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Sample records for body burdens based

  1. Programs and subroutines for calculating cadmium body burdens based on a one-compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.V.; Novak, K.M.

    1980-08-01

    A pair of FORTRAN programs for calculating the body burden of cadmium as a function of age is presented, together with a discussion of the assumptions which serve to specify the underlying, one-compartment model. Account is taken of the contributions to the body burden from food, from ambient air, from smoking, and from occupational inhalation. The output is a set of values for ages from birth to 90 years which is either longitudinal (for a given year of birth) or cross-sectional (for a given calendar year), depending on the choice of input parameters

  2. LEWY BODY DEMENTIA: CAREGIVER BURDEN AND UNMET NEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Galvin, James E.; Duda, John E.; Kaufer, Daniel I.; Lippa, Carol F.; Taylor, Angela; Zarit, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a common cause of dementia but to date, little is known about caregiver burden. The Lewy Body Dementia Association (www.LBDA.org) conducted a web-based survey of 962 caregivers (mean age 56y; 88% women). The most common initial symptoms were cognitive (48%), motor (39%), or both (13%). Caregivers expressed concerns about fear of future (77%), feeling stressed (54%), loss of social life (52%) and uncertainty about what to do next (50%). Caregivers reported moderate ...

  3. FRAMES User Defined Body Burden Concentration File Module Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelton, Mitchell A.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Eslinger, Melany A.; Gelston, Gariann M.

    2001-06-01

    The Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) Body Burden Concentration File (BBF) contains time-varying, instantaneous, constituent concentrations for body burden by contaminant. This report contains the requirements for this file and will be used by software engineers and testers to ensure that the file inputs properly.

  4. FRAMES User Defined Body Burden Concentration File Module Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, Mitchell A.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Eslinger, Melany A.; Gelston, Gariann M.

    2001-01-01

    The Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) Body Burden Concentration File (BBF) contains time-varying, instantaneous, constituent concentrations for body burden by contaminant. This report contains the requirements for this file and will be used by software engineers and testers to ensure that the file inputs properly.

  5. Evaluation of modelling body burden of Cs-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, U.; Nordlinder, S.

    1996-05-01

    Within the IAEA/CEC VAMP-program one working group studied the precision in dose assessment models when calculating body burden of {sup 137}Cs as a result of exposure through multiple exposure pathways. One scenario used data from southern Finland regarding contamination of various media due to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In this study, a time dependent multiple exposure pathway model was constructed based on compartment theory. Uncertainties in model responses due to uncertainties in input parameter values were studied. The initial predictions for body burden were good, within a factor of 2 of the observed, while the time dynamics of levels in milk and meat did not agree satisfactorily. Some results, nevertheless, showed good agreement with observations due to compensatory effects. After disclosure of additional observational data, major reasons for mispredictions were identified as lack of consideration of time dependence of fixation of {sup 137}Cs in soils, and the selection of parameter values. When correction of this was made, a close agreement between predictions and observations was obtained. This study shows that the dose contribution due to {sup 137}Cs in food products from the seminatural environment is important for long-term exposure to man. The evaluation provided a basis for improvements of crucial parts in the model. 14 refs, 18 figs, 8 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of modelling body burden of Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Nordlinder, S.

    1996-05-01

    Within the IAEA/CEC VAMP-program one working group studied the precision in dose assessment models when calculating body burden of 137 Cs as a result of exposure through multiple exposure pathways. One scenario used data from southern Finland regarding contamination of various media due to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In this study, a time dependent multiple exposure pathway model was constructed based on compartment theory. Uncertainties in model responses due to uncertainties in input parameter values were studied. The initial predictions for body burden were good, within a factor of 2 of the observed, while the time dynamics of levels in milk and meat did not agree satisfactorily. Some results, nevertheless, showed good agreement with observations due to compensatory effects. After disclosure of additional observational data, major reasons for mispredictions were identified as lack of consideration of time dependence of fixation of 137 Cs in soils, and the selection of parameter values. When correction of this was made, a close agreement between predictions and observations was obtained. This study shows that the dose contribution due to 137 Cs in food products from the seminatural environment is important for long-term exposure to man. The evaluation provided a basis for improvements of crucial parts in the model. 14 refs, 18 figs, 8 tabs

  7. Interaction of ethanol and mercury body burden in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of ethanol with mercury in the body resulting in increased exhalation of the metal was studied in the mouse. A persistent elimination of the metal in the breath was demonstrated after single, sublethal (<1 mgHg/Kg body weight) exposures to mercury vapor (Hg/sup 0/) or mercury II chloride (HgCl/sub 2/). The amount of mercury exhaled per unit time was enhanced by oral or parenteral administration of ethanol solutions. These modifications were investigated in dose-response studies in which the drug was administered in doses ranging from 0.2g to 5.5g/Kg to mice pretreated with mercury. The EC/sub 50/ for blood ethanol with respect to mercury exhalation was determined to be approximately 200 mg/dl corresponding to an output rate of approximately 0.1% of the simultaneous body burden in 30 min several days after mercury. A hypothesis that mercury expired by these animals was proportional to the body burden after mercury administration was addressed in experiments whereby mice given one of several doses of mercuric chloride (0.16 to 500 ..mu..g/Kg) were monitored for pulmonary mercury elimination for a fifteen day period. The high correlation obtained between the amount of mercury exhaled in a standard time period and the body burden by group indicated that breath sampling could be applied as an indicator of the mercury body burden which may not be limited to the mouse.

  8. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems.

  9. Maternal body burden of cadmium and offspring size at birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Megan E.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Simpson, Christopher; Checkoway, Harvey; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an inverse association between cadmium (Cd) and size at birth, potentially greatest among female neonates. We evaluated whether greater maternal body burden of Cd is associated with reduced neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index) and assessed whether these associations differ by infant sex. The analytic sample for the present study (n=396) was derived from a subcohort of 750 women randomly drawn from among all participants (N=4344) in the Omega Study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Creatinine-corrected Cd in maternal clean-catch spot urine samples (U-Cd) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Continuous log 2 -transformed Cd (log 2 -Cd) and U-Cd tertiles (low<0.29 μg/g creatinine, middle 0.29–0.42 μg/g creatinine, high≥0.43 μg/g creatinine) were used in multivariable linear regression models. Females had reduced birth length with greater U-Cd tertile, whereas males birth length marginally increased [β(95% CI) females: low=reference, middle=−0.59 cm (−1.37, 0.19), high=−0.83 cm (−1.69, 0.02), p-trend=0.08; males: low=reference, middle=0.18 cm (−0.59, 0.95), high=0.78 cm (–0.04, 1.60), p-trend=0.07; p for interaction=0.03]. The log 2 -Cd by infant sex interaction was statistically significant for ponderal index [p=0.003; β(95% CI): female=0.25 kg/m 3 (−0.20, 0.70); male=−0.63 kg/m 3 (−1.01, −0.24)] and birth length [p<0.001; β(95% CI): female=−0.47 cm (−0.74, −0.20), male=0.32 cm (0.00, 0.65)]. Our findings suggest potential sex-specific reversal of Cd’s associations on birth length and contribute to the evidence suggesting Cd impairs fetal growth. - Highlights: • Cadmium levels in the general population potentially adversely affect size at birth. • Maternal urinary cadmium was inversely related to birth length among female infants. • For male infants, maternal cadmium was positively associated with birth length.

  10. An in vivo animal study assessing long-term changes in hypothalamic cytokines following perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture based on Arctic maternal body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Nanqin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographic distribution of environmental toxins is generally not uniform, with certain northern regions showing a particularly high concentration of pesticides, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. For instance, Northern Canadians are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, organochlorine pesticides (OCs and methylmercury (MeHg, primarily through country foods. Previous studies have reported associations between neuronal pathology and exposure to such toxins. The present investigation assessed whether perinatal exposure (gestation and lactation of rats to a chemical mixture (27 constituents comprised of PCBs, OCs and MeHg based on Arctic maternal exposure profiles at concentrations near human exposure levels, would affect brain levels of several inflammatory cytokines Methods Rats were dosed during gestation and lactation and cytokine levels were measured in the brains of offspring at five months of age. Hypothalamic cytokine protein levels were measured with a suspension-based array system and differences were determined using ANOVA and post hoc statistical tests. Results The early life PCB treatment alone significantly elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels in rats at five months of age to a degree comparable to that of the entire chemical mixture. Similarly, the full mixture (and to a lesser degree PCBs alone elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1b, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. The full mixture of chemicals also moderately increased (in an additive fashion hypothalamic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Challenge with bacterial endotoxin at adulthood generally increased hypothalamic levels to such a degree that differences between the perinatally treated chemical groups were no longer detectable. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure at critical

  11. An in vivo animal study assessing long-term changes in hypothalamic cytokines following perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture based on Arctic maternal body burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Shawn; Mangano, Emily; Crowe, Geoffrey; Li, Nanqin; Bowers, Wayne J

    2011-07-11

    The geographic distribution of environmental toxins is generally not uniform, with certain northern regions showing a particularly high concentration of pesticides, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. For instance, Northern Canadians are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and methylmercury (MeHg), primarily through country foods. Previous studies have reported associations between neuronal pathology and exposure to such toxins. The present investigation assessed whether perinatal exposure (gestation and lactation) of rats to a chemical mixture (27 constituents comprised of PCBs, OCs and MeHg) based on Arctic maternal exposure profiles at concentrations near human exposure levels, would affect brain levels of several inflammatory cytokines Rats were dosed during gestation and lactation and cytokine levels were measured in the brains of offspring at five months of age. Hypothalamic cytokine protein levels were measured with a suspension-based array system and differences were determined using ANOVA and post hoc statistical tests. The early life PCB treatment alone significantly elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in rats at five months of age to a degree comparable to that of the entire chemical mixture. Similarly, the full mixture (and to a lesser degree PCBs alone) elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1b, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. The full mixture of chemicals also moderately increased (in an additive fashion) hypothalamic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Challenge with bacterial endotoxin at adulthood generally increased hypothalamic levels to such a degree that differences between the perinatally treated chemical groups were no longer detectable. These data suggest that exposure at critical neurodevelopmental times to environmental chemicals at concentrations

  12. Quantitative assessment of whole-body tumor burden in adult patients with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Scott R; Bredella, Miriam A; Cai, Wenli; Kassarjian, Ara; Harris, Gordon J; Esparza, Sonia; Merker, Vanessa L; Munn, Lance L; Muzikansky, Alona; Askenazi, Manor; Nguyen, Rosa; Wenzel, Ralph; Mautner, Victor F

    2012-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis are at risk for multiple nerve sheath tumors and premature mortality. Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has limited ability to assess disease burden accurately. The aim of this study was to establish an international cohort of patients with quantified whole-body internal tumor burden and to correlate tumor burden with clinical features of disease. We determined the number, volume, and distribution of internal nerve sheath tumors in patients using whole-body MRI (WBMRI) and three-dimensional computerized volumetry. We quantified the distribution of tumor volume across body regions and used unsupervised cluster analysis to group patients based on tumor distribution. We correlated the presence and volume of internal tumors with disease-related and demographic factors. WBMRI identified 1286 tumors in 145/247 patients (59%). Schwannomatosis patients had the highest prevalence of tumors (P = 0.03), but NF1 patients had the highest median tumor volume (P = 0.02). Tumor volume was unevenly distributed across body regions with overrepresentation of the head/neck and pelvis. Risk factors for internal nerve sheath tumors included decreasing numbers of café-au-lait macules in NF1 patients (P = 0.003) and history of skeletal abnormalities in NF2 patients (P = 0.09). Risk factors for higher tumor volume included female gender (P = 0.05) and increasing subcutaneous neurofibromas (P = 0.03) in NF1 patients, absence of cutaneous schwannomas in NF2 patients (P = 0.06), and increasing age in schwannomatosis patients (p = 0.10). WBMRI provides a comprehensive phenotype of neurofibromatosis patients, identifies distinct anatomic subgroups, and provides the basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with unique disease manifestations.

  13. National Status and Trends: Contaminant body burdens and histopathology of fish and shellfish from Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to the growing concerns among Chugach communities, contaminant body burden and histopathological condition of chum and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta...

  14. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall, 87% of type 2 diabetes, 68% of hypertensive disease, 61 % of endometrial cancer, 45% of ischaemic stroke, 38% of ischaemic heart disease, 31 % of kidney cancer, 24% of osteoarthritis, 17% of colon cancer, and 13% of postmenopausal breast cancer were attributable to a BMI ≥ 21 kg/m2. Excess body weight is ...

  15. Body Burden of Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethene (DDE and Childhood Pulmonary Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi P. Balte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies have shown that early life exposure to dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE can lead to growth reduction during childhood and adolescence. In addition, DDE exposure has been linked to respiratory tract infections and an increased risk of asthma in children. Our aim was to understand the relationships between DDE exposure and pulmonary function in children, and, particularly, whether associations are mediated by the height of the children. We used data from an environmental epidemiologic study conducted in central Germany in children aged 8-10 years. The pulmonary function (forced vital capacity, FVC, and forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1 were measured in three consecutive years. Blood DDE levels were measured at 8 and 10 years. We used linear mixed models for repeated measurements and path analyses to assess the association between blood levels of DDE and pulmonary function measurements. All models were adjusted for confounders. Linear mixed approaches and modelling concurrent effects showed no significant associations. The path analytical models demonstrated that DDE measured at eight years had significant, inverse, indirect, and total effects on FVC at ten years (n = 328; −0.18 L per μg/L of DDE and FEV1 (n = 328; −0.17 L per μg/L of DDE, mediated through effects of DDE on height and weight. The DDE burden reduces pulmonary function through its diminishing effects on height and weight in children. Further studies are required to test these associations in other samples, preferably from a region with ongoing, high DDT application.

  16. Radiocesium body burdens in immigrants to Israel from areas of the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quastel, M R; Kramer, G H; Goldsmith, J R; Polyak, S; Kordysh, E; Noel, L; Cohen, R; Gorodisher, R

    1995-07-01

    Of the 500,000 immigrants from the former Soviet Union who came to Israel during 1990-1993, about 100,000 are estimated to have come from radiocontaminated areas near Chernobyl. These people were subject to chronic uptake of environmental radiocesium over protracted periods. During October-November 1991, a joint Israeli-Canadian investigation measured radiocesium body burdens in immigrants to Israel from the Ukraine, Belarus, and the southern Russian republic in order to provide factual information on radiocesium levels to concerned immigrants and to relate the body burdens to the geographic area of residence before coming to Israel. Assessments were made of 137Cs body burdens in 1,228 volunteer men, women, and children. These measurements were accompanied by medical assessments based on clinical histories and examinations. Radiocesium levels were strongly dependent on the duration of residence in Israel, with the highest levels being found in the most recent immigrants. The maximum level, extrapolated back to the time of leaving the former Soviet Union, was estimated to be about 0.83 kBq (10.3 Bq kg-1). Of the most recent immigrants from the Kiev region ( 50 Bq, whereas 53% of those coming from Gomel and other towns in the contaminated zones (> 3.7 x 10(10) Bq km-2 of radiocesium) had detectable levels > 50 Bq. People coming from the latter region had significantly higher body burdens as compared to those from the former, in accordance with the higher degree of ground radiocesium contamination reported for the latter region. Women and children showed considerably lower total radiocesium content in comparison to men. All radiocesium body burdens at the time of measurement were too low to be of health concern.

  17. Distribution of 226Ra body burden of workers in an underground uranium mine in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, R L; Jha, V N; Kumar, R; Srivastava, V S; Ravi, P M; Tripathi, R M

    2014-11-01

    Uranium mine workers are exposed to ore dust containing uranium and its daughter products during different mining operations. These radionuclides may pose inhalation hazards to workers during the course of their occupation. The most significant among these radionuclides is (226)Ra. The measurement of radium body burden of uranium mine workers is important to assess their internal exposure. For this purpose, the radon-in-breath measurement technique has been used in the present paper. Workers at the Jaduguda mine, India, associated with different categories of mining operations were monitored between 2001 and 2007. The measurement results indicate that workers--depending on mining operation category--show (226)Ra body burdens ranging from 0.15 to 2.85 kBq. The maximum body burden was found for workers associated with timbering operations, with an average (226)Ra body burden of 0.85 ± 0.54 kBq. Overall, the average value observed for 800 workers was 0.76 ± 0.51 kBq, which gives rise to an average effective dose of 1.67 mSv per year for inhalation and 0.21 mSv per year for ingestion.

  18. Tumor segmentation of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients: tumor burden correlates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffler, Michael A.; Xi, Yin; Chhabra, Avneesh [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Le, Lu Q. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Segmentation of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to assess the feasibility, quantitate the total tumor volume (tumor burden) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and examine associations with demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features. A consecutive series of patients with NF1 underwent WBMRI and were reviewed for tumors. Tumors were segmented using a semiautomated software-based tool. Tumors were classified as superficial or deep and discrete or plexiform. Segmentation times were recorded. Segmentation yielded the quantity and tumor burden of superficial, internal and plexiform tumors. Correlations between segmentation data and demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features were examined. Fifteen patients were evaluated (42.3 ± 13.6 years, 10 female, 5 male). Segmentation times were a median of 30 min and yielded 2,328 tumors (1,582 superficial, 746 internal and 23 plexiform). One tumor was malignant. Tumor counts ranged from 14 to 397. Tumor burden ranged from 6.95 cm3 to 571 cm3. Individual tumor volume ranged from 0.0120 cm3 to 298 cm3. Significant correlation was found between the total volume of superficial tumors and height (ρ = 0.5966, p < 0.02). Male patients had higher overall tumor burdens (p < 0.05) and higher superficial tumor burden (p < 0.03). Patients with negative family history had more tumors (p < 0.05). Segmentation of WBMRI in patients with NF1 is feasible and elucidates meaningful relationships among disease phenotype, anthropomorphic and demographic features. (orig.)

  19. Tumor segmentation of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients: tumor burden correlates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffler, Michael A.; Xi, Yin; Chhabra, Avneesh; Le, Lu Q.

    2017-01-01

    Segmentation of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to assess the feasibility, quantitate the total tumor volume (tumor burden) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and examine associations with demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features. A consecutive series of patients with NF1 underwent WBMRI and were reviewed for tumors. Tumors were segmented using a semiautomated software-based tool. Tumors were classified as superficial or deep and discrete or plexiform. Segmentation times were recorded. Segmentation yielded the quantity and tumor burden of superficial, internal and plexiform tumors. Correlations between segmentation data and demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features were examined. Fifteen patients were evaluated (42.3 ± 13.6 years, 10 female, 5 male). Segmentation times were a median of 30 min and yielded 2,328 tumors (1,582 superficial, 746 internal and 23 plexiform). One tumor was malignant. Tumor counts ranged from 14 to 397. Tumor burden ranged from 6.95 cm3 to 571 cm3. Individual tumor volume ranged from 0.0120 cm3 to 298 cm3. Significant correlation was found between the total volume of superficial tumors and height (ρ = 0.5966, p < 0.02). Male patients had higher overall tumor burdens (p < 0.05) and higher superficial tumor burden (p < 0.03). Patients with negative family history had more tumors (p < 0.05). Segmentation of WBMRI in patients with NF1 is feasible and elucidates meaningful relationships among disease phenotype, anthropomorphic and demographic features. (orig.)

  20. Personal factors affecting thoron exhalation from occupationally acquired thorium body burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Thorium workers with thorium body burdens (primarily thoracic) above 0.7 nCi 224 Ra equivalent are shown to exhale about 15% of thoron produced in vivo, compared to 5% exhaled by subjects with body burdens in the range of 0.4 to 0.7 nCi 224 Ra. There was a false negative correlation between average adult daily cigarettes smoked and thoron exhalation. White blood cell counts that were about 85% of expected were observed in seven subjects exhaling greater than or equal to 100 pCi of thoron above predicted; no other variable examined showed a clear pattern of association. These differences in fractional thoron exhalation, and their consequences, are discussed. 3 references, 4 figures, 8 tables

  1. Body burden of cadmium and its related factors: A large-scale survey in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Shen; Cheng, Xi-Yu; Li, Hao; Jia, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Jie-Ying; Luo, Hui-Fang; Wang, Zi-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan, E-mail: chen_zhinan56@163.com

    2015-04-01

    A survey of more than 6000 participants from four distinct non-polluted and polluted regions in China was conducted to evaluate the body burden of cadmium (Cd) on the Chinese populations using urinary Cd (UCd) as a biomarker. The findings revealed that the UCd level was 1.24 μg/g creatinine (μg/g cr) for the sample population from non-polluted Shanghai, and the UCd levels exceeded 5 μg/g cr, which is the health-based exposure limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1.1% of people. The mean UCd levels in moderately polluted (Hubei and Liaoning) and highly polluted areas (Guizhou) were 4.69 μg/g cr, 3.62 μg/g cr and 6.08 μg/g cr, respectively, and these levels were 2.9 to 4.9 times the levels observed in Shanghai. Notably, the UCd levels exceeded the recently updated human biomonitoring II values (i.e., intervention or “action level”) in 44.8%–87.9% of people from these areas compared to only 5.1%–21.4% of people in Shanghai. The corresponding prevalence of elevated UCd levels (> WHO threshold, 5 μg/g cr) was also significantly higher (30.7% to 63.8% vs. 1.1%), which indicates that elevated Cd-induced health risks to residents in these areas. Age and region were significant determinants for UCd levels in a population, whereas gender did not significantly influence UCd. - Highlights: • We performed a Cd exposure survey that involved more than 6000 Chinese subjects. • The body burden of Cd in most of subjects of non-polluted Shanghai is relatively safe. • The UCd levels were much higher in the subjects from polluted areas than from Shanghai. • The UCd levels in the population from Guizhou substantially exceeded the safety limit. • Age and region were significant determinants of UCd.

  2. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Wilma B; Silva-Jaramillo, Katherine M; Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Belmont, Philippe; Waters, William F

    2014-12-01

    Ecuador's current nutrition policies have not taken adequate notice of the double burden of malnutrition and continue to focus on stunting and to a lesser extent on overweight, without addressing the simultaneous presence of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight or obesity (OW/OB). The aim of this article was to describe the prevalence and distribution of undernutrition (stunting, anemia, and zinc deficiency), overweight, and obesity in Ecuador to explore the evolving double burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels and to discuss whether current public health policies are addressing the double burden. Data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) was used to estimate the dual burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels in children <5 y old, school-aged children, and women of reproductive age. In 13.1% of households, mothers with excess body weight coexist with a stunted child <5 y old. Moreover, among households with overweight or obese mothers, 12.6% have an anemic child and 14% have a zinc-deficient child. At the individual levels, the coexistence of OW/OB and stunting, anemia, or zinc deficiency was found in 2.8%, 0.7%, and 8.4% of school-aged children, respectively. In addition, 8.9% and 32.6% of women aged 12-49 y have excess body weight and anemia or zinc deficiency, respectively. This article shows the coexistence of high rates of undernutrition and OW/OB at the individual, household, and national levels in Ecuador. Although integrated approaches to address the emerging double burden are required, public health policies to date have not responded adequately. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Li, Jinhui

    2014-07-01

    As China is one of the countries facing the most serious pollution and human exposure effects of e-waste in the world, much of the population there is exposed to potentially hazardous substances due to informal e-waste recycling processes. This report reviews recent studies on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g. dietary intake, inhalation, and soil/dust ingestion) and human body burden markers (e.g. placenta, umbilical cord blood, breast milk, blood, hair, and urine) and assesses the evidence for the association between such e-waste exposure and the human body burden in China. The results suggest that residents in the e-waste exposure areas, located mainly in the three traditional e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, and Qingyuan), are faced with a potential higher daily intake of these pollutants than residents in the control areas, especially via food ingestion. Moreover, pollutants (PBBs, PBDEs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and heavy metals) from the e-waste recycling processes were all detectable in the tissue samples at high levels, showing that they had entered residents' bodies through the environment and dietary exposure. Children and neonates are the groups most sensitive to the human body effects of e-waste exposure. We also recorded plausible outcomes associated with exposure to e-waste, including 7 types of human body burden. Although the data suggest that exposure to e-waste is harmful to health, better designed epidemiological investigations in vulnerable populations, especially neonates and children, are needed to confirm these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Caregiver burden in family carers of people with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsboe, Ellen; Terum, Toril; Testad, Ingelin; Aarsland, Dag; Ulstein, Ingun; Corbett, Anne; Rongve, Arvid

    2016-09-01

    To characterise the differences in caregiver distress between carers of people diagnosed with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), with a view to differentiating and improving support for caregivers. This study is a part of two larger Norwegian studies, DemVest (n = 265) and The Norwegian Dementia Register (n = 2220), with data from caregivers and people diagnosed with AD (n = 100) and DLB (n = 86) between 2005 and 2013. The average age was 74.9 years (SD = 7.8). Caregiver distress was rated by the Relative Stress Scale. Diagnosis of the person receiving care was based on a comprehensive standardised assessment program (International Classification of Diseases, Revision 10 or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fourth edition). Additional data collected from people receiving care were neuropsychiatric symptoms, comorbidity and activities of daily living (ADL) score. Linear regression analyses were applied, first unadjusted and then in stepwise-adjusts in addition to descriptive analyses. Caregivers to people with AD (20.2%) and 40% of caregivers for people with DLB experienced moderate or high caregiver burden with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders in the early stage of dementia. High Relative Stress Scale (RSS) total scores in caregivers was significantly associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (Neuropsychiatric Inventory, p = 0.004) and also with impaired ADL functioning (Rapid Disability Rating Scale-2, p Caregiver distress differed (RSS total, p = 0.005) between people caring for someone with AD (15.0) and those caring for someone with DLB (19.9). These findings have direct implications for the needs and resources that could be available for these individuals and indicate the need for further research into caregiver burden in carers to people with DLB. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cohorts were ethically approved by the Regional Ethics Committee for

  5. Influence of parasitism in controlling the health, reproduction and PAH body burden of petroleum seep mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Eric N.; Barber, Robert D.; Kennicutt, Mahlon C., II; Ford, Susan E.

    1999-12-01

    Petroleum seep mussels are often exposed to high hydrocarbon concentrations in their natural habitat and, thus, offer the opportunity to examine the relationship between parasitism, disease and contaminant exposure under natural conditions. This is the first report on the histopathology of cold-seep mussels. Seep mussels were collected by submersible from four primary sites in the Gulf of Mexico, lease blocks Green Canyon (GC) 184, GC-234, GC-233, and Garden Banks 425 in 550-650 m water depth. Five types of parasites were identified in section: (1) gill "rosettes" of unknown affinity associated with the gill bacteriocytes, (2) gill "inclusions" similar to chlamydia/rickettsia inclusions, (3) extracellular gill ciliates, (4) body "inclusions" that also resemble chlamydial/rickettsial inclusions, and (5) Bucephalus-like trematodes. Comparison to shallow-water mytilids demonstrates that: (1) both have similar parasite faunas; (2) seep mytilids are relatively heavily parasitized; and (3) infection intensities are extremely high in comparison to shallow-water mytilids for Bucephalus and chlamydia/rickettsia. In this study, the lowest prevalence for chlamydia/rickettsia was 67%. Prevalences of 100% were recorded from three populations. Bucephalus prevalence was ⩾70% in three of 10 populations. The parasite fauna was highly variable between populations. Some important parasites were not observed in some primary sites. Even within primary sites, some important parasites were not observed in some populations. Bucephalus may exert a significant influence on seep mussel population dynamics. Forty percent of the populations in this study are severely reproductively compromised by Bucephalus infection. Only a fraction of petroleum seep mussel populations are maintaining the entire beta-level population structure of this species. Variation in two parasites, gill ciliates and Bucephalus, explained most of the variation in PAH body burden between mussel populations. PAHs are

  6. Relationships between host body condition and immunocompetence, not host sex, best predict parasite burden in a bat-helminth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Pearl, Christopher A; Vonhof, Maarten J

    2016-06-01

    Sex-biased parasitism highlights potentially divergent approaches to parasite resistance resulting in differing energetic trade-offs for males and females; however, trade-offs between immunity and self-maintenance could also depend on host body condition. We investigated these relationships in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, to determine if host sex or body condition better predicted parasite resistance, if testosterone levels predicted male parasite burdens, and if immune parameters could predict male testosterone levels. We found that male and female hosts had similar parasite burdens and female bats scored higher than males in only one immunological measure. Top models of helminth burden revealed interactions between body condition index and agglutination score as well as between agglutination score and host sex. Additionally, the strength of the relationships between sex, agglutination, and helminth burden is affected by body condition. Models of male parasite burden provided no support for testosterone predicting helminthiasis. Models that best predicted testosterone levels did not include parasite burden but instead consistently included month of capture and agglutination score. Thus, in our system, body condition was a more important predictor of immunity and worm burden than host sex.

  7. Does long term residency near industry have an impact on the body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless-Mulloli, T; Edwards, R; Howel, D; Wood, R; Paepke, O; Herrmann, T

    2005-12-01

    For the retrospective study of environment and health linkages biomarkers of exposure are required. Polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been useful markers in some settings. This is the first study of PCDD/F body burden in a population based sample from the UK. The authors aimed to investigate whether long term residents close to a heavy chemical industrial complex (Teesside, UK) had a higher body burden and distinct pattern of PCDD/F and PCBs. We measured current levels of PCDD/F and PCBs in a population based sample of older women (mean 64 years, range 42-79 years). Forty women were recruited, 20 living near (zone A: 0.1-2.7 km) and 20 distant (zone C: 5-40 km) from industry during 2000-03. The authors ascertained occupational exposure to lung carcinogens, residential history, consumption of local produce, breast feeding, diet, and height and weight. The mean body burden measured on lipid basis in ng/kg for the whole sample was: WHO-TEQ (PCDD/Fs): 29.9, 2378TCDD: 4.0, PCB 118:16200, PCB156: 13100. Body burdens were similar to others reported from industrialised countries, except that mean 2378TCDD was slightly higher. Mean ages, body mass index, and lifelong dietary patterns were similar in both zones. The authors found no significant difference in mean body burden levels between zones A and C before or after adjustment for covariates. All congener patterns were consistent with an urban background pattern, and there was no significant difference between congener compositions in the two zones. The TCDD body burden increased with age with accelerated increments above age 70. Long term residency near heavy and chemical industry did not have an effect on women's body burden of PCDD/Fs and PCBs on Teesside, UK. The body burden of PCDD/F and PCBs was not a suitable biomarker for chronic, non-occupational exposure to industrial air pollution.

  8. Relationship between whole-body tumor burden, clinical phenotype, and quality of life in patients with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, Vanessa L; Bredella, Miriam A; Cai, Wenli; Kassarjian, Ara; Harris, Gordon J; Muzikansky, Alona; Nguyen, Rosa; Mautner, Victor F; Plotkin, Scott R

    2014-06-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis share a predisposition to develop multiple nerve sheath tumors. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with NF1 and NF2 have reduced quality of life (QOL), but no studies have examined the relationship between whole-body tumor burden and QOL in these patients. We administered a QOL questionnaire (the SF-36) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS) to a previously described cohort of adult neurofibromatosis patients undergoing whole-body MRI. One-sample t-tests were used to compare norm-based SF-36 scores to weighted population means. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analyses controlling for demographic and disease-specific clinical variable were used to relate whole-body tumor volume to QOL scales. Two hundred forty-five patients (142 NF1, 53 NF2, 50 schwannomatosis) completed the study. Subjects showed deficits in selected subscales of the SF-36 compared to adjusted general population means. In bivariate analysis, increased tumor volume was significantly associated with pain in schwannomatosis patients, as measured by the SF-36 bodily pain subscale (rho = -0.287, P = 0.04) and VAS (rho = 0.34, P = 0.02). Regression models for NF2 patients showed a positive relationship between tumor burden and increased pain, as measured by the SF-36 (P = 0.008). Patients with NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis suffer from reduced QOL, although only pain shows a clear relationship to patient's overall tumor burden. These findings suggest that internal tumor volume is not a primary contributor to QOL and emphasize the need for comprehensive treatment approaches that go beyond tumor-focused therapies such as surgery by including psychosocial interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of organochlorine chemical body burdens of female breast cancer cases with cancer free women in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil--Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Petreas, M.X.; Caleffi, M.; Barbosa, F.S.; Goth-Goldstein, R.

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study collected preliminary data to examine known and suspected breast cancer risk factors among women living in rural and urban areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by questionnaire. In addition, the body burden levels of a panel of organochlorines was measured in a small clinic-based prospective sample.

