a series of conventional tri-axial compression tests under diverse stress paths are done. Then an elasto-plastic constitutive model of soil is acquired through the numerical method of modeling constitutive law for geomaterial. Two examples of specimen deformation and ground subsidence are presented and discussed. It indicated that this method can rationally simulate the stress-strain relationship of soil, which reflects the effect of stress path on soil stress-strain relationship.

  15. New constitutionalism and the social reproduction of caring institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes neo-liberal economic agreements and legal and political frameworks or what has been called the "new constitutionalism," a governance framework that empowers market forces to reshape economic and social development worldwide. The article highlights some consequences of new constitutionalism for caring institutions specifically, and for what feminists call social reproduction more generally: the biological reproduction of the species; the reproduction of labor power; and the reproduction of social institutions and processes associated with the creation and maintenance of communities. New constitutional governance frameworks fundamentally reshape conditions under which the care of human beings takes place. Caring institutions once governed by enabling professions geared to universal care are now determined increasingly by market values and private forces, and driven directly by the profit motive. This is one of the reasons why neo-liberalism is increasingly contested in both the North and the global South. PMID:16532302

  16. THE ACTION IN TIME OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURTS’ DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA BĂRBĂŢEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the decisions of the constitutional jurisdictions may sometime disturb the balance of the normative system. This is the reason why, in different countries, the constitutional courts have modulated in time the impact of their decisions. In some cases, they are postponing the effects of their decisions (e.g. Italy or they are establishing a precise moment in time up until the legislative power has the duty to change the normative provision declared inconsistent with the Basic Law (e.g. Germany, Austria. In other cases, they point out the way their decisions affect different juridical situations (e.g. Romania. This study intends to analyze the action in time of the decisions of some European constitutional jurisdiction.

  17. A Review of Constitutive Models for Rubber-Like Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidy Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study reviewed the needs of different constitutive models for rubber like material undergone large elastic deformation. The constitutive models are widely used in Finite Element Analysis (FEA packages for rubber components. Most of the starting point for modeling of various kinds of elastomer is a strain energy function. In order to define the hyperelastic material behavior, stress-strain response is required to determine material parameters in the strain energy potential and also proper selection of rubber elastic material model is the first attention. Conclusion: This review provided a sound basis decision to engineers and manufactures to choose the right model from several constitutive models based on strain energy potential for incompressible and isotropic materials.

  18. Lodging of a constitutional complaint. Reason: 'Permitted risk philosophy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complainants lodged a constitutional complaint 'against the Federal German Bundestag, for remaining inactive in matters of the licensing and operation of nuclear installations', and filed a petition for a temporary order. The Federal Constitutional Court dismissed the petition and inflicted a fee of 500 DM to be paid by each complainant. From the headnotes: The petition is inadmissible. It is left open whether the underlying constitutional complaint is inadmissible, or unjustified. The petition is dismissed because the complainants can seek relief by resorting to the general courts of law. They can appeal to the administrative courts in matters covered by section 7 Atomic Energy Act, and may there state their opposition against the 'permissible risk philosophy'. (orig./HSCH)

  19. Exploring patients' rights: what does the NHS Constitution tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Jean V

    On 8 March 2012, the NHS published the latest version of its Constitution. In this article, the author explores the background of the debate regarding patients' rights and entitlements in the NHS. The author also discusses the provisions of the NHS Constitution, noting that it is largely a statement of existing principles, rather than a bold statement of rights. The paper suggests that, in some instances, its discussion of rights may suggest that patients have broader rights than may in fact be the case. The Constitution is currently under review, and the author recommends that the way forward for a society where the provision of care is likely to be more complex would be the introduction of a Patients' Rights Act.

  20. Land Expropriation and Constitutional Protection of Farmers’ Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    One of the reasons for many social tragedies resulted from land expropriation in China is failure of the constitution to bring into play its due functions in standardizing land expropriation power of the government and protecting farmers’ rights.In the existing land expropriation system,government is not only a policy maker of land expropriation,but also a "referee" of dispute over land expropriation.Government’ land expropriation power and land-expropriated farmers’ rights become out of balance.As a result,some local governments do not attach importance to farmers’ rights,making land-expropriated farmers dissatisfied and consequently leading to some social tragedies unfavorable for harmony and stability.To fundamentally settle disputes over land expropriation and realize win-win of farmers’ right and state interest,it should bring into full play functions of the constitution through protecting farmers’ right to participate in land expropriation and establishing constitution evaluation mechanism.

  1. Dynamic compressive behavior and constitutive relations of lanthanum metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huanran; CAI Canyua; CHEN Danian; MA Dongfang; DENG Gaotao

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic compressive behavior and constitutive relations of Lanthanum (La) metal was determined by using the first compression in split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests at different strain rates and temperatures.The constitutive relation of La metal determined in a certain range of strains was employed and adjusted in numerically simulating large deformations of La metal spEcimens generated by multi-compression in SHPB tests and recorded by a high-speed camera.The dynamic compressive behavior and constitutive relations of La metal under multiple SHPB tests loading was also revealed.The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigation of the recovered La metal specimens for typical tests showed that there was a variety of deformation microstructures depending on strain rate,temperature and stress state.

  2. Constitution and magnetism of iron and its alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pepperhoff, Werner

    2001-01-01

    Iron played an important role in the development of the industrial society and has not lost any of its significance since today. This book provides the foundations of understanding the physical nature of iron and its alloys. Basics and recent developments concerning its constitution and magnetism are presented as well as its thermal properties. The exceptional role of iron with its wide spectrum of most different technological and physical properties relies on its versatility, its polymorphism of its crystal structure and its magnetism. Therefore it is the aim of the book to link together the constitution and magnetism of iron.

  3. Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M; Wu, Bae-Ian; Pacheco, Joe; Kong, Jin Au

    2004-01-01

    We propose an improved method to retrieve the effective constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) of a slab of metamaterial from the measurement of S parameters. Improvements over existing methods include the determination of the first boundary and the thickness of the effective slab, the selection of the correct sign of effective impedance, and a mathematical method to choose the correct branch of the real part of the refractive index. The sensitivity of the effective constitutive parameters to the accuracy of the S parameters is also discussed. The method has been applied to various metamaterials and the successful retrieval results prove its effectiveness and robustness. PMID:15324190

  4. An Integrated Theory of Constitutionalism in World Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    Traditionally constitutional theory has relied on two central distinctions: The public/private and the national/transnational distinction. The societal developments of the past decades have however led to an increased erosion of these distinctions. In the academic literature, this development have...... formal organisations as such and not the particular type of formal organisation which is associated with statehood. Thus, they can be public or private, national or transnational. On this background, a distinction is introduced between the internal setup of constitutional orders, the external strive for...

  5. Concrete creep at transient temperature: constitutive law and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A constitutive law which describes the transient thermal creep of concrete is presented. Moisture and temperature are two major parameters in this constitutive law. Aside from load, creep, cracking, and thermal (shrinkage) strains, stress-induced hygrothermal strains are also included in the analysis. The theory agrees with most types of test data which include basic creep, thermal expansion, shrinkage, swelling, creep at cyclic heating or drying, and creep at heating under compression or bending. Examples are given to demonstrate agreement between the theory and the experimental data. 15 refs., 6 figs

  6. Constitutive mixed mode model for cracks in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Poulsen, P.N.; Olesen, J.F.;

    2013-01-01

    The scope of the paper is to set up a constitutive mixed mode model for cracks in concrete. The model is formulated at macro level and includes the most important micro scale effects. An associated plasticity model inspired by the modified Cam clay model is established. The hardening parameters...... are based on the standard Mode I tensile softening response and the response for Mode I crushing. The roughness of the crack is included through a topographic description of the crack surface. The constitutive behavior is based on the integration of local contributions. The local mixed mode ratio...

  7. BILF1 Mediated Transformation Correlates with Constitutive Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaa, Rikke Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    BIFL1 is a G protein-coupled receptor encoded by human EBV. It signals constitutively through G_alpha_i and is an orphan receptor known to down regulate MHCI expression. BILF1 also engage in dimerization with several chemokine receptors and it induced the activity of NF-kappa beta and inhibits th...... as BILF1. In this thesis BILF1 is revealed as a potential oncogene, inducing transformation of NIH 3T3 cells and tumors in vivo, and this ability is clearly correlated to the constitutive activity through G_alpha_I....

  8. The anisotropic material constitutive models for the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long-yuan; Tighe, Brian

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents an anisotropic analysis model for the human cornea. The model is based on the assumption that the fibrils in the cornea are organised into lamellae, which may have preferential orientation along the superior-inferior and nasal-temporal directions, while the alignment of lamellae with different orientations is assumed to be random. Hence, the cornea can be regarded as a laminated composite shell. The constitutive equation describing the relationships between membrane forces, bending moments, and membrane strains, bending curvatures are derived. The influences of lamella orientations and the random alignment of lamellae on the stiffness coefficients of the constitutive equation are discussed. PMID:16426861

  9. Rights of Minors and Constitutional Politics in the German Länder. Legal Framework, Party Strategies, and Constitutional Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses constitutional politics in the German Länder in the field of minors’ rights. Since this issue seems a purely legal matter dealt with at the federal, European and international level, we should expect similar, almost identically shaped policies at the Länder level. However, the analysis brings considerable variations of constitutional activities in this field to the fore: time, frequency, and contents of respective initiatives vary significantly in the period from 1999 to 2014. These variations were due to different party strategies, diverging party platforms and majority constellations in the Länder. The analysis also shows that the public arguments brought forward in favour of constitutional amendments refer only weakly and randomly to legal provisions and processes at other levels. The political debate supporting extended children's rights rather refers to general observations, to the specific regional context, and constitutional provisions in other Länder. At least with regard to this issue, the multi-level system did not systematically impact on constitutional politics in the Länder. It rather can be understood as an opportunity structure providing parties with multiple realms in which they can pursue their goals. Thus the study shows that federal and regional party strategies are key factors in explaining policy diffusion in multilevel systems.

  10. Everyday Life, Sensuality, and Body Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Charlotte

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to elucidate two kinds of sensuality, a dominant one and a concealed one, both viewed in the perspective of our everyday lives. My point of departure is the assumption that the interweaving of social power, the body and sensuality is constituted at the level of everyd...... by drawing attention away from the more conspicuous stage-settings that athletics supplies for our bodies, and focus on the less noticed stage-settings with which we are presented in our everyday life....

  11. THE EUROPEANISATION OF NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONS IN THE CONSTITUTIONALISATION OF EUROPE: SOME OBSERVATIONS AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE EU-15

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Summary: In the process of European integration, national constitutional law remains crucial, in several respects. The EU Constitution, in its broadest sense, builds on the common constitutional traditions and principles of the Member States, and EU law refers back to national constitutional law in many ways. National constitutional law contributes to constitutionalising the EU, to give it legitimacy, and to ensure that the EU and the Member States as its agents continue to com...

  12. The Role Of Constitutional Justice in Russia in the Process of Interpretation of European Values and the Promotion of European Constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mouliarova, Ekaterina

    2010-01-01

    This paper conducts a critical analysis of selected cases of the Russian Constitutional Court and High Arbitration Court involving the interpretation of constitutional values underlying the Russian legal order, in this way investigating the role of constitutional justice in Russia in promoting a European type of constitutionalism. The judicial practices of the Constitutional Court are brought into the broader context of the process of transition, state- and nation-building in the ...

  13. 2-BODY AND 3-BODY PARQUET THEORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANDE, A; SMITH, RA

    1992-01-01

    One of the fundamental approaches to microscopic many-body theory is through the use of perturbation theory. This paper presents a clear derivation of the equations that sum the two-body and three body reducible diagrams that are generated from some input set of irreducible diagrams (typically the b

  14. CONSTITUTIVE RELATION OF UNSATURATED SOIL BY USE OF THE MIXTURE THEORY ( Ⅱ )-LINEAR CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS AND FIELD EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄义; 张引科

    2003-01-01

    The linear constitutive equations and field equations of unsaturated soils were obtained through linearizing the nonlinear equations given in the first part of this work. The linear equations were expressed in the forms similar to Biot' s equations for saturated porous media. The Darcy's laws of unsaturated soil were proved. It is shown that Biot's equations of saturated porous media are the simplification of the theory. All these illustrate that constructing constitutive relation of unsaturated soil on the base of mixture theory is rational.

