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Sample records for body constitution

  1. Kinanthropometry - Components of body constitution

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    Maria Tereza Silveira Böhme

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to present the conceptual and historical background to Kinanthropometry and to characterize this area of research. The components of body constitution relating to dimensions, proportions, shape and body composition that should be considered in Physical Education and Sports programs are also described. ARESUMO Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar os aspectos conceituais referentes à Cineantropometria, assim como os aspectos históricos e caracterização desta área de estudos. São também descritos os componentes de constituição corporal referentes à dimensões, proporções, forma e composição corporal que devem ser considerados em programas de Educação Física e Esporte.

  2. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

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    Junhee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney. Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies found in SCM.

  3. Association between Albuminuria and Different Body Constitution in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Taichung Diabetic Body Constitution Study

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    Cheng-Hung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients increases the risk of diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Because albuminuria is modifiable, identifying relevant risk factors could facilitate prevention and/or management. This cross-sectional study investigated whether body constitution (BC independently predicts albuminuria. Method. Patients with T2DM (n=846 received urinalysis, a blood test, and diabetic retinopathy examination. Albuminuria was defined by an elevated urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (≥30 μg/mg. BC type (Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, and Phlegm stasis was assessed using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ. Traditional risk factors for albuminuria were also recorded. Odds ratios (ORs of albuminuria for BC were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Albuminuria was more prevalent in patients with Yang deficiency or Phlegm stasis (both P<0.01. After adjustment, patients with both Yang deficiency and Phlegm stasis exhibited a significantly higher risk of albuminuria (OR = 3.037; 95% confidence interval = 1.572–5.867, and P<0.001. Conclusion. BC is strongly associated with albuminuria in T2DM patients. Using a BCQ to assess BC is noninvasive, convenient, and inexpensive and can provide information for health care professionals to identify T2DM patients who are at a high risk of albuminuria.

  4. Repeatability of Pulse Diagnosis and Body Constitution Diagnosis in Traditional Indian Ayurveda Medicine

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    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee; Raturi, Lokesh

    2012-01-01

    In Ayurveda, pulse diagnosis and body constitution diagnosis have a long historical use; still, there is lack of quantitative measure of the reliability of these diagnostic methods. Reliability means consistency of information. Consistent diagnosis leads to consistent treatment and is important for clinical practice, education, and research. The objective of this study is to study the methodology to evaluate the test-retest reliability (repeatability) of pulse diagnosis and body constitution diagnosis. A double-blinded, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in Copenhagen. The same doctor, an expert in Ayurvedic pulse diagnosis, examined the pulse and body constitution of 17 healthy participants twice, in random order without seeing them. A metric on pulse and body constitution variables was developed. Cohen's weighted kappa statistic was used as a measure of intra-rater reliability. Permutation tests were used to test the hypothesis of homogeneous diagnosis (ie, the doctor's diagnosis does not depend on the subject). The hypothesis of homogeneous classification was rejected on the 5% significance level (P values of .02 and .001, respectively, for pulse and body constitution diagnosis). According to the Landis and Koch scale, values of the weighted kappa for pulse diagnosis (P = .42) and body constitution diagnosis (P = .65) correspond to “moderate” and “substantial” agreement, respectively. There was a reasonable level of consistency between 2 pulse and body constitution diagnoses. Further studies are required to quantify inter-subject and intra-subject agreement for greater understanding of reliability of pulse and body constitution diagnosis. PMID:27257530

  5. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Classifying Body Constitution Based on Face Image.

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    Huan, Er-Yang; Wen, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Li, Dan-Yang; Hu, Yang; Chang, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Qing; Huang, Bing-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Body constitution classification is the basis and core content of traditional Chinese medicine constitution research. It is to extract the relevant laws from the complex constitution phenomenon and finally build the constitution classification system. Traditional identification methods have the disadvantages of inefficiency and low accuracy, for instance, questionnaires. This paper proposed a body constitution recognition algorithm based on deep convolutional neural network, which can classify individual constitution types according to face images. The proposed model first uses the convolutional neural network to extract the features of face image and then combines the extracted features with the color features. Finally, the fusion features are input to the Softmax classifier to get the classification result. Different comparison experiments show that the algorithm proposed in this paper can achieve the accuracy of 65.29% about the constitution classification. And its performance was accepted by Chinese medicine practitioners.

  6. The body constitution type influence on charolais breeds cattle meat production and quality

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    Jukna V.; Jukna Č.; Pečiulaitienė N.; Meškinytė-Kaušilienė E.

    2011-01-01

    The article presents data the most common body constitution types and their impact on meat production and quality on Charolais breed. Four body constitution types were researched in the breed: large, small, muscular and lightweight (commercial) type. For each type were selected in 15-16 uncastrated bulls, which were reared Control feeding station in identical feeding and storage conditions of up to 500 days age. Feeding control has been carried out from 210...

  7. The body as constitutive element phenomenology and psychoanalysis on our view of ourselves and others.

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    Monjaraz Fuentes, Paulina; Rojas Hernández, María Del Carmen; Santasilia, Stefano; Monjaraz Fuentes, Fernanda

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to highlight that from the phenomenology and psychoanalysis point of view, the meaning of the notion of the body is different from the medical biologicist discourse. In psychoanalysis, the body is an erogenized body. It is constituted as an object for another self. Similarly, in phenomenology, the body is an own body in first instance. It is the body of a self, rather than a living body and a material body. Both positions enable us to understand how this conceptualization of the body is essential in any human field. Especially in the clinic, the position of the subject before the other will lead to a specific form of intervention. From this understanding of the human body, both phenomenology and psychoanalysis confirm that the biologicist understanding of the body, presumed by all psychological and medical practices, is insufficient.

  8. Repeatability of pulse diagnosis and body constitution diagnosis in traditional Indian Ayurveda medicine

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    Kurande, Vrinda; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon

    2012-01-01

    In Ayurveda, pulse and body constitution diagnosis have a long historical use; still there is lack of quantitative measure on e.g. reliability of this diagnostic method. Reliability means consistency of information. Consistent diagnosis leads to consistent treatment and is important for clinical ...

  9. Study on Yang-Xu Using Body Constitution Questionnaire and Blood Variables in Healthy Volunteers

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    Hong-Jhang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the Yang-Xu constitution using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ and clinical blood variables. A BCQ was employed to assess the clinical manifestation of Yang-Xu. The logistic regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between BC scores and biomarkers. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV and K-fold cross-validation were performed to evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model in practice. Decision trees (DTs were conducted to determine the possible relationships between blood biomarkers and BC scores. According to the BCQ analysis, 49% participants without any BC were classified as healthy subjects. Among them, 130 samples were selected for further analysis and divided into two groups. One group comprised healthy subjects without any BC (68%, while subjects of the other group, named as the sub-healthy group, had three BCs (32%. Six biomarkers, CRE, TSH, HB, MONO, RBC, and LH, were found to have the greatest impact on BCQ outcomes in Yang-Xu subjects. This study indicated significant biochemical differences in Yang-Xu subjects, which may provide a connection between blood variables and the Yang-Xu BC.

  10. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

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    Eunsu Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM. The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  11. A study on the reliability of sasang constitutional body trunk measurement.

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    Jang, Eunsu; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Haejung; Kim, Honggie; Baek, Younghwa; Lee, Siwoo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM). The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM) consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs) was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  12. Need of integrated dietary therapy for persons with diabetes mellitus and "unhealthy" body constitution presentations.

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    Wong, Yee Chi Peggy

    2016-07-01

    From a perspective of Chinese medicine (CM), persons with unregulated "unhealthy" body constitution (BC) will further develop chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Conventional dietary therapy with nutrition component has its limitations in the regulation of "unhealthy" BC. However, empirical evidence supports that "unhealthy" BC can be regulated with food natures and flavors from a perspective of CM. Presentations of "unhealthy" BC types, such as Yin-deficiency, Yang-deficiency and Yin-Yang-deficiency were found in persons with DM. It would be necessary to regulate the "unhealthy" BC presentations with integration of conventional dietary therapy and Chinese food therapy. The ultimate goal is to either stabilize glycaemic control or prevent the development of other chronic diseases leading to reduction of disease burden, such as disease-related poor quality of life, stress of healthcare professionals and the rising of healthcare cost.

  13. Studies on the relationship between computed tomography of pancreas and ages or body constitution

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    Katsumata, Kazuo; Katsumata, Yoshinao; Nakagawa, Takeo; Sakuma, Sadayuki.

    1984-01-01

    We have clarified that computed tomography of pancreas can be divided into three types each in margin and content, namely 1) smooth type 2) fine-granule type 3) rough-granule type. In rough-granule type, rough granules are surrounded by low density area whose CT value is around -80. This CT value suggests that in rough-granule type, large amount of lipid may be present in pancreas. In this report, pancreatic CT scan of 406 persons without gall stone, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis and malignant tumor were studied. Incidence of the rough-granule type was very low in lean persons, while that of the rough-granule type was high in obese persons. Present results indicate that these types of pancreas in CT scan has intimate relation to body constitution. We discussed the clinical significance of this classification of pancreatic CT scan in relation to lipid deposition in pancreas. (author)

  14. Studies on the relationship between computed tomography of pancreas and ages or body constitution

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    Katsumata, Kazuo; Katsumata, Yoshinao; Nakagawa, Takeo; Sakuma, Sadayuki

    1984-12-01

    We have clarified that computed tomography of pancreas can be divided into three types each in margin and content, namely 1) smooth type 2) fine-granule type 3) rough-granule type. In rough-granule type, rough granules are surrounded by low density area whose CT value is around -80. This CT value suggests that in rough-granule type, large amount of lipid may be present in pancreas. In this report, pancreatic CT scan of 406 persons without gall stone, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis and malignant tumor were studied. Incidence of the rough-granule type was very low in lean persons, while that of the rough-granule type was high in obese persons. Present results indicate that these types of pancreas in CT scan has intimate relation to body constitution. We discussed the clinical significance of this classification of pancreatic CT scan in relation to lipid deposition in pancreas. (author).

  15. Development of an integrated Sasang constitution diagnosis method using face, body shape, voice, and questionnaire information.

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    Do, Jun-Hyeong; Jang, Eunsu; Ku, Boncho; Jang, Jun-Su; Kim, Honggie; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2012-07-04

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique form of traditional Korean medicine that divides human beings into four constitutional types (Tae-Yang: TY, Tae-Eum: TE, So-Yang: SY, and So-Eum: SE), which differ in inherited characteristics, such as external appearance, personality traits, susceptibility to particular diseases, drug responses, and equilibrium among internal organ functions. According to SCM, herbs that belong to a certain constitution cannot be used in patients with other constitutions; otherwise, this practice may result in no effect or in an adverse effect. Thus, the diagnosis of SC type is the most crucial step in SCM practice. The diagnosis, however, tends to be subjective due to a lack of quantitative standards for SC diagnosis. We have attempted to make the diagnosis method as objective as possible by basing it on an analysis of quantitative data from various Oriental medical clinics. Four individual diagnostic models were developed with multinomial logistic regression based on face, body shape, voice, and questionnaire responses. Inspired by SCM practitioners' holistic diagnostic processes, an integrated diagnostic model was then proposed by combining the four individual models. The diagnostic accuracies in the test set, after the four individual models had been integrated into a single model, improved to 64.0% and 55.2% in the male and female patient groups, respectively. Using a cut-off value for the integrated SC score, such as 1.6, the accuracies increased by 14.7% in male patients and by 4.6% in female patients, which showed that a higher integrated SC score corresponded to a higher diagnostic accuracy. This study represents the first trial of integrating the objectification of SC diagnosis based on quantitative data and SCM practitioners' holistic diagnostic processes. Although the diagnostic accuracy was not great, it is noted that the proposed diagnostic model represents common rules among practitioners who have various points of

  16. Evaluation Of Low Level Laser Therapy On Body Constitution And Leptin Hormone By Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric fat distribution with excessive fat accumulation in particular areas often affects a person's self-image, self esteem, and overall quality of life. Purpose of the study: to investigate the efficacy of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on body constitution and leptin hormone by radioimmunoassay. Methods: Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30- 40 years. They were divided into two groups of equal number. Procedures: -Group A (Overweight group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 25- 29.9-Group B (Obese group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 30.both groups received LLLT, for 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. BMI, WC, HC, WHR, serum Leptin, cholesterol and triglyceride level were measured before and after finishing the study. Results: There was significant improvement in anthropometric measurements( on both abdomen and thigh fats) of both groups treated with low level laser therapy, decrease in serum leptin level in over weight group and increase in triglyceride serum level in both groups within normal level Conclusion: low level laser therapy is effective as a noninvasive and safe method of body contouring .

  17. The Effect of Peptide YY3-36 in Body Mass Regulation in Patients with Exogenous Constitutional Obesity

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    Alexander S. Ametov PhD, ScD³; Yuliya Y. Vlasova, PhD¹²

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with PYY3-36 level in the blood serum of patients suffering from exogenous constitutional obesity and overweight, as well as its role in the process of the body mass growth. Among the 327 patients diagnosed with obesity and overweight, particularly those with Class I and II degrees of obesity (p

  18. Feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body based on Chinese medicine constitution.

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    Li, Ling-Ru; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Lu-Yu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    This article discussed the feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body. Firstly, the balance of redox state is the basis of homeostasis, and the balance ability of redox can reflflect health state of human body. Secondly, the redox state of human body is a sensitive index of multiple risk factors of health such as age, external environment and psychological factors. It participates in the occurrence and development of multiple diseases involving metabolic diseases and nervous system diseases, and can serve as a cut-in point for treatment of these diseases. Detecting the redox state of high risk people is signifificantly important for early detection and treatment of disease. The blood plasma and urine could be selected to detect, which is convenient. It is pointed that the indexes not only involve oxidation product and antioxidant enzyme but also redox couple. Chinese medicine constitution reflflects the state of body itself and the ability of adapting to external environment, which is consistent with the connotation of health. It is found that there are nine basic types of constitution in Chinese population, which provides a theoretical basis of health preservation, preventive treatment of disease and personalized treatment. With the combination of redox state detection and the Chinese medicine constitution theory, the heath state can be systemically assessed by conducting large-scale epidemiological survey with classifified detection on redox state of human body.

  19. GW-Bodies and P-Bodies Constitute Two Separate Pools of Sequestered Non-Translating RNAs.

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    Prajal H Patel

    Full Text Available Non-translating RNAs that have undergone active translational repression are culled from the cytoplasm into P-bodies for decapping-dependent decay or for sequestration. Organisms that use microRNA-mediated RNA silencing have an additional pathway to remove RNAs from active translation. Consequently, proteins that govern microRNA-mediated silencing, such as GW182/Gw and AGO1, are often associated with the P-bodies of higher eukaryotic organisms. Due to the presence of Gw, these structures have been referred to as GW-bodies. However, several reports have indicated that GW-bodies have different dynamics to P-bodies. Here, we use live imaging to examine GW-body and P-body dynamics in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo. While P-bodies are present throughout early embryonic development, cytoplasmic GW-bodies only form in significant numbers at the midblastula transition. Unlike P-bodies, which are predominantly cytoplasmic, GW-bodies are present in both nuclei and the cytoplasm. RNA decapping factors such as DCP1, Me31B, and Hpat are not associated with GW-bodies, indicating that P-bodies and GW-bodies are distinct structures. Furthermore, known Gw interactors such as AGO1 and the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex, which have been shown to be important for Gw function, are also not present in GW-bodies. Use of translational inhibitors puromycin and cycloheximide, which respectively increase or decrease cellular pools of non-translating RNAs, alter GW-body size, underscoring that GW-bodies are composed of non-translating RNAs. Taken together, these data indicate that active translational silencing most likely does not occur in GW-bodies. Instead GW-bodies most likely function as repositories for translationally silenced RNAs. Finally, inhibition of zygotic gene transcription is unable to block the formation of either P-bodies or GW-bodies in the early embryo, suggesting that these structures are composed of maternal RNAs.

  20. Gender operations: the film XXY (2007 and the constitution of the body and sex as “natural”.

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    Luciana Fogaça Monteiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on Foucault’s concept of the body as the surface of inscription of history, and on the work of Judith Butler, this article questions the way that binary and normative conceptions of gender operate in the constitution of a field of intelligibility for subjects and their bodies. We analyse the film XXY (2007 that tells the story of Alex, an intersexual adolescent. We use the main character's story to see how gender norms act to shape bodies and limit their pleasures. We argue that subjects and bodies that do not correspond to the normative ideal are seen as “abject bodies”, following Butler’s definition. The argument is that gender norms operate on all bodies: the normal and the abject.

  1. Analysis of Body Constitution of Fifty-two Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) Using Kampo Medical Questionnaires: Prediction of SJS based on Body Constitution Using Decision Tree

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    大嶋, 繁; 羽鳥, 有紀子; 本間, 精一; 寺澤, 捷年; 齋藤, 侑也; 小林, 大介

    2011-01-01

    Reports have indicated a relationship between adverse drug reaction (ADR) and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) polymorphism and a relationship between Body Constitution (BC) and HLA polymorphism. Thus, a relationship between ADR and BC is suggested. We therefore created a questionnaire (hereinafter “Questionnaire”) to survey the typical BC of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) patients to determine how they differ from healthy persons, and studied the relationship between the development of SJS and ...

  2. Embodying Skilful Performance: Co-Constituting Body and World in Biotechnology

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    Dall'Alba, Gloria; Sandberg, Jörgen; Sidhu, Ravinder Kaur

    2018-01-01

    This article offers a philosophical-empirical account of embodied skilful performance in the practice of plant biotechnology. Drawing on the work of Merleau-Ponty and others, we elaborate how skilful performance emerges from and through reciprocal relations encompassing the body-in-the-world and the world-in-the-body. The contribution of this…

  3. A constitutive description of the thermo-viscoplastic behavior of body-centered cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, C.Y.; Lu, W.R.; Zhang, L.C.; Yan, H.X.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Established a new physics-based constitutive model for the plasticity of BCC crystals. ► The new model is better than the R–K, Abed, Z–A and J–C models. ► The new model is simpler and easier to use than the original MTS model. ► The material parameters are determined by a global optimization algorithm. ► Provided a precise description of the flow stress of HSLA-65 steel as well as Tantalum. -- Abstract: The Johnson–Cook (J–C) equation, which is obtained from the phenomenological observations of experimental data at relatively low strain rates, cannot well describe the dynamic thermo-mechanical response of many materials at high strain rates, especially under the situations of high or low temperatures. This paper develops a new physics-based model for the constitutive description of BCC metals through a thermal activation analysis of the dislocation motion in the plastic deformation of crystalline materials with the use of the mechanical threshold stress (MTS) as an internal state variable. It was found that the new model can effectively reflect the plastic deformation mechanism of BCC crystals because it directly relates the macroscopic state variables in the constitutive model with the micromechanical characteristics of materials. The material parameters of the model are efficiently determined by an optimization method to guarantee that the material parameters are globally optimal in their theoretically allowed ranges. The application of the model to HSLA-65 steel and Tantalum shows that it is much easier to apply than the MTS model, that its flow stress predictions are better than the Rusinek and Klepaczko (R–K), Abed, Zerilli and Armstrong (Z–A) and J–C models, and that the present model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data in a broad range of strain rate, temperature and strain.

  4. [Assessment of external breathing parameters and cardiovascular function in patients with constitutive exogenous obesity and reduced body weight].

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    Merzlikina, N L; Romantsova, T I; Roik, O V; Lobanova, N A; Drapkina, O M; Ivashkin, V T

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate external respiratory function (ERF) and cardiovascular function based on AP measurements, results of 24 hour AP monitoring, treadmill test, and ECG during weight loss therapy in patients with excess body mass. A total of 93 patients with grade 2-3 obesity were examined including 41 (39.8%) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Group 1 consisted of patients with constitutive exogenous obesity, group 2 of patients with constitutive exogenous obesity and DM, group 3 was used as control. Follow-up studies were conducted after 6 and 12 months. Patients of groups 1 and 2 showed positive dynamics of hemodynamic characteristics related to the loss of weight including significant reduction of heart rate, systolic and diastolic indices of hypertonic loading, specific peripheral vascular resistance, and left ventricular mass. Simultaneously, cardiac index and ERF increased while vital lung capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced respiratory volume in the first second returned to normal values. It is concluded that reduction of body weight has positive effect on ERF dynamics and hemodynamic characteristics in patients with constitutive exogenous obesity.

  5. The Effect of Peptide YY3-36 in Body Mass Regulation in Patients with Exogenous Constitutional Obesity

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    Alexander S. Ametov PhD, ScD³

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with PYY3-36 level in the blood serum of patients suffering from exogenous constitutional obesity and overweight, as well as its role in the process of the body mass growth. Among the 327 patients diagnosed with obesity and overweight, particularly those with Class I and II degrees of obesity (p<0.05 showed a significantly increased level of PYY 3 -36. The highest PYY3-36 level was observed in those with the Class II or second degree of obesity (p<0.05. Exogenous Constitutional Obesity is accompanied by a significant increase in PYY3-36 in patients with Class I and II degrees of obesity.

  6. [Effect of sibutramine (meridia) on body composition, peptide YY3-36 and serotonin levels in patients with exogenous constitutional obesity].

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    Vlasova, Iu Iu; Ametov, A S

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of gradual weight loss and the positive effect of sibutramine on metabolic parameters and the levels of serotonin and neuropeptide YY3-36 levels in patients with exogenous constitutional obesity (ECO). The study included 36 patients (24 women and 12 men; mean age 37.56 +/- 0.9 years) with a verified diagnosis of ECO. The height, body weight, waist and hip circumference (WC and HC), and body mass index (BMI) were determined. Adipose tissue content was estimated by a bioimpedance method using an adipose mass analyzer. Serum peptide YY3-36 levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay and blood serotonin concentrations were estimated by high performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical method. 12-week sibutramine therapy caused a significant reduction in body weight, WC, HC, and BMI (p < 0.05) in all the patients. At the same time they were found to have a considerable body composition change (total body and visceral fat was decreased, total body water increased, and systemic metabolism was lowered). The mean peptide YY3-36 level was significantly decreased. Sibutramine did not affect the serum content of total serotonin in the sera of patients. Sibutramine used in the combined therapy in patients with ECO contributes to an effective and steady-state weight loss. Sibutramine treatment causes a reduction in total neuropeptide YY3-36, systemic metabolism, and adipose tissue at the expense of the visceral depot.

  7. Constitutive melanin density is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and potentially total body BMD in older Caucasian adults via increased sun tolerance and exposure.

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    Thompson, M J W; Jones, G; Aitken, D A

    2018-06-01

    Greater skin pigmentation reduces dose equivalent cutaneous vitamin D3 production, potentially impacting lifetime vitamin D status and fracture risk. We show that melanin density was positively associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D and total body bone mineral density. These relationships were partially explained by greater sun exposure due to more permissive skin phenotype. Higher cutaneous melanin reduces vitamin D3 production. This may impact lifetime vitamin D status and increase fracture risk. This study aimed to describe the relationship between spectrophotometrically determined constitutive melanin density, osteoporotic risk factors and potential intermediaries in a cohort of exclusively older Caucasian adults. One thousand seventy-two community-dwelling adults aged 50-80 years had constitutive melanin density quantified using spectrophotometry. Sun exposure, skin phenotype, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) prevalence and smoking status were assessed by questionnaire. Bone mineral density (BMD), falls risk, physical activity and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured using DXA, the short form Physiological Profile Assessment, pedometer and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Higher melanin density was independently associated with greater ability to tan (RR = 1.27, p density and sun exposure (RR = 1.05-1.11, p density (β = 1.71-2.05, p = 0.001). The association between melanin density and total body BMD (β = 0.007, p = 0.04) became non-significant after adjustment for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. There was no association between melanin density and physical activity, falls risk or BMD at other sites. Our data support a model of higher constitutive melanin density underpinning a less photosensitive skin phenotype, permitting greater sun exposure with fewer sequelae and yielding higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and, potentially, total body BMD.

  8. Multivariate analysis of lifestyle, constitutive and body composition factors influencing bone health in community-dwelling older adults from Madeira, Portugal.

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    Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Blimkie, Cameron Joseph; Maia, José António; Lopes, Carla; Gouveia, Bruna Raquel; Freitas, Duarte Luís

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the association between habitual physical activity (PA), other lifestyle/constitutive factors, body composition, and bone health/strength in a large sample of older adults from Madeira, Portugal. This cross-sectional study included 401 males and 401 females aged 60-79 years old. Femoral strength index (FSI) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total lean tissue mass (TLTM) and total fat mass (TFM) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA. PA was assessed during face-to-face interviews using the Baecke questionnaire and for a sub-sample by Tritrac accelerometer. Demographic and health history information were obtained by telephone interview through questionnaire. The relationship between habitual PA variables and bone health/strength indicators (whole body BMD, FNBMD, LSBMD, and FSI) investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was similar for females (0.098≤r≤0.189) and males (0.104≤r≤0.105). Results from standard multiple regression analysis indicated that the primary and most significant predictors for FNBMD in both sexes were age, TLTM, and TFM. For LSBMD, the most significant predictor was TFM in men and TFM, age, and TLTM in females. Our regression model explained 8.3-14.2% and 14.8-29.6% of the total variance in LSBMD and FNBMD for males and females, respectively. This study suggests that habitual PA is minimally but positively associated with BMD and FSI among older adult males and females and that body composition factors like TLTM and TFM are the strongest determinants of BMD and FSI in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Constitutional Conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    After their dismal performance in election 2008, conservatives are taking stock. As they examine the causes that have driven them into the political wilderness and as they explore paths out, they should also take heart. After all, election 2008 shows that America's constitutional order is working as designed. Indeed, while sorting out their errors…

  10. BCQ+: a body constitution questionnaire to assess Yang-Xu. Part I: establishment of a first final version through a Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Li; Lin, Jun-Dai; Lin, Jui-Shan; Huang, Yi-Chia; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2008-12-01

    Assessing an individual's level of Yang deficiency (Yang-Xu) by its manifestations is a frequent issue in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical trials. To this end, an objective, reliable and rigorous diagnostic tool is required. This study aimed to develop a first final version of the Yang-Xu Constitution Questionnaire. We conducted 3 steps to develop such an objective measurement tool: 1) the research team was formed and a panel of 26 experts was selected for the Delphi process; 2) items for the questionnaire were generated by literature review and a Delphi process; items were reworded into colloquial questions; face and content validity of the items were evaluated through a Delphi process again; 3) the difficulty of the questionnaire was evaluated in a pilot study with 81 subjects aged 20-60 years. The literature review retrieved 35 relevant items which matched the definition of 'constitution' and 'Yang-Xu'. After a first Delphi process, 22 items were retained and translated into colloquial questions. According to the second part of the Delphi process, the content validity index of each of the 22 questions ranged between 0.85-1. These 22 questions were evaluated by 81 subjects, 2 questions that were hard to tell the difference were combined; 3 questions were modified after the research team had discussed the participants' feedback. Finally, the questionnaire was established with 21 questions. This first final version of a questionnaire to assess Yang-Xu constitution with considerable face and content validity may serve as a basis to develop an advanced Yang-Xu questionnaire. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  12. Constitutional Rights in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Judhariksawan

    2018-01-01

    The constitution is fundamental to the life of the modern state as a major foothold in state governance. Includes the guarantee of constitutional rights of citizens. The The constitution is the basis of state organizers to be implemented so that the state is obliged to guarantee the fulfillment of citizens' constitutional rights. Human rights have become an important part of the modern constitution. This study will describe how human rights guarantees become part of consti...

  13. Constitutional changes and the dilemmas of constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsen Bačić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop constitutional mechanisms whose aim is to resolve fundamental relations in society demands the widest possible inclusion of all of society’s active participants in the discussion on the need to adopt or revise the Constitution. The opening of every new round of constitutional changes is of great importance because it always unlocks certain new and important questions. The answers to those questions should be offered by state authority (policy and civil society including science and its disciplines. In this paper, the author mentions several topics which are of interest in the current discussion on the significance of current constitutional changes for the future of the development of constitutionalism and democracy in the Republic of Croatia. These are above all topics of political and legal constitutionalism and suggestions linked to strengthening the independence of judicial powers. The author advocates consistent application of constitutional control and check mechanisms which exclude all insularity of judicial powers in relation to democratic control.

  14. Constitutional reform as process

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Rainer-Olaf (Prof.)

    2000-01-01

    Constitutional reform as process. - In: The politics of constitutional reform in North America / Rainer-Olaf Schultze ... (eds.). - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2000. - S. 11-31. - (Politikwissenschaftliche paperbacks ; 30)

  15. Transnational Constitutional Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumbansen, P (Peer); K.I. Bhatt (Kinnari)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter provides an overview of the emerging field of transnational constitutional law (TCL). Whilst questions of constitutional law are typically discussed in the context of a specific domestic legal setting, a salient strategy of TCL is to understand constitutional law and its

  16. UNDERSTANDING INFORMAL CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Griffin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid much recent American work on the problem of informal constitutional change, this article stakes out a distinctive position. I argue that theories of constitutional change in the US must address the question of the relationship between the “small c” and “big C” Constitution and treat seriously the possibility of conflict between them. I stress the unavoidable role the text of the Constitution and structural doctrines of federalism and separation of powers play in this relationship and thus in constitutional change, both formal and informal. I therefore counsel against theories that rely solely on a practice-based approach or analogies between “small c” constitutional developments and British or Commonwealth traditions of the “unwritten” constitution and constitutional “conventions.” The alternative I advocate is to approach constitutional change from a historicist perspective that focuses attention on state building and the creation of new institutional capacities. This approach will allow us to make progress by highlighting that there can be multiple constitutional orders in a given historical era, thus accounting for the conflictual nature of contemporary constitutional development in the US.

  17. Transnational Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Zumbansen, P (Peer); Bhatt, Kinnari

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter provides an overview of the emerging field of transnational constitutional law (TCL). Whilst questions of constitutional law are typically discussed in the context of a specific domestic legal setting, a salient strategy of TCL is to understand constitutional law and its values by placing them ‘in context’ with existing and evolving cultural norms and political, social and economic discourses and struggles. Drawing on socio-legal investigations into the relationships ...

  18. The Legal Investigation Peculiarities in RF Constitutional Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya V. Lebedeva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article features the legal proceedings between Federal Bodies, Entities of Russian Federation, and supreme bodies of RF entities which are both of theoretical and practical interests to powers of RF Constitutional Court.

  19. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  20. Communicative Constitution of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...

  1. Gender and the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Ruth Bader

    1975-01-01

    In discussing the constitutional aspects of the sex-role debate in the U.S. the author traces the tradition, compares the present criterion of equal protection to the equal rights argument, and analyzes the equality principle with reference to affirmative action and to childbearing and childrearing, supporting the proposed equal rights amendment.…

  2. constitutional adjudication in ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    2000-01-25

    Jan 25, 2000 ... Thus the seeds of what some authors call. “federal .... Pre-WWII Europe trusted its legislature and led to .... European and Civil Law Forum v. 11 ...... on the sovereignty of nationalities and the fact that language constitutes one.

  3. The constitutive sofa cushion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Sara

    2009-01-01

    personal values materialize through a hand-made everyday artefact, and how can the artefact constitute action and self-perception? The empirical research and analysis concerns how a former textile crafts teacher's subjective values and professional identity materialize through a hand-woven sofa cushion...

  4. A Prospect and Challenges for Adopting Constitutional Complaint and Constitutional Question in the Indonesian Constitutional Court

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Pan Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    A jurisdiction of the Indonesian Constitutional Court concerning constitutional adjudication is only limited to review the constitutionality of national law. There is no mechanism for challenging any decision or action made by public authorities that violate fundamental rights enshrined in the Indonesian Constitution. This article argues that constitutional complaint and constitutional question might be adopted as new jurisdictions of the Indonesian Constitutional Court in order to strengthen...

  5. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  6. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  7. The constitutional view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Horácio Sá Pereira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n2p165   This brief paper is devoted to criticizing the widespread reading of Kant’s first Critique, according to which reference to subject-independent objects is “constituted” by higherorder cognitive abilities (concepts. Let us call this the “constitutional view”. In this paper, I argue that the constitutional reading confuses the un-Kantian problem of how we come to represent objects (which I call the intentionality thesis, with the quite different problem of how we cognize (erkennen (which I call the “cognition thesis” that we do represent objects, that is, things that exist independently of the subject.

  8. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    of democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes...

  9. The Constitutional Court and the Imperative of its Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gilia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on the upcoming review of the Constitution have determined us to pay close attention to the basic institution in a democratic state, that is the Constitutional Court. Being caught in the crossfire between power and opposition, the Constitutional Court had a hard time lately, facing severe attacks. The aim of our study is to analyze the evolution of the Constitutional Court within the inland constitutional system, particularly bringing up the flaws describing the Court’s activity. We have also analyzed the proposals put forth by several bodies or experts regarding the constitutional contentious court. At the end of our study, following an analysis of different constitutional types of constitutional review, used by a number of states in Europe, we introduced several resolutions that may improve the role, the course and, last but not least, the activity of the Romanian Constitutional Court.

  10. CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF ROMANIA: POST MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RATHNASWAMY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Austria had in 1920 Constitutional Court followed by Italy in 1946, Germany in 1949, Romania in 1989, South Africa in 1991, and Ethiopia in 1995. Each Constitution has its provisions on the constitutional interpretation. Romania has its own provisions and it is considered here its legality and the best possible measures and recommendations for future. Judicial power is vested in judiciary to interpret constitution, laws, and actions of other organs of government. Judicial review is the function resulted upon judicial power. Political body joins through the appointment of its members in the judicial review and it limits the independence of judiciary. It also reduces the values of separation of powers. Challenges and opportunities of growth and development do influence the spirit of separation of powers and judicial independence. The principle of inherent judicial power in judiciary inducts upon the constitutional interpretation. Thus, the principles of constitutional interpretation are varying in Romania and other similar constitutional courts of Germany, Ethiopia, and Italy but not in South Africa.

  11. Work Towards a (New) Definition of Peace Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliam, Jay R.; Jay R., Gilliam

    2011-01-01

    Current research on peace constitutions generally centers on Japan’s post-World War II pacifist constitution, specifically Article 9 where Japan renounces war, dissolves its military, and vows to work towards peace in the world. In fact, researching peace constitution (or 平和憲法 in Japanese) in books, academic journals, or on the Internet routinely returns only results about Japan and its Article 9. While a substantial body of work exists about Japan’s peace constitution, too often that body of...

  12. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types.

  13. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities.

  14. Constitutive models in LAME.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  15. ECHR and national constitutional courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Maja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprising fundamental rights and freedoms and establishing the effective control system, the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR encroaches upon the area that is traditional reserved for constitutional law. Although built on the doctrine reserved for international treaty law, the Convention goes beyond the traditional boundaries that exist between international and constitutional law. It has gradually infiltrated into the national legal systems. Constitutional courts have had the crucial role in this process. This paper will focus on the applicability of the ECHR in proceedings before national constitutional courts. Having in mind the jurisdiction of the national constitutional court, the ECHR may be applied in two ways: first, in the process of constitutional review by national constitutional courts and, second, in the process of deciding on constitutional complaints.