  10. Time course of cesium radionuclides body burden in residents of regions with elevated background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, V.N.; Luchkov, A.B.; Trushin, V.I.; Khazins, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors represent summarized data on the time course of 134 Cs and 137 Cs body burden in the population of the Krasnogorsky District of the Bryansk Region (Byelorussian SSR) over the period of June 1986-Jule 1989. A RISh-5M was used as a whole-body counter, its performance and calibration methods were described. A retrospective analysis has shown that the main accumulation of radionuclides occurred before May 15 1986. The highest half-life noted from August 1986 till Februal 1987. The ratio of accumulated Cs in children and adults was 0.3, in men and women - 1.4. The effectiveness of measures aimed at reducing collective doses of internal irradiation was analyzed

  11. Evaluation of the effect of test medium on total Cu body burden of nano CuO-exposed Daphnia magna: A TXRF spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muna, Marge; Heinlaan, Margit; Blinova, Irina; Vija, Heiki; Kahru, Anne

    2017-12-01

    Toxicity of Cu and Cu-based nanoparticles (NPs) to aquatic biota is usually mitigated in natural freshwater compared to organics-free artificial freshwater. The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether mitigated toxicity is accompanied by lower total copper body burden in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna and whether CuO NPs are more hazardous in this aspect than soluble Cu salts. Total copper body burden in different media (OECD202 artificial freshwater and two natural freshwaters) was measured by a relatively novel technique - total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy - which proved suitable for the analysis of individual juvenile daphnids. Mean copper body burden was 2.8-42 times higher in daphnids exposed to CuO NPs (0.05 mg Cu/L and 1 mg Cu/L) than in daphnids exposed to equal or equitoxic concentrations (0.025 mg Cu/L and 0.05 mg Cu/L) of CuSO 4 . Using natural freshwater instead of artificial one resulted in increased copper burden after exposure to CuO NPs but not after exposure to Cu salt. After 24 h post-exposure depuration in the presence of algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, total copper body burden in daphnids exposed to CuO NPs sharply decreased while in daphnids exposed to Cu salt it did not. Despite the CuO NP toxicity mitigating effect of natural freshwater, total copper body burden of aquatic crustaceans in natural waterbodies may be greater than could be predicted based on the results obtained using artificial freshwater as the test medium. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Dioxin body burden in women with long term residency near and away from major chemical industries in Teesside, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless-Mulloli, T.; Howel, D. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Edwards, R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Paepke, O. [ergo Forschungs Gesellschaft, Hamburg (Germany); Hermann, T.

    2004-09-15

    Retrospective exposure assessment poses a major challenge for environmental epidemiology studies. Body burden measures may act as markers for long-term exposure if biomarkers can be found with sufficiently long half lives in the human body. Some studies of human exposures have reported data from exposures over several years and before and after sources started production, however none have investigated the usefulness of such approach when exposure is estimated over more than a decade. Whilst for the general population food intake forms the major source of long term dioxin exposures other occupational and environmental sources can contribute to elevated body burdens. The UK has rich data sets for dioxin levels in food, but no body burden data are yet available for a general population sample. We tested the hypothesis that women with long term residence close to an industrial complex have a higher body burden and a distinct pattern of dioxins, furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We estimated exposure by recording residential history and food intakes and compared this information with body burden measurements as proxy for all forms of exposure.

  13. Body burden of Hg in different bio-samples of mothers in Shenyang city, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hg is an accumulative and neuro-toxic heavy metal which has a wide range of adverse effects in human health. However, few studies are available on body burden of Hg level in different bio-samples of pregnant women in Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated Hg levels in different maternal bio-samples in Shenyang city, China and investigated the correlation of Hg levels in different bio-samples. From October to December 2008, 200 pregnant women about to deliver their babies at ShengJing Hospital (Shenyang city, northeast of China participated in this study. The geometric mean (GM of Hg levels in cord blood, maternal venous blood, breast milk, and maternal urine were 2.18 µg/L, 1.17 µg/L, 1.14 µg/L, and 0.73 µg/L, respectively, and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 404.45 µg/kg. There was a strong correlation between cord blood and maternal blood total Hg level (r = 0.713, P<0.001. Frequency of fish consumption more than or equal to 3 times per week during pregnancy was suggested as a significant risk factor of prenatal Hg exposure (unadjusted OR 3.5, adjusted OR 2.94, P<0.05. This study provides evidence about Hg burden of mothers and the risk factors of prenatal Hg exposure in Shenyang city, China.

  14. Body Burden of Hg in Different Bio-Samples of Mothers in Shenyang City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Du, Juan; Yan, Chong-huai

    2014-01-01

    Hg is an accumulative and neuro-toxic heavy metal which has a wide range of adverse effects in human health. However, few studies are available on body burden of Hg level in different bio-samples of pregnant women in Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated Hg levels in different maternal bio-samples in Shenyang city, China and investigated the correlation of Hg levels in different bio-samples. From October to December 2008, 200 pregnant women about to deliver their babies at ShengJing Hospital (Shenyang city, northeast of China) participated in this study. The geometric mean (GM) of Hg levels in cord blood, maternal venous blood, breast milk, and maternal urine were 2.18 µg/L, 1.17 µg/L, 1.14 µg/L, and 0.73 µg/L, respectively, and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 404.45 µg/kg. There was a strong correlation between cord blood and maternal blood total Hg level (r = 0.713, PHg exposure (unadjusted OR 3.5, adjusted OR 2.94, PHg burden of mothers and the risk factors of prenatal Hg exposure in Shenyang city, China. PMID:24858815

  15. The economic consequences of elevated body-lead burdens in urban children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agree, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The following analysis develops the theory and implementation of the observed behavior technique in an altruistic setting, to assess the health benefits of reducing environmental lead exposure in urban children. Three models are presented which allow for endogenous body lead burden, risk of irreversible neurological damages, and Bayesian information. Conditions are derived under which the observed behavior technique can be modified to value the health consequences of exposure to a general class of persistent micropollutants (PMP's): the heavy metals. Benefit expressions reflect the tradeoff between parental wealth and child health when children are exposed to low level doses of lead. The purpose is to derive exact measures of marginal welfare change associated with variations in child body lead burden, and to determine the conditions under which these measures will be functions of observable parameters. The analysis presents an entirely ex ante approach to the recovery of benefit estimates when PMP exposure involves risk of irreversible health damages. In doing so, an empirical estimate is also obtained for the parental value of child health information that is used in the revision of prior risk beliefs. Risk of chronic irreversible health effects in younger generations from environmental lead exposure may be experienced by a large share of metropolitan population in the US. Given the large numbers of possible victims, the aggregate social value of avoiding this risk is an important policy issues. Moreover, the value of health risk information is potentially important to the use of an information program as a policy instrument in reducing health risk because it would enable the comparison of societal benefits from an information program to the cost of it's implementation

  16. Studies on the current Cs-137 body burden of children in Belarus - can the dose be further reduced?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Schlaeger, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R.; Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. The annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs-137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. In this situation the evaluation of possible dose reduction measures in addition to the control of food contamination is being investigated. Special attention is given to the cure-like application of a pectin-preparation (Vitapekt), for which a dose-lowering effect is presumed by Belarusian scientists. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapekt for a two-week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of control groups were given a placebo preparation. The Cs-137 body burden of the children was measured at the beginning and the end. First results indicate a mean relative reduction of the specific activity within the Vitapekt groups of about 35 %, whereas the specific activity of the children who received a placebo decreased only by about 15 %. It is proposed that pectins chemically bind cesium in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby increase fecal excretion. Theoretical calculations based on this assumption are qualitatively consistent with the experimentally found retention of radiocesium in the human body after a pectin treatment. (author)

  17. Studies on the current 137Cs body burden of children in Belarus - Can the dose be further reduced?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Schlaeger, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R.; Nesterenko, A. V.; Nesterenko, V. B.

    2007-01-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus were contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. The annual dose limit of 1 mSv is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of 137 Cs as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. In this situation the evaluation of possible dose reduction measures in addition to the control of food contamination is being investigated. Special attention is given to the therapeutic application of a pectin preparation (Vitapect), for which a dose-lowering effect is presumed by Belarusian scientists. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children received a pectin compound named Vitapect for a two-week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of control groups were given a placebo preparation. The 137 Cs body burden of the children was measured at the beginning and the end. The mean relative reduction of the specific activity within the Vitapect groups was found to be ∼33%, whereas the specific activity of the children who received a placebo decreased only by ∼14%, due to clean food supply. It is known that pectins chemically bind cations like caesium in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby increase faecal excretion. Theoretical calculations based on this assumption and considering metabolism processes are qualitatively consistent with the experimentally found retention of radiocaesium in the human body after pectin treatment. (authors)

  18. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  19. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.B.; Mitchell, I.J.; Baral, M.; Bradstreet, J.; Geis, E.; Ingram, J.; Hensley, A.; Zappia, I.; Gehn, E.; Mitchell, K.; Newmark, S.; Rubin, R.A.; Bradstreet, J.; El-Dahrn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  20. Toxicokinetics of halogenated benzenes in fish: Lethal body burden as a toxicological end point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, D.T.H.M.; Schipper, M.; Opperhuizen, A. (University of Utrecht, (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology)

    1993-06-01

    The lethal body burden (LBB), the whole-body concentration in millimoles per kilogram at time of death or immobilization, and the LC50 of dihalogenated (F,Cl,Br) benzenes were measured. Except for 1,4-difluorobenzene in guppy, LBBs varied between 2 and 8 mmol kg[sub [minus]8]. The LBBs of the chemicals in guppies were not significantly different from those in fat head minnows. LC50 values varied between 0.54 and 41 [mu]mol L[sub [minus]1] and were inversely related to the octanol/water partition coefficient, K[sub ow]. To estimate the risk of a compound to fish, the LBB requires the exposure concentration in combination with a first-order one-compartment bioaccumulation model. Therefore, the time of death or the time of immobility, and bioconcentration parameters such as the uptake rate constant (k[sub 1]) and the elimination rate constant (k[sub 2]), were determined. For both species, k[sub 1] values of the chlorinated benzenes were smaller than those of the brominated compounds and k[sub 2] values decreased with increasing hydrophobicity. The lipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors (k[sub l]'s) were linearly related to K[sub ow].

  1. Intercomparison of Finnish and Russian whole-body counters used for the determination of 137Cs body burden in reindeer-herding populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Tillander, M.

    1995-01-01

    Intercalibration is a very important quality control in whole-body counting, as the human body is a very difficult ''sample'' to calibrate for. In 1994 the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki and the Institute of Radiation Hygiene (IRH) of St. Petersburg agreed to undertake the first Finnish-Russian intercalibration project for whole-body counters. The monitoring of body burdens of indigenous inhabitants in the far north of Russia, from the Kola Peninsula to Chuhodka, has been the responsibility of the ISH since 1960; the above-.mentioned Finnish institutes have monitored reindeer breeders in Finnish Lapland since 1961. The intercalibration was done in the field by measuring the same persons with both systems in Finnish Lapland and in the Kola Peninsula. Mean body burdens in the reindeer-herding population in the areas of current interest are presented in the present paper. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Identification of threshold body burdens of metals for the protection of the aquatic ecological status using two benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bervoets, Lieven; De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    In this study accumulated concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in two benthic invertebrate taxa, Chironomus sp. and Tubificidae are related to ecological responses expressed as changes in macro invertebrate communities. In addition critical body burdens were estimated above which ecological quality was always lower than a certain threshold. Data from existing studies on bioaccumulation of the metals in both taxa were combined with different biological water quality indices. For all metal-endpoint combinations threshold values could be calculated above which ecological quality was always low. Safe threshold body burdens could be estimated for both species for all metals although the data set was more extended for Chrionomus sp. with estimated threshold values being 65, 3.2, 10, 57, 6.5, 73 and 490 μg/g dw for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. This study demonstrated that metal accumulation in resistant species such as chironomids and tubificid worms have the potential to be used as predictors of ecological effects in aquatic ecosystems. However, the estimated threshold values have to be validated and supported by more lines of evidence before they can be used by regulators. - Highlights: • Chironomid larvae and Tubificid worms can be used to relate accumulated metals to ecological endpoints. • Ecological water quality, calculated with biotic indices, is always low at high accumulated metal concentrations. • Critical body burdens in chironomids and tubificds could be estimated for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. - Maximal body burdens of metals in two invertebrate species could be estimated above which ecological quality was always low.

  3. School governing bodies - the principal's burden or the light of his ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I focus on the relationship between principals and school governing bodies in South Africa. Although the school governing body represents many role players, this article will focus mainly on the role and function of parent representatives in the school governing body. Parents constitute the majority in the ...

  4. Leadership, Organizational Climate, and Perceived Burden of Evidence-Based Practice in Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, Kim C; Fenwick, Karissa; Farahnak, Lauren R; Hurlburt, Michael S; Roesch, Scott C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is associated with favorable client outcomes, yet perceived burden of using EBPs may affect the adoption and implementation of such practices. Multilevel path analysis was used to examine the associations of transformational leadership with organizational climate, and their associations with perceived burden of using EBPs. Results indicated significant relationships between transformational leadership and empowering and demoralizing climates, and between demoralizing climate and perceived burden of EBPs. We found significant indirect associations of leadership and perceived burden through organizational climate. Findings suggest that further research is needed to examine the extent to which improving leadership and organizational climate may reduce perceived burden and use of EBPs with the ultimate goal of enhancing quality of care.

  5. Leadership, Organizational Climate, and Perceived Burden of Evidence-Based Practice in Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, Kim C.; Fenwick, Karissa; Farahnak, Lauren R.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is associated with favorable client outcomes, yet perceived burden of using EBPs may affect the adoption and implementation of such practices. Multilevel path analysis was used to examine the associations of transformational leadership with organizational climate, and their associations with perceived burden of using EBPs. Results indicated significant relationships between transformational leadership and empowering and demoralizing climates, and between demoralizing climate and perceived burden of EBPs. We found significant indirect associations of leadership and perceived burden through organizational climate. Findings suggest that further research is needed to examine the extent to which improving leadership and organizational climate may reduce perceived burden and use of EBPs with the ultimate goal of enhancing quality of care. PMID:26152770

  6. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroker-Lobos, Maria F; Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Pedraza, Lilia S; Rivera, Juan A

    2014-12-01

    In Mexico, stunting and anemia have declined but are still high in some regions and subpopulations, whereas overweight and obesity have increased at alarming rates in all age and socioeconomic groups. The objective was to describe the coexistence of stunting, anemia, and overweight and obesity at the national, household, and individual levels. We estimated national prevalences of and trends for stunting, anemia, and overweight and obesity in children aged obesity in women aged 20-49 y by using the National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted in 1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012. With the use of the most recent data (2012), the double burden of malnutrition at the household level was estimated and defined as the coexistence of stunting in children aged obesity in the mother. At the individual level, double burden was defined as concurrent stunting and overweight and obesity in children aged 5-11 y and concurrent anemia and overweight or obesity in children aged 5-11 y and in women. We also tested if the coexistence of the conditions corresponded to expected values, under the assumption of independent distributions of each condition. At the household level, the prevalence of concurrent stunting in children aged obesity in mothers was 8.4%; at the individual level, prevalences were 1% for stunting and overweight or obesity and 2.9% for anemia and overweight or obesity in children aged 5-11 y and 7.6% for anemia and overweight or obesity in women. At the household and individual levels in children aged 5-11 y, prevalences of double burden were significantly lower than expected, whereas anemia and the prevalence of overweight or obesity in women were not different from that expected. Although some prevalences of double burden were lower than expected, assuming independent distributions of the 2 conditions, the coexistence of stunting, overweight or obesity, and anemia at the national, household, and intraindividual levels in Mexico calls for policies and programs to prevent

  7. Caregiver burden, sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in dementia caregivers: a comparison of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Zhihong; Zhou, Yuying; Li, Jing; Yu, Tao; Ji, Yong

    2017-12-10

    Very few recent studies are available that compare caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of different types of dementia. We aimed to investigate caregiver burden, sleep quality, and stress in caregivers of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies, as compared with caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This study was carried out from March 2011 to January 2014. In total, 492 dyads of patient and caregiver (frontotemporal lobar degeneration, n = 131; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 36; Alzheimer's disease, n = 325) participated in this study. We compared patients with respect to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and caregivers with respect to the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients presented significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to Alzheimer's disease patients. Caregivers of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients experienced significantly more burden compared to Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Furthermore, among caregivers of both frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies patients burden was predicted by the neuropsychiatric symptoms, PHQ-9 scores, and GAD-7 scores. The frequency and severity of behavioral disturbances in patient and caregiver stress accounted for the increased caregiver burden, which suggests that frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies caregivers should receive more support than is currently available.

  8. Assessment of Radioactivity in Man. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Assessment of Radioactive Body Burdens in Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This Symposium on the Assessment of Radioactive Body Burdens in Man was organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Labour Organisation and the World Health Organization and was held in Heidelberg from 11-15 May 1964. It was attended by 181 participants from 28 countries and 6 international organizations. It was the objective of the Symposium to bring together experts from the various scientific disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and mathematics, and to survey their experience in the assessment of radioactive body burdens in man and the resultant radiation doses. In most investigations of internal contamination the errors in the physical measurements are smaller than the errors associated with the interpretation of measurements. For this reason special emphasis was laid in this meeting on the interpretation of measured data. The 67 papers and the discussions which they stimulated are published in these Proceedings produced in two volumes. Volume I includes all papers which deal with problems generally common to many isotopes: in- vivo counting, bioassay techniques, sample counting and analysis of data. Volume II includes those papers concerned with radioisotopes of specific elements: caesium, radium, radon, strontium, tritium, thorium, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements. These Proceedings should prove invaluable to all radiation protection services entrusted with the physical surveillance of internal radiation exposure of man. They should complement the studies of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and assist the work of the Organizations that jointly organized the meeting

  9. Assessment of Radioactivity in Man. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Assessment of Radioactive Body Burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This Symposium on the Assessment of Radioactive Body Burdens in Man was organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Labour Organisation and the World Health Organization and was held in Heidelberg from 11-15 May 1964. It was attended by 181 participants from 28 countries and 6 international organizations. It was the objective of the Symposium to bring together experts from the various scientific disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and mathematics, and to survey their experience in the assessment of radioactive body burdens in man and the resultant radiation doses. In most investigations of internal contamination the errors in the physical measurements are smaller than the errors associated with the interpretation of measurements. For this reason special emphasis was laid in this meeting on the interpretation of measured data. The 67 papers and the discussions which they stimulated are published in these Proceedings produced in two volumes. Volume I includes all papers which deal with problems generally common to many isotopes: in- vivo counting, bioassay techniques, sample counting and analysis of data. Volume II includes those papers concerned with radioisotopes of specific elements: caesium, radium, radon, strontium, tritium, thorium, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements. These Proceedings should prove invaluable to all radiation protection services entrusted with the physical surveillance of internal radiation exposure of man. They should complement the studies of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and assist the work of the Organizations that jointly organized the meeting

  10. Stress and Burden among Caregivers of Patients with Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda N.; Zarit, Steven; Taylor, Angela; Galvin, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with Lewy body dementia (LBD) may present a unique set of symptoms and challenges to family caregivers compared with other types of dementia. Prominent difficulties include motor impairment, activities of daily living (ADLs) disability, recurrent behavioral and emotional problems (BEPs), and diagnostic difficulties. These…

  11. Tooth manganese as a biomarker of exposure and body burden in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Christine; Richardson, Cardius; Smith, Donald; Arora, Manish

    2017-05-01

    Neonates and children are particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of excess manganese (Mn), but studies of Mn exposure during these developmental periods are hampered by a lack of validated biomarkers. Deciduous teeth may be used to assess Mn exposure during these developmental periods but require further validation to determine the relationship between tooth Mn, Mn in target tissues, and exposure. To determine the relationship of tooth Mn concentrations with: (i) exposure dose, (ii) the timing/duration of exposure, and (iii) with Mn concentrations in blood, brain and bone. Rats in different treatment groups were orally exposed to 0, 25 or 50µg/g/day Mn either from postnatal day (PND) 1 - 21 and culled at PND 24, from PND 1 - 21 and culled as adults (>PND 290), or from PND 1 - throughout life and culled at >290 PND. Mn was measured in second molars, femurs, brain and blood by ICP-MS. Tooth Mn increased significantly with dose in rats exposed for 21 PND and culled at 24 PND (p290 PND, tooth Mn increased with exposure duration (pbone (rho 0.69, pbone were also significantly positively associated in animals exposed only early in life (rho 0.76, p<0.001). Teeth are a sensitive biomarker of active and past Mn exposure and Mn burden in tissues. Unlike blood, teeth retain information on exposure history over the short and long-term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lake levels and water quality in comparison to fish mercury body burdens, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kissane, Claire; LeDuc, Jamie F.

    2017-01-18

    Within Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota, lake levels are controlled by a series of dams to support a variety of uses. Previous research indicates a link between these artificially maintained water levels, referred to as rule curves, and mercury concentrations in fish owing to the drying and rewetting of wetlands and other nearshore areas, which may release methylmercury into the water when inundated. The U.S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and University of Wisconsin-La Crosse cooperated in a study to assess the importance of lake-level fluctuation and other factors affecting mercury concentrations in Perca flavescens (yellow perch) in the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. For this study, mercury body burdens were determined for young-of-the-year yellow perch collected from the large lakes within Voyageurs National Park during 2013–15. These mercury body burdens were compared to lake levels and water-quality constituents from the same period.Field properties and profiles of lake water quality indicated that Sand Point, Little Vermilion, and Crane Lakes were anoxic at times near the lake bottom sediments, where sulfate-reducing bacteria may convert mercury to methylmercury. The median dissolved sulfate concentration was highest in Crane Lake, the median total organic carbon concentration was highest in Sand Point Lake, and the median total phosphorus concentration was highest in Kabetogama Lake, all of which is consistent with previous research. All lakes had median chlorophyll a concentrations of 3.6 micrograms per liter or less with the exception of Kabetogama Lake, where the median concentrations were 4.3 micrograms per liter for the midlake sites and 7.1 micrograms per liter and 9.0 micrograms per liter for the nearshore sites.Mercury concentrations in sampled fish varied widely between years and among lakes, from 14.7 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Kabetogama Lake in 2015 to 178 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Crane Lake in

  13. The Burden of Cancer in Korea during 2012: Findings from a Prevalence-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cancer causes a significant deterioration in health and premature death and is a national socioeconomic burden. This study aimed to measure the burden of cancer using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metric based on the newly adopted methodology from the Global Burden of Disease Study in 2010. This study was conducted based on data from the Korean National Cancer Registry. The DALYs were calculated using a prevalence-based method instead of the incidence-based method used by previous studies. The total burden of cancer in 2012 was 3,470.79 DALYs per 100,000 persons. Lung cancer was the most prevalent cancer burden, followed by liver, stomach, colorectal, and breast cancer. The DALYs for lung, liver, stomach, colon and rectum, and pancreatic cancer were high in men, whereas the DALYs for breast, lung, stomach, colorectal, and liver cancer were high in women. Health loss from leukemia and cancer of the brain and nervous system was prevalent for those younger than age 20; from stomach, breast, and liver for those aged 30–50; and from lung, colon and rectum, and pancreas for a large proportion of individuals over the age of 60. The most important differences were that the DALYs were calculated by prevalence and that other components of the DALYs were measured by a population-based perspective. Thus, prevalence-based DALYs could provide more suitable data for decision making in the healthcare field. PMID:27775254

  14. Bioassay of hair for estimation of body burden by tritium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Tetsuo

    1989-01-01

    For accurate estimation of radiation dose to human body from tritium exposure, it is needed to assess the concentration of tritium organically bound to the tissue constituents(OBT) as well as body water tritium. Since hair is an easily accessible tissue, it seems to be interesting to study the possibility of using hair for this purpose. In the present study, the pattern of tritium incorporation into hair and the quantitative relationship between OBT content in hair and in other internal tissues were investigated in rats exposed singly or continously to tritiated water, tritiated leucine and tritiated glycine. The rate of tritium incorporation into hair was slower than that into other tissues and the maximum concentrations were found on the 15-30th day after a single ingestion. The alterations in the concentration of OBT in internal tissues due to the difference of chemical form of ingested tritium were reflected on the OBT concentration in hair. Especially, the OBT content in hair under the condition of continuous exposure was almost the same as that in other tissues. These findings indicate the validity of hair analysis as a means for assessing OBT deposition in the body or tissues. (author)

  15. Predictors of caregiver burden across the home-based palliative care trajectory in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriere, Denise; Husain, Amna; Zagorski, Brandon; Marshall, Denise; Seow, Hsien; Brazil, Kevin; Kennedy, Julia; Burns, Sheri; Brooks, Heather; Coyte, Peter C

    2016-07-01

    Family caregivers of patients enrolled in home-based palliative care programmes provide unpaid care and assistance with daily activities to terminally ill family members. Caregivers often experience caregiver burden, which is an important predictor of anxiety and depression that can extend into bereavement. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective cohort study to comprehensively assess modifiable and non-modifiable patient and caregiver factors that account for caregiver burden over the palliative care trajectory. Caregivers (n = 327) of patients with malignant neoplasm were recruited from two dedicated home-based palliative care programmes in Southern Ontario, Canada from 1 July 2010 to 31 August 2012. Data were obtained from bi-weekly telephone interviews with caregivers from study admission until death, and from palliative care programme and home-care agency databases. Information collected comprised patient and caregiver demographics, utilisation of privately and publicly financed resources, patient clinical status and caregiver burden. The average age of the caregivers was 59.0 years (SD: 13.2), and almost 70% were female. Caregiver burden increased over time in a non-linear fashion from study admission to patient death. Increased monthly unpaid care-giving time costs, monthly public personal support worker costs, emergency department visits and low patient functional status were associated with higher caregiver burden. Greater use of hospice care was associated with lower burden. Female caregivers tended to report more burden compared to men as death approached, and burden was higher when patients were male. Low patient functional status was the strongest predictor of burden. Understanding the influence of modifiable and non-modifiable factors on the experience of burden over the palliative trajectory is essential for the development and targeting of programmes and policies to support family caregivers and reduce burden. Supporting caregivers can have

  16. Dietary treatment for decreasing 141Ce body burden in immature rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargacin, B.; Kostial, K.; Landeka, M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of prolonged (immediate or delayed) administration of dietary additives to suckling rats on the absorption and retention of radioactive cerium in the body. The experiment was performed on 6-day-old suckling rats. According to dietary treatment the animals were divided into three groups. Each group was artificially fed over 8 h for 6 or 12 days on one of the diets: the first group of animals was fed milk, the second group was given ingredients of rat diet and the third received milk during the first 2 days of the experiment and the ingredients of rat diet afterwards. At the end of the artificial feeding period the pups returned to their mothers and suckled overnight. On the 1st day of the experiment the food was labelled with 141 Ce. Whole body radioactivity was determined in a double crystal scintillation counter every 48 h over a 12-day period. Half of the animals from each group were killed 6 days after 141 Ce administration and the other half after 12 days. At these intervals retention was determined in the gut, liver, kidneys and femur. The early and delayed administration of rat diet ingredients - fish meal, sunflower meal, alfalfa, cane molasses and premix - greatly reduced whole body retention. The early treatment was more efficacious than the delayed one. The reduction was mostly due to decreased gut retention but organ retentions were also lower. The results obtained indicate that by prolonged (immediate or delayed) administration of some dietary means the retention of radioactive cerium in sucklings can be significantly decreased. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of Economic Burden of Seasonal Influenza: An Actuarial Based Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. N. Perera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the economic burden of the seasonal influenza is highly essential due to the large number of outbreaks in recent years. Mathematical and actuarial models can be considered as management tools to understand the dynamical behavior, predict the risk, and compute it. This study is an attempt to develop conceptual model to investigate the economic burden due to seasonal influenza. The compartment SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible model is used to capture the dynamical behavior of influenza. Considering the current investment and future medical care expenditure as premium payment and benefit (claim, respectively, the insurance and actuarial based conceptual model is proposed to model the present economic burden due to the spread of influenza. Simulation is carried out to demonstrate the variation of the present economic burden with respect to model parameters. The sensitivity of the present economic burden is studied with respect to the risk of disease spread. The basic reproduction is used to identify the risk of disease spread. Impact of the seasonality is studied by introducing the seasonally varying infection rate. The proposed model provides theoretical background to investigate the economic burden of seasonal influenza.

  18. Hair as an indicator of the body burden of metals in relation to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors influencing metal deposition in hair are still unknown. Animal experiments were performed to obtain data on the mechanism of transfer of elements into hair and to estimate whether hair retention is influenced by age, sex and chelating agent treatment. Experiments were performed on albino rats (Wistar strain) of different age and sex. Whole body hair (skin included) and organ retention of various elements was determined at different periods of time after intraperitoneal administration of the radioactive isotopes 115m Cd, 203 Hg, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 65 Zn, 141 Ce, 137 Cs, 203 Pb and 85 Sr. In some experiments DTPA was used for reducing body retention of 155m Cd and 141 Ce and DMPS for reducing 203 Hg retention. Results show that hair and organ retention of elements in rats varies with age, sex and chelation treatment and such changes are specific for each element and can not be generalized. Age as a factor influencing hair retention of metals is likely to be more important for some elements than for others. In kinetic studies we found that due to differences in element distribution and kinetics, the relationship between hair and organ retention at various time intervals varies both with age and the element concerned. Sex influences not only hair but also metal retention and distribution in other organs. (author). 4 refs

  19. PCB body burdens in US women of childbearing age 2001-2002: An evaluation of alternate summary metrics of NHANES data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Goodman, Stephanie; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2009-05-01

    An extensive body of epidemiologic data associates prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with neurodevelopmental deficits and other childhood health effects. Neurological effects and other adverse health effects may also result from exposure during infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Although manufacture and use of PCBs were banned in the US in 1977, exposure to PCBs is a continuing concern due to the widespread distribution of these compounds in the environment and their persistence. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provides PCB body burden measurements representative of the US population for the years 1999-2002. Interpretation of these data is challenging due to the large number of PCB congeners reported. We examined 6 PCB body burden metrics to identify an approach for summarizing the NHANES data and for characterizing changes over time in potential risks to children's health. We focused on women of childbearing age, defined here as 16-39 years, because in utero exposures have been associated with neurodevelopmental effects, and used only the 2001-2002 data because of higher detection rates. The 6 metrics, each consisting of different combinations of the 9 most frequently detected congeners, were as follows: total PCBs (all 9 congeners); highly chlorinated PCBs (2 congeners); dioxin-like PCBs (3 congeners, weighted by toxic equivalency factors); non-dioxin-like PCBs (6 congeners); a 4-congener metric (PCBs 118, 138, 153, and 180); and PCB-153 alone. The PCB metrics were generally highly correlated with each other. There was a strong association of PCB body burdens with age for all metrics. Median body burdens of Mexican American women were lower than those of non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black women for 5 of the 6 metrics, and there were no significant differences in body burdens between the latter two groups. Body burdens of women with incomes above poverty level were greater than those for lower-income women at the

  20. The significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable growth of interest in problems of environmental pollution from industrial and agricultural substances and the harmful impact of such pollution on human health. There has been an increasing interest in using hair mineral analysis for biological monitoring of human population exposure to environmental mineral pollutants. This is because hair has some ideal attributes for such purposes. It can be collected by simple, non-invasive methods, and is easily sampled and stored. Concentrations of most of the toxic trace elements, i.e. mercury and lead, in scalp hair are at least an order of magnitude higher than those in body fluids or other easily accessible tissues. In addition, mineral elements in hair can easily be determined with good precision and sensitivity by nuclear as well as conventional methods of chemical analysis. Despite these apparent advantages of using hair as a biomonitor, serious uncertainty existed, and to some extent still exist, as to the meaningful interpretation of human hair mineral data in environmental health studies. The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP), which is the subject of this report, has attempted to tackle this problem by promoting a variety of studies (as distinct from routine monitoring) to investigate the quantitative relationships between internal body burdens of a number of elements of environmental health significance and their respective concentrations in hair. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. An effective and better strategy for reducing body burden of radiostrontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagtap, V S; Sonawane, V R; Pahuja, D N; Rajan, M G R; Rajashekharrao, B; Samuel, A M

    2003-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effect of different calcium salts, Ca gluconate (CaG), Ca lactate (CaL), Ca carbonate (CaC) and Ca phosphate (CaP), on the clearance of radiostrontium (*Sr) administered either intraperitoneally (ip) (*Sr-ip group) or orally (*Sr-oral group) in rats. The influence of these Ca salts was examined in a group of animals administered *Sr ip, while the effect of three Ca salts (CaG, CaL and CaP) was studied in another group of rats given *Sr orally and compared with that of Ca alginate (CaA), normally advised for *Sr decorporation. Rats from both groups were subdivided into control and four experimental subgroups and were housed individually. The experimental subgroups were given the respective Ca salts (elemental Ca = 9 mg/rat/day) 2 h post 85 Sr, and thereafter once daily. In the *Sr-ip group, CaG was administered ip while the other Ca salts were given orally. In the *Sr-oral group all Ca salts were administered orally. In addition, the diet of all the experimental subgroups was supplemented with the respective Ca salts to 2% elemental Ca. The whole-body retention (WBR) of *Sr in animals treated with Ca salts was found to be significantly reduced from 50-60% at 24 h to 20-30% at the end of 15 days compared with 70-80% at 24 h to 50-60% at the end of 15 days in the untreated control animals. The results strongly suggest that CaA could be replaced by any of the commonly used Ca salts for curtailing the WBR of *Sr. CaG which was administered ip, in the *Sr-ip group, was found to be more effective in reducing the WBR of *Sr

  2. Classifying the body in Marlene Dumas'The Image as Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anthea

    2018-03-01

    Medical photography, and in particular dermatological imagery, is often assumed to provide an objective, and functional, representation of disease and that it can act as a diagnostic aid. By contrast, artistic conceptions of the images of the body tend to focus on interpretative heterogeneity and ambiguity, aiming to create or explore meaning rather than enact a particular function. In her 2015 retrospective exhibition at the Tate Modern, South African artist Marlene Dumas questions these disciplinary divides by using medical imagery (among other photographic sources) as the basis for her portraits. Her portrait 'The White Disease' draws on an unidentified photograph taken from a medical journal, but obscures the original image to such a degree that any representation of a particular disease is highly questionable. The title creates a new classification, which reflects on disease and on the racial politics of South Africa during apartheid. Though, on the one hand, these techniques are seemingly disparate from the methods of medical understanding, features such as reliance on classification, and attempts at dispelling ambiguity, bring Dumas' work closer to the history of dermatological portraits than would usually be perceived to be the case. In considering the continuities and disparities between conceptualisations of skin in dermatology and Dumas' art, this paper questions assumptions of photographic objectivity to suggest that there is greater complexity and interpretative scope in medical dermatological images than might initially be assumed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Plasma based markers of [11C] PiB-PET brain amyloid burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven John Kiddle

    Full Text Available Changes in brain amyloid burden have been shown to relate to Alzheimer's disease pathology, and are believed to precede the development of cognitive decline. There is thus a need for inexpensive and non-invasive screening methods that are able to accurately estimate brain amyloid burden as a marker of Alzheimer's disease. One potential method would involve using demographic information and measurements on plasma samples to establish biomarkers of brain amyloid burden; in this study data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative was used to explore this possibility. Sixteen of the analytes on the Rules Based Medicine Human Discovery Multi-Analyte Profile 1.0 panel were found to associate with [(11C]-PiB PET measurements. Some of these markers of brain amyloid burden were also found to associate with other AD related phenotypes. Thirteen of these markers of brain amyloid burden--c-peptide, fibrinogen, alpha-1-antitrypsin, pancreatic polypeptide, complement C3, vitronectin, cortisol, AXL receptor kinase, interleukin-3, interleukin-13, matrix metalloproteinase-9 total, apolipoprotein E and immunoglobulin E--were used along with co-variates in multiple linear regression, and were shown by cross-validation to explain >30% of the variance of brain amyloid burden. When a threshold was used to classify subjects as PiB positive, the regression model was found to predict actual PiB positive individuals with a sensitivity of 0.918 and a specificity of 0.545. The number of APOE [Symbol: see text] 4 alleles and plasma apolipoprotein E level were found to contribute most to this model, and the relationship between these variables and brain amyloid burden was explored.