  15. Freedom of Expression in the Original Constitution: A Bicentennial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E.

    The original United States Constitution of 1787, specifically in the communication related provisions of Article 1, deals extensively with communication issues, and provides an illustration of the tensions that existed between freedom and suppression. Philosophically, there was support for freedom of expression while in real world events there was…

  16. League Constitution and Bylaws for Girls' Interscholastic Programs (Suggested Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mary Ann

    This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…

  17. Foundations of Our Constitution. Reflecting on September 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    This lesson plan provides background on six significant historical documents: (1) "Meeting at Runnymede--The Story of King John and the Magna Carta"; (2) "The Mayflower Compact"; (3) "The Declaration of Independence and Natural Rights"; (4) "The Federalist Papers"; (5) "Aristotle: In Search of the Best Constitution"; and (6) "The Pledge of…

  18. Scaffolding the Inquiry Continuum and the Constitution of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Bartley, Anthony; Fazio, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the impact of scaffolding on pre-service science teachers' constitution of identities as teachers of inquiry. This scaffolding has consisted of 2 major components, a unit on current electricity which encompasses the inquiry continuum and an open inquiry which is situated in context of classroom practice. Our analysis…

  19. Constitutional Obligations for Public Education: 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Within the constitution of each of the 50 states, there is language that mandates the creation of a public education system. The authority for public education falls to states because of a 1973 Supreme Court case which determined that the federal government has no responsibility to provide systems of public education. These constitutional…

  20. "Contested Rights": The Pedagogy and Logistics of Hosting Constitution Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle, Amanda; Smith, Michael; Anderson, Kevin; Catlett, Rob

    2016-01-01

    To seriously consider one's rights under the US Constitution, one must grapple with the realization that many rights are not absolute. Instead, they are contested. But how to introduce younger students to such a complex concept, given short attention spans? In this article, we discuss the opportunities, pitfalls, and planning logistics of the 2013…

  1. Social Sciences and Constitutional Rights--the Consequences of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Ronald M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical basis of court decisions involving school integration, analyzing the relationship between education, constitutional law, and the social sciences. Concludes that court decisions dealing with the equal protection clause are based on interpretive judgments, rather than on causal judgments drawn from statistical theory. (JG)

  2. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  3. Problem of Change and Stability in Constitutional Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A. J.

    1979-01-01

    Sketches some of the ways in which the jurisprudence of rights furthers a better understanding of the historic and contemporary mission of constitutional law in the United States. Available from University of Dayton Law Review, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469; $4.00 per issue. (Author/IRT)

  4. Constituting Information Technology Research: The Experience of IT Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Binh; Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The collective consciousness of effective groups of researchers is characterized by shared understandings of their research object or territory. In this study, we adopted a phenomenographic approach to investigate information technology (IT) research, and its objects and territories, as they are constituted in the experience of IT researchers.…

  5. 42 CFR 405.2463 - What constitutes a visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified... a clinic or center patient and a clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, or other health... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What constitutes a visit. 405.2463 Section...

  6. Constitutive model of rock based on microstructures simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zhou-yuan; HONG Liang; LIU Xi-ling; YIN Tu-bing

    2008-01-01

    The constitutive model of rock can be built by mechanics elements because there are many kinds of damages in rock under varied loads. It is resumed that rock contains many microstructures and a structure of Bingham. The microstructure consists of two embranchments that are the unit of a spring and a gliding slice in series and the unit of a spring and a cementation bar in series, the two units connect each other in parallel. These microstructures are arranged disorderly or in the order of a certain state. A certain distribution of microstructures represents one type of rock. Two kinds of rock's constitutive relationship were deduced by using the model. One is the model in which many parallel microstructures and a structure of Bingham connect in series. And it is used to homogeneous rock. The other is the model in which many microstructures and a structure of Bingham connect in series. And it is used to the rock with much crack or microcrack in a certain direction. The two kinds of constitutive relationship were verified by the studied cases. The constitutive model of rock built by using mechanics elements is verified to be reasonable. Moreover, different types of rocks may be described with mechanics elements with different distributions.

  7. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  8. Structure and Calibration of Constitutive Equations for Granular Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawicki Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The form of incremental constitutive equations for granular soils is discussed for the triaxial configuration. The classical elasto-plastic approach and the semi-empirical model are discussed on the basis of constitutive relations determined directly from experimental data. First, the general structure of elasto-plastic constitutive equations is presented. Then, the structure of semiempirical constitutive equations is described, and a method of calibrating the model is presented. This calibration method is based on a single experiment, performed in the triaxial apparatus, which also involves a partial verification of the model, on an atypical stress path. The model is shown to give reasonable predictions. An important feature of the semi-empirical incremental model is the definition of loading and unloading, which is different from that assumed in elasto-plasticity. This definition distinguishes between spherical and deviatoric loading/unloading. The definition of deviatoric loading/unloading has been subject to some criticism. It was therefore discussed and clarified in this paper on the basis of the experiment presented.

  9. The Arab Spring: An Essay on Revolution and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni; Tushnet, Mark

    Approaching the concept of Islamic constitutionalism from a comparative perspective, this thought-provoking study by Antoni Abat i Ninet and Mark Tushnet uses traditional Western political theory as a lens to develop a framework for analyzing the events known as the ‘Arab Spring’. Writing...

  10. Constitutive basis of the MDCF model for rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All valid constitutive equations must satisfy two general invariance principles as well several other principles. In this paper the MDCF (Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture) model for rock salt is shown to be thermodynamically consistent, coordinate invariant, frame indifferent, and physically admissible. Additionally, the stress rates used in the formulation are shown to be kinematically consistent with the Cauchy stress rates

  11. Constitutive behaviour of the metastable stainless steel: Sandvik Nanoflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Datta, K.; Huetink, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a model to describe the constitutive behaviour of corrosion-resistant Sandvik steel NanoflexTM [1] during metal forming and hardening. This material is characterised by different phenomena. The material is metastable, which causes strain-induced transformation to take place dur

  12. The Authoritarian Constitution versus the National Renaissance Front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin GRECU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On February 27th, 1938 the Constitution laid the ideological and theoretical foundations for the birth of the sole party, called by the new regime The National Renaissance Front (NRF and proclaimed as the only political entity in the state. The NRF was strongly militarized in all its management structures starting with the Directorate to the Superior National Council, because of its corporate-like structure according to constitutional principles and because people were only allowed and granted positions in the party, state or Parliament if they actually had a job. The constitutional order of the monarchy overwrote the stately European or native authoritarian theories by overestimating the state and minimalizing individual rights and freedom. At that time one would not know what regime people who voted for the new regime consecrated by the 27th of February 1938 Constitution had been living in and some of the parliament declarations of the regime’s representatives, when analysed critically, would try to bring light on the article ahead.

  13. Legal and Constitutional Problems of Public Support for Nonpublic Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Charles M.; Freund, Paul A.

    Two authors analyze the problems facing aid to nonpublic school education and review relevant court decisions, emphasizing the latest Supreme Court decisions on the subject. Charles M. Whelan provides an analytical framework for determining the constitutionality of various assistance forms. He suggests that each program should be submitted to…

  14. Generalized constitutive equations for piezo-actuated compliant mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junyi; Ling, Mingxiang; Inman, Daniel J.; Lin, Jin

    2016-09-01

    This paper formulates analytical models to describe the static displacement and force interactions between generic serial-parallel compliant mechanisms and their loads by employing the matrix method. In keeping with the familiar piezoelectric constitutive equations, the generalized constitutive equations of compliant mechanism represent the input-output displacement and force relations in the form of a generalized Hooke’s law and as analytical functions of physical parameters. Also significantly, a new model of output displacement for compliant mechanism interacting with piezo-stacks and elastic loads is deduced based on the generalized constitutive equations. Some original findings differing from the well-known constitutive performance of piezo-stacks are also given. The feasibility of the proposed models is confirmed by finite element analysis and by experiments under various elastic loads. The analytical models can be an insightful tool for predicting and optimizing the performance of a wide class of compliant mechanisms that simultaneously consider the influence of loads and piezo-stacks.

  15. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  16. Multiaxial probabilistic elastic-plastic constitutive simulations of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrinezhad, Arezoo

    Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation approach has recently been developed to simulate elastic-plastic constitutive behaviors of materials with uncertain material properties. The FPK equation approach transforms the stochastic constitutive rate equation, which is a stochastic, nonlinear, ordinary differential equation (ODE) in the stress-pseudo time space into a second-order accurate, deterministic, linear FPK partial differential equation (PDE) in the probability density of stress-pseudo time space. This approach does not suffer from the drawbacks of the traditional approaches such as the Monte Carlo approach and the perturbation approach for solving nonlinear ODEs with random coefficients. In this study, the existing one dimensional FPK framework for probabilistic constitutive modeling of soils is extended to multi--dimension. However, the multivariate FPK PDEs cannot be solved using the traditional mathematical techniques such as finite difference techniques due to their high computational cost. Therefore, computationally efficient algorithms based on the Fourier spectral approach are developed for solving a class of FPK PDEs that arises in probabilistic elasto-plasticity. This class includes linear FPK PDEs in (stress) space and (pseudo) time - having space-independent but time-dependent, and both space- and time-dependent coefficients - with impulse initial conditions and reflecting boundary conditions. The solution algorithms, rely on first mapping the stress space of the governing PDE between 0 and 2pi using the change of coordinates rule, followed by approximating the solution of the PDE in the 2pi-periodic domain by a finite Fourier series in the stress space and unknown time-dependent solution coefficients. Finally, the time-dependent solution coefficients are obtained from the initial condition. The accuracy and efficiency of the developed algorithms are tested. The developed algorithms are used to simulate uniaxial and multiaxial, monotonic and cyclic

  17. Constitutive Endocytosis of VEGFR2 Protects the Receptor against Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagiannis, Dimitris; Christoforidis, Savvas

    2016-08-01

    VEGFR2 plays a fundamental role in blood vessel formation and in life threatening diseases, such as cancer angiogenesis and cardiovascular disorders. Although inactive growth factor receptors are mainly localized at the plasma membrane, VEGFR2 undergoes constitutive endocytosis (in the absence of ligand) and recycling. Intriguingly, the significance of these futile transport cycles of VEGFR2 remains unclear. Here we found that, unexpectedly, the function of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2 is to protect the receptor against plasma membrane cleavage (shedding), thereby preserving the functional state of the receptor until the time of activation by VEGF. Inhibition of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2, by interference with the function of clathrin, dynamin, or Rab5, increases dramatically the cleavage/shedding of VEGFR2. Shedding of VEGFR2 produces an N-terminal soluble fragment (100 kDa, s100), which is released in the extracellular space, and a residual C-terminal part (130 kDa, p130) that remains integrated at the plasma membrane. The released soluble fragment (s100) co-immunoprecipitates with VEGF, in line with the topology of the VEGF-binding domain at the N terminus of VEGFR2. Increased shedding of VEGFR2 (via inhibition of constitutive endocytosis) results in reduced response to VEGF, consistently with the loss of the VEGF-binding domain from the membrane remnant of VEGFR2. These data suggest that constitutive internalization of VEGFR2 protects the receptor against shedding and provides evidence for an unprecedented mechanism via which endocytosis can regulate the fate and activity of growth factor receptors. PMID:27298320

  18. Method of Numerical Modeling for Constitutive Relations of Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the method of numerical modeling for constitutive relations of clay, on the basis of the principle of interaction between plastic volumetric strain and plastic generalized shear strain, the two constitutive functionals that include the function of stress path were used as the basic framework of the constitutive model, which are able to demonstrate the dependence of stress path.The two partial differential cross terms appear in the expression of stress-strain increment relation, which are used to demonstrate the interaction between plastic volumetric strain and plastic generalized shear strain.The elasoplastic constitutive models of clay under two kinds of stress paths, CTC and TC, have been constructed using the triaxial test results.The three basic characteristics of deformation of soils, pressure sensitivity, dilatancy, and dependence of stress path, are well explained using these two models.Using visualization, the three-dimensional surfaces of shear and volume strains in the whole stress field under stress paths of CTC and TC are given.In addition, the two families of shear and volumetric yield loci under CTC and TC paths are plotted respectively.By comparing the results of deformation under these two stress paths, it has been found that, there are obvious differences in the strain peaks, the shapes of strain surfaces, and the trends of variation of volumetric yield loci, however both families of shear yield loci are similar.These results demonstrate that the influences of stress path on the constitutive relations of clay are considerably large and not negligible.The numerical modeling method that can sufficiently reflect the dependence of stress path is superior to the traditional one.