  16. VALUATION IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brimer

    16 ..... stem from the pre-constitutional era, and the constitutional framework and its legitimate reform efforts. A decision on what is just ...... Carroll L Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (Digital Scanning Scituate MA. 2007). Dagan 1999 Va L Rev.

  17. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...

  18. The diffusion of constitutional rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, B.V.G.; Versteeg, M.

    Constitutions are commonly regarded as uniquely national products, shaped by domestic ideals and politics. This paper develops and empirically investigates a novel hypothesis, which is that constitutions are also shaped by transnational influence, or “diffusion.” Constitutional rights can diffuse

  19. Ontoteleological Constitution of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Luiz Teixeira Boava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a pluri-disciplinary phenomenon, object of research in several areas of knowledge. However, studies on this theme present approaches that start to consider entrepreneurship as a field of private knowledge in the phase of epistemological construction. In this context, the aim of this investigation is to contribute to the discussions on the theme, through studies on the ontoteleological constitution of entrepreneurship, in propaedeutic character, deflagrating new approaches. Thus, there is a presentation concerning the study of entrepreneurship, which may emphasize its ontical and ontological aspects. In addition, the reason why it is complex to define entrepreneurship is investigated. Subjects regarding the philosophy of entrepreneurship are introduced, seeking to present the bases for an ontoteleological approach to the phenomenon. Such an approach assumes that the finality of the entrepreneurial act relates to the main principles and transformations required into the organization. Finally, it is concluded that man is an entrepreneurial being, the meta-entrepreneur, and his entrepreneurial actions are not determined by external factors, but rather by the condition of his potentiality.

  20. Constitution, 1989. [Selected provisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Chapter XII of the Hungarian Constitution, 1989, details the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens. Everyone lawfully within the territory of Hungary has the right to liberty of movement and the freedom to choose his or her residence, except when restricted by law, including the right to leave his or her residence or county. The Republic of Hungary grants asylum to foreign citizens who were persecuted for racial, religious ethnic, linguistic, or political reasons. Men and women shall equally enjoy all civil, political, economic, social and political rights. Mothers are entitled to special care and protection before and after childbirth; women and juveniles are protected at work by special regulations. Every child has the right to special care an assistance from his or her family, the State, and society, for appropriate physical, spiritual, and moral development. Parents shall decide the kind of education their children receive. Hungary grants equal rights to all person within its territories, without regard to race, color, sex, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national, and social origin, property, birth and other status. Prejudicial discrimination shall be severely punished. Everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of employment and profession and to equal pay for equal work. Citizens have the right to social security, including social services necessary in old age, sickness, disability, widowhood, orphanhood an unemployment through no fault of their own. Hungary guarantees the right to culture for its citizens and realized this right by free and compulsory elementary education, by secondary and higher education which is accessible to all on the basis of capacity, and by the financial support of those receiving an education.

  1. Loading method of core constituting elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a remote-controlled replacing method for core constituting elements in a liquid-metal cooling fast breeder, wherein particularly, the core constituting elements are prevented from being loaded on the core position other than as designated. Constitution: The method comprises a first step which determines a position of a suitable neutron shielding body in order to measure a reference level of complete insertion of the core constituting elements, a second step which inserts a gripper for a fuel exchanger, a third step which decides stroke dimensions of the complete insertion, and a fourth step which discriminates the core constituting elements to begin handling of fuel rods. The method further comprises a fifth step which determines a loading position of fuel rod, and a sixth step which inserts and loads fuel rods into the core. The method still further comprises a seventh step which compares and judges the dimension of loading stroke and the dimension of complete inserting stroke so that when coincided, loading is completed, and when not coincided, loading is not completed and then the cycle of the fourth step is repeated. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.

  3. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006

  4. Constitution of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waenke, H.

    1981-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the bulk composition are restricted to the Earth, the Moon and the eucrite parent asteroid. The last, the parent body of the eucrite-diogenite family of meteorites, seems to have an almost chondritic composition except for a considerable depletion of all moderately volatile (Na, K, Rb, F, etc.) and highly volatile (Cl, Br, Cd, Pb, etc.) elements. The moon is also depleted in moderate volatile and volatile elements compared to carbonaceous chondrites of type 1 (C1) and to the Earth. Again normalized to C1 and Si the Earth's mantle and the Moon are slightly enriched in refractory lithophile elements and in magnesium. The striking depletion of the Earth's mantle for the elements V, Cr and Mn can be explained by their partial removal into the core. Apart from their contents of metallic iron, all siderophile elements, moderately volatile and volatile elements, Earth and Moon are chemically very similar. It might well be that, with these exceptions and that of a varying degree of oxidation, all the inner planets have a similar chemistry. The chemical composition of the Earth's mantle, yields important information about the accretion history of the Earth and that of the inner planets. (author)

  5. Constitutional aneuploidy and cancer predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganmore, Ithamar; Smooha, Gil; Izraeli, Shai

    2009-04-15

    Constitutional aneuploidies are rare syndromes associated with multiple developmental abnormalities and the alterations in the risk for specific cancers. Acquired somatic chromosomal aneuploidies are the most common genetic aberrations in sporadic cancers. Thus studies of these rare constitutional aneuploidy syndromes are important not only for patient counseling and clinical management, but also for deciphering the mechanisms by which chromosomal aneuploidy affect cancer initiation and progression. Here we review the major constitutional aneuploidy syndromes and suggest some general mechanisms for the associated cancer predisposition.

  6. Economic Reforms and Constitutional Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Xiaokai Yang

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms and constitutional transition, which has been neglected by many transition economists. It is argued that assessment of reform performance might be very misleading if it is not recognized that economic reforms are just a small part of large scale of constitutional transition. Rivalry and competition between states and between political forces within each country are the driving forces for constitutional transition. We use Russia...

  7. ECHR and national constitutional courts

    OpenAIRE

    Nastić, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Comprising fundamental rights and freedoms and establishing the effective control system, the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) encroaches upon the area that is traditional reserved for constitutional law. Although built on the doctrine reserved for international treaty law, the Convention goes beyond the traditional boundaries that exist between international and constitutional law. It has gradually infiltrated into the national legal systems. Constitutional courts have had the cruc...

  8. Constitutional Issues--Watergate and the Constitution. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    When U.S. President Richard Nixon resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, it was only the second time that impeachment of a president had been considered. Although the U.S. Constitution has provisions for a person removed from office to be indicted, there are no guidelines in the Constitution about a President who has resigned. The…

  9. National constitutional courts in the European Constitutional Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article critically assesses the transformation of national constitutional courts’ place in the law and politics of the EU and its member states. This process eliminates the difference between constitutional and ordinary national courts, which is crucial for the institutional implementation...... of the discourse theory of law and democracy. It also disrupts the symbiotic relationship between national constitutional democracies established after World War II and European integration. The article argues that maintaining the special place of national constitutional courts is in the vital interest of both...... the EU and its member states, understood together as the European Constitutional Democracy—the central notion developed in this article in order to support an argument that should speak to both EU lawyers and national constitutionalists....

  10. [Etiologic spectrum of solitary constitutional syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Hernández, J L; Matorras Galán, P; Riancho Moral, J A; González-Macías, J

    2002-07-01

    To know the spectrum of diseases responsible for the solitary constitutional syndrome in our setting. This syndrome was defined as a clinical picture characterized by the presence of asthenia, anorexia, and weight loss of at least 5% of body weight in the last six months, not associated with any other symptom or sign suggesting the diagnosis of an organ or system disease. All patients diagnosed of the solitary constitutional syndrome (328) in a tertiary-care level teaching hospital between January 1991 and December 1996. Fifty-two (170) percent of patients with solitary constitutional syndrome were males and 48% (158) females. The mean age was 65.4%, ranging from 15 to 97 years. The average of the monthly estimated weight loss was 3 to 4 kilograms. A total of 115 (35%) malignant neoplasms and 5 (1.5%) benign tumors were diagnosed. The most common malignant tumors corresponded to the digestive tract (51.3% of the total malignant tumors). The second cause in frequency of the solitary constitutional syndrome corresponded to psychiatric diseases, with a total of 80 patients (24.3%). A total of 116 non-neoplastic organic diseases were detected, with digestive tract diseases --mainly peptic disease-- being the most common cause in this group. After follow-up, only in twenty cases were we unable to detect the underlying disease responsible for the syndrome. In nine of these, the solitary constitutional syndrome was self-limited. Forty-four percent of patients had at least another concomitant disease and in 24% of patients more than one associated condition was found. The most common diseases responsible for the solitary constitutional syndrome were, by decreasing frequency, malignant tumors, psychiatric disorders, and non-malignant organic diseases located in the digestive tract. A better knowledge of the etiological spectrum of this syndrome might be useful for a more efficient management of these patients.

  11. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...... of constitutive effects are carved out, empirical illustrations of their applicability are offered and implications discussed....

  12. Political dimension of European constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplánová Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Author in the article tries to analyse different elements of document called European Constitution. Analysis is supported with theoretical framework of federalism, presented by Brezovšek. Authors is playing with idea of (confederal and international organization elements of European Constitution and their mix. They are also trying to set some connections between so called common European identity as necessary condition to give legitimacy to the European Constitution. This became important question after „votes of non-confidence“ to the European Constitution in France, despite it should be addressed already before. However, European Constitution is important document on the path of European integration and lack of support to it will slow down this process of widening and deepening European ties.

  13. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, R.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH) [de

  14. Constitutional aneuploidy and cancer predisposition†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganmore, Ithamar; Smooha, Gil; Izraeli, Shai

    2009-01-01

    Constitutional aneuploidies are rare syndromes associated with multiple developmental abnormalities and the alterations in the risk for specific cancers. Acquired somatic chromosomal aneuploidies are the most common genetic aberrations in sporadic cancers. Thus studies of these rare constitutional aneuploidy syndromes are important not only for patient counseling and clinical management, but also for deciphering the mechanisms by which chromosomal aneuploidy affect cancer initiation and progression. Here we review the major constitutional aneuploidy syndromes and suggest some general mechanisms for the associated cancer predisposition. PMID:19297405

  15. Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Puzrin, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the traditional Geomechanics and Numerical Geotechnical Modelling with applications in science and practice. Geomechanics is rarely taught within the rigorous context of Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, while when it comes to Numerical Modelling, commercially available finite elements or finite differences software utilize constitutive relationships within the rigorous framework. As a result, young scientists and engineers have to learn the challenging subject of constitutive modelling from a program manual and often end up with using unrealistic models which violate the Laws of Thermodynamics.  The book is introductory, by no means does it claim any completeness and state of the art in such a dynamically developing field as numerical and constitutive modelling of soils. The author gives basic understanding of conventional continuum mechanics approaches to constitutive modelling, which can serve as a foundation for exploring more advanced theories....

  16. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  17. Jonathan's Constitutional Conference in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... Adeniyi S. Basiru is an independent researcher and a PhD candidate ... constitution-making are fundamentally the exclusive reserve of the elites, ..... agenda must be situated against the background of events that heralded his.

  18. A survey on constitutional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirollah Parvin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of supervising the conformity of statutory law with constitutional law, is due to necessities rooted in two essential principles: the supremacy of constitution and the hierarchy of the law. Constitution as the supreme law in the sense of status and legal value , is placed at the top of the legal pyramid of every political system and therefore requires a special organization and discipline that will act as the sanction of the principles and the main content incorporated in this legal instrument. this special organization and discipline known as Constitutional justice in legal Literature now and have studing in two main patterns. Firs pattern based on Supervision of courts on rules and other pattern is Apply by Emphasis on role of Political Institutions in Supervision on rules. This two patterns have common purpose but have different backgrounds and methods.

  19. THE EMERGING INTERNATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    CFI) affirmed ... primarily include the value system of the international legal order, meaning norms of ... the existence of such a traditional constitutional demos. Europe's ..... between the African Development Bank (BAD) and one of its employees,.

  20. Constitutional Verbosity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Voigt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A common argument in the trust literature is that high-trust cultures allow efficient commercial contracts to be shorter, covering fewer contingencies. We take this idea to the topic of social contracts. Specifically, we ask whether social trust affects the length and detail of constitutions. Cross......-country estimates suggest that national trust levels are indeed robustly and negatively associated with the length of countries’ constitutions....

  1. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  2. Right Product, Wrong Packaging: Not 'Constitution', but 'Constitutional Charter'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Law

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to locate the principal cause of Europe’s prevailing ratification crisis in the inappropriate title arrived at in the European Convention, Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe. This over-ambitious styling led the media to characterise the text as simply an ‘EU Constitution’. Yet, the text was not a Constitution as we traditionally understand the term, i.e. the founding document of a State: scholars are agreed that the EU is not, and will not become upon ratification, a State.In terms of substance, whilst the text certainly strengthened some emerging constitutional aspects, it was not a major departure from the status quo like the Single European Act and Treaty on European Union had been; and it remained technically a treaty like all its predecessors. Arguably, therefore, it did not require referenda to ratify. However, confusion over the scale and importance of what was proposed, stemming from ambiguity in the title, pushed politicians down this unfortunate path.The article identifies a high level of consensus among commentators as to the true nature of the text: most are happy designating it a treaty (noun with constitutional (adjective aspects. The early proposed title Constitutional Treaty for Europe was arguably, therefore, the correct one; but it is now too late to choose this option, as the terms Constitution and Constitutional Treaty have already been muddled in debate. A more distinctive change is required. One idea could be to follow the principle employed elsewhere in the text of codifying the generally accepted but presently unwritten legal concepts of the European Court of Justice, as was done for example for ‘primacy’ and ‘direct effect’. The Court has characterised the EU treaties as a ‘constitutional charter’ for over twenty years now, and on this basis a modified title could read Treaty Establishing a Constitutional Charter for Europe. Importantly, the term ‘charter’ is recognised

  3. Působení kognitivně-behaviorální psychoterapie na tělesné složení a konstituci Effects of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy on body composition and constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kopecký

    2008-01-01

    esteem and difficulties in the job market field. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of physical activity and the modification of nutrition patterns on the somatic parameters in STOB courses (the courses for weight loss and obesity reduction in women at the age of 20–60 years (n = 114. The standardised anthropometrical methods were used to determine the basic somatic indexes – body weight and height, risk indexes and central obesity indexes, body composition according to Pařízková, and Matiegka and bioelectric impedance methods (QuadScan 4000; Tanita BC 418-MA. Women were divided into the groups according to age decennary. Women were measured at the beginning and at the end of the course, which lasted 12 weeks. STOB courses are led by professionals who are involved not only in physical activity but also in modification of nutrition and food intake patterns. In the groups as a whole, the BMI reached the average values of 31.34 in the initial examination, although the maximal value exceeded the limit of morbid obesity, which is 47.56. On the basis of the BMI categorisation by WHO, only 7.5% of women were in the “standard” category and 57% were obese, of which 5% were morbidly obese. According to the evaluation of subcutaneous adipose tissue using Matiegka methodology, 57.5% had more than 30% fat content, of which 28.75% was in the category of over 40% fat. The values of the centrality index, which are the ratio of the individual skin folds on the trunk and on the extremities and it shows the distribution of fat, reached values from 1.3 to 1.5. These values demonstrate the disproportional distribution of fat, with a dominancy of subcutaneous fat on the trunk. The centrality indexes correlate with WHR values and confirmed the distribution of fat was confirmed, particularly on the trunk part in comparison to the lower extremities – thus we are looking at the abdominal type of obesity. When the course had been completed, all methods used confirmed

  4. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Constitutionalism and Development in Nigeria: The 1999 Constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    the 3 arms of government the Executive, Legislative, Judiciary, Public Service and Marketing .... Rotation principle of a presidency position in Nigeria which will cultivate a sense of ... the issues survived inclusion in the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. 13. S. 2 of Decree No. ..... Oxford, 5th Edition p.245.

  6. The Spanish Constitution, the Constitutional Court and the Catalan Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    and politeia that Aristotle defined now clashes between two powerful symbolic and romantic phenomena. In the Spanish-Catalan binomial scenario, there are some elements that need to be analysed to obtain a complete picture of the constitutional possibilities to of accommodating a Catalan self...

  7. Time and constitution of sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gerardo Acosta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection over our time-consciousness under the Phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. The idea is make a release the key role of the sense constitution like the fundament and development of the ongoing intentionality, a shape that make the possibility to catch sight of the sense of every life situation like conscience experience that displays itself over the time, and open the world of the Phenomenon World, constituted in the flux and flow of our live experience. The immanent time in which the things served in a lived-present inevitably displays to its own immediate-past of retentions, then of commemorations, constituting and enabling, not just the sense of ever present, but the sense of our own past like memory and our future like expectative. This reflection is based and supporter over the text “Phenomenology Lesson of the Internal Time-Consiusness” (Husserl, 2002.

  8. A Communicatively Constituted Online Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    2017-01-01

    into specific public crisis perceptions. Drawing from a communicative constitution perspective, the authors argue that if crises are perceptions or experiences of difficult situations that exceed a person’s current resources and coping mechanisms, and if perceptions and experiences in social media are typically...... by offering suggestions on how to study online critical conversations through the lens of a communicative constitution perspective that could inform how critical issues eventually transform and become crises and how crisis perceptions evolve and are discursively shaped by communicative practices occurring...

  9. Constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2011-12-01

    Chromosomal imbalances can result from numerical or structural anomalies. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities are often referred to as aneuploid conditions. This article focuses on the occurrence of constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy in humans. Topics covered include frequency, mosaicism, phenotypic findings, and etiology. The article concludes with a consideration of anticipated advances that might allow for the development of screening tests and/or lead to improvements in our understanding and management of the role that aneuploidy plays in the aging process and acquisition of age-related and constitutional conditions.

  10. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, M.C.J.; Gidding, C.E.M.; Loeffen, J.; Wesseling, P.; Mensenkamp, A.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old

  11. The Constitution and Academic Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Eric R.

    During the past 150 years U.S. courts have demonstrated a special protectiveness toward academics and academic institutions. Academic freedom was not a concern when the U.S. Constitution and the First Amendment were drafted and is not mentioned in the "Federalist Papers." However, decisions by a series of Supreme Court justices led to…

  12. Contested constitutions: Legitimacy of constitution-making and constitutional conflict in Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Raadt, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    What were the effects of constitution-making procedures on the acceptance of the new "rules of the political game" in postcommunist Central Europe? This article sets out to scrutinise the increasingly popular claim among politicians and scholars of democratisation that inclusiveness and popular

  13. Valuation In The Constitutional Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmien du Plessis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution brought about a new compensation regime for expropriations. Compensation for expropriation must now be "just and equitable". Whereas before the Constitution came into force market value played a central role in compensation for expropriation, market value is now only one factor or aspect of compensation that the court needs to take into account. Yet we find that courts tend to focus on market value and to still employ the valuation methods used to calculate market value. This article argues that the methods used to calculate the market value, once thought to be objective, are not as objective as was believed. While it is impossible to give judges specific tools for the assessment of market value, this article provides guidelines on how the calculation of compensation should be approached.

  14. The Constitutive Power of Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Etter, Michael Andreas

    Twitter is an increasingly used new information and communication technology (ICT) in organizational settings. Predominant research, however, tends to adopt functionalist standpoints and investigates new ICTs as platforms of information transmission through which organizations interact with their......Twitter is an increasingly used new information and communication technology (ICT) in organizational settings. Predominant research, however, tends to adopt functionalist standpoints and investigates new ICTs as platforms of information transmission through which organizations interact...... with their constituents. Such focus leaves little knowledge concerning the tensions new ICTs bring to organizational life. For a more nuanced understanding of the constitutive role of new ICTs in organizing, this paper unfolds a communication centered perspective and examines the strategic Twitter use in two...... organizations. The analysis illustrates how specific Twitter interactions, i.e., hashtags, become hypertexts—a type of authoritative texts—which simultaneously constitute an organizational actor or act as a pastiche of it. The study contributes to extant research by illustrating how hypertextuality...

  15. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework.

  16. European constitution and EURATOM treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2003-01-01

    The European Council held in Laeken in December 2001 had decided to call a convention preparing the next conference of the heads of state and government which, among other topics, was to deliberate the question of a fully formulated European constitution. Under the presidency of Giscard d'Estaing, all delegates to the European Convention on July 10, 2003 signed the draft treaty for a European constitution. This final document is the basis of the conference of the heads of state and government to begin in October 2003. On this occasion, the draft of a separate chapter on energy could well come up again for examination. This chapter had been introduced only at the end of the deliberations of the convention and adds to the competences of the EU institutions. Also the Euratom Treaty was a topic of the convention preparing the constitution. As the presidency felt that no specific issues had been raised in the Laeken declaration, it is proposed to adapt the Euratom Treaty to the new provisions of the constitution by adding a protocol. This would mean that the European Atomic Energy Community, for the time being, would retain its independent legal status. The contents would have to be examined at some later date. Consequently, the real discussion of the Euratom Treaty is yet to come. Also, the speedy completion of the single market for electricity would make it desirable for the Community to adopt a uniform, positive stance in the use of nuclear power at the best possible safety standards so as to ensure a level playing field. Current events entailing power failures in the United States and the United Kingdom have alerted the public to the problem of the continuity of power supply. This could well be the beginning of a new, unbiased, balanced energy discussion in a bigger Europe. (orig.)

  17. Constitutional collisions of criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Inshakov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and resolve conflicts between the norms of constitutional and criminal law which regulate the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state. Methods formallogical systematic comparativelegal. Results the article analyzes the embodiment of the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law regarding the criminal responsibility of the President of the Russian Federation as one of the segments of the elite right other criminal and legal conflicts are considered associated with the creation of conditions for derogation from the principle of equality. Basing on this analysis the means of overcoming collisions between the norms of constitutional and criminal law are formulated. Scientific novelty in the article for the first time it has been shown that in the Russian criminal law there are exceptions to the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law relating to the President of the Russian Federation the conflicts are identified between the norms of constitutional and criminal law regulating the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state ways of overcoming conflicts are suggested. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching in the consideration of issues of senior state officialsrsquo criminal liability.

  18. Nuclear energy as reflected in Constitutional Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    1981-01-01

    The author analyses the Federal Constitutional Court's decision on the Kalkar and Muehlheim-Kaerlich reactors with regard to its content relating to the Atomic Energy Law. He examines the Atomic Energy Law within the system in which power is shared: The legal provisio of the Atomic Energy Law, the application of undetermined legal terms, the involvement of extra-legislative bodies, the statements made on residual risks. He discusses the statutory obligation of the legislator to protect, and the protection of basic rights by means of participation in procedures, the effecting of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures, the translation into action of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures and the interpretation of the elementary (simple) Atomic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court with regard to the interpreation and application of the Atomic Energy Law in conformity with the Basic Law. Finally, he gives his opinion on the practical consequences the decision will have, and on its binding effects for current and future licensing procedures. (HSCH) [de

  19. The Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional State to Respect and Support Independent Constitutional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional democracy recognises the ancient democratic principle that government of a country is based on and legitimated by the will and consent of the governed, which is determined by regular multi-party elections based on universal adult franchise. Constitutional democracy limits this principle by subjecting the democratically elected government and the will of the majority subject to a written constitution and the norms embodied in it. Such constitution is enshrined as the supreme law of the country in question. An almost universal feature of modern constitutionalism is a Bill of Rights that forms part of the Constitution and which is designed to protect and enforce individual rights principally, although not exclusively, against the state. Constitutionalism also embodies the principle of the separation of powers. A competent and independent judiciary, with the power to review all legislative and executive conduct that is inconsistent with the Constitution, is regarded, almost universally, as the prime and most effective check on the legislative and executive branches of government. Recently it has come to be realised that for the truly effective and meaningful operation of constitutionalism, other independent state institutions are necessary. The collective objective of these institutions is to ensure that the Constitution in fact produces what it proclaims: that constitutionalism becomes a way of life in all institutional structures. The South African Constitution has clearly designated the judiciary as the prime upholder and enforcer of the Constitution. The Constitution has, however, gone further and makes provision for a variety of independent state institutions whose purpose is to "strengthen constitutional democracy in the Republic". Apart from these state institutions the Constitution also makes provision for other independent bodies designed to play an important checking and balancing role. The regular effective functioning of

  20. The Normative Constitution of Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Korsgaard, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    On a naturalistic conception of agency, someone is an agent when certain of his own mental states are the cause of his movements. On a normative conception, a person constitutes his agency by following certain principles or laws. In Kant’s conception, for example, a movement counts as the agent’s own when it is chosen autonomously, that is, in accordance with the categorical imperative. To say that someone acts is to imply that his movements are a manifestation of his own activity and that it...

  1. Essence and constitution in Zubiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gómez Fernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to expound Zubiri’s concept of essence and to begin a critical discussion and evaluation of his proposal. Before explaining what essence is, it is necessary to observe that, for our author, not all things have an essence: only «reality-things» but not «meaning-things» form part of the «essentiable domain». This distinction between «reality-things» and «meaning-things» supposes a new conception of nature. (Nature is not the opposite of the artificial, as the Greek term physis is.«Reality-things» form a constitutional and «closed» system of non-causal and non-«external» characteristics or traits. These «foundational characteristics» of constitution, then, are precisely the essence. The article discusses critically the assumptions of this doctrine (reality, ontological pluralism, foundation and its possible limits in the light of contemporary science. It can be a useful theory for the philosophy of language.

  2. Unborn children as constitutional persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the state of Texas argued that "the fetus is a 'person' within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment." To which Justice Harry Blackmun responded, "If this suggestion of personhood is established, the appellant's case, of course, collapses, for the fetus' right to life would then be guaranteed specifically by the Amendment." However, Justice Blackmun then came to the conclusion "that the word 'person,' as used in the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." In this article, it is argued that unborn children are indeed "persons" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments. As there is no constitutional text explicitly holding unborn children to be, or not to be, "persons," this argument will be based on the "historical understanding and practice, the structure of the Constitution, and thejurisprudence of [the Supreme] Court." Specifically, it is argued that the Constitution does not confer upon the federal government a specifically enumerated power to grant or deny "personhood" under the Fourteenth Amendment. Rather, the power to recognize or deny unborn children as the holders of rights and duties has been historically exercised by the states. The Roe opinion and other Supreme Court cases implicitly recognize this function of state sovereignty. The states did exercise this power and held unborn children to be persons under the property, tort, and criminal law of the several states at the time Roe was decided. As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in

  3. SHORT DIGRESSION IN THE HISTORY REFERRING TO THE CONTROL OF CONSTITUTIONALITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra OANŢĂ (NACU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This short excursion in the history of the control over the constitutionality of laws in Romania, shows us that, in the period prior to 1912, in Romania, there used to be an incipient and accidental form of control of constitutionality, exercised by the Court of Cassation. Between 1912 and 1923, it was exercised by the judges from all the courts, regardless their degree, while the Constitutions from 1923 and 1938 were stipulating that only the Court of Cassation and Justice, in joint sections, had the competence to judge the constitutionality of laws. The socialist constitutions stipulated the political control over the constitutionality of laws, exercised by the Grand National Assembly, and, in 1991, the Romanian constituent legislator implemented, for the first time in Romania, the institution of the control over the constitutionality of laws, exercised by an independent and specialised jurisdictional body, appointed by the Constitutional Court.

  4. A Constitution for Danish Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, O. Perch

    This overview of the history of legislation governing the Danish library system from 1920 to the present: describes the various kinds of libraries in Denmark, explores the current controversies surrounding the roles of several supervisory library bodies, and details recent recommendations of the Danish Library Commission. (FM)

  5. The Constitutive Values of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Lacey

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive values are the characteristics that are constitutive of good theories, the criteria to which we appeal when choosing among competing theories. I argue that, in order to count as a cognitive value, a characteristic must be needed to explain actually made theory choices, and its cognitive significance must be well defended especially in view of considerations derived from the objective of science. A number of proposed objectives of science are entertained, and it is argued that adopting a par-ticular objective is dialectically intertwined with commitment to certain social values.Then, the ways in which science is, and is not value free is explored briefly, leading to the identification of a level of analysis where values may influence theory choice without causing paradox or threatening the impartiality of soundly-made scientific judgments.

  6. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Gidding, Corrie E; Loeffen, Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Mensenkamp, Arjen; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. An 8-year-old girl was diagnosed with CMMR-D syndrome after she developed a brain tumour at the age of 4 and a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 6. She had multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and died of myelodysplastic syndrome at the age of 11. In children with cancer CMMR-D syndrome can be recognized particularly if there are multiple primary malignancies and skin hyperpigmentations and hypopigmentations. The parents of these children are at high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer (Lynch syndrome), amongst others.

  7. Sasang constitutional medicine as a holistic tailored medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc

    2009-09-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i) sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii) equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii) physical features and (iv) psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids) are equivalent to the process of internal-external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  8. Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii physical features and (iv psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  9. The foundational tenets of Johannes Althusius' constitutionalism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... sovereignty, in contrast to undivided (statist) sovereignty and his views on public office provided the framework for constitutionalism and limited government which could arguably improve on that of contemporary statist constitutionalism.

  10. Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in Ethiopia: the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haramaya Law Review ... The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) under Article 104 and 105 sets ... that sets procedures to be observed in the process of constitutional amendments: both initiation and approval.

  11. The constitutional court review of judicial decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Dragan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In principle, the constitutional precepts envisage that judicial decisions are not subject to extrajudicial control. However, in the course of deciding on constitutional complaints, the Constitutional Court reviews the compliance of individual legal acts and actions of state authorities with the Constitution, including court decisions on cases involving the constitutionally guaranteed rights. Hence, in order to eliminate tension or even contradiction between the constitutional precepts, the constitutional review of judicial decisions should be considered as a special form of judicial control, regardless of the fact that the Constitutional Court is not part of the judicial structure in the strict organizational sense. Thus, unlike the cases where the Court is involved in the normative control of the applicable law, in the process of reviewing judicial decision of lower courts the constitutional judiciary acts in the capacity of a specific judicial authority. According to another possible interpretation of the aforementioned constitutional norms, the direct constitutional protection of the constitutionally guaranteed rights may only be pursued in the process of reviewing individual legal acts and actions of state authorities, but not by pursuing a judicial review of court decisions which the Constitutional Court has no jurisdiction to decide upon. Thus, the dogma of judicial independence would prevail over the dogma of direct protection of fundamental rights. The third interpretation of this relationship maintains that that judicial decisions may be subject to control but, in this specific case, the Constitutional Court may only issue an opinion (a statement rather than a binding decision which would cancel the lower court judgment. Then, it is up to the judicial authorities of the lower instance to adjust their judicial decision, which in the opinion of the Constitutional Court constitutes a violation of the constitutionally guaranteed rights

  12. Unanimous Constitutional Consent and the Immigration Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Josten, Stefan D.; Zimmermann, Klaus W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper utilizes the cross-cutting cleavages approach to evaluate the probability of a unanimous constitutional consent and, based on these results, discusses the implications of immigration on an existing constitutional consent. It is shown that previous conclusions of beneficial effects stemming from a multitude of political dimensions for a unanimous constitutional consent crucially depend on the assumption of an extreme mode of intrapersonal compensation of constitutional majority and ...

  13. Constitutional Referendums:A Theoretical Enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades the use of referendums to settle major constitutional questions has increased dramatically. Addressing this phenomenon as a case study in the relationship between democracy and constitutional sovereignty, this article has two aims.The first is to argue that these constitutional referendums are categorically different from ordinary, legislative referendums, and that this has important implications for theories of constitutional sovereignty. Secondly, the article suggests that...

  14. Analysis on constitution of American college republicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on internet survey and comparative analysis, according to the firsthand materials, comprehensively and systematically probes the formation of the constitution form and structure, and analyzes its contents of Constitution of American College Republicans among 15 colleges respectively, which includes the illustration of constitution, membership, personnel, meeting, financial amendment, etc. Finally, this essay analyzes the characteristics of constitution of college republicans and its advantages.

  15. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  16. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  17. Constitutive model for porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, A.M.; Lee, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    A simple pressure versus porosity compaction model is developed to calculate the response of granular porous bed materials to shock impact. The model provides a scheme for calculating compaction behavior when relatively limited material data are available. While the model was developed to study porous explosives and propellants, it has been applied to a much wider range of materials. The early development of porous material models, such as that of Hermann, required empirical dynamic compaction data. Erkman and Edwards successfully applied the early theory to unreacted porous high explosives using a Gruneisen equation of state without yield behavior and without trapped gas in the pores. Butcher included viscoelastic rate dependance in pore collapse. The theoretical treatment of Carroll and Holt is centered on the collapse of a circular pore and includes radial inertia terms and a complex set of stress, strain and strain rate constitutive parameters. Unfortunately data required for these parameters are generally not available. The model described here is also centered on the collapse of a circular pore, but utilizes a simpler elastic-plastic static equilibrium pore collapse mechanism without strain rate dependence, or radial inertia terms. It does include trapped gas inside the pore, a solid material flow stress that creates both a yield point and a variation in solid material pressure with radius. The solid is described by a Mie-Gruneisen type EOS. Comparisons show that this model will accurately estimate major mechanical features which have been observed in compaction experiments

  18. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.

  19. Constitution and anthropometric parameters in indigenous population of Southern Altai Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayapin, V S; Schmidt, I R; Podkhomutnikova, O V; Van, V Ch; Van, L V; Malevik, V F; Zhestikova, M G

    2003-03-01

    Analysis of anthropometric parameters of 645 indigenous residents of Southern Altai Mountains belonging to two subethnic groups (165 Telengites and 480 Altai-Kizhi) revealed constitutional characteristics distinguishing these groups from each other and from Europeans. Differences in body length and weight, distribution by constitution types, sexual dimorphism, and AB0 blood groups were detected. The specific features of constitution together with environmental factors can determine predisposition of individuals belonging of these subethnic groups to some diseases.

  20. Change of position of constitutional judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional judiciary is the youngest branch of authority in the horizontal level of state power. Constitutional judiciary has, during its existence - during two centuries as an ordinary court and during one century as a special authority, changed its position, role and importance. Those characteristics of constitutional judiciary had an increasing way - the position became better, in political and law sense, its role has expanded and the importance has increased. Today, constitutional judiciary is an inevitable subject of constitutional regimes in huge number of states (between them are almost all federations but, in the same time, constitutional judiciary is an authority which is at least limited by the constitution. The constitution is "soft" to the constitutional judiciary because the judiciary interpreted the constitution in accordance to its political and law attitudes, hidden by the guise of protection. Different separation of power, a rise of executive power, requests for better protections of fundamental human rights, a changed role of state and executive power, altogether, have influenced to change of position of constitutional judiciary.

  1. The Australian Constitution and the Aid/Watch Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Williams

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Constitution played a significant role in underpinning the result in the Aid/Watch Case. It was invoked by the majority to support their conclusion that a body can be a ‘charitable institution’ despite engaging in political activities. The use of the Constitution in this way came as a surprise. The case extended an existing constitutional principle relating to freedom of political communication from its electoral base into the protection of the political activities of non-government organisations. This may have future ramifications for those organisations in other areas, as well as further implications for the development of what it means to be a charity in Australia. This article examines the use of the Australian Constitution in the Aid/Watch Case. It explains how the High Court was able to invoke the Constitution in defining what it means to be a ‘charitable institution’. It also examines the implications of that reasoning for the development of charitable law in Australia.