  4. Assessment and mitigation of the environmental burdens to air from land applied food-based digestate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, A.; Williams, I.D.; Pant, D.C.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of putrescible urban waste for energy recovery has seen rapid growth over recent years. In order to ascertain its systems scale sustainability, however, determination of the environmental fate of the large volume of digestate generated during the process is indispensable. This paper evaluates the environmental burdens to air associated with land applied food-based digestate in terms of primary pollutants (ammonia, nitrogen dioxide) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide). The assessments have been made in two stages – first, the emissions from surface application of food-based digestate are quantified for the business as usual (BAU). In the next step, environmental burden minimisation potentials for the following three mitigation measures are estimated – mixed waste digestate (MWD), soil-incorporated digestate (SID), and post-methanated digestate (PMD). Overall, the mitigation scenarios demonstrated considerable NH 3 , CH 4 and N 2 O burden minimisation potentials, with positive implications for both climate change and urban pollution. - Highlights: • In situ air pollution assessment of land applied digestate is performed. • Environmental burden minimisation scenarios for digestate bio fertiliser presented. • Food-based digestate show high ammonia volatilisation potential. • Soil incorporated digestate effectively reduces NH 3 but elevates N 2 O emissions. • Managing digestate emissions mitigate both climate change and air pollution. - In situ monitoring and analyses demonstrate the role of post-processing in greenhouse gases and air pollution mitigation from food-based digestate use as bio fertiliser

  5. Forecast-based Interventions Can Reduce the Health and Economic Burden of Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    We simulated public health forecast-based interventions during a wildfire smoke episode in rural North Carolina to show the potential for use of modeled smoke forecasts toward reducing the health burden and showed a significant economic benefit of reducing exposures. Daily and co...

  6. Dioxin body burden among blood donors before and after the Belgian dioxin/PCB incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debacker, N.; Sasse, A.; Wouwe, N. Van; Windal, I.; Carbonnelle, S.; Overmeire, I. Van; Sartor, F.; Goeyens, L.; Oyen, H. Van [Scientific Inst. of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Eppe, G.; Xhrouet, C.; Pauw, E. De [Centre of Analysis of Residues in Traces, Luik (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    In spring 1999, Belgium faced a severe food contamination when about 50 kg of PCBs containing 1 g of dioxins were introduced in the food chain. The possible public health impact of this food chain contamination was subject of a debate between different scientists. According to Vrijens et al. and Bernard et al. there was no significant public health impact, whereas van Larebeke et al. presumed the opposite claiming a significant increase of cancer incidence. These risk assessments were based on measurements of dioxins/PCBs in contaminated foods and nutritional habits observed in a selected group of adolescents (14-18 years old) using simulation techniques or on the estimation of the incremental cancer risk associated with the incremental levels of exposure to dioxins/PCBs during the incident. In the meantime, an epidemiological survey has been carried out in order to measure the dioxin levels in plasma samples collected before and after the incident. The aim of this paper is to report the preliminary results of this epidemiological survey.

  7. The transmission of fluctuant patterns of the forex burden based on international crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiangyun; An, Haizhong; Fang, Wei; Li, Huajiao

    2014-01-01

    For a country that imports crude oil, the forex burden is always fluctuant due to the fluctuation of international crude oil prices and exchange rates over time. The gap discovered between international crude oil prices and the crude oil price based on exchange rates may indicate the fluctuation of the forex burden. There exist different fluctuant patterns in the fluctuation process of the forex burden in different periods. Hence, we proposed an approach combining econometrics and complex network theory to explore the transmission mechanism of these fluctuant patterns. In this study, we defined the forex burden and the fluctuant patterns by normalization, sliding windows of data and econometric models. And then we set the fluctuant patterns as nodes and the transformation between patterns as edges; in this way, the transmission complex network is constructed. The results show that different major fluctuant patterns with different probabilities appear in different scales. The fluctuant patterns transferred into each other conveniently. And the transmission medium can help to identify the transitional periods in the process of the transmission. The contribution of this study to the energy policy decision-making is that the formulations of related policies under different period lengths require different reference standards. - Highlights: • Small “gap” between crude oil price and exchange rate can make great forex fluctuation. • We defined the fluctuant patterns of forex burden through data sliding windows. • We constructed the transmission network models of fluctuant patterns of forex burden. • The transitional periods can be identified by media capabilities of fluctuant patterns. • Energy policies making for different lengths of period should reference different scales standards

  8. Imposex and butyltin body burden in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), in coastal waters within the Basque Country (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. German, E-mail: grodriguez@pas.azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Muxika, Inigo [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Sariego, Cristina [Servicio de Espectrometria de Masas, SCT' s, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria s/n, 33006, Oviedo (Spain); Valencia, Victoriano [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), at 22 locations in the Basque Country (northern Spain). At 18 of these localities, butyltin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was analysed using isotope dilution and GC-ICP-MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with a large vessel traffic or the presence of a fishing fleet or a shipyard. For the first time, four apparently sequential types of aborted capsules are described in this species. Another novelty is the interspecific comparison between imposex intensities in sympatrically living populations of N. nitidus and N. reticulatus. This showed that sensitivity to TBT pollution of both species is relatively similar (in terms of Relative Penis Length Index). Since N. nitidus has a restricted habitat distribution due to its low presence in wave-exposed habitats, its complementary use with other species is recommended for its use in TBT monitoring programmes.

  9. Whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to stratify symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic burden in patients with isolated cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Duce, Suzanne L.; Gandy, Stephen J.; Matthew, Shona Z.; Martin, Patricia; Cassidy, Deirdre B.; McCormick, Lynne; Belch, Jill J. F.; Struthers, Allan D.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Houston, J. Graeme

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (WB CVMR) to assess the heart and arterial network in a single examination, so as to describe the burden of atherosclerosis and subclinical disease in participants with symptomatic single site vascular disease. 64 patients with a history of symptomatic single site vascular disease (38 coronary artery disease (CAD), 9 cerebrovascular disease, 17 peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) underwent whole body angiogram and cardiac MR in a 3 T scanner. The arterial tree was subdivided into 31 segments and each scored according to the degree of stenosis. From this a standardised atheroma score (SAS) was calculated. Cine and late gadolinium enhancement images of the left ventricle were obtained. Asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease with greater than 50 % stenosis in arteries other than that responsible for their presenting complain was detected in 37 % of CAD, 33 % of cerebrovascular and 47 % of PAD patients. Unrecognised myocardial infarcts were observed in 29 % of PAD patients. SAS was significantly higher in PAD patients 24 (17.5-30.5) compared to CAD 4 (2–11.25) or cerebrovascular disease patients 6 (2-10) (ANCOVA p < 0.001). Standardised atheroma score positively correlated with age (β 0.36 p = 0.002), smoking status (β 0.34 p = 0.002), and LV mass (β -0.61 p = 0.001) on multiple linear regression. WB CVMR is an effective method for the stratification of cardiovascular disease. The high prevalence of asymptomatic arterial disease, and silent myocardial infarctions, particularly in the peripheral arterial disease group, demonstrates the importance of a systematic approach to the assessment of cardiovascular disease

  10. Forecasting and Analyzing the Disease Burden of Aged Population in China, Based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhen Bao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forecasting the disease burden of the elderly will contribute to make a comprehensive assessment about physical and mental status of the elderly in China and provide a basis for reducing the negative consequences of aging society to a minimum. Methods: This study collected data from a public database online provided by Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Grey model GM (1, 1 was used to forecast all-cause and disease-specific rates of disability adjusted life years (DALYs in 2015 and 2020. Results: After cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, we found that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were still the greatest threats in the elderly, followed by injuries. As for 136 predicted causes, more than half of NCDs increased obviously with age, less than a quarter of communicable, material, neonatal, and nutritional disorders or injuries had uptrend. Conclusions: The findings display the health condition of the Chinese elderly in the future, which will provide critical information for scientific and sociological researches on preventing and reducing the risks of aging society.

  11. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, P.

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [fr

  12. The significance of mineral pollutants in hair for the assessment of the body burden and the concentration in the critical organs in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmer, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    If the content of an element in hair of an individual is used for the assessment of health risk of that person it is of special importance to know if the hair analytical data reflect the body burden or the content of the organ or tissues at risk. Ideally the content in hair should rise and fall in parallel to an increase or decrease of the body burden or the content in the critical organs. It was the aim of this project to study the transfer of Hg, methyl-mercury and Zn to hair and to compare it with the levels simultaneously observed in the total body and the relevant organs under controlled experimental conditions in an animal model. In addition, a similar study on As and the analyses of two experiments of a long term study on Cd exposure were also included. 11 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  13. The effects of behavioral and psychological symptoms on caregiver burden in frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, and Alzheimer's disease: clinical experience in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuling; Jin, Yi; Shi, Zhihong; Huo, Ya Ruth; Guan, Yalin; Liu, Mengyuan; Liu, Shuai; Ji, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Caregivers of individuals with neurodegenerative diseases, including frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body dementia (DLB), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), experience high levels of psychological and physical stress, likely due to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This study is the first to simultaneously evaluate the effects of BPSD on caregiver burden in these three types of dementia. A total of 214 dementia patients, including probable FTD (n = 82), DLB (n = 22), and AD (n = 110), as well as their primary caregivers, were assessed using psychological inventories and cognitive evaluation. The FTD group was further divided into the three established clinical variants: behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 51), non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA, n = 15), and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, n = 16). Cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Clock Drawing Test, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), respectively. Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI). FTD patients had higher NPI and ZBI scores than DLB and AD patients, whose scores were similar. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the factors influencing caregiver burden for each group were: FTD: total NPI scores, agitation, and aberrant motor behavior; bvFTD: total NPI scores; DLB: total NPI scores; and AD: total NPI scores, onset age, apathy, and ADL. Caregivers of bvFTD patients had the highest levels of burden, which were significantly greater than for caregivers of nfvPPA, svPPA, DLB, and AD patients. BPSD was highly correlated with emotional burden in caregivers of FTD, DLB, and AD patients. The highest burden was observed in bvFTD caregivers.

  14. The body composition and excretory burden of lean, obese, and severely obese individuals has implications for the assessment of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, James; Weatherley, Nicholas; Kawar, Bisher; Fogarty, Damian G; Ellam, Timothy

    2014-12-01

    Obesity could affect associations between creatinine generation, estimated body surface area, and excretory burden, with effects on chronic kidney disease assessment. We therefore examined the impact of obesity on the performances of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR), and excretory burden in 3611 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Urine creatinine excretion significantly increased with body mass index (BMI) (34 and 31% greater at 40 kg/m(2) or more versus the normal of 18.5-25 kg/m(2)) in men and women, respectively, such that patients with a normal BMI and an ACR of 30 mg/g had the same 24-h albuminuria as severely obese patients with ACR 23 mg/g. The bias of eGFR (referenced to body surface area-indexed iothalamate (i-)GFR) had a U-shaped relationship to obesity in men but progressively increased in women. Nevertheless, obesity-associated body surface area increases were accompanied by a greater absolute (non-indexed) iGFR for a given eGFR, particularly in men. Two men with eGFRs of 45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), height 1.76 m, and BMI 22 or 45 kg/m(2) had absolute iGFRs of 46 and 62 ml/min, respectively. The excretory burden, assessed as urine urea nitrogen and estimated dietary phosphorus, sodium, and potassium intakes, also increased in obesity. However, obese men had lower odds of anemia, hyperkalemia, and hyperphosphatemia. Thus, for a given ACR and eGFR, obese individuals have greater albuminuria, absolute GFR, and excretory burden. This has implications for chronic kidney disease management, screening, and research.

  15. Projection of body burdens to assess the relative risk from exposure to trace elements from coal combustion emissions, drinking water, and diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, J.R.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Surles T.G.

    1979-12-01

    This study compares the relative health risk of exposure to seven trace elements from four sources - coal-fired electricity generation with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator, coal-fired electricity generation with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator, drinking water, and diet. The measure used for comparing health risks is body burden, which is the amount of an element accumulating within an exposed subject. Body burdens were used as a measure of risk because the lack of dose-response data restricts the projection of absolute risks of exposure, such as death or illness. Thus, projection of body burdens provides a measure of relative risk that can be used for comparison of impact potential from different sources of exposure. The assessment trace elements - arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc - were chosen to represent a range of physiological, environmental, and physical characteristics that affect the amount of accumulation. These factors include: toxicity, absorption, excretion, biological half life, bioaccumulation, biotransformation, volatility, and solubility.

  16. Effects of variations in cadmium and lead levels in river sediments on local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Watanabe, Takao; Ohashi, Fumiko; Shimbo, Shinichiro

    2010-03-01

    This study was initiated to examine if variations in the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water environment may affect metal levels in local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan. Two nationwide databases have been made available on concentrations of Cd in locally harvested brown rice and of Cd and Pb in sediments in local river beds. These data were combined with published data on metal concentrations in polished rice, food duplicates, and blood and urine from the residents. Cd in river sediments correlated significantly with those in brown rice, food duplicates, blood, and urine. Cd in food duplicates correlated with Cd in rice. In contrast, Pb concentrations in the river sediments either did not correlate or correlated only weakly with Pb in biological materials or food duplicates. Possible implication of the different behavior between Cd and Pb regarding the intensity of correlation was discussed with reference to the different routes of exposure to the elements. In conclusions, the Cd body burden on local residents in Japan is significantly influenced by Cd levels in water in the general environment, whereas water-borne Pb did not show clear correlation with the Pb body burden.

  17. [Secondhand smoke in hospitality venues. Exposure, body burden, economic and health aspects in conjunction with smoking bans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Kuhn, J; Bolte, G

    2009-04-01

    Secondhand smoke was classified by national and international organisations as a known cause of cancer in humans and has many adverse health effects, especially cardiovascular diseases and lung tumours. Global studies have clearly shown that hospitality venues have the highest levels of indoor air pollution containing different substances that are clearly carcinogenic--such as tobacco-related chemicals--compared with other, smoke-free indoor spaces. Data from the human biomonitoring of non-smoking employees in the food service industry confirm this high exposure level. Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke in these environments are at increased risk for adverse health effects. The consistent protection of non-smokers in public places such as restaurants and bars through a smoking ban results in a significant reduction of the pollutants in the air (mostly > 90%) and clearly reduces the internal body burden for users and employees. Furthermore, health complaints by non-smoking employees are reduced and the higher risk for lung tumours of employees in the food service industry compared with the general population can be effectively reduced as well. According to current standards of knowledge, other measures such as spatial separation of smoking areas or the use of mechanical venting systems do not achieve a comparably high and effective pollutant reduction under field conditions. Studies concerning the economic effects of prohibiting smoking in public places conducted in various countries have shown that beverage-focused gastronomic enterprises experience a short-term down trend but that food-focused gastronomic enterprises do not experience any negative or even positive effects. The positive effects of a ban on smoking in public places on the general population are a decline in cigarette consumption and the reduction of secondhand smoke exposure by non-smokers. Smoking bans in hospitality venues are not necessarily linked with a shift of the tobacco consumption to

  18. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  19. Burden of disease attributed to ambient air pollution in Thailand: A GIS-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayut Pinichka

    Full Text Available Growing urbanisation and population requiring enhanced electricity generation as well as the increasing numbers of fossil fuel in Thailand pose important challenges to air quality management which impacts on the health of the population. Mortality attributed to ambient air pollution is one of the sustainable development goals (SDGs. We estimated the spatial pattern of mortality burden attributable to selected ambient air pollution in 2009 based on the empirical evidence in Thailand.We estimated the burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution based on the comparative risk assessment (CRA framework developed by the World Health Organization (WHO and the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD. We integrated geographical information systems (GIS-based exposure assessments into spatial interpolation models to estimate ambient air pollutant concentrations, the population distribution of exposure and the concentration-response (CR relationship to quantify ambient air pollution exposure and associated mortality. We obtained air quality data from the Pollution Control Department (PCD of Thailand surface air pollution monitoring network sources and estimated the CR relationship between relative risk (RR and concentration of air pollutants from the epidemiological literature.We estimated 650-38,410 ambient air pollution-related fatalities and 160-5,982 fatalities that could have been avoided with a 20 reduction in ambient air pollutant concentrations. The summation of population-attributable fraction (PAF of the disease burden for all-causes mortality in adults due to NO2 and PM2.5 were the highest among all air pollutants at 10% and 7.5%, respectively. The PAF summation of PM2.5 for lung cancer and cardiovascular disease were 16.8% and 14.6% respectively and the PAF summations of mortality attributable to PM10 was 3.4% for all-causes mortality, 1.7% for respiratory and 3.8% for cardiovascular mortality, while the PAF summation of mortality

  20. The Pathogen- and Incidence-Based DALY Approach: An Appropriated Methodology for Estimating the Burden of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J.; Plass, Dietrich; Havelaar, Arie H.; Gibbons, Cheryl L.; Cassini, Alessandro; Mühlberger, Nikolai; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Brooke, R. John; Lai, Taavi; de Waure, Chiara; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E. E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control initiated the ‘Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE)’ project to generate evidence-based and comparable burden-of-disease estimates of infectious diseases in Europe. The burden-of-disease metric used was the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY), composed of years of life lost due to premature death (YLL) and due to disability (YLD). To better represent infectious diseases, a pathogen-based approach was used linking incident cases to sequelae through outcome trees. Health outcomes were included if an evidence-based causal relationship between infection and outcome was established. Life expectancy and disability weights were taken from the Global Burden of Disease Study and alternative studies. Disease progression parameters were based on literature. Country-specific incidence was based on surveillance data corrected for underestimation. Non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were used for illustration. Using the incidence- and pathogen-based DALY approach the total burden for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was estimated at 730 DALYs and at 1,780 DALYs per year in the Netherlands (average of 2005–2007). Sequelae accounted for 56% and 82% of the total burden of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., respectively. The incidence- and pathogen-based DALY methodology allows in the case of infectious diseases a more comprehensive calculation of the disease burden as subsequent sequelae are fully taken into account. Not considering subsequent sequelae would strongly underestimate the burden of infectious diseases. Estimates can be used to support prioritisation and comparison of infectious diseases and other health conditions, both within a country and between countries. PMID:24278167

  1. The pathogen- and incidence-based DALY approach: an appropriate [corrected] methodology for estimating the burden of infectious diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée J Mangen

    Full Text Available In 2009, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control initiated the 'Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE' project to generate evidence-based and comparable burden-of-disease estimates of infectious diseases in Europe. The burden-of-disease metric used was the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY, composed of years of life lost due to premature death (YLL and due to disability (YLD. To better represent infectious diseases, a pathogen-based approach was used linking incident cases to sequelae through outcome trees. Health outcomes were included if an evidence-based causal relationship between infection and outcome was established. Life expectancy and disability weights were taken from the Global Burden of Disease Study and alternative studies. Disease progression parameters were based on literature. Country-specific incidence was based on surveillance data corrected for underestimation. Non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were used for illustration. Using the incidence- and pathogen-based DALY approach the total burden for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was estimated at 730 DALYs and at 1,780 DALYs per year in the Netherlands (average of 2005-2007. Sequelae accounted for 56% and 82% of the total burden of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., respectively. The incidence- and pathogen-based DALY methodology allows in the case of infectious diseases a more comprehensive calculation of the disease burden as subsequent sequelae are fully taken into account. Not considering subsequent sequelae would strongly underestimate the burden of infectious diseases. Estimates can be used to support prioritisation and comparison of infectious diseases and other health conditions, both within a country and between countries.

  2. Factors affecting burden on caregivers of stroke survivors: Population-based study in Mumbai (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caring for stroke patients leads to caregiver (CG strain. The aims of this study are to identify factors related to increased CG burden in stroke survivors in a census-defined population and to assess the relationship between patient characteristics and CG stress. Materials and Methods: In a prospective population-based study, 223 first ever stroke (FES were identified over a 1-year period. At 28 days, 127 (56.9% were alive and 79 (35% died, and 17 were lost to follow-up. One hundred and eleven CGs of 127 FES survivors agreed to participate. The level of stress was assessed by two scales: Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale (OCBS and the Caregivers Strain Index (CSI in CGs of survivors with mild stroke Modified Rankin Scale (MRS 1-2 and in those with significant disability (MRS 3-5. Results: The mean age of CGs was 45.6 years, approximately 22 years younger than that of the patients (67.5 years. Eighty-nine (80% of the CGs were females and only 22 (20% were males. Urinary incontinence (P=0.000008, morbidity at 28 days by MRS (P=0.0051, female gender (P=0.0183 and moderate to severe neurological deficit by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS on admission (P=0.0254 were factors in FES cases leading to major CGs stress. CG factors responsible for major stress were long caregiving hours (P≤0.000001, anxiety (P≤0.000001, disturbed night sleep ( P≤0.000001, financial stress (P=0.0000108, younger age (P=0.0021 and CGs being daughter-in-laws (P=0.012. Conclusion: Similar studies using uniform methodologies would help to identify factors responsible for major CG stress. Integrated stroke rehabilitation services should address CG issues to local situations and include practical training in simple nursing skills and counseling sessions to help reduce CG burden.

  3. Variance-based Salt Body Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Ovcharenko, Oleg

    2017-05-26

    Seismic inversions of salt bodies are challenging when updating velocity models based on Born approximation- inspired gradient methods. We propose a variance-based method for velocity model reconstruction in regions complicated by massive salt bodies. The novel idea lies in retrieving useful information from simultaneous updates corresponding to different single frequencies. Instead of the commonly used averaging of single-iteration monofrequency gradients, our algorithm iteratively reconstructs salt bodies in an outer loop based on updates from a set of multiple frequencies after a few iterations of full-waveform inversion. The variance among these updates is used to identify areas where considerable cycle-skipping occurs. In such areas, we update velocities by interpolating maximum velocities within a certain region. The result of several recursive interpolations is later used as a new starting model to improve results of conventional full-waveform inversion. An application on part of the BP 2004 model highlights the evolution of the proposed approach and demonstrates its effectiveness.

  4. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60-99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12-30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  6. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  7. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Habib; Jit, Mark; Heymann, David L.; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.3–3.9 million) episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.31–0.40 million) all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths) Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths), and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths). Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.49–0.64 million) severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92–119 thousand) pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to India’s pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our

  8. Characterization of type 2 diabetes mellitus burden by age and ethnic groups based on a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Janice M S; Bailey, Robert A; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Annunziata, Kathy

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes. Risk factors for its development include older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize T2DM burden, from a patient perspective, with respect to age and race/ethnicity. Adults aged ≥18 years with T2DM from a large, Internet-based, nationwide survey were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and clinical characteristics (glycemic control, body mass index [BMI], comorbidities, and diabetes-related complications), hypoglycemic episodes, and medication adherence were used to assess diabetes burden. Degree of burden was compared across age (18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years) and racial/ethnic (white, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian) groups. An apparent association was found between glycemic control and medication adherence. Hispanics had the lowest percentage of participants with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level groups. Conversely, American Indians and whites had the best glycemic control, HbA1c knowledge, and medication adherence. The 18- to 64-year age group had the poorest glycemic control (28.8%), the most with unknown HbA1c levels (46.3%), and the poorest medication adherence of the age groups. Mean BMIs were high (>30 mg/kg(2)) for all racial/ethnic groups other than the Asian group (28.9 mg/kg(2)). Approximately 71% of Asians were obese or overweight compared with ≥90% in the other racial/ethnic groups. Mean BMIs decreased with increasing age group (34.5, 32.6, and 29.8 kg/m(2) for the age groups of 18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years, respectively). Regarding diabetes-related comorbidities, the Asian group had the lowest percentages of those with hypertension (39.1%) and hypercholesterolemia (46.6%). The Asian group had the lowest mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score (score of 1.4); the American Indian group had the highest

  9. Quantifying annual internal effective137Cesium dose utilizing direct body-burden measurement and ecological dose modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelin, Benjamin A; Sun, Wenjie; Kravets, Alexandra; Naboka, Maryna; Stepanova, Eugenia I; Vdovenko, Vitaliy Y; Karmaus, Wilfried J; Lichosherstov, Alex; Svendsen, Erik R

    2016-11-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident represents one of the most significant civilian releases of 137 Cesium ( 137 Cs, radiocesium) in human history. In the Chernobyl-affected region, radiocesium is considered to be the greatest on-going environmental hazard to human health by radiobiologists and public health scientists. The goal of this study was to characterize dosimetric patterns and predictive factors for whole-body count (WBC)-derived radiocesium internal dose estimations in a CNPP-affected children's cohort, and cross-validate these estimations with a soil-based ecological dose estimation model. WBC data were used to estimate the internal effective dose using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 67 dose conversion coefficient for 137 Cs and MONDAL Version 3.01 software. Geometric mean dose estimates from each model were compared utilizing paired t-tests and intra-class correlation coefficients. Additionally, we developed predictive models for WBC-derived dose estimation in order to determine the appropriateness of EMARC to estimate dose for this population. The two WBC-derived dose predictive models identified 137 Cs soil concentration (Pmodel. The geometric mean internal effective dose estimate of the EMARC model (0.183 mSv/y) was the highest followed by the ICRP 67 dose estimates (0.165 mSv/y) and the MONDAL model estimates (0.149 mSv/y). All three models yielded significantly different geometric mean dose (Pecological model dose estimations, in conjunction with findings from animal toxicological studies, should help elucidate possible deterministic radiogenic health effects associated with chronic low-dose internal exposure to 137 Cs.

  10. Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetze, Madlen; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Rehm, Juergen; Kehoe, Tara; Gmel, Gerrit; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne M.; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Zylis, Dimosthenis; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Rodriguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Peeters, Petra H.; van Gils, Carla H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Boffetta, Paolo; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Romaguera, Dora; Wark, Petra A.; Riboli, Elio; Bergmann, Manuela M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. Design Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure.

  11. Retooling CalEnviroScreen: Cumulative Pollution Burden and Race-Based Environmental Health Vulnerabilities in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul S. Liévanos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The California Community Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen advances research and policy pertaining to environmental health vulnerability. However, CalEnviroScreen departs from its historical foundations and comparable screening tools by no longer considering racial status as an indicator of environmental health vulnerability and predictor of cumulative pollution burden. This study used conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques from environmental health and inequality literature to address the limitations of CalEnviroScreen, especially its inattention to race-based environmental health vulnerabilities. It developed an adjusted measure of cumulative pollution burden from the CalEnviroScreen 2.0 data that facilitates multivariate analyses of the effect of neighborhood racial composition on cumulative pollution burden, net of other indicators of population vulnerability, traffic density, industrial zoning, and local and regional clustering of pollution burden. Principal component analyses produced three new measures of population vulnerability, including Latina/o cumulative disadvantage that represents the spatial concentration of Latinas/os, economic disadvantage, limited English-speaking ability, and health vulnerability. Spatial error regression analyses demonstrated that concentrations of Latinas/os, followed by Latina/o cumulative disadvantage, are the strongest demographic determinants of adjusted cumulative pollution burden. Findings have implications for research and policy pertaining to cumulative impacts and race-based environmental health vulnerabilities within and beyond California.

  12. Retooling CalEnviroScreen: Cumulative Pollution Burden and Race-Based Environmental Health Vulnerabilities in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévanos, Raoul S

    2018-04-16

    The California Community Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen) advances research and policy pertaining to environmental health vulnerability. However, CalEnviroScreen departs from its historical foundations and comparable screening tools by no longer considering racial status as an indicator of environmental health vulnerability and predictor of cumulative pollution burden. This study used conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques from environmental health and inequality literature to address the limitations of CalEnviroScreen, especially its inattention to race-based environmental health vulnerabilities. It developed an adjusted measure of cumulative pollution burden from the CalEnviroScreen 2.0 data that facilitates multivariate analyses of the effect of neighborhood racial composition on cumulative pollution burden, net of other indicators of population vulnerability, traffic density, industrial zoning, and local and regional clustering of pollution burden. Principal component analyses produced three new measures of population vulnerability, including Latina/o cumulative disadvantage that represents the spatial concentration of Latinas/os, economic disadvantage, limited English-speaking ability, and health vulnerability. Spatial error regression analyses demonstrated that concentrations of Latinas/os, followed by Latina/o cumulative disadvantage, are the strongest demographic determinants of adjusted cumulative pollution burden. Findings have implications for research and policy pertaining to cumulative impacts and race-based environmental health vulnerabilities within and beyond California.