  19. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  20. A PLEADING IN FAVOUR OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina BĂRBĂŢEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the European countries have chosen the centralized system of constitutional review, performed by a unique authority empowered with the competence of removing from the normative ensemble those legal provisions that do not comply with the principles and rules comprised in the Basic Law. This „European model” has proved to be more appropriate than the so-called „American model” in what concerns the compatibility with the European jurisdictional mechanism. Romania has adopted the same European trend and the Constitutional Court has become a very important actor in the Romanian legal landscape. From the very beginning of its activity, it has influenced in a great measure the national normative system. It has been sometimes criticized and accused that it interferes in an excessive way in the legislative process. Due to its competence to regulate the juridical conflicts between the public authorities and its possibility to repeal laws before their promulgation, it has been many times in the centre of heavy attacks, mostly from different political forces, often driven through mass media. Nevertheless, despite of its detractors, the Constitutional Court has proven, over the years, its ability to develop the Romanian normative system. The present paper intends to display the most significant contribution of the Romanian Constitutional Court in improving various legal regulations. In the same time and much more important, using concrete examples from the Court’s case-law, the paper also intends to demonstrate that the Constitutional Court of Romania has been a major factor of improving peoples’ life, removing unconstitutional obstacles set in front of the unimpeded exercise of their fundamental rights and freedoms.

  1. Inelastic Constitutive Properties and shear Localization in Tennessee Marble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David J.; Rudnicki, J.W.

    1999-05-20

    Shear bands and faults are ubiquitous features of brittle rock deformation at a variety of length scales. Despite the prevalence of these features, understandhg of their inception remains rudimentary. Laboratory experiments suggest a casual association of localization of deformation (faulting) with peak stress, but more detailed examination reveals that localization can precede or follow the peak. Rudnicki and Rice (1975, hereafter abbreviated as RR) have suggested a the- ory of the inception of localization as a bifurcation or nonuniqueness of the so- lution for homogeneous deformation. They predict a strong dependence of local- ization on deformation state. In particular, they predict that localization can occur prepeak for deformation states near deviatoric pure shear and does not occur until well after peak for axisymmetric compression. This prediction is roughly in ac- cord with the true triaxial experiments of Mogi (1967, 1971). More recently, Ord et al. (1991) and Wwersik et al. (1991) have reported observations of localization prior to peak stress in plane strain experiments. The predictions of RR depend strongly on the constitutive properties of the rock and detailed comparison has been impeded by inadequate knowledge of those properties. Even the idealized constitutive model used by RR requires knowledge of the evolution of the constitutive properties with inelastic deformation that is not readily obtainable from the typical axisymmetric compression test. Although it is conceptually advantageous to consider inelastic deformation at fixed mean stress, the mean stress changes throughout the axisymmetric compression test. In this paper, we present a synthesis of a number of axisymmetric compres- sion tests to extract a detailed implementation of the constitutive framework used by RR. The resulting constitutive relation is then used to -predict the response for plane strain. Conditions for localization of deformation derived by RR are evalu- ated for both

  2. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  3. Lewy Body Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  4. Body & Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Pregnancy > Body & lifestyle changes Body & lifestyle changes E-mail to a friend Please fill ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care ...

  5. Inclusion Body Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Inclusion Body Myositis Information Page Table of Contents (click ... and Information Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Inclusion Body Myositis? Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is one ...

  6. 77 FR 56835 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Constitution Pipeline Project, Request for Comments on... environmental impacts of the proposed Constitution Pipeline Project (Project) involving construction...

  7. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  8. Taking Causality Seriously in Comparative Constitutional Law: Insights from Comparative Politics and Comparative Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Whytock, CA

    2015-01-01

    By highlighting the many ways that constitutions vary, comparative constitutional law raises interesting and important causal questions: What explains cross-national constitutional variation, and what are the real-world consequences of different constitutional arrangements? But comparative constitutional law scholarship so far has done relatively little to address these issues of constitutional causes and consequences in a rigorous manner. In this paper, I argue that scholars have much to gai...

  9. Association between Genetic Polymorphism of Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene and Sasang Constitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Ju Kim; Seung Yeon Hwang; Ju-Ho Kim; Hye-Jung Park; Sang-Gyu Lee; Si-Woo Lee; Jong-Cheon Joo; Yun-Kyung Kim

    2009-01-01

    Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) is a gene that expresses P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug transporter protein. Genetic polymorphisms of MDR1 can be associated with Sasang constitutions because Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) prescribes different drugs according to different constitutions. A Questionnaire for Sasang Constitution Classification II (QSCC II) was used to diagnose Sasang constitutions. Two hundred and seven healthy people whose Sasang constitutions had been identified were tested....

  10. 15 years of constitutional review in the Supreme Court of Estonia : systematized extracts of constitutional review judgments and rulings of the Supreme Court en banc and the Constitutional Review Chamber in 1993-2008 / Riigikohus ; toim. ja eess.: Ge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The outset of judicial constitutional review / Rait Maruste. Judicial constitutional review at the turn of the century / Uno Lõhmus. Judicial constitutional review through the eyes of Chancellor of Justice / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli. The courts and the Supreme Court in concrete norm control / Madis Ernits

  11. Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression (constitutional legal framework and Constitutional Court practice in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mato Arlović

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the connection and inter relationship of freedom as the highest value of constitutional order of the Republic of Croatia and the highest ideal of contemporary democracy and constitutional state with the right to freedom of speech and expression. By analysing that interrelationship, the intention to confirm the thesis that the right to freedom of speech and expression is just one (albeit very importanthuman right and fundamental freedom arises. It has been extracted from freedoms as the highest value and as one which is always returned to in such a way that affects the scope and content of it being achieved in relation to the imagined ideal of freedom and the given reality. The right to freedom of speech and expression is analysed as just one of the fundamental supports for building a democratic society of rule of law and Constitution. In this context, the function of the indispensable condition for achieving other human rights and fundamental freedoms is also analysed. Furthermore, it is considered as a right within which, through its content, includes a range of other rights and freedoms. It should be considered from a theoretical viewpoint as a so called legal construction. This paper analyses the constitutional legal framework in the Republic of Croatia related to the right to freedom of speech and expression. In that analysis, particular attention is given to the subject, content and characteristics of the right to freedom of speech and expression and the practice of European Court of Human Rights and the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia which protect this right.

  12. Correlates of Body Image in Polish Weight Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.

  13. Body Matters: Narratives of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Asandi, Iren; Filipovska, Kalina; Neault, Megan; Olsen, Sara Høier

    2014-01-01

    This project engages the notion of the subjective body in a pasture of social constructions in order to gather an understanding of the narratives created by women about their bodies in relation to cosmetic surgery. The empirical data for this project comes from our virtual ethnographic research on the various forums from the MyLooks website. Moreover, perspectives regarding the body, beauty ideals and theoretical positions from Kathryn Morgan and Kathy Davis fill out the structure of the proj...

  14. Overall Dynamic Constitutive Relations of Micro-structured Elastic Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2011-01-01

    A method for homogenization of a heterogeneous (finite or periodic) elastic composite is presented. It allows direct, consistent, and accurate evaluation of the averaged overall frequency-dependent dynamic material constitutive relations. It is shown that when the spatial variation of the field variables is restricted by a Bloch-form (Floquet-form) periodicity, then these relations together with the overall conservation and kinematical equations accurately yield the displacement or stress modeshapes and, necessarily, the dispersion relations. It also gives as a matter of course point-wise solution of the elasto-dynamic field equations, to any desired degree of accuracy. The resulting overall dynamic constitutive relations however, are general and need not be restricted by the Bloch-form periodicity. The formulation is based on micro-mechanical modeling of a representative unit cell of the composite proposed by Nemat-Nasser and coworkers; see, e.g., [1] and [2].

  15. Concentration of constitutional and thermal defects in UAl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, P. H.; Kniznik, L.; Alonso, P. R.; Forti, M. D.; Rubiolo, G. H.

    2016-09-01

    The point defect structure of intermetallic compound oI20 UAl4 is investigated using a combination of the statistical mechanical Wagner-Schottky model and first-principles calculations within a projector augmented wave pseudopotential method in conjunction with the generalized gradient approximation. The formation energies of eight point defects were calculated taking into account the four sublattices. The point defect concentrations are calculated as function of temperature and deviation from stoichiometry. Our results show that the aluminum antisite is the constitutional point defect on the Al-rich side. At this off-stoichiometric side the dominant thermal defect is an interbranch defect where four constitutional antisite aluminum atoms are replaced by five uranium vacancies. The point defect effective formation energies are obtained and these results allow us to identify the antistructure bridge mechanism as the most probable for the diffusion for Al atoms in the Al-rich UAl4 intermetallic compound.

  16. Geomaterial Constitutive Models in Toe-Shooting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Ji-yan; DING Hua; ZHENG Zhe-min

    2007-01-01

    For toe-shooting method, geomaterial constitutive models concerned are studied.Analysis shows that, although extensively applied in soil mechanics, due to its angular singularity of yielding surface, the Mohr-Coulomb model is not suitable for numerical simulations in large deformation;in this case the rock-fills may be regarded as the Drucker-Prager model and the seaooze as the Prandtl-Reuss model.By comparing experimental data with numerical results, the constitutive model of the seaooze is numerically verified.It shows that, in high strain rate stage forming the blasting crater, the seaooze behaves as ideal non-compressible fluid, while in low strain rate stage during which the rock-fills flow to the blasting crater, the viscosity of the seaooze is negligible.

  17. Clarifying Limbo: Disentangling Indigenous Autonomy from the Mexican Constitutional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprague Ian Flannigan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to U.S. Federal Indian law, which has classified indigenous tribes as “domestic dependent nations” since the early 19th century, Mexican law has only recently begun to define the political and territorial autonomy of indigenous groups. This paper contrasts the Mexican approach to this problem to that of the United States, first describing Mexico’s 2001’s constitutional reforms and their failure to clarify the nature of tribal sovereignty. It then analyzes recent court cases that protect tribal political and territorial autonomy by applying rights to consultation contained in the International Labor Organization’s Indigenous and Tribal People’s Convention 169 (“ILO 169” and the Mexican Constitution. It concludes by arguing that in spite of this effort by the courts, Mexican law still requires a comprehensive legislative or diplomatic resolution of the lack of clarity surrounding the political and territorial autonomy of its indigenous groups.

  18. Nuclear waste management and problems arising from constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the problems arising in the field of nuclear waste management on account of the constitutional law. Especially the difficulties emanating from the conflict between the provisions of section 9a of the Atomic Energy Act and the provisions of constitutional law are dealt with in detail, referring to the monography of H. Hofmann, 'legal aspects of nuclear waste management'. The author comes to the conclusion that the reqquirements laid down in section 9a-9c of the Atomic Energy Act are in agreement with the Basic law. There is, he says, no unreasonable risk for future generations, as the provisions of the nuclear law provide for sufficient safety of sites and equipment selected for the final storage of nuclear waste, ensuring that radioactive leakage is excluded over long periods of time. In the second part of his lecture, the author discusses the problem of competency and delegation of authority with regard to the reprocessing of radioactive waste. (BW)

  19. Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.

  20. Elements of Constitutive Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Frictional Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the stress level and is generally difficult to describe by constitutive models. Thus, under drained conditions considerable irrecoverable volumetric strain is developed as the mean effective stress or the shear stress is increased. In the tests it is observed that the sand skeleton initially contracts......This thesis deals with elements of elasto-plastic constitutive modelling and numerical analysis of frictional soils. The thesis is based on a number of scientific papers and reports in which central characteristics of soil behaviour and applied numerical techniques are considered. The development...... path followed. However, theoretical considerations imply that the characteristic state obtained at a constant mean normal effective stress is similar to a state, known as the state of phase transformation, observed under undrained conditions. Under undrained conditions the phase transformation occurs...