  2. On internal constitution of Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    Jupiter internal construction is considered. The density and pressure inside a cosmic body can be calculated from the known values of the mass and radius. For Jupiter, the inertia moment calculated from the motion of the satellites permits to determine the degree of uniformity of its structure and to find more precise values of density and pressure in the center of the planet. In assumption that the matter of Jupiter consists of hydrogen only, the dependence of pressure on temperature was calculated with accounting for the degeneracy of gas and electrostatic interactions. Hence the central temperature, calculated from pressure and density, appears to be equal to 165.000 deg K. At the thermal conductivity by free electrons such a temperature at the center is to result in a thermal flux of about 1.0x10 4 erg/cm 2 from Jupiter's surface, which was observed during the flights of the ''Pioneer'' stations

  3. The comparative constitutional law on national constitutional system: with regard to the IX World Congress of Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Landa Arroyo, César

    2015-01-01

    From  the  process  of  globalization  of  law,  the  comparative constitutional law has gained a leading role for a better understanding and solving old and new constitutional national and international challenges. Therefore, some assumptions and considerations to take into account are presented for the development of the national constitutional order within the framework of the comparative constitutional law, such as universality and relativism of human rights; the concept of power and cons...

  4. Childrens' Rights in the South African Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Robinson

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Children were in many respects defenceless victims of discriminatory practices in ‘apartheid South Africa’. In fact, discrimination on the basis of gender, race and other inequalities were inscribed in the social fabric of the previous constitutional dispensation. The constitutional dispensation that came into effect on the 27th April 1994 was therefore designed to innovate social, political and legal structures that would be radically different from those of the country’s past history.In this contribution the impact of the Constitution upon the rights of children are considered. In order to fathom the impact. a general overview of constitutional principles and provisions necessary for the comprehension of the rights of children is provided. Thereafter the rights of children expressly mentioned in the Constitution will be addressed. Attention is also paid to the equal protection and non-discrimination provisions of the Constitution, albeit only indirectly.

  5. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been ...

  6. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L) in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position), the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competi...

  7. Complexities of Constitutional Change in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Cheryl; Yusingco, Michael Henry

    2018-01-01

    President Rodrigo Duterte assumed office in July 2016, His party, PDP-Laban, had campaigned under the slogan: “No to Drugs, Yes to Federalism”. Duterte thus is committed to shepherding the Philippines towards a federal form of government; an undertaking that would require an extensive overhaul of the country’s constitution. The future of constitutional change under Duterte in any event is uncertain for a series of constitutional and political reasons. Critically, some of the most pressing of ...

  8. Human Rights in Indonesian Constitutional Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Kharlie, Ahmad Tholabi

    2013-01-01

    Human Rights in Indonesian Constitutional Amendments. Indonesian constitutional amendments incorporated human rights principles into the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia 1945 (UUD NRI), especially in the second amendment in 2000. Under that amendment, the UUD NRI currently stipulates human rights principles as provided for in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). However, there are some important notes, which at its core is a lack of emphasis on the vision and mission of ...

  9. Constitutionalism and Democracy in Contemporary International Community

    OpenAIRE

    Padjen, Ivan

    1992-01-01

    Starting from the insight that jurisprudence of legal theory should be concerned primarily with,on the one hand, international law, and, on the other, constitutional developments, the paper; analyzes some prominent conceptions of constitutionalism and democracy in international community and municipal legal orders; formulates a new set of criteria for the analysis of constitutionalism and democracy in international law; and argues that Laswell and McDougal's policy oriented jurisprudence offe...

  10. Atypical Rulings of the Indonesian Constitutional Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisariyadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In deciding judicial review cases, the Court may issue rulings that is not in accordance to what is stipulated in the Constitutional Court Law (Law Number 8 Year 2011. Atypical rulings means that the court may reconstruct a provision, delay the legislation/rulings enactment or give instruction to lawmakers. In addition, the court also introduce the “conditionally (unconstitutional” concept. This essay attempts to identify and classify these atypical rulings, including conditionally (un constitutional rulings, by examined the constitutional court judicial review rulings from 2003 to 2015. This study will provide a ground work for advance research on typical rulings by the Indonesian constitutional court.

  11. Culture (and religion in constitutional adjudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rautenbach

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, socio-economic and cultural considerations on the constitutional court’s interpretation and application of the Bill of Rights. The second aim is to develop practical guidelines (based on the findings during the analysing process for South African courts confronted with issues of a political, socio-economic and cultural nature. This article is concerned with initiating discussions of the decisions of the constitutional court with regard to cultural and religious rights.Before we can explore the role of political, socio-economic and cultural (and religious rights in the decisions of the constitutional court it is important to discuss a few preliminary issues. In this article the meaning of culture and religion within the South African context receives some attention. Secondly, some preliminary comments regarding constitutional protection of culturally and religiously based rights will be made.We are well aware that this is a daunting task, not only in view of the seemingly abysmal gap between the applicable constitutional rights and values enshrined in the 1996 Constitution that, in some instances over centuries, brought about customs and practices within “traditional” communities which, seemingly, infringe on certain constitutional values and rights.

  12. National Constitutional Avenues for Further EU Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Claes, M.; Imamovic, Š.; Reestman, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates national constitutional limits to further EU integration and explores ways to overcome them. It includes an in-depth examination of the constitutional systems of 12 Member States (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the

  13. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point t...

  14. Constitutional provisions regarding juristic persons | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interim Constitution of 1993 and the final Constitution of 1996 contain specific provisions applicable to juristic persons. Juristic persons are also entitled to the fundamental rights contained in the Bill of Rights to the extent that these rights are applicable to them. It must be kept in mind that juristic persons have peculiar ...

  15. Public and Constitutional Support for Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessels, Gordon G.; Boyd, Stephen M.

    1996-01-01

    Character education thrives on an informed understanding of constitutional principles and an inclusive commitment-building process. U.S. Supreme Court opinions that clarify public school students' free speech rights have established values education as a constitutionally acceptable practice. Challenges might lie in possible violations of the First…

  16. Constitutional relevance of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettow, S.

    1980-01-01

    In a decision publicized on December 20, 1979 the German Federal Constitutional Court rejected a claim of unconstitutionality in connection with the licensing procedure of the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently under construction. This constitutes confirmation, by the 1st Department of the Court, of a decision in 1978 by the 2nd Department about the Kalkar fast breeder power plant, in which the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy had been found to be constitutional. However, the new decision by the Federal Constitutional Court particularly emphasizes the constitutional relevance of the rules of procedure under the Atomic Energy Act and their function with respect to the protection of civil rights. (orig.) [de

  17. Body: presence and transience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Andrés Comandú

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We conceive presence as an event that takes place in the body and among the bodies. In the work of making themselves present, the performer creates a territory-body of habitability/inter-penetration of states, actions, thoughts, voices, sonorities; a body-space with multiple trajectories, withdrawn and projected from its own existence/subjectivity, extended in other matters and exposed to other odies/subjects/objects. We regard the performer’s body as an intense, outstretched, and expanded body. We deal with these categories from the standpoint of various practices and conceptualizations of body and event, in order to reflect on the constitution/construction of presence in performance.

  18. Constitution of traditional chinese medicine and related factors in women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Yu Jiang

    2018-04-01

    education, and dietary education, especially during the women who do not have a medical condition and those who have related factors found in this study. Keywords: Body constitution, Chinese traditional medicine, Preconception care, Risk factors, Women

  19. Constitutional Politics, Constitutional Texts and Democratic Variety in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Blokker, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, it is argued that democratization in Central and Eastern Europe involves important forms of differentiation of democracy, rather than merely convergence to a singular – liberal-democratic, constitutional - model. One way of taking up democratic differentiation in post-communist societies is by analysing the constitutional documents of the new democratic orders, and the constitutional politics leading to the foundational documents. In a first step, the paper analyses constitution...

  20. On the Constitution and the Constitutions in Contemporary Egypt (2011-2014: Analysis and Early Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Castañeda Reyes

    2016-01-01

    world witnessed, a testament to what massive popular participation can attain. We believe the Constitution has true potential to guide the forces of change in the country. Therefore, the struggle for “bread, freedom, social justice and human dignity” will continue and is actually continuing in the Nile country via constitutional and non-constitutional means.

  1. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been and are institutions of our capital social and democratic state of law.

  2. Elastic-plastic constitutive modeling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    1983-03-01

    The need to understand concrete behavior under high temperatures in the nuclear industry has become rather accute. For this purpose, a constitutive model of concrete especially developed for this severe environment is indispensable. This report reviews the presently available constitutive models of concrete at standard-temperature conditions and considers their advantages and drawbacks. A rather simple but effective approach is selected to treat concrete behavior at high temperatures. Special emphasis is devoted to the modeling of concrete up to and including failure. The derived constitutive model is checked with biaxial and triaxial benchmark experimental results. Very good agreement is obtained

  3. Constitutive relations for nuclear reactor core materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaverl, F. Jr.; Lee, D.

    1978-01-01

    A strain rate dependent constitutive equation is proposed which is capable of describing inelastic deformation behavior of anisotropic metals, such as Zircaloys, under complex loading conditions. The salient features of the constitutive equations are that they describe history dependent inelastic deformation behaviour of anisotropic metals under three-dimensional stress states in the presence of fast neutron flux. It is shown that the general form of the constitutive relations is consistent with experimental observations made under both unirradiated and irradiated conditions. The utility of the model is demonstrated by examining the analytical results obtained for a segment of tubing undergoing different loading histories in a reactor. (Auth.)

  4. Constitutional problems in the handling of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papier, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    In principle the decision between direct storage and reprocessing comes into the scope of regulation by the first or second power, resp., reserved for them according to the constitutional principle of necessity. The author thinks that a possibly increased hazard potential might result in increased protection requirements or protection measures as envisaged by the licensing preconditions of the Atomic Energy Law and those of other normative protection regulations. This is no issue of constitutional jurisdiction but of political intent and technical-economic capabilities whether or not certain technologies are precluded a prior or permitted and implemented at a safety level satisfying the specific constitutional protection requirements. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position, the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competition behaviors. Always the Antitrust Authority will analyze these behaviors in terms of welfare of both: the consumer and the market.

  6. Rumex acetosa Y chromosomes: constitutive or facultative heterochromatin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiołek, Magdalena; Pasierbek, Paweł; Malarz, Janusz; Moś, Maria; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

    2005-01-01

    Condensed Y chromosomes in Rumex acetosa L. root-tip nuclei were studied using 5-azaC treatment and immunohistochemical detection of methylated histones. Although Y chromosomes were decondensed within root meristem in vivo, they became condensed and heteropycnotic in roots cultured in vitro. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) treatment of cultured roots caused transitional dispersion of their Y chromosome bodies, but 7 days after removal of the drug from the culture medium, Y heterochromatin recondensed and again became visible. The response of Rumex sex chromatin to 5-azaC was compared with that of condensed segments of pericentromeric heterochromatin in Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Steam roots. It was shown that Rhoeo chromocentres, composed of AT-rich constitutive heterochromatin, did not undergo decondensation after 5-azaC treatment. The Y-bodies observed within male nuclei of R. acetosa were globally enriched with H3 histone, demethylated at lysine 4 and methylated at lysine 9. This is the first report of histone tail-modification in condensed sex chromatin in plants. Our results suggest that the interphase condensation of Y chromosomes in Rumex is facultative rather than constitutive. Furthermore, the observed response of Y-bodies to 5-azaC may result indirectly from demethylation and the subsequent altered expression of unknown genes controlling tissue-specific Y-inactivation as opposed to the global demethylation of Y-chromosome DNA.

  7. Interpretative decisions in the practice of the Constitutional Court of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the Constitutional Court and Parliament is marked by envolving process. The desired balance between these two state bodies was gradually disturbed by the Constitutional Court. Consequently, the substrate of the constitutional function originally designed as a function of 'negative legislator' is also changed in that process. Interpretative decision is one of the model of the activity of the Constitutional Court which makes questionable the position of the Parliament as a state body which regulates social relations in original form. Interpretative decision is an specific form of rejected decisions that contains binding instruction regading the interpretation of the norm, as a condition. This interpretation is given by Constitutional Court in order to make the norm in accordance with the Constitution. By the analysis of the practice of the Constitutional Court of Serbia, the paper has a task to determine wheter, to what extend and in what form the interpretative decisions occur in the work of the Court as well as to determine is there a clear constitutional base for establishing the jurisdiction of their adoption in our legal system.

  8. Dynamic constitutional frameworks for DNA biomimetic recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Romina; Barboiu, Mihail; Moleavin, Ioana; Clima, Lilia; Rotaru, Alexandru; Ursu, Elena-Laura; Pinteala, Mariana

    2015-02-07

    Linear and cross-linked dynamic constitutional frameworks generated from reversibly interacting linear PEG/core constituents and cationic sites shed light on the dominant coiling versus linear DNA binding behaviours, closer to the histone DNA binding wrapping mechanism.

  9. Constitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Khan, A.

    2010-01-01

    A physically based, macroscale constitutive model has been developed that can describe the complex mechanical behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steels. In the developed model a generalized model for the mechanically induced martensitic transformation is introduced. Mechanical tests have

  10. Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers: The Medical ... and Dental Practitioners Act. This process of administrative adjudication is ... the rights guaranteed to the professionals when they appear before the Tribunal.

  11. Constitutive properties of salt from four sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.; Senseny, P.E.

    1983-04-01

    Results are presented from laboratory strength and creep tests performed on salt specimens from the Richton dome in Mississippi, the Vacherie dome in Louisiana, the Permian basin in Texas, and the Paradox basin in Utah. The constitutive properties obtained are the elastic moduli and the failure envelope at 24 0 C and parameter values for the baseline creep law. Some additional data are presented to indicate how the elastic moduli and strength change with temperature. The constitutive properties given in this report and subsequent numerical simulations will serve as input to the screening of site locations for a nuclear-waste repository. The matrix of tests performed is the minimum effort required to obtain these constitutive properties. Comparison of results with those obtained for sites that have been characterized in greater detail suggests that the constitutive parameter values obtained are adequate for site-screening activity

  12. Democracy, Citizen Sovereignty and Constitutional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an exercise in conceptual clarification. Its purpose is to explore the contribution that constitutional economics can make to the theory of democracy. Constitutional economics as the economics of rules is concerned with the study of how the choice of rules in the social, economic and political realm affects the nature of the processes of human interaction that evolve within these rules. The theory of democracy is concerned with institutionalorganizational problems of self-govern...

  13. On the constitutionality of dose limiting values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, V.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental right according to Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the German Constitution is relevant for the set-up and application of radiation protection law. Resulting from Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution it is a general obligation of the state to protect life (Federal Constitutional Court, judgment of 25th Feb., 1975, BVerfGE 39.1) and physical soundness. The subjective basic right of everybody to defend against official encroachments his personal integrity corresponds to the right of the individual within the framework of the official obligation for protection from the state (to ward off danger). The term of danger, as to the degree of its determination, corresponds to that of the encroachment. To speak of danger in a legal sense, the causal connection between a certain source of danger and certain damage must be ascertained and proved. Topical controversies as to the admissibility of activity discharges of low doses range in the field of risk reduction and thus in the field of the duty of the state to take precautionary steps against risks (Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution). The constitution, however, does not contain any basic right that every risk has to be avoided. On the other hand, the necessity of cautions valuation of radiation risks can be derived from the Constitution. The fixation of dose limits and their application in connection with general radiation protection principles (paragraph 28 E of the Radiation Protection Ordinance) do not contain any 'interference' with the basic right in the sense of Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 3 of the Constitution. Neither from aspects of the principle of the legal state nor from Art. 80 par. 1 of the Constitution can the use of the legal form of the Ordinance be doubted. (orig./HP) [de

  14. A constitutional economics perspective on soft paternalism

    OpenAIRE

    Schnellenbach, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Using a framework that distinguishes short-term consumer preferences, individual reflective preferences and political preferences, we discuss from a constitutional economics perspective whether individuals find it in their common constitutional interest to endow representatives and bureaucrats with the competence to impose soft paternalist policies. The focus is specifically on soft paternalist policies, because these often work with non-transparent 'nudges' that are considered as manipulativ...

  15. How do the Constitutional Courts decide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Pasquino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the mode of production of judicial sentences drafted by constitutional courts in Europe. The natural object of study of the constitutional theory is the analysis of this final product of judicial creation of Law by Constitutional Courts. However, the doctrine has not given sufficient attention –from a comparative law perspective– to the mechanisms and procedures that lead to the decisions of these institutions. Thus, this document will classify the different types of decision-making processes in the courts, analyzing the stages that make up the «mode of production», from the study of the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States, the Constitutional Council of the French Republic, The Constitutional Court of Italy and the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. At the end of the paper, some conclusions are made about the period of the magistrates, their party affiliation, the temporary restrictions of deliberation and institutional factors such as the number of attendees or the personalization of its members.

  16. Urgency of Attorney Governed by the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommy Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attorney existence in the Indonesian constitutional structure has a dilemma for this position. On one side is the Prosecutor’s law enforcement agencies to exercise power independently prosecution while on the other hand is part of a government institution under Law No. 16 of 2004 regarding the Attorney. The position of Attorney as an institution of government has been led to the independence of the Prosecutor is not optimal so that it appears stigma that the Prosecutor merely as a tool of the ruling power. In addition the terms of the arrangement just under the Act, the Attorney General has no legal standing as a constitutional organ that has the constitutional authority so that the current position does not reflect the urgency of its duties and functions. In an effort to organize the next Attorney institutions should be regulated directly by the Constitution. It is intended to make the Attorney as part of the main state organs have the same legal standing as other law enforcement agencies, the police and the courts (Supreme Court and Constitutional Court. As well as to strengthen and clarify the position as a state institution, prosecution authorities are focusing on the Attorney as central of authority, to fix the institutional relations between the members of law enforcement and related agencies and strengthen the independence of the Prosecutor in performing the function of prosecution in the constitutional structure of Indonesia.

  17. Separation of powers and constitutional loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta SAFTA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and dynamics of political life leads to developments and reconsiderations in terms of classical theories of constitutional law. Such a process occurs also in the case of separation of powers. Many factors have a bearing on how this theory is currently translated into practice, which requires additional perspectives of analysis in order to develop improved models of cooperation and balance of powers, according to new political realities. This study aims at examining the principle of separation and balance of powers in terms of mutual respect and loyal cooperation between institutions, or, in a broader sense, of constitutional loyalty, an intrinsic value-principle of all constitutions, without which no fundamental law, no matter of how democratic it might be, could function properly2. Based on examination of concrete cases drawn from the case-law of the Constitutional Court of Romania, the study demonstrates that, in lack of constitutional loyalty, the objective pursued by enshrining the principle of separation of powers cannot be achieved effectively, i.e. compliance of public authorities and political actors with constitutional provisions is purely formal and the alleged collaboration between them is a "dialogue of the deaf" at the expense of democracy. The seriousness of the consequences of this type of behaviour requires identification of remedies. What are the limits and what solutions can be identified in this regard are questions that also we aim to answer.

  18. Researching the body – the body in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Andersen, Beate

    2017-01-01

    This paper reflects on themes relevant to scholars doing ethnographic work in empirical settings highly focused on bodily practice. Reflections are presented on what type of material the use of the body in ethnographic fieldwork can lead to and what considerations and restrains it entails, includes...... norms are constituted through and in the body of military subjects....

  19. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  20. COUNTERMAJORITARIAN INSTITUTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1993 AS AN INSTRUMENT ENSURING CONSTITUTIONAL AND POLITICAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shakhray

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article enriches the discussion on the legal reasons and conditions fostering the viability of democratic constitutions by analyzing the rich experience of the Russian Constitution of 1993. Particular attention is paid to the concept of countermajoritarian institutions. The authors elaborate the idea that countermajoritarian institutions can play an important role in ensuring the viability (put in other terms, the proper balance between stability, adaptability, and dynamic development of modern democratic constitutions as well as political regimes.The article presents evidence-based data showing that the President and the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation systematically acted as countermajoritarian institutions at the initial stage of the implementation of the “blueprint for the future” set down in the 1993 Russian Constitution. As a result of the activities of these institutions, strong legal frameworks were created that are necessary for the establishment of anew constitutional system of the Russian state and law.Today, the Russian Constitution of 1993 is one of the longest lasting democratic constitutions in the world (the average “life expectancy” of democratic constitutions adopted over the past 250 years is about seventeen years. The study of the countermajoritarian provisions in the 1993 Russian Constitution is of both theoretical and practical importance. In particular, the results of the study can be useful in creating efficient legal instruments for the maintenance of political stability and social development management both within sovereign states and within interstate communities.

  1. Constitutive modeling of salt behavior: State of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Wawersik, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The modern investigation of the thermomechanical behavior of salt started in the mid-1930's and, for what appears to be a very narrow discipline, ''salt mechanics'' has acquired considerable technical depth and sophistication. The last three decades have been especially productive in constitutive model development and laboratory investigations of time-dependent creep behavior. This has been largely due ot anticipated use of domal or bedded salt deposits as sites for radioactive waste repositories and to expanded need for hydrocarbon and feedback storage caverns. Salt is an interesting material, in that it is ''metal-like''; and, therefore, constitutive modeling can draw upon a large body of metal deformation information to arrive at appropriate models of behavior. Testing apparatus and methods have centered on either uniaxial or triaxial compression to obtain steady state and transient creep responses. Flow and fracture potentials have been defined. Validation attempts of the models against field data, although limited, have proved promising. The objective here is to summarize the state-of-the-technology of the constitutive modeling of salt behavior or ''salt mechanics.''

  2. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  3. Nuclear energy and the constitutional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saladin, P.

    1984-01-01

    This article puts the main emphasis on the problems of the constitutional principles of democracy, federalism, peaceful living together of peoples and constitutional state, i.e. problems caused by the development of nuclear energy. The fact that these problems are explained by way of the example of Switzerland, does not reduce the validity of the findings also for the German constitutional system, since the problems are identical and comparable. A long-term goal is a state theory which helps to define the aims and tasks of the state under technical, social, economic and cultural conditions of the end of the 20th and perhaps of the 21st century. Nuclear technology challenges the modern Western state and puts to the test the firmness of its legitimacy basis and the efficiency of its principles. It was conceived in a time which is separated from the present by technological revolutions. Safeguarding of humanity is aim and obligation of the modern constitutional state; the constitutional state stipulates the rules of conduct and, if the state remains true to its claim, it sets the procedures and the organization which give due priority order to the development of modern technology. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  5. Constitutional Fundamentals of Conscription and Some Aspects of the Ordinary Legal Regulation of Constitutionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenstavičienė Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 139 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania is one of the constitutional fundamentals of state defense and stipulates the defense of the state as the right of citizens on the one hand and the duty on the other. This article of the Constitution gives the legislative power the right of discretion to detail by law the order of the implementation of citizens’ duty to perform military or alternative country defense service. Due to the reorganization of the armed forces into a professional and volunteer army, the issue of some ordinary regulation rules concerning the constitutionality of nationwide conscription, though at present suspended but not abolished, is becoming urgent. Though the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania presented their ruling on the constitutionality of the suspension of military conscription, it does not mean that all problems related to conscription have been settled. The aim of this article is to analyze the constitutional basis of nationwide conscription as well as the constitutionality of some ordinary regulation provisions related to nationwide conscription. Therefore, the issue to be analyzed is whether nationwide conscription, if it were to be implemented, complies with the constitutional principles of human equality and military justice1. Consequently, the question is posed how the constitutional objective of ensuring the defense of the state determines conscription. Because of the growing employment of the army abroad, yet the dwindling demand for conscripts, it should be explored whether the suspension of the nationwide conscription as a part of the defense reform is further feasible in order to guarantee the defense of the state. In answering the raised questions, the author will analyze the abundant and long-lasting constitutional doctrine of Germany which provides clarifications of the Basic Law, as the legal act of the establishing power, which can doubtless be of assistance in

  6. The constitutional momentum of European contract law (II): The DCFR and the European constitutional order

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential impact of the recently published Draft Common Frame of Reference for European contract law (DCFR) on the European constitutional process. Looking at the combination of characteristics of codification and aspects of constitutionalism reflected in the DCFR, it is submitted that the further harmonisation of European contract law may contribute to the definition of the European constitutional order both on the institutional level (regarding the forms in which Eur...

  7. Constitutive equations for Zr1Nb. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    1986-01-01

    Based on existing knowledge and constitutive equations for non-irradiated material, constitutive equations were written for Zr1Nb irradiated at 573 K at deformation in the direction of forming. Constitutive equations express the following material characteristics: dependence of shear strength on fast neutron fluence, superposition of deformation hardening and subsequent radiation hardening, the effect of stress on deformation rate, and for fluences above ca. 10 24 n.m -2 (E>1 MeV) the course of the deformation curve for various fluence levels. The values apply for temperatures and rates of deformation which are characteristic of transient processes during changes in the power output of fuel elements of pressurized water reactors. (J.B.)

  8. Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Deuk Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.

  9. Constitutional overhaul of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmire Lumani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a scientific study that aims at analyzing the overhaul of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia in the Albanian Constitution. Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia is a representative body of citizens and the bearer of legislative power in the Republic. It is a unicameral body. Its status and its activity is regulated by the Constitution and special laws on Parliament. The Republic of Macedonia is a unitary state, with a multiethnic society. The population is made up, by two ethnic groups, Macedonians and Albanians. In the Republic of Macedonia are included the minority of Turks, Serbs, Vlachs, Romas, Bosniaks and others. As a result of many minorities and 2 ethnic groups, the structure of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, which is unicameral, does not respond and fit into the actual reality of the country. Therefore, changes should be made to this regard. This reality requires also a federalization of the Republic of Macedonia by guaranteeing the freedom and the right of self-determination of both majority groups, in this case Macedonians and Albanians. It should be noted, that the Republic of Macedonia, is divided into six electoral districts, with unequal numbers of voters and in this sense, changes in the Electoral Code should be undertaken.

  10. The U.S. Constitution in Today's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    A comparative study of constitutions and governments in world history is a key to deeper understanding of the U.S. Constitution. While many countries have constitutions, the United States is among a minority of nations in today's world that has a constitutional government. Many nations' constitutions truly guarantee few protections of individual…

  11. Bone mineral density comparison of adolescents with constitutional thinness and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray

    2018-04-25

    The negative impact of anorexia nervosa (AN) on bone health is well defined. However, there are very few studies evaluating the effect of constitutional thinness on bone health, especially in the adolescent period and in the male gender. The aim of this study is to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of adolescents with AN and with constitutional thinness. Between April 2013 and March 2014, 40 adolescents with AN and 36 adolescents with constitutional thinness participated in the study. The femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean lumbar z and BMD scores of adolescents with constitutional thinness were significantly lower than in adolescents with AN, whereas the mean femoral z and BMD scores were not significantly different. When males were compared separately, lumbar z and BMD values of the constitutionally thin group were found to be significantly lower than in the AN group. This difference was not significant for females. The difference between the male and female results of our study suggested two hypotheses. The significantly lower BMD values in constitutionally thin boys are attributed to their longer duration of low body mass index (BMI). Although the duration of low BMI is also longer for constitutionally thin girls, similar BMD values of AN and constitutionally thin female groups are attributed to the additional negative impact of estrogen deficiency on the bone health of girls with AN.

  12. Preliminary Validation of Composite Material Constitutive Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; Athanasios lliopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Adrian C. Orifici; Rodney S. Thomson

    2012-01-01

    This paper is describing the preliminary results of an effort to validate a methodology developed for composite material constitutive characterization. This methodology involves using massive amounts of data produced from multiaxially tested coupons via a 6-DoF robotic system called NRL66.3 developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The testing is followed by...

  13. The parameters of constitutional conflict after Melloni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The judgment of the Court of Justice of the EU in Melloni makes clear that primacy of EU law is not about citizens’ rights: even the core of their constitutional rights under national law has to be set aside in favour of the "primacy, unity and effectiveness" of EU law. Melloni extends the duty to

  14. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  15. generalized constitutive model for stabilized quick clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUICK CLAY. PANCRAS MUGISHAGWE BUJULU AND GUSTAV GRIMSTAD. ABSTRACT. An experimentally-based two yield surface constitutive model for cemented quick clay has been ... Clay Model, the Koiter Rule and two Mapping Rules. .... models, where a mobilization formulation is used, this is independent of q.

  16. Constitutive modelling of sandvik 1RK91

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Datta, K.; Hommes, M.; Post, J.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Beyer, J.; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J

    2003-01-01

    A physically based constitutive equation is being developed for the maraging stainless steel Sandvik 1RK91. The steel is used to make precision parts. These parts are formed through multistage forming operations and heat treatments from cold rolled and annealed sheets. The specific alloy is designed

  17. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  18. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  19. Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom and the right to food. Danie Brand. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  20. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  1. The Air Force Officer and the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    2. Enumerated Powers 3. Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances C. Ways to amend the U.S. Constitution D. The elements of the U.S...the courts ▪ judicial 14. What stops one branch of government from becoming too powerful? ▪ checks and balances ▪ separation of powers 15. Who

  2. Sub-national constitutions in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    practice.9 Consequently, the reference to the practice is merely tangential and is intended for ... ico, and Malaysia, from among others. See James A. .... ereignty and the principle of self-rule that constitutes an aspect of federal ..... ernment, to levy and collect state taxes on their own revenue sources, to es- tablish and ...

  3. Culture (and religion) in constitutional adjudication | Rautenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, ...

  4. A model for TRIP steel constitutive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Menari, G

    2011-01-01

    A constitutive model is developed for TRIP steel. This is a steel which contains three or four different phases in its microstructure. One of the phases in TRIP steels is metastable austenite (Retained Austenite) which transforms to martensite upon deformation. The accompanying transformation strain

  5. The Anatomy of a Constitutional Tort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jeffrey J.

    1988-01-01

    Given state law barriers to recovery for the negligence of public officials, redress is often sought in federal courts. Discusses the concept of "constitutional tort" and analyzes the various components and the elements that must be satisfied before recovery is allowed. (MLF)

  6. Government and Ethics: The Constitutional Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossum, Ralph A.

    1984-01-01

    Government and ethics teachers should educate students in the "wholesale sanity" of American democracy. In particular they should (1) identify and defend the principles of the American constitutional order, (2) criticize government actions departing from these principles, and (3) seek means by which to correct for these departures. (RM)

  7. 118 CONSTITUTIONALISM AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    existence of a constitution in an autocratic regime, such regime can never be a .... in a democratic system posits that 'the ethical responsibility of leadership and ..... civil rule, it is believed that we shall soon get to that stage of western style of.

  8. Public health and the Australian Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C

    1995-06-01

    The powers vested in the Commonwealth Government by the Constitution contain the basis of much public health law in Australia. Yet this is not often recognised; public health law is generally, and historically, seen as the states' responsibility. This article surveys the broad range of constitutional powers that the Commonwealth Government can rely upon to make public health laws. It considers areas of power specified in the Constitution, such as those with respect to external affairs and corporations. Decisions of the High Court have interpreted the various heads of power very broadly and have significantly enhanced the potential of the Commonwealth to pass detailed and far-reaching public health law. To this fact must be added the taxation arrangements in Australia and, with these, the very extensive control that the Commonwealth can exercise through its monopoly of major taxation sources. Its power to make financial arrangements can tie dependent states into specific policies (including public health policies) as a condition of the grants made to them. However, these broad powers may be limited in some important respects: the High Court is increasingly identifying rights and freedoms in the Constitution that may increasingly bring both state and Commonwealth public health law under challenge. Despite this possibility, the Commonwealth may prove to be our most significant source of public health law, and public health policy makers should recognise the full potential of its power to make such laws.

  9. James Madison and the Constitutional Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Part 1 of this three-part article traces James Madison's life and focuses primarily on those events that prepared him for leadership in the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787. It describes his early love of learning, education, and public service efforts. Part 2 chronicles Madison's devotion to study and preparation prior to the Constitutional…

  10. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  11. Constitutional values, therapeutic jurisprudence and legal education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... they have the power to transform thoughts, policies and lives, and that practising law is ... The values and philosophies that law lecturers instil in law students can ... The question remains: How do we transform legal education in South Africa? ... to our constitutional vales and an ability to engage critically with these values.

  12. Learning from the EU Constitutional Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crum, B.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The negative results of referenda on the European Union (EU) Constitutional Treaty in France and the Netherlands, and subsequent low-key adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon raise complex questions about the possible democratization of international organisations. This book provides a full analysis of

  13. Constitutional Due Process and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uerling, Donald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses substantive and procedural due process as required by the United States Constitution and interpreted by the Supreme Court, with particular reference to situations arising in educational environments. Covers interests protected by due process requirements, the procedures required, and some special considerations that may apply. (PGD)

  14. Constitutive equations for two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, J.A.

    1974-12-01

    The mathematical model of a system of fluids consists of several kinds of equations complemented by boundary and initial conditions. The first kind equations result from the application to the system, of the fundamental conservation laws (mass, momentum, energy). The second kind equations characterize the fluid itself, i.e. its intrinsic properties and in particular its mechanical and thermodynamical behavior. They are the mathematical model of the particular fluid under consideration, the laws they expressed are so called the constitutive equations of the fluid. In practice the constitutive equations cannot be fully stated without reference to the conservation laws. Two classes of model have been distinguished: mixture model and two-fluid models. In mixture models, the mixture is considered as a single fluid. Besides the usual friction factor and heat transfer correlations, a single constitutive law is necessary. In diffusion models, the mixture equation of state is replaced by the phasic equations of state and by three consitutive laws, for phase change mass transfer, drift velocity and thermal non-equilibrium respectively. In the two-fluid models, the two phases are considered separately; two phasic equations of state, two friction factor correlations, two heat transfer correlations and four constitutive laws are included [fr

  15. The Constitution of a Transnational Policy Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Erik; Frankel, Christian

    is dependent on an inter-organizational coordination between the EU and ESO. Applying the analytical concept of a `policy field' the analysis shows how the completion of the internal market fundamentally challenges institutionalized conceptions of the role of politics in constituting markets.Keywords: Internal...... market, policy field, technical standards, transnationalization, new approach harmonization, private product policy...

  16. Book Review: Against the New Constitutionalism | Venter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... Abstract. Book Title: Against the New Constitutionalism. Book Author: Tamas Gyorfi. Edward Elgar Publishing Cheltenham, UK 2016. ISBN 9781783473007 ...

  17. Optimizing culture medium for debittering constitutive enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient requirements for extracellular constitutive naringinase production by Aspergillus oryzae JMU316. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to determine the impact of different carbon and nitrogen sources on naringinase production. Naringin exhibited the highest ...

  18. Constitutive Modeling for Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlat, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews aspects of the plastic behaviour common in sheet metals. Macroscopic and microscopic phenomena occurring during plastic deformation are described succinctly. Constitutive models of plasticity suitable for applications to forming, are discussed in a very broad manner. Approaches to plastic anisotropy are described in a somewhat more detailed manner

  19. What Constitutes Fair Compensation for Unfair Dismissal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Professor, School of Business Leadership,. University of South ... towards its employees, especially in the light of the constitutionally protected right to dignity. The protection of fundamental freedoms such as gender equality, the right to dignity and the .... dismissal is provided for in terms of section 186(1)(e) of the LRA. 17.