  13. Infection burden in total hip and knee arthroplasties: an international registry-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Bryan D; Cahue, September; Etkin, Caryn D; Lewallen, David G; McGrory, Brian J

    2017-06-01

    Infection remains a leading cause of failure of hip and knee replacements. Infection burden is the ratio of implants revised for infection to the total number of arthroplasties in a specific period, measuring the steady state of infection in a registry. We hypothesized infection burden would be similar among arthroplasty registries. We evaluated publicly reported data from 6 arthroplasty registries (Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry [AOANJRR], New Zealand Joint Registry, Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register, Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register, National Joint Registry of England, Wales, Northern Ireland, and the Isle of Man, and the American Joint Replacement Registry) for revisions performed with an infection diagnosis over the last 6 years. The 2015 hip infection burden varied between registries from 0.76% (AOANJRR) to 1.24% (Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register), and the unweighted overall average for hip infection burden was 0.97%. In 2012, 2013, and 2014, average hip infection burden held steady at 0.87%, 0.93%, and 0.94%, respectively, higher than the preceding 2 years. The 2015 knee infection burden varied from 0.88% (AOANJRR) to 1.28% (Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register), and the unweighted average was 1.03%. In 2012, 2013, and 2014, knee infection burden was 1.04%, 1.11%, and 1.02%, respectively. These numbers were also higher than the preceding 2 years. Infection burden may be one measure of the overall success in registry populations as well as monitoring the steady state of infection worldwide. Despite global efforts to reduce postoperative infection, infection burden has actually increased in the selected registries over time.

  14. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g{sup −1} lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g{sup −1} lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g{sup −1} lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants

  15. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g −1 lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g −1 lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g −1 lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e

  16. Burden of diabetes mellitus estimated with a longitudinal population-based study using administrative databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scalone

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiologic and economic burden of diabetes mellitus (DM from a longitudinal population-based study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Lombardy Region includes 9.9 million individuals. Its DM population was identified through a data warehouse (DENALI, which matches with a probabilistic linkage demographic, clinical and economic data of different Healthcare Administrative databases. All individuals, who, during the year 2000 had an hospital discharge with a IDC-9 CM code 250.XX, and/or two consecutive prescriptions of drugs for diabetes (ATC code A10XXXX within one year, and/or an exemption from co-payment healthcare costs specific for DM, were selected and followed up to 9 years. We calculated prevalence, mortality and healthcare costs (hospitalizations, drugs and outpatient examinations/visits from the National Health Service's perspective. RESULTS: We identified 312,223 eligible subjects. The study population (51% male had a mean age of 66 (from 0.03 to 105.12 years at the index date. Prevalence ranged from 0.4% among subjects aged ≤45 years to 10.1% among those >85 years old. Overall 43.4 deaths per 1,000 patients per year were estimated, significantly (p<0.001 higher in men than women. Overall, 3,315€/patient-year were spent on average: hospitalizations were the cost driver (54.2% of total cost. Drugs contributed to 31.5%, outpatient claims represented 14.3% of total costs. Thirty-five percent of hospital costs were attributable to cerebro-/cardiovascular reasons, 6% to other complications of DM, and 4% to DM as a main diagnosis. Cardiovascular drugs contributed to 33.5% of total drug costs, 21.8% was attributable to class A (16.7% to class A10 and 4.3% to class B (2.4% to class B01 drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Merging different administrative databases can provide with many data from large populations observed for long time periods. DENALI shows to be an efficient instrument to obtain accurate estimates of burden of

  17. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of Co3O4 and Mn2O3 nanoparticles induced elevated metal body burden in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlaan, Margit; Muna, Marge; Juganson, Katre; Oriekhova, Olena; Stoll, Serge; Kahru, Anne; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2017-08-01

    Despite the significant progress made in ecotoxicological research on nanoparticles (NPs), there is still very limited information available regarding the biological effects of certain types of NPs such as Co 3 O 4 and Mn 2 O 3 . Only a couple of studies provide data on their impact on aquatic organisms whereas, alarmingly, these NPs have been proposed to have high toxicity potential. In addition, more data are needed to determine whether the adverse effects the metal NPs induce on aquatic organisms are rather due to their chemical or particulate nature. To address these open questions, the (sub)lethal effects of Co and Mn NPs in parallel with the respective soluble metal salts on Daphnia magna were studied. The aims of the current study were to i) assess the acute toxicity of Co 3 O 4 and Mn 2 O 3 NPs (primary size 10-30nm) to D. magna, ii) evaluate whether the acute NP exposure at sublethal concentrations influences D. magna post-exposure feeding behaviour and iii) quantify D. magna metal body burden after exposure and after the post-exposure feeding to estimate the potential of trophic transfer of metals. Flow cytometry and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy were applied for feeding and metal body burden evaluations, respectively. CuO NPs (primary size 22-25nm) that are very toxic to D. magna were included in the study as a positive control. Since the release of metal ions is an important possibility for toxicity of metal NPs, soluble Co-, Mn- and Cu-salts were analysed in parallel. The solubilisation of Co 3 O 4 NPs in the OECD202 assay conditions was 0.1% and Mn 2 O 3 NPs 35%. Mn 2 O 3 NPs also produced reactive oxygen species in abiotic conditions. However Co 3 O 4 and Mn 2 O 3 NPs were not acutely toxic to D. magna (48h EC 50 >100mg metal/L) at OECD202 assay conditions. The 48h EC 50 values of soluble Co- and Mn-salts were 3.2mgCo/L and 41mgMn/L, respectively. Post-exposure feeding behaviour after 48h exposure to sublethal concentrations (≤10

  18. Non-fatal disease burden associated with excess body mass index and waist circumference in New Zealand adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Maria; Tobias, Martin; Paul, Sue

    2006-06-01

    To describe the relationship between two measures of body fat and selected non-fatal health conditions in the New Zealand adult population in 2003. Data were obtained from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey. A total of 10,026 adults aged 25 years and over were classified according to measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). BMI classes were 18.5-24.9, 25.0-29.9, 30.0-34.9, > or = 35.0 kg/m2. WC classes were 102 centimetres (cm) for males and 88 cm for females. Prevalence rate ratio estimates for selected self-reported health conditions were calculated for males and females separately, adjusting for age, ethnicity, deprivation and smoking using logistic regression. Increasing BMI or WC class was associated with increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, osteoarthritis, asthma and sleep disorders in both males and females. The association with depression was not statistically significant in either gender. Associations were strongest for diabetes and blood pressure, with adults in the highest BMI or WC class at least 3.5 times more likely to have diabetes and 2-3 times more likely to have high blood pressure compared with those in the lowest classes. Increasing body fatness, defined by either BMI or WC, was associated with increased prevalence of many important health conditions. If the obesity epidemic is not halted or reversed, the impact on both the New Zealand population and health system will be considerable.

  19. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑PCBs and ∑PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g(-1) lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, p0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑PCBs (r=0.60, pe-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e-waste might contribute to abnormal changes in hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in residents' human breast milk from Beijing in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yin-ping; Li, Jing-guang; Zhao, Yun-feng; Wu, Yong-ning

    2013-06-01

    To investigate contamination levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in human breast milk from Beijing residents, and evaluate the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of general population. A total of 110 human milk samples were collected from 11 regions in Beijing in 2007. After 11 pooled samples were made, concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in breast milk pooled samples were measured by a high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRCG-HRMS) with isotope dilution. For congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human breast milk from Beijing, the highest content of congeners was octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-118, and PCB-105 with the median of 20.6 pg/g fat, 4.07 ng/g fat and 1.63 ng/g fat, respectively. The concentration median of total dioxins in 11 pooled human milk samples from Beijing was 7.4 pg TEQ/g fat. The highest was 13.5 pg TEQ/g fat from Tongzhou, and the lowest was 4.3 pg TEQ/g fat from Pinggu. The contamination level of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human milk from Beijing is relatively low. However, with the rapid industrialization in China, the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs will be likely to rise. Thus, further studies should be conducted to continuously monitor the trend of contamination level.

  1. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate.

  2. Economic burden of cancer across the European Union: a population-based cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Leal, Jose; Gray, Alastair; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-11-01

    In 2008, 2·45 million people were diagnosed with cancer and 1·23 million died because of cancer in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU). We aimed to estimate the economic burden of cancer in the EU. In a population-based cost analysis, we evaluated the cost of all cancers and also those associated with breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers. We obtained country-specific aggregate data for morbidity, mortality, and health-care resource use from international and national sources. We estimated health-care costs from expenditure on care in the primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient settings, and also drugs. Additionally, we estimated the costs of unpaid care provided by relatives or friends of patients (ie, informal care), lost earnings after premature death, and costs associated with individuals who temporarily or permanently left employment because of illness. Cancer cost the EU €126 billion in 2009, with health care accounting for €51·0 billion (40%). Across the EU, the health-care costs of cancer were equivalent to €102 per citizen, but varied substantially from €16 per person in Bulgaria to €184 per person in Luxembourg. Productivity losses because of early death cost €42·6 billion and lost working days €9·43 billion. Informal care cost €23·2 billion. Lung cancer had the highest economic cost (€18·8 billion, 15% of overall cancer costs), followed by breast cancer (€15·0 billion, 12%), colorectal cancer (€13·1 billion, 10%), and prostate cancer (€8·43 billion, 7%). Our results show wide differences between countries, the reasons for which need further investigation. These data contribute to public health and policy intelligence, which is required to deliver affordable cancer care systems and inform effective public research funds allocation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased body mass index in ankylosing spondylitis is associated with greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, Laura; Wilson, Fiona; Conway, Richard; Cunnane, Gaye; O'Shea, Finbar D

    2012-12-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with a greater burden of symptoms and poor perceptions of the benefits of exercise. In AS, the effect of obesity on disease characteristics and exercise perceptions is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of obesity in AS, to assess the attitudes of patients toward exercise and to evaluate the effect of obesity on symptoms and disease activity. Demographic data and disease characteristics were collected from 46 patients with AS. Disease activity, symptomatology, and functional disability were examined using standard AS questionnaires. BMI was calculated. Comorbidity was analyzed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients' attitudes toward exercise were assessed using the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). We compared the disease characteristics, perceptions regarding exercise, and functional limitations in those who were overweight to those who had a normal BMI. The mean BMI in the group was 27.4; 67.5% of subjects were overweight or obese. There was a statistically significant difference between those who were overweight and those with a normal BMI regarding their perceptions of exercise (EBBS 124.7 vs 136.6, respectively), functional limitation (Bath AS Functional Index 4.7 vs 2.5, Health Assessment Questionnaire 0.88 vs 0.26), and disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index 4.8 vs 2.9). There was no difference between the groups in terms of their comorbid conditions or other demographic variables. The majority of patients in this AS cohort were overweight. They had a greater burden of symptoms, worse perceptions regarding the benefits of exercise, and enhanced awareness of their barriers to exercising. This is of particular concern in a disease where exercise plays a crucial role.

  4. Body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in childbearing-aged women at an intensive electronic-waste recycling site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Anna O W; Chan, Janet K Y; Xing, Guan Hua; Xu, Ying; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris K C; Leung, Clement K M; Wong, Ming H

    2010-08-01

    This study is the first to investigate PBDE body burden with regard to the concurrent analyses of multiple human matrices, namely milk, placenta, and hair, collected from a group of childbearing-aged women at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site to determine the partitioning of PBDEs in these different human matrices and the possible health risks imposed to infants at the e-waste recycling site. Five sets of milk, placenta, and hair samples were collected from an e-waste site (Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) and a reference site (Lin'an city, Zhejiang Province; 245 km away from Taizhou) in China. The concentrations of total PBDEs in different human tissues were analyzed according to US EPA standard methods. PBDE body burdens of women from the e-waste site (milk 117 +/- 191, 8.89-457 ng/g fat, placenta 19.5 +/- 29.9, 1.28-72.1 ng/g fat, hair 110 +/- 210, 8.47-486 ng/g dry wt.) showed significantly higher levels than those from the reference site (milk 2.06 +/- 0.94, 1.0-3.56 ng/g fat, placenta 1.02 +/- 0.36, 0.59-1.42 ng/g fat, hair 3.57 +/- 2.03, 1.56-5.61 ng/g dry wt.) and were higher than those reported in other studies, due to e-waste recycling operations, especially open burning. On a dry-weight basis, the following trend was found for PBDE among the samples from Taizhou: hair>milk>placenta. Among the donors, the body burden of an e-waste worker ranked second. Higher brominated BDEs (hepta-BDEs) contributed a significantly greater proportion to total PBDEs in hair of the Taizhou women (20%) than that in milk (2.9%) and in placenta (2.6%). The estimated intake of PBDEs of 6-month-old breastfed infants living at the e-waste site was 572 +/- 839 ng/kg body wt/day, which was 57 times higher than that of infants from the reference site (10.1 +/- 4.60 ng/kg body wt/day). Moreover, the maximum calculated value (2,240 ng/kg body wt/day) exceeded the chronic oral reference dose for penta-BDE (2,000 ng/kg/day) of US EPA. BDE-47 was the dominant congener accounting

  5. Sexual dimorphism based on body proportions and ontogenetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual dimorphism in the Brazilian electric ray Narcine brasiliensis from the south-western Atlantic coast was evaluated based on body proportions and ontogenetic changes. All regions of the body were found to have differences in body proportions between the sexes, except the spiracles. The nature of allometric and ...

  6. Burden of road traffic injuries in Nepal: results of a countrywide population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Sarthak; Gupta, Shailvi; Wong, Evan G; Gurung, Susant; Swaroop, Mamta; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2015-04-27

    Road traffic injury has emerged as a leading cause of mortality, contributing to 2·1% of deaths globally and is predicted to be the third highest contributor to the global burden of mortality by 2020. This major public health problem disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, where such incidents are too often underreported. Our study aims to explore the epidemiology of road traffic injurys in Nepal at a population level via a countrywide study. The Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool, a cluster randomised, cross-sectional nationwide survey, was conducted in Nepal between May 25, and June 12, 2014. Two-stage cluster sampling was performed: 15 of 75 districts were chosen randomly proportional to population; within each district, after stratification for urban and rural, and three clusters were randomly chosen. Questions were structured anatomically and designed around a representative spectrum of surgical conditions. Road traffic injury-related results were reported. 1350 households and 2695 individuals were surveyed with a response rate of 97%. 75 road traffic injuries were reported in 72 individuals (2·67% [95% CI 2·10-3·35] of the study population), with a mean age of 33·2 years (SD 1·85). The most commonly affected age group was 30-44 years, with females showing significantly lower odds of sustaining a road traffic injury than men (crude odds ratio 0·29 [95% CI 0·16-0·52]). Road traffic injuries composed 19·8% of the injuries reported. Motorcycle crashes were the most common road traffic injuries (48·0%), followed by car, truck, or bus crashes (26·7%), and pedestrian or bicycle crashes (25·3%). The extremity was the most common anatomic site injured (74·7%). Of the 80 deaths reported in the previous year, 7·5% (n=6) were due to road traffic injuries. This study provides the epidemiology of road traffic injuries at a population-based level in the first countrywide surgical needs assessment in Nepal

  7. Development of integrated cask body and base plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.; Koyama, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Wada, T.

    2015-01-01

    The average of occupancy of stored spent-fuel in the nuclear power plants have reached 70 percent and it is anticipated that the demand of metal casks for the storage and transportation of spent-fuel rise after resuming the operations. The main part of metal cask consists of main body, neutron shield and external cylinder. We have developed the manufacturing technology of Integrated Cask Body and Base Plate by integrating Cask Body and Base Plate as monolithic forging with the goal of cost reduction, manufacturing period shortening and further reliability improvement. Here, we report the manufacturing technology, code compliance and obtained properties of Integrated Cask body and Base Plate. (author)

  8. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Iran: Estimates Based on the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Poustchi, Hossein; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Shahraz, Saeid; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-07-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILD) constitute a noteworthy portion of causes of death and disability in Iran. However, data on their prevalence and burden is sparse in Iran. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study in 2010 has provided invaluable comprehensive data on the burden of GILD in Iran. METHODS Estimations of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), disability-adjusted life years (DALY), life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy have been reported for 291 diseases, 67 risk factors, 1160 sequelae, for both sexes and 19 age groups, form 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries. In the current paper, 5 major categories of gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases have been investigated as follows: GI infectious diseases, GI and liver cancers, liver infections, chronic end stage liver disease, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS Among women, 7.6% of all deaths and 3.9% of all DALYs were due to digestive and liver diseases in 2010. The respective figures in men were 7.8% of deaths and 4.6% of DALYs. The most important cause of death among children under 5 is diarrhea. Among adults between 15 to 49 years old, the main causes of death are GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis, while diarrhea still remains a major cause of DALY. Among adults 50 years and above, GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis are the main causes of both deaths and DALYs. Gastritis and duodenitis, diarrheal diseases, gall bladder and bile duct diseases, acute hepatitis A, peptic ulcer disease, appendicitis, and acute hepatitis A mainly cause disability rather than death. CONCLUSION GBD study provides invaluable source of data on burden of GILD in Iran. However, there exist limitations, namely overestimation of burden of liver cancer and underestimation of the burden of GI diseases that are usually diagnosed in outpatient settings. The collaboration of scientists across the world and specifically those from developing countries

  9. Body Trajectory Planning of Biped Robot Based on ZMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoya; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Shibuya, Maki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In this paper, a body trajectory planning method of a biped robot based on ZMP (zero-moment point) is proposed. In the proposed method, the body of the biped robot is maintained at a constant height during walking. By this body trajectory, the biped robot walks stably without moving up and down the body height. Higher energy efficiency can be achieved by the proposed method than the conventional method that maintains a constant COG (center of gravity) height, since the biped robot walks with a higher body position and with less torque of joints. Additionally, the validity of the proposed method was confirmed by experiments of walking.

  10. The national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in Spain: a population-based study using disability-adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard

    2015-04-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in the adult population of Spain. Cross-sectional, descriptive population-based study. We calculated the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) metric using country-specific data from national statistics and epidemiological studies to obtain representative outcomes for the Spanish population. DALYs were divided into years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were estimated for the year 2008 by applying demographic structure by sex and age-groups, cause-specific mortality, morbidity data and new disability weights proposed in the recent Global Burden of Disease study. In the base case, neither YLLs nor YLDs were discounted or age-weighted. Uncertainty around DALYs was tested using sensitivity analyses. In Spain, cerebrovascular diseases generated 418,052 DALYs, comprising 337,000 (80.6%) YLLs and 81,052 (19.4%) YLDs. This accounts for 1,113 DALYs per 100,000 population (men: 1,197 and women: 1,033) and 3,912 per 100,000 in those over the age of 65 years (men: 4,427 and women: 2,033). Depending on the standard life table and choice of social values used for calculation, total DALYs varied by 15.3% and 59.9% below the main estimate. Estimates provided here represent a comprehensive analysis of the burden of cerebrovascular diseases at a national level. Prevention and control programmes aimed at reducing the disease burden merit further priority in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The burden of premature mortality in Spain using standard expected years of life lost: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Martín Elena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of premature mortality have been used to guide debates on future health priorities and to monitor the population health status. Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL is one of the methods used to assess the time lost due to premature death. This article affords an overview of premature mortality in Spain for the year 2008. Methods A population-based study was conducted estimating SEYLL by sex and age groups. SEYLL, a key component of the disability-adjusted life years measure of disease burden, was calculated using Princeton West standard life tables with life expectancy at birth fixed at 80 years for males and 82.5 years for females. Population data and specific death records were obtained from the official registers of the National Institute of Statistics. All data were analysed and prepared in GesMor and Epidat software packages. Results The burden of premature mortality was estimated at 2.1 million SEYLL when age at death is taken into account. Males lost 60.9% and females lost 39.1% of total SEYLL. Malignant tumors (34.5% and cardiovascular diseases (24.0% were the leading categories in terms of SEYLL. Ischaemic heart disease (8.5% and lung cancers (8.0% were the most common specific causes of SEYLL followed by cerebrovascular diseases (5.9%, colorectal cancer (4.1%, road traffic accidents (3.5%, Alzheimer and other dementias (2.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.8%, breast cancer (2.8% and suicides (2.6%. Conclusions In Spain, premature mortality was essentially due to chronic non-communicable diseases. Data provided in this study are relevant for a more balanced health agenda aimed at reducing the burden of premature mortality. This study also represents a first step in estimating the overall burden of disease in terms of premature death and disability.

  12. Evaluation of 137Cs body burden in inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast, Russian Federation, where a high incidence of thyroid cancer was observed after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekitani, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Karevskaya, I. V.; Vasilitsova, O. A.; Kozlovsky, A.; Omiya, M.; Yamashita, S.; Takamura, N.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the current risk of internal radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident, the 137 Cs body burden of the inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast (Russian Federation) was evaluated, from 1998 to 2008. The study population is composed of 84 666 people who visited Bryansk No. 2 Hospital. A whole-body counter was used for measurement of 137 Cs body burden. 137 Cs concentration was significantly higher in the late period during the study and showed seasonal variation, suggesting that inhabitants may have consumed contaminated forest products. However, people with high annual exposure doses were quite rare during all years of the study. In conclusion, although internal radiation exposure from 137 Cs continues to this day in Bryansk Oblast, the annual exposure dose is low in almost all inhabitants. Because of the long half-life of 137 Cs, the long term follow-up is necessary to monitor the health status and relieve the anxiety of the inhabitants around Chernobyl. (authors)

  13. Can Handgrip Strength Improve Following Body Mass-Based Lower Body Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yaginuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knee extension strength (KES improves following body mass-based lower body exercise training; however, it is unknown whether this type of exercise increases handgrip strength (HGS as a result of a cross-education effect in older individuals. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a body mass-based exercise intervention on HGS and KES in older adults. At baseline, 166 subjects started a 12-week intervention program, and 160 (108 women and 52 men subjects completed the study. A self-selected group of 37 older adults (21 women and 16 men served as a control group. HGS, KES, and ultrasound-derived anterior thigh muscle thickness (anterior thigh MT were measured at baseline and post-testing, and relative strength of the knee extensor (KES/anterior thigh MT was calculated. A linear regression model controlling for baseline values of body–mass index, % body fat, fat-free mass, HGS, chair stand time, anterior thigh MT, and KES/body mass ratio found a significant difference between control and training groups for KES post-testing values (p = 0.001 and anterior thigh MT post-testing values (p = 0.012, but not for HGS post-testing values (p = 0.287. Our results suggest that increases in lower body strength and muscle size following a 12-week lower body mass-based exercise intervention fail to translate into improvements in HGS.

  14. Common carotid intima media thickness and ankle-brachial pressure index correlate with local but not global atheroma burden: a cross sectional study using whole body magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R; Khan, Faisel; Lambert, Matthew A; Adamson, Carly L; Gardner, Michael; Gandy, Stephen J; Ramkumar, Prasad Guntur; Belch, Jill J F; Struthers, Allan D; Rauchhaus, Petra; Morris, Andrew D; Houston, J Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed. We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA). 50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited. CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed. WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR). The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0 = normal, 1 = <50%, 2 = 50-70%, 3 = 70-99%, 4 = vessel occlusion. The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated. The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11. Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (β 0.32, p = 0.045), however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (β 0.42 p = 0.01) with no correlation with the rest of the body. ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (β -0.39, p = 0.012), which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels. On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (β 0.13 p = 0.45), while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (β -0.45 p = 0.005). ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. However this is primarily due to

  15. Bio-Kil, a nano-based disinfectant, reduces environmental bacterial burden and multidrug-resistant organisms in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Sen Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Application of Bio-Kil reduced the environmental bacterial burden and MDROs in ICUs. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this nanotechnology-based disinfectant in reducing HAIs.

  16. Tool-Body Assimilation Model Based on Body Babbling and Neurodynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniyuki Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the new method of tool use with a tool-body assimilation model based on body babbling and a neurodynamical system for robots to use tools. Almost all existing studies for robots to use tools require predetermined motions and tool features; the motion patterns are limited and the robots cannot use novel tools. Other studies fully search for all available parameters for novel tools, but this leads to massive amounts of calculations. To solve these problems, we took the following approach: we used a humanoid robot model to generate random motions based on human body babbling. These rich motion experiences were used to train recurrent and deep neural networks for modeling a body image. Tool features were self-organized in parametric bias, modulating the body image according to the tool in use. Finally, we designed a neural network for the robot to generate motion only from the target image. Experiments were conducted with multiple tools for manipulating a cylindrical target object. The results show that the tool-body assimilation model is capable of motion generation.

  17. Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and the burden of functional disability among older adults in a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Job G; Appel, Lawrence J; Gross, Alden L; Schrack, Jennifer A; Parrinello, Christina M; Kalyani, Rita R; Windham, Beverly Gwen; Pankow, James S; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for continued surveillance of diabetes-related functional disability. In the present study, we examined associations between diabetes, hyperglycemia, and the burden of functional disability in a community-based population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 5035 participants who attended Visit 5 (2011-13) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Functional disability was dichotomously defined by any self-reported difficulty performing 12 tasks essential to independent living grouped into four functional domains. Associations of diagnosed diabetes (via self-report) and undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes (via HbA1c) with functional disability were evaluated using Poisson regression. Participants had a mean age of 75 years, 42 % were male, 22 % were Black, and 31 % had diagnosed diabetes. Those with diagnosed diabetes had a significantly greater burden of functional disability than those without diabetes, even after adjustment for demographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities: prevalence ratios (95 % confidence intervals) were 1.24 (1.15, 1.34) for lower extremity mobility, 1.14 (1.07, 1.21) for general physical activities, 1.33 (1.16, 1.52) for instrumental activities of daily living (ADL), and 1.46 (1.24, 1.73) for ADL (all P  0.05). Among older adults, the burden of functional disability associated with diabetes was not entirely explained by known risk factors, including comorbidities. Hyperglycemia below the threshold for the diagnosis of diabetes was not associated with disability. Research into effective strategies for the prevention of functional disability among older adults with diabetes is needed. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Effectiveness of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy on the Quality of Life, Depression and Burden of Demented Women Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedeh Norouzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to observe whether the Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT is effective in easing the life burdens, alleviating mental depression and also improving the quality of life of female caregivers of Alzheimer's patients. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, the quasi- experimental method was used. In this research, statistical society is women caregivers that they are members of Alzheimer's association. For this purpose, 20 of the women caregivers of Iranian Alzheimer's association, 10 of experimental group and 10 of control group, were selected. The methods of sampling were according to the type of available samples and were placed randomly in the two groups of experimental and control subjects. Eight therapy sessions were held and these two groups were asked by the researchers to respond to the Quality of Life questionnaire (SF-36, Burden of Care Givers questionnaire (CBI and Hamilton questionnaire. These replies were gathered by researches once before the beginning of each session, once at the end of each therapy session and also once 2 months after the end of the therapy was completed. For analyzing has been used SPSS-16. The Covariance test and Wilcoxon test were used to analyze the gathered data. Results: The observed findings in the 2-month follow ups show that this therapy has long term effects on depression and easing the burden of life, but it has minimal to no long term effect on the improvement of the quality of lives of study subjects. Conclusion: The results indicate that (MBCT is, in fact, effective in improving the quality of life and red

  19. Eating disorder risk and body dissatisfaction based on muscularity and body fat in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body dissatisfaction and perceptual attractiveness determined with the Bodybuilder Image Grid (BIG). There was a positive correlation (r=.16, pEAT and fat dissatisfaction and a negative correlation (r=-.14, pEAT score indicating that they were at risk for an eating disorder. Males chose a significantly more muscular and leaner body type than what females chose to be attractive. College-aged males may be at risk for eating disorders based on distortions in their perceived ideal body image, both for fat and muscle.

  20. The burden of headache disorders in Ethiopia: national estimates from a population-based door-to-door survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebenigus, Mehila; Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Worku, Dawit K; Thomas, Hallie; Steiner, Timothy J

    2017-12-01

    Headache disorders are the third-highest cause of disability worldwide, with migraine and medication-overuse headache (MOH) the major contributors. In Ethiopia we have shown these disorders to be highly prevalent: migraine 17.7%, TTH 20.6%, probable MOH (pMOH) 0.7%, any headache yesterday (HY) 6.4%. To inform local health policy, we now estimate disability and other burdens attributable to headache in this country. In a cross-sectional survey using cluster-randomized sampling, we visited households unannounced in four diverse regions (urban and rural) of Ethiopia. We interviewed one member (18-65 years old) of each household using the HARDSHIP structured questionnaire. Screening and diagnostic questions based on ICHD-II were followed by burden enquiry in multiple domains. We estimated disability using disability weights (DWs) from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study. We interviewed 2385 participants (1064 [44.7%] male, 596 [25.0%] urban; participating proportion 99.8%). Reported mean intensity of migraine was 2.6 (scale 1-3). People with migraine spent 11.7% of their time in the ictal state (DW: 0.441); they were therefore 5.2% disabled overall. Pain and disability from TTH were much lower. Mean intensity of pMOH was 2.95. People with pMOH spent 60.2% of time with headache (DW: 0.223), and were 13.4% disabled. Average proportions of per-person lost productive time were, for migraine, 4.5% from paid work, 5.3% from household work; for pMOH they were 29.2% and 16.0%. There were highly-disabled minorities, and large gender differences, males losing more paid workdays, females more household workdays. All headache types were associated with impairments in quality of life. Across the population aged 18-65 years (effectively the working population), disability from headache was 1.4%, with 1.6% of workdays lost (half from migraine). Estimates from HY, eliminating recall error, were highly compatible. Ethiopia is a low-income country, and cannot afford these losses

  1. Body odor based personality judgments: The effect of fragranced cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eSorokowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven female observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples – one with and one without cosmetic use; the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers’ ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; rs = .20 than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; rs = .15. Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (rs = .34 for natural BO and rs = .21 for BO+cosmetics, whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors’ body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor.

  2. The meaning of burden of care in a faith-based community: the case of ultra-Orthodox Jews (UOJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Offer E; Band-Winterstein, Tova; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2017-08-01

    The context of caregiving in the ultra-Orthodox Jewish community is still an uncharted field. We sought to facilitate an in-depth understanding of caregivers in Israel through their views of their position as primary caregivers, their coping mechanisms with the challenges of caregiving burden, and their unfulfilled needs. Data were drawn from interviews with 28 participants, serving as primary caregivers for at least a year. Three major themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) burden of care as a universal experience, (2) the faith-based spiritual meaning of caring for parents, and (3) modest needs and expectations from the formal services - a total reliance on the familial-community service system, while there is some indication of unfulfilled needs that should be addressed by the formal service system. Intervening parties should be aware of the 'cultural color,' and not ignore the unique difficulties this population faces. Policy-makers should acknowledge the patterns of non-formal services used in this community.

  3. Managing corneal foreign bodies in office-based general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Alison; Lee, Lawrence R; Lee, Graham A

    2017-03-01

    Patients with a corneal foreign body may first present to their general practitioner (GP). Safe and efficacious management of these presentations avoids sight-threatening and eye-threatening complications. Removal of a simple, superficial foreign body without a slit lamp is within The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' (RACGP's) curriculum and scope of practice. Knowing the rele-vant procedural skills and indications for referral is equally important. The objective of this article is to provide an evidence-based and expert-based guide to the management of corneal foreign bodies in the GP's office. History is key to identifying patient characteristics and mechanisms of ocular injury that are red flags for referral. Examination tech-niques and methods of superficial foreign body removal without a slit lamp are outlined, as well as the procedural threshold for referral to an ophthalmologist.

  4. Whole body scan system based on γ camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Tianyu; Jin Yongjie

    2001-01-01

    Most existing domestic γ cameras can not perform whole body scan protocol, which is of important use in clinic. The authors designed a set of whole body scan system, which is made up of a scan bed, an ISA interface card controlling the scan bed and the data acquisition software based on a data acquisition and image processing system for γ cameras. The image was obtained in clinical experiment, and the authors think it meets the need of clinical diagnosis. Application of this system in γ cameras can provide whole body scan function at low cost

  5. Body potassium measurement using Phoswich based lung monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohari, M.; Deepu, R.; Arun, B.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Jose, M.T.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Phoswich based lung monitor enabled with the feature of high energy photon measurement is effectively utilised to measure body potassium of radiation workers reported for lung monitoring at RSD, IGCAR. The Phoswich systems, kept inside the low background steel room in an optimum counting geometry, has resulted in a higher efficiency value and lesser MDA for 40 K compared to whole body counters (4 inch x 3 inch NaI(Tl) - scanning geometry) due to increased counting time and reduced background in steel room. This paper discusses about calibration, body potassium measurement, its correlation with parameters like gender and the results obtained

  6. Analytical quality assessment and interpretation of the trace element data obtained in the frame of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Blaauw, M.; Zegers, C.