  1. Constitutive Mixed Mode Behavior of Cracks in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jonas Sejersbøl

    in a double notch specimen, the crack is exposed to mixed mode opening. The experiments may be used in a direct interpretation of the mixed mode behavior. The elliptic yield surface in the associated elasto-plastic material model is controlled by two hardening parameters, which represent the actual...... as a softening. The crack surface is measured through an optical laser scanix ner. In the model, the included topographic description consists of a series of average contour lines describing the average trends of the topography. Compared with experiments and without any tuning the constitutive model based...... compressive and tensile strength of the concrete, respectively. The constitutive behavior is based on the relation between normal opening and normal traction. For an opening of the crack the material softens, for a closure the material hardens, and for a large closure the material crushes described...

  2. Coupled viscoplasticity damage constitutive model for concrete materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A coupled viscoplasticity damage constitutive model for concrete materials is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics.Simultaneously the Helmholtz free energy function and a non-associated flow potential function are given, which include the internal variables of kinematic hardening, isotropic hardening and damage.Results from the numerical simulation show that the model presented can describe the deformation properties of the concrete without the formal hypotheses of yield criterion and failure criteria, such as the volume dilatancy under the compression, strain-rate sensitivity, stiffness degradation and stress-softening behavior beyond the peak stress which are brought by damages and fractures.Moreover, we could benefit from the application of the finite element method based on this model under complex loading because of not having to choose different constitutive models based on the deformation level.

  3. Dynamic constitutive model for soils considering asymmetry of skeleton curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxing Chen; Hua Pan; Hui Long; Xiaojun Li

    2013-01-01

    Based on the asymmetric characteristic of skeleton curve obtained from dynamic tests on soils, a func-tion with double asymptotes is proposed for describing the dynamic constitutive relations of soils. The hysteresis loops observed during unloading and reloading show the same form as the skeleton curve and are constructed by taking the ultimate stress as the corresponding asymptote. The coefficient of initial unloading modulus is used to ensure that the constructed hysteresis loop fits well with the experimental data. Then, a new dynamic constitutive model considering the asymmetry of skeleton curve is elaborated. The verification tests on saturated Nanjing fine sand are performed using a hollow cylinder apparatus to verify the applicability of the UD model. It is found that the predicted curves by the UD model agree well with the test data.

  4. Role of Nonmonotonic Constitutive Curves in Extrusion Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow instabilities of non-Newtonian fluids severely hamper the quality of products during various chemical processes, such as fibre spinning, extrusion, and film blowing. The origin of extrusion instability has been studied over many decades. However, no consensus has been reached among the research community so far. In this paper, the possible cause of extrusion instabilities is explored using the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic conformation-dependent (FENE-CD model with a nonmonotonic constitutive curve. Many well-documented experimental phenomena are reproduced in our simulations, and it could be concluded that the nonmonotonic constitutive curve plays an essential role in extrusion instabilities. In addition, the results imply that the die exit singularity may generate or magnify oscillations.

  5. Derivation of stiffness matrix in constitutive modeling of magnetorheological elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, D.; Sun, L.; Sun, J.; Lin, Y.

    2013-02-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are a class of smart materials whose mechanical properties change instantly by the application of a magnetic field. Based on the specially orthotropic, transversely isotropic stress-strain relationships and effective permeability model, the stiffness matrix of constitutive equations for deformable chain-like MRE is considered. To valid the components of shear modulus in this stiffness matrix, the magnetic-structural simulations with finite element method (FEM) are presented. An acceptable agreement is illustrated between analytical equations and numerical simulations. For the specified magnetic field, sphere particle radius, distance between adjacent particles in chains and volume fractions of ferrous particles, this constitutive equation is effective to engineering application to estimate the elastic behaviour of chain-like MRE in an external magnetic field.

  6. Constitutive behaviour of mixed mode loaded adhesive layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, J.L.; Sørensen, Bent F.; Stigh, U.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed mode testing of adhesive layer is performed with the Mixed mode double Cantilever Bean? specimen. During the experiments, the specimens are loaded by transversal and/or shear forces; seven different mode mixities are tested. The J-integral is used to evaluate the energy dissipation in the f......Mixed mode testing of adhesive layer is performed with the Mixed mode double Cantilever Bean? specimen. During the experiments, the specimens are loaded by transversal and/or shear forces; seven different mode mixities are tested. The J-integral is used to evaluate the energy dissipation...... in the failure process zone. The constitutive behaviour of the adhesive layer is obtained by a so called inverse method and fitting an existing mixed mode cohesive model, which uses a coupled formulation to describe a mode dependent constitutive behaviour. The cohesive parameters are determined by optimizing...

  7. A thermomechanical crystal plasticity constitutive model for ultrasonic consolidation

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present a micromechanics-based thermomechanical constitutive model to simulate the ultrasonic consolidation process. Model parameters are calibrated using an inverse modeling approach. A comparison of the simulated response and experimental results for uniaxial tests validate and verify the appropriateness of the proposed model. Moreover, simulation results of polycrystalline aluminum using the identified crystal plasticity based material parameters are compared qualitatively with the electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) results reported in the literature. The validated constitutive model is then used to simulate the ultrasonic consolidation process at sub-micron scale where an effort is exerted to quantify the underlying micromechanisms involved during the ultrasonic consolidation process. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Constitutionality of the Plachimada Tribunal Bill, 2011: An Assessment - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith Koonan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Plachimada Coca-Cola Victims Relief and Compensation Claims Special Tribunal Bill, 2011 was passed by the Kerala Legislative Assembly on 24 February 2011. The Bill provides for the establishment of a special tribunal to settle disputes between the local residents and the Hindustan Coca Cola Company in Plachimada for recovery of compensation for damages caused to individuals, property and the environment by the company. The Bill is reserved for the assent of the President of India. In the meantime, the central government has sought clarifications on the Kerala government’s competence under the Constitution to adopt the Bill. The major issue is the perceived inconsistency between the Bill and some of the central environmental laws. Thus, the constitutional validity of the Bill is in doubt. In this background, this paper examines the issue of legislative competence of the Kerala government to adopt the Bill.

  9. Constitutional problems with the Law on Preventive Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubts have been heard concerning the constitutionality of the Law on Preventive Radiation Protection (StrSchVG) of 1986, as it was passed by Parliament in an unusually short period of time. The article in hand takes a closer look at the doubts and possible reasons, discussing the main provisions of the law and examining four sections in particular for their constitutionality. The conclusions lead to a proposal for improvement. It should be considered, the author says, whether the relevant values and calculation methods should be made part of the law, and the quality of the dose values given should be better defined, stating whether they are maximum permitted dose or recommended dose limits. A staged instrument structure defining various stages of alarm and the relevant action to be taken by the state authorities is suggested. (orig./HSCH)

  10. Purification and Properties of the Constitutive Arginase of Evernia prunastri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Falquina, A; Legaz, M E

    1984-12-01

    Constitutive arginase (molecular weight 330,000) 920-fold purified from Evernia prunastri thallus, is activated by putrescine, l-ornithine, and agmatine with K(a) values of 2.7, 1.1, and 5.8 millimolar, respectively. Constitutive arginase is also activated by endogenous l-arginine, reaching its maximum activity at 16 hours of incubation on Tris-HCl (pH 9.15) with a subsequent decrease. Urea behaves as a mixed inhibitor of the enzyme with a K(i) value of 2.6 millimolar. Atranorin and evernic acid behave as in vitro activators of the enzyme; usnic acid does not have any significant effect as activator. PMID:16663950

  11. Crucial dimensions constituting dignity experience in persons living with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranvåg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin Anna; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2016-07-01

    Dignity is seen as an essential need, fundamental right, and inherent quality of each human being. There is however, a need for increased knowledge on crucial dimensions constituting dignity experience in persons living with dementia. This study explored personal dimensions of life which persons with dementia perceived crucial for experiencing dignity in their daily lives. Based on the findings of eight empirical sub-dimensions, three main dimensions crucial for constituting dignity experience, were identified through hermeneutical interpretation: A historical dignity-dimension, acknowledging one's own life-projects and life-history; an intrapersonal dignity-dimension, recognizing one's own human worth, and living according to internal values; and an interpersonal dignity-dimension, experiencing being part of a caring and confirming communion. Knowledge of dignity preservation should be a crucial foundation for future dementia care. PMID:24742877

  12. Temperature Dependent Constitutive Modeling for Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive and electronic industries because of their excellent strength to weight ratio and EMI shielding properties. However, magnesium alloys have low formability at room temperature due to their unique mechanical behavior (twinning and untwining), prompting for forming at an elevated temperature. In this study, a temperature dependent constitutive model for magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheet is developed. A hardening law based on non linear kinematic hardening model is used to consider Bauschinger effect properly. Material parameters are determined from a series of uni-axial cyclic experiments (T-C-T or C-T-C) with the temperature ranging 150-250 deg. C. The influence of temperature on the constitutive equation is introduced by the material parameters assumed to be functions of temperature. Fitting process of the assumed model to measured data is presented and the results are compared.

  13. CONSTITUTIVE RELATION OF DISCONTINUOUS REINFORCED METAL-MATRIX COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季葆华; 王自强

    2001-01-01

    A micromechanical model is developed to simulate the mechanical behaviors of discontinuous reinforced composites. The analysis for a representative unit cell is based on the assumption of a periodic array of aligned reinforcements.The minimum energy principle is used to determine the unknown coefficients of the displacement field of the unit cell. The constitutive behavior of composites is studied to obtain the relationship between the main variables of matrix and reinforcements.It is concluded that the flow strength of composites is strongly influenced by volume fraction, aspect ratio of reinforcement, and the strain hardening exponent of matrix.An analytical constitutive relation of composites is obtained. The predicted results are in agreement with the existing experimental and numerical results.

  14. Media and Life Dissatisfaction as Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bittencourt Jaeger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction can contribute to social, occupational and recreational losses, constituting a risk factor to health. This study aimed to evaluate the predictors of body dissatisfaction regarding demographic variables, media and life satisfaction among university students. The sample consisted of 321 participants older than 18 years. Body dissatisfaction, life dissatisfaction and media messages internalization were evaluated by Escala de Silhuetas para Adultos Brasileiros, Subjective Well-Being Scale and Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, respectively. Data were collected by an online survey tool (SurveyMonkey® and were analyzed using multiple linear regression. It was found that body dissatisfaction was positively related to inaccuracy in the perception of body size, Body Mass Index, life dissatisfaction, media messages internalization and television exposure. These findings evidence the importance of these predictors in the dynamics of body dissatisfaction, which support the development of preventive and treatment interventions.

  15. What Constitutes Success in Pacific Island Community Conserved Areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, R. W.; Marc T. Hockings; Joanna C. Axford

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, few if any community conserved areas (CCAs) in the Pacific island region have been regarded as being successful. However, as success is rarely defined, what constitutes “success” is not clear. This paper reports an investigation into the way “outsiders” perceive success in Pacific island CCAs. An exploratory survey revealed six umbrella themes of success: the locus of control; local benefits; resource aspects; management; external stakeholder involveme...

  16. Social Europe and Experimentalist Governance: Towards a New Constitutional Compromise?

    OpenAIRE

    Zeitlin, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the normative, empirical, and constitutional debates surrounding the use of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) in European social policy. The OMC is an experimentalist approach to European Union governance, based on benchmarking national progress towards European objectives and organized mutual learning. Its potential benefits include reconciling the pursuit of common European concerns with respect for legitimate national diversity, and encouraging cross-national learni...

  17. Constitutional legitimacy: Sharia Law, Secularism and the Social Compact

    OpenAIRE

    Zia Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the general points relating to the application of Sharia law which challenges legislators in the political instability of a number of Middle Eastern countries. The question explored is how governments of these countries who are facing discontent can work towards constitutional governance. As an example comparison is made between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Indonesia with the largest Muslim populations. In Pakistan an inherited Westminster Parliamentary system w...