  20. The negotiation of The Constitution of Romania of 1923 and The Constitution of Romania of 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona-Arina Raef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the author is trying to find if there was a negotiation between main parties regarding The Constitution of Romania of 1923 and The Constitution Of Romania of 1991 or if there was a project imposed by one party to the others.

  1. 78 FR 57777 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... strength of our common ideals. In a document that has endured for more than two and a quarter centuries, the Framers put forth their vision for a more perfect Union. Our Constitution was signed on September... citizenship, recognize the enduring strength of our Constitution, and reaffirm our commitment to the rights...

  2. The constitutional momentum of European contract law (II): The DCFR and the European constitutional order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential impact of the recently published Draft Common Frame of Reference for European contract law (DCFR) on the European constitutional process. Looking at the combination of characteristics of codification and aspects of constitutionalism reflected in the DCFR, it is

  3. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Çeço

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of constitutional revision in the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, as a complex process accompanied by limitations on constitutional revision. The historical evolution of constitutional drafting, modern constitutions, relevant issues, political and social circumstances as well as drafting and adoption procedures, dynamism of constitutions to cope with the course of time achieved by revisions for the purpose of their stability as well as consolidation of the role of constitutions as a factor that facilitates and precedes social development, comprise the pillar of this study addressed in a comparative point of view.

  4. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  5. Rumex acetosa Y chromosomes: constitutive or facultative heterochromatin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej J. Joachimiak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Condensed Y chromosomes in Rumex acetosa L. root-tip nuclei were studied using 5-azaC treatment and immunohistochemical detection of methylated histones. Although Y chromosomes were decondensed within root meristem in vivo, they became condensed and heteropycnotic in roots cultured in vitro. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC treatment of cultured roots caused transitional dispersion of their Y chromosome bodies, but 7 days after removal of the drug from the culture medium, Y heterochromatin recondensed and again became visible. The response of Rumex sex chromatin to 5-azaC was compared with that of condensed segments of pericentromeric heterochromatin in Rhoeo spathacea (Sw. Stearn roots. It was shown that Rhoeo chromocentres, composed of AT-rich constitutive heterochromatin, did not undergo decondensation after 5-azaC treatment. The Y-bodies observed within male nuclei of R. acetosa were globally enriched with H3 histone, demethylated at lysine 4 and methylated at lysine 9. This is the first report of histone tail-modification in condensed sex chromatin in plants. Our results suggest that the interphase condensation of Y chromosomes in Rumex is facultative rather than constitutive. Furthermore, the observed response of Y-bodies to 5-azaC may result indirectly from demethylation and the subsequent altered expression of unknown genes controlling tissue-specific Y-inactivation as opposed to the global demethylation of Y-chromosome DNA.

  6. The Possibility of Vice-Presidents’ Authority Arrangement in the 1945 Constitution through Constitutional Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar L. Suroso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The debate over the vice-presidents’ authority reappeared in the administration of President Jokowi after the “authority expansion of the Chief of Presidency Staff” and the case of “Rizal Ramli vs Jusuf Kalla”. This article is intended to provide arguments for the idea of some parties to organize more explicit and detailed the authority of vice-president in the 1945 Constitution. The idea arises from the absence of further arrangement on the authority of vice-president in the 1945 Constitution. This article is systematized into 3 (three sub-theme; 1 the arrangement of the vice-presidents’ authority in the constitution for several countries; 2 The authority of the vice-president according to the 1945 Constitution, and 3 New resultant and the possibility of 1945 Constitution amendment. The result revealed a number of interesting things; 1 the constitutions of other countries do not specify the authority of the vice-president and put the vice-president as a “spare tire” when the president is absent; 2 no new resultant about the position and authority of the vice-president so that theoretically is not reason enough to regulate in detail the authority of the vice-president through the 1945 Constitution amendment; 3 arrangement in detail in the authority of vice-president in the 1945 Constitution holds the potential to confuse the presidential system design as the 1945 Constitution. Therefore, the possibility of vice-presidents’ authority arrangement in the 1945 Constitution through amendment is very small, both in terms of momentum and the substance of issues.

  7. CAN THE MUSLIM WORLD BORROW FROM INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM? A Comparative Constitutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadirsyah Hosen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analytically examine the possibility of constitutional borrowing for the Muslim world regardless the differences in history, system, culture, language, and cha­racteristics. It discusses this issue by looking at the arguments put forth by the oppo­nents of comparative cons­titutional interpre­tation and their counter arguments. It will consider materials from Canada, USA, South Africa, Singapore, Malaysia, and Hungary, taking the position that constitutional borrowing can be justified. The paper argues that the 1999-2002 Indonesian constitutional reform should be taken into account by other Muslim countries in undertaking their constitutional reform. The substantive approach of the Shari‘ah that has been used in Indonesia has shown that Muslim world can reform its constitutions without the “assistance” of Western foreign policy. Indo­nesian constitutional reform has demonstrated that Islamic constitutionalism comes from within Islamic teaching and the Islamic community itself; it is a home grown product.

  8. Catholic Modernity and the Italian Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    and give direction to the very idea of political modernity, bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy, and freedom. The specific argument is embedded within a larger aim to recognize attempts within Catholic philosophy and political thought to articulate a trajectory that moved away from......This article analyzes the Catholic contribution to the Italian republican and democratic Constitution of 1948. The focus is on the specific way in which the Italian citizen became symbolically coded as a ‘person’ and not as an ‘individual’, inspired by Catholic social philosophy. The Catholic...... project for the new Constitution had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics and on the building of a modern mass democracy and welfare state. During the crucial historical juncture that followed the collapse of Fascism, Catholic politicians and intellectuals sought to interpret...

  9. Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Hongjun [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

  10. Constitutional problems in the handling of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, S. de.

    1989-01-01

    Reprocessing and final storage involve two different systems of nuclear energy utilization: with or without the use of plutonium. There is a choice available between these two systems. The paper discusss the constitutional implications of this choice. The permission of the use of plutonium as nuclear fuel by the Atomic Energy Law is irreconcilable with the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. If the corresponding provisions of the Atomic Energy Law are repealed, then only the plutonium-related branch will be revoked and not the legal permission of nuclear energy as a whole. The fact is not ignored that the Atomic Energy law does not permit the construction and operation of a plant or the handling of plutonium if this were to violate a basic right. However, the plutonium-related branch of nculear energy utilization inevitably results in such basic right violations; hence the Atomic Energy law is unconstitutional in this respect. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Legitimacy of Constitutional Justice: Democracy, Constitutional Court and Theory Against Majority Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaminne Nathalia Cabral Moraes e Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has as its theme the analysis of the separation of powers and the rule of democracy, in addition to the possibility of the Constitutional Court be composed of people appointed by the President of the Republic, not fulfilling the democratic rule, and make the control of constitutionality of laws, created through democratic process. Will be answered: the separation of powers obey the democratic rule? When the Legislature fails to fulfill its function of legislating, opens the opportunity for the Supreme Court, as the Constitutional Court that is, create, through judicial activism, silent rules? That injured the democratic rule?

  12. Constitutive relations for multiphase flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.; Vaeth, L.; Thurnay, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    The constitutive relations that are used in the three-field fluid dynamics code IVA-KA for determining the drag in three-phase mixtures and the heat transferred by radiation are described together with some comparisons of calculational results with experiments. In these experiments (QUEOS), large quantities of solid particles are injected into water. Potential deficiencies of the present drag model are discussed. (author)

  13. Federalism and constitutional change in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okpanachi, Eyene; Garba, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In comparison with established democracies Nigeria is a highly populated and ethnic fragmented state. Therefore after colonial rule and independence a federal constitutional structure was supposed to bring the processes for conflict resolution between the ethnic groups. In 1960 Nigeria started as a highly decentralised state and went through important changes until 1999 towards greater centralisation which found its culmination in regular military governments and open conflicts. Until 1999 ea...

  14. Towards Viscoplastic Constitutive Models for Cosserat Rods

    OpenAIRE

    Dörlich Vanessa; Linn Joachim; Scheffer Tobias; Diebels Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Flexible, slender structures like cables, hoses or wires can be described by the geometrically exact Cosserat rod theory. Due to their complex multilayer structure, consisting of various materials, viscoplastic behavior has to be expected for cables under load. Classical experiments like uniaxial tension, torsion or three-point bending already show that the behavior of e.g. electric cables is viscoplastic. A suitable constitutive law for the observed load case is crucial for a realistic simul...

  15. Military Guilty Plea Inquiry: Some Constitutional Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    have given some constitutional definition to the requirement that a plea be voluntarily made. A threat by FBI agents to publish untrue statements about...Townsend v. Burke, the Supreme Court held that, where an accused was held incommunicado for forty hours by government 53 agents , his guilty plea...understands the sentence limitations imposed by the agreement; (4) strike down conditions in the pretrial agree- ment which are violative of the law, public

  16. Constitutional developments in Latin American abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, Paola; Ramón Michel, Agustina

    2016-11-01

    For most of the 20th Century, restrictive abortion laws were in place in continental Latin America. In recent years, reforms have caused a liberalizing shift, supported by constitutional decisions of the countries' high courts. The present article offers an overview of the turn toward more liberal rules and the resolution of abortion disputes by reference to national constitutions. For such purpose, the main legal changes of abortion laws in the last decade are first surveyed. Landmark decisions of the high courts of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Mexico are then analyzed. It is shown that courts have accepted the need to balance interests and competing rights to ground less restrictive laws. In doing so, they have articulated limits to protection of fetal interests, and basic ideas of women's dignity, autonomy, and equality. The process of constitutionalization has only just begun. Constitutional judgments are not the last word, but they are important contributions in reinforcing the legality of abortion. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A constitutive law for degrading bioresorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a constitutive law that predicts the changes in elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and ultimate tensile strength of bioresorbable polymers due to biodegradation. During biodegradation, long polymer chains are cleaved by hydrolysis reaction. For semi-crystalline polymers, the chain scissions also lead to crystallisation. Treating each scission as a cavity and each new crystal as a solid inclusion, a degrading semi-crystalline polymer can be modelled as a continuum solid containing randomly distributed cavities and crystal inclusions. The effective elastic properties of a degrading polymer are calculated using existing theories for such solid and the tensile strength of the degrading polymer is predicted using scaling relations that were developed for porous materials. The theoretical model for elastic properties and the scaling law for strength form a complete constitutive relation for the degrading polymers. It is shown that the constitutive law can capture the trend of the experimental data in the literature for a range of biodegradable polymers fairly well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Constitutive equation of butter at static loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the constitutive modelling of finite deformation in the commercially obtained butter (composition is 83 % of milk fat at the temperature 17–20 °C. The specimens from the butter (height L0=14.6 mm and diameter 20 mm have been compressed between two parallel metal plates at a fixed crosshead speed 20 mm/min using of the testing device TIRA TEST. The force F and the deformation ∆L are measured during compression and both quantities are recorded. The experimental records force F – displacement (deformation were obtained. These records have been transformed into stress–strain dependences and into true stress–true strain. The basic data on the strain behaviour of a butter under low strain rates have been obtained. Experimental results show that the behaviour of butter can be described by a hyperelastic material model. In this model, the quasi–static response is defined by compressible hyperelasticity, whereby the strain energy potential is assumed to be representable by a newly proposed polynomial series with three independent parameters. The material parameters in the constitutive model are determined from compression test. A comparison of predictions based on the proposed constitutive equation with experiments shows that the model is able to describe the strain behaviour of the butter examined.

  19. Europe’s Constitutional Law in Times of Crisis: A Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to survey representative constitutional amendments in the European Union’s area, whether attempted or accomplished, as well as significant adjudications by constitutional bodies, since the outset of the ongoing international economic crisis, 2008-2015. We assess these legal phenomena in light of human rights jurisprudence. Pivotal reference in our work is the recently released 7th volume of the Annuaire international des droits de l’homme, edited by G. Katrougalos, M. Figueiredo and P. Pararas under the aegis of the International Association of Constitutional Law. Have European constitutions continued to function qua civil commons in the crisis years? That, at the deepest level of value scrutiny, is the question that our joint survey and analysis aim to answer.

  20. The Spanish Constitutional Rights Court and its interpretation of the Term 'Feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Germán Doldán

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Constitutional Tribunal, the highest judicial court involved in the interpretation of the Spanish Constitution, has issued numerous judgments of high technical value in order to advance gender equality. Its decisions had widely developed, as a guarantee, the prohibition of gender discrimination included in Article 14 of the Spanish Constitution. However, these decisions had not always employed theoretically accurate concepts or adequately refined conceptual models This article is a critical examination of the body of case law produced by the Constitutional Tribunal regarding the definition and interpretation of the terms feminism and feminist. The purpose is to determine whether the content given by the Tribunal to these terms matches the theoretical construct derived from the consolidated sociology of gender research or if, contrariwise, it reproduces the ideas and concepts of the patriarchal society that provides the context where these decisions were produced

  1. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... four short months, delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia established a... government, a protector of liberties, and a guarantee that we are all free to shape our own destiny. As we...

  2. 76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... vision, we resolve to stay true to their spirit of patriotism and unity. In remembrance of the signing of... citizenship, recognize the enduring strength of our Constitution, and reaffirm our commitment to the rights...

  3. Federal Constitutional Court, decision of 8 July 1982 ('Whyl')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The Federal Constitutional Court with its decision of July 8, 1982 dismissed the action of the Sasbach Gemeinde which launched an appeal against the judgments of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Higher Administrative Court (of Oct. 17, 1980) and the Federal Administrative Court (of July 17, 1980), by which actions of said Gemeinde to annul the construction licence for unit I (South) of the Wyhl reactor were dismissed. The Federal Constitutional Court decision states that the Gemeinde as a corporate body, and not acting to perform its duties as a local authority, may not claim legal protection on the basis of Art. 14, para. 1, sentence 1 of the Basic Law. Also, the decision states, the interpretation and appropriate application of section 3, (1) of the Nuclear Installations Ordinance does not represent an infringement of the rights guaranteed by Art. 19, para. 4, sencentence 1 of the Basic Law. Nor could the Court see any reasons indicating an offense against Art. 103, (1) of the Basic Law. (HP) [de

  4. Power: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The fourth in a special series of handbooks dealing with constitutional themes, this document looks at power in the context of the U.S. Constitution. "The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom" (L. Peach) examines the separation of powers provided for in the Constitution. "The Concept of Power" (C. Roach) is a series of…

  5. Constitutionalism and good governance in Nigeria (1999-2014 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the country, at present, has a written constitution which in reality, was derived from a military decree, there has been constant debate as to whether what the country has is really a constitution and whether the subsequent civilian regimes are constitutional governments. This paper attempts to analyse the constitutional ...

  6. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  7. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  8. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  9. On constitutive modelling in finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathe, K.J.; Snyder, M.D.; Cleary, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    This compact contains a brief introduction to the problems involved in constitutive modeling as well as an outline of the final paper to be submitted. Attention is focussed on three important areas: (1) the need for using theoretically sound material models and the importance of recognizing the limitations of the models, (2) the problem of developing stable and effective numerical representations of the models, and (3) the necessity for selection of an appropriate finite element mesh that can capture the actual physical response of the complete structure. In the final paper, we will be presenting our recent research results pertaining to each of these problem areas. (orig.)

  10. Constitutive model with time-dependent deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette

    1998-01-01

    are common in time as well as size. This problem is adressed by means of a new constitutive model for soils. It is able to describe the behavior of soils at different deformation rates. The model defines time-dependent and stress-related deformations separately. They are related to each other and they occur...... was the difference in time scale between the geological process of deposition (millions of years) and the laboratory measurements of mechanical properties (minutes or hours). In addition, the time scale relevant to the production history of the oil field was interesting (days or years)....

  11. Validation of constitutive equations for steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, T.; Magain, P.; Quik, M.; Labibes, K.; Albertini, C.

    1997-01-01

    High strain rate mechanical properties are a major concern for each steel manufacturer, especially with respect to thin sheet steel used in the automotive branch. We began to study this topic by starting a project with the following goals: acquiring reliable experimental data, understanding in depth the energy absorption in thin sheet steel and finding the right constitutive material equation. The first part of the project has been presented in. In this paper we present data computation and comparison with the existing material model theories to exploit the experimental data. (orig.)

  12. [Constitutional syndrome associated to metformin induced hepatotoxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Poza Gómez, Gema; Rivero Fernández, Miguel; Vázquez Romero, Manuel; Angueira Lapeña, Teresa; Arranz de la Mata, Gemma; Boixeda de Miquel, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Metformin is an oral antidiabetic agent frequently used to manage type II diabetes. This drug produces nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms in 5-20% of patients and, more rarely, has also been associated with severe adverse effects such as lactic acidosis. Only a few isolated cases of hepatotoxicity due to this drug have been documented. We report the case of an 83-year-old man with constitutional syndrome and hepatic biochemical alterations, which were attributed to metformin after ruling out an oncologic etiology and observing complete clinical and biochemical resolution after withdrawal of the drug.

  13. Civil and Constitutional Rights of Adjudicated Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landess, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...... in the context of Egyptian-European relations. The article argues that the EU policies, which earlier have been dominated by a pragmatic approach towards the Mubarak regime, now have to be rethought considering an Egyptian polity, where the contours of a new constitutionalism are developing....

  15. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Constitutive relations for non-elastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    A new class of constitutive equations is described for non-elastic deformation of metals. The relations are embodied in a model that has had considerable experimental investigation. The model employs two deformation state variables of which one is a scalar hardness variable and the other is a stored anelastic strain. The description is entirely in terms of real time strain rates. The model and its experimental background is discussed. The relationship to mechanical calculations and a possible extension to radiation environment is also considered. (Auth.)

  17. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions

  18. Engineering and the constitution. Technik und Verfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, R.

    1988-01-01

    We can see at every turn how instruments once used for the good of mankind become blunt right before our very eyes. They still serve their purpose, but each further step brings about less additional benefit ('residual benefit'). This is a fundamental problem rather than a detail problem, as it is the self-concept, reliability and stability of our public order that is at risk. 'Constitution' in this sense is more than just the legal basis of the state; as used by the author it refers to the laws governing a society's life. (orig./HSCH).

  19. Proposals for the Reform of Constitutional Regulations on Public Finances

    OpenAIRE

    Tibor András Hetei

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to make specific proposals in the areas of public finance and the budget process in the context of the reform of the Hungarian Constitution. In preparing the proposals the author has reviewed the prevailing constitutional regulations as well as the relevant practice of the Constitutional Court, and examined and compared the constitutional schemes of European countries. The paper finds that a number of aspects of the constitutional regulation of public finance...

  20. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  1. Urgensi Pengaturan Perkara Constitutional Complaint Dalam Kewenangan Mahkamah Konstitusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Muhajir Nugroho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the mechanism for settling disputes in the Constitutional Court containing elements of constitutional complaint. In particular, this study focused on two things: first assessing the urgency/ importance of the idea of setting constitutional complaint in the Constitutional Court's authority. Secondly, to formulate recommendations on setting constitutional complaint in the Constitutional Court's authority. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative. This type of research is a doctrinal law. This research studied the concept and implementation of the judicial settlement of cases that contain elements of constitutional complaint (complaint constitution by the Constitutional Court. The conclusion of this study is an important constitutional complaint mechanism is contained within the competence of the Constitutional Court to solve problems of injustice experienced by citizens as a result of public policies undertaken by the government in a broad sense, namely the executive, legislature and judiciary. Setting constitutional complaint within the competence of the Constitutional Court does not have to be explicitly stipulated in the constitution, but enough in the explanation of the Constitutional Court Act. That is not to add direct authority of the Court, but expand the meaning of the authority of the Court in testing the law.

  2. Constitutive modelling of composite biopolymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallqvist, B; Kroon, M

    2016-04-21

    The mechanical behaviour of biopolymer networks is to a large extent determined at a microstructural level where the characteristics of individual filaments and the interactions between them determine the response at a macroscopic level. Phenomena such as viscoelasticity and strain-hardening followed by strain-softening are observed experimentally in these networks, often due to microstructural changes (such as filament sliding, rupture and cross-link debonding). Further, composite structures can also be formed with vastly different mechanical properties as compared to the individual networks. In this present paper, we present a constitutive model presented in a continuum framework aimed at capturing these effects. Special care is taken to formulate thermodynamically consistent evolution laws for dissipative effects. This model, incorporating possible anisotropic network properties, is based on a strain energy function, split into an isochoric and a volumetric part. Generalisation to three dimensions is performed by numerical integration over the unit sphere. Model predictions indicate that the constitutive model is well able to predict the elastic and viscoelastic response of biological networks, and to an extent also composite structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  4. Scaling and constitutive relationships in downcomer modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, B.J.; Harlow, F.H.

    1978-12-01

    Constitutive relationships to describe mass and momentum exchange in multiphase flow in a pressurized water reactor downcomer are presented. Momentum exchange between the phases is described by the product of the flux of momentum available for exchange and the effective area for interaction. The exchange of mass through condensation is assumed to occur along a distinct condensation boundary separating steam at saturation temperature from water in which the temperature falls off roughly linearly with distance from the boundary. Because of the abundance of nucleation sites in a typical churning flow in a downcomer, we propose an equilibrium evaporation process that produces sufficient steam per unit time to keep the water perpetually cooled to the saturation temperature. The transport equations, constitutive models, and boundary conditions used in the K-TIF numerical method are nondimensionalized to obtain scaling relationships for two-phase flow in the downcomer. The results indicate that, subject to idealized thermodynamic and hydraulic constraints, exact mathematical scaling can be achieved. Experiments are proposed to isolate the effects of parameters that contribute to mass, momentum, and energy exchange between the phases

  5. The constitutive response of three solder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G.; Cao Fang; Perez-Bergquist, Sara J.; Lopez, Mike F.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Gray, George T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The full constitutive response of three solder materials. ► Test temperatures from −196 °C to 60 °C and strain rates from 10 −3 to >10 3 s −1 . ► Substitutes for leaded solders from a mechanical/microstructural properties view. - Abstract: As increasing worldwide demand for portable consumer electronics drives development of smaller, faster, more powerful electronic devices, components in these devices must become smaller, more precise, and more robust. Often, failure of these devices comes as a result of failure of the package (i.e. when a mobile phone is dropped) and specifically comes as a result of failure of solder interconnects. As a result, stronger more reliable solder materials are needed. In this paper, the constitutive responses of three solder materials (Sn63Pb37, Sn62Pb36Ag2, and Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5) are analyzed as a function of temperature (−196 °C to 60 °C) and strain rate (10 −3 to >10 3 s −1 ). The lead-free Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5 possessed the highest yield stress of the three solders at all tested strain rates and temperatures, and all solder microstructures which displayed a mechanical response that was sensitive to temperature exhibited grain coarsening with increasing plastic strain, even at room temperature.

  6. The constitutive response of three solder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G., E-mail: alexpb@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cao Fang [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering Company, Annadale, NJ 08801 (United States); Perez-Bergquist, Sara J.; Lopez, Mike F.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Gray, George T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The full constitutive response of three solder materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Test temperatures from -196 Degree-Sign C to 60 Degree-Sign C and strain rates from 10{sup -3} to >10{sup 3} s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substitutes for leaded solders from a mechanical/microstructural properties view. - Abstract: As increasing worldwide demand for portable consumer electronics drives development of smaller, faster, more powerful electronic devices, components in these devices must become smaller, more precise, and more robust. Often, failure of these devices comes as a result of failure of the package (i.e. when a mobile phone is dropped) and specifically comes as a result of failure of solder interconnects. As a result, stronger more reliable solder materials are needed. In this paper, the constitutive responses of three solder materials (Sn63Pb37, Sn62Pb36Ag2, and Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5) are analyzed as a function of temperature (-196 Degree-Sign C to 60 Degree-Sign C) and strain rate (10{sup -3} to >10{sup 3} s{sup -1}). The lead-free Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5 possessed the highest yield stress of the three solders at all tested strain rates and temperatures, and all solder microstructures which displayed a mechanical response that was sensitive to temperature exhibited grain coarsening with increasing plastic strain, even at room temperature.

  7. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sting

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the EU and its Member States. The crisis has also inspired many European legal scholars to critically analyse the EU’s system of economic governance, as have other events throughout the history of the European Union, from the Empty Chair Crisis to the referenda in the aftermath of the Treaty of Maastricht and the failure of the Constitution for the European Union. What does seem to be different is the way in which scholars approach the issue of the Eurozone crisis. Instead of a purely legal perspective on economic governance, European legal scholars have realised that in order to understand and analyse the euro crisis, interdisciplinarity is the word of the moment.

  8. National simple: Constitutionality Analysis of Exclusions Sectorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Adolfo dos Santos Mendes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution defines the favored legal treatment for small businesses without making any explicit exception, including and especially for tax obligations. Nevertheless, all the laws, which have introduced tax benefits guided by this higher provision, have discriminated small companies due to the economic sector of activity. Known as “National Simple” and introduced by the Complementary Law No. 123/06, the current legislation did not extend its benefits to small production units of a number of industries, such as the automotive industry, the passenger transport industry, the energy industry and the industry of manufacture of weapons, beverages and tobacco products. By demonstrating the mistakes of the arguments in favor of such exclusions, the article holds up that none of these provisions meets constitutional standards. Furthermore, based on a critical analysis of the Positive Law, it is shown that the hidden desire behind the exclusions was to keep the economic sectors of high profitability under control of big corporations to the detriment of smaller initiatives.

  9. HOW STAR WARS ILLUMINATES CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cass R. Sunstein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human beings often see coherence and planned design when neither exists. This is so in movies, literature, history, economics, and psychoanalysis – and constitutional law. Contrary to the repeated claims of George Lucas, its principal author, the Star Wars series was hardly planned in advance; it involved a great deal of improvisation and surprise, even to Lucas himself. Serendipity and happenstance, sometimes in the forms of eruptions of new thinking, play a pervasive and overlooked role in the creative imagination, certainly in single authored works, and even more in multi-authored ones extending over time. Serendipity imposes serious demands on the search for coherence in art, literature, history, and law. That search leads many people (including Lucas to misdescribe the nature of their own creativity and authorship. The misdescription appears to respond to a serious human need for sense-making and pattern-finding, but it is a significant obstacle to understanding and critical reflection. Whether Jedi or Sith, many authors of constitutional law are a lot like the author of Star Wars, disguising the essential nature of their own creative processes.

  10. Towards Viscoplastic Constitutive Models for Cosserat Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörlich Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flexible, slender structures like cables, hoses or wires can be described by the geometrically exact Cosserat rod theory. Due to their complex multilayer structure, consisting of various materials, viscoplastic behavior has to be expected for cables under load. Classical experiments like uniaxial tension, torsion or three-point bending already show that the behavior of e.g. electric cables is viscoplastic. A suitable constitutive law for the observed load case is crucial for a realistic simulation of the deformation of a component. Consequently, this contribution aims at a viscoplastic constitutive law formulated in the terms of sectional quantities of Cosserat rods. Since the loading of cables in applications is in most cases not represented by these mostly uniaxial classical experiments, but rather multiaxial, new experiments for cables have to be designed. They have to illustrate viscoplastic effects, enable access to (viscoplastic material parameters and account for coupling effects between different deformation modes. This work focuses on the design of such experiments.

  11. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  12. Post-Revolution Constitutionalism: The Impact of Drafting Processes on the Constitutional Documents in Tunisia and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangement...... at identifying the factors have impacted both the constitutional drafting process and the popular perception of the produced constitutions in each of Tunisia and Egypt....

  13. Constitution and religiosity of/in the constitutional order of the National Socialist Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velez, Pedro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will analyse the National Socialist regime as a politico-constitutional reality. We will do it from a new way of looking at politico-constitutional phenomena, interpreting them as registered in a religious grounding. It seeks to show that the National Socialist regime was characterised by having identified the political community – a racially interpreted and raised community to the Absolute – with an empirical historic personality regarded as eminently communitarian. It suggests that the regime constitutes a sui generis case, either in a context of regimes conventionally classified as "right-wing authoritarian and/or totalitarian" or in a larger context of contemporary politics.

  14. The 1857 Constitution and its Parlamentary Interlude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pantoja Morán

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, American scholars have noticed that Mexico ex­perienced  a parlamentary form of government during  the brief period between the end of the Reform War and the landing of the invading troops, which gave place to the Intervention War against imperial claims. despite the significance of this observation, Mexi­can scholars had virtually ignored it. This work seeks to reveal, through a political, historical, and le­gal analysis of these events, if such an experience can be described as parlamentary, if the 1857 Constitution shows signs of a parlamen­tary system, and if this might have been the intention of its authors.

  15. Constituting objectivity: Transcendental perspectives on modern physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in exploring Kantian approaches in the study of the history and philosophy of physics. The most well-known examples of this trend-Friedman's (2001), Ryckman's (2005) and DiSalle's (2006)-focus on Kantianism in the context of the development of the general theory of relativity. The edited collection Constituting Objectivity seeks to develop key Kantian insights-in the most part-in the context of later developments in physics: as well as discussing relativity the volume also provides Kantian interpretations of Bohr's development of quantum theory and continues to provide Kantian insight from later interpretations of quantum mechanics all the way through to considering noncommutative geometry and loop quantum gravity. The volume contains papers on a wide variety of subjects and offers an essential introduction to the breadth of Kantian trends in modern physics.

  16. Nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic elastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Marina; Khristich, Dmitrii

    2018-03-01

    A general approach to constructing of nonlinear variants of connection between stresses and strains in anisotropic materials with different types of symmetry of properties is considered. This approach is based on the concept of elastic proper subspaces of anisotropic materials introduced in the mechanics of solids by J. Rychlewski and on the particular postulate of isotropy proposed by A. A. Il’yushin. The generalization of the particular postulate on the case of nonlinear anisotropic materials is formulated. Systems of invariants of deformations as lengths of projections of the strain vector into proper subspaces are developed. Some variants of nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic materials are offered. The analysis of these relations from the point of view of their satisfaction to general and limit forms of generalization of partial isotropy postulate on anisotropic materials is performed. The relations for particular cases of anisotropy are written.

  17. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  18. Continuum mechanics of single-substance bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    1975-01-01

    Continuum Physics, Volume II: Continuum Mechanics of Single-Substance Bodies discusses the continuum mechanics of bodies constituted by a single substance, providing a thorough and precise presentation of exact theories that have evolved during the past years. This book consists of three parts-basic principles, constitutive equations for simple materials, and methods of solution. Part I of this publication is devoted to a discussion of basic principles irrespective of material geometry and constitution that are valid for all kinds of substances, including composites. The geometrical notions, k

  19. The Causes of Failure of the European Constitution From the Perspective of the Constitution-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podolnjak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic argument of the article is that the main causes of failure of the European Constitution stem from an inadequate preparation and implementation of a complex procedure of constitution-making for a federation of countries on a continental scale. This process includes the issues of temporal aspects of constitutionmaking, the subject of constitution-making, the text of the constitution, the strategy of constitutional ratifi cation and the constitution-makers themselves. The principal causes of failure of the European Constitution will be presented in the form of certain preliminary assumptions, which will then be examined in the light of certain comparative experiences of constitution-making in two federal systems – the American and the Swiss system. The primary mistakes of the European constitution-making are refl ected in the lack of an appropriate moment for making the constitution, in the vagueness of the document in terms of its constitutional or contractual quality, in the creation of a text of the Constitution which is completely incomprehensible to the average citizen, in the making of the Constitution without a vision or ambition, in the complete lack of any strategy of ratifi cation of the Constitution, in the insistence on the direct participation of the people in the adoption of the Constitution, which is legally and politically considered primarily an international treaty, and in badly managed media presentation and defence of the Constitution before the European public. The most important mistakes, crucial to the failure of the Constitution, are the ambivalent approach of the European constitutionmakers to the mode of ratifi cation of the Constitution, and their disregard of the constitution-making experience of other federal countries.

  20. Legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine: main signs and definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Reva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of a single body of constitutional jurisdiction indicates on the necessity of a certain number of amendments to the current Law of Ukraine “On the Constitutional Court of Ukraine”. It is impossible to achieve the quality regulation of these issues without a thorough scientific analysis of basic features of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. The purpose of the article is to analyze the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine and scientific views on their signs, to identify and describe the main features of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. There are the conclusions made that an important step in any legal position research is the establishment of the legal nature. The article discusses different scientific views on the basic features of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. On the basis of the analysis of acts of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine and scientific works, there are defined, in particular, the following main features of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine: they are the result of interpretation and represent the most generalized, concentrated expression of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine understanding of the provisions of the Constitution of Ukraine, laws and/ or other regulations, which are carried out within the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine; they are the basis for the final decision, which is set in the act of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine; they appear in the reasoning and/ or the operative parts of the decisions and conclusions and some rulings; they have a special legal force; they are obligatory, that are binding throughout the territory of Ukraine for all public authorities, local governments, enterprises, institutions and organizations, officials, citizens and their associations; suitable for further repeated use in solving similar cases; as opposed to the decisions of

  1. Pinning down the Constitution: Interactively Teaching Congress's Power, Federalism, and Constitutional Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "Pin-the-Tail-on-the-Constitution" is an engaged-learning activity that has been conducted in 26 classes over the past four years. The activity teaches multiple themes commonly included in a variety of courses on American politics such as federalism, congressional powers, the role of the federal courts, and the relevance of the commerce…

  2. Global Survey of National Constitutions : Mapping Constitutional Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berro Pizzarossa, Lucia; Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate

  3. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as “Constitution Week.” NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America... beacon of hope for Americans and those who seek new lives in the United States. Every day, we welcome new....BARACK OBAMA ...

  4. Constitutive and Stability Behavior of Soils in Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Sture, Stein; Costes, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    All aspects of soil stability, bearing capacity, slope stability, the supporting capacity of deep foundations, and penetration resistance depend on soil strength. The stress-deformation and stress-deformation-time behavior of soils are of importance in any problem where ground movements are of interest. In most engineering materials, the strength is derived from internal chemical and physico-chemical forces of interaction, which bond the atoms, molecules, and particles together. In soils, the constitutive relations are mainly derived from interparticle friction between particles and particle groups and dilatancy, and to a lesser extent from particle bonding by weak electrostatic, physico-chemical, and coulomb forces. For engineering purposes, soils are classified as cohesive (clays and silts; typical particle sizes range from 10 nm to 10 micrometers) and cohesionless (sand and gravel; typical particle sizes range from 10 micrometers to 75 mm). The mechanical or constitutive properties of cohesionless soils or granular materials are highly fabric-dependent, highly non-linear, and non-conservative with engineering properties primarily depending on the effects of gravity through self-weight and on the tractions or forces applied to the soil mass. Under moderate-to-high stress levels, the influence of gravity on the behavior of laboratory test specimens may not be pronounced and, therefore, the test results in terrestrial (1-g) environment may be sufficiently conclusive. However at low interparticle stresses, which can result either from low applied (confining) stresses or from excess pore fluid pressures developed within the soil mass without corresponding changes in the applied stresses, the presence of gravitational body forces acting on solid particles and interstitial fluids exerts a pronounced influence on movement of individual particles or particle groups. Such motions, in turn, cause changes in soil fabric which results in significant changes in the

  5. Transitional processes: Territorial organization of authorities and the future constitution of Serbia comparative analysis of five constitutional models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Ljubiša M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a comparative analysis of territorial organization of authorities in five constitutional models for Serbia. The paper consists of the following chapters: Introduction, Outline of the Constitution of Kingdom of Serbia, Basic Principles of the New Constitution of Serbia - DSS, Outline of Constitution of Republic of Serbia - DS Constitutional Solutions for Serbia - BCLJP, Project of Constitution of Republic of Serbia - Forum iuris, Conclusion. The analysis of territorial organization of authorities has been seen in the context of the processes of transition and archiving the important principles of civil society and civil autonomies.