    1993-01-01

    At the request of the IAEA, the authors have performed an assessment of the analytical quality and the interpretation of the trace element data obtained within the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on The Significance of Hair Mineral Analysis as a Means of Assessing Internal Body Burdens of Environmental Pollutants. In this CRP research groups from various countries participated, using different analytical procedures, based on NAA, XRF and AAS. Data have been collected for Zn, CU, Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Se in male human hair, liver, kidney, lung, brain, and bone. The samples analyzed originated from China, Hungary, Bulgaria, Japan, the former GDR, Sweden and Norway. The analytical quality of the data has been assessed on basis of the calculated limits of quantitation per trace element determined, per tissue analyzed and per participant, as well as from the trace element values found for reference materials and ''blind'' materials. The analytical quality of the data differs widely, from generally good to reasonable (Zn, Cu, and Se) to generally inadequate to strongly inadequate (Pb, Cd, As, and Hg). 15 refs, 29 tabs

  7. Experience-based, body-anchored qualitative research interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    -anchored interviewing, and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant's personal experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a methodological instrument for qualitative research......Two theoretical constructs that lay the foundation for experience-based, body-anchored interviewing are presented: the first-person perspective and the concept of meaning. These theoretical concepts are concretized, first, by means of a methodological framework for experience-based, body...

  8. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-12-29

    Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Cross-sectional study. A representative sample of men aged 71-92 years in 2010-2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978-1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had 5.5 mm) affecting 1-20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1-2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3-5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Assessment of Whole-Body Metabolic Tumor Burden Using F-18-FDG PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available To determine the metabolically active whole-body tumor volume (WB-MTV on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 using a three-dimensional (3D segmentation and computerized volumetry technique, and to compare PET WB-MTV between patients with benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs.Thirty-six NF1 patients (18 patients with malignant PNSTs and 18 age- and sex-matched controls with benign PNSTs were examined by F-18-FDG PET/CT. WB-MTV, whole-body total lesion glycolysis (WB-TLG and a set of semi-quantitative imaging-based parameters were analyzed both on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis.On a per-lesion basis, malignant PNSTs demonstrated both a significantly higher MTV and TLG than benign PNSTs (p < 0.0001. On a per-patient basis, WB-MTV and WB-TLG were significantly higher in patients with malignant PNSTs compared to patients with benign PNSTs (p < 0.001. ROC analysis showed that MTV and TLG could be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors.WB-MTV and WB-TLG may identify malignant change and may have the potential to provide a basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with metabolically active disease manifestations. Further evaluation will determine the potential clinical impact of these PET-based parameters in NF1.

  10. Taxonomy of the burden of treatment: a multi-country web-based qualitative study of patients with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Viet-Thi; Barnes, Caroline; Montori, Victor M; Falissard, Bruno; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-05-14

    Management strategies for patients with chronic conditions are becoming increasingly complex, which may result in a burden of treatment for patients. To develop a Minimally Disruptive Medicine designed to reduce the burden of treatment, clinicians need to understand which healthcare tasks and aggravating factors may be responsible for this burden. The objective of the present study was to describe and classify the components of the burden of treatment for patients with chronic conditions from the patient's perspective. We performed a multi-country qualitative study using an online survey and a purposive sampling strategy to select English-, French-, and Spanish-speaking participants with different chronic conditions. Participants were recruited by physicians, patients' associations, advertisement on social media, and 'snowballing'. The answers were analyzed by i) manual content analysis with a grounded theory approach, coded by two researchers, and ii) automatic textual analysis by Reinert's method. Between 2013 and 2014, 1,053 participants from 34 different countries completed the online survey using 408,625 words. Results from both analyses were synthesized in a taxonomy of the burden of treatment, which described i) the tasks imposed on patients by their diseases and by their healthcare system (e.g., medication management, lifestyle changes, follow-up, etc.); ii) the structural (e.g., access to healthcare resources, coordination between care providers), personal, situational, and financial factors that aggravated the burden of treatment; and iii) patient-reported consequences of the burden (e.g., poor adherence to treatments, financial burden, impact on professional, family, and social life, etc.). Our findings may not be applicable to patients with chronic conditions who differ from those who responded to our survey. Our taxonomy of the burden of treatment, provided by patients with chronic conditions from different countries and settings, supports the

  11. The Economic Burden of Obesity in Germany: Results from the Population-Based KORA Studies

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    Nichola Yates

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the excess costs of obese compared to normal-weight persons in Germany based on self-reported resource utilisation and work absence. Methods: Five cross sectional surveys of cohort studies in southern Germany were pooled resulting in 9,070 observations for 6,731 individuals (31-96 years. BMI was measured in the study centre. Self-reported health care utilisation and work absence was used to estimate direct and indirect costs for the year 2011 based on unit costs. Using regression analyses, adjusted costs for different BMI groups were calculated. Results: Overweight and obese people showed significantly higher odds of health care utilisation and productivity losses compared with normal-weight people in most categories. Total direct/indirect costs were significantly higher with increasing severity of obesity (pre-obese (1.05 (0.90-1.23 / 1.38 (1.11-1.71, obesity level I (1.18 (1.00-1.39 / 1.33 (1.02-1.73, obesity level II (1.46 (1.14-1.87 / 1.77 (1.18-2.65 or level III (2.04 (1.40-2.97 / 1.99 (1.20-3.30 compared to normal-weight participants. In particular, higher obesity classes were significantly associated with increased costs for medication, general practitioner utilisation and work absence. Conclusion: Our results show that overweight and obesity are associated with enormous societal direct and indirect costs in Germany. This supports the evidence from previous top-down studies, but provides important new information based on a large pooled data set and measured BMI.

  12. Burden of leprosy in Malawi: community camp-based cross-sectional study

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    Msyamboza Kelias P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although leprosy was eliminated globally in 2000, the disease continues to be the significant cause of peripheral neuropathy, disability and disfigurement in some developing countries. However, recent population-based prevalence data are lacking to inform evidence-based renewed commitment for the final push for leprosy elimination at national and sub-national levels. Methods Community camp-based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in four selected districts. World Health Organisation guidelines and tools for leprosy elimination monitoring were used to evaluate the Malawi National Leprosy Programme. Results A total of 6,338 people (60% females, 35% children aged less than 15 years were examined for leprosy and other skin diseases. Prevalence of skin diseases was 18%, the commonest being fungal (9%, eczema/dermatitis (3% and leprosy (1%. Of the fungal skin conditions, pityriasis versicolor and Tinea capatis were the commonest (22% and 21% respectively then Tinea corporis (9%, Tinea cruris (6% and Tinea pedis (2%. A total of 66 leprosy cases were detected out of 6,338 people screened giving a prevalence of 104.1 per 10,000 population (range by district 67.1 to 194.1. Of the leprosy cases, 37 were new, 6 were defaulters and 23 were on treatment, 30 were females and 9 were children aged less than 15 years old. Of the 37 new leprosy cases, 9 (24.3% were children, 25 (67.6% had 1–5 leprosy lesions and 8 (21.6% had grade 2 disability. The most frequent location of leprosy lesions was the head and neck (24.1%, arms (24.1%, chest (17.2%, legs (13.8%, back (13.8% and abdomen (7.0%. Between 2006 and 2011, trends of leprosy prevalence and detection increased, prevalence/detection ratios were over 1 and cure rates by cohort analysis of 2009 multibacillary and 2010 paucibacillary cases were 33% and 63% respectively far below the expected 80% although the national prevalence remained at less than 1 case per 10

  13. [Reducing the Care-Related Burdens of a Family Caregiver of a Person With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Home-Based Case Management Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Chia; Chiu, Yi-Chen; Wei, Pi-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Chuin

    2017-06-01

    The long-term care of cognitively impaired patients with concomitant behavioral problems brings great stress and burdens to family caregivers. The present article describes a family caregiver with multiple chronic diseases who concurrently shouldered primary care responsibilities for her husband, a patient with mild cognitive impairment, problematic behaviors, and medication non-adherence issues. The period of care was between September 23rd and December 29th, 2015. Data on physiological, psychological, and social burdens were collected based on a stress process model for family caregiving. We then applied a home-based, individually tailored intervention, which included nursing education, skills training, listening/counseling, and resource connecting, that effectively helped the family caregiver reduce her burdens. Our assessment identified nursing-care-related problems as the primary source of caregiver burden in this case, with identified stressors including a lack of knowledge regarding patient care, medication management problems, sleep disorders, and inadequate social resources. Using continuous care interactions, we established a trust relationship with the family caregiver, prioritized her needs, and provided dementia care knowledge and skills, which gradually improved her caregiving competence. Our instruction included increasing caregiver understanding of the disease course of dementia, related problematic behaviors, and medication management. Our intervention enhanced the disease awareness of the caregiver and helped her become more positive about her caregiving tasks. Therefore, the negative impacts on her family were reduced. Social support and long-term care resources further reduced her burden and improved her quality of life.

  14. A method for estimating fetal weight based on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Chen; Jie, Yu; Xiu-E, Gao; Gui-Chuan, Fan; Wen-Long, Zhang

    2018-04-02

    Fetal weight is an important factor to determine the delivery mode of pregnant women. The change of fetal weight is significant, according to regular health monitoring of pregnant women. Conventional methods of fetal weight estimation, namely those based on B-ultrasound, are very complicated and the costs are high. In this paper, we propose a new method based on body composition. An abdominal four-segment impedance model is first established upon pregnant women, as well as the method of calculation. A body composition based method is then given to estimate the fetal weight, with the solution given explicitly. Analyses of clinical data reveal the smallness of the error between the estimated value and the actual value. The error between B-ultrasound and the present method is less than 15%.

  15. Upper gastrointestinal cancer burden in Hebei Province, China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-Juan; Liang, Di; Song, Guo-Hui; Li, Yong-Wei; Wen, Deng-Gui; Jin, Jing; He, Yu-Tong

    2017-04-14

    To investigate the incidence and mortality rates of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) in Hebei Province, China, and to identify high-risk populations to improve UGIC prevention and control. Data for UGIC patients were collected from 21 population-based cancer registries covering 15.25% of the population in Hebei Province. Mortality data were extracted from three national retrospective death surveys (1973-1975, 1990-1992 and 2004-2005). The data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender and area (high-risk/non-high-risk areas) for analysis. The age-period-cohort and grey system model were used. The crude incidence rate of UGIC was 55.47/100000, and the adjusted rate (Segi's population) was 44.90/100000. Males in rural areas had the highest incidence rate (world age-standardized rate = 87.89/100000). The crude mortality rate of UGIC displayed a decreasing trend in Hebei Province from the 1970s to 2013, and the adjusted rate decreased by 43.81% from the 1970s (58.07/100000) to 2013 (32.63/100000). The mortality rate declined more significantly in the high-risk areas (57.26%) than in the non-high-risk areas (55.02%) from the 1970s to 2013. The median age at diagnosis of UGIC was 65.06 years in 2013. There was a notable delay in the median age at death from the 1970s (66.15 years) to 2013 (70.39 years), especially in the high-risk areas. In Cixian, the total trend of the cohort effect declined, and people aged 65-69 years were a population at relatively high risk for UGIC. We predicted that the crude mortality rates of UGIC in Cixian and Shexian would decrease to 98.80 and 133.99 per 100000 in 2018, respectively. UGIC was the major cause of cancer death in Hebei Province, and males in rural areas were a high-risk population. We should strengthen early detection and treatment of UGIC in this population.

  16. Analysis of global and regional CO burdens measured from space between 2000 and 2009 and validated by ground-based solar tracking spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yurganov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Interannual variations in AIRS and MOPITT retrieved CO burdens are validated, corrected, and compared with CO emissions from wild fires from the Global Fire Emission Dataset (GFED2 inventory. Validation of daily mean CO total column (TC retrievals from MOPITT version 3 and AIRS version 5 is performed through comparisons with archived TC data from the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS between March 2000 and December 2007. MOPITT V3 retrievals exhibit an increasing temporal bias with a rate of 1.4–1.8% per year; thus far, AIRS retrievals appear to be more stable. For the lowest CO values in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, AIRS TC retrievals overestimate FTS TC by 20%. MOPITT's bias and standard deviation do not depend on CO TC absolute values. Empirical corrections are derived for AIRS and MOPITT retrievals based on the observed annually averaged bias versus the FTS TC. Recently published MOPITT V4 is found to be in a good agreement with MOPITT V3 corrected by us (with exception of 2000–2001 period. With these corrections, CO burdens from AIRS V5 and MOPITT V3 (as well as MOPITT V4 come into good agreement in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (NH and in the tropical belt. In the SH, agreement between AIRS and MOPITT CO burdens is better for the larger CO TC in austral winter and worse in austral summer when CO TC are smaller. Before July 2008, all variations in retrieved CO burden can be explained by changes in fire emissions. After July 2008, global and tropical CO burdens decreased until October before recovering by the beginning of 2009. The NH CO burden also decreased but reached a minimum in January 2009 before starting to recover. The decrease in tropical CO burdens is explained by lower than usual fire emissions in South America and Indonesia. This decrease in tropical emissions also accounts for most of the change in the global CO burden. However, no

  17. How group-based emotions are shaped by collective emotions: evidence for emotional transfer and emotional burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Amit; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran

    2014-10-01

    Extensive research has established the pivotal role that group-based emotions play in shaping intergroup processes. The underlying implicit assumption in previous work has been that these emotions reflect what the rest of the group feels (i.e., collective emotions). However, one can experience an emotion in the name of her or his group, which is inconsistent with what the collective feels. The current research investigated this phenomenon of emotional nonconformity. Particularly, we proposed that when a certain emotional reaction is perceived as appropriate, but the collective is perceived as not experiencing this emotion, people would experience stronger levels of group-based emotion, placing their emotional experience farther away from that of the collective. We provided evidence for this process across 2 different emotions: group-based guilt and group-based anger (Studies 1 and 2) and across different intergroup contexts (Israeli-Palestinian relations in Israel, and Black-White relations in the United States). In Studies 3 and 4, we demonstrate that this process is moderated by the perceived appropriateness of the collective emotional response. Studies 4 and 5 further provided evidence for the mechanisms underlying this effect, pointing to a process of emotional burden (i.e., feeling responsible for carrying the emotion in the name of the group) and of emotional transfer (i.e., transferring negative feelings one has toward the ingroup, toward the event itself). This work brings to light processes that were yet to be studied regarding the relationship between group members, their perception of their group, and the emotional processes that connect them. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Dengue in Thailand and Cambodia: an assessment of the degree of underrecognized disease burden based on reported cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Wichmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease incidence data are needed to guide decision-making for public health interventions. Although dengue is a reportable disease in Thailand and Cambodia, the degree that reported incidence underrecognizes true disease burden is unknown. We utilized dengue incidence calculated from laboratory-confirmed outpatient and inpatient cases in prospective cohort studies to estimate the magnitude of dengue underrecognition and to establish more accurate disease burden estimates for these countries.Cohort studies were conducted among children aged 95,000 children in Thailand and >58,000 children in Cambodia were estimated to be hospitalized due to dengue.Calculating MFs by comparing prospective cohort study data to locally-reported national surveillance data is one approach to more accurately assess disease burden. These data indicate that although dengue is regularly reported in many countries, national surveillance data significantly underrecognize the true burden of disease.

  19. Body Mass Index: A Scientific Evidence-Based Inquiry

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    Ricardo Djalma Rabelo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTVE: To objectively and critically assess body mass index and to propose alternatives for relating body weight and height that are evidence-based and that eliminate or reduce the limitations of the body mass index. METHODS: To analyze the relations involving weight and height, we used 2 databases as follows: 1 children and adolescents from Brazil, the United States, and Switzerland; and 2 538 university students. We performed mathematical simulations with height data ranging from 115 to 190 cm and weight data ranging from 25 to 105 kg. We selected 3 methods to analyze the relation of weight and height as follows: body mass index - weight (kg/height (m²; reciprocal of the ponderal index - height (cm/weight1/3 (kg; and ectomorphy. Using the normal range from 20 to 25 kg/m² for the body mass index in the reference height of 170 cm, we identified the corresponding ranges of 41 to 44 cm/kg1/3 for the reciprocal of the ponderal index, and of 1.45 to 3.60 for ectomorphy. RESULTS: The mathematical simulations showed a strong association among the 3 methods with an absolute concordance to a height of 170 cm, but with a tendency towards discrepancy in the normal ranges, which had already been observed for the heights of 165 and 175 cm. This made the direct convertibility between the indices unfeasible. The reciprocal of the ponderal index and ectomorphy with their cut points comprised a larger age range in children and adolescents and a wider and more central range in the university students, both for the reported (current and desired weights. CONCLUSION: The reciprocal of the ponderal index and ectomorphy are stronger and are more mathematically logical than body mass index; in addition, they may be applied with the same cut points for normal from the age of 5 ½ years on.

  20. Computer-based anthropometrical system for total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nieto, B; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Terrón, J A; Arráns, R; Errazquin, L

    1997-05-01

    For total body irradiation (TBI) dose calculation requirements, anatomical information about the whole body is needed. Despite the fact that video image grabbing techniques are used by some treatment planning systems for standard radiotherapy, there are no such systems designed to generate anatomical parameters for TBI planning. The paper describes an anthropometrical computerised system based on video image grabbing which was purpose-built to provide anatomical data for a PC-based TBI planning system. Using software, the system controls the acquisition and digitalisation of the images (external images of the patient in treatment position) and the measurement procedure itself (on the external images or the digital CT information). An ASCII file, readable by the TBI planning system, is generated to store the required parameters of the dose calculation points, i.e. depth, backscatter tissue thickness, thickness of inhomogeneity, off-axis distance (OAD) and source to skin distance (SSD).

  1. Price of pain: population-based cohort burden of disease analysis of medication cost of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friesen KJ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kevin J Friesen,1 Jamie Falk,1 Silvia Alessi-Severini,1 Dan Chateau,2 Shawn Bugden1 1College of Pharmacy, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2Department of Community Health Sciences, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Background: Pain is a main symptom of herpes zoster (HZ, and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is a frequent complication occurring in 5% to 15% of cases, causing moderate to severe neuropathic pain. A population-based observational study was conducted to evaluate the treatment patterns and economic burden of prescription drug treatment of HZ and PHN pain in the province of Manitoba (Canada over a period of 15 years. Methods: Administrative health care data, including medical and hospital separation records, were examined to identify episodes of HZ using International Classification of Diseases-9/10 codes between April 1, 1997 and March 31, 2014. Episodes of PHN were identified using medical and prescription claims. Incident use of analgesic, antidepressant, or anticonvulsant drugs was used to determine prescription pain costs. Results: The age-adjusted incidence of HZ increased from 4.7 episodes/1,000 person-years in 1997/98 to 5.7/1,000 person-years in 2013/14. PHN occurred in 9.2% of HZ cases, a rate that did not change over the study period (P=0.57. The annual cost to treat HZ pain rose by 174% from 1997/98, reaching CAD $332,981 in 2011/12, 82.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 81.2%, 84.3% of which was related to PHN. The per episode cost of HZ rose by 111% from $31.59 (95% CI $25.35, $37.84 to $66.81 (95% CI $56.84, $76.78 and by 94% for PHN from $292 (95% CI $225, $358 to $566 (95% CI $478, $655. These increases were driven by increasing use of anticonvulsants, primarily gabapentin, which accounted for 57% of the increase in cost. Conclusion: There has been an increase in the incidence of HZ and PHN and in the average cost associated with the

  2. Price of pain: population-based cohort burden of disease analysis of medication cost of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Kevin J; Falk, Jamie; Alessi-Severini, Silvia; Chateau, Dan; Bugden, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a main symptom of herpes zoster (HZ), and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a frequent complication occurring in 5% to 15% of cases, causing moderate to severe neuropathic pain. A population-based observational study was conducted to evaluate the treatment patterns and economic burden of prescription drug treatment of HZ and PHN pain in the province of Manitoba (Canada) over a period of 15 years. Administrative health care data, including medical and hospital separation records, were examined to identify episodes of HZ using International Classification of Diseases-9/10 codes between April 1, 1997 and March 31, 2014. Episodes of PHN were identified using medical and prescription claims. Incident use of analgesic, antidepressant, or anticonvulsant drugs was used to determine prescription pain costs. The age-adjusted incidence of HZ increased from 4.7 episodes/1,000 person-years in 1997/98 to 5.7/1,000 person-years in 2013/14. PHN occurred in 9.2% of HZ cases, a rate that did not change over the study period (P=0.57). The annual cost to treat HZ pain rose by 174% from 1997/98, reaching CAD $332,981 in 2011/12, 82.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 81.2%, 84.3%) of which was related to PHN. The per episode cost of HZ rose by 111% from $31.59 (95% CI $25.35, $37.84) to $66.81 (95% CI $56.84, $76.78) and by 94% for PHN from $292 (95% CI $225, $358) to $566 (95% CI $478, $655). These increases were driven by increasing use of anticonvulsants, primarily gabapentin, which accounted for 57% of the increase in cost. There has been an increase in the incidence of HZ and PHN and in the average cost associated with the prescription treatment of their resultant neuropathic pain. The primary driver of the increased episodic cost is the increased use of gabapentin. These changes have resulted in a substantial increase in the economic burden associated with HZ and PHN.

  3. Prevalence and burden of gait disorders in elderly men and women aged 60-97 years: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahlknecht, P.; Kiechl, S.; Bloem, B.R.; Willeit, J.; Scherfler, C.; Gasperi, A.; Rungger, G.; Poewe, W.; Seppi, K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although gait disorders are common in the elderly, the prevalence and overall burden of these disorders in the general community is not well defined. METHODS: In a cross-sectional investigation of the population-based Bruneck Study cohort, 488 community-residing elderly aged 60-97 years

  4. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  5. Energy Harvesting Based Body Area Networks for Smart Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yixue; Peng, Limei; Lu, Huimin; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Alamri, Atif

    2017-07-10

    Body area networks (BANs) are configured with a great number of ultra-low power consumption wearable devices, which constantly monitor physiological signals of the human body and thus realize intelligent monitoring. However, the collection and transfer of human body signals consume energy, and considering the comfort demand of wearable devices, both the size and the capacity of a wearable device's battery are limited. Thus, minimizing the energy consumption of wearable devices and optimizing the BAN energy efficiency is still a challenging problem. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an energy harvesting-based BAN for smart health and discuss an optimal resource allocation scheme to improve BAN energy efficiency. Specifically, firstly, considering energy harvesting in a BAN and the time limits of human body signal transfer, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem of time division for wireless energy transfer and wireless information transfer. Secondly, we convert the optimization problem into a convex optimization problem under a linear constraint and propose a closed-form solution to the problem. Finally, simulation results proved that when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is small, the proportion of energy consumed by the circuit and signal acquisition of the wearable devices is big, and when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is big, the energy consumed by the signal transfer of the wearable device is decisive.

  6. Energy Harvesting Based Body Area Networks for Smart Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixue Hao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Body area networks (BANs are configured with a great number of ultra-low power consumption wearable devices, which constantly monitor physiological signals of the human body and thus realize intelligent monitoring. However, the collection and transfer of human body signals consume energy, and considering the comfort demand of wearable devices, both the size and the capacity of a wearable device’s battery are limited. Thus, minimizing the energy consumption of wearable devices and optimizing the BAN energy efficiency is still a challenging problem. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an energy harvesting-based BAN for smart health and discuss an optimal resource allocation scheme to improve BAN energy efficiency. Specifically, firstly, considering energy harvesting in a BAN and the time limits of human body signal transfer, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem of time division for wireless energy transfer and wireless information transfer. Secondly, we convert the optimization problem into a convex optimization problem under a linear constraint and propose a closed-form solution to the problem. Finally, simulation results proved that when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is small, the proportion of energy consumed by the circuit and signal acquisition of the wearable devices is big, and when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is big, the energy consumed by the signal transfer of the wearable device is decisive.

  7. Visual Coding of Human Bodies: Perceptual Aftereffects Reveal Norm-Based, Opponent Coding of Body Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this…

  8. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  9. Control of a Buoyancy-Based Pilot Underwater Lifting Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Haugen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about position control of a specific small-scale pilot underwater lifting body where the lifting force stems from buoyancy adjusted with an air pocket in the lifting body. A mathematical model is developed to get a basis for a simulator which is used for testing and for designing the control system, including tuning controller parameters. A number of different position controller solutions were tried both on a simulator and on the physical system. Successful control on both the simulator and the physical system was obtained with cascade control based on feedback from measured position and height of the air pocket in the lifting body. The primary and the secondary controllers of the cascade control system were tuned using Skogestad's model-based PID tuning rules. Feedforward from estimated load force was implemented in combination with the cascade control system, giving a substantial improvement of the position control system, both with varying position reference and varying disturbance (load mass.

  10. HIV symptom burden and anemia among HIV-positive individuals: cross-sectional results of a community-based positive living with HIV (POLH) study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Catherine; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Poudel, Krishna C

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has reported high rates of anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in hospital or tertiary care settings. The objective of this community-based study was to measure the prevalence of anemia and describe the risk factors, with a specific emphasis on HIV symptom burden, in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 319 PLWHA residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We recruited participants from five non-governmental organizations in the Kathmandu Valley. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Our study found a 55.8% prevalence of anemia in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley. The prevalence of anemia among the participants with first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of HIV symptom burden was 44.8%, 49.3%, 60.3%, and 69.6%, respectively. Compared to the participants with lowest level of HIV symptom burden, the participants with highest level of HIV symptom burden were more likely to have anemia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 4.30). Due to a high prevalence of anemia in a community-based sample of PLWHA, HIV patients should be counseled on their risk of developing anemia and encouraged to seek timely care for HIV symptoms.

  11. HIV symptom burden and anemia among HIV-positive individuals: cross-sectional results of a community-based positive living with HIV (POLH study in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Martin

    Full Text Available Previous research has reported high rates of anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in hospital or tertiary care settings. The objective of this community-based study was to measure the prevalence of anemia and describe the risk factors, with a specific emphasis on HIV symptom burden, in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 319 PLWHA residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We recruited participants from five non-governmental organizations in the Kathmandu Valley. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used.Our study found a 55.8% prevalence of anemia in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley. The prevalence of anemia among the participants with first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of HIV symptom burden was 44.8%, 49.3%, 60.3%, and 69.6%, respectively. Compared to the participants with lowest level of HIV symptom burden, the participants with highest level of HIV symptom burden were more likely to have anemia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 4.30.Due to a high prevalence of anemia in a community-based sample of PLWHA, HIV patients should be counseled on their risk of developing anemia and encouraged to seek timely care for HIV symptoms.

  12. [The human and economic burden of cancer in France in 2014, based on the Sniiram national database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppin, Philippe; Pestel, Laurence; Samson, Solène; Cuerq, Anne; Rivière, Sébastien; Tala, Stéphane; Denis, Pierre; Drouin, Jérôme; Gissot, Claude; Gastaldi-Ménager, Christelle; Fagot-Campagna, Anne

    2017-06-01

    The national health insurance information system (Sniiram) can be used to estimate the national medical and economic burden of cancer. This study reports the annual rates, characteristics and expenditure of people reimbursed for cancer. Among 57 million general health scheme beneficiaries (86% of the French population), people managed for cancer were identified using algorithms based on hospital diagnoses and full refund for long-term cancer. The reimbursed costs (euros) related to the cancer, paid off by the health insurance, were estimated. In 2014, 2.491 million people (4.4%) covered by the general health scheme had a cancer managed (men 1.1 million, 5.1%; women 1.3 million, 4.9%). The annual (2012-2014) average growth rate of patients was 0.8%. The spending related to the cancer was 13.5 billion: 5 billion for primary health care (drugs 2.3 billion), 7.5 billion for the hospital (drugs 1.3 billions) and 900 million for sick leave and invalidity pensions. Spending annual average growth rate (2012-2014) was 4% (drugs 2%). The rates of patients and the relative spending were 1.8% and 2.5 billion for the breast cancer (women), 1.5% and 1.0 billion for prostate cancer, 0.9% and 1.5 billion for the colon cancer, and 0.19% and 1.3 billion for lung cancer. Cancers establish one of the first groups of chronic diseases pathologies in terms of patients and spending. If the numbers of patients remain stables, the spending increases, mainly for medicines. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy and Insecticide-Treated Nets on Malaria Burden in Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Achuyt; Ali, Abdullah S; Kachur, S. Patrick; Mårtensson, Andreas; Abbas, Ali K; Khatib, Rashid; Al-mafazy, Abdul-wahiyd; Ramsan, Mahdi; Rotllant, Guida; Gerstenmaier, Jan F; Molteni, Fabrizio; Abdulla, Salim; Montgomery, Scott M; Kaneko, Akira; Björkman, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Background The Roll Back Malaria strategy recommends a combination of interventions for malaria control. Zanzibar implemented artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for uncomplicated malaria in late 2003 and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) from early 2006. ACT is provided free of charge to all malaria patients, while LLINs are distributed free to children under age 5 y (“under five”) and pregnant women. We investigated temporal trends in Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and malaria-related health parameters following the implementation of these two malaria control interventions in Zanzibar. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional clinical and parasitological surveys in children under the age of 14 y were conducted in North A District in May 2003, 2005, and 2006. Survey data were analyzed in a logistic regression model and adjusted for complex sampling design and potential confounders. Records from all 13 public health facilities in North A District were analyzed for malaria-related outpatient visits and admissions. Mortality and demographic data were obtained from District Commissioner's Office. P. falciparum prevalence decreased in children under five between 2003 and 2006; using 2003 as the reference year, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were, for 2005, 0.55 (0.28–1.08), and for 2006, 0.03 (0.00–0.27); p for trend Zanzibar 2003, malaria-associated morbidity and mortality decreased dramatically within two years. Additional distribution of LLINs in early 2006 resulted in a 10-fold reduction of malaria parasite prevalence. The results indicate that the Millennium Development Goals of reducing mortality in children under five and alleviating the burden of malaria are achievable in tropical Africa with high coverage of combined malaria control interventions. PMID:17988171

  14. A statistical frame based TDMA protocol for human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zedong; Li, Zhao; Huang, Renwei; Liu, Yuhang; Li, Jingzhen; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-09

    Human body communication (HBC) using the human body as the transmission medium, which has been regarded as one of the most promising short-range communications in wireless body area networks (WBAN). Compared to the traditional wireless networks, two challenges are existed in HBC based WBAN. (1) Its sensor nodes should be energy saving since it is inconvenient to replace or recharge the battery on these sensor nodes; (2) the coordinator should be able to react dynamically and rapidly to the burst traffic triggered by sensing events. Those burst traffic conditions include vital physical signal (electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram etc.) monitoring, human motion detection (fall detection, activity monitoring, gesture recognition, motion sensing etc.) and so on. To cope with aforementioned challenges, a statistical frame based TDMA (S-TDMA) protocol with multi-constrained (energy, delay, transmission efficiency and emergency management) service is proposed in this paper. The scenarios where burst traffic is often triggered rapidly with low power consumption and low delay is handled in our proposed S-TDMA. A beacon frame with the contained synchronous and poll information is designed to reduce the possibility of collisions of request frames. A statistical frame which broadcasts the unified scheduling information is adopted to avoid packet collisions, idle listening and overhearing. Dynamic time slot allocation mechanism is presented to manage the burst traffic and reduce the active period in each beacon period. An emergency mechanism is proposed for vital signals to be transmitted. The theory analysis is proceed and the result is evaluated in the hardware platform. To verify its feasibility, S-TDMA was fully implemented on our independently-developed HBC platform where four sensor nodes and a coordinator are fastened on a human body. Experiment results show that S-TDMA costs 89.397 mJ every 20 s when the payload size is 122 bytes, 9.51% lower than Lightweight MAC

  15. Excess of Radiation Burden for Young Testicular Cancer Patients using Automatic Exposure Control and Contrast Agent on Whole-body Computed Tomography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniviita, Hannele; Kulmala, Jarmo; Pölönen, Tuukka; Määttänen, Heli; Järvinen, Hannu; Salminen, Eeva

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patient dose from whole-body computed tomography (CT) in association with patient size, automatic exposure control (AEC) and intravenous (IV) contrast agent. Sixty-five testicular cancer patients (mean age 28 years) underwent altogether 279 whole-body CT scans from April 2000 to April 2011. The mean number of repeated examinations was 4.3. The GE LightSpeed 16 equipped with AEC and the Siemens Plus 4 CT scanners were used for imaging. Whole-body scans were performed with (216) and without (63) IV contrast. The ImPACT software was used to determine the effective and organ doses. Patient doses were independent (p agent caused significantly higher (13% Plus 4, 35% LightSpeed 16) exposure than non-contrast imaging (p agent and careful set-up of the AEC modulation parameters is recommended to avoid excessive radiation exposure on the whole-body CT imaging of young patients.