  18. Failure Behavior and Constitutive Model of Weakly Consolidated Soft Rock

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-ming Wang; Zeng-hui Zhao; Yong-ji Wang; Xin Gao

    2013-01-01

    Mining areas in western China are mainly located in soft rock strata with poor bearing capacity. In order to make the deformation failure mechanism and strength behavior of weakly consolidated soft mudstone and coal rock hosted in Ili No. 4 mine of Xinjiang area clear, some uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were carried out according to the samples of rocks gathered in the studied area, respectively. Meanwhile, a damage constitutive model which considered the initial damage was establis...

  19. Hydra constitutively expresses transcripts involved in vertebrate neural differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandipan Chatterjee; Shweta Lahudkar; N N Godbole; Surendra Ghaskadbi

    2001-06-01

    The diploblastic Hydra is among the most primitive multicellular organisms. Using cross-hybridization with Xenopus probes, noggin-like transcripts were detected in the hypostome and basal disc of adult Hydra (Pelmatohydra oligactis), regions with properties similar to that of the amphibian organizer. This points to the possibility of a close molecular similarity between the Xenopus and Hydra organizers. The constitutive expression of a noggin-like gene in Hydra may be responsible for its regenerative capacity.

  20. Size Effect of Electromagnetic Constitutive Characteristics of Ultrathin Al Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The ultrathin aluminum films with thickness in the range of 2~60 nm have been deposited by dc magnetron sputtering apparatus. Reflectance and transmittance of the obtained samples were measured with a WFZ-900-D4 UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The optical constant (n, k) and permittivity (ε', e") were determined by applying Newton-Simpson recurrent substitution method. The results indicate that the electromagnetic constitutive characteristic of ultrathin aluminum films is a function of thickness and has obvious size effect.

  1. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation as a constitutive limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagei, Yoshiyuki; Růžička, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We derive the usual Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation as a constitutive limit of the full system describing the motion of an compressible linearly viscous fluid. To this end, the starting system is written, using the Gibbs free energy, in the variables v, θ and p. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq system is then obtained as the thermal expansion coefficient α and the isothermal compressibility coefficient β tend to zero.

  2. Characters of DNA Constitution in the Rye B Chromosome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Long; Zhong-Xia Qi; Xiao-Ming Sun; Cheng-Bin Chen; Xiu-Lan Li; Wen-Qin Song; Rui-Yang Chen

    2008-01-01

    We have used chromosome microdissection and microcloning to construct a DNA library of the entire B chromosome (B) of rye. New rye B-specific sequences have been screened from this pool, blasted with other sequences and analyzed to elucidate the characters of DNA constitution and the possible pathway of the origin of the rye B chromosome. We report the discovery of a new sequence that is specific to the rye B centromere.

  3. CONSTITUTIVE THEORY OF PLASTICITY COUPLED WITH ORTHOTROPIC DAMAGE FOR GEOMATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈新普; 泽农·慕容子; 徐秉业

    2001-01-01

    Constitutive theory of plasticity coupled with orthotropic damage for geomaterials was established in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Prime results include: 1)evolution laws are presented for coupled evolution of plasticity and orthotropic damage;2)the orthotropic damage tensor is introduced into the Mohr-Coulomb criterion through homogenization. Both the degradation of shear strength and degradation of friction angle caused by damage are included in this model. The dilatancy is calculated with the so-called damage strain.

  4. Constitutional and legal framework of gender justice in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Körner, Marita

    2006-01-01

    It has been a long journey to get from the 1950s when the natural difference between men and women was accepted as a reasonable ground for legal and social inequality to today's laws and jurisprudence that aim at compensating for structural disadvantages of women, especially in the workforce. The article lines out this journey, showing that the legal framework for gender justice rests on three pillars: firstly Art. 3 of the Constitution with its different phases of a more and more farreaching...

  5. New Constitutively Active Phytochromes Exhibit Light-Independent Signaling Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, A-Reum; Lee, Si-Seok; Han, Yun-Jeong; Shin, Ah-Young; Baek, Ayoung; Ahn, Taeho; Kim, Min-Gon; Kim, Young Soon; Lee, Keun Woo; Nagatani, Akira; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-08-01

    Plant phytochromes are photoreceptors that mediate a variety of photomorphogenic responses. There are two spectral photoisomers, the red light-absorbing Pr and far-red light-absorbing Pfr forms, and the photoreversible transformation between the two forms is important for the functioning of phytochromes. In this study, we isolated a Tyr-268-to-Val mutant of Avena sativa phytochrome A (AsYVA) that displayed little photoconversion. Interestingly, transgenic plants of AsYVA showed light-independent phytochrome signaling with a constitutive photomorphogenic (cop) phenotype that is characterized by shortened hypocotyls and open cotyledons in the dark. In addition, the corresponding Tyr-303-to-Val mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phytochrome B (AtYVB) exhibited nuclear localization and interaction with phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3) independently of light, conferring a constitutive photomorphogenic development to its transgenic plants, which is comparable to the first constitutively active version of phytochrome B (YHB; Tyr-276-to-His mutant). We also found that chromophore ligation was required for the light-independent interaction of AtYVB with PIF3. Moreover, we demonstrated that AtYVB did not exhibit phytochrome B activity when it was localized in the cytosol by fusion with the nuclear export signal and that AsYVA exhibited the full activity of phytochrome A when localized in the nucleus by fusion with the nuclear localization signal. Furthermore, the corresponding Tyr-269-to-Val mutant of Arabidopsis phytochrome A (AtYVA) exhibited similar cop phenotypes in transgenic plants to AsYVA. Collectively, these results suggest that the conserved Tyr residues in the chromophore-binding pocket play an important role during the Pr-to-Pfr photoconversion of phytochromes, providing new constitutively active alleles of phytochromes by the Tyr-to-Val mutation. PMID:27325667

  6. Constitutional and identity crisis in the european union

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Sánchez Garrido

    2009-01-01

    The starting point of this article is the hypothesis that the current crisisof the European Union, mainly regarding its constitutional integrationprocess, has deep origins that surpasses the judicial and economic fieldsto establish itself in the cultural and axiological identity field, regardlessof certain religious aspects. Furthermore, this article analysis the mainstreams that question the need to start from an European cultural identity,such as the Post Modern European and Habermas premis...

  7. Public Choice, Constitutional Political Economy and Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig van den Hauwe

    2005-01-01

    The various subdisciplines within the emerging ‘new institutionalism’ in economics all draw special attention to the legal-political constraints within which economic and political agents choose and therefore represent a return of economics to its appropriate legal foundations. By changing the name of his research program to constitutional political economy Buchanan distanced himself from those parts of the public choice literature that remained too close to the traditional welfare economics ...

  8. Helix 11 Dynamics is Critical for Constitutive Androstane Receptor Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Edward; Busby, Scott A.; Wisecarver, Sarah; Vincent, Jeremy; Griffin, Patrick R.; Fernandez, Elias J.

    2011-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) transactivation can occur in the absence of exogenous ligand and this activity is enhanced by agonists TCPOBOP and meclizine. We use biophysical and cell-based assays to show that increased activity of CAR(TCPOBOP) relative to CAR(meclizine) corresponds to a higher affinity of CAR(TCPOBOP) for the steroid receptor coactivator-1. Additionally, steady-state fluorescence spectra suggest conformational differences between CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR and CAR(meclizi...

  9. The constitution of risk communication in advanced liberal societies

    OpenAIRE

    Wardman, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to bring to the fore some of the underlying rationales that inform common conceptions of the constitution of risk communication in academic and policy communities. ‘Normative’, ‘instrumental’ and ‘substantive’ imperatives typically employed in the utilisation of risk communication are first outlined. In light of these considerations a theoretical scheme is subsequently devised leading to the articulation of four fundamental ‘idealised’ models of risk communication termed the...

  10. “Bread and Roses”: Economic Justice and Constitutional Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Sheppard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic inequality and poverty constitute critical human rights challenges in an increasingly globalized world. Not only do they result in material inequities that affect everyday life; they also undermine psychological and social wellbeing. In this article, issues of economic injustice and social exclusion are examined through the lens of constitutional rights. It explores three different dimensions of the nexus between economic justice and constitutionalism, including: (i the role of law in creating socio- economic inequality and poverty; (ii the extent to which economic justice is addressed at the interstices of civil and political rights and freedoms; and (iii the potential for the concept of social inclusion to assist in the reimagining of constitutional law and economic justice. La desigualdad socioeconómica y la pobreza constituyen desafíos críticos a los derechos humanos en un mundo cada vez más globalizado. No sólo dan lugar a desigualdades materiales que afectan a la vida cotidiana, sino que también socavan el bienestar psicológico y social. En este artículo se analizan los problemas de la injusticia económica y la exclusión social a través del prisma de los derechos constitucionales. Se exploran tres dimensiones diferentes del nexo entre justicia económica y constitucionalismo, incluyendo: (i el papel del derecho en la creación de desigualdad socioeconómica y pobreza; (ii el grado en que la justicia económica se aborda en los intersticios de los derechos y libertades civiles y políticos; y (iii el potencial del concepto de inclusión social para ayudar en la reinvención de la ley constitucional y la justicia económica. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2571246

  11. CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES OF THE GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES REFORM IN MODERN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Давидович, С. Н.

    2016-01-01

    The article contains description of the basic democratic principles of government organization. Also an analysis of organization order of higher state executive power in Ukraine is made. After the declaration of independence, Ukraine faced the problem of society reform. The reform of legal and political system takes an extremely important place in the reforming process. Among the factors that contributed its acceleration, the Constitution of Ukraine, Ukraine’s accession to the Council of Euro...

  12. Constitutive Elements of a Critical Theory of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a version of the critical theory of justice structured on the basis of the grounding program for discourse ethics, taking the principle of responsibility introduced by K. O. Apel, as a normative guide for intervention in real-world societies. This guide, which is specified in the condition of subjects of dialogue, makes it possible to identify and develop the theory’s constitutive elements. Capacities, as a metric of justice, and a sufficientarian principle that works joi...

  13. Constitutive Elements of Non-Abelian Gauge Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Ademir E.; Samuel Simon

    2015-01-01

    A set, S, of constitutive elements characterizing mechanical theories is defined. In S, the role played by concepts such as mass, particle, fields and symmetry is discussed. This structure is first used to consider the Nother’s theorem from an algebraic point of view. As examples, we explore non-relativistic quantum mechanics and special relativistic particles. The set S is then applied to analyze non-abelian gauge theories, considering the Higgs mechanism for generation of mas...

  14. Freedom of Conscience and Conviction in the Spanish Constitutional System

    OpenAIRE

    José María Contreras Mazarío

    2007-01-01

    This text analyses the constitutional principles of the Spanish legal system in the area of religion: freedom of religion, religious equality, the laicity of the State and co-operation with religious denominations. It is based on these criteria that Spain defines freedom of conscience and conviction as a fundamental right. The author suggests that safeguarding these basic rights involves positive action on the part of all of the public powers, with the objective of guaranteeing the real, effe...

  15. The English Revolution and a Representative and Constitutional Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yue

    2014-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the English Revolution and describes a detailed study of influence, as well as the explanation of a representative and constitutional government. The English Revolution which happened in Britain is a histori-cal event of great influence. It abolished the autarchic system of king and began to rule the society by law. We can conclude that it created good political conditions for Britain to become a kingdom of modern civilization.

  16. Constitutive expression of Botrytis aclada laccase in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Kittl, Roman; Gonaus, Christoph; Pillei, Christian; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The heterologous expression of laccases is important for their large-scale production and genetic engineering—a prerequisite for industrial application. Pichia pastoris is the preferred expression host for fungal laccases. The recently cloned laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada (BaLac) has been efficiently expressed in P. pastoris under the control of the inducible alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter. In this study, we compare these results to the constitutive expression in the same organ...

  17. Rhabdomyosarcoma in patients with constitutional mismatch-repair-deficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kratz, Christian P; Holter, Spring; Etzler, Julia; Lauten, Melchior; Pollett, Aaron; Charlotte M. Niemeyer; Gallinger, Steven; Wimmer, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Biallelic germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 cause a recessive childhood cancer syndrome characterized by early-onset malignancies and signs reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Alluding to the underlying genetic defect we refer to this syndrome as constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome. The tumor spectrum of CMMR-D syndrome includes hematological neoplasias, brain tumors and Lynch syndrome as...