  6. The Theory of Global Governance, Constitutionalization and Comparative Constitutional Law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 195-207 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : globalization of political culture * global constitutionalism * comparative constitutional law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  7. Religious freedom and its limitations under the 1999 constitution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically reviewed the provisions of the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria on freedom ... Insight was drawn from international legal instrument on the subject. ... However, the repudiation of the supremacy of the Constitution by Islamic law ...

  8. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    With the increasing use of advanced ceramic materials in high-temperature structural applications such as advanced heat engine components, the need arises to accurately predict thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time-dependent and that is hereditary in the sense that the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but also on the material's thermomechanical history. Most current analytical life prediction methods for both subcritical crack growth and creep models use elastic stress fields to predict the time-dependent reliability response of components subjected to elevated service temperatures. Inelastic response at high temperatures has been well documented in the materials science literature for these material systems, but this issue has been ignored by the engineering design community. From a design engineer's perspective, it is imperative to emphasize that accurate predictions of time-dependent reliability demand accurate stress field information. Ceramic materials exhibit different time-dependent behavior in tension and compression. Thus, inelastic deformation models for ceramics must be constructed in a fashion that admits both sensitivity to hydrostatic stress and differing behavior in tension and compression. A number of constitutive theories for materials that exhibit sensitivity to the hydrostatic component of stress have been proposed that characterize deformation using time-independent classical plasticity as a foundation. However, none of these theories allow different behavior in tension and compression. In addition, these theories are somewhat lacking in that they are unable to capture the creep, relaxation, and rate-sensitive phenomena exhibited by ceramic materials at high temperatures. The objective of this effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center has been to formulate a macroscopic continuum theory that captures these time-dependent phenomena. Specifically, the effort has focused on inelastic deformation behavior associated

  9. Reflections on the Establishment of Constitutional Government in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varat, Jonathan D.

    Establishing constitutional government involves not simply the creation of a written document that purports to create the political structure of a nation and guarantee rights to its people, but "constitutionalism" in the sense of meaningful and effective adherence to constitutional norms of democratic organization and the protection of…

  10. Constitutive Theories of Self-Knowledge and the Regress Problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on the other hand, hold that self-knowledge is constitutive of intentional states. That is, self-ascription is a necessary condition for being in a particular mental state. Akeel Bilgrami is a defender of the constitutive model. I argue that the constitutive model gives rise to a regress problem. This paper will focus on that problem ...

  11. Theoretical (dis-) position and strategic leitmotivs in constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay takes a look at the historic restoration that bequeathed this country and its people a prototypical, justiciable Constitution. The advent of constitutional democracy in South Africa went hand in hand with an about-turn in the interpretation of enacted law-texts (including the Constitution) and a critical interrogation of ...

  12. Constitutional Provisions on the Press: A World View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschos, Manny

    A study examined the legal treatment of the press in constitutions or other basic legal institutional documents from around the world. Sixty-three constitutions or basic documents from the Western World, the Communist Bloc, the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America were analyzed. Analysis revealed that most constitutions open with…

  13. CHAPTER FOUR LİBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS:

    OpenAIRE

    FENDOĞLU, Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin

    2002-01-01

    CHAPTER FOUR LIBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS: Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU ABSTRACT: Turkish Constitution of 1982 is the first and only Turkish Constitution that has a main purpose on strengthening the political power not the liberty or democr...

  14. Resolution and Letter to Congress from the Constitutional Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the drafting of the United States Constitution. The United States Constitution is the longest-lasting written national constitution in the world. Its four parchment pages serve as the blueprint for a government under which more than 290 million Americans live. It holds great significance for the American people and for others…

  15. Human Rights under the Ethiopian Constitution: A Descriptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article summarizes human rights under the Ethiopian Constitution (mainly surrounding Chapter 3 of Constitution and related constitutional provisions on human and democratic rights), and forwards some insights. It, inter alia, covers various aspects of the application and interpretation of human rights provisions, ...

  16. James Madison's "Public" As Interpreter of the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Donald O.

    James Madison's thoughts on various interpretations of the Constitution maintain that public opinion is the ultimate method of legitimizing the document. The Constitution must prevail against mere public opinion, but public opinion may be used to establish the meaning of the Constitution when conflicting interpretations exist. The public good and…

  17. Operações de gênero: o filme XXY (2007 e a produção do corpo e do sexo como “naturais”. Operações de gênero: o filme XXY (2007 e a produção do corpo e do sexo como “naturais” Gender operations: the film XXY (2007 and the constitution of the body and sex as “natural”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fogaça Monteiro

    2009-11-01

    domínio daquilo que Butler chamou de “corpos abjetos”. A idéia aqui é, através da história trazida pelo filme, entender como concepções amalgamadas de gênero usam seu bisturi para operam tanto corpos considerados “anormais” quanto os considerados “normais”, afetando a todos.

    Based on Foucault’s concept of the body as the surface of inscription of history, and on the work of Judith Butler, this article questions the way that binary and normative conceptions of gender operate in the constitution of a field of intelligibility for subjects and their bodies. We analyse the film XXY (2007 that tells the story of Alex, an intersexual adolescent. We use the main character's story to see how gender norms act to shape bodies and limit their pleasures. We argue that subjects and bodies that do not correspond to the normative ideal are seen as “abject bodies”, following Butler’s definition. The argument is that gender norms operate on all bodies: the normal and the abject.

  18. Health care for Micronesians and constitutional rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Dina; Yamada, Seiji

    2011-11-01

    Under the Compacts of Free Association (COFA), people from the Freely Associated States--the Republic of Palau (ROP), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)--have been migrating to the United States in increasing numbers. In 1996, Congress passed broad welfare reform (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) which limited certain federal benefits previously available to COFA migrants, including Medicaid benefits. Prior to July 2010, the State of Hawai'i had continued to include COFA migrants under its state-funded Medicaid program. In the face of budget constraints, the State removed these people from its Medicaid rolls. A challenge on the legal basis of the denial of equal protection of the laws, ie, the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, was successful in reinstating health care to the COFA migrants in December 2010. From the health worker's perspective, regardless of various social justice arguments that may have been marshaled in favor of delivering health care to the people, it was an appeal to the judicial system that succeeded. From the attorney's perspective, the legal victories are potentially limited to the four walls of the courtroom without community involvement and related social justice movements. Together, the authors propose that in order to better address the issue of health care access for Micronesian peoples, we must work together, as health and legal advocates, to define a more robust vision of both systems that includes reconciliation and community engagement.

  19. Constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Siersma, Volkert

    2004-01-01

    Modulation of TCR expression levels is a central event during T cell development and activation, and it probably plays an important role in adjusting T cell responsiveness. Conflicting data have been published on down-regulation and degradation rates of the individual TCR subunits, and several di...... to the lysosomes. Similar results were obtained in studies of primary human Vbeta8+ T cells stimulated with superantigen. Based on these results, the simplest model for TCR internalization, sorting, and degradation is proposed.......Modulation of TCR expression levels is a central event during T cell development and activation, and it probably plays an important role in adjusting T cell responsiveness. Conflicting data have been published on down-regulation and degradation rates of the individual TCR subunits, and several...... divergent models for TCR down-regulation and degradation have been suggested. The aims of this study were to determine the rate constants for constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation and to determine whether the TCR subunits segregate or are processed as an intact unit during TCR down...

  20. Financial Accounting Constitution or its Referential Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a simplified approach it may be stated that the financial accounting theoretical framework is structured on three levels. At the first level, reference is made to the accounting objectives. These objectives are fundamental for the theoretical framework. At the second level, we find the accounting information characteristics and explicit mentions about the headings of financial statements. The mentioned characteristics of accounting information represent the basic issues for ensuring its utility. The headings represent the main categories of elements disclosed in the financial statements, like assets and liabilities – these two elements’ definitions brought radical changes both in the accounting thinking and practices. Overall, the second level’s components represent the basis for building the practice directives as a matter of recognition (identification and measurement (evaluation. Inside the third level, the recognition and measurement directives are being detailed, which will be further used by the accounting specialist in order to identify and apply the accounting standards. These two directives enclose postulates, principles and restrictions. Such specifications prove to be useful whenever precise answers must be given to relative financial information issues. Usually, it is accepted that the theoretical framework, also called the accounting framework is the standard-setting, metaphorically speaking is actually the constitution of financial accounting, or in other words, its reference matrix.

  1. Body Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are body lice? Body lice (also called clothes lice) are tiny insects which live and lay nits (lice eggs) on clothing. They are parasites, ... usually only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are one of the three types of ...

  2. Felicidad y constitucionalismo = Happiness and constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Lorca Martín de Villodres

    2013-09-01

    happiness in our Constitutions. It is thought that only in a democratic society, where social rights have been developed, can citizens get a dignified life, so that they are able to look for happiness. Without a dignified life, happiness is something impossible to achieve. Consequently, happiness is said to be not only an individual objective, but also a common and public target. The State should offer citizens the proper conditions for the pursuit of happiness. In the Spanish Constitution, we get the impression that it is possible to find happiness from some aspects of it. So, according to this, the eudemonism theory could be reasserted in our modern Social State. Currently, we can notice that public policies are concerned with the happiness of citizens in order to improve their daily lives, and actually governments are working on it in many countries. In any case, this fact might be considered as a return to the essence of human being. A good chance to try to understand what is a person.

  3. The spirit of the constitution. The institutionalized unsociability in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas MAVRIDIS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With this article attempts a comparison of the Greek Constitution of 1975, the constitutions of Germany, USA, Switzerland, Austria, France, UK and Italy on the issue of property relations and general interest, in order to highlight those notified differences relating to these communities and resulted in specific social situations. While the constitutions of the other countries, which are among the most representative democracies of the Western world, are characterized by an increased institutionalization of sociability, the Greek constitution on the issue of general interest takes an antisocial and, at best, neutral attitude. The convergence of the Greek constitution on this issue with the other constitutions is considered a prerequisite for overcoming the crisis and, more generally, for social development. This little effort hopes to contribute to a more social future formulation of the Greek constitution and a corresponding behaviour of Greek society.

  4. Stability of non-linear constitutive formulations for viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Siginer, Dennis A

    2014-01-01

    Stability of Non-linear Constitutive Formulations for Viscoelastic Fluids provides a complete and up-to-date view of the field of constitutive equations for flowing viscoelastic fluids, in particular on their non-linear behavior, the stability of these constitutive equations that is their predictive power, and the impact of these constitutive equations on the dynamics of viscoelastic fluid flow in tubes. This book gives an overall view of the theories and attendant methodologies developed independently of thermodynamic considerations as well as those set within a thermodynamic framework to derive non-linear rheological constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. Developments in formulating Maxwell-like constitutive differential equations as well as single integral constitutive formulations are discussed in the light of Hadamard and dissipative type of instabilities.

  5. Material constitutive model for jointed rock mass behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.K.

    1980-11-01

    A material constitutive model is presented for jointed rock masses which exhibit preferred planes of weakness. This model is intended for use in finite element computations. The immediate application is the thermomechanical modelling of a nuclear waste repository in hard rock, but the model seems appropriate for a variety of other static and dynamic geotechnical problems as well. Starting with the finite element representations of a two-dimensional elastic body, joint planes are introduced in an explicit manner by direct modification of the material stiffness matrix. A novel feature of this approach is that joint set orientations, lengths and spacings are readily assigned through the sampling of a population distribution statistically determined from field measurement data. The result is that the fracture characteristics of the formations have the same statistical distribution in the model as is observed in the field. As a demonstration of the jointed rock mass model, numerical results are presented for the example problem of stress concentration at an underground opening

  6. Feliform carnivores have a distinguished constitutive innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja K. Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the immunological phenotype of endangered and threatened populations is important to identify those vulnerable to novel pathogens. Among mammals, members of the order Carnivora are particularly threatened by diseases. We therefore examined the constitutive innate immune system, the first line of protection against invading microbes, of six free-ranging carnivore species; the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas, the brown hyena (Hyena brunnea, the caracal (Caracal caracal, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, the leopard (Panthera pardus and the lion (Panthera leo using a bacterial killing assay. The differences in immune responses amongst the six species were independent of their foraging behaviour, body mass or social organisation but reflected their phylogenetic relatedness. The bacterial killing capacity of black-backed jackals, a member of the suborder Caniformia, followed the pattern established for a wide variety of vertebrates. In contrast, the five representatives of the suborder Feliformia demonstrated a killing capacity at least an order of magnitude higher than any species reported previously, with a particularly high capacity in caracals and cheetahs. Our results suggest that the immunocompetence of threatened felids such as the cheetah has been underestimated and its assessment ought to consider both innate and adaptive components of the immune system.

  7. Who Is Afraid of European Constitutionalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    the legitimacy of the European Court of Justice and of European law more generally. Using Denmark as a case, I show that national courts in a majoritarian democracy only reluctantly cooperate with supranational judicial bodies by referring very few cases. I argue that Nordic courts forward few cases...... to the European court of justice both because they have little experience with judicial review at the national level but also – and more importantly – due to a widespread hostility towards (supranational) judicial review in general.......According to Ronald Dworkin, majoritarian democracies like the Nordic ones are founded upon the notion that parliamentary majorities are elevated above the other branches of government and that such majorities should not be subject to judicial review. The emergence of a powerful supranational...

  8. Constitutional foundations of the property rights of citizens and organizations for real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Kamilevna Kondratenko

    2015-09-01

    of national defense and state security. Scientific novelty the article presents the study of the Russian constitutional court and the European court on human rights practices relatedto the issues of property rights of citizens and organizations on real estate. The author discusses the legal positions of the above judicial bodies in order to identify the legal challenges and gaps in the Russian legislation as well as to identify the areas for improvement of the civil legislation. Practical significance the research results can be used for the purposes of lawmaking to improve the standards of domestic constitutional and civil law. Certain provisions may be usedin judicial practice for the consideration and resolution of cases. Research proposals may also find application in the preparation of curricula textbooks and teaching courses on quotCivil lawquot quotLand lawquot quotProprietary rights for real estatequot. nbsp

  9. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  10. Сontemporary forms of protection of the constitution: comparative legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. П. Таран

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Systematic analysis of protection forms of the constitution allows to identify legal tools that can be applied in order to prevent encroachments on the constitutional values or in the commission of such an offense or to identify the real threat. Up to now there is no a single approach to understanding of protection of the constitution, its relationship with the protection, system of its forms and so on. There remain unclear regularities that have their influence on different protection forms of the constitution in foreign countries as well as the consistency and adequacy of the use of such forms in Ukraine. Recent research and publications analysis. Scientists name various forms of protection of the constitution. Approaches of scientists that give their lists differ very much. Hence there is no necessity in talking about some constant regarding this matter. Some aspects of the issue that is related to the system of protection forms of the constitution found their reflection in the works of local and foreign scientists such as Y.G. Barabash, M.V. Vitruk, I.V. Koreyba, K.O. Pavshuk, P.B. Stetsyuk, K. Hesse, T. Y. Habriyeva, V.E. Chyrkin and others. Paper objective. The objectives of the paper are: clarification of the nature of the protection of the constitution and what means or what forms and what subjects it should be implemented by; the comparison of the experience of foreign countries regarding the issue and determination of the reasons for which different countries use different protection forms of the constitutions; expression of suggestions regarding legislation improvement in regards to specific protection forms of the Constitution of Ukraine. Paper main body. Countries with established democracy traditionally use a smaller set of protection forms of the constitution and the concept of "protection of the constitution" itself is almost not applied. The opposite approach is inherent to countries emerging from totalitarian and authoritarian

  11. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions: Progress Since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrina Perehudoff, S; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-06-01

    A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states' legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions.

  12. Constitutional Decree No. 19 promulgating the Constitution of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, 15 August 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Decree amends Section 44 of the Constitution of Uruguay to read as follows: "44. The State shall legislate on all matters related to public health and hygiene, and shall assure the improvement of the physical, moral, and social well-being of all the inhabitants of the country. All inhabitants shall have a duty to care for their own health and to have themselves treated in the event of disease. The State shall make available, without charge, means of prevention and medical care to indigent persons or to persons lacking sufficient resources." full text

  13. Thermomechanical constraints and constitutive formulations in thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate three classes of constraints in a thermoelastic body: (i a deformation-temperature constraint, (ii a deformation-entropy constraint, and (iii a deformation-energy constraint. These constraints are obtained as limits of unconstrained thermoelastic materials and we show that constraints (ii and (iii are equivalent. By using a limiting procedure, we show that for the constraint (i, the entropy plays the role of a Lagrange multiplier while for (ii and (iii, the absolute temperature plays the role of Lagrange multiplier. We further demonstrate that the governing equations for materials subject to constraint (i are identical to those of an unconstrained material whose internal energy is an affine function of the entropy, while those for materials subject to constraints (ii and (iii are identical to those of an unstrained material whose Helmholtz potential is affine in the absolute temperature. Finally, we model the thermoelastic response of a peroxide-cured vulcanizate of natural rubber and show that imposing the constraint in which the volume change depends only on the internal energy leads to very good predictions (compared to experimental results of the stress and temperature response under isothermal and isentropic conditions.

  14. THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY - LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The equality in human rights and obligations, the equality of citizens before the law are fundamental categories of the theories on social democracy but also conditions of the lawful state, without which constitutional democracy cannot be conceived. In Romanian Constitution, this principle is consecrated in the form of equality of the citizens before the law and public authorities. There are also particular aspects of this principle consecrated in the Constitution. The constitutional principle of equality requires that equal treatment be applied to equal situations. This social and legal reality implies numerous interferences between the principle of equality and other constitutional principles. In this study, by using theoretical and jurisprudential arguments, we intend to demonstrate that, in relation to contemporary social reality, equality, as a constitutional principle, is a particular aspect of the principle of proportionality. The latter one expresses in essence the ideas of: fairness, justice, reasonableness and fair appropriateness of state decisions to the facts and legitimate aims proposed.

  15. Territory in the Constitutional Standards of Unitary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Markhgeym

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of the constitutions of seven European countries (Albania, Hungary, Greece, Spain, Malta, Poland, Sweden. The research allows to reveal general and specific approaches to consolidation of norms on territories in a state and give the characteristic of the corresponding constitutional norms. Given the authors ' comprehensive approach to the definition of the territory of the state declared constitutional norms were assessed from the perspective of the fundamental principles and constituent elements of the territory. Considering the specifics of the constitutional types of state territories authors suggest typical and variative models and determine the constitutions of unitary states, distinguished by their originality in the declared group of legal relations. The original constitutional language areas associated with the introduction at the state level, these types of areas that are not typical for other countries.

  16. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  17. Ivor Jennings's Constitutional Legacy beyond the Occidental-Oriental Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Malagodi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sir W. Ivor Jennings (1903–1965) was one of Britain's most prominent constitutional law scholars of the twentieth century. He is mostly famed for his work in the 1930s on English Public Law. In 1941, Jennings, however, moved to Sri Lanka, progressively becoming involved in both an academic and professional capacity with constitutional processes across the decolonizing world in the early stages of the Cold War. This article provides an alternative account of Jennings's constitutional legacy to...

  18. Constitutional reform processes and political parties: principles for practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet, van, M.; Wahiu, W.; Magolowondo, A.

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides a set of guiding principles for constitutional reform on the basis of practical experiences of constitutional reform processes in selected countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The focus is on the role of political parties in constitution-building processes. The publication shows that although country-specific reform processes may be unique in terms of objectives, context, popular involvement, and achievements, they go ...

  19. Why it's time to recognise Indigenous peoples in the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George

    2015-06-01

    This article provides an overview of why it is proposed that the Australian Constitution be changed to recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. It then establishes what changes are needed to the Constitution. The Australian Constitution fails to recognise Indigenous peoples, and still enables discrimination against them. This provides a sound case for changing the document. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  20. Constitutional Justice Procedure in Lithuania: a Search for Optimal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pūraitė-Andrikienė, Dovilė

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation systematically analyzes the preconditions for optimising the existing constitutional justice model, i.e. whether the current model meets the expectations of Lithuanian society and the legal community, corresponds to the capabilities of the legal system, and is in line with the tendencies of constitutional justice in European states, identifies the problematic aspects of the existing constitutional justice model and brings forward proposals regarding how the legal regulation c...

  1. Sonora Legislators and their Constitution, 1857-1861

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Trejo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the members of the Sonora constituent congress (1857-61, and analyzes the debates they held regarding the project for the state's Constitution, which would follow the lines estblished by the 1857 Federal Constitution. It also points out the relations between each legislator's trajectory and politicial affiliation (as far as available sources allow for this, and the proposals he presented during the legislative debates that gave place to the 1861 Constitution of Sonora.

  2. Clinical study on constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver.

  3. Islamization in Malaysia: the constitutional and legal dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Kah Sing

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the legitimacy of the Islamization of the politics, society and law in Malaysia. The Islamization plan was carried out by the federal government in the early 1980s under the Mahathir administration. The legitimacy of the Islamization plan is measured against the original intent of the Independence Constitution, with particular reference to the position of Islam in the Constitution. Those constitutional provisions which have been claimed to have granted I...

  4. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  5. Constitutional bone impairment in Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Giuseppina; Mussa, Alessandro; Carli, Diana; Molinatto, Cristina; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista

    2017-03-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by genotypic and phenotypic variability. It belongs to the Ras/MAPK pathway disorders collectively named Rasopathies or neurocardiofaciocutaneous syndromes. Phenotype is characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects, facial dysmorphisms, skeletal and ectodermal anomalies, cryptorchidism, mild to moderate developmental delay/learning disability, and tumor predisposition. Short stature and skeletal dysmorphisms are almost constant and several studies hypothesized a role for the RAS pathway in regulating bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated the bone quality assessed by phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and the metabolic bone profiling in a group of patients with NS, to determine whether low bone mineralization is primary or secondary to NS characteristics. Thirty-five patients were enrolled, including 20 males (55.6%) and 15 females (44.5%) aged 1.0-17.8 years (mean 6.4 ± 4.5, median 4.9 years). Each patients was submitted to clinical examination, estimation of the bone age, laboratory assays, and QUS assessment. Twenty-five percent of the cohort shows reduced QUS values for their age based on bone transmission time. Bone measurement were adjusted for multiple factors frequently observed in NS patients, such as growth retardation, delayed bone age, retarded puberty, and reduced body mass index, potentially affecting bone quality or its appraisal. In spite of the correction attempts, QUS measurement indicates that bone impairment persists in nearly 15% of the cohort studied. Our results indicate that bone impairment in NS is likely primary and not secondary to any of the phenotypic traits of NS, nor consistent with metabolic disturbances. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Constitutive equations for discrete electromagnetic problems over polyhedral grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codecasa, Lorenzo; Trevisan, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a novel approach is proposed for constructing discrete counterparts of constitutive equations over polyhedral grids which ensure both consistency and stability of the algebraic equations discretizing an electromagnetic field problem. The idea is to construct discrete constitutive equations preserving the thermodynamic relations for constitutive equations. In this way, consistency and stability of the discrete equations are ensured. At the base, a purely geometric condition between the primal and the dual grids has to be satisfied for a given primal polyhedral grid, by properly choosing the dual grid. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed discrete constitutive equations lead to accurate approximations of the electromagnetic field

  7. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONCEPTS OF THE REFORM TREATY (THE LISBON TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty also known as the Reform Treaty provides only an amendment of the treaties considered as fundamental, namely the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union and is the result of the constitutional process triggered by the Laeken Declaration adopted by the European Council. The Lisbon Treaty is still built on the content of the European Constitution from which they eliminated the most controversial provisions, first of all the title of Constitution that might produce concern and panic among the European Union population through the symbolic power it contained, and for Romania this new treaty was the first it signed in quality of a Union member state. Even if does not bear the name of European Constitution, the Lisbon Treaty is a European Constitution for the following reasons: first it is a Constitution because it gathers together most of the fundamental elements of the Constitutional Treaty, even if it does not have the structure or the name thereof, and second the treaties after the Lisbon reform have become small constitutions from the operational viewpoint, they develop the functions of a constitution, limit power and organize the operation of the organization.

  8. Muscle performance in a soft-bodied terrestrial crawler: constitutive modelling of strain-rate dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Dorfmann, A. Luis; Woods, William A; Trimmer, Barry A

    2007-01-01

    Experimental data on the passive mechanical properties of the ventral interior lateral muscle of the tobacco hornworm caterpillar, Manduca sexta, are reported. The stress–deformation response of the Manduca muscle is shown to be nonlinear pseudo-elastic, capable of large deformations and subject to stress softening during initial loading cycles. The muscle passive mechanical properties also depend on multiple time-dependent processes. In particular, we show new experimental data from cyclic l...

  9. Post-Revolution Constitutionalism: The Impact of Drafting Processes on the Constitutional Documents in Tunisia and Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangement had been tumultuous with repercussions that are likely to linger on for a protracted period of time. Therefore, despite apparent resemblance in socio-political actors in both countries, (political I...

  10. RECONSTRUCTION THE AUTHORITY OF CONSTITUTIONAL COURT ON IMPEACHMENT PROCESS OF PRESIDENT AND/OR VICE PRESIDENT IN INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezron Sabar Rotua Tinambunan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of impeachment, Constitutional Court has the obligation to give its judgement to House of Representatives’s opinion regarding allegation of violation by the President and/or Vice President. Constitutional Court checks and judges House of Representatives’s opinion on whether or not the President and/or Vice President works fulfill Article 7A of Constitution of Republic Indonesia 1945 (UUD NRI 1945. The inspection done by Constitutional Court is the judicial process whose decision is in the form of justisil. The result of this impeachment process heavily depends on the judgement of People's Consultative Assembly in its plenary meeting which is also a politics forum, where President and/or Vice President could be dismissed or not. Constitutional Court’s judgement does not apply to People's Consultative Assembly, hence, the difference of Constitutional Court and People's Consultative Assembly’s judgement in plenary meeting that is very political by its nature is very likely to happen. Involvement of Constitutional Court in the procss of impeachment is, of course, different in each country. It depends on governance system in that particular country, it also relies on how much authority that is given by Constitution to Constitutional Court in the process of impeachment itself.

  11. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...

  12. Influence of zemstvo self-government on process of national constitutionalism development in late XIX – early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Іванович Козаченко

    2016-04-01

    Constitutional Democrats. Head of Poltava provincial board F. A. Lyzohub was a well-known figure in the Party of Octobrists. P. Chyzhevskyi and M. Rusov became active participants of the Ukrainian Democratic-Radical Party and the Revolutionary Ukrainian Party respectively. The Sheremet brothers were members of the Ukrainian People’s Party. Conclusions. Some liberal zemstvo-constitutionalists who adhered to the moderate position raised the question of democratization of zemstvo self-government without changing the foundations of autocratic regime. They took shape of the moderate wing of zemstvo liberal-democratic movement. To democratize zemstvo self-government, the main course of zemstvo-constitutionalists’ activities consisted of the claims to the government to change the system of zemstvo bodies, reform of the electoral system, expand powers of zemstvo bodies, limit powers of local administration concerning control of zemstvo bodies’ activities.

  13. Ways of improving of medical and psychological rehabilitation of children with constitutional-exogenous obesity in hospital and sanatorium

    OpenAIRE

    Roytman, E.; Ershevskaya, A.; Pogrebnyak, L.

    2011-01-01

    We studied immediate and long-term effectiveness of integrated medical and psychological rehabilitation of children with constitutional-exogenous obesity (CEO) during the program «School of overweight child» in hospital and sanatorium according to the following parameters: body mass, percentage of fat mass (PFM), psychological changes, eating behavior and physical activity.

  14. Constitutional reform processes and political parties : principles for practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.; Wahiu, W.; Magolowondo, A.

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides a set of guiding principles for constitutional reform on the basis of practical experiences of constitutional reform processes in selected countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The focus is on the role of political parties in

  15. Europe-building through private law : Lessons from constitutional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2012-01-01

    Questioning the link between private law and the nation-state that is implied by nationalist perceptions of the law, this paper seeks to find support for a transnational (Europeanist,constitutional-patriotist or cosmopolitan) view on private law in constitutional theory. Normative theories of

  16. African Customary laws and the new constitution of the post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the state can be seen to be in conflict with values of majority, within the society. In the case of this article, those of the African majority versus various rights of the minorities as guaranteed in the Constitution. Keywords: Constitution, Bill of Rights, Human Rights, Gays, Lesbian, Civil Union Act, homophobia, Social Policy.

  17. Stohastic Properties of Plasticity Based Constitutive Law for Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to obtain a stochastic model for the parameters in a constitutive model for concrete based on associated plasticity theory and with emphasis placed on the pre-failure range. The constitutive model is based on a Drucker Prager yield surface augmented by a Rankine cut-o...

  18. Stochastic Properties of Plasticity Based Constitutive Law for Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    The purpose of this paper is to obtain a stochastic model for the parameters in a constitutive model for concrete based on associated plasticity theory and with emphasis placed on the pre-failure range. The constitutive model is based on a Drucker Prager yield surface augmented by a Rankine cut-o...

  19. Contemporary Perspectives on the Constitution and Separation of Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    A collection of essays designed to provide educators and other interested individuals with contemporary perspectives on the U.S. Constitution and separation of powers is presented. Separation of powers refers to one of the enduring principles of the U.S. constitutional system of government, in which governmental powers are subject to a division of…

  20. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL NATIONAL HEALTH... default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make full...

  1. Constitutionalism and conflict in Ternate, North Maluku, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Allegedly the oldest in Indonesia, and to some even beyond, the constitution treasured in the Kedaton (traditional palace) of the Sultan of Ternate (North Maluku, Indonesia) constitutes a dividing line between North and South Ternate in terms of government, ethnicity, and, spirituality. Moreover, it

  2. New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In September 2008 the three main political parties in Zimbabwe signed a Global Political Agreement (GPA), undertaking to engage in the development of a new democratic constitution of over the next 24 months. This project will feed into that process by promoting the inclusion of right to health in the new constitution.

  3. New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010. In September 2008 the three main political parties in Zimbabwe signed a Global Political Agreement (GPA), undertaking to engage in the development of a new democratic constitution of over the next 24 months. This project will feed into that process by ...

  4. The nuclear fuels tax is in conformity with constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehrmann, Ingo; Ringwald, Roman

    2012-01-01

    There are rulings by three courts of finance concerning the conformity of the nuclear fuels tax with German constitutional law. While the FG Hamburg and FG Munich were in some doubt, the FG Baden-Wuerttemberg was of the opinion that the nuclear fuels tax act is compatible with German constitutional law.

  5. the meaning of the provision of the 1996 constitution | Venter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of this notion in South African law and its meaning in general is ... be it of a private or public law nature, can escape the test of constitutionality. ... to international authorities and definitions of these concepts are developed. ... The Constitutional Court has determined that, although no express provision to this ...

  6. The emerging international constitutional order: the implications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This vision of an international constitutional model is inspired by the intensification in the shift of public decision-making away from the nation state towards international actors of a regional (for example EU) or functional (for example WTO, UN) nature, and its eroding impact on the notion of a “total” constitutional order, ...

  7. The Constitutionality of School Choice in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Charles G., III; Komer, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Does a "school choice" program, under which state funds are disbursed on a neutral basis to parents in the form of a voucher to defray the cost of sending their children to a school of their choice, run afoul of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, or of the New Hampshire Constitution? No. A…

  8. Legal Pluralism, Sharia Courts and Constitutional Issues in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... identity groups as long as they are in conformity with constitutional and human rights standards. Another option is to adopt a hands-off approach whereby the norms and practices of cultural and/or religious groups are permitted to operate and are not necessarily required to meet constitutional and human rights standards.

  9. Constitutional obligations of a person and a citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Ogurtsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Russian Federation does not contain the list of obligations, but theoretically each legal right is supposed to correspond to a legal obligation. Such conformity is achieved by means of attaching obligations not only by Constitution, but by the branch legislation either.

  10. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century...... the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  11. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    African antelope have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of meat production when compared with domestic .... Because juveniles can be differentiated from adults using BW, age differences in body ..... Meat and carcass by-products.

  12. The European Constitution: sovereignty, legitimacy and constituent power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Hannah Arendt’s and Carl Schmitt’s writings on the constituent power, this article sets out to develop an interpretative framework which would aid the understanding of the legitimation crisis of European integration initiated by the EU constitutional failure of 2004. The question raised in this essay is whether the successful establishment of democratic constitutional legitimacy is conditional upon the existence of a federal state. From the perspective of the constituent power, two opposing answers are given based on two rivalling notions of the ultimate meaning of constitutional politics: freedom and security. The article concludes that even though the EU as a case remains undecided, it seems likely that democracy and constitutional politics have parted ways in the EU both in the Arendtian and in the Schmittian sense. If that is the case, the constitutional crisis is a serious problem for the future of democracy in the EU.

  13. New Constitutionalism for Biosiversity vs. Neoconstitutionalism of Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carducci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2016v37n73p255 Based on an “eco-systemic” democracy that seeks to preserve biodiversity through the recognition of the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, the Andean Constitutionalism emerges as the expression of a counter-hegemonic constitutionalism committed to the construction of a new institutional framework through the inclusion of new participatory and intercultural mechanisms. Departing from western constitutional paradigms, this groundbreaking constitutionalism revisits the “Gaia hypothesis” and legitimizes a real “social contract” among the people and nature, and instead of considering it as an “object” of ownership, exploitation, or conservation, it regards nature as a legal “subject” and primary source of society itself and the Constitution as its “legal grantor and protector”.

  14. Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials Advances and New Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Zheng, Hong; Yao, Yangping

    2013-01-01

    The Second International Symposium on Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications (IS-Model 2012), is to be held in Beijing, China, during October 15-16, 2012. The symposium is organized by Tsinghua University, the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), the Committee of Numerical and Physical Modeling of Rock Mass, Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering, and the Committee of Constitutive Relations and Strength Theory, China Institution of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, China Civil Engineering Society. This Symposium follows the first successful International Workshop on Constitutive Modeling held in Hong Kong, which was organized by Prof. JH Yin in 2007.   Constitutive modeling of geomaterials has been an active research area for a long period of time. Different approaches have been used in the development of various constitutive models. A number of models have been implemented in the numerical analyses of geote...

  15. Cicero and the Mixed Constitution (res publica mixta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Sadek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The story of the mixed constitution is the story of the most stable and just constitution. In theory, this is a combination of at least two of the three elementary forms of government (monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, with some advantages that elementary forms may lack. It originated with the deliberation of Greek philosophers, who wanted to draw up a constitution safeguarding against the permanent variation of elementary constitutional forms and against coups d’état. For both Plato and Aristotle, the mixed constitution was, above all, the reflection of a search for balance between the two extreme forms of government, direct (Athenian democracy on the one hand and the exclusion of the people from governing on the other. The Greek theory was applied by the historian Polybius to the traditional tripartite constitution of the Roman republic. In his view, the consuls were monarchic elements, the senate an aristocratic element, and the comitia a democratic one. Cicero’s introduction of the idea of the mixed constitution in De re publica can only be understood in the light of the author’s personal situation and contemporary political circumstances. His political engagement at a time when the republic was gradually transforming into a monarchy aimed at restoring the important role of the nobility, represented by the senate. For Cicero, the mixed constitution was mainly an instrument for restoring the lost balance between the consuls, the senate, and the comitia, a last chance to save the decaying republic. The concluding part of the article addresses Alois Riklin’s recent discussion of the modern reception of the mixed constitution idea, which advances the controversial thesis that the paradigm of power division, the foundation of modern representative democracy, originates directly from the mixed constitution.