  16. Correlation between neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver burden in a population-based sample from São Paulo, Brazil: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Cunha Folquitto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver burden are highly prevalent in older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver burden in a community-based sample from São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: A total of 1,563 randomly-selected subjects were assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination, Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and Bayer - Activities of Daily Living Scale. Subjects considered screen-positives were submitted to a dementia workup and diagnosis was determined according to ICD-10 criteria. The neuropsychiatric Inventory was applied to caregivers to evaluate neuropsychiatric symptoms and the Zarit Burden Interview was also applied to assess caregivers' burden. Results: Sixty-one AD patients, 25 Cognitively Impaired Non Demented (CIND and 79 healthy elderly subjects were evaluated. Zarit mean scores for controls, CIND and AD were 2.32, 3.92 and 20.11, respectively. There was strong positive correlation between total NPI and Zarit scores. Conclusion: In conclusion, neuropsychiatric symptoms showed a significant association with higher rates of caregiver stress.

  17. A novel body frame based approach to aerospacecraft attitude tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Carlos; Chen, Michael Z Q; Lam, James; Cheung, Kie Chung

    2017-09-01

    In the common practice of designing an attitude tracker for an aerospacecraft, one transforms the Newton-Euler rotation equations to obtain the dynamic equations of some chosen inertial frame based attitude metrics, such as Euler angles and unit quaternions. A Lyapunov approach is then used to design a controller which ensures asymptotic convergence of the attitude to the desired orientation. Although this design methodology is pretty standard, it usually involves singularity-prone coordinate transformations which complicates the analysis process and controller design. A new, singularity free error feedback method is proposed in the paper to provide simple and intuitive stability analysis and controller synthesis. This new body frame based method utilizes the concept of Euleraxis and angles to generate the smallest error angles from a body frame perspective, without coordinate transformations. Global tracking convergence is illustrated with the use of a feedback linearizing PD tracker, a sliding mode controller, and a model reference adaptive controller. Experimental results are also obtained on a quadrotor platform with unknown system parameters and disturbances, using a boundary layer approximated sliding mode controller, a PIDD controller, and a unit sliding mode controller. Significant tracking quality is attained. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Body temperature regulation: Sasang typology-based perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Duc Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming induces a dramatic elevation of heat-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Individual variation of heat stress vulnerability depends on various factors such as age, gender, living area and conditions, health status, and individual innate characteristics. Sasang typology is a unique form of Korean traditional medicine, which is based on the hypothesis that constitution-specific traits of an individual determine the particular distinctive tendency in various aspects, including responses to the external environment. Recent scientific evidence shows that Sasang types differ in body composition, metabolic profile, susceptibility to certain disease patterns, and perspiration. This review aims to interpret these findings under the context of heat balance consisting of heat production (Hprod, heat loss (Hloss, and heat load (Hload. Based on the published data, at a given body mass, the TaeEum type tended to have a lower Hprod at rest and at the exhaustion state, which may indicate the lower metabolic efficiency of this type. Meanwhile, the surface-to-mass ratio and heat capacity of the TaeEum type appear to be lower, implying a lower heat dissipation capacity and heat storage tolerance. Thus, because of these characteristics, the TaeEum type seems to be more vulnerable to heat stress than the other constitutions. Differences in temperature regulation across constitutional types should be taken into account in daily physical activity, health management, and medical research.

  19. Health Monitoring System Based on Intra-Body Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, A. H. A.; Ibrahim, I. W.; Ayub, A. H.; Amri, M. F.; Hamzi, M. H.; Halim, A. K.; Ahmad, A.; Junid, S. A. M. Al

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a model of a Body Area Network (BAN) health monitoring system based on Intra-Body Communication. Intra-body Communication (IBC) is a communication technique that uses the human body as a medium for electrical signal communication. One of the visions in the health care industry is to provide autonomous and continuous self and the remote health monitoring system. This can be achieved via BAN, LAN and WAN integration. The BAN technology itself consists of short range data communication modules, sensors, controller and actuators. The information can be transmitted to the LAN and WAN via the RF technology such as Bluetooth, ZigBee and ANT. Although the implementations of RF communication have been successful, there are still limitations in term of power consumption, battery lifetime, interferences and signal attenuations. One of the solutions for Medical Body Area Network (MBANs) to overcome these issues is by using an IBC technique because it can operate at lower frequencies and power consumption compared to the existing techniques. The first objective is to design the IBC's transmitter and receiver modules using the off the shelf components. The specifications of the modules such as frequency, data rate, modulation and demodulation coding system were defined. The individual module were designed and tested separately. The modules was integrated as an IBC system and tested for functionality then was implemented on PCB. Next objective is to model and implement the digital parts of the transmitter and receiver modules on the Altera's FPGA board. The digital blocks were interfaced with the FPGA's on board modules and the discrete components. The signals that have been received from the transmitter were converted into a proper waveform and it can be viewed via external devices such as oscilloscope and Labview. The signals such as heartbeats or pulses can also be displayed on LCD. In conclusion, the IBC project presents medical health monitoring model

  20. Automated Detection of Small Bodies by Space Based Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidstrup, P. R.; Grillmayer, G.; Andersen, A. C.; Haack, H.; Jorgensen, J. L.

    The number of known comets and asteroids is increasing every year. Up till now this number is including approximately 250,000 of the largest minor planets, as they are usually referred. These discoveries are due to the Earth-based observation which has intensified over the previous decades. Additionally larger telescopes and arrays of telescopes are being used for exploring our Solar System. It is believed that all near- Earth and Main-Belt asteroids of diameters above 10 to 30 km have been discovered, leaving these groups of objects as observationally complete. However, the cataloguing of smaller bodies is incomplete as only a very small fraction of the expected number has been discovered. It is estimated that approximately 1010 main belt asteroids in the size range 1 m to 1 km are too faint to be observed using Earth-based telescopes. In order to observe these small bodies, space-based search must be initiated to remove atmospheric disturbances and to minimize the distance to the asteroids and thereby minimising the requirement for long camera integration times. A new method of space-based detection of moving non-stellar objects is currently being developed utilising the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) built for spacecraft attitude determination by Ørsted, Danish Technical University. The ASC serves as a backbone technology in the project as it is capable of fully automated distinction of known and unknown celestial objects. By only processing objects of particular interest, i.e. moving objects, it will be possible to discover small bodies with a minimum of ground control, with the ultimate ambition of a fully automated space search probe. Currently, the ASC is being mounted on the Flying Laptop satellite of the Institute of Space Systems, Universität Stuttgart. It will, after a launch into a low Earth polar orbit in 2008, test the detection method with the ASC equipment that already had significant in-flight experience. A future use of the ASC based automated

  1. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  2. Body image altered by psoriasis. A study based on individual interviews and a model for body image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Lina R; Danielsen, Patricia L; Skiveren, Jette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Visible psoriasis skin symptoms have a severe psychological impact on quality of life. To improve clinical approaches, methods of assessing these aspects are needed. Objectives: To investigate the influence of psoriasis on patients' body image based on the Body Image Model (BIM...... on patient body image were identified: body coverage, sexual inhibitions, the influence of social support, reduced exercise activity and a negative self-image. Furthermore, information obtained through the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires did not entirely reflect statements from patients...... made during interviews. Conclusion: An altered body image has a psychosocial impact on patients with visible psoriasis that may result in increased body coverage, sexual inhibitions and reduced exercise activity. This further affects self-image negatively and influences how people with psoriasis handle...

  3. Impact of artemisinin-based combination therapy and insecticide-treated nets on malaria burden in Zanzibar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achuyt Bhattarai

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Roll Back Malaria strategy recommends a combination of interventions for malaria control. Zanzibar implemented artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for uncomplicated malaria in late 2003 and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs from early 2006. ACT is provided free of charge to all malaria patients, while LLINs are distributed free to children under age 5 y ("under five" and pregnant women. We investigated temporal trends in Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and malaria-related health parameters following the implementation of these two malaria control interventions in Zanzibar. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional clinical and parasitological surveys in children under the age of 14 y were conducted in North A District in May 2003, 2005, and 2006. Survey data were analyzed in a logistic regression model and adjusted for complex sampling design and potential confounders. Records from all 13 public health facilities in North A District were analyzed for malaria-related outpatient visits and admissions. Mortality and demographic data were obtained from District Commissioner's Office. P. falciparum prevalence decreased in children under five between 2003 and 2006; using 2003 as the reference year, odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were, for 2005, 0.55 (0.28-1.08, and for 2006, 0.03 (0.00-0.27; p for trend < 0.001. Between 2002 and 2005 crude under-five, infant (under age 1 y, and child (aged 1-4 y mortality decreased by 52%, 33%, and 71%, respectively. Similarly, malaria-related admissions, blood transfusions, and malaria-attributed mortality decreased significantly by 77%, 67% and 75%, respectively, between 2002 and 2005 in children under five. Climatic conditions favorable for malaria transmission persisted throughout the observational period. CONCLUSIONS: Following deployment of ACT in Zanzibar 2003, malaria-associated morbidity and mortality decreased dramatically within two years. Additional distribution

  4. Disease burden of herpes zoster in Sweden - predominance in the elderly and in women - a register based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden is not well investigated. There is no Swedish immunization program to prevent varicella zoster virus infections. A vaccine against herpes zoster and its complications is now available. The aim of this study was to estimate the herpes zoster burden of disease and to establish a pre-vaccination baseline of the minimum incidence of herpes zoster. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish National Health Data Registers including the Patient Register, the Pharmacy Register, and the Cause of Death Register. The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden was estimated by analyzing the overall, and age and gender differences in the antiviral prescriptions, hospitalizations and complications during 2006-2010 and mortality during 2006-2009. Results Annually, 270 per 100,000 persons received antiviral treatment for herpes zoster, and the prescription rate increased with age. It was approximately 50% higher in females than in males in the age 50+ population (rate ratio 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.58). The overall hospitalization rate for herpes zoster was 6.9/100,000 with an approximately three-fold increase for patients over 80 years of age compared to the age 70-79 group. A gender difference in hospitalization rates was observed: 8.1/100,000 in females and 5.6/100,000 in males. Herpes zoster, with a registered complication, was found in about one third of the hospitalized patients and the most common complications involved the peripheral and central nervous systems. Death due to herpes zoster was a rare event. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the significant burden of herpes zoster disease in the pre-zoster vaccination era. A strong correlation with age in the herpes zoster- related incidence, hospitalization, complications, and mortality rates was found. In addition, the study provides further evidence of the female predominance in herpes zoster disease. PMID:24330510

  5. The burden of nosocomial staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection in South Korea: a prospective hospital-based nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Jong; Kim, Hong-Bin; Oh, Myoung-don; Kim, Yunhee; Kim, Arim; Oh, Sung-Hee; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Eu; Cho, Yong; Choi, Young; Park, Jinyong; Kim, Baek-Nam; Kim, Nam-Joong; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Eun; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Young; Kiem, Sung; Choi, Hee; Choo, Eun; Sohn, Kyung-Mok; Lee, Shinwon; Chang, Hyun; Bang, Ji; Lee, Su; Lee, Jae; Park, Seong; Jeon, Min; Yun, Na

    2014-11-14

    We estimated the nationwide burden of nosocomial S. aureus bloodstream infection (SA-BSI), a major cause of nosocomial infection, in South Korea. To evaluate the nationwide incidence of nosocomial SA-BSI, cases of SA-BSI were prospectively collected from 22 hospitals with over 500 beds over 4?months. Data on patient-days were obtained from a national health insurance database containing the claims data for all healthcare facilities in South Korea. The additional cost of SA-BSI was estimated through a matched case?control study. The economic burden was calculated from the sum of the medical costs, the costs of caregiving and loss of productivity. Three hundred and thirty nine cases of nosocomial SA-BSI were included in the study: 254 cases of methicillin-resistant SA-BSI (MRSA-BSI) and 85 cases of methicillin-susceptible SA-BSI (MSSA-BSI). Death related to BSI occurred in 81 cases (31.9%) of MRSA-BSI and 12 cases (14.1%) of MSSA-BSI. The estimated incidence of nosocomial MRSA-BSI was 0.12/1,000 patient-days and that of nosocomial MSSA-BSI, 0.04/1,000 patient-days. The estimated annual cases of nosocomial BSI were 2,946 for MRSA and 986 for MSSA in South Korea. The additional economic burden per case of nosocomial SA-BSI was US $20,494 for MRSA-BSI and $6,914 for MSSA-BSI. Total additional annual cost of nosocomial SA-BSI was $67,192,559. In view of the burden of nosocomial SA-BSI, a national strategy for reducing nosocomial SA-BSI is urgently needed in South Korea.

  6. Estimated burden of cardiovascular disease and value-based price range for evolocumab in a high-risk, secondary-prevention population in the US payer context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Danese, Mark; Villa, Guillermo; Qian, Yi; Beaubrun, Anne; Lira, Armando; Jansen, Jeroen P

    2017-06-01

    To estimate real-world cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden and value-based price range of evolocumab for a US-context, high-risk, secondary-prevention population. Burden of CVD was assessed using the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) in order to capture complete CV burden including CV mortality. Patients on standard of care (SOC; high-intensity statins) in CPRD were selected based on eligibility criteria of FOURIER, a phase 3 CV outcomes trial of evolocumab, and categorized into four cohorts: high-risk prevalent atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) cohort (n = 1448), acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n = 602), ischemic stroke (IS) (n = 151), and heart failure (HF) (n = 291) incident cohorts. The value-based price range for evolocumab was assessed using a previously published economic model. The model incorporated CPRD CV event rates and considered CV event reduction rate ratios per 1 mmol/L reduction in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) from a meta-analysis of statin trials by the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists Collaboration (CTTC), i.e. CTTC relationship. Multiple-event rates of composite CV events (ACS, IS, or coronary revascularization) per 100 patient-years were 12.3 for the high-risk prevalent ASCVD cohort, and 25.7, 13.3, and 23.3, respectively, for incident ACS, IS, and HF cohorts. Approximately one-half (42%) of the high-risk ASCVD patients with a new CV event during follow-up had a subsequent CV event. Combining these real-world event rates and the CTTC relationship in the economic model, the value-based price range (credible interval) under a willingness-to-pay threshold of $150,000/quality-adjusted life-year gained for evolocumab was $11,990 ($9,341-$14,833) to $16,856 ($12,903-$20,678) in ASCVD patients with baseline LDL-C levels ≥70 mg/dL and ≥100 mg/dL, respectively. Real-world CVD burden is substantial. Using the observed CVD burden in CPRD and the CTTC relationship, the cost-effectiveness analysis showed

  7. Gastric cancer burden of last 40 years in North China (Hebei Province): A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Liang, Suoyuan; Jin, Jing; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; He, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. It is well known that Cixian in Hebei Province is one of the highest risk areas of GC in China and worldwide. This study aims to accurate assessment of GC burden and trend in high-risk area (Hebei Province) from 1973 to 2013. The authors analyzed GC data from 21 population-based cancer registries which represented 15.25% of the entire population of Hebei Province. The collected data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender, and area. Mortality of GC was extracted from national death surveys from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2013. Trend analysis (1988-2013) in a high-risk area (Cixian) used the Joinpoint Model. The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, period, and birth cohort in GC incidence in Cixian from 1988 to 2013. The crude incidence of GC in 2011 to 2013 was 40.37/100,000 (57.53/100,000 in males and 22.55/100,000 in females). The corresponding age-standardized rate by world age-standard population was 32.18/100,000 (48.87/100,000 in males and 17.53/100,000 in females), which was 2.66-fold (2.81-fold in male and 2.34-fold in female) higher than that in the world (12.1/100,000, 17.4/100,000 in males and 7.5/100,000 in females). Males in rural areas had the highest incidence, with an age-standardized rate of 70.51/100,000. Gastric cardia cancer was primary anatomical subsite which accounting for 59.59% in GC, followed by gastric corpus (13.92%), gastric antrum (11.43%), gastric fundus (4.99%), and overlapping lesion of gastric (4.17%). The age-standardized rate of mortality from GC displayed a significant downward trend (P = 0.019) in Hebei Province from the 1990s (31.44/100,000) to the 2010s (24.63/100,000). In Cixian, the incidence of GC rose from 1988 (38.25/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000). Cixian, where population-based screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed, experienced the increasing rate of GC from 2000

  8. A finite-element simulation of galvanic coupling intra-body communication based on the whole human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Hao, Qun; Hu, Lanxin; Wang, Jingwen; Shang, Fuzhou

    2012-10-09

    Simulation based on the finite-element (FE) method plays an important role in the investigation of intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, a finite-element model of the whole body model used for the IBC simulation is proposed and verified, while the FE simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC with different signal transmission paths has been achieved. Firstly, a novel finite-element method for modeling the whole human body is proposed, and a FE model of the whole human body used for IBC simulation was developed. Secondly, the simulations of the galvanic coupling IBC with the different signal transmission paths were implemented. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method was verified by using in vivo measurements within the frequency range of 10 kHz-5 MHz, whereby some important conclusions were deduced. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer significant advantages in the investigation of the galvanic coupling intra-body communication.

  9. Economic burden of multidrug-resistant bacteria in nursing homes in Germany: a cost analysis based on empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Claudia; Roggelin, Marcus; Flessa, Steffen

    2016-02-23

    Infections and colonisations with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) increasingly affect different types of healthcare facilities worldwide. So far, little is known about additional costs attributable to MDROs outside hospitals. The aim of this study was to analysis the economic burden of multidrug-resistant bacteria in nursing homes in Germany. The cost analysis is performed from a microeconomic perspective of the healthcare facilities. Study took place in six long-term care facilities in north-eastern Germany. Data of 71 residents with a positive MDRO status were included. The study analysed MDRO surveillance data from 2011 to 2013. It was supplemented by an empirical analysis to determine the burden on staff capacity and materials consumption. 11,793 days with a positive multidrug-resistant pathogen diagnosis could be included in the analysis. On average, 11.8 (SD ± 6.3) MDRO cases occurred per nursing home. Mean duration per case was 163.3 days (SD ± 97.1). The annual MDRO-related costs varied in nursing homes between €2449.72 and €153,263.74 on an average €12,682.23 per case. Main cost drivers were staff capacity (€43.95 per day and €7177.04 per case) and isolation materials (€24.70 per day and €4033.51 per case). The importance of MDROs in nursing homes could be confirmed. MDRO-related cost data in this specific healthcare sector were collected for the first time. Knowledge about the burden of MDROs will enable to assess the efficiency of hygiene intervention measures in nursing homes in the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. The burden attributable to headache disorders in India: estimates from a community-based study in Karnataka State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Girish N; Kulkarni, Girish B; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Stovner, Lars J; Steiner, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Headache disorders are common worldwide, causing pain and disability. India appears to have a very high prevalence of migraine, and of other headache disorders in line with global averages. Our objective was to estimate the burdens attributable to these disorders in order to inform health policy. In a door-to-door survey, biologically unrelated adults (18-65 years) were randomly sampled from urban and rural areas of Bangalore and interviewed by trained researchers. The validated structured questionnaire enquired into several aspects of burden. Of 2,329 participants (non-participation rate 7.4 %), 1,488 (63.9 %; 621 male, 867 female) reported headache in the preceding year. Symptom burden was high. Migraine (1-year prevalence 25.2 %) occurred on average on 28 days/year but, in 38.0 % of cases (ie, 9.6 % of adults), on ≥3 days/month (≥10 % of days). All causes of headache on ≥15 days/month (prevalence 3.0 %) occurred on a mean of 245 days/year. Both these and migraine were rated severe in intensity. Participants with headache lost 4.3 % of productive time; those with migraine lost 5.8 % (equating to 1.5 % from the adult population). Lost paid worktime accounted for 40 % of this, probably detracting directly from GDP. We estimated population-level disability attributable to migraine using the disability weight from GBD2010 for the ictal state (0.433). Mean disability per person with migraine was 1.8 %, reducing the functional capacity of the entire adult population by 0.46 %. Fewer than one quarter of participants with headache had engaged with health-care services for headache in the last year. Actual expenditure on headache care was greatest among those with headache on ≥15 days/month (especially probable medication-overuse headache), but otherwise not high. Expressed willingness to pay for effective treatment for headache was higher, signalling dissatisfaction with current treatments. In Karnataka State, southern India, prevalent headache

  11. Dengue in Thailand and Cambodia: An Assessment of the Degree of Underrecognized Disease Burden Based on Reported Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Ole; Yoon, In-Kyu; Vong, Sirenda; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Gibbons, Robert V.; Mammen, Mammen P.; Ly, Sowath; Buchy, Philippe; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Buathong, Rome; Huy, Rekol; Letson, G. William; Sabchareon, Arunee

    2011-01-01

    Background Disease incidence data are needed to guide decision-making for public health interventions. Although dengue is a reportable disease in Thailand and Cambodia, the degree that reported incidence underrecognizes true disease burden is unknown. We utilized dengue incidence calculated from laboratory-confirmed outpatient and inpatient cases in prospective cohort studies to estimate the magnitude of dengue underrecognition and to establish more accurate disease burden estimates for these countries. Methods and Findings Cohort studies were conducted among children aged dengue field site consortium over at least 2 dengue seasons. Age-group specific multiplication factors (MFs) were computed by comparing data from three cohort studies to national surveillance data in the same province and year. In Thailand, 14,627 person-years of prospective cohort data were obtained in two provinces and 14,493 person-years from one province in Cambodia. Average annual incidence of laboratory-confirmed dengue was 23/1,000 and 25/1,000 in Thailand, and 41/1,000 in Cambodia. Calculated MFs in these provinces varied by age-group and year (range 0.4–29). Average age-group specific MFs were then applied to country-level reporting data and indicated that in Thailand a median 229,886 (range 210,612–331,236) dengue cases occurred annually during 2003–2007 and a median 111,178 (range 80,452–357,135) cases occurred in Cambodia in children dengue cases was 8.7 and 2.6-fold in Thailand, and 9.1 and 1.4-fold in Cambodia, respectively. During the high-incidence year 2007, >95,000 children in Thailand and >58,000 children in Cambodia were estimated to be hospitalized due to dengue. Conclusion Calculating MFs by comparing prospective cohort study data to locally-reported national surveillance data is one approach to more accurately assess disease burden. These data indicate that although dengue is regularly reported in many countries, national surveillance data significantly

  12. A controlled, class-based multicomponent intervention to promote healthy lifestyle and to reduce the burden of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centis, E; Marzocchi, R; Di Luzio, R; Moscatiello, S; Salardi, S; Villanova, N; Marchesini, G

    2012-12-01

    Overweight and obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence represent a priority for public health; school is a privileged place for health promotion interventions. The study aimed to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent 5-month intervention on the habits of primary school children, making the families aware of the importance of healthy choices. Two hundred nine children attending the fourth class of primary school, divided into interventional (n = 103) and control arm (n = 106) were included in the study. In the intervention group, parents and teachers received more intense lifestyle counseling, associated with weekly motivational telephone calls to families to motivate further their lifestyle changes. Standard deviation score (SDS) body mass index (BMI) was the primary outcome measure; on open-air games and TV watching were secondary outcomes. At baseline, no differences were observed between groups. At 8-month follow-up, mean SDS BMI had decreased by 0.06 units in the intervention arm and increased by 0.12 in controls (time × treatment anova, P TV watching from baseline (intervention, -0.96 h week(-1); P = 0.037; controls, +1.33 h week(-1); P = 0.031). A multicomponent school-based intervention addressing the needs of children, teachers and families produced a significant and favourable short-term effect on overweight/obese schoolchildren. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake?Lessons from Body Composition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M.; M?ller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2...

  14. National and Subnational Population-Based Incidence of Cancer in Thailand: Assessing Cancers with the Highest Burdens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama Virani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, five cancer types—breast, cervical, colorectal, liver and lung cancer—contribute to over half of the cancer burden. The magnitude of these cancers must be quantified over time to assess previous health policies and highlight future trajectories for targeted prevention efforts. We provide a comprehensive assessment of these five cancers nationally and subnationally, with trend analysis, projections, and number of cases expected for the year 2025 using cancer registry data. We found that breast (average annual percent change (AAPC: 3.1% and colorectal cancer (female AAPC: 3.3%, male AAPC: 4.1% are increasing while cervical cancer (AAPC: −4.4% is decreasing nationwide. However, liver and lung cancers exhibit disproportionately higher burdens in the northeast and north regions, respectively. Lung cancer increased significantly in northeastern and southern women, despite low smoking rates. Liver cancers are expected to increase in the northern males and females. Liver cancer increased in the south, despite the absence of the liver fluke, a known factor, in this region. Our findings are presented in the context of health policy, population dynamics and serve to provide evidence for future prevention strategies. Our subnational estimates provide a basis for understanding variations in region-specific risk factor profiles that contribute to incidence trends over time.

  15. Analysis of the Tax Burden in Romania based on the Laffer Curve in the Period 1991-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal pressure requires certain limits of affordability for taxpayers. These limits are imposed by the reactions of taxpayers who can resist to compulsory levies increase, reacting with evasion, fraud, reduce productive activity or even riots. If by a certain time, the tax pay is made voluntarily by the honest taxpayer, at a time when taxes exceed certain limits of endurance events occur that bring serious damages to state's desire to collect these revenues. Taxpayer behavior becomes abnormal in any way always trying to avoid paying tax, hoping for a reduction in tax burden. The phenomenon to increase or decrease the size of the tax burden is the result of economic and social role of the state. Analysis of state intervention in the economy led to a new liberal economic thinking, thinking that was approached it by the American economist Arthur Laffer. The aim of this paper consists in the empirical analysis of the correlation betwen the tax pressure rate and the tax incomes for Romania in the period 1991 – 2009 using the methodology creating by the Laffer curve.

  16. Economic burden of patients with inoperable advanced breast cancer receiving early or late capecitabine or trastuzumab as second-line treatment: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Yu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the economic burden and healthcare resource utilization of receiving early or late capecitabine and trastuzumab as second-line anthracycline- or taxane-based treatments for inoperable advanced breast cancer (IABC. Data was retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The demographic characteristics, healthcare resource utilization, and economic burden of patients with IABC receiving capecitabine and trastuzumab for 0–3, 3–6, 6–9 and 9–12 months after anthracycline- or taxane-based treatments were analyzed. 1,629 women newly diagnosed with IABC were recruited. IABC incidence rates reduced from 9.75% in 2004 to 7.35% in 2006. However, the proportion of patients receiving capecitabine or trastuzumab after anthracycline- or taxane-based treatments increased. Inpatient admissions (times/year, length of hospital stay (days/year, and outpatient visits (visits/year did not differ significantly for the 2004–2005, 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 cohorts of patients with IABC receiving capecitabine and trastuzumab at different time points. The 1-year healthcare cost and outpatient, inpatient, and total costs (USD/year differed significantly for trastuzumab but not for capecitabine. The conclusion indicated that early or late capecitabine or trastuzumab administration after first-line anthracycline or taxane-based treatments did not exhibit a change in healthcare resource utilization. In addition, the 1-year healthcare costs did not differ significantly for patients with IABC receiving early or late capecitabine. However, patients with IABC receiving trastuzumab continue to face an economic burden.

  17. Mood Recognition Based on Upper Body Posture and Movement Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrasher, M.L.; Van der Zwaag, M. D.; Bianchi-Berthouze, N.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2012-01-01

    While studying body postures in relation to mood is not a new concept, the majority of these studies rely on actors interpretations. This project investigated the temporal aspects of naturalistic body postures while users listened to mood inducing music. Video data was collected while participants

  18. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs.......In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  19. Crystallization from a milk-based revised simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V; Dorozhkina, Elena I

    2007-01-01

    A milk-based revised simulated body fluid (milk-rSBF) was prepared by a conventional route but instead of deionized water, all necessary chemicals were dissolved in whole cow's milk (3.2% fat). In order to accelerate crystallization and increase the amount of precipitates, the influence of milk was studied from condensed solutions equal to four times the ionic concentrations of rSBF (4rSBF). The experiments were performed under physiological conditions (solution pH = 7.35-7.40, temperature 37.0 ± 0.2 deg. C, duration 7 days) in a constant-composition double-diffusion device, which provided a slow crystallization under strictly controlled conditions. Similar experiments with 4rSBF but dissolved in deionized water were used as a control. An extra set of experiments with 4rSBF dissolved in deionized water but with an addition of 40 g l -1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as another control. The influence of milk appeared to be similar to that of dissolved BSA: some components of milk (presumably albumins and proteins) were found to co-precipitate with calcium phosphates, which had a strong negative influence on both the crystallinity and the crystal sizes of the precipitates. In addition, both milk and BSA strongly inhibited crystallization of calcium phosphates: the precipitates turned out to contain a minor amount of calcium phosphates and a substantial amount of organic phase

  20. Behavior Analysis Based on Coordinates of Body Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luštrek, Mitja; Kaluža, Boštjan; Dovgan, Erik; Pogorelc, Bogdan; Gams, Matjaž

    This paper describes fall detection, activity recognition and the detection of anomalous gait in the Confidence project. The project aims to prolong the independence of the elderly by detecting falls and other types of behavior indicating a health problem. The behavior will be analyzed based on the coordinates of tags worn on the body. The coordinates will be detected with radio sensors. We describe two Confidence modules. The first one classifies the user's activity into one of six classes, including falling. The second one detects walking anomalies, such as limping, dizziness and hemiplegia. The walking analysis can automatically adapt to each person by using only the examples of normal walking of that person. Both modules employ machine learning: the paper focuses on the features they use and the effect of tag placement and sensor noise on the classification accuracy. Four tags were enough for activity recognition accuracy of over 93% at moderate sensor noise, while six were needed to detect walking anomalies with the accuracy of over 90%.

  1. Body image altered by psoriasis. A study based on individual interviews and a model for body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Lina R; Danielsen, Patricia L; Skiveren, Jette

    2014-02-01

    Visible psoriasis skin symptoms have a severe psychological impact on quality of life. To improve clinical approaches, methods of assessing these aspects are needed. To investigate the influence of psoriasis on patients' body image based on the Body Image Model (BIM). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. Transcriptions of the interviews were subsequently analyzed using concepts from the BIM. Eight patients with severe to moderate psoriasis (PASI ≥10) were interviewed. Five thematic issues linked to the negative impact of psoriasis on patient body image were identified: body coverage, sexual inhibitions, the influence of social support, reduced exercise activity and a negative self-image. Furthermore, information obtained through the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires did not entirely reflect statements from patients made during interviews. An altered body image has a psychosocial impact on patients with visible psoriasis that may result in increased body coverage, sexual inhibitions and reduced exercise activity. This further affects self-image negatively and influences how people with psoriasis handle the risk of metabolic syndrome. Assessment of patient body image using components of the BIM increases the possibility of identifying important psychosocial aspects of psoriasis and the related risk of metabolic syndrome and is thus a valuable support for the DLQI questionnaires.

  2. Burden of Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard

    2017-01-02

    Similar to the burden of other diseases, the burden of sexual dysfunction has not been systematically studied. However, there is growing evidence of various burdens (e.g., economic, symptomatic, humanistic) among patients suffering from sexual dysfunctions. The burden of sexual dysfunction has been studied a bit more often in men, namely the burden of erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation (PE) and testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Erectile dysfunction is frequently associated with chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression. These conditions could go undiagnosed, and ED could be a marker of those diseases. The only available report from the United Kingdom estimated the total economic burden of ED at £53 million annually in terms of direct costs and lost productivity. The burden of PE includes significant psychological distress: anxiety, depression, lack of sexual confidence, poor self-esteem, impaired quality of life, and interpersonal difficulties. Some suggest that increase in female sexual dysfunction is associated with partner's PE, in addition to significant interpersonal difficulties. The burden of TDS includes depression, sexual dysfunction, mild cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis. One UK estimate of the economic burden of female sexual dysfunctions demonstrated that the average cost per patient was higher than the per annum cost of ED. There are no data on burden of paraphilic disorders. The burden of sexual dysfunctions is underappreciated and not well studied, yet it is significant for both the patients and the society.