  18. Determination of Star Bodies from -Centroid Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lujun Guo; Gangsong Leng

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that an origin-symmetric star body is uniquely determined by its -centroid body. Furthermore, using spherical harmonics, we establish a result for non-symmetric star bodies. As an application, we show that there is a unique member of $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ characterized by having larger volume than any other member, for all real ≥ 1 that are not even natural numbers, where $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ denotes the -centroid equivalence class of the star body .

  19. A macro-mechanical constitutive model of shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo; LIU YanJu; LENG JinSong; ZOU GuangPing

    2009-01-01

    It is of practical interest to establish a precise constitutive model which includes the equations de-scribing the phase transformation behaviors and thermo-mechanical processes of shape memory alloy (SMA).The microscopic mechanism of super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA is explained based on the concept of shape memory factor defined by the author of this paper.The conventional super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA are further unified as shape memory effect.Shape memory factor is redefined in order to make clear its physical meaning.A new shape memory evolution equation is developed to predict the phase transformation behaviors of SMA based on the differential relationship between martensitic volume fraction and phase transformation free energy and the results of DSC test.It overcomes the limitations that the previous shape memory evolution equations or phase transformation equations fail to express the influences of the phase transformation peak temperatures on the phase transformation behaviors and the transformation from twinned martensite to detwinned martensite occurring in SMA.A new macro-mechanical constitutive equation is established to predict the thermo-mechanical processes realizing the shape memory effect of SMA from the expression of Gibbs free energy.It is expanded from one-dimension to three-dimension with assuming SMA as iso-tropic material.All material constants in the new constitutive equation can be determined from mac-roscopic experiments,which makes it more easily used in practical applications.

  20. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  1. Constitution method of flat-band. Harmony played by molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the constitution method of a tight-binding model where flat-band appears. Firstly, it describes the display of tight-binding model using the second quantization, as well as the constitution of the eigenstate, graph, and hopping matrix. Then, it takes up the flat-band that robustly appears regardless of the details of elements of the hopping matrix, and introduces the constitution method of flat-band for each of bipartite graph and non-bipartite graph. This type of flat-band in the case of bipartite depends on difference in the number of the sites of A sublattice and B sublattice. On the other hand, the flat-band that depends on the details of elements of the hopping matrix appears when the energy levels of molecules embedded on the lattice resonate. The following are described on this type of flat-band: (1) system where rings with magnetic flux that are seemingly not related to flat-band combine, (2) flat-band of decorated square lattice, and (3) relationship between flat-band and localization state. (A.O.)

  2. A constitutive model of nanocomposite hydrogels with nanoparticle crosslinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming; Gao, Zheming

    2016-09-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with only nanoparticle crosslinkers exhibit extraordinarily higher stretchability and toughness than the conventional organically crosslinked hydrogels, thus showing great potential in the applications of artificial muscles and cartilages. Despite their potential, the microscopic mechanics details underlying their mechanical performance have remained largely elusive. Here, we develop a constitutive model of the nanoparticle hydrogels to elucidate the microscopic mechanics behaviors, including the microarchitecture and evolution of the nanoparticle crosslinked polymer chains during the mechanical deformation. The constitutive model enables us to understand the Mullins effect of the nanocomposite hydrogels, and the effects of nanoparticle concentrations and sizes on their cyclic stress-strain behaviors. The theory is quantitatively validated by the tensile tests on a nanocomposite hydrogel with nanosilica crosslinkers. The theory can also be extended to explain the mechanical behaviors of existing hydrogels with nanoclay crosslinkers, and the necking instability of the composite hydrogels with both nanoparticle crosslinkers and organic crosslinkers. We expect that this constitutive model can be further exploited to reveal mechanics behaviors of novel particle-polymer chain interactions, and to design unprecedented hydrogels with both high stretchability and toughness.

  3. Development of a phenomenological constitutive model for polyurethane foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam is used in impact limiters in nuclear waste transport containers. During a hypothetical nuclear waste transport accident, the foam is expected to absorb a significant amount of impact energy by undergoing large inelastic volume reductions. Consequently, the crushing of polyurethane foams must be well characterized and accurately modeled to properly analyze a transport container accident. At the request of Sandia National Laboratories, a series of uniaxial, hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests on polyurethane foams were performed by the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI). The combination of hydrostatic and triaxial tests was chosen to provide sufficient data to characterize both the volumetric and deviatoric behaviors of the foams and the coupling between the two responses. Typical results from the NMERI tests are included in this paper. A complete description of these tests can be found in Neilsen et al., 1987. Constitutive models that have been used in the past to model foam did not capture some important foam behaviors observed in the NMERI tests. Therefore, a new constitutive model for rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foams was developed and implemented in two finite element codes. Development of the new model is discussed in this paper. Also, results from analyses with the new model and other constitutive models are presented to demonstrate differences between the various models. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Development of a phenomenological constitutive model for polyurethane foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam is used in impact limiters in nuclear waste transport containers. During a hypothetical nuclear waste transport accident, the foam is expected to absorb a significant amount of impact energy by undergoing large inelastic volume reductions. Consequently, the crushing of polyurethane foams must be well characterized and accurately modeled to properly analyze a transport container accident. At the request of Sandia National Laboratories, a series of uniaxial, hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests on polyurethane foams were performed by the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI). The combination of hydrostatic and triaxial tests was chosen to provide sufficient data to characterize both the volumetric and deviatoric behaviors of the foams and the coupling between the two responses. Typical results from the NMERI tests are included in this paper. Constitutive models that have been used in the past to model foam did not capture some important foam behaviors observed in the NMERI tests. Therefore, a new constitutive model for rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foams was developed and implemented in two finite element codes. Development of the new model is discussed in this paper. Also, results from analyses with the new model and other constitutive models are presented to demonstrate differences between the various models

  5. A macro-mechanical constitutive model of shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It is of practical interest to establish a precise constitutive model which includes the equations describing the phase transformation behaviors and thermo-mechanical processes of shape memory alloy (SMA). The microscopic mechanism of super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA is explained based on the concept of shape memory factor defined by the author of this paper. The conventional super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA are further unified as shape memory effect. Shape memory factor is redefined in order to make clear its physical meaning. A new shape memory evolution equation is developed to predict the phase transformation behaviors of SMA based on the differential relationship between martensitic volume fraction and phase transformation free energy and the results of DSC test. It overcomes the limitations that the previous shape memory evolution equations or phase transformation equations fail to express the influences of the phase transformation peak temperatures on the phase transformation behaviors and the transformation from twinned martensite to detwinned martensite occurring in SMA. A new macro-mechanical constitutive equation is established to predict the thermo-mechanical processes realizing the shape memory effect of SMA from the expression of Gibbs free energy. It is expanded from one-dimension to three-dimension with assuming SMA as isotropic material. All material constants in the new constitutive equation can be determined from macroscopic experiments, which makes it more easily used in practical applications.

  6. Constitutive expression of Botrytis aclada laccase in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Roman; Gonaus, Christoph; Pillei, Christian; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The heterologous expression of laccases is important for their large-scale production and genetic engineering--a prerequisite for industrial application. Pichia pastoris is the preferred expression host for fungal laccases. The recently cloned laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada (BaLac) has been efficiently expressed in P. pastoris under the control of the inducible alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter. In this study, we compare these results to the constitutive expression in the same organism using the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. The results show that the amounts of BaLac produced with the GAP system (517 mgL(-1)) and the AOX1 system (495 mgL(-1)) are comparable. The constitutive expression is, however, faster, and the specific activity of BaLac in the culture supernatant is higher (41.3 Umg(-1) GAP, 14.2 Umg(-1) AOX1). In microtiter plates, the constitutive expression provides a clear advantage due to easy manipulation (simple medium, no methanol feeding) and fast enzyme production (high-throughput screening assays can already be performed after 48 h). PMID:22705842

  7. On the Physical Constitution of the Sun — Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye H.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Patrice Robitaille (TAV College, Montreal, Canada provides a translation of Herv ́ e August Etienne Albans Faye’s classic report Sur la constitution physique du soleil , as it appeared in February 1865 within Les Mondes ,1865, v.7, 293–306. Herv ́ e Faye (Oc- tober 1, 1814 – July 4, 1902 led a distinguished life, both in science and public ser- vice. He was widely regarded as one of the premier astronomers of his day. He had studied under the great Franc ̧ois Arago. In 1843, he became a Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur and, in 1877, served as the French Minister of Education (Catholic Ency- clopedia, 1913. Faye’s report On the Physical Constitution of the Sun was a crucial milestone in the history of astronomy. It was through this paper, that the Sun became viewed as devoid of a distinct surface. The work was also interesting as it presented Faye’s early conception of the gaseous Sun. In addition, through its submission, Faye had sought the approbation of Father Secchi relative to claims of simultaneous discov- ery (see P.M.Robitaille. A Thermodynamic History of the Solar Constitution — I: The Journey to a Gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys. , 2011, v.3, 3–25. Faye’s work would continue to impact solar physics until the 1920s.

  8. In-vivo measurement of the human soft tissues constitutive laws. Applications to Computer Aided Surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavone, Patrick; Ohayon, J; Payan, Y

    2007-01-01

    In the 80's, biomechanicians were asked to work on Computer Aided Surgery applications since orthopaedic surgeons were looking for numerical tools able to predict risks of fractures. More recently, biomechanicians started to address soft tissues arguing that most of the human body is made of such tissues that can move as well as deform during surgical gestures [1]. An intra-operative use of a continuous Finite Element (FE) Model of a given tissue mainly faces two problems: (1) the numerical simulations have to be "interactive", i.e. sufficiently fast to provide results during surgery (which can be a strong issue in the context of hyperelastic models for example) and (2) during the intervention, the surgeon needs a device that can be used to provide to the model an estimation of the patient-specific constitutive behaviour of the soft tissues. This work proposes an answer to the second point, with the design of a new aspiration device aiming at characterizing the in vivo constitutive laws of human soft tissues....

  9. Measures of the constitutive immune system are linked to diet and roosting habits of neotropical bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Schneeberger

    Full Text Available Ecological and social factors are central in the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases, thus bearing the potential for shaping a species' immune functions. Although previous studies demonstrated a link between social factors and the cellular immune system for captive mammals, it is yet poorly understood how ecological factors are connected with the different branches of the immune system in wild populations. Here, we tested how variation in aspects of the constitutive cellular and humoral immune system of free ranging bats is associated with two ecological factors that likely influence the putative risk of species to become infected by parasites and pathogens: diet and shelter. We found that white blood cell counts of 24 syntopic Neotropical bat species varied with the species' diet and body mass. Bats that included at least partially vertebrates in their diet exhibited the highest white blood cell counts, followed by phytophagous and insectivorous species, which is in agreement with the assumption that the immune system varies with the pathogen transmission risk of a trophic level. The soluble part of the constitutive immune response, assessed by an in vitro bacterial killing assay, decreased with increasing roost permanence. Our results suggest that the ecology is an important factor in the evolution of the immune system in bats and probably also other mammals.