  16. The Constitutional Debate: A One Man Show? Václav Klaus and the Constitutional Discourse in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakušanová, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2007), s. 342-373 ISSN 1570-5854 Grant - others:VW Stiftung(DE) 218036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : European Constitutional Treaty * European constitutional ratification * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  17. Physical and mental health conditions of young college students with different Traditional Chinese Medicine constitutions in Zhejiang Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Heli; Zhu, Li; Chen, Zhiqiang; Jin, Huijuan; Jin, Lei

    2015-12-01

    To investigate Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) constitutions of youths in colleges, and their physical and mental health conditions of different TCM constitutions, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the TCM way to improve young people's physical and mental health. The Standard TCM Constitutions' Classification and Determination Questionnaire was used to measure the body health condition, and the Symptom Checklist 90 Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of the National Student Physical Health Standards were used to determine mental and physical health conditions respectively in 1421 young participants validly answering the questionnaires in Zhejiang Province. The participants had a mean age of 19.96 years (SD = 0.95 years) with the majority of females (55.10%). One fourth of the 1421 participants were the Ping-he constitution and others were the tendency constitutions. Participants with Pinghe module (which has characteristics of moderate posture, rosy, energetic and is a healthy condition in TCM) were healthier than those with tendency constitutions in physical and mental health, with 65.81 ± 7.83 (men) and 77.99 ± 7.24 (women) scores in the physical test and around 1.25 scores in the mental health test. College students with combined biased constitutions were more likely suffer force, sensitive, depression and anxiety. Most of college students have a tendency or biased constitution which could be more likely to suffer suboptimal health status and diseases. Youths in college themselves and health providers should pay more attention to their potential health issues and make proper healthcare plan according to their own TCM constitution.

  18. La légitimité de la Constitution dans la doctrine constitutionnelle japonaise The Legality of the Constitution in the Japanese constitutional Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Serverin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La Constitution japonaise, promulguée en novembre 1946 et entrée en vigueur en mai 1947, pose à la théorie constitutionnelle un certain nombre de problèmes qui ne sont toujours pas résolus. Adoptée sous occupation américaine, rédigée par les services du GHQ dirigés par le général MacArthur, la Constitution a en outre été promulguée comme une simple révision de la Charte impériale de 1889, dite Constitution de Meiji, alors que par les principes démocratiques nouveaux qu’elle instaurait, elle p...

  19. Possibilities for a constitutional embodiment of environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattenberger, D.

    1991-03-01

    The main topic is the question of adequacy and desirability of a constitutional rule for the protection of the environment with regard to the specific Austrian situation and the extensive discussion about this topic in German. As variants are discussed a human right of environment, objective categories of constitutional rules (constitutional aims of state's policy) and procedural or organisational rules. It begins with an explanation of the general responsibility of states in the field of environment protection and a determination of the term 'environment '. In respect of a human right first already guaranteed rights are examined for their relevance in the field of conservation with regard to the change in the understanding of human rights. Then arguments pro and against a specific right to environment are mentioned and appraised. With regard to the counter-arguments a subjective right should not be incorporated. A revision of the present concept of human rights would be necessary. Similar arguments are mentioned against the constitution of an objective norm in respect of some judicial decisions of the Austrian Constitutional Court. The problem of the protection of the environment will not be solved with a constitutional rule. It would raise new problems, which would damage the constitution as a fundamental order of human living together. (author)

  20. Prospects of the Constitutional State of Indonesia: Ideas and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Zoelva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia since its inception has asserted itself as a constitutional state. It may be inferred through the clear regulation related to powers and functions of each state institution in the form of checks and balances system, the protection of human rights, the clarity of the principles of democratic mechanism, as well as the guarantee of an independent judiciary. Although the constitution has been set in such a way, efforts to achieve a constitutional state is not an easy road. Nowadays, it seems that the trip of the Indonesian as a constitutional state was still hobbled. A variety of legal issues that disturb the sense of justice continues to emerge one after another. The outcomes of the research indicate that over the last decade, Indonesia has made many changes to realize the ideal of a constitutional state. As it turns out in practice, however, legal development was still far short from the expectations. The success of building a constitutional state can not be measured by the ability to produce legislation and to create or revitalize legal institutions. Moreover, the success of a constitutional state must also be measured by the implementation and law enforcement which able to create justice for all people. Therefore, the main focus of various studies of law and legal policy, must be oriented in the judicial institutions and law enforcement.

  1. Controversial constitutive TSHR activity: patients, physiology, and in vitro characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, S; Jaeschke, H; Schaarschmidt, J; Paschke, R

    2014-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute a large family of transmembrane receptors, which activate cellular responses by signal transmission and regulation of second messenger metabolism after ligand binding. For several of these receptors it is known that they also signal ligand-independently. The G protein-coupled thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is characterized by a high level of constitutive activity in the wild type state. However, little is known yet concerning the physiological relevance of the constitutive wild type TSHR activity. Certainly, knowledge of the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type receptor activity is necessary to better understand thyroid physiology and it is a prerequisite for the development of better therapies for nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Based on a literature search regarding all published TSHR mutations, this review covers several mutations which are clearly associated with a hyperthyroidism-phenotype, but interestingly show a lack of constitutive activity determined by in vitro characterization. Possible reasons for the observed discrepancies between clinical phenotypes and in vitro characterization results for constitutive TSHR activity are reviewed. All current in vitro characterization methods for constitutive TSHR mutations are "preliminary attempts" and may well be revised by more comprehensive and even better approaches. However, a standardized approach for the determination of constitutive activity can help to identify TSHR mutations for which the investigation of additional signaling mechanisms would be most interesting to find explanations for the current clinical phenotype/in vitro discrepancies and thereby also define suitable methods to explore the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type TSHR activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the constitutional right to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H J (Jaco Deacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context, and then proceeds to examine educators' right to strike as defined by the provisions of the Labour Relations Act. The unique implications of picketing in the education environment are then discussed, covering relevant questions such as where pickets may be held, the issue of picketing rules as well as unprotected pickets. Even though we are faced with a qualified right to strike as opposed to an unqualified right to education, the South African reality seems to be that striking teachers are handled with kid gloves. It is therefore concluded that the vast range of existing laws regulating protest action should be applied more effectively. One of the most important aspects should be the picketing rules, which should clearly determine whether picketing in fact contributes to resolution of the dispute, and how learners' interests and rights may best be actualised.

  3. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.

  4. Book review: Advanced Introduction to Comparative Constitutional Law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Martinez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tushnet presents a thoughtful introduction to the field of comparative constitutional law through a review of recent literature and an analysis of the key contemporary issues in constitutional design and structure. In the following lines a review of his book is presented.Book review of Mark Tushnet. Advanced Introduction to Comparative Constitutional Law. Cheltenham; Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014. ISBN (Hb 978 1 78100 731 0 £58.50, ISBN (Pb 978 1 78347 351 9 £12.76.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2887014

  5. A Mathematical Approach to Establishing Constitutive Models for Geomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-hua Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical foundation of the traditional elastoplastic constitutive theory for geomaterials is presented from the mathematical point of view, that is, the expression of stress-strain relationship in principal stress/strain space being transformed to the expression in six-dimensional space. A new framework is then established according to the mathematical theory of vectors and tensors, which is applicable to establishing elastoplastic models both in strain space and in stress space. Traditional constitutive theories can be considered as its special cases. The framework also enables modification of traditional constitutive models.

  6. Multistate and phase change selection in constitutional multivalent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboiu, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    Molecular architectures and materials can be constitutionally self-sorted in the presence of different biomolecular targets or external physical stimuli or chemical effectors, thus responding to an external selection pressure. The high selectivity and specificity of different bioreceptors or self-correlated internal interactions may be used to describe the complex constitutional behaviors through multistate component selection from a dynamic library. The self-selection may result in the dynamic amplification of self-optimized architectures during the phase change process. The sol-gel resolution of dynamic molecular/supramolecular libraries leads to higher self-organized constitutional hybrid materials, in which organic (supramolecular)/inorganic domains are reversibily connected.

  7. Study on the constitutive model for jointed rock mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    Full Text Available A new elasto-plastic constitutive model for jointed rock mass, which can consider the persistence ratio in different visual angle and anisotropic increase of plastic strain, is proposed. The proposed the yield strength criterion, which is anisotropic, is not only related to friction angle and cohesion of jointed rock masses at the visual angle but also related to the intersection angle between the visual angle and the directions of the principal stresses. Some numerical examples are given to analyze and verify the proposed constitutive model. The results show the proposed constitutive model has high precision to calculate displacement, stress and plastic strain and can be applied in engineering analysis.

  8. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  9. NHS constitution values for values-based recruitment: a virtue ethics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuizen, Johanna Elise; Callwood, Alison; Gallagher, Ann

    2018-05-17

    Values-based recruitment is used in England to select healthcare staff, trainees and students on the basis that their values align with those stated in the Constitution of the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, it is unclear whether the extensive body of existing literature within the field of moral philosophy was taken into account when developing these values. Although most values have a long historical tradition, a tendency to assume that they have just been invented, and to approach them uncritically, exists within the healthcare sector. Reflection is necessary. We are of the opinion that selected virtue ethics writings, which are underpinned by historical literature as well as practical analysis of the healthcare professions, provide a helpful framework for evaluation of the NHS Constitution values, to determine whether gaps exist and improvements can be made. Based on this evaluation, we argue that the definitions of certain NHS Constitution values are ambiguous. In addition to this, we argue that 'integrity' and 'practical wisdom', two important concepts in the virtue ethics literature, are not sufficiently represented within the NHS Constitution values. We believe that the NHS Constitution values could be strengthened by providing clearer definitions, and by integrating 'integrity' and 'practical wisdom'. This will benefit values-based recruitment strategies. Should healthcare policy-makers in other countries wish to develop a similar values-based recruitment framework, we advise that they proceed reflectively, and take previously published virtue ethics literature into consideration. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Constitution-specific features of perspiration and skin visco-elasticity in SCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Ku, Boncho; Jung, Chang Jin; Kim, Jaeuk U; Jeon, Young Ju; Kim, Keun Ho; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2014-01-15

    Human skin properties have been used as an important diagnostic component in traditional medicine as they change with health conditions. Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) puts emphasis on the recognition of the constitution-specific skin features prior to the diagnostic decision of health. In this work, in search of skin-characteristics effectively reflecting SCM features, we compared several skin properties such as perspiration, visco-elasticity, elasticity, and elasticity hysteresis, in several candidate body parts. We conducted a clinical study in which a total of 111 healthy females aged 50 - 70 years participated with their Sasang constitution (SC) types determined objectively by the Sasang constitutional analytic tool. Perspiration on the skin surface was estimated by using a capacitance sensor to measure the amount of moisture on the palm, forehead, and philtrum before and after a heating stimulus. We acquired the visco-elasticity, elasticity, and elasticity hysteresis at the forearm by Dermalab's elasticity sensing device. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to evaluate the effect of SC on the nine skin features acquired. The visco-elasticity of the forearm of the Soeum-in (SE) group was significantly lower than that of the Taeeum-in (TE) group (F = 68.867, p elasticity hysteresis of the SE group was higher than that of the TE group (F = 10.364, p elasticity, elasticity hysteresis, perspiration on the forehead and philtrum. Our findings are based on a novel interpretation of the SCM literature and will contribute to developing the constitutional health status evaluation system in SCM.

  11. The Teddy Bear Clinic Constitutional Court case: Sexual conduct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Teddy Bear Clinic Constitutional Court case: Sexual conduct between adolescent consenting children aged under 16 years decriminalised and a moratorium on the reporting duties of doctors and others.

  12. DyNAvectors: dynamic constitutional vectors for adaptive DNA transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clima, Lilia; Peptanariu, Dragos; Pinteala, Mariana; Salic, Adrian; Barboiu, Mihail

    2015-12-25

    Dynamic constitutional frameworks, based on squalene, PEG and PEI components, reversibly connected to core centers, allow the efficient identification of adaptive vectors for good DNA transfection efficiency and are well tolerated by mammalian cells.

  13. Pitfalls of Constitutionalism and Political Transformation in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... were the people of Northern Uganda region, where the defeated armies re- ..... power (Museveni 1989) was back-tracking to manipulate the constitution. .... is important to term limits because I know what my president believes ...

  14. Determination of brazed joint constitutive law by inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovato, G.; Moret, F.; Gallo, P. le; Cailletaud, G.; Pilvin, P.

    1993-01-01

    An important parameter often neglected for the calculation of residual stresses in brazed ceramic/metal assemblies is the joint constitutive law. In situ camber measurements on a model system (axisymmetric TZM/InCuSil ABA/316L samples) performed using a special vertical dilatometer during the whole brazing thermal cycle are compared with results of FEM calculations based on published filler metal constitutive laws. A strong disagreement is observed. Actual constitutive law of the joint is determined from these measurements using a numerical inverse method. Calculated displacements are fully consistent with experimental ones. True solidification temperature of the joint is determined. The identified constitutive law of the joint exhibits a low flow stress from solidification temperature to 320 C. (orig.)

  15. Limits of verification by the Federal Constitutional Court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The court of administration of Baden-Wuerttemberg passed a resolution on October 27,1983 - 10 S 1102/83 - dismissing the application to revoke the immediate implementation of the first partial construction permit for the joint nuclear power plant Neckar II. As the plaintiff thereupon lodged a complaint with the Federal Constitutional Court the resolution did not become effective immediately. However, the Federal Constitutional Court on October 1, 1984 decreed unanimously in accordance with the section 93a subsection 3 of the law on the Federal Constitutional Court - 1 BvR 231/84 -: ''The constitutional complaint lodged is not taken up for decision because its chances of success are nil.'' Thus the original decision of the court of administration of Baden-Wuerttemberg passed on October 27, 1983 was confirmed by the endorsement of its immediate implementation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Constitutional Law: Right of Privacy--Possession of Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, David E.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Supreme Court in Ravin v. State accepted the defendant's contention that the prohibition of possession of marihuana infringed on his constitutional right to privacy. The significance of the case is discussed. (LBH)

  17. A thermomechanical crystal plasticity constitutive model for ultrasonic consolidation

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a micromechanics-based thermomechanical constitutive model to simulate the ultrasonic consolidation process. Model parameters are calibrated using an inverse modeling approach. A comparison of the simulated response and experimental

  18. A constitutional critique on the regulations relating to artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... that a more rational premise on which to build future regulations would be to recognise .... information from the donor and ensure that, among other things, .... constitutional dispensation that ascribes to the value of autonomy.

  19. Study on the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Kazuhiko; Mutoh, Yasushi

    1983-01-01

    A creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X was obtained from available experimental data. A sensitivity analysis of this creep constitutive equation was carried out. As the result, the following were revealed: (i) Variations in creep behavior with creep constitutive equation are not small. (ii) In a simpler stress change pattern, variations in creep behavior are similar to those in the corresponding fundamental creep characteristics (creep strain curve, stress relaxation curve, etc.). (iii) Cumulative creep damage estimated in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case N-47 from a stress history predicted by ''the standard creep constitutive equation'' which predicts the average behavior of creep strain curve data is not thought to be on the safe side on account of uncertainties in creep damage caused by variations in creep strain curve. (author)

  20. Constitutive relation of concrete containing meso-structural characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    Full Text Available A constitutive model of concrete is proposed based on the mixture theory of porous media within thermodynamic framework. By treating concrete as a multi-phase multi-component mixture, we constructed the constitutive functions for elastic, interfacial, and plastic strain energy respectively. A constitutive law of concrete accommodating internal micro-cracks and interfacial boundaries was established. The peak stress predicted with the developed model depends primarily on the volume ratio of aggregate, and the results explain very well reported experimental phenomena. The strain-stress curve under uniaxial loading was found in a good agreement with experimental data for concrete with three different mixing proportions. Keywords: Constitutive model of concrete, Mixture theory of porous media, Meso-structure, Interfacial energy

  1. Mathematical modeling and the two-phase constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The problems raised by the mathematical modeling of two-phase flows are summarized. The models include several kinds of equations, which cannot be discussed independently, such as the balance equations and the constitutive equations. A review of the various two-phase one-dimensional models proposed to date, and of the constitutive equations they imply, is made. These models are either mixture models or two-fluid models. Due to their potentialities, the two-fluid models are discussed in more detail. To avoid contradictions, the form of the constitutive equations involved in two-fluid models must be sufficiently general. A special form of the two-fluid models, which has particular advantages, is proposed. It involves three mixture balance equations, three balance equations for slip and thermal non-equilibriums, and the necessary constitutive equations [fr

  2. Modernity, Rationality and Constitutional Law in Muslim-Majority Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    Are Islamic law, human rights and constitutionalism compatible? In answering this question, this paper first discusses the concept of modernity (understood in terms of rationality and standardization), analysing its abrupt implementation in the MENA countries and the role that the first modern...... constitutions played in institutionalising a new sort of dominion in the newly established states. Against this background, the paper discusses the relationship between constitutionalism and Shari’a law, presenting this as a clash between two competing normative visions that are conceptually difficult...... to reconcile and which each claim exclusivity and hierarchical superiority. The paper advocates for a deconstruction of the ideas of human rights and constitutionalism in order to allow for the incorporation of elements of Muslim traditions, thus challenging the understanding of human rights...

  3. Consumer Rights as Constitutional Rights - A Comparative Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    1984-07-24

    Jul 24, 1984 ... Therefore, denial of any aspect of development through voluntary or ... Convention on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) which is compulsory ..... Article 51 of the 1978 Spanish Constitution is an illustration of an.

  4. A constitutional critique on the regulations relating to artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... ARTICLE. It is a basic constitutional requirement that all legislation must be ... This article considers the regulations relating to artificial fertilisation .... Zola[6] defines 'medicalisation' as the 'process whereby more and more of ...

  5. Public Participation: What has the Constitutional Court given the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public Participation: What has the Constitutional Court given the public? ... Linda Nyati explores the duty to facilitate public participation in legislative processes in terms of ... This issue, the article demonstrates, is highly pertinent to citizens in ...

  6. ALL ABOUT WORDS ON THE PROCEDURE OF CONSTITUTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conclude that procedural rules, in essence, give effect (“life”) to the ends sought to be ... jurisdiction violates individual's constitutional appeal right. The decision ..... their argument is not fair, critical and logical when we see from the legal.

  7. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  8. Body / Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Schehr

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Unique object in the exchange-system, the gay body occupies a locus where a phantom identity and an imagined reciprocity define the poles of the subject-object relation. Made of the right stuff, it is an object circulating in a system that tends to reproduce the concept of identity in its search for mirror images of itself. Often rejected by the world, it has recently become a cynosure equated with sickness, pestilence, and death in the age of AIDS. The representations of that object change: no longer perceived as a part of libidinal economy, it has become a mass of symptoms, having changed from being an index of sexuality into being the visible dissipation of the flesh. The gay body in the age of AIDS is the mark of a pariah with the abject nature of the outcast. The body with AIDS takes the form of a text made of many signs and with many ways of reading the checkerboard pattern of the flesh. And the AIDS-narrative turns the body into the limit of the representable.

  9. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  10. Constitutional Court's Crisis Management of Akil Mochtar's Case

    OpenAIRE

    Uli Mediana, Cipta; Naryoso, S.Sos, M.Si, Agus

    2016-01-01

    The Constitutional Court is one of the state institutions that conduct independent judicial power to hold a court in order to enforce law and justice in Indonesia that became a proof of state agencies was also not spared from the crisis. The Chairman of the Constitutional Court in 2013, Akil Mochtar caught red-handed by the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) for allegedly receiving bribe money for handling election disputes Gunung Mas, Central Kalimantan and elections Lebak, Banten. Sinc...

  11. Constitutive relationships and models in continuum theories of multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R.

    1989-09-01

    In April, 1989, a workshop on constitutive relationships and models in continuum theories of multiphase flows was held at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of constitutive relationships for the partial or per phase stresses, including the concept of solid phase pressure are discussed. Models used for the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the phases in a multiphase flow are also discussed. The program, abstracts, and texts of the presentations from the workshop are included

  12. Human Rights in Armed Conflicts and Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Antonios Maniatis

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of both International Humanitarian Law and anti-piracy International Law on Constitutional Law. International Law is endowed with a rich set of norms on the protection of private individuals in armed conflicts and copes with the diachronic crime of maritime piracy, which may be considered as a private war in the high seas. Constitutional Law has been traditionally geared at two generations of fundamental rights. The paper will aim at a...

  13. A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, M.K.; Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Dynamic compressive constitutive relation and shearing instability of metallic neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huanran; Cai Canyuan; Chen Danian; Ma Dongfang; Hou Yanjun; Wu Shanxing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Dynamic constitutive relation of Nd was determined in first compression of SHPB. → Deformation of Nd in multi-compression of SHPB were recorded by high-speed camera. → Constitutive relation of Nd was adjusted in modeling large deformation of Nd. → Results of SDDM investigation of recovered Nd specimens showed shearing fracture. → Shearing instability of Nd was estimated with constitutive relation. - Abstract: Based on static tests on MTS and dynamic tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) during the first loading, this study determined the dynamic compressive constitutive relation of metallic Nd. Based on large deformations of metallic Nd specimens generated by the multi-compressive loadings during SHPB tests, and recorded by a high-speed camera, the results of numerical simulations for SHPB test processes were used to extend the determined constitutive relation from small strain to large strain. The shearing instability strain in dynamic compressive deformations of metallic Nd was estimated with the extended constitutive relation according to the criterion given by Batra and Wei, and was compared with the average strain of recovered specimens.

  15. Relationships among Constitution, Stress, and Discomfort in the First Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ling Wang

    2012-01-01

    trimester of pregnancy. We adopted a descriptive and correlational research design and collected data from 261 pregnant women during their first trimester in southern Taiwan using structured questionnaires. Results showed that (1 stress was significantly and positively correlated with Yang-Xu, Yin-Xu, and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions, respectively; (2 Yin-Xu and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort, while Yang-Xu had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort except for “running nose”; (3 Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitution and stress were two indicators for “fatigue”; Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi was the indicator for “nausea”; Yang-Xu and Yin-Xu were indicators for “frequent urination.” Our findings also indicate that stress level affects constitutional changes and that stress and constitutional change affect the incidence of discomfort. This research can help healthcare professionals observe these discomforts and provide individualized care for pregnant women, to nurture pregnant women into neutral-type constitution, minimize their levels of discomfort, and promote the health of the fetus and the mother.

  16. Constitutive Modelling of Resins in the Stiffness Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasztorny, M.

    2004-09-01

    An analytic method for inverting the constitutive compliance equations of viscoelasticity for resins is developed. These equations describe the HWKK/H rheological model, which makes it possible to simulate, with a good accuracy, short-, medium- and long-term viscoelastic processes in epoxy and polyester resins. These processes are of first-rank reversible isothermal type. The time histories of deviatoric stresses are simulated with three independent strain history functions of fractional and normal exponential types. The stiffness equations are described by two elastic and six viscoelastic constants having a clear physic meaning (three long-term relaxation coefficients and three relaxation times). The time histories of axiatoric stresses are simulated as perfectly elastic. The inversion method utilizes approximate constitutive stiffness equations of viscoelasticity for the HWKK/H model. The constitutive compliance equations for the model are a basis for determining the exact complex shear stiffness, whereas the approximate constitutive stiffness equations are used for determining the approximate complex shear stiffness. The viscoelastic constants in the stiffness domain are derived by equating the exact and approximate complex shear stiffnesses. The viscoelastic constants are obtained for Epidian 53 epoxy and Polimal 109 polyester resins. The accuracy of the approximate constitutive stiffness equations are assessed by comparing the approximate and exact complex shear stiffnesses. The constitutive stiffness equations for the HWKK/H model are presented in uncoupled (shear/bulk) and coupled forms. Formulae for converting the constants of shear viscoelasticity into the constants of coupled viscoelasticity are given as well.

  17. A continuum mechanics constitutive framework for transverse isotropic soft tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, D.; Jérusalem, A.; Garzon-Hernandez, S.; Zaera, R.; Arias, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a continuum constitutive framework for the mechanical modelling of soft tissues that incorporates strain rate and temperature dependencies as well as the transverse isotropy arising from fibres embedded into a soft matrix is developed. The constitutive formulation is based on a Helmholtz free energy function decoupled into the contribution of a viscous-hyperelastic matrix and the contribution of fibres introducing dispersion dependent transverse isotropy. The proposed framework considers finite deformation kinematics, is thermodynamically consistent and allows for the particularisation of the energy potentials and flow equations of each constitutive branch. In this regard, the approach developed herein provides the basis on which specific constitutive models can be potentially formulated for a wide variety of soft tissues. To illustrate this versatility, the constitutive framework is particularised here for animal and human white matter and skin, for which constitutive models are provided. In both cases, different energy functions are considered: Neo-Hookean, Gent and Ogden. Finally, the ability of the approach at capturing the experimental behaviour of the two soft tissues is confirmed.

  18. A three-dimensional constitutive model for shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Bo; Yoon, Sung-Ho; Leng, Jin-Song

    2009-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) has a wide variety of practical applications due to its unique super-elasticity and shape memory effect. It is of practical interest to establish a constitutive model which predicts its phase transformation and mechanical behaviors. In this paper, a new three-dimensional phase transformation equation, which predicts the phase transformation behaviors of SMA, is developed based on the results of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) test. It overcomes both limitations: that Zhou's phase transformation equations fail to describe the phase transformation from twinned martensite to detwinned martensite of SMA and Brinson's phase transformation equation fails to express the influences of phase transformation peak temperatures on the phase transformation behaviors of SMA. A new three-dimensional constitutive equation, which predicts the mechanical behaviors associated with the super-elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA, is developed on the basis of thermodynamics and solid mechanics. Results of numerical simulations show that the new constitutive model, which includes the new phase transformation equation and constitutive equation, can predict the phase transformation and mechanical behaviors associated with the super-elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA precisely and comprehensively. It is proved that Brinson's constitutive model of SMA can be considered as one special case of the new constitutive model

  19. Constitutional Principles of State Control in the Republic of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel K. Balayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article some of the provision of the RA Constitution’s basic principles of state control, which, in my opinion, should be guided by regulatory authorities during the inspection are discussed. These principles are considered by the author as the basis of the constitutionality of state control. Some of the control principles are divided by the author into positive and negative. Positive defines the principles that provide the freedom of action of man and citizen. Negative same principles are for government agencies, since they restrict their activities. A separate analysis is subject to the presidency on the basis of the principle of separation and balance of powers. In conclusion, author concludes that, based on the interpretation of the constitutional principles discussed, the term "law" applies only to natural and legal persons on the other hand can not be used as an analogue of the terms "authority" and "authority." According to the author, the fundamental constitutional principles of state control are expressed formally in a single system as defined in the first chapter of the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia. Compliance and reform of constitutional principles provide the synergy and the constitutionality of the process of governance.

  20. Nuclear phase-out a part of the German Constitution? On the political grammar of constitutional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerditz, Klaus Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    The study examines whether and to what extent the simple legal effected nuclear phase-out could be safeguarded in the Basic Law, which regulatory methods would be available, the advantages and disadvantages of these and how their effects would be assessed. In addition to political and practical consequences, this also includes considerations of democracy and constitutional theory in an overall consideration, which ultimately touches the question of the regulatory function of constitutional changes. [de

  1. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs

  2. The Constitutionality of a Biological Father's Recognition as a Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Louw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not

  3. The review of constitutional norms concerning local public administration in the view of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission)

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolache, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The proposals of the Commission to review the Constitution of Romania were subject to the analysis of experts from the European Commission for Democracy through Law (the Venice Commission), who expressed their opinion in a report adopted at the 98th plenary session of the European body. The article analyzes the recommendations of the Venice Commission regarding the proposed changes to the constitutional norms governing local public administration, comprising some general aspects concern...

  4. Constitutive Equation with Varying Parameters for Superplastic Flow Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhiping; Ren, Mingwen; Jia, Hongjie; Zhao, Po; Ma, Pinkui

    2014-03-01

    In this study, constitutive equations for superplastic materials with an extra large elongation were investigated through mechanical analysis. From the view of phenomenology, firstly, some traditional empirical constitutive relations were standardized by restricting some strain paths and parameter conditions, and the coefficients in these relations were strictly given new mechanical definitions. Subsequently, a new, general constitutive equation with varying parameters was theoretically deduced based on the general mechanical equation of state. The superplastic tension test data of Zn-5%Al alloy at 340 °C under strain rates, velocities, and loads were employed for building a new constitutive equation and examining its validity. Analysis results indicated that the constitutive equation with varying parameters could characterize superplastic flow behavior in practical superplastic forming with high prediction accuracy and without any restriction of strain path or deformation condition, showing good industrial or scientific interest. On the contrary, those empirical equations have low prediction capabilities due to constant parameters and poor applicability because of the limit of special strain path or parameter conditions based on strict phenomenology.

  5. Gospel and constitutional imperatives: the right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Giles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gospel and constitutional imperatives: the right to life In the Republic of South Africa, Christians are called to live out gospel imperatives within the legal framework of the Constitution. Ethical issues about the right to life are considered from the perspectives of selected gospel and constitutional imperatives. Gospel imperatives impose themselves as a consequence of Christian discipleship. These are many and diverse, both explicit and implicit. Christian vocation, discipleship, witness and perseverance, are foundational and integral to the praxis of Christian daily living. These facets of Christian life are illustrated by the selected gospel imperatives, “Follow me” (Matt. 4:19 and synoptic parallels, “Love God, and your neighbour as yourself” (Matt. 22:34-40 and synoptic parallels, and “Take up your cross” (Matt. 10:38 and synoptic parallels. The central theoretical argument of this article is driven from a reformed ethical perspective. Gospel imperatives have priority over constitutional imperatives since gospel imperatives are of divine origin and constitutional imperatives of human origin. Acknowledgement of these priorities informs the Christian ethical perspective on the right to life and on abortion.

  6. CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER, NATIONAL DEFENSE AND CI IL MILITARY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Navarro Meza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of its independent life, the several constitutions of Chile have included concepts related ith defence, sovereignty and national security. At the same time, those constitutional texts have recognized the existence of the armed organizations of the State, under the generic name of Public Force and have addressed their relation ith the political authorities, both ith the Executive and Congress. his has not been a permanent process. n the contrary, it has suffered upheavals and bac steps, but the general path has been clear and progressive. For one thing, the norms related to the armed forces have been, in comparative terms, more thoroughly developed than those referring to defence, sovereignty and national security. hen, from the 1833 Constitution, the basic elements of the relations bet een the political authorities and the military have evolved so as to ensure a genuine civilian control over the military, in line ith contemporary theories of civilDmilitary relations. he ay in hich the 1980 Constitution addresses national security and defence and its provisions that recognize the existence of the armed forces, their missions and roles and that regulate the ay in hich they relate to the political authorities, are the result of a progressive development starting ith the Provisional Constitution of 1811 up to present times, and they are completely in line ith current theories about civilDmilitary relations in democracy.

  7. Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Responses According to Sasang Constitution and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chaeweon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study was performed to compare the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin test reactions among groups with different sexes and Sasang constitutions. Methods: Between July 2012 and June 2013, all 76 patients who underwent bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests and Sasang constitution diagnoses at Oriental Medicine Hospital of Sangji University were included in this study. The skin test was performed on the patient’s forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of sweet bee venom (SBV on their first visit. If the patients showed a positive response, the test was discontinued. On the other hand, if the patient showed a negative response, the test was performed on the opposite forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of bee venom pharmacopuncture 25% on the next day or the next visit. Three groups were made to compare the differences in the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests according to sexual difference and Sasang constitution: group A showed a positive response to SBV, group B showed a positive response to bee venom pharmacopuncture 25%, and group C showed a negative response on all bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests. Fisher’s exact test was performed to evaluate the differences statistically. Results: The results of the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests showed no significant differences according to Sasang constitution (P = 0.300 or sexual difference (P = 0.163. Conclusion: No significant differences on the results of bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests were observed according to two factors, Sasang constitution and the sexual difference.

  8. Impossible body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusero, L

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY This play tells the story of one woman coming to terms with her "poly" identity through a journey into the multiple layers of love, race, sex, appearance and Otherness. The one-woman show Impossible Body was first performed for a reading series sponsored by "Onstage" at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in February 1997. A revised version was developed and staged at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington in April 1997. The current script, from which these excerpts are taken, was first presented at the Queer Studies Conference in Boulder, Colorado.

  9. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47 Ca and 85 Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51 Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK) [de

  10. Probabilistic estimation of the constitutive parameters of polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviour C.R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mulliken-Boyce constitutive model predicts the dynamic response of crystalline polymers as a function of strain rate and temperature. This paper describes the Mulliken-Boyce model-based estimation of the constitutive parameters in a Bayesian probabilistic framework. Experimental data from dynamic mechanical analysis and dynamic compression of PVC samples over a wide range of strain rates are analyzed. Both experimental uncertainty and natural variations in the material properties are simultaneously considered as independent and joint distributions; the posterior probability distributions are shown and compared with prior estimates of the material constitutive parameters. Additionally, particular statistical distributions are shown to be effective at capturing the rate and temperature dependence of internal phase transitions in DMA data.

  11. Representing people, constituting worlds: multiple 'Neolithics' in the Southern Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratos Nanoglou

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the diverse iconographic landscapes of the southern Balkans, especiallythose populated by human figurines. The main premise is that material culture is a resource upon which agents draw to situate themselves in the world. In this way, regional traits are deemed particularly important for the constitution of specific subjectivities, in contrast to a generic ‘Neolithic individual’, and at the same time, for the constitution of specific local worlds as opposed to an all-encompassing world that is merely experienced differently. I attempt to provide an example of such regional traits that would have constituted different contexts for agency during the Neolithic and focus on the differences between two regions within the southern Balkans, regions that do not remain the same in the course of time.