  3. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  4. The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aia

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB are crucial for effective control and prevention of tuberculosis (TB. Papua New Guinea (PNG is a high TB burden country with limited information on the magnitude of the MDR-TB problem.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four PNG provinces: Madang, Morobe, National Capital District and Western Province. Patient sputum samples were tested for rifampicin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and those showing the presence of resistance underwent phenotypic susceptibility testing to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin.Among 1,182 TB patients enrolled in the study, MDR-TB was detected in 20 new (2.7%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1-4.3% and 24 previously treated (19.1%; 95%CI: 8.5-29.8% TB cases. No case of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB was detected. Thirty percent (6/20 of new and 33.3% (8/24 of previously treated cases with MDR-TB were detected in a single cluster in Western Province.In PNG the proportion of MDR-TB in new cases is slightly lower than the regional average of 4.4% (95%CI: 2.6-6.3%. A large proportion of MDR-TB cases were identified from a single hospital in Western Province, suggesting that the prevalence of MDR-TB across the country is heterogeneous. Future surveys should further explore this finding. The survey also helped strengthening the use of smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF testing as diagnostic tools for TB in the country.

  5. A Software Tool for Estimation of Burden of Infectious Diseases in Europe Using Incidence-Based Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Colzani

    Full Text Available The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology poses a challenge. The aim of the Burden of Communicable Disease in Europe (BCoDE project is to summarize the impact of communicable disease in the European Union and European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MS. To meet this goal, a user-friendly software tool (BCoDE toolkit, was developed. This stand-alone application, written in C++, is open-access and freely available for download from the website of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC. With the BCoDE toolkit, one can calculate DALYs by simply entering the age group- and sex-specific number of cases for one or more of selected sets of 32 communicable diseases (CDs and 6 healthcare associated infections (HAIs. Disease progression models (i.e., outcome trees for these communicable diseases were created following a thorough literature review of their disease progression pathway. The BCoDE toolkit runs Monte Carlo simulations of the input parameters and provides disease-specific results, including 95% uncertainty intervals, and permits comparisons between the different disease models entered. Results can be displayed as mean and median overall DALYs, DALYs per 100,000 population, and DALYs related to mortality vs. disability. Visualization options summarize complex epidemiological data, with the goal of improving communication and knowledge transfer for decision-making.

  6. Point-Structured Human Body Modeling Based on 3D Scan Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-June Tsai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel point-structured geometrical modelling for realistic human body is introduced in this paper. This technique is based on the feature extraction from the 3D body scan data. Anatomic feature such as the neck, the arm pits, the crotch points, and other major feature points are recognized. The body data is then segmented into 6 major parts. A body model is then constructed by re-sampling the scanned data to create a point-structured mesh. The body model contains body geodetic landmarks in latitudinal and longitudinal curves passing through those feature points. The body model preserves the perfect body shape and all the body dimensions but requires little space. Therefore, the body model can be used as a mannequin in garment industry, or as a manikin in various human factor designs, but the most important application is to use as a virtue character to animate the body motion in mocap (motion capture systems. By adding suitable joint freedoms between the segmented body links, kinematic and dynamic properties of the motion theories can be applied to the body model. As a result, a 3D virtual character that is fully resembled the original scanned individual is vividly animating the body motions. The gaps between the body segments due to motion can be filled up by skin blending technique using the characteristic of the point-structured model. The model has the potential to serve as a standardized datatype to archive body information for all custom-made products.

  7. Body condition score as a selection tool for targeted selective treatment-based nematode control strategies in Merino ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, M P; Jacobson, C; Besier, R B

    2014-12-15

    Sheep nematode control utilising refugia-based strategies have been shown to delay anthelmintic resistance, but the optimal indices to select individuals to be left untreated under extensive sheep grazing conditions are not clear. This experiment tested the hypothesis that high body condition can indicate ability of mature sheep to better cope with worms and therefore remain untreated in a targeted treatment programme. Adult Merino ewes from flocks on two private farms located in south-west Western Australia (Farm A, n = 271, and Farm B, n = 258) were measured for body condition score (BCS), body weight and worm egg counts (WEC) on four occasions between May and December (pre-lambing, lamb marking, lamb weaning and post-weaning). Half of the ewes in each flock received anthelmintic treatments to suppress WEC over the experimental period and half remained untreated (unless critical limits were reached). Response to treatment was analysed in terms of BCS change and percentage live weight change. No effect of high or low initial WEC groups was shown for BCS response, and liveweight responses were inconsistent. A relatively greater BCS response to treatment was observed in ewes in low BCS pre-lambing compared to better-conditioned ewes on one farm where nutrition was sub-optimal and worm burdens were high. Sheep in low body condition pre-lambing were more than three times more likely to fall into a critically low BCS (<2.0) if left untreated. Recommendations can be made to treat ewes in lower BCS and leave a proportion of the higher body condition sheep untreated in a targeted selective treatment programme, to provide a population of non-resistant worms to delay the development of resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake-Lessons from Body Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-12-31

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  9. Power Functions Relating Excretion to Body Burden

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, S M J

    2003-01-01

    Formulae necessary to relate the quantity of radionuclides excreted to that assimilated in exposures that are acute and those that are multiple or continuous are derived from power function relationships. Particular attention is given to providing equations having variables for which the bioassayer can easily derive numerical values. This paper presents this data.

  10. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  11. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    We evaluate the accuracy of whole-body bone extraction from whole-body MR images using a number of atlas-based segmentation methods. The motivation behind this work is to find the most promising approach for the purpose of MRI-guided derivation of PET attenuation maps in whole-body PET/MRI. To this

  12. Addressing the Clinical Burden of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect in a Large Metropolitan Region: Improving the Evidence-Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Raman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children at risk of abuse are more likely to be hospitalized and utilize health services according to international research. In a large metropolitan health region in New South Wales, Australia, there was little known of the clinical burden of child physical abuse and/or neglect (PAN, or of systems for clinical assessment of children presenting with abuse/neglect. We aimed to identify the number of children presenting with suspected PAN to emergency departments (EDs and paediatric services in this region, to determine enablers and barriers to assessment for children with PAN presenting to frontline services, and to identify best practices to address gaps. We collated available data on children presenting to EDs and paediatric services with suspected PAN in 2007. We interviewed 36 health professionals from nine hospitals and 12 statutory child protection professionals, across the region before undertaking relevant document analysis. Of 64,700 paediatric ED presentations, a quarter were due to injury; 2%–5% of these were due to maltreatment. Clinician estimates and assessments of PAN varied widely; health and welfare workers identified major practice gaps, as well as good local practice. We identified feasible minimum standards for improving clinical assessment and follow-up for children presenting with PAN, given the right organizational support.

  13. Burden of influenza, healthcare seeking behaviour and hygiene measures during the A(H1N12009 pandemic in France: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cauteren Dieter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza surveillance systems do not allow the identification of the true burden of illness caused by influenza in the community because they are restricted to consulting cases. A study was conducted to estimate the incidence and the burden of self-defined influenza, and to describe healthcare seeking behavior for self-defined influenza during the A(H1N12009 pandemic in the French population. Methods We conducted a random-based retrospective cross-sectional telephone survey between May 2009 and April 2010 among a random sample of the French population. Results For the 10 076 people included, 107 episodes of self-defined influenza were reported. The annual incidence of self-defined influenza was estimated at 13 942 cases per 100 000 inhabitants (CI95% 10 947 – 16 961, 62.1% (CI95% 50.5 – 72.5 of cases consulted a physician and 11.3% (CI95% 5.5 - 21.7 used a face mask. Following recommendations, 37.5% (CI95% 35.5 – 39.5 of people in the survey reported washing their hands more often during the pandemic season, and there was a positive association with being vaccinated against A(H1N12009 influenza, being a women, being a child ( Conclusions Self-defined influenza causes a significant burden of illness in the French population and is a frequent cause for consultation. These results allow a more accurate interpretation of influenza surveillance data and an opportunity to adapt future health education messages.

  14. Epidemiological and economic burden of metabolic syndrome and its consequences in patients with hypertension in Germany, Spain and Italy; a prevalence-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholze Jürgen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. Our aim is to estimate the epidemiological and economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension in three European countries in 2008 and 2020. Methods An age, sex and risk group structured prevalence based cost of illness model was developed using the United States Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria to define metabolic syndrome. Data sources included published information and public use databases on disease prevalence, incidence of cardiovascular events, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, treatment patterns and cost of management in Germany, Spain and Italy. Results The prevalence of hypertension with metabolic syndrome in the general population of Germany, Spain and Italy was 36%, 11% and 10% respectively. In subjects with hypertension 61%, 22% and 21% also had metabolic syndrome. Incident cardiovascular events and attributable mortality were around two fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome and prevalence of type 2 diabetes was around six-fold higher. The economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension was been estimated at €24,427, €1,900 and €4,877 million in Germany, Spain and Italy and forecast to rise by 59%, 179% and 157% respectively by 2020. The largest components of costs included the management of prevalent type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular events. Mean annual costs per hypertensive patient were around three-fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome compared to those without and rose incrementally with the additional number of metabolic syndrome components present. Conclusion The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly inflates economic burden and costs are likely to

  15. The economic burden of diabetes to French national health insurance: a new cost-of-illness method based on a combined medicalized and incremental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lagasnerie, Grégoire; Aguadé, Anne-Sophie; Denis, Pierre; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Gastaldi-Menager, Christelle

    2018-03-01

    A better understanding of the economic burden of diabetes constitutes a major public health challenge in order to design new ways to curb diabetes health care expenditure. The aim of this study was to develop a new cost-of-illness method in order to assess the specific and nonspecific costs of diabetes from a public payer perspective. Using medical and administrative data from the major French national health insurance system covering about 59 million individuals in 2012, we identified people with diabetes and then estimated the economic burden of diabetes. Various methods were used: (a) global cost of patients with diabetes, (b) cost of treatment directly related to diabetes (i.e., 'medicalized approach'), (c) incremental regression-based approach, (d) incremental matched-control approach, and (e) a novel combination of the 'medicalized approach' and the 'incremental matched-control' approach. We identified 3 million individuals with diabetes (5% of the population). The total expenditure of this population amounted to €19 billion, representing 15% of total expenditure reimbursed to the entire population. Of the total expenditure, €10 billion (52%) was considered to be attributable to diabetes care: €2.3 billion (23% of €10 billion) was directly attributable, and €7.7 billion was attributable to additional reimbursed expenditure indirectly related to diabetes (77%). Inpatient care represented the major part of the expenditure attributable to diabetes care (22%) together with drugs (20%) and medical auxiliaries (15%). Antidiabetic drugs represented an expenditure of about €1.1 billion, accounting for 49% of all diabetes-specific expenditure. This study shows the economic impact of the assumption concerning definition of costs on evaluation of the economic burden of diabetes. The proposed new cost-of-illness method provides specific insight for policy-makers to enhance diabetes management and assess the opportunity costs of diabetes complications

  16. Burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Japanese adults 60 years of age or older: Results from an observational, prospective, physician practice-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Adachi, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Asano, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiro; Adachi, Riri; Kiuchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Keiju; Matsuki, Taizo; Kaise, Toshihiko; Gopala, Kusuma; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2017-04-01

    Approximately one in three persons will develop herpes zoster during their lifetime, and it can lead to serious complications such as postherpetic neuralgia. However, evidence on burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Japan is limited. This prospective, observational, multicenter, physician practice-based cohort study was conducted in Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01873365) to assess the incidence and hospitalization rates of herpes zoster, and the proportion, clinical burden and risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged 60 years or more. Within the study area, 800 subjects developed herpes zoster and 412 were eligible for the study. Herpes zoster incidence was 10.2/1000 person-years and higher among women and older subjects. Subjects with herpes zoster required on average 5.7 outpatient consultations. Herpes zoster-associated hospitalization rate was 3.4% (27/800). The proportion of postherpetic neuralgia and other complications was 9.2% (38/412) and 26.5% (109/412), respectively. Statistically significant association with the development of postherpetic neuralgia was male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-5.38), age of 70-74 years (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.09-11.3), immunosuppressive therapy (OR, 6.44; 95% CI, 1.26-32.9), severe herpes zoster pain at first consultation (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.10-8.62) and rash on upper arms (vs no rash on upper arms; OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.10-10.9). Considerable herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia burden exists among elderly in Japan, and there may be predictive factors at the first visit which could be indicative of the risk of developing postherpetic neuralgia. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    In this paper we examine whether there are perceived and observed benefits or burdens from using two audit firms instead of one. In 2005 the mandatory joint audit requirement was abolished in Denmark. This provides a unique setting for studying the consequences and implications of going from...... a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...... audits to be a net burden. Furthermore, based on DeAngelo's (1981) initial audit pricing model and legislators' claim that joint audits are an unnecessary economic burden to the companies we predict and find discounts (of around 25%) in audit fees in companies that change to single audits. The primary...

  18. Gender based disruptive selection maintains body size polymorphism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Darwinian fitness in holometabolous insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is reported to be positively correlated with body size. If large individuals in a population have higher fitness, then one would expect directional selection to operate leading to uniformly large individuals. However, size polymorphism persists ...

  19. Gender based disruptive selection maintains body size polymorphism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Darwinian fitness in holometabolous insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is reported to be positively correlated with body size. If large individuals in a population ... In this study, the time taken to attain reproductive maturity and copulation duration were independent of fly size. Fecundity and longevity of large ...

  20. Disease burden of community acquired pneumonia among children under 5 y old in China: A population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; An, Zhijie; Yin, Dapeng; Liu, Yanmin; Huang, Zhuoying; Ma, Yujie; Li, Hui; Li, Qi; Wang, Huaqing

    2017-07-03

    To obtain the baseline data on the incidence and cost of community acquired pneumonia among under-5 children for future studies, and provide evidence for shaping China's strategies regarding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Three townships from Heilongjiang, Hebei and Gansu Province and one community in Shanghai were selected as study areas. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on incidence and cost of pneumonia among children under 5 y old in 2012. The overall incidence of clinically diagnosed pneumonia in children under 5 y old was 2.55%. The incidence in urban area was 7.97%, higher than that in rural areas (1.68%). However, no difference was found in the incidences of chest X-ray confirmed pneumonia between urban and rural areas (1.67% vs 1.23%). X-ray confirmed cases in rural and urban areas respectively accounted for 73.45% and 20.93% of all clinically diagnosed pneumonia. The hospitalization rate of all cases was 1.40%. Incidence and hospitalization rate of pneumonia decreased with age, with the highest rates found among children younger than one year and the lowest among children aged 4 (incidence: 4.25% vs 0.83%; hospitalization: 2.75% vs 0.36%). The incidence was slightly higher among boys (2.92% vs 2.08%). The total cost due to pneumonia for the participants was 1138 733 CNY. The average cost and median cost was 5722 CNY and 3540 CNY separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the only factor related to higher cost was hospitalization. The disease burden was high for children under 5 y old, especially the infant. PCV has not been widely used among children, and thus further health economics evaluation on introducing PCV into National Immunization Program should be conducted.

  1. The Global Cancer Burden

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast describes the global burden of cancer and efforts by CDC and others to reduce that burden.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  2. Parametric Human Body Reconstruction Based on Sparse Key Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ke-Li; Tong, Ruo-Feng; Tang, Min; Qian, Jing-Ye; Sarkis, Michel

    2016-11-01

    We propose an automatic parametric human body reconstruction algorithm which can efficiently construct a model using a single Kinect sensor. A user needs to stand still in front of the sensor for a couple of seconds to measure the range data. The user's body shape and pose will then be automatically constructed in several seconds. Traditional methods optimize dense correspondences between range data and meshes. In contrast, our proposed scheme relies on sparse key points for the reconstruction. It employs regression to find the corresponding key points between the scanned range data and some annotated training data. We design two kinds of feature descriptors as well as corresponding regression stages to make the regression robust and accurate. Our scheme follows with dense refinement where a pre-factorization method is applied to improve the computational efficiency. Compared with other methods, our scheme achieves similar reconstruction accuracy but significantly reduces runtime.

  3. Multi-controller based 29 channel whole body portal monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dheeraj Reddy, J.; Narender Reddy, J.

    2004-01-01

    Portal Monitors are an essential part of personnel monitoring programme in any Nuclear Power Plant or Radiochemical/Reprocessing Plant. Compared to conventional Portal Monitors, whole-body Portals are preferred, for effective monitoring of entire body of the person being monitored for radioactive contamination. This is achieved by effectively distributing a large number of detectors on front/back of the person being monitored. The entry and exit for such Portals is usually side ways. The electronic system, designed essentially consists of powerful compact electronic circuits, comprising of three micro-controllers, a host of (32) 12C serial counters, other serial ADCs, DACs etc., apart from pulse processing, HV and LV circuits. Built-in embedded code has powerful fault diagnostics routines to show up failures in detector / detector electronics, HV, LV and other circuits apart from indicating contamination status, through visual and aural indications such as MIMIC, visual LCD display and individual channel counts etc. The Portal structural design consists of four individual SS members integrated, lead shielding assemblies (inside), on hinged support frames facilitate ease of assembling and dismantling of the structure. The detector arrangement is so arranged to have optimal uniform spread out, so as to record contamination of the whole body of the person being monitored. (author)

  4. Formalising arguments about the burden of persuasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, H.; Sartor, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an argument-based logic for reasoning about allocations of the burden of persuasion. The logic extends the system of Prakken (2001), which in turn modified the system of Prakken & Sartor (1996) with the possibility to distribute the burden of proof over both sides in an argument

  5. Major burden of severe anemia from non-falciparum malaria species in Southern Papua: a hospital-based surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Nicholas M; Lampah, Daniel A; Kenangalem, Enny; Simpson, Julie A; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R; Sugiarto, Paulus; Anstey, Nicholas M; Price, Ric N

    2013-12-01

    The burden of anemia attributable to non-falciparum malarias in regions with Plasmodium co-endemicity is poorly documented. We compared the hematological profile of patients with and without malaria in southern Papua, Indonesia. Clinical and laboratory data were linked for all patients presenting to a referral hospital between April 2004 and December 2012. Data were available on patient demographics, malaria diagnosis, hemoglobin concentration, and clinical outcome, but other potential causes of anemia could not be identified reliably. Of 922,120 patient episodes (837,989 as outpatients and 84,131 as inpatients), a total of 219,845 (23.8%) were associated with a hemoglobin measurement, of whom 67,696 (30.8%) had malaria. Patients with P. malariae infection had the lowest hemoglobin concentration (n = 1,608, mean = 8.93 [95% CI 8.81-9.06]), followed by those with mixed species infections (n = 8,645, mean = 9.22 [95% CI 9.16-9.28]), P. falciparum (n = 37,554, mean = 9.47 [95% CI 9.44-9.50]), and P. vivax (n = 19,858, mean = 9.53 [95% CI 9.49-9.57]); p-value for all comparisons malaria, those with mixed Plasmodium infection were at greatest risk of severe anemia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.25 [95% CI 2.99-3.54]); AORs for severe anaemia associated with P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae were 2.11 (95% CI 2.00-2.23), 1.87 (95% CI 1.74-2.01), and 2.18 (95% CI 1.76-2.67), respectively, pcause of severe anemia in early infancy, mixed P. vivax/P. falciparum infections are associated with a greater hematological impairment than either species alone, and in adulthood P. malariae, although rare, is associated with the lowest hemoglobin concentration. These findings highlight the public health importance of integrated genus-wide malaria control strategies in areas of Plasmodium co-endemicity.

  6. Burden of osteoporotic fractures in primary health care in Catalonia (Spain: a population-based study”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagès-Castellà Aina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge on the epidemiology of non-hip fractures in Spain is limited and somewhat outdated. Using computerized primary care records from the SIDIAP database, we derived age and sex-specific fracture incidence rates for the region of Catalonia during the year 2009. Methods The SIDIAP database contains quality-checked clinical information from computerized medical records of a representative sample of >5,800,000 patients (80% of the population of Catalonia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all patients aged ≥50 years, and followed them from January 1 to December 31, 2009. Major osteoporotic fractures registered in SIDIAP were ascertained using ICD-10 codes and validated by comparing data to hospital admission and patient-reported fractures records. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results In total, 2,011,430 subjects were studied (54.6% women. Overall fracture rates were 10.91/1,000 person-years (py [95%CI 10.89–10.92]: 15.18/1,000 py [15.15–15.21] in women and 5.78/1,000 py [5.76–5.79] in men. The most common fracture among women was wrist/forearm (3.86/1,000 py [3.74–3.98], while among men it was clinical spine (1.25/1,000 py [1.18–1.33]. All fracture rates increased with age, but varying patterns were observed: while most of the fractures (hip, proximal humerus, clinical spine and pelvis increased continuously with age, wrist and multiple rib fractures peaked at age 75–80 and then reached a plateau. Conclusions Our study provides local estimates of age, sex and site-specific fracture burden in primary health care, which will be helpful for health-care planning and delivery. A proportion of fractures are not reported in primary care records, leading to underestimation of fracture incidence rates in these data.

  7. Major Burden of Severe Anemia from Non-Falciparum Malaria Species in Southern Papua: A Hospital-Based Surveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Nicholas M.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Kenangalem, Enny; Simpson, Julie A.; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R.; Sugiarto, Paulus; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Price, Ric N.

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of anemia attributable to non-falciparum malarias in regions with Plasmodium co-endemicity is poorly documented. We compared the hematological profile of patients with and without malaria in southern Papua, Indonesia. Methods and Findings Clinical and laboratory data were linked for all patients presenting to a referral hospital between April 2004 and December 2012. Data were available on patient demographics, malaria diagnosis, hemoglobin concentration, and clinical outcome, but other potential causes of anemia could not be identified reliably. Of 922,120 patient episodes (837,989 as outpatients and 84,131 as inpatients), a total of 219,845 (23.8%) were associated with a hemoglobin measurement, of whom 67,696 (30.8%) had malaria. Patients with P. malariae infection had the lowest hemoglobin concentration (n = 1,608, mean = 8.93 [95% CI 8.81–9.06]), followed by those with mixed species infections (n = 8,645, mean = 9.22 [95% CI 9.16–9.28]), P. falciparum (n = 37,554, mean = 9.47 [95% CI 9.44–9.50]), and P. vivax (n = 19,858, mean = 9.53 [95% CI 9.49–9.57]); p-value for all comparisons anemia (hemoglobin anemia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.25 [95% CI 2.99–3.54]); AORs for severe anaemia associated with P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae were 2.11 (95% CI 2.00–2.23), 1.87 (95% CI 1.74–2.01), and 2.18 (95% CI 1.76–2.67), respectively, panemia was attributable to non-falciparum infections compared with 15.1% (95% CI 13.9%–16.3%) for P. falciparum monoinfections. Patients with severe anemia had an increased risk of death (AOR = 5.80 [95% CI 5.17–6.50]; panemia in early infancy, mixed P. vivax/P. falciparum infections are associated with a greater hematological impairment than either species alone, and in adulthood P. malariae, although rare, is associated with the lowest hemoglobin concentration. These findings highlight the public health importance of integrated genus-wide malaria

  8. Modeling the relationship between body weight and energy intake: a molecular diffusion-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhejun; Gong, Zhefeng

    2012-06-29

    Body weight is at least partly controlled by the choices made by a human in response to external stimuli. Changes in body weight are mainly caused by energy intake. By analyzing the mechanisms involved in food intake, we considered that molecular diffusion plays an important role in body weight changes. We propose a model based on Fick's second law of diffusion to simulate the relationship between energy intake and body weight. This model was applied to food intake and body weight data recorded in humans; the model showed a good fit to the experimental data. This model was also effective in predicting future body weight. In conclusion, this model based on molecular diffusion provides a new insight into the body weight mechanisms. This article was reviewed by Dr. Cabral Balreira (nominated by Dr. Peter Olofsson), Prof. Yang Kuang and Dr. Chao Chen.

  9. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms, Functional Impairment, and Depression: The Role of Appearance-Based Teasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D

    2016-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is associated with elevated social and occupational impairment and comorbid depression, but research on risk factors for body dysmorphic symptoms and associated outcomes is limited. Appearance-based teasing may be a potential risk factor. To examine the specificity of this factor, the authors assessed self-reported appearance-based teasing, body dysmorphic, and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, functional impairment (i.e., social, occupational, family impairment), and depression in a nonclinical sample of undergraduates. As hypothesized, appearance-based teasing was positively correlated with body dysmorphic symptoms. The correlation between teasing and body dysmorphic symptoms was stronger than that between teasing and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity. Last, body dysmorphic symptom severity and appearance-based teasing interacted in predicting functional impairment and depression. Specifically, appearance-based teasing was positively associated with depression and functional impairment only in those with elevated body dysmorphic symptoms. When a similar moderation was tested with obsessive-compulsive, in place of body dysmorphic, symptom severity, the interaction was nonsignificant. Findings support theory that appearance-based teasing is a specific risk factor for body dysmorphic symptoms and associated functional impairment.

  10. Topology Optimization in Electric Car Body Frame Based on Optistruct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the structure of the electric car body frame, the static analysis of the car frame were carried on. For the goal of the frame’s weight minimum, OptiStruct software was used to topology optimization design. And the optimal material distribution program of the frame structure was got. Static strength before and after optimization was comprehensive compared through the stress, deformation. The results showed that the weight of frame after optimization was reduced by 18.96%, and the requirements of the strength and stiffness were ensured.

  11. Total Effective Xenoestrogen Burden in Serum Samples and Risk for Breast Cancer in a Population-Based Multicase–Control Study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Fernández, Mariana F.; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Whelan, Denis; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Llorca, Javier; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Guevara, Marcela; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Barriuso-Lapresa, Laura; Tusquets, Ignasi; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Aragonés, Nuria; Olea, Nicolás; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies on endocrine-disrupting chemicals and breast cancer have focused on single compounds and have produced inconclusive findings. Objectives: We assessed the combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of xenoestrogens in serum and their relationship to breast cancer risk. Methods: A total of 186 incident pretreatment breast cancer cases and 196 frequency-matched controls were randomly sampled from a large population-based multicase–control study in Spain. The total effective xenoestrogen burden attributable to organohalogenated xenoestrogens (TEXB-α) and endogenous hormones and more polar xenoestrogens (TEXB-β) was determined in serum samples using high-performance liquid chromatography and E-Screen bioassay. Odds ratios for breast cancer comparing tertiles of serum TEXB-α and TEXB-β were estimated using logistic models, and smooth risk trends were obtained using spline models. Results: Cases had higher geometric mean TEXB-α and TEXB-β levels (8.32 and 9.94 Eeq pM/mL, respectively) than controls (2.99 and 5.96 Eeq pM/mL, respectively). The fully adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer (95% confidence intervals) comparing the second and third tertiles of TEXB-α with the first tertile were 1.77 (0.76, 4.10) and 3.45 (1.50, 7.97), respectively, and those for TEXB-β were 2.35 (1.10, 5.03) and 4.01 (1.88, 8.56), respectively. A steady increase in risk was evident across all detected TEXB-α levels and a sigmoidal trend was observed for TEXB-β. Individual xenoestrogens showed weak and opposing associations with breast cancer risk. Conclusions: This is the first study to show a strong positive association between serum total xenoestrogen burden and breast cancer risk, highlighting the importance of evaluating xenoestrogen mixtures, rather than single compounds, when studying hormone-related cancers. Citation: Pastor-Barriuso R, Fernández MF, Castaño-Vinyals G, Whelan D, Pérez-Gómez B, Llorca J, Villanueva CM, Guevara M, Molina-Molina JM

  12. Exploring body-anchored and experience-based learning in a community of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The article aims to integrate body-anchored and experience-based learning in the theoretical concept of learning in a community of practice. Present moment, epoché, intentional orientation and meaning making are introduced as the four basic premises for body-anchored and experience-based learning...... as the outflow of speech acts, originally based on embodied and experience-based knowledge....

  13. A refractometry-based glucose analysis of body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirk, Kai; Poetzschke, Harald

    2007-05-01

    In principle, refractometry appears to be a suitable method for the measurement of glucose concentrations in body fluids (such as blood and the intercellular fluid), even though the refractive index of the measured samples, as an additive property, is not specific. But, if certain conditions are fulfilled, the glucose content can be calculated using the refractive index in combination with values from a further measurement. This study describes the determination of the glucose content using refractometry in human blood serum derivates, which were selected - due to their ready availability - to be used as a model for interstitial fluid. Refractometry of body fluids requires the elimination of disturbing components from the measurement sample. First of all, a homogenous fluid (i.e. consisting of one phase) is required, so that all cells and components in suspension need to be separated out. Furthermore, certain dissolved macromolecular components which are known to disturb the measurement process must also be removed. In human serum samples which had been ultrafiltrated with a range of ultrafilters of different pore sizes, a comparative evaluation showed that only ultrafiltration through a filter with a separation limit of between 3 and 30kDa resulted in maximal reduction of the refractive index (compared to native serum), whereas ultrafilters with greater separation limits did not. The total content of osmotically active solutes (the tonicity) also exerts a clear influence. However, exemplary measurements in blood plasma fluid from one volunteer showed that the electrical conductivity is (without an additive component) directly proportional to the osmolality: physiological changes in the state of body hydration (hyperhydration and dehydration) do not lead to any considerable changes in the relation between ionised and uncharged solute particles, but instead result in a sufficiently clear dilution or concentration of the blood fluid's low molecular components. This

  14. Body evaluation and coital onset: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; von Soest, Tilmann; Træen, Bente; Singsaas, Kjetil

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the temporal relationship between body evaluation and coital onset. In a population-based longitudinal study, 1449 Norwegian girls and boys between 12 and 15 years of age were followed at 4 waves over a span of 13 years. Body evaluation was used in order to predict coital onset besides romantic appeal and psychological problems. For girls early in adolescence, body evaluation did not influence the probability of coital onset during the first 2-year period. In the subsequent 5-year period, body dissatisfaction increased the probability for coital onset when romantic appeal was held constant. Body evaluation did not influence the odds of coital onset among boys. The findings imply that the pattern of association between body evaluation and coital onset differs according to the timing of coital onset for girls. Future research needs to distinguish body image from romantic appeal in relation to first time sexual experiences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EFFECTS OF BODY MASS-BASED SQUAT TRAINING IN ADOLESCENT BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Takai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body mass-based squat training on body composition, muscular strength and motor fitness in adolescent boys. Ninety-four boys (13.7 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.60 ± 0.09 m, 50.2 ± 9.6 kg participated in this study and were randomly assigned to training (n = 36 or control (n = 58 groups. The training group completed body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions for 8 weeks. Body composition and muscle thickness at the thigh anterior were determined by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer and ultrasound apparatus, respectively. Maximal voluntary knee extension strength and sprint velocity were measured using static myometer and non-motorized treadmill, respectively. Jump height was calculated using flight time during jumping, which was measured by a matswitch system. The 8-wk body mass-based squat training significantly decreased percent body fat (4.2% and significantly increased the lean body mass (2.7%, muscle thickness (3.2% and strength of the knee extensors (16.0%, compared to control group. The vertical jump height was also significantly improved by 3.4% through the intervention. The current results indicate that body mass-based squat training for 8 weeks is a feasible and effective method for improving body composition and muscular strength of the knee extensors, and jump performance in adolescent boys.

  16. Target virus log10 reduction values determined for two reclaimed wastewater irrigation scenarios in Japan based on tolerable annual disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshihiro; Kitajima, Masaaki; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Satoshi; Segawa, Takahiro; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2017-11-15

    Multiple-barriers are widely employed for managing microbial risks in water reuse, in which different types of wastewater treatment units (biological treatment, disinfection, etc.) and health protection measures (use of personal protective gear, vegetable washing, etc.) are combined to achieve a performance target value of log 10 reduction (LR) of viruses. The LR virus target value needs to be calculated based on the data obtained from monitoring the viruses of concern and the water reuse scheme in the context of the countries/regions where water reuse is implemented. In this study, we calculated the virus LR target values under two exposure scenarios for reclaimed wastewater irrigation in Japan, using the concentrations of indigenous viruses in untreated wastewater and a defined tolerable annual disease burden (10 -4 or 10 -6 disability-adjusted life years per person per year (DALY pppy )). Three genogroups of norovirus (norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI), geogroup II (NoV GII), and genogroup IV (NoV GIV)) in untreated wastewater were quantified as model viruses using reverse transcription-microfluidic quantitative PCR, and only NoV GII was present in quantifiable concentration. The probabilistic distribution of NoV GII concentration in untreated wastewater was then estimated from its concentration dataset, and used to calculate the LR target values of NoV GII for wastewater treatment. When an accidental ingestion of reclaimed wastewater by Japanese farmers was assumed, the NoV GII LR target values corresponding to the tolerable annual disease burden of 10 -6 DALY pppy were 3.2, 4.4, and 5.7 at 95, 99, and 99.9%tile, respectively. These percentile values, defined as "reliability," represent the cumulative probability of NoV GII concentration distribution in untreated wastewater below the corresponding tolerable annual disease burden after wastewater reclamation. An approximate 1-log 10 difference of LR target values was observed between 10 -4 and 10 -6 DALY pppy

  17. Anthropometric body measurements based on multi-view stereo image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  18. Anthropometric Body Measurements Based on Multi-View Stereo Image Reconstruction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting automatic anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of proposed system. PMID:24109700

  19. Burden of Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails The Burden of Rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Learn how ... bitten by an animal that has the disease. Rabies in the U.S. Rabies continues to be a ...