  10. Monozygotic twins discordant for constitutive BRCA1 promoter methylation, childhood cancer and secondary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetzka, Danuta; Hansmann, Tamara; El Hajj, Nady; Weis, Eva; Irmscher, Benjamin; Ludwig, Marco; Schneider-Rätzke, Brigitte; Kohlschmidt, Nicolai; Beyer, Vera; Bartsch, Oliver; Zechner, Ulrich; Spix, Claudia; Haaf, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We describe monozygotic twins discordant for childhood leukemia and secondary thyroid carcinoma. We used bisulfite pyrosequencing to compare the constitutive promoter methylation of BRCA1 and several other tumor suppressor genes in primary fibroblasts. The affected twin displayed an increased BRCA1 methylation (12%), compared with her sister (3%). Subsequent bisulfite plasmid sequencing demonstrated that 13% (6 of 47) BRCA1 alleles were fully methylated in the affected twin, whereas her sister displayed only single CpG errors without functional implications. This between-twin methylation difference was also found in irradiated fibroblasts and untreated saliva cells. The BRCA1 epimutation may have originated by an early somatic event in the affected twin: approximately 25% of her body cells derived from different embryonic cell lineages carry one epigenetically inactivated BRCA1 allele. This epimutation was associated with reduced basal protein levels and a higher induction of BRCA1 after DNA damage. In addition, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis of both sisters and found several copy number variations, i.e., heterozygous deletion and reduced expression of the RSPO3 gene in the affected twin. This monozygotic twin pair represents an impressive example of epigenetic somatic mosaicism, suggesting a role for constitutive epimutations, maybe along with de novo genetic alterations in recurrent tumor development. PMID:22207351

  11. Phase transformation of nano-grained W(Co, C) composite powder and its phase constitute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Shun-hua; CAI Zhi-yong; ZHOU Jian-hua; LI Jiong-yi; LIN Xin-ping

    2006-01-01

    A new process of WC-Co cemented carbide was developed by using nano-grained W(Co, C) composite powders as raw materials processed by high-energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction(XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis and coercive forces of the sintered samples were adopted to analyze the phase transformation and constitution, and the microstructures of sintered samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The results show that the as-milled powders are transformed into transitional phases W2C and η (Co3W3C or Co6W6C) during sintering, and finally transformed into WC and Co phases completely at 1 250 ℃ for 30 min, and a large number of fibrous WC grains with about 1.2 μm in length and 100 nm in radial dimension are formed in the sintered body at 1 300 ℃.

  12. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Media and Body Image Home For Patients Search FAQs Media and Body ... and Body Image TFAQ002, June 2016 PDF Format Media and Body Image Especially For Teens How can the media make ...

  13. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  14. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  15. Here I Stand: Mediated Bodies in Dissent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Koukal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Of all of the various forms of political dissent, the most dramatic as a form of expression is that which places lived bodies in tension with the prevailing social order. Bodies so presented—in marches, strikes, sit-ins, demonstrations and other mass assemblies—are just the opposite of Foucault’s docile bodies. They are a collective will concretized, an intersubjective mass animated by a common purpose that fills a public space and obstinately makes their shared demand. The presence of such dissenting bodies assembled in various public spaces have at times been essential in dramatizing grievances and re-constituting the meaning of a political landscape. Though such dissenting bodies have often been met with the full force of the state, the political efficacy of such bodies has been seriously undermined in recent years due to more subtle strategies to suppress such dissent, and counterstrategies meant to circumscribe these efforts at suppression. The goal of this essay is to explore these developments through phenomenological analysis. Preliminary considerations of (1 different forms of political potency and (2 the lived body and its movement through space, will be followed by (3 an investigation of what it means to be a dissenting body witnessed within a public place, and (4 what happens when dissenting bodies are consigned to circumscribed spaces or retreat to the “virtual.” This analysis will show how these developments have rendered dissenting bodies far less politically effective than they have been in the past, which dangerously weakens the democratic traditions of free speech and open dissent. This, in turn, supports a call (5 for a re-assertion of the embodied subject into the practice of political dissent.

  16. Constitutive relationships of prestressed steel fiber concrete membrane elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Norman S.

    Steel Fiber Concrete (SFC) displays certain tensile and shear characteristics which are beneficial for concrete that is loaded in a state of shear stress. For example, prestressed bridge beams carry shear load in their web by utilizing shear stirrups. If the properties of SFC can be better understood, then it may be possible to replace the shear stirrups with SFC. The first step in understanding this behavior is to develop a constitutive model for prestressed SFC. Two groups of full-scale prestressed steel fiber concrete (SFC) panels, with a nominal strength of 6 ksi, were tested in the Universal Element Testing machine at Thomas TC Hsu Structural Testing Laboratory to establish the effect of fiber and the level of prestress on the constitutive laws of fiber concrete and prestressing tendon. The specimens contained from 5 to 20 fully tensioned, low-relaxation grade 270 tendons. Fiber content ranged from 0.5% to 1.5% using high performance hooked end fibers. The first group of five panels, designated Group TEF, was used to determine the basic constitutive properties of prestressed SEC for use in the Softened Membrane Model (SMM). The constitutive model consists of smeared tensile and compressive stress strain relationships. An equation for softening with respect of both fiber content and tensile strain is presented. Also presented is a new equation for prestressed SFC in tension. It is notable that the behavior of prestressed SFC in tension displayed significant post-cracking tensile strength for fiber contents ranging from 0.5% to 1.5% by volume. Prior research on SFC using unreinforced dog-bone specimens, or prismatic specimens reinforced with only a single isolated tendon, are not capable of capturing SFC behavior afforded by the stress state, multiple load paths, and confinement situation available in full-scale panel assemblies. The second set of 5 test panels, designated Group TAF, was used to examine the properties of prestressed SFC under the conditions of

  17. INHERENT RISKS OF THE PLURALIST STRUCTURE: USE OF THE CONCEPT OF NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL IDENTITY BY THE POLISH AND CZECH CONSTITUTIONAL COURTS

    OpenAIRE

    Cebulak, Pola

    2012-01-01

    The jurisprudence of the ECJ and national constitutional courts related to the national constitutional identities of the Members States fits into the framework of constitutional pluralism as a modus vivendi of the European legal order. This paper focuses in particular on the recent judgments of the Polish and Czech constitutional courts. One might perceive a general tendency in the process of EU integration for EU policies to be increasingly dominated by national agendas. As a result, EU poli...

  18. Corpo e cultura: a educação do corpo em relações de fronteiras étnicas e culturais e a constituição da identidade Bororo em Meruri-MT Body and culture: the body education in relations of ethnic and cultural frontiers the constitution of the identity bororo in Meruri - MT Cuerpo y cultura: la educación del cuerpo en relaciones de fronteras étnicas y culturales y la constitución de la indentidad bororo en Meruri - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este texto resulta de uma pesquisa sobre a “Educação do Corpo” em contextos interculturais. A pesquisa parte da formação de professores indígenas em Mato Grosso, sustenta-se nos referenciais da Antropologia, da História e da Educação e, numa perspectiva etnográfica, enfoca as práticas corporais cotidianas. Nestas práticas, explicita os múltiplos sentidos e significações da “fabricação da pessoa” no ritual de nominação, na dança e no futebol. A dança é apresentada aqui, como processo polissêmico, no qual as identidades se confrontam num “jogo” que se estabelece nas fronteiras do “nós” e do “eles”, criando novas possibilidades de interação e de educação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: corporalidade – educação – dança – bororo – intercultura This text of a research on the Body Education in intercultural contexts. Part of the preparation of the Indian teachers in Mato Grosso – is supported on the referential of Anthropology, History and Education and on the ethnographic perspective of body practices. Explicit sensible multiples and signification of the “manufacture of the person”, in practical the identified in as the Ritual one of Nomination, Dance and Football. The Dance is presented here, this polissemic process the indentities face each other in a “game” that is established in the “frontiers” of “us” and of “them” creating new possibilities of interaction and of education. KEY-WORDS: corporalidade – education – dance – bororo –intercultura El presente texto es el resultado de una investigación sobre el Cuerpo en los contextos interculturales. Parte de la formación indígena en Mato Grosso (Brasil- tuvo como referencias la Antropología, la Historia y la Educación, optando por un abordaje etnográfico centralizado en las prácticas corporales cotidianas. Explicita en estas los múltiplos sentidos y significaciones de la “fabricación de la persona”, en el Ritual de

  19. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.

  20. 老年居民中医体质调查及常见偏颇体质的相关因素研究%Investigation of Chinese Medicine Constitution of the Elderly Residents and the Correlative Factor Research of the Biased Constitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 王少松

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characters of Chinese medicine constitution for the elderly and explore the factors of the common biased constitutions. Methods The scale of Chinese medicine constitution investigation was adopted. The living data of 1017 elderly residents in the community of the West Chang'an Street was collected and had the assessment for the constitution. The Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the correlative factors of the common biased constitutions. Results The normal/neutral constitution( 229 cases )accounted for 22. 52% and 8 biased constitutions( 788 cases )for 77. 48% . Of those with biased constitutions,the phlegm -damp constitution,yang deficiency constitution and qi deficiency con-stitution( 607 cases in total )were the most common, accounting for 59. 69% . Logistic regression indicated the phlegm - damp constitution was correlative with the physical healthy state,body mass index and diet flavors; the yang deficiency constitution was to the physical healthy state,body mass index and sleep habit;the qi deficiency constitution was to the physical healthy state, living conditions and diet flavors. Conclusion Most of elderly residents have biased constitutions,of which,the phlegm damp constitution,yang deficiency constitution and qi deficiency constitution are common. The physical healthy state is the chief factor of the formation of biased constitution. Additionally, the living conditions, diet flavors, body mass index and sleep habits are considered.%目的 调查老年人群中医体质特点,探索常见偏颇体质的影响因素.方法 采用中医体质调查量表,收集1017位西长安街社区老年居民生活资料并进行体质评分、判定,采用Logistic回归分析常见偏颇体质的相关因素.结果 平和质(229例)占22.52%,8种偏颇体质(788例)占77.48%,其中痰湿质、阳虚质、气虚质(合607例)最为多见,占59.69%.Logisitic回归显示痰湿质与身体健康状况、体质指数、饮食

  1. State Sovereignty, Popular Sovereignty and Individual Sovereignty: from Constitutional Nationalism to Multilevel Constitutionalism in International Economic Law?

    OpenAIRE

    Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic constitutional problem of modern international law since the UN Charter: How can the power-oriented international legal system based on “sovereign equality of states” be reconciled with the universal recognition of “inalienable” human rights deriving from respect for human dignity and popular sovereignty? State representatives, intergovernmental organizations, international judges and non-governmental organizations often express different views on...

  2. Hemochromatosis heterozygotes may constitute a radiation-sensitive subpopulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R G.(GEORGE A GRANT INC); Morris, James E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Larry E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1999-12-01

    A primary mechanism of radiation-induced DNA damage is by generation of free radicals. Chronically increased oxidative stress from elevated body iron may increase radiation sensitivity by decreasing cellular oxygen radical scavenging capability. Hemochromatosis heterozygotes have elevated body iron. Low-level radiation sensitization by iron may be particularly pertinent for risk of breast cancer. Since ten percent of the population appears to be heterozygous for the hemochromatosis gene, a radiosensitizing effect would have pervasive implications.

  3. Body Image and Body Dysmorphic Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Marron, Servando E

    2016-08-23

    Most people would like to change something about their bodies and the way that they look, but for some it becomes an obsession. A healthy skin plays an important role in a person's physical and mental wellbeing, whereas a disfiguring appearance is associated with body image concerns. Skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis and vitiligo produce cosmetic disfigurement and patients suffering these and other visible skin conditions have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, feelings of stigmatization and self-harm ideation. Body image affects our emotions, thoughts, and behaviours in everyday life, but, above all, it influences our relationships. Furthermore, it has the potential to influence our quality of life. Promotion of positive body image is highly recommended, as it is important in improving people's quality of life, physical health, and health-related behaviors. Dermatologists have a key role in identifying body image concerns and offering patients possible treatment options. PMID:27283435

  4. Sublegislative regulatory systems and bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the character of the legal regulatory systems with a view to the relationship between risk and evaluation, puts the current regulatory instruments for control of technological risks into the context of the national constitutional law and then discusses the legal bodies authorised to make technical standards for application in the field of nuclear law. The legal requirements and obligations concerning the bodies' types of organisation and their working procedures are subsequently used to develop the criteria for an assessment of the suggested reform of the Atomic Energy Act. The author's conclusion is that the draft reform fails to comply with the standards and criteria developed by the author. In the field of law under review, which is characterized by a close concatenation of scientific-technological knowledge and legal control and thus is the crucial 'test bed' for the development of a modern law for environmental protection, there are developments to be stated leading to the right direction. But the draft does not keep what the labels sticked to it by the Government promise: The draft does not create 'a modern law for advanced safety of nuclear installations', nor does it contribute substantially to 'reaching an all party consensus about the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. (orig./HP)

  5. Frictional Constitutive Parameters for Serpentine Mud from South Chamorro Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H.; Shimamoto, T.; Ishii, T.