  12. A constitutive model for concrete under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suaris, W.; Shah, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    A continuous damage theory for the quasistatic and dynamic behaviour of concrete is presented. The continuous damage theory is rational choice for use in predicing the dynamic behaviour of concrete as the strain-rate effects that have been observed for concrete can to a large extent be attributed to the rate-sensitivity of the microcracking process. A vectorial representation is adopted for the damage to account for the planar nature of the microcracks in concrete. Damage is treated as an internal state variable influencing the free energy of the material and the constitutive equations and the damage evolution equations are derived consistently using thermodynamic considerations. The developed constitutive model is then calibrated by using test results in flexure and compression over a range of strain-rates. The constitutive model is also shown to be capable of predicting certain other experimentally observed characteristics of the dynamic response of concrete. (orig./HP)

  13. Lodging of a constitutional complaint. Reason: 'Permitted risk philosophy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The complainants lodged a constitutional complaint 'against the Federal German Bundestag, for remaining inactive in matters of the licensing and operation of nuclear installations', and filed a petition for a temporary order. The Federal Constitutional Court dismissed the petition and inflicted a fee of 500 DM to be paid by each complainant. From the headnotes: The petition is inadmissible. It is left open whether the underlying constitutional complaint is inadmissible, or unjustified. The petition is dismissed because the complainants can seek relief by resorting to the general courts of law. They can appeal to the administrative courts in matters covered by section 7 Atomic Energy Act, and may there state their opposition against the 'permissible risk philosophy'. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Enacting and Re-Enacting the Constitution of Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise; Clausen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Many companies find it difficult to enable radical innovation within the organization and its structure. The problem is described by many and tried solved by proposing of new development tools and processes or applying a different organizational structure and culture. This paper presents a case...... study that will show how there in a development company exits a constitution of development. This constitution of development is perceived as a set of development rules and guidelines that are implicitly enacted by the employees and for certain development opportunities. Through the case study we...... will present different strategies for re-enactment of the constitution of development that frame for alternative development spaces with perceived different rules, and therefor make space for the development of a more radical nature....

  15. Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing

  16. The cooperative identity in the cuban constitution. Currents challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Rodríguez Musa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work contribute with some valuations about the conception of the cooperative in the Cuban constitutionalism, with the purpose that the constitution can guide -like it corresponds- the legal implementation of the figure toward an integral perspective. To accomplish this goal, this article offers a characterization of the institution that illustrates about its identity. Then it analyzed the juridical dimension of the cooperative, pondering the different doctrinal postures that have tried to define its nature. Lastly, it argue that the current laws of the Cuban Constitution, influenced by a reduced conception of the institution, suffers some limitations that block the good use of the figure in a socioeconomic context in which it is called to transcend.

  17. Development of constitutive equations for nuclear reactor core materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.; Zaverl, F. Jr.; Plaza-Meyer, E.

    1980-01-01

    A set of strain rate dependent constitutive equations has been described which is capable of predicting deformation behavior of anisotropic metals under complex loading conditions with or without the presence of a neutron flux. The important feature of the constitutive equations is that they describe history dependent plastic deformation behavior of anisotropic metals under three-dimensional stress states. Since the analytical model accounts for the effect of prior deformation history at all times, it is capable of handling consecutive or simultaneous loading histories, such as post-irradiation loading, in-pile loading, etc. It is demonstrated that the general form of the constitutive relations is consistent with experimental observations made for Zircaloys under both unirradiated and irradiated conditions. (orig.)

  18. The Constitutional Reform in Romania after the 2009 Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Murphy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sets to analyse the issue of constitutional reform in Romania in the aftermath of the 2009 referendum which approved the transition to a unicameral legislature and the reduction of the number of its members to 300 at most. Accordingly, constitutional change should be made only in respect to the option expressed by the people, albeit only one of the two subsequent proposals of revision contained such provisions. In turn, the conflict between the President and the Parliament withheld any prospect of change for some time. Seven years on, the issue remains a sensible part of the debate, with the Constitutional Court previously ruling that the results of the referendum are binding although its deliberative nature prevents any direct entry into force.

  19. Study on the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mutoh, Yasushi

    1983-01-01

    In order to carry out the structural design of high temperature pipings, intermediate heat exchangers and isolating valves for a multipurpose high temperature gas-cooled reactor, in which coolant temperature reaches 1000 deg C, the creep characteristics of Hastelloy X used as the heat resistant material must be clarified. In addition to usual creep rupture life and the time to reach a specified creep strain, the dependence of creep strain curves on time, temperature and stress must be determined and expressed with equations. Therefore, using the creep data of Hastelloy X given in the literatures, the creep constitutive equation was made. Since the creep strain curves under the same test condition were different according to heats, the sensitivity analysis of the creep constitutive equation was performed. The form of the creep constitutive equation was determined to be Garofalo type. The result of the sensitivity analysis is reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. The leniency agreement: ananalysis of constitutional compatibility and legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon roberth sales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to analyze the institution of the Leniency Agreement, notably under the light of theAnticorruption Law provision (Law 12.846 of 2013and theRegulatory Decree 8.420 of 2015. At first, the leniency agreement will be widely studied, mainly within the North American system to, simultaneously, investigate it in the contextof the Anticorruption law. Next, its possible (in constitutionality will be refuted. Then, a parallel between Leniency Agreements and the dialogic Public Administration will be made, based on Habermas discursive theory. Finally, it will show that the Leniency Agreement constitutes a legitimate constitutional tool and, in addition, it configures as an effective consensual mechanism to fight corruption in a democratic soil.

  1. Globalisation of the National Judiciary and the Dutch Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the changing practices of the Dutch highest courts, the Hoge Raad and the Afdeling bestuursrechtspraak van de Raad van State, under the influence of globalisation, and the constitutional implications of this development. The increasing intertwinement of legal systems and the increasing possibilities for judges to interact with courts in foreign jurisdictions have stimulated the consideration of foreign legislation and case law in judicial decision-making in individual cases. An empirical study clarifies how the Dutch judges perceive the usefulness of legal comparisons in this context and how foreign law is used in deliberations and judgments. The constitutional implications of the changing practices of the courts are analysed in light of three aspects of the constitutional normative framework for judicial decision-making: the democratic justification of judicial decisions; legal tradition and the nature of cases; and the effectiveness and efficiency of judicial decision-making.

  2. BIOMETRIC INDICES OF CONSTITUTIONAL RISKS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA IN MALE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Е.A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the current study examines features and correlations of particular psychodynamic, dermatoglyphic characteristics and body constitution of men with paranoid schizophrenia. Study groups: 25 men having the "paranoid schizophrenia" (F20.0, 27 men having no mental diseases. Methods: psychodiagnostic tests (Hand test, the Big Five Inventory (BFI, anthropometry; dactyloscopy. Results: there were statistically significant differences in such personality factors as: extroversion and openness among two groups. Significantly smaller sizes of the chest and thigh circumferences were found in men with paranoid schizophrenia. The schizophrenic group exhibited higher frequency of "ulnar loop" and "double loop" finger pattern occurrence. Our study found a number of somato-psychic, dermato-psychic and dermato-somatic correlations, as well as correlations between personality factors and age. Conclusion: the examination of personality features correlated with markers of dermatoglyphic and body constitution helped to identify the predictors of risks for developing paranoid schizophrenia. This makes it possible the identification of at-risk groups with their monitoring and focusing on preventive programs

  3. Restrictions placed on constitutive relations by angular momentum balance and Galilean invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, K. R.; Srinivasa, A. R.

    2013-04-01

    In this note, we will show that for describing the response of a wide class of bodies, it is sufficient to invoke only the balance of angular momentum to obtain the restrictions on the constitutive functions that one obtains by appealing to frame indifference. While this result is known for hyperelastic materials (although it is not found in any standard text on the subject), we extend this result to classes of elasto-plastic and viscoelastic materials as well as for a class of implicit constitutive equations for viscous fluids. In particular, we show that for a class of bodies capable of instantaneous elastic response that is dictated by a stored energy function, the symmetry of the Cauchy stress alone is enough to obtain all the necessary restrictions. The result is related to Noether's theorem; if we know that there is a conserved quantity (i.e., angular momentum), we can then show that the energy function must be invariant under a group of transformations. For a class of generalized Newtonian fluids (including the Navier Stokes fluid and the Bingham fluid), the symmetry of the stress and Galilean invariance of the response functions are all that are required to obtain restrictions that are usually obtained by enforcing frame indifference.

  4. Using Constitutional Provisions to Advance Environmental Justice – Some Reflections on Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camena Guneratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of environmental justice and its potential applicability to developing countries such as Sri Lanka. It first considers the interpretation and application of the principle in its country of origin, the United States, where it is used primarily to address problems of discrimination in the context of pollution. The paper takes the view that while such an interpretation of environmental justice is valid in this particular context, it cannot address issues of environment and development that arise in countries of the global South, which are grappling with development processes. These processes give rise to issues that may be subject to judicial determination, including sustainable development, protection of natural resources, human rights and social equity. The principle must therefore be re-interpreted to encompass all these dimensions. This paper argues that such an expansion and implementation of the principle of environmental justice in a context of environment and development in countries such as Sri Lanka, is most effective within a constitutional framework of human rights. Constitutions provide both the substantive and procedural foundation of rights, which are interpreted, enforced and given validity at the highest level of the judicial process. Even where environmental rights per se are not contained in a constitution, the existing rights can be, and have been, re-formulated to address issues of environment and development and related human rights. This paper analyses constitutional rights in Sri Lanka, which although limited in scope, has nevertheless formed the basis of a wide body of jurisprudence which brings new dimensions to the principle.

  5. CONFLICT BETWEEN LEGAL OPINIONS OF ECHR AND NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL COURTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Nadtochey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of research is a relationship between ECHR and constitutional courts in various jurisdictions.The main aim of this article is to research the conflict between opinions of ECHR and national Constitutional courts, and also to find the root of this conflict.The methodology of this research consists of universal methods (such as analysis, synthesis, comparison and jurisprudence-specific methods.In the course of research, the author used various theoretical sources, ECHR case-law and decisions of various national Constitutional Courts.Results. At this point of time, there are many theories that try to explain the relationship between international and national law. But their functioning can be observed only in practice. Many jurisdictions adhere to the concept of Dualism.National Constitutional courts may perceive legal opinions in two different ways: adhere to the legal opinion of ECHR or reach a different conclusion, different to that of ECHR.Because national Constitutional courts and ECHR employ different systems for establishing whether rights of the claimant were violated or not, courts may give more weight to the different factors.In the article, the author focuses attention on such reason of the conflict as justification for limitation of one's rights.Conclusions. Conflict of legal opinions of ECHR and national Constitutional courts is of axiological nature. Conflict per se does not imply that a given national government decided to breach its international obligations. Because of subsidiary nature of ECHR protection, conflicts is rather an exception that could be dealt with than a rule.

  6. The British parliament: An effort towards the constitutional reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Irena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The British Parliament is the eldest representative assembly which inspired the development of most European parliamentary systems. This institution provides a framework for the Westminster model of democracy. The Parliament structure is based on bicameralism, including two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The two-chamber structure is an integral part of the British parliamentary system. During the last century, many reforms took place regarding the modernization of Parliament. Thus, the number of members of the House of Lord has been reduced in order to ensure more efficiency in the working procedures. However, the House of Commons is still 'the dominant House' given its capacity to recruit a political majority which is eligible to control the Cabinet. During the 20th century, several waves of reforms engulfed the traditional English parliamentarism and its 'unwritten' constitution. Although the reforms have yielded some results, they have not yet produced a constitution in the formal sense. The partially reformed Parliament has not lost the traditional supremacy it was initially vested under the original postulates of the parliamentary sovereignty doctrine. The great constitutional reform in the UK, initiated in 1997, has encompassed not only Parliament but also a vast array of other areas ranging from the state power organization to human rights. In this process, the British Parliament should exercise a dual function: as a subject of reform ('reformer', as well as an object of reform ('the reformed'. Undoubtedly, the United Kingdom has been facing one of the largest waves of constitutional reforms in its long history, which will sooner or later lead to a constitutional codification in the state whose system is still predominantly based on the historical and 'unwritten' constitution.

  7. European Crises of Legally-constituted Public Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2017-01-01

    . The dual (trans-)national re-constitution of Western Europe in the years immediately after the Second World War, which the European integration process was an integrated part of, successfully remedied this development. However, over the last decades, Europe has experienced a ‘turn to governance’, which......The ‘turn to corporatism’ in the interwar period implied an erosion of the fragile institutionalisation of legally-constituted public power due to its suspension of the legal infrastructure of society and the concomitant breakdown of the distinction between the public and private realms of society...

  8. Constitutional judge and presidential reelection in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cárdenas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional provisions regarding presidential re-election have been modified in several Latin American countries in recent years. In some countries, these changes put the existence of democracy at risk. This article uses the principal-agent approach to analyze the role of the constitutional judge in presidential re-election as an accountability mechanism. It finds that immediate reelection in democracies of strong presidentialism can be a perverse mechanism that sharpens the concentration of power and deteriorates the welfare of the citizens instead of making politicians accountable.

  9. Constitutional Crowdsourcing to Reconcile Demos with Aristos and Nomos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    it is framed, been liberal democracies or authoritarian states. Derrida stated there is a sort of “semantic indeterminacy” at the core of democracy and that constitutional crowdsourcing is a way to intervene in this indeterminacy. The Icelandic example enlightened that there is a way to mediate between....... The final segment of the paper aims to obtain different elements to improve the constitutional crowdsourcing to be considered in future constituent processes around the world. From a formal perspective the paper simulates a judgment between a Plaintiff Demos (representing “We the People” the entitled...

  10. [Study on the flavanone constitutes of Buddleja davidii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xue-Jing; Li, Chong

    2011-10-01

    To study the chemical constitutes of Buddleja davidii. The constitutes were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, polyamide column chromatography and macroporous absorption resin and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Seven compounds including Apigenin (1), Apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (2), Acacetin (3), Acacetin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside(4), Acacetin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), Luteolin (6), Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glueoside (7). All these compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  11. Are there reliable constitutive laws for dynamic friction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Jim; Putelat, Thibaut; McKay, Andrew

    2015-09-28

    Structural vibration controlled by interfacial friction is widespread, ranging from friction dampers in gas turbines to the motion of violin strings. To predict, control or prevent such vibration, a constitutive description of frictional interactions is inevitably required. A variety of friction models are discussed to assess their scope and validity, in the light of constraints provided by different experimental observations. Three contrasting case studies are used to illustrate how predicted behaviour can be extremely sensitive to the choice of frictional constitutive model, and to explore possible experimental paths to discriminate between and calibrate dynamic friction models over the full parameter range needed for real applications. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Constitution and magnetism of iron and its alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pepperhoff, Werner

    2001-01-01

    Iron played an important role in the development of the industrial society and has not lost any of its significance since today. This book provides the foundations of understanding the physical nature of iron and its alloys. Basics and recent developments concerning its constitution and magnetism are presented as well as its thermal properties. The exceptional role of iron with its wide spectrum of most different technological and physical properties relies on its versatility, its polymorphism of its crystal structure and its magnetism. Therefore it is the aim of the book to link together the constitution and magnetism of iron.

  13. Concrete creep at transient temperature: constitutive law and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chern, J.C.; Bazant, Z.P.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    A constitutive law which describes the transient thermal creep of concrete is presented. Moisture and temperature are two major parameters in this constitutive law. Aside from load, creep, cracking, and thermal (shrinkage) strains, stress-induced hygrothermal strains are also included in the analysis. The theory agrees with most types of test data which include basic creep, thermal expansion, shrinkage, swelling, creep at cyclic heating or drying, and creep at heating under compression or bending. Examples are given to demonstrate agreement between the theory and the experimental data. 15 refs., 6 figs

  14. Constitutive behaviour of mixed mode loaded adhesive layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, J.L.; Sørensen, Bent F.; Stigh, U.

    2007-01-01

    in the failure process zone. The constitutive behaviour of the adhesive layer is obtained by a so called inverse method and fitting an existing mixed mode cohesive model, which uses a coupled formulation to describe a mode dependent constitutive behaviour. The cohesive parameters are determined by optimizing......Mixed mode testing of adhesive layer is performed with the Mixed mode double Cantilever Bean? specimen. During the experiments, the specimens are loaded by transversal and/or shear forces; seven different mode mixities are tested. The J-integral is used to evaluate the energy dissipation...

  15. Rights of Minors and Constitutional Politics in the German Länder. Legal Framework, Party Strategies, and Constitutional Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses constitutional politics in the German Länder in the field of minors’ rights. Since this issue seems a purely legal matter dealt with at the federal, European and international level, we should expect similar, almost identically shaped policies at the Länder level. However, the analysis brings considerable variations of constitutional activities in this field to the fore: time, frequency, and contents of respective initiatives vary significantly in the period from 1999 to 2014. These variations were due to different party strategies, diverging party platforms and majority constellations in the Länder. The analysis also shows that the public arguments brought forward in favour of constitutional amendments refer only weakly and randomly to legal provisions and processes at other levels. The political debate supporting extended children's rights rather refers to general observations, to the specific regional context, and constitutional provisions in other Länder. At least with regard to this issue, the multi-level system did not systematically impact on constitutional politics in the Länder. It rather can be understood as an opportunity structure providing parties with multiple realms in which they can pursue their goals. Thus the study shows that federal and regional party strategies are key factors in explaining policy diffusion in multilevel systems.

  16. Economic and social rights in the Constitution of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapajić Milan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is an attempt of the author to, in a relatively systematic way, presents the norms of Economic and Social Rights in the Constitution of Serbia from 2006. Before that, in the introduction the author refers to the commonplace with regard to human rights and their institutionalization, constitutionalization and internationalization. The process of institutionalization of human rights was started in England by adoption of the Great Charter of Freedoms (Magna Carta Libertatum in 1215. Constitutionalization of human rights begins with the adoption of the first ten amendments to the US Constitution in 1791. French writers of the Constitution unlike the American in Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimed certain new rights such as freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, the right to free expression of thought, right to petition or freedom of culture. At first human rights were an asset to limit state power, but with new theories by which the state can not be seen only as a political organization, but as a community that has a socio-economic content, the state must guarantee to the citizens a certain corpus of economic and social rights by Constitution. Economic, social and cultural rights are classified as second generation of rights. Economic and social rights are directed to the fact that individuals are brought to the position that they can enjoy their civil and political rights. These rights, known as social welfare, are rights based on the principles of equality and solidarity, and their purpose is, inter alia, to help to the socially vulnerable members of the community. Constitutional act, which is important for the world the constitutional recognition of these rights is the Weimar Constitution from 1919. which predicted legislative measures to implement these rights. For the internationalization of these rights very important is Universal Declaration of Human Rights from 1948 and the International Covenant on

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  18. Subacromial bursitis with rice bodies. Finding in magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel Campos, E. de; Hernandez Moreno, L.; Lafuente Martinez, J.; Godoy Lopez, M.A.; Ruiz Noguero, P.

    1994-01-01

    We present a case of subacromial bursitis associated with intraarticular loose bodies, constituted by accumulations of fibrin referred to as rice bodies, in a woman with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. We demonstrate the clinical and imaging features of this disorder, especially stressing the magnetic resonance (MR) findings. The literature is reviewed. (Author) 14 refs

  19. Market and state in the vision of constitutional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Ion Popa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the general problem of the relationship between Market and State from Constitutional Political Economy perspective, a research program that has developed in recent decades within Public Choice Theory as a paradigmatic alternative to Welfare Economics of Keynesian extraction.

  20. Constitutional Challenge to Dormitory Residency Requirements: End of the Tunnel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Omer Lee, Jr.; Irving, Joe D.

    1976-01-01

    Since 1969 dormitory residency requirements have been under constitutional challenge. This discussion suggests a judicial trend supporting the requirements has been established. Housing administrators should note that not every requirement has been upheld and that the present trend is no guarantee against a future reversal of direction by the…

  1. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions : Progress since 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perehudoff, S. Katrina; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential

  2. The Teddy Bear Clinic Constitutional Court case: Sexual conduct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Constitutional Court in the Teddy Bear Clinic appeal case held that the sections of the Sexual Offences Act that impose criminal liability for sexual offences on adolescent children under 16 years of age are invalid. The invalidity was suspended for 18 months to allow Parliament to correct the Act's defects. A moratorium ...

  3. The Absolute and the Relative Dimensions of Constitutional Rights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2017), s. 31-47 ISSN 0143-6503 Keywords : constitutional rights * judicial review * proportionality Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law Impact factor: 1.242, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/ojls/article/37/1/31/2669583/The-Absolute-and-the-Relative-Dimensions-of

  4. Criminal adjudication by state courts under the FDRE constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... delegation power or as an original power. This article explores how the state courts are adjudicating federal criminal matters, and how the criminal adjudicative jurisdiction of the federal courts and state courts is compartmentalized. Keywords: jurisdiction, criminal adjudication, compartmentalization, constitution, federalism ...

  5. State Constitution Revision: An Exercise in Federalism and Sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses classroom activities designed to enhance student learning about federalism and sovereignty. Describes classroom discussions on jurisdiction, federalism, and sovereignty generated by asking students to clarify the constitutional section referring to the Writ of Habeas Corpus. Concludes that this exercise clarifies the concepts and…

  6. Constitutional aspects of the right to health care in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristan, I

    1995-01-01

    Certain aspects of the right to health care and the provision of health insurance and health services in Slovenia since its independence and adoption of a constitution in December 1991 are discussed. The dilemmas raised by conscientious objections by health care workers and the right to legal abortions are pertinently dealt with.

  7. 'The new constitutionalism': The global, the postcolonial and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Western Cape and Stellenbosch, and by the Research Unit for Legal and Constitu- .... tained fixity fail, but that very failure, that lack of and in language, makes ... really the English, constitution, that it has somehow existed immemori- ...... Lawson G Negotiated revolutions: The Czech Republic, South AJrica and Chile.

  8. Extended irreversible thermodynamics and the Jeffreys type constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdyukov, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    A postulate of extended irreversible thermodynamics is considered, according to which the entropy density is a function of the internal energy, the specific volume, and their material time derivatives. On the basis of this postulate, entropy balance equations and phenomenological equations are obtained, which directly lead to the Jeffreys type constitutive equations

  9. [Constitutional syndrome: clinical entity or a mixed bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Ortega, Saturnino; Puente-Fernández, Alicia; Santana-Baez, Sergio; Godoy-Díaz, Davinia; Serrano-Fuentes, Miriam; Sanz-Peláez, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue, anorexia and involuntary weight loss have been included under the term constitutional syndrome. These manifestations accompany many diseases in which the diagnosis is made by specific symptoms and signs. However, these events are generally the main reason for consultation and the patient does not report other specific data. This forces us to rigorously investigate the possible causes of the disorder. Usually, three manifestations coexist: asthenia, anorexia and weight loss, but sometimes the patient has only one or two of them. The causes of constitutional symptoms are varied and can be divided into three groups: psychiatric diseases, neoplasms and non-neoplastic diseases. The etiological identification is usually done with a simple protocol, which rules out malignancy; the rest of the cases of uncertain etiology are subject to evolution. The constitutional syndrome correlates well with good prognosis or medical functional processes. Although no clinical guidelines have been developed, score scales may help for the etiological assessment. Given the myriad of different causes of the constitutional syndrome, the treatment of this illness depends primarily on the etiology.

  10. Review of constitutive models and failure criteria for concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Young Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The general behavior, constitutive models, and failure criteria of concrete are reviewed. The current constitutive models for concrete cannot satisfy all of mechanical behavior of concrete. Among several constitutive models, damage models are recommended to describe properly the structural behavior of concrete containment buildings, because failure modes and post-failure behavior are important in containment buildings. A constitutive model which can describe the concrete behavior in tension is required because the containment buildings will reach failure state due to ultimate internal pressure. Therefore, a thorough study on the behavior and models under tension stress state in concrete and reinforced concrete has to be performed. There are two types of failure criteria in containment buildings: structural failure criteria and leakage failure criteria. For reinforced or prestressed concrete containment buildings, concrete cracking does not mean the structural failure of containment building because the reinforcement or post-tensioning system is able to resist tensile stress up to yield stress. Therefore leakage failure criteria will be prior to structural failure criteria, and a strain failure criterion for concrete has to be established. 120 refs., 59 figs., 1 tabs. (Author)

  11. Constitutional Issues: Separation of Powers. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    The United States subscribes to the original premise of the framers of the Constitution that the way to safeguard against tyranny is to separate the powers of government among three branches so that each branch checks the other two. At no time in the 20th century was the devotion to that principle more vigorously evoked than in 1937, when…

  12. Justice: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The third in this special series on constitutional themes, this document focuses on justice. "Due Process: What Is It?" (P. McGuire) examines the concept of due process as provided in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments and provides lesson plans for a five-day unit on that topic. "Making Government Fair" (G. Galland) explains…

  13. Judges as Fiscal Activists: Can Constitutional Review Shape Public Finance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantorowicz Jarosław

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The judicialization of politics, or alternatively, politization of the judiciary has been much discussed over the last twenty years. Despite this, the way judges influence fiscal policy outcomes remains, to a large extent, unexplored. This paper attempts, at least partially, to fill this research gap. A judicial (constitutional review constitutes the central element of the current analysis since it is considered as a key institutional device through which Constitutional (Supreme Courts intervene in politics, including public finance. Specifically, this paper seeks to investigate empirically whether there is any systematic pattern according to which judges executing judicial review shape fiscal outcomes. The conceptual framework is based on the strategic interaction model and the assumption that the Constitutional Courts reflect public opinion (i.e. the Court as a majoritarian institution. Some preliminary results for a panel of 24 EU countries in the period 1995–2005 suggest that a strong judicial review correlates with a smaller size of government, measured as government income to GDP.

  14. Constitutive modeling of multiphase materials including phase transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Khan, A.S.; Meredith, C; Farrokh, B

    2011-01-01

    A constitutive model is developed for materials involving two or more different phases in their microstructure such as DP (Dual Phase) or TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity) steels. Homogenization of the response of the phases is achieved by the Mean-Field method. One of the phases in TRIP

  15. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Manzanares, P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  16. Constitutional Basis for the Enforcement of ''Executive'' Policies that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although "executive" policies remain an important governance tool, there appears to be confusion on the status and possible basis for their judicial enforcement in South Africa. The aim of this article is to critically reflect on the status and possible constitutional basis for the enforceability of "executive" policies that give effect ...

  17. Structure and Calibration of Constitutive Equations for Granular Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawicki Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The form of incremental constitutive equations for granular soils is discussed for the triaxial configuration. The classical elasto-plastic approach and the semi-empirical model are discussed on the basis of constitutive relations determined directly from experimental data. First, the general structure of elasto-plastic constitutive equations is presented. Then, the structure of semiempirical constitutive equations is described, and a method of calibrating the model is presented. This calibration method is based on a single experiment, performed in the triaxial apparatus, which also involves a partial verification of the model, on an atypical stress path. The model is shown to give reasonable predictions. An important feature of the semi-empirical incremental model is the definition of loading and unloading, which is different from that assumed in elasto-plasticity. This definition distinguishes between spherical and deviatoric loading/unloading. The definition of deviatoric loading/unloading has been subject to some criticism. It was therefore discussed and clarified in this paper on the basis of the experiment presented.

  18. BILF1 Mediated Transformation Correlates with Constitutive Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaa, Rikke Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    BIFL1 is a G protein-coupled receptor encoded by human EBV. It signals constitutively through G_alpha_i and is an orphan receptor known to down regulate MHCI expression. BILF1 also engage in dimerization with several chemokine receptors and it induced the activity of NF-kappa beta and inhibits...

  19. 1 CHILDREN'S RIGHTS IN THE SOUTH-AFRICAN CONSTITUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    1994-04-27

    Apr 27, 1994 ... In order to fathom the impact of the Constitution upon the rights of children, a ... state.' As this provision is self-explanatory, no further attention will be paid to it ...... Every child's birth must be registered in terms of the Births and.

  20. The constitutional right to freedom of expression: How enforceable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    have been directly affected by the need to ensure that their operations and rules are constitutionally and legislatively compatible. .... decisions about dress in the educational context of the school. .... time, until she was paid at the end of the month, to purchase the shoes ..... The Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair.

  1. Polynomial constitutive model for shape memory and pseudo elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savi, M.A.; Kouzak, Z.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports an one-dimensional phenomenological constitutive model for shape memory and pseudo elasticity using a polynomial expression for the free energy which is based on the classical Devonshire theory. This study identifies the main characteristics of the classical theory and introduces a simple modification to obtain better results. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  2. Constitutive basis of the MDCF model for rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.; Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    All valid constitutive equations must satisfy two general invariance principles as well several other principles. In this paper the MDCF (Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture) model for rock salt is shown to be thermodynamically consistent, coordinate invariant, frame indifferent, and physically admissible. Additionally, the stress rates used in the formulation are shown to be kinematically consistent with the Cauchy stress rates

  3. 43 CFR 1.5 - Signature to constitute certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., or otherwise, while so employed and, if a period of one year has not passed since the termination of... representative capacity signs a paper in practice before the Department, his signature shall constitute his... officer or employee of the Government; and (d) That he has read the paper; that to the best of his...

  4. The constitutional right to freedom of expression: how enforceable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reaching consequences on society. As organs of state, schools have been directly affected by the need to ensure that their operations and rules are constitutionally and legislatively compatible. Human rights do not exist purely as an ideal but must ...

  5. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  6. An Integrated Theory of Constitutionalism in World Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    is formal organisations as such and not the particular type of formal organisation which is associated with statehood. Thus, they can be public or private, national or transnational. On this background, a distinction is introduced between the internal setup of constitutional orders, the external strive...

  7. The Practice of Informal Changes to the Ethiopian Constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigussie Afesha

    there are time-honoured practices that regulate and continue to guide the course of ... Boston College Law School”, Legal Studies Research Paper Series, No, 327 p. 1062. .... The first section deals with conceptual and theoretical frameworks of ... of the political community.24 For this reason, every constitution must provide.

  8. De Vos NO v Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Section 35 of the Constitution protects an accused's right to a fair trial. In order for an accused to make a substantial defence, both his physical and his mental presence is required in court. The incapacity of an accused person to understand criminal proceedings in a court will affect his right to a fair trial. Section 77 of the ...

  9. Target Soil Impact Verification: Experimental Testing and Kayenta Constitutive Modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, Gregory Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newell, Pania [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report details experimental testing and constitutive modeling of sandy soil deformation under quasi - static conditions. This is driven by the need to understand constitutive response of soil to target/component behavior upon impact . An experimental and constitutive modeling program was followed to determine elastic - plastic properties and a compressional failure envelope of dry soil . One hydrostatic, one unconfined compressive stress (UCS), nine axisymmetric compression (ACS) , and one uniaxial strain (US) test were conducted at room temperature . Elastic moduli, assuming isotropy, are determined from unload/reload loops and final unloading for all tests pre - failure and increase monotonically with mean stress. Very little modulus degradation was discernable from elastic results even when exposed to mean stresses above 200 MPa . The failure envelope and initial yield surface were determined from peak stresses and observed onset of plastic yielding from all test results. Soil elasto - plastic behavior is described using the Brannon et al. (2009) Kayenta constitutive model. As a validation exercise, the ACS - parameterized Kayenta model is used to predict response of the soil material under uniaxial strain loading. The resulting parameterized and validated Kayenta model is of high quality and suitable for modeling sandy soil deformation under a range of conditions, including that for impact prediction.

  10. League Constitution and Bylaws for Girls' Interscholastic Programs (Suggested Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mary Ann

    This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…

  11. Robotic and Multiaxial Testing for the Constitutive Characterization of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Michopoulos; Athanasios Iliopoulos; John Hermanson

    2012-01-01

    As wind energy production drives the manufacturing of wind turbine blades, the utilization of glass and carbon fiber composites as a material of choice continuousiy increases. Consequently, the needs for accurate structural design and material qualification and certification as well as the needs for aging predictions furlher underline the need for accurate constitutive...

  12. Multiaxial probabilistic elastic-plastic constitutive simulations of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrinezhad, Arezoo

    Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation approach has recently been developed to simulate elastic-plastic constitutive behaviors of materials with uncertain material properties. The FPK equation approach transforms the stochastic constitutive rate equation, which is a stochastic, nonlinear, ordinary differential equation (ODE) in the stress-pseudo time space into a second-order accurate, deterministic, linear FPK partial differential equation (PDE) in the probability density of stress-pseudo time space. This approach does not suffer from the drawbacks of the traditional approaches such as the Monte Carlo approach and the perturbation approach for solving nonlinear ODEs with random coefficients. In this study, the existing one dimensional FPK framework for probabilistic constitutive modeling of soils is extended to multi--dimension. However, the multivariate FPK PDEs cannot be solved using the traditional mathematical techniques such as finite difference techniques due to their high computational cost. Therefore, computationally efficient algorithms based on the Fourier spectral approach are developed for solving a class of FPK PDEs that arises in probabilistic elasto-plasticity. This class includes linear FPK PDEs in (stress) space and (pseudo) time - having space-independent but time-dependent, and both space- and time-dependent coefficients - with impulse initial conditions and reflecting boundary conditions. The solution algorithms, rely on first mapping the stress space of the governing PDE between 0 and 2pi using the change of coordinates rule, followed by approximating the solution of the PDE in the 2pi-periodic domain by a finite Fourier series in the stress space and unknown time-dependent solution coefficients. Finally, the time-dependent solution coefficients are obtained from the initial condition. The accuracy and efficiency of the developed algorithms are tested. The developed algorithms are used to simulate uniaxial and multiaxial, monotonic and cyclic

  13. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  14. A PLEADING IN FAVOUR OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina BĂRBĂŢEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the European countries have chosen the centralized system of constitutional review, performed by a unique authority empowered with the competence of removing from the normative ensemble those legal provisions that do not comply with the principles and rules comprised in the Basic Law. This „European model” has proved to be more appropriate than the so-called „American model” in what concerns the compatibility with the European jurisdictional mechanism. Romania has adopted the same European trend and the Constitutional Court has become a very important actor in the Romanian legal landscape. From the very beginning of its activity, it has influenced in a great measure the national normative system. It has been sometimes criticized and accused that it interferes in an excessive way in the legislative process. Due to its competence to regulate the juridical conflicts between the public authorities and its possibility to repeal laws before their promulgation, it has been many times in the centre of heavy attacks, mostly from different political forces, often driven through mass media. Nevertheless, despite of its detractors, the Constitutional Court has proven, over the years, its ability to develop the Romanian normative system. The present paper intends to display the most significant contribution of the Romanian Constitutional Court in improving various legal regulations. In the same time and much more important, using concrete examples from the Court’s case-law, the paper also intends to demonstrate that the Constitutional Court of Romania has been a major factor of improving peoples’ life, removing unconstitutional obstacles set in front of the unimpeded exercise of their fundamental rights and freedoms.

  15. Latitudinal Gradients in Induced and Constitutive Resistance against Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstett, Daniel N; Chen, Wen; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-08-01

    Plants are hypothesized to evolve increased defense against herbivores at lower latitudes, but an increasing number of studies report evidence that contradicts this hypothesis. Few studies have examined the evolution of constitutive and induced resistance along latitudinal gradients. When induction is not considered, underlying patterns of latitudinal clines in resistance can be obscured because plant resistance represents a combination of induced and constitutive resistance, which may show contrasting patterns with latitude. Here, we asked if there are latitudinal gradients in constitutive versus induced resistance by using genotypes of Oenothera biennis (Onagraceae) sampled along an 18° latitudinal gradient. We conducted two bioassay experiments to compare the resistance of plant genotypes against one generalist (Spodoptera exigua) and one specialist (Acanthoscelidius acephalus) herbivore. These insects were assayed on: i) undamaged control plants, ii) plants that had been induced with jasmonic acid, and iii) plants induced with herbivore damage. Additionally, we examined latitudinal gradients of constitutive and induced chemical resistance by measuring the concentrations of total phenolics, the concentration of oxidized phenolics, and the percentage of phenolics that were oxidized. Spodoptera exigua showed lower performance on plants from lower latitudes, whereas A. acephalus showed no latitudinal pattern. Constitutive total phenolics were greater in plants from lower latitudes, but induced plants showed higher total phenolics at higher latitudes. Oxidative activity was greatest at higher latitudes regardless of induction. Overall, both latitude and induction have an impact on different metrics of plant resistance to herbivory. Further studies should consider the effect of induction and herbivore specialization more explicitly, which may help to resolve the controversy in latitudinal gradients in herbivory and defense.

  16. 15 years of constitutional review in the Supreme Court of Estonia : systematized extracts of constitutional review judgments and rulings of the Supreme Court en banc and the Constitutional Review Chamber in 1993-2008 / Riigikohus ; toim. ja eess.: Ge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The outset of judicial constitutional review / Rait Maruste. Judicial constitutional review at the turn of the century / Uno Lõhmus. Judicial constitutional review through the eyes of Chancellor of Justice / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli. The courts and the Supreme Court in concrete norm control / Madis Ernits

  17. Social pacts and Constitutional Justice: A comparative approach between Korea and Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo González Quintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last quarter of the twentieth century, new constitutions were adopted in South Korea and Colombia and these documents established constitutional courts. Thus, under specific circumstances of institutional crisis, two societies and their leaders embraced the task of overcoming said crisis through the enactment of a new constitution. The establishment of constitutional courts entailed the validity towards the future of the reached constitutional consensus,as the successful way to surpass the prior crisis. The new constitutions at our countries are perceived as the reformulation of the social compact, and the constitutional courts play a constant and noteworthy function as they actualize said democratic-constitutional compact.

  18. Constitutive and Operational Variation of Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Learning is widely documented across animal taxa but studies stringently scrutinizing the causes of constitutive or operational variation of learning among populations and individuals are scarce. The ability to learn is genetically determined and subject to constitutive variation while the performance in learning depends on the immediate circumstances and is subject to operational variation. We assessed variation in learning ability and performance of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii, caused by population origin, rearing diet, and type of experience. Using an early learning foraging paradigm, we determined that homogeneous single prey environments did not select for reduced learning ability, as compared to natural prey-diverse environments, whereas a multi-generational pollen diet resulted in loss of learning, as compared to a diet of live prey. Associative learning produced stronger effects than non-associative learning but both types of experience produced persistent memory. Our study represents a key example of environmentally caused variation in learning ability and performance.

  19. Elements of Constitutive Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Frictional Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    of a constitutive model for soil is based on a profound knowledge of the soil behaviour upon loading. In the present study it is attempted to get a better understanding of the soil behaviour bv performing a number of triaxial compression tests on sand. The stress-strain behaviour of sand depends strongly......This thesis deals with elements of elasto-plastic constitutive modelling and numerical analysis of frictional soils. The thesis is based on a number of scientific papers and reports in which central characteristics of soil behaviour and applied numerical techniques are considered. The development...... and subsequently dilates during shear. The change in the volumetric behaviour of the soil skeleton is commonly referred to as the characteristic state. The stress ratio corresponding to the characteristic state is independent of the mean normal effective stress and the relative density, but depends on the stress...

  20. Dynamic nanoplatforms in biosensor and membrane constitutional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Eugene; Aastrup, Teodor; Barboiu, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    Molecular recognition in biological systems occurs mainly at interfacial environments such as membrane surfaces, enzyme active sites, or the interior of the DNA double helix. At the cell membrane surface, carbohydrate-protein recognition principles apply to a range of specific non-covalent interactions including immune response, cell proliferation, adhesion and death, cell-cell interaction and communication. Protein-protein recognition meanwhile accounts for signalling processes and ion channel structure. In this chapter we aim to describe such constitutional dynamic interfaces for biosensing and membrane transport applications. Constitutionally adaptive interfaces may mimic the recognition capabilities intrinsic to natural recognition processes. We present some recent examples of 2D and 3D constructed sensors and membranes of this type and describe their sensing and transport capabilities.

  1. Constitutional equations of thermal stresses of particle-reinforced composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, Atsushi; Noda, Naotake; Tohgo, Keiichiro; Tsuji, Tomoaki.

    1994-01-01

    Functionally gradient materials (FGM) have been developed as ultrahigh-heat-resistant materials in aircraft, space engineering and nuclear fields. In the heat-resistant FGM which contain particles (ceramics) in the matrix (metal), the matrix will be subjected to plastic deformation, particles will be debonded, and finally cracks will be generated. The constitutive equations of FGM which take into account the damage process and change in temperature are necessary in order to solve these phenomena. In this paper, the constitutive equations of particle-reinforced composites with consideration of the damage process and change in temperature are estimated by the equivalent inclusion method in terms of elastoplasticity. The stress-strain relations and the coefficients of linear thermal expansion of the composites (Al-PSZ and Ti-PSZ) are calculated in ultrahigh temperature. (author)

  2. Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.

  3. Nuclear waste management and problems arising from constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the problems arising in the field of nuclear waste management on account of the constitutional law. Especially the difficulties emanating from the conflict between the provisions of section 9a of the Atomic Energy Act and the provisions of constitutional law are dealt with in detail, referring to the monography of H. Hofmann, 'legal aspects of nuclear waste management'. The author comes to the conclusion that the reqquirements laid down in section 9a-9c of the Atomic Energy Act are in agreement with the Basic law. There is, he says, no unreasonable risk for future generations, as the provisions of the nuclear law provide for sufficient safety of sites and equipment selected for the final storage of nuclear waste, ensuring that radioactive leakage is excluded over long periods of time. In the second part of his lecture, the author discusses the problem of competency and delegation of authority with regard to the reprocessing of radioactive waste. (BW) [de

  4. Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc; Koh, Byung Hee

    2011-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora. PMID:21949669

  5. Simulating sympathetic detonation using the hydrodynamic models and constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Hoon; Kim, Min Sung; Yoh, Jack J. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Tae Boo [Hanwha Corporation Defense Rand D Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A Sympathetic detonation (SD) is a detonation of an explosive charge by a nearby explosion. Most of times it is unintended while the impact of blast fragments or strong shock waves from the initiating donor explosive is the cause of SD. We investigate the SD of a cylindrical explosive charge (64 % RDX, 20 % Al, 16 % HTPB) contained in a steel casing. The constitutive relations for high explosive are obtained from a thermo-chemical code that provides the size effect data without the rate stick data typically used for building the rate law and equation of state. A full size SD test of eight pallet-packaged artillery shells is performed that provides the pressure data while the hydrodynamic model with proper constitutive relations for reactive materials and the fragmentation model for steel casing is conducted to replicate the experimental findings. The work presents a novel effort to accurately model and reproduce the sympathetic detonation event with a reduced experimental effort.

  6. Application of viscoplastic constitutive equations in finite element programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornberger, K.; Stamm, H.

    1987-04-01

    The general mathematical formulation of frequently used viscoplastic constitutive equations is explained and Robinson's model is discussed in more detail. The implementation of viscoplastic constitutive equations into Finite Element programs (such as ABAQUS) is described using Robinson's model as an example. For the numerical integration both an explicit (explicit Euler) and an implicit (generalized midpoint rule) integration scheme is utilized in combination with a time step control strategy. In the implicit integration scheme, convergence in solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equation is improved introducing a projection method. The efficiency of the implemented procedures is demonstrated for different homogeneous load cases as well as for creep loading and strain controlled cyclic loading of a perforated plate. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Constitutive model and electroplastic analysis of structures under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lei, Y; Du, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Many engineering structures in nuclear reactors, thermal power stations, chemical plants and aerospace vehicles are subjected to cyclic mechanic-thermal loading, which is the main cause of structural fatigue failure. Over the past twenty years, designers and researchers have paid great attention to the research on life prediction and elastoplastic analysis of structures under cyclic loading. One of the key problems in elastoplastic analysis is to construct a reasonable constitutive model for cyclic plasticity. In the paper, the constitutive equations are briefly outlined. Then, the model is implemented in a finite element code to predict the response of cyclic loaded structural components such as a double-edge-notched plate, a grooved bar and a nozzle in spherical shell. Numerical results are compared with those from other theories and experiments

  8. Hierarchical representation and utilization of plant constitution knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Y.; Asami, K.

    1990-01-01

    A method to represent and utilize plant constitution knowledge is described. A plant system is divided into many subsystems and hierarchically represented using frames. The frames include the slots of an upper-system, lower-systems and components' connections. Connections are divided into subsystems external connections and internal connections. This knowledge representation allows top-down analysis of the plant constitution and components' connectivities. The data are edited by drawing plant diagrams on a CRT and converting them into frames. The frame data area verified by checking upper-lower relationships and components' connectivities. As an example of knowledge utilization a method to find a components' connection route is described. This method prevents the combinatorial explosion of components' connections by finding rough routes in advance of detailed route analysis

  9. Time-Delay Effects on Constitutive Gene Expression*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan-Ling; Wang Dan; Tang Xu-Lei; Dong Jian-Min

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of constitutive gene expression with delayed mRNA degradation is investigated, where the intrinsic noise caused by the small number of reactant molecules is introduced. It is found that the oscillatory behavior claimed in previous investigations does not appear in the approximation of small time delay, and the steady state distribution still follows the Poisson law. Furthermore, we introduce the extrinsic noise induced by surrounding environment to explore the effects of this noise and time delay on the Fano factor. Based on a delay Langevin equation and the corresponding Fokker–Planck equation, the distribution of mRNA copy-number is achieved analytically. The time delay and extrinsic noise play similar roles in the gene expression system, that is, they are able to result in the deviation of the Fano factor from 1 evidently. The measured Fano factor for constitutive gene expression is slightly larger than 1, which is perhaps attributed to the time-delay effect. (paper)

  10. Constitutional provisions on judicial independence and EU standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaković-Bojović Milica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the 'Checks and balances' principle as one of the milestones in modern democracies, demonstrates its full complexity when it comes to balancing guaranties of judicial independence and the need to prevent misinterpretation or abuse of the rights. Additional issue in that process is determination of the border line between constitutional and guaranties of judicial independence prescribed by law. Raising that issue opens various questions which go beyond the legal framework itself. It actually tackles the historical, political and cultural country background. Furthermore, if analyzed from the prospective of the requirements defined in the accession negotiation process with the EU, constitutional guaranties of (nonapplication of the EU standards might demotivate candidate countries in their efforts to achieve substantial reform results.

  11. Constitutional Block Effects of prescription of penal prosecution in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andrés Fajardo Arturo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, the articles 93, 94 and 214 of the Constitutional Charter create a bridge of implementation through the International Law of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law are integrated into the Colombian law under the figure of the Constitutional Bloc . The main effect of this is to adapt the internal law to the international obligations of the State, and consequently, the evolution in the protection and guarantee of human rights domestically.However, the implementation process can generate complex problems that arise, for example, the contradictions between the rules of law which are based on legal principles rooted in the country and the bloc of of constitutionality’s rules. The case of prescription of prosecution in Colombia is a complex case, but international norms is evident in the existence of a rule on the applicability of prosecution of war crimes and crimes against humanity. This article is the conclusion of a balance of the principles found there.

  12. A thermomechanical crystal plasticity constitutive model for ultrasonic consolidation

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present a micromechanics-based thermomechanical constitutive model to simulate the ultrasonic consolidation process. Model parameters are calibrated using an inverse modeling approach. A comparison of the simulated response and experimental results for uniaxial tests validate and verify the appropriateness of the proposed model. Moreover, simulation results of polycrystalline aluminum using the identified crystal plasticity based material parameters are compared qualitatively with the electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) results reported in the literature. The validated constitutive model is then used to simulate the ultrasonic consolidation process at sub-micron scale where an effort is exerted to quantify the underlying micromechanisms involved during the ultrasonic consolidation process. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Right to life in constitution: An ecological view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the right to life from the specific ecological view. Actually, it is analysing the relationship between two human rights defined by the Constitution: the right to life and the right to healthy environment. Their relationship is very close and, specifically said, it is: obvious, conditional, permanent and growing. This could not bet concluded if the time of occurrence (Constitutional regulation of these rights is considered. The right to life is the oldest human right while the right to healthy environment belongs to new generation of human rights. However, if the contents of the right to life and the right to healthy environment are compared, it becomes clear that those two human rights are interwoven with each other. Development of states and change of life conditions of citizens will also change the content of right to life, by following ecological standards. This means that the interdependence of those two rights will be larger and more complex.

  14. Recombinant vectors construction for cellobiohydrolase encoding gene constitutive expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina GURGU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellobiohydrolases (EC 3.2.1.91 are important exo enzymes involved in cellulose hydrolysis alongside endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4 and β-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21. Heterologous cellobiohydrolase gene expression under constitutive promoter control using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host system is of great importance for a successful SSF process. From this point of view, the main objective of the work was to use Yeplac181 expression vector as a recipient for cellobiohdrolase - cbhB encoding gene expression under the control of the actin promoter, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two hybridvectors, YEplac-Actp and YEplac-Actp-CbhB, were generated usingEscherichia coli XLI Blue for the cloning experiments. Constitutive cbhB gene expression was checked by proteine gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE after insertion of these constructs into Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  15. [Modified Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xunqiang; Liang, Ying; Tan, Hongzhuan; Gong, Wenjie; Deng, Jing; Luo, Jiayou; Di, Xiaokang; Wu, Yue

    2012-11-01

    To constitute school sanitation standard using modified Delphi method, and to explore the feasibility and the predominance of Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard. Two rounds of expert consultations were adopted in this study. The data were analyzed with SPSS15.0 to screen indices of school sanitation standard. Thirty-two experts accomplished the 2 rounds of consultations. The average length of expert service was (24.69 ±8.53) years. The authority coefficient was 0.729 ±0.172. The expert positive coefficient was 94.12% (32/34) in the first round and 100% (32/32) in the second round. The harmonious coefficients of importance, feasibility and rationality in the second round were 0.493 (PDelphi method is a rapid, effective and feasible method in this field.

  16. International law, constitutional law, and public support for torture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Chilton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human rights movement has spent considerable energy developing and promoting the adoption of both international and domestic legal prohibitions against torture. Empirical scholarship testing the effectiveness of these prohibitions using observational data, however, has produced mixed results. In this paper, we explore one possible mechanism through which these prohibitions may be effective: dampening public support for torture. Specifically, we conducted a survey experiment to explore the impact of international and constitutional law on public support for torture. We found that a bare majority of respondents in our control group support the use of torture, and that presenting respondents with arguments that this practice violates international law or constitutional law did not produce a statistically significant decrease in support. These findings are consistent with prior research suggesting, even in democracies, that legal prohibitions on torture have been ineffective.

  17. Law as Treaties?: The Constitutionality of Congressional-Executive Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, John C.

    2000-01-01

    This article seeks to resolve the debate over the use of a statutory method for approving international agreements in place of the supermajority process required by the Constitution's Treaty Clause. These "congressional-executive agreements," which require only simple majorities in Congress and presidential signature, have become the instrument of choice for entry into some of the nation's most significant international obligations, such as the WTO and NAFTA. Some, such as Bruce Ackerman and ...

  18. Can the EU’s constitutional framework accommodate democratic politics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scicluna Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The robustness of the EU’s constitutional framework – and its ability to accommodate democratic politics – is challenged as never before. The growing disconnect between formally democratic procedures and substantive choice is well illustrated by the Greek crisis. Since its first bailout in May 2010, Greece has held four general elections and a referendum. Yet, the anti-austerity preferences of the Greek electorate have not been effectively translated into policy.

  19. Metacarpal index in Marfan's syndrome and in constitutional tall stature.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelle, M; Tröger, J; Rupprath, G; Bettendorf, M

    1994-01-01

    The metacarpal index (MCI) in 54 children with constitutional tall stature was mean (SD) 8.65 (0.8) and in 55 with Marfan's syndrome 9.15 (0.9). Indices in both groups showed arachnodactyly and differed from those found in normal individuals (< 7.9). Because the MCI is a poor discriminator patients with tall stature or clinical signs of arachnodactyly should be examined for additional signs of Marfan's syndrome or other hereditary disorders of connective tissue.

  20. Helix 11 Dynamics is Critical for Constitutive Androstane Receptor Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Edward; Busby, Scott A.; Wisecarver, Sarah; Vincent, Jeremy; Griffin, Patrick R.; Fernandez, Elias J.

    2011-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) transactivation can occur in the absence of exogenous ligand and this activity is enhanced by agonists TCPOBOP and meclizine. We use biophysical and cell-based assays to show that increased activity of CAR(TCPOBOP) relative to CAR(meclizine) corresponds to a higher affinity of CAR(TCPOBOP) for the steroid receptor coactivator-1. Additionally, steady-state fluorescence spectra suggest conformational differences between CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR and CAR(meclizi...

  1. Transcending transmission Towards a constitutive perspective on CSR communication

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeneborn Dennis; Trittin Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach...

  2. Brazilian Constitution and the Fundamental Right to Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Michely Vargas Delpupo; José Geraldo Romanello Bueno

    2015-01-01

    The right to basic sanitation, was elevated to the category of fundamental right by the Constitution of 1988 to protect the ecologically balanced environment, ensuring social rights to health and adequate housing and put the dignity of the human person as the foundation of the Brazilian Democratic State. Before their essentiality to humans, this article seeks to understand why universal access to basic sanitation is a goal so difficult to achieve in Brazil. Therefore, thi...

  3. An anisotropic elastoplastic constitutive formulation generalised for orthotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.; Ma'at, N.; Ho, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a finite strain constitutive model to predict a complex elastoplastic deformation behaviour that involves very high pressures and shockwaves in orthotropic materials using an anisotropic Hill's yield criterion by means of the evolving structural tensors. The yield surface of this hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is aligned uniquely within the principal stress space due to the combination of Mandel stress tensor and a new generalised orthotropic pressure. The formulation is developed in the isoclinic configuration and allows for a unique treatment for elastic and plastic orthotropy. An isotropic hardening is adopted to define the evolution of plastic orthotropy. The important feature of the proposed hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is the introduction of anisotropic effect in the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state (EOS). The formulation is further combined with Grady spall failure model to predict spall failure in the materials. The proposed constitutive model is implemented as a new material model in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-DYNA3D code of UTHM's version, named Material Type 92 (Mat92). The combination of the proposed stress tensor decomposition and the Mie-Gruneisen EOS requires some modifications in the code to reflect the formulation of the generalised orthotropic pressure. The validation approach is also presented in this paper for guidance purpose. The \\varvec{ψ} tensor used to define the alignment of the adopted yield surface is first validated. This is continued with an internal validation related to elastic isotropic, elastic orthotropic and elastic-plastic orthotropic of the proposed formulation before a comparison against range of plate impact test data at 234, 450 and {895 ms}^{-1} impact velocities is performed. A good agreement is obtained in each test.

  4. Human Dignity – Constitutional Principle of Fundamental Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Pop

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a constitutional principle of the human rights, the human dignity is a supreme value, a norm and a right, thus that the reconfiguration of protection standards of fundamental human rights is made by cohesion of the legal, social and moral dimensions of human dignity. With this article, the author argues that legal meaning, social meaning and moral meaning of human dignity, are centerpiece of protection of freedom under law.

  5. Constitutive modeling of coronary artery bypass graft with incorporated torsion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horný, L.; Chlup, Hynek; Žitný, R.; Adámek, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2009), s. 273-277 ISSN 0543-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/08/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : coronary artery bypass graft * constitutive model * digital image correlation Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2009 http://web.tuke.sk/sjf-kamam/mmams2009/contents.pdf

  6. Mechanical characterization and constitutive modeling of Mg alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekonen, M. Nebebe; Steglich, D.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D.; Mosler, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Material characterization of the Mg alloys AZ31 and ZE10 at elevated temperatures. ► Distortion of the yield locus does not depend on the strain rate. ► Novel constitutive model suitable for the analysis of sheet forming of magnesium. ► Strain-dependent r-values are included within the model. ► The model is thermodynamically consistent and accounts for distortional hardening. - Abstract: In this paper, an experimental mechanical characterization of the magnesium alloys ZE10 and AZ31 is performed and a suitable constitutive model is established. The mechanical characterization is based on uniaxial tensile tests. In order to avoid poor formability at room temperature, the tests were conducted at elevated temperature (200 °C). The uniaxial tensile tests reveal sufficient ductility allowing sheet forming processes at this temperature. The differences in yield stresses and plastic strain ratios (r-values) confirm the anisotropic response of the materials under study. The constitutive model is established so that the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloys such as anisotropy and compression-tension asymmetry can be accommodated. This model is thermodynamically consistent, incorporates rate effect, is formulated based on finite strain plasticity theory and is applicable in sheet forming simulations of magnesium alloys. More precisely, a model originally proposed by Cazacu and Barlat in 2004 and later modified to account for the evolution of the material anisotropy is rewritten in a thermodynamically consistent framework. The calibrated constitutive model is shown to capture the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloy sheets.

  7. “Bread and Roses”: Economic Justice and Constitutional Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Sheppard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic inequality and poverty constitute critical human rights challenges in an increasingly globalized world. Not only do they result in material inequities that affect everyday life; they also undermine psychological and social wellbeing. In this article, issues of economic injustice and social exclusion are examined through the lens of constitutional rights. It explores three different dimensions of the nexus between economic justice and constitutionalism, including: (i the role of law in creating socio- economic inequality and poverty; (ii the extent to which economic justice is addressed at the interstices of civil and political rights and freedoms; and (iii the potential for the concept of social inclusion to assist in the reimagining of constitutional law and economic justice. La desigualdad socioeconómica y la pobreza constituyen desafíos críticos a los derechos humanos en un mundo cada vez más globalizado. No sólo dan lugar a desigualdades materiales que afectan a la vida cotidiana, sino que también socavan el bienestar psicológico y social. En este artículo se analizan los problemas de la injusticia económica y la exclusión social a través del prisma de los derechos constitucionales. Se exploran tres dimensiones diferentes del nexo entre justicia económica y constitucionalismo, incluyendo: (i el papel del derecho en la creación de desigualdad socioeconómica y pobreza; (ii el grado en que la justicia económica se aborda en los intersticios de los derechos y libertades civiles y políticos; y (iii el potencial del concepto de inclusión social para ayudar en la reinvención de la ley constitucional y la justicia económica. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2571246

  8. Development of Cultural Construction and Constitutional Revolution in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rabiee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the development of the cultural construction and the emergence of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran. This study, by examining the cultural structure of the Qajar era of the Naser-al-Din Shah period wants to investigate the cause of the Constitutional Revolution. The findings of this research, which have been collected by historical-analytical method, indicate that the pattern of development in the Qajar era is consistent with the pattern of unbalanced development. In this sense, by starting educational, political and military reforms in the Qajar era specially Nasser-al-Din Shah, gradually the cultural structure apart from the traditional political structure. This development provided the basis for the emergence of new intellectuals and elites with new political ideas in the field of governance methods. However, the attenuation of political structure and the backwardness of political development from cultural development faced with some obstacles. Political system instead of creating a development along with gradual cultural development and consolidating its position through the persuasion of the community, in fact to maintain integrity in the social system was resorted to force and preferred force and compulsion to persuasion. The kind of reaction and opposition of the political power structure against the modern intellectual movement, which contained new political demands in the area of governance and freedom, led to the weakness and, finally, the collapse of the Qajar political system and the constitutional revolution.

  9. Development of a phenomenological constitutive model for polyurethane foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, M.K.; Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    Rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam is used in impact limiters in nuclear waste transport containers. During a hypothetical nuclear waste transport accident, the foam is expected to absorb a significant amount of impact energy by undergoing large inelastic volume reductions. Consequently, the crushing of polyurethane foams must be well characterized and accurately modeled to properly analyze a transport container accident. At the request of Sandia National Laboratories, a series of uniaxial, hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests on polyurethane foams were performed by the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI). The combination of hydrostatic and triaxial tests was chosen to provide sufficient data to characterize both the volumetric and deviatoric behaviors of the foams and the coupling between the two responses. Typical results from the NMERI tests are included in this paper. A complete description of these tests can be found in Neilsen et al., 1987. Constitutive models that have been used in the past to model foam did not capture some important foam behaviors observed in the NMERI tests. Therefore, a new constitutive model for rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foams was developed and implemented in two finite element codes. Development of the new model is discussed in this paper. Also, results from analyses with the new model and other constitutive models are presented to demonstrate differences between the various models. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Formation of tungsten blue oxide and its phase constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Z.; Wu, E.; Tan, A.; Qian, C.

    1984-01-01

    By means of X-ray diffraction structure analysis, SEM observation, chemical analysis and particle specific surface analysis etc., an investigation was made in order to determine the regularity of tungsten blue oxide formation during reductional calcine process of APT. It was found that the oxygen index (OI) decreased continuously with increasing calcine temperature. The decrease rate of OI variated as the calcine atmosphere being changed, the stronger the reductivity of the atmosphere is, the more OI decreases. The deammonia-dewater process and the phase constitution variation during calcine was studied, some idea for description of phase transformation path was suggested. It was found that the most important parameter affecting phase constitution and transformation is calcine temperature. At the temperature lower than 450 0 C, the main formed phase was ATB, while at higher temperature, the different phase like W/sub 20/O/sub 58/, WO/sub 3/ etc., could be formed by different ways depending on the atmosphere reductivity. The composition and the OI of ATB are changeable. An experiment for some blue oxides reduction at low temperature was carried out. It was found that OI and the constitution of blue oxide strongly affected the particle size of the formed W-powder

  11. On the Physical Constitution of the Sun — Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye H.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Patrice Robitaille (TAV College, Montreal, Canada provides a translation of Herv ́ e August Etienne Albans Faye’s classic report Sur la constitution physique du soleil , as it appeared in February 1865 within Les Mondes ,1865, v.7, 293–306. Herv ́ e Faye (Oc- tober 1, 1814 – July 4, 1902 led a distinguished life, both in science and public ser- vice. He was widely regarded as one of the premier astronomers of his day. He had studied under the great Franc ̧ois Arago. In 1843, he became a Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur and, in 1877, served as the French Minister of Education (Catholic Ency- clopedia, 1913. Faye’s report On the Physical Constitution of the Sun was a crucial milestone in the history of astronomy. It was through this paper, that the Sun became viewed as devoid of a distinct surface. The work was also interesting as it presented Faye’s early conception of the gaseous Sun. In addition, through its submission, Faye had sought the approbation of Father Secchi relative to claims of simultaneous discov- ery (see P.M.Robitaille. A Thermodynamic History of the Solar Constitution — I: The Journey to a Gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys. , 2011, v.3, 3–25. Faye’s work would continue to impact solar physics until the 1920s.

  12. Constitutional trisomy 8 and Behçet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kristin; Fitzgerald, Oliver; Green, Andrew J; Keogan, Mary; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Withers, Stephen; Hollox, Edward J; Aldred, Patricia M R; Armour, John A L

    2009-05-01

    The characteristic clinical features of constitutional trisomy 8 include varying degrees of developmental delay, joint contractures and deep palmar and plantar creases. There is an established literature, which describes features of Behçet syndrome occurring in phenotypically normal individuals with myelodysplastic syndromes and trisomy 8 in their bone marrow. In this article, we describe four patients with constitutional trisomy 8, all with varying clinical phenotypes, who developed features of Behçet, in particular but not exclusively mucocutaneous ulceration. In addition, we examined gene copy numbers of the variable-number neutrophil defensin genes DEFA1A3 in one of the cases (case 1) and her parents, together with 14 cases of Behçet syndrome in comparison with 121 normal controls. The gene copy number was highest in case 1 (copy number 14) and was also increased in her parents (both copy number 9). However the mean copy number for DEFA1A3 among the 14 Behçet syndrome patients was actually lower (5.1) than among the controls (mean of 6.8 copies). Thus, we conclude that patients with constitutional trisomy 8 and those with trisomy 8 confined to the bone marrow are both at increased risk of developing features of Behçet syndrome. The mechanism may relate to increased chromosome 8 gene dosage with further analysis of candidate genes on chromosome 8 required.

  13. A geometric rationale for invariance, covariance and constitutive relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Giovanni; Barretta, Raffaele; Diaco, Marina

    2018-01-01

    There are, in each branch of science, statements which, expressed in ambiguous or even incorrect but seemingly friendly manner, were repeated for a long time and eventually became diffusely accepted. Objectivity of physical fields and of their time rates and frame indifference of constitutive relations are among such notions. A geometric reflection on the description of frame changes as spacetime automorphisms, on induced push-pull transformations and on proper physico-mathematical definitions of material, spatial and spacetime tensor fields and of their time-derivatives along the motion, is here carried out with the aim of pointing out essential notions and of unveiling false claims. Theoretical and computational aspects of nonlinear continuum mechanics, and especially those pertaining to constitutive relations, involving material fields and their time rates, gain decisive conceptual and operative improvement from a proper geometric treatment. Outcomes of the geometric analysis are frame covariance of spacetime velocity, material stretching and material spin. A univocal and frame-covariant tool for evaluation of time rates of material fields is provided by the Lie derivative along the motion. The postulate of frame covariance of material fields is assessed to be a natural physical requirement which cannot interfere with the formulation of constitutive laws, with claims of the contrary stemming from an improper imposition of equality in place of equivalence.

  14. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  15. FATAL FOETAL ABNORMALITY, IRISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AND MELLET v IRELAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Londras, Fiona

    2016-12-27

    Under the Irish Constitution abortion is allowed only where the life of the pregnant woman is at risk. The provision in question, Article 40.3.3 (or the 8th Amendment) has long been criticised for failing to respect women's autonomy, and in Mellet v Ireland, the UN Human Rights Committee found that Amanda Jane Mellet, who travelled to Liverpool to access abortion following a finding that her foetus suffered a fatal abnormality, had suffered a violation of her rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In this commentary I demonstrate the value of Mellet when compared to the possible legal findings in such circumstances under both the Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights, and argue that the findings are not restricted to cases of fatal foetal abnormality. Rather, the Committee's decision illustrates the suffering that all women in Ireland who travel to access abortion experience, arguably constituting a violation of their right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. On that reading, Mellet signifies the need to implement a comprehensive rethink of Irish abortion law including, but going beyond, access to abortion in cases of fatal foetal abnormality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Constitutive protein secretion from the exocrine pancreas of fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvan, P.; Chang, A.

    1987-01-01

    Two general kinds of exocytotic secretion of proteins are known: that which is stimulated by secretagogues; and constitutive exocytosis, which is unable to be stimulated. The exocrine pancreas has often been cited as a model system for the first kind of secretion. However, the release of digestive enzymes from the exocrine pancreas of 1-day prenatal rats cannot be stimulated by secretagogues; therefore, its secretion is constitutive. To gain insight into the intracellular pathways which mediate secretion in the fetal gland, we examined the kinetics of release of newly synthesized proteins. We find that fetal pancreas in a steady state of secretion releases pulse-labeled secretory proteins in two kinetically distinct phases. The first phase occurring during 0-6.5 h of chase comprises approximately 12% of total incorporated radioactivity, the second phase beginning at greater than 7 h of chase comprises the remainder. Based on analysis by electron microscope autoradiography, radiolabel is localized during the first phase of secretion in immature granules/condensing vacuoles, Golgi compartments, and few mature granules. The second phase of secretion occurs when radiolabel is predominantly in mature granules. We propose that secretion occurs via (at least) 2 exocytotic routes, both of which are constitutive in fetal pancreatic tissue

  17. National Assembly of Serbia and European Parliament: A constitutional-law comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For better understanding of the two parallel processes - EU integration and the rapprochement of the Republic of Serbia to the Union, a comparison of National Assembly of Serbia and European Parliament could be used. There are two legislative bodies in matter, which despite some similarities have numerous differences. The key difference is that National Assembly is a 'full' legislative body, and European Parliament is a part of the Union's legislation, such as one of the Parliament's houses. Perhaps the most important cause of this difference is the fact that National Assembly is a power body of the State, and the European Parliament is an institution of a political and economic community which is not (yet a state. It is to be assumed that the constitutional-law differences between European Parliament and National Assembly, or the parliament of another state, will increasingly diminish if the processes of the transfer of states' sovereignty to the European Union continue. At the same time, the relation of the political power of the European Parliament and the national parliaments of the Union state members will change.

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  19. A Nano-indentation Identification Technique for Viscoelastic Constitutive Characteristics of Periodontal Ligaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, H.; Shariyat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nano-indentation has recently been employed as a powerful tool for determining the mechanical properties of biological tissues on nano and micro scales. A majority of soft biological tissues such as ligaments and tendons exhibit viscoelastic or time-dependent behaviors. The constitutive characterization of soft tissues is among very important subjects in clinical medicine and especially, biomechanics fields. Periodontal ligament plays an important role in initiating tooth movement when loads are applied to teeth with orthodontic appliances. It is also the most accessible ligament in human body as it can be directly manipulated without any surgical intervention. From a mechanical point of view, this ligament can be considered as a thin interface made by a solid phase, consisting mainly of collagen fibers, which is immersed into a so-called ground substance. However, the viscoelastic constitutive effects of biological tissues are seldom considered rigorous during Nano-indentation tests. Methods In the present paper, a mathematical contact approach is developed to enable determining creep compliance and relaxation modulus of distinct periodontal ligaments, using constant–rate indentation and loading time histories, respectively. An adequate curve-fitting method is presented to determine these characteristics based on the Nano-indentation of rigid Berkovich tips. Generalized Voigt-Kelvin and Wiechert models are used to model constitutive equations of periodontal ligaments, in which the relaxation and creep functions are represented by series of decaying exponential functions of time. Results Time-dependent creep compliance and relaxation function have been obtained for tissue specimens of periodontal ligaments. Conclusion To improve accuracy, relaxation and creep moduli are measured from two tests separately. Stress relaxation effects appear more rapidly than creep in the periodontal ligaments. PMID:27672630

  20. A Nano-indentation Identification Technique for Viscoelastic Constitutive Characteristics of Periodontal Ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafi H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nano-indentation has recently been employed as a powerful tool for determining the mechanical properties of biological tissues on nano and micro scales. A majority of soft biological tissues such as ligaments and tendons exhibit viscoelastic or time-dependent behaviors. The constitutive characterization of soft tissues is among very important subjects in clinical medicine and especially, biomechanics fields. Periodontal ligament plays an important role in initiating tooth movement when loads are applied to teeth with orthodontic appliances. It is also the most accessible ligament in human body as it can be directly manipulated without any surgical intervention. From a mechanical point of view, this ligament can be considered as a thin interface made by a solid phase, consisting mainly of collagen fibers, which is immersed into a so-called ground substance. However, the viscoelastic constitutive effects of biological tissues are seldom considered rigorous during Nano-indentation tests. Methods: In the present paper, a mathematical contact approach is developed to enable determining creep compliance and relaxation modulus of distinct periodontal ligaments, using constant–rate indentation and loading time histories, respectively. An adequate curve-fitting method is presented to determine these characteristics based on the Nano-indentation of rigid Berkovich tips. Generalized Voigt-Kelvin and Wiechert models are used to model constitutive equations of periodontal ligaments, in which the relaxation and creep functions are represented by series of decaying exponential functions of time. Results: Time-dependent creep compliance and relaxation function have been obtained for tissue specimens of periodontal ligaments. Conclusion: To improve accuracy, relaxation and creep moduli are measured from two tests separately. Stress relaxation effects appear more rapidly than creep in the periodontal ligaments.