    2005-12-01

    The lack of great earthquakes in Izu-Ogasawara and Mariana subduction zones may be associated with low-temperature serpentinite (M. Kasahara, 2003). We have thus started experimental studies on fault constitutive properties of serpentinite gouge, using a biaxial frictional testing machine at Kyoto University. Many conically-shaped serpentine seamounts are developed behind those subduction zones. They are consisted mainly of serpentinite mud with clasts of mantle rocks and high-pressure metamorphic rocks. Previous studies imply that the serpentinite is likely to have formed at depths around 30km. We have used serpentine mud, consisted mainly of chrysotile, in the drill core from South Chamorro Seamount (ODP Leg195). Double shear frictional experiments have been conducted on about 0.3 mm thick gouge at 30 MPa normal stress, at room temperature and under wet conditions (but without pore pressure). A series of velocity-step tests were performed in velocity range from 0.015 to 150 μm/s. Rate-and-state constitutive laws were fit to experimental data, by solving specimen-apparatus interaction numerically searching for the optimum constitutive parameters. Determination of stiffness of the apparatus is essential for accurate estimate of constitutive parameters. Careful measurements have revealed that the total stiffness (9.00×107 N/m) fluctuates by up to about 10 % probably owing to loose alignment of machine elements. This induces errors in constitutive parameters depending on dc}. If dc is in the order of 10 μm or larger, the error in b value is in the order of percent or less. But if the dc is around 1 μm, it becomes tens of percents or larger. The absolute value of frictional coefficient is around 0.2, very low and consistent with that of pure chrysotile (Moore et al., 1997). a- σb value is about 0.005 for velocity steps at 0.015-0.15 μm/s, decreases with increasing slip rate down to about -0.01 for the velocity steps at 15-150 μm/s. It changes from positive to

  6. The constitutional duty to consult aboriginal peoples in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of the presentation would be to share our views that the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, as a court of record and an administrative tribunal with powers of quasi-judicial nature, is empowered to satisfy the constitutional duty to consult with Aboriginal people in Canada for nuclear related projects that fall within its mandate. We would also touch on the fact that the Commission is also responsible to conduct environmental assessments of uranium and nuclear related projects that may affect Aboriginal peoples, their traditional territories or their traditional way of life. Recent Canadian court decisions have recognized that administrative tribunals, such as the Commission, may be the appropriate agencies to address the duty to consult Aboriginal peoples on behalf of the Crown under section 35 of the Canadian Constitution (1867). The Supreme Court of Canada has also recognized that administrative tribunals such as the Commission may have the statutory authority to decide questions of law for subject matters that fall within their mandate and expertise. Consequently, it is now generally accepted that the Commission has jurisdiction to consider if the duty to consult with Aboriginal Peoples is indeed satisfied. This is of particular importance given that the Commission has the exclusive jurisdiction in Canada to regulate all matters related to nuclear including the implementation of international obligations Canada has agreed to. Failure to appropriately consult with Aboriginal peoples may also result in a constitutional challenge where Canadian courts may reverse a licensing decision in relation to major projects such as a uranium mine, a nuclear power facility or a deep geologic repository. (author)

  7. Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-04-15

    Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

  8. Constitutive Relation of Yunjialing Anthracite Under Medium Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wen-jiao; SHAN Ren-liang; WANG Gong-cheng; CHENG Rui-qiang

    2007-01-01

    By means of the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) testing system, this paper presents a dynamic constitutive relation of anthracite at a strain rate of ε =5-85s-1. Generally, the dynamic stress-strain curve for this kind of anthracite under uni-axial compression has the following four stages: a non-linear loading stage, a plastic yielding stage, a strain-strengthening stage and an unloading breakage stage. Correspondingly, the initial elastic modulus Eb, the yielding strength σs and the ultimate strength σb increase along with an increasing strain rate. The time-dependent elasticity was identified when we analyzed the mechanical properties of anthracite. Based on characteristics of measured dynamic stress-strain curves and an analysis of existing rock dynamic constitutive models, as well as a preparatory simulation, a new visco-elastic damage model has been introduced in this paper. A linear spring is put parallel to two Maxwell units with different relaxation times to express two distinct plastic flows. The damage D is equal to [Eb- E(εi)]/Eb, where Eb is the beginning modulus and the E(εi) is the slope of a connected line between the origin point and any other point on a tested stress-strain curve. In the new constitutive model, one Maxwell unit with low relaxation time (ψ)1 is used to describe the response of anthracite to a low strain rate, while the other, with a high relaxation time (ψ)2 describes the response of anthracite to a high strain rate. Simulated stress-strain curves from the new model are consistent with the measured curves.

  9. Possible Effects of the Constitutional Complaint Mechanism on Human Rights Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan Duvan, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Individual application  was introduced into the Turkish legal system by the 2010 constitutional amendments and 23 September 2012 was determined as the first day of receiving applications. The amendment of the Constitution from May 7, 2010 has been introduced the constitutional complaint remedy which has to be concretised by the law on the Establishment and Rules of Procedure of the Constitutional Court. In most of the Continental European and Latin-American countries, constitutional complaint...

  10. Social pacts and Constitutional Justice: A comparative approach between Korea and Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo González Quintero

    2011-01-01

    During the last quarter of the twentieth century, new constitutions were adopted in South Korea and Colombia and these documents established constitutional courts. Thus, under specific circumstances of institutional crisis, two societies and their leaders embraced the task of overcoming said crisis through the enactment of a new constitution. The establishment of constitutional courts entailed the validity towards the future of the reached constitutional consensus,as the successful way to sur...

  11. Cognition versus Constitution of Objects: From Kant to Modern Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Classical mechanics in phase space as well as quantum mechanics in Hilbert space lead to states and observables but not to objects that may be considered as carriers of observable quantities. However, in both cases objects can be constituted as new entities by means of invariance properties of the theories in question. We show, that this way of reasoning has a long history in physics and philosophy and that it can be traced back to the transcendental arguments in Kant’s critique of pure reason.

  12. Retrieval of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Wu, Bae-Ian; Kong, Jin Au; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M

    2005-04-01

    We propose a method to retrieve the effective constitutive parameters of a slab of bianisotropic metamaterial composed of split-ring resonators from the measurement of the S parameters. Analytical inversion equations are derived for homogeneous loss-less bianisotropic media, and a numerical retrieval approach is presented for the case of lossy bianisotropic media. The method is verified both analytically and numerically, and it is shown that the results for various split-ring resonator metamaterials qualitatively corroborate the conclusions found in published papers. The proposed retrieval method can be used as a valuable tool for the study of anisotropic and bianisotropic properties of metamaterials. PMID:15903809

  13. THE CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR MIXED HARDENING ORTHOTROPIC MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUTeng-xi; HUANGShi-qing; FUYi-ming

    2003-01-01

    A dimensionless stress yield criterion is proposed to describe the mixed hardening of orthortropic material ,including kinematic hardening and proportional hardening,and the associated plastic flow law is derived.The generalized effective stress-strain formulae can be obtained correspondingly based on the experimental stress-strain curves in various simple stress states.The initial plastic anisotropy is influenced by the elastic anisotropy.The yield criterion can be reduced to Huber-Mises Criterion for isotropic materials and associated constitutive equations can be degenerated into Prandtl-Reuss equations.

  14. THE CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR MIXED HARDENING ORTHOTROPIC MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腾喜; 黄世清; 傅衣铭

    2003-01-01

    A dimensionless stress yield criterion is proposed to describe the mixed hardening of orthotropic material, including kinematic hardening and proportional hardening, and the associated plastic flow law is derived. The generalized effective stress-strain formulae can be obtained correspondingly based on the experimental stress-strain curves in various simple stress states. The initial plastic anisotropy is influenced by the elastic anisotropy. The yield criterion can be reduced to Huber-Mises Criterion for isotropic materials and associated constitutive equations can be degenerated into Prandtl-Reuss equations.

  15. The South African Constitution requires men to be feminist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lótter

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Can a man be a feminist? If so, what would it mean? I want to participate in a dialogue between women and men on how to accommodate women's moral concerns. I propose that the fundamental values of justice embodied in the South African constitutional democracy require men to be feminist. These values provide the best safeguard of the important interests and values of both women and men. Men who accept these values can support the main concerns of feminism. The implications of the argument in this article range from public issues to the most private aspects of marriage.

  16. DYNAMICAL STABILITY OF VISCOELASTIC COLUMN WITH FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE CONSTITUTIVE RELATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李根国; 朱正佑; 程昌钧

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic stability of simple supported viscoelastic column, subjected to a periodic axial force, is investigated. The viscoelastic material was assumed to obey the fractional derivative constitutive relation. The governing equation of motion was derived as a weakly singular Volterra integro-partial-differential equation, and it was simplified into a weakly singular Volterra integro-ordinary-differential equation by the Galerkin method. In terms of the averaging method, the dynamical stability was analyzed. A new numerical method is proposed to avoid storing all history data. Numerical examples are presented and the numerical results agree with the analytical ones.

  17. Globalisation, the development of constitutionalism and the individual employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Calitz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available To establish which legal system will govern the relationship between parties involved in an international employment contract, the rules of private international law (or conflict of laws must be applied. Each country has its own rules of private international law and each country’s courts will apply its own rules if the court is seized with a matter that involves foreign elements. There may be conflict between the potentially applicable legal systems of countries in terms of the level of protection afforded to employees who are parties to international employment contracts. South Africa has constitutionalised the right to fair labour practices and the question is whether this right is applicable to South African employees working in other countries, or to foreigners working in South Africa who originate from countries where this right is not protected. The answer to this question is to be found in the influence of the Constitution on the rules of private international law as applied by South African courts. It is evident from recent judgments of the Labour Court that the Court will readily assume jurisdiction and will furthermore readily hold that the proper law of the contract is South African law in order to protect the constitutional rights of employees involved in international employment contracts. Had the Labour Court held that the place of performance was still the decisive connecting factor, (as previously decided in most South African cases on this aspect the law of the other countries involved in the international employment relationship could have left employees in a worse position than under South African law. This possibility seems to be one of the important underlying reasons for the Labour Court’s willingness to assume jurisdiction and to hold that the proper law was in fact South African law. In the globalisation context the Labour Court has contributed to the advancement of constitutionalism by developing South Africa

  18. What constitutes cerebral palsy in the twenty-first century?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smithers-Sheedy, Hayley; Badawi, Nadia; Blair, Eve;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Determining inclusion/exclusion criteria for cerebral palsy (CP) surveillance is challenging. The aims of this paper were to (1) define inclusion/exclusion criteria that have been adopted uniformly by surveillance programmes and identify where consensus is still elusive, and (2) provide...... (SCPE; 1976-1998). An expert panel used a consensus building technique, which utilized the SCPE 'decision tree' and the original 'What constitutes cerebral palsy?' paper as frameworks. RESULTS: CP surveillance programmes agree on key clinical criteria pertaining to the type, severity, and origin...

  19. ITERATIVE ALGORITHM FOR AXIALLY ACCELERATING STRINGS WITH INTEGRAL CONSTITUTIVE LAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijia Zhao; Liqun Chen

    2008-01-01

    A numerical method is proposed to simulate the transverse vibrations of a viscoelastic moving string constituted by an integral law.In the numerical computation,the Galerkin method based on the Hermite functions is applied to discretize the state variables,and the RungeKutta method is applied to solve the resulting differential-integral equation system.A linear iterative process is designed to compute the integral terms at each time step,which makes the numerical method more efficient and accurate.As examples,nonlinear parametric vibrations of an axially moving viscoelastic string are analyzed.

  20. Technical Inspection Association (TUeV) and constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the fundamental problem posed by the position of TUeVs within our legal system. The public duties of TUeVs are not national ones. Individuals fulfill their safety obligation to the state and the public by means of organizations provided by TUeVs. A transformation into a corporation under public law by an act of sovereignty would be unconstitutional because the fundamental right of freedom of association would be violated. Laws which would deprive the TUevs of the right to exercise sovereign rights in fulfillment of their tasks and would assign these legal obligations to public administration would not be in accordance with the constitution either. (HSCH)