  20. Measuring cues for stand-off deception detection based on full-body nonverbal features in body-worn cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Burghouts, Gertjan; den Hollander, Richard; van der Zee, Sophie; Baan, Jan; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; van Diepen, Sjaak; van den Haak, Paul; van Rest, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    Deception detection is valuable in the security domain to distinguish truth from lies. It is desirable in many security applications, such as suspect and witness interviews and airport passenger screening. Interviewers are constantly trying to assess the credibility of a statement, usually based on intuition without objective technical support. However, psychological research has shown that humans can hardly perform better than random guessing. Deception detection is a multi-disciplinary research area with an interest from different fields, such as psychology and computer science. In the last decade, several developments have helped to improve the accuracy of lie detection (e.g., with a concealed information test, increasing the cognitive load, or measurements with motion capture suits) and relevant cues have been discovered (e.g., eye blinking or fiddling with the fingers). With an increasing presence of mobile phones and bodycams in society, a mobile, stand-off, automatic deception detection methodology based on various cues from the whole body would create new application opportunities. In this paper, we study the feasibility of measuring these visual cues automatically on different parts of the body, laying the groundwork for stand-off deception detection in more flexible and mobile deployable sensors, such as body-worn cameras. We give an extensive overview of recent developments in two communities: in the behavioral-science community the developments that improve deception detection with a special attention to the observed relevant non-verbal cues, and in the computer-vision community the recent methods that are able to measure these cues. The cues are extracted from several body parts: the eyes, the mouth, the head and the fullbody pose. We performed an experiment using several state-of-the-art video-content-analysis (VCA) techniques to assess the quality of robustly measuring these visual cues.

  1. Evidence that Self-Affirmation Reduces Body Dissatisfaction by Basing Self-Esteem on Domains Other than Body Weight and Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and…

  2. The burden of obesity in women of reproductive age and in pregnancy in a middle-income setting: A population based study from Jamaica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovney Kanguru

    Full Text Available Obesity is rising globally and is associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aims to investigate overweight and obesity and its consequences among Jamaican women of reproductive age, particularly development of diabetes, hypertension and the risk of maternal death.A national lifestyle survey (2007/8 of 1371 women of reproductive age provided data on the prevalence of high BMI, associated risk factors and co-morbidities. A national maternal mortality surveillance database (1998-2012 of 798 maternal deaths was used to investigate maternal deaths in obese women. Chi-squared and Fisher exact tests were used.High BMI (> = 25kg/m2 occurred in 63% of women aged between 15 and 49 years. It was associated with increasing age, high gravidity and parity, and full time employment (p<0.001. Of those with high BMI, 5.5% were diabetic, 19.3% hypertensive and 2.8% were both diabetic and hypertensive. Obesity was recorded in 10.5% of maternal deaths, with higher proportions of deaths due to hypertension in pregnancy (27.5%, circulatory/ cardiovascular disorders (13.0%, and diabetes (4.3% compared to 21.9%, 6.9% and 2.6% respectively in non-obese women.This is one of a few studies from a middle-income setting to explore maternal burden of obesity during pregnancy, which contributes to improving the knowledge base, identifying the gaps in information and increasing awareness of the growing problem of maternal overweight and obesity. While survey diagnostic conditions require cautious interpretation of findings, it is clear that obesity and related medical conditions present a substantial public health problem for emerging LMICs like Jamaica. There is an urgent need for global consensus on routine measures of the burden and risk factors associated with obesity and development of culturally appropriate interventions.

  3. The impact of mindfulness-based interventions on symptom burden, positive psychological outcomes, and biomarkers in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouleau CR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Codie R Rouleau,1 Sheila N Garland,2 Linda E Carlson3 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Research on the use of mindfulness-based stress reduction and related mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs in cancer care has proliferated over the past decade. MBIs have aimed to facilitate physical and emotional adjustment to life with cancer through the cultivation and practice of mindfulness (ie, purposeful, nonjudgmental, moment-to-moment awareness. This descriptive review highlights three categories of outcomes that have been evaluated in MBI research with cancer patients – namely, symptom reduction, positive psychological growth, and biological outcomes. We also examine the clinical relevance of each targeted outcome, while describing recently published original studies to highlight novel applications of MBIs tailored to individuals with cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that participation in a MBI contributes to reductions in psychological distress, sleep disturbance, and fatigue, and promotes personal growth in areas such as quality of life and spirituality. MBIs may also influence markers of immune function, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation, and autonomic nervous system activity, though it remains unclear whether these biological changes translate to clinically important health benefits. We conclude by discussing methodological limitations of the extant literature, and implications of matching MBIs to the needs and preferences of cancer patients. Overall, the growing popularity of MBIs in cancer care must be balanced against scientific evidence for their impact on specific clinical outcomes. Keywords: mindfulness-based intervention

  4. Screening for colorectal cancer: Comparison of perceived test burden of guaiac-based faecal occult blood test, faecal immunochemical test and flexible sigmoidoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, L.; de Jonge, V.; van Leerdam, M. E.; van Ballegooijen, M.; Looman, C. W. N.; van Vuuren, A. J.; Reijerink, J. C. I. Y.; Habbema, J. D. F.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Kuipers, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Perceived burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is an important determinant of participation in subsequent screening rounds and therefore crucial for the effectiveness of a screening programme. This study determined differences in perceived burden and willingness to return for a

  5. Robust embryo identification using first polar body single nucleotide polymorphism microarray-based DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, Nathan R; Su, Jing; Kasabwala, Natasha; Tao, Xin; Miller, Kathleen A; Scott, Richard T

    2010-05-01

    This study sought to validate a novel, minimally invasive system for embryo tracking by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray-based DNA fingerprinting of the first polar body. First polar body-based assignments of which embryos implanted and were delivered after multiple ET were 100% consistent with previously validated embryo DNA fingerprinting-based assignments. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Burden of COPD in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Tara Ballav; Neupane, Dinesh; Kallestrup, Per

    2018-01-01

    Background: COPD is a globally significant public health problem and is the second leading cause of mortality. This study presents the health burden of COPD in Nepal using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2016 dataset. Methods: This study used the data from the GBD repository presenting...... morbidity and mortality attributed to COPD, by sex and age. In GBD 2016, due to a lack of the primary source of data in Nepal, estimations on morbidity and mortality of COPD were based on its predictive covariates. Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated based on the cause of death estimations, applying...... age-standardized mortality rate due to COPD was decreasing for both genders, but the decline was much higher among males. Unlike the high rate of incidence among males, the age-standardized DALYs were found to be high among females (2,274.9 [95% UI: 1,702.0-2,881.5] per 100,000). YLLs contributed...

  7. Selecting the minimum prediction base of historical data to perform 5-year predictions of the cancer burden: The GoF-optimal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Joan; Castellà, Gerard; Dyba, Tadeusz; Clèries, Ramon

    2015-06-01

    Predicting the future burden of cancer is a key issue for health services planning, where a method for selecting the predictive model and the prediction base is a challenge. A method, named here Goodness-of-Fit optimal (GoF-optimal), is presented to determine the minimum prediction base of historical data to perform 5-year predictions of the number of new cancer cases or deaths. An empirical ex-post evaluation exercise for cancer mortality data in Spain and cancer incidence in Finland using simple linear and log-linear Poisson models was performed. Prediction bases were considered within the time periods 1951-2006 in Spain and 1975-2007 in Finland, and then predictions were made for 37 and 33 single years in these periods, respectively. The performance of three fixed different prediction bases (last 5, 10, and 20 years of historical data) was compared to that of the prediction base determined by the GoF-optimal method. The coverage (COV) of the 95% prediction interval and the discrepancy ratio (DR) were calculated to assess the success of the prediction. The results showed that (i) models using the prediction base selected through GoF-optimal method reached the highest COV and the lowest DR and (ii) the best alternative strategy to GoF-optimal was the one using the base of prediction of 5-years. The GoF-optimal approach can be used as a selection criterion in order to find an adequate base of prediction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential to curb the environmental burdens of American beef consumption using a novel plant-based beef substitute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Moses, Rebekah; Sammons, Norman

    2017-01-01

    in the omnivorous American diet. Demand for plant-based oils in PBB production has the potential to increase land use pressures in biodiversity hotspots, though these could be obviated through responsible land stewardship. Although the apparent environmental benefits of the PBB are contingent on actual uptake...... occupation (70% and 79%, respectively), primarily in the form of rangeland. The substitution of 10%, 25% and 50% of ground beef with plant-based burger (PBB) at the national scale results in substantial reductions in annual US dietary greenhouse gas emissions (4.55–45.42 Mt CO2 equivalents), water......The food demands of the United States (US) impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal...

  9. Optimization Based Shunt APF Controller to Mitigate Reactive Power, Burden of Neutral Conductor, Current Harmonics and Improve cosɸ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anjana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Modified Gravitational Search Algorithm (MGSA to improve the performance of PI controller in varying load condition. The proposed approach is capable of mitigating reactive power, neutral current, source current THD and significant improvement in power factor nearly unity (0.997. The DC link voltage across the capacitor is controlled by PI controller which is deciding the performance of shunt APF. Hence, the robust optimization technique based integral time square error (ITSE with consideration of weight factor (α & β, maximum overshoot ((|(∆_Ve ̅〖(n〗_max | and setling time t_s-t_0, is providing the optimum solution of Kp & Ki. The robustness of proposed objective function and algorithm compared with GSA based three other error criterion techniques. The efficiency of the proposed controller has been tested over nonlinear and unbalance loading condition. The performance of ITSE based MGSA-PI controller is batter then other three error criterion techniques. The values of THD are below the mark of 5% specified in IEEE-519 standard.

  10. [Family caregivers' burden and marital satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Kazuko; Becker, Carl; Siwaku, Kuninori; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between home-based elder care and marital satisfaction. Care managers distributed a questionnaire to home caregivers in order to assess the items such as annual income, marital satisfaction, Zarit caregiver burden, sleeping hours and how often they have to get up in the night to take care of the elder. A total of 149 caregivers completed the questionnaire. Their marital satisfaction was inversely correlated to caregiver burden, but positively correlated with annual income. Subjective psychological perception of caregiver burden was the most important factor influencing a marital satisfaction. It appears that a marital satisfaction depend far more on subjective perception of caregiver burden than on more objective measurements of caregiver burden.

  11. Made-to-measure pattern development based on 3D whole body scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein; Hong, Sung Ae

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - New techniques are required to link 3D whole body scans to manufacturing techniques to allow for the mass-customization of clothes. This study aims to compare two methods of producing skirts based on 3D whole body scans. Design/methodology/approach - Three females participated in the

  12. Monte carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity world-wide has focused attention on the need for accurate body composition assessments, especially of large subjects. However, many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized phantom, often based on the standard Reference Man mode...

  13. Shouldering the Burden of Evidence-Based Practice: The Experiences of Physiotherapists Partaking in a Community of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen McCreesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to elicit the motivators, barriers, and benefits of participation in a Community of Practice (CoP for primary care physiotherapists. We used a qualitative approach using semistructured interviews. The participants were twelve physiotherapists partaking in a newly formed Shoulder CoP. A desire for peer support was the strongest motivator for joining, with improving clinical practice being less apparent. Barriers to participation included time and work pressures and poor research skills. The structure of the CoP, in terms of access to meetings and the provision of preparation work and deadlines for the journal clubs, was reported to be a facilitator. Multiple benefits ensued from participation. The role of teamwork was emphasised in relation to reducing isolation and achieving goals. The majority of participants reported positive clinical practice changes in terms of improved patient education, increased confidence, and availability of new resources. All participants reported some element of personal growth and development, in particular in their evidence-based practice skills. The results provide support for the use of CoPs as a means of continuing professional development for physiotherapists in the workplace, as significant benefits are gained in terms of evidence-based practice (EBP, patient care, and therapist personal development.

  14. Development of a Decision Support System of Mattress Patterns Based on Users' Body Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Toru; Matsui, Itsuo; Hamamura, Norihisa; Iwamura, Noriki

    This paper describes a mattress decision system based on users' characteristics. Generally, the comfortable bed means what sleeping habits and body pressure keep a good condition. The term “good condition” is that sleeping habits are close to the standing position and the wide body pressure. Therefore, the proposed system makes use of these as the evaluation indexes. In the past, they have been actually measuring that sleeping habits and body pressure. However, this way takes a lot of time and physical load. Consequently, we propose a way to predict users' sleeping habits and body pressures using neural networks.

  15. Individual Prognosis of Symptom Burden and Functioning in Chronic Diseases: A Generic Method Based on Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik Ingvar

    2017-08-01

    Information to the patient about the long-term prognosis of symptom burden and functioning is an integrated part of clinical practice, but relies mostly on the clinician's personal experience. Relevant prognostic models based on patient-reported outcome (PRO) data with repeated measurements are rarely available. The aim was to describe a generic method for individual long-term prognosis of symptom burden and functioning that implied few statistical presumptions, to evaluate an implementation for prognosis of depressive symptoms in stroke patients and to provide open access to a Web-based prototype of this implementation for individual use. The method used to describe individual prognosis of a PRO outcome was based on the selection of a specific subcohort of patients who have the same score as the patient in question at the same time (eg, after diagnosis or treatment start), plus or minus one unit of minimal clinically important difference. This subcohort's experienced courses were then used to provide quantitative measures of prognosis over time. A cohort of 1404 stroke patients provided data for a simulation study and a prototype for individual use. Members of the cohort answered questionnaires every 6 months for 3.5 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a single item from the SF-12 (MH4) health survey. Four approaches were compared in a simulation study in which the prognosis for each member of the cohort was individually assessed. The mean standard deviations were 40% to 70% higher in simulated scores. Mean errors were close to zero, and mean absolute errors were between 0.46 and 0.66 SD in the four approaches. An approach in which missing HADS scores were estimated from the single-item SF-12 MH4 performed marginally better than methods restricted to questionnaires with a genuine HADS score, which indicates that data collected with shorter questionnaires (eg, in clinical practice) may be used together

  16. Potential to curb the environmental burdens of American beef consumption using a novel plant-based beef substitute.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Goldstein

    Full Text Available The food demands of the United States (US impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal products with vegetal foods are well documented, but significant psychological barriers persist in reducing meat consumption. Here we use life cycle assessment to appraise the environmental performance of a novel vegetal protein source in the mean US diet where it replaces ground beef, and in vegetarian and vegan diets where it substitutes for legumes, tofu and other protein sources. We find that relative to the mean US diet, vegetarian and vegan diets significantly reduce per-capita food-borne greenhouse gas emission (32% and 67%, respectively, blue water use (70% and 75%, respectively and land occupation (70% and 79%, respectively, primarily in the form of rangeland. The substitution of 10%, 25% and 50% of ground beef with plant-based burger (PBB at the national scale results in substantial reductions in annual US dietary greenhouse gas emissions (4.55-45.42 Mt CO2 equivalents, water consumption (1.30-12.00 km3 and land occupation (22300-190100 km2. Despite PBB's elevated environmental pressures compared to other vegetal protein sources, we demonstrate that minimal risk exists for the disservices of PBB substitution in non-meat diets to outweigh the benefits of ground-beef substitution in the omnivorous American diet. Demand for plant-based oils in PBB production has the potential to increase land use pressures in biodiversity hotspots, though these could be obviated through responsible land stewardship. Although the apparent environmental benefits of the PBB are contingent on actual uptake of the product, this study demonstrates the potential for non-traditional protein substitutes to play a role in a transition towards more sustainable consumption

  17. The necessary burden of involving stakeholders in agent-based modelling for education and decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommel, P.; Bautista Solís, P.; Leclerc, G.

    2016-12-01

    We implemented a participatory process with water stakeholders for improving resilience to drought at watershed scale, and for reducing water pollution disputes in drought prone Northwestern Costa Rica. The purpose is to facilitate co-management in a rural watershed impacted by recurrent droughts related to ENSO. The process involved designing "ContaMiCuenca", a hybrid agent-based model where users can specify the decisions of their agents. We followed a Companion Modeling approach (www.commod.org) and organized 10 workshops that included research techniques such as participatory diagnostics, actor-resources-interaction and UML diagrams, multi-agents model design, and interactive simulation sessions. We collectively assessed the main water issues in the watershed, prioritized their importance, defined the objectives of the process, and pilot-tested ContaMiCuenca for environmental education with adults and children. Simulation sessions resulted in debates about the need to improve the model accuracy, arguably more relevant for decision-making. This helped identify sensible knowledge gaps in the groundwater pollution and aquifer dynamics that need to be addressed in order to improve our collective learning. Significant mismatches among participants expectations, objectives, and agendas considerably slowed down the participatory process. The main issue may originate in participants expecting technical solutions from a positivist science, as constantly promoted in the region by dole-out initiatives, which is incompatible with the constructivist stance of participatory modellers. This requires much closer interaction of community members with modellers, which may be hard to attain in the current research practice and institutional context. Nevertheless, overcoming these constraints is necessary for a true involvement of water stakeholders to achieve community-based decisions that facilitate integrated water management. Our findings provide significant guidance for

  18. Advanced selective non-invasive ketone body detection sensors based on new ionophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyapalan, A.; Sarswat, P. K.; Zhu, Y.; Free, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    New molecules and methods were examined that can be used to detect trace level ketone bodies. Diseases such as type 1 diabetes, childhood hypo-glycaemia-growth hormone deficiency, toxic inhalation, and body metabolism changes are linked with ketone bodies concentration. Here we introduce, selective ketone body detection sensors based on small, environmentally friendly organic molecules with Lewis acid additives. Density functional theory (DFT) simulation of the sensor molecules (Bromo-acetonaphthone tungstate (BANT) and acetonaphthophenyl ether propiono hydroxyl tungstate (APPHT)), indicated a fully relaxed geometry without symmetry attributes and specific coordination which enhances ketone bodies sensitivity. A portable sensing unit was made in which detection media containing ketone bodies at low concentration and new molecules show color change in visible light as well as unique irradiance during UV illumination. RGB analysis, electrochemical tests, SEM characterization, FTIR, absorbance and emission spectroscopy were also performed in order to validate the ketone sensitivity of these new molecules.

  19. Estimation of Circadian Body Temperature Rhythm Based on Heart Rate in Healthy, Ambulatory Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Kim, Han Byul; Jang, Seungjin; Kim, Beomoh; Hong, Seungbum; Kim, Sungwan; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-03-01

    Core body temperature is a reliable marker for circadian rhythm. As characteristics of the circadian body temperature rhythm change during diverse health problems, such as sleep disorder and depression, body temperature monitoring is often used in clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of current thermometers in circadian rhythm monitoring is impractical in daily life. As heart rate is a physiological signal relevant to thermoregulation, we investigated the feasibility of heart rate monitoring in estimating circadian body temperature rhythm. Various heart rate parameters and core body temperature were simultaneously acquired in 21 healthy, ambulatory subjects during their routine life. The performance of regression analysis and the extended Kalman filter on daily body temperature and circadian indicator (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) estimation were evaluated. For daily body temperature estimation, mean R-R interval (RRI), mean heart rate (MHR), or normalized MHR provided a mean root mean square error of approximately 0.40 °C in both techniques. The mesor estimation regression analysis showed better performance than the extended Kalman filter. However, the extended Kalman filter, combined with RRI or MHR, provided better accuracy in terms of amplitude and acrophase estimation. We suggest that this noninvasive and convenient method for estimating the circadian body temperature rhythm could reduce discomfort during body temperature monitoring in daily life. This, in turn, could facilitate more clinical studies based on circadian body temperature rhythm.

  20. Image object-based water body types identification in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Hu, Yongyue; Chen, Jianyu; Chen, Peng; Hao, Zengzhou

    2017-10-01

    Water body is one of the most important natural elements in coastal zone. Water bodies in coast are subdivided into offshore sea, aquaculture ponds, inland water bodies, river and so on. Remote sensing is an effective tool to obtain coastal typical objects with high spatial resolution imageries. This paper aims at existing problems of object-based image analysis application to monitor resources and environment in coastal area. For object-based recognition for water body types, relevant works have been carried out by adding spatial semantic features to the extraction process. Through analyzing the spectral, spatial and texture features of water body, the rule set for extracting water body type is established based on the topological and contextual relationship between segments. The recognition method of water body types proposed in this paper gets rid of the traditional object-based classifications based on statistical law. Using prior knowledge to construct knowledge rules with spatial semantic information makes spatial distribution characteristics in coastal zone effective in improving the accuracy of type identification.

  1. Modifiable etiological factors and the burden of stroke from the Rotterdam study: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel J Bos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke prevention requires effective treatment of its causes. Many etiological factors for stroke have been identified, but the potential gain of effective intervention on these factors in terms of numbers of actually prevented strokes remains unclear because of the lack of data from cohort studies. We assessed the impact of currently known potentially modifiable etiological factors on the occurrence of stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This population-based cohort study was based on 6,844 participants of the Rotterdam Study who were aged ≥55 y and free from stroke at baseline (1990-1993. We computed population attributable risks (PARs for individual risk factors and for risk factors in combination to estimate the proportion of strokes that could theoretically be prevented by the elimination of etiological factors from the population. The mean age at baseline was 69.4 y (standard deviation 6.3 y. During follow-up (mean follow-up 12.9 y, standard deviation 6.3 y, 1,020 strokes occurred. The age- and sex-adjusted combined PAR of prehypertension/hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, coronary disease, and overweight/obesity was 0.51 (95% CI 0.41-0.62 for any stroke; hypertension and smoking were the most important etiological factors. C-reactive protein, fruit and vegetable consumption, and carotid intima-media thickness in combination raised the total PAR by 0.06. The PAR was 0.55 (95% CI 0.41-0.68 for ischemic stroke and 0.70 (95% CI 0.45-0.87 for hemorrhagic stroke. The main limitations of our study are that our study population comprises almost exclusively Caucasians who live in a middle and high income area, and that risk factor awareness is higher in a study cohort than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: About half of all strokes are attributable to established causal and modifiable factors. This finding encourages not only intervention on established etiological factors, but also further study of less

  2. Burden of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Guatemala 2008–2012: Results from a facility-based surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen R.; Lopez, Beatriz; Arvelo, Wences; Henao, Olga; Parsons, Michele B.; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Lindblade, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter diarrheal infections in two facility-based surveillance sites in Guatemala. Methods Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data were collected on patients presenting with acute diarrhea from select healthcare facilities in the departments of Santa Rosa and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, from January 2008 through August 2012. Stool specimens were cultured for Campylobacter and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a subset of isolates. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Results Campylobacter was isolated from 306 (6.0%) of 5137 stool specimens collected. For children <5 years of age, annual incidence was as high as 1288.8 per 100,000 children in Santa Rosa and 185.5 per 100,000 children in Quetzaltenango. Among 224 ambulatory care patients with Campylobacter, 169 (75.5%) received metronidazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 152 (66.7%) received or were prescribed oral rehydration therapy. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested in 96 isolates; 57 (59.4%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 12 (12.5%) were MDR. Conclusion Campylobacter was a major cause of diarrhea in children in two departments in Guatemala; antimicrobial resistance was high, and treatment regimens in the ambulatory setting which included metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and lacked oral rehydration were sub-optimal. PMID:24534336

  3. Burden of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Guatemala 2008-2012: results from a facility-based surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen R; Lopez, Beatriz; Arvelo, Wences; Henao, Olga; Parsons, Michele B; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Lindblade, Kim

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter diarrheal infections in two facility-based surveillance sites in Guatemala. Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data were collected on patients presenting with acute diarrhea from select healthcare facilities in the departments of Santa Rosa and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, from January 2008 through August 2012. Stool specimens were cultured for Campylobacter and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a subset of isolates. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Campylobacter was isolated from 306 (6.0%) of 5137 stool specimens collected. For children <5 years of age, annual incidence was as high as 1288.8 per 100,000 children in Santa Rosa and 185.5 per 100,000 children in Quetzaltenango. Among 224 ambulatory care patients with Campylobacter, 169 (75.5%) received metronidazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 152 (66.7%) received or were prescribed oral rehydration therapy. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested in 96 isolates; 57 (59.4%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 12 (12.5%) were MDR. Campylobacter was a major cause of diarrhea in children in two departments in Guatemala; antimicrobial resistance was high, and treatment regimens in the ambulatory setting which included metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and lacked oral rehydration were sub-optimal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Surface-Based Body Shape Index and Its Relationship with All-Cause Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ashiqur Rahman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global public health challenge. In the US, for instance, obesity prevalence remains high at more than one-third of the adult population, while over two-thirds are obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with various health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, depression, some forms of cancer, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, among others. The body mass index (BMI is one of the best known measures of obesity. The BMI, however, has serious limitations, for instance, its inability to capture the distribution of lean mass and adipose tissue, which is a better predictor of diabetes and CVDs, and its curved ("U-shaped" relationship with mortality hazard. Other anthropometric measures and their relation to obesity have been studied, each with its advantages and limitations. In this work, we introduce a new anthropometric measure (called Surface-based Body Shape Index, SBSI that accounts for both body shape and body size, and evaluate its performance as a predictor of all-cause mortality.We analyzed data on 11,808 subjects (ages 18-85, from the National Health and Human Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004, with 8-year mortality follow up. Based on the analysis, we introduce a new body shape index constructed from four important anthropometric determinants of body shape and body size: body surface area (BSA, vertical trunk circumference (VTC, height (H and waist circumference (WC. The surface-based body shape index (SBSI is defined as follows: SBSI = ((H(7/4(WC(5/6/(BSA VTC (1 SBSI has negative correlation with BMI and weight respectively, no correlation with WC, and shows a generally linear relationship with age. Results on mortality hazard prediction using both the Cox proportionality model, and Kaplan-Meier curves each show that SBSI outperforms currently popular body shape indices (e.g., BMI, WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, A Body Shape Index (ABSI in predicting all

  5. Burden of high blood pressure as a contributing factor to stroke in the Japanese community-based diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komi, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Omama, Shinichi; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Tanno, Kozo; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Ohsawa, Masaki; Tanaka, Kentaro; Okayama, Akira; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2018-04-13

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by alterations in blood glucose (BG) metabolism, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1 c) has been widely used as a marker of the BG concentration. Diabetes often coexists with high blood pressure (BP). High BP and hyperglycemia are well-known risk factors of stroke. We examined the extent to which the increased risk of stroke in diabetic individuals is attributable to BP and BG using prospectively collected data from the Japanese general population. During an average 8.3 ± 2.2 years of follow-up, out 1606 diabetic individuals aged ≥40 years who were free of cardiovascular disease, 119 participants (7.4%) developed stroke. In multivariable analysis, a significant difference in the risk of incident stroke was noted among the BP categories, including normotension (BP1), prehypertension (BP2), and hypertension (BP3; P for trend = 0.001). By contrast, no difference was noted among the BG categories, including HbA 1 c levels <7.0% (HB1), 7.0-7.9% (HB2), and ≥8.0% (HB3; P for trend = 0.430). Compared with the category that included both BP1 and HB1, the population-attributable fraction (PAF) for stroke incidence was 52.0% from the BP2 and BP3 categories and 24.1% from the HB2 and HB3 categories, and the increased incidence from the HB2 and HB3 categories was mostly caused from coexistent BP2 and BP3 categories. In conclusion, in the Japanese community-based diabetic population, concomitant BP elevation largely contributes to the increased incidence of stroke and links BG elevation, as indicated by HbA 1 c, to the increased risk of stroke.

  6. IBE-Lite: a lightweight identity-based cryptography for body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chiu C; Wang, Haodong; Zhong, Sheng; Li, Qun

    2009-11-01

    A body sensor network (BSN) is a network of sensors deployed on a person's body for health care monitoring. Since the sensors collect personal medical data, security and privacy are important components in a BSN. In this paper, we developed IBE-Lite, a lightweight identity-based encryption suitable for sensors in a BSN. We present protocols based on IBE-Lite that balance security and privacy with accessibility and perform evaluation using experiments conducted on commercially available sensors.

  7. The Effect of Sawdust Addition to Physical Body of Kidul Clay Based Earthware Ceramic

    OpenAIRE

    Sundari, Komang Nelly

    2016-01-01

    The research on "The Effect of the addition of sawdust on the physical properties of ceramic body of Kidul clay-based Earthenware " has been performed with different percentages. The sawdust used is wood shavings waste ofbuilding materials. Based on the results ofehemical analysis, sawdust is known to have a tendency as a fuser, whereas Kidul clay contain enough clay substance / loam, feldspar and quartz minerals. This study aims to determine the physical properties of the composite body peri...

  8. Cloud Service Solving N-Body Problem Based on Windows Azure Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyn, Dariusz Rafał; Warchał, Łukasz

    This paper shows how to use cloud computing to solve N-body problem. It presents an idea and implementation of cloud service based on Windows Azure Platform. Clients can access cloud service via Internet over HTTP protocol. They create computation tasks supplying simulation parameters such as number of steps, time step and XML file with body definitions (initial position, mass and velocity). Presented solution uses Barnes-Hut Algorithm (based on adaptive oct tree) to reduce computation complexity form N ×N to N logN. All body interactions are computed in parallel, on worker nodes in cloud.

  9. Burden of early-term birth on adverse infant outcomes: a population-based cohort study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2017-12-27

    To estimate the national rate of early-term live births in Brazil and to evaluate the effect of birth at 37 and 38 weeks' gestation, as compared with 39 and 40 weeks' gestation on infant outcomes according to precursors of birth and the existence of maternal/fetal medical conditions. National perinatal population-based cohort study. 266 maternity services located in the five Brazilian macroregions. 18 652 singleton live newborns from 37 0/7 to 40 6/7 weeks of gestation. Resuscitation in delivery room, oxygen therapy, transient tachypnoea, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), hypoglycaemia, use of antibiotics, phototherapy, phototherapy after hospital discharge, neonatal death and breastfeeding. Early terms accounted for 35% (95% CI 33.4% to 36.7%) of all live births. Among provider-initiated births in women without medical conditions, infants of 37 and 38 weeks' gestation had higher odds of oxygen therapy (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.93, 95% CI 1.72 to 4.98 and AOR 1.92 95% CI 1.18 to 3.13), along with admission to NICU (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.41 and AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.60), neonatal death (AOR 14.40, 95% CI 1.94 to 106.69 and AOR 13.76,95% CI 2.84 to 66.75), hypoglycaemia in the first 48 hours of life (AOR 7.86, 95% CI 1.95 to 31.71 and AOR 5.76, 95% CI 1.63 to 20.32), transient tachypnoea (AOR 2.98, 95% CI 1.57 to 5.65 and AOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.48) and the need for phototherapy within the first 72 hours of life (AOR 3.59, 95% CI 1.95 to 6.60 and AOR 2.29, 95% CI 1.49 to 3.53), yet lower odds of breastfeeding up to 1 hour after birth (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.86 and AOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99) and exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.89 and AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99). Birth at 37 and 38 weeks' gestation increased the risk of most adverse infant outcomes analysed, especially among provider-initiated births and should be avoided before 39 weeks' gestation in healthy pregnancies. © Article

  10. Person Recognition System Based on a Combination of Body Images from Visible Light and Thermal Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Hong, Hyung Gil; Kim, Ki Wan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-03-16

    The human body contains identity information that can be used for the person recognition (verification/recognition) problem. In this paper, we propose a person recognition method using the information extracted from body images. Our research is novel in the following three ways compared to previous studies. First, we use the images of human body for recognizing individuals. To overcome the limitations of previous studies on body-based person recognition that use only visible light images for recognition, we use human body images captured by two different kinds of camera, including a visible light camera and a thermal camera. The use of two different kinds of body image helps us to reduce the effects of noise, background, and variation in the appearance of a human body. Second, we apply a state-of-the art method, called convolutional neural network (CNN) among various available methods, for image features extraction in order to overcome the limitations of traditional hand-designed image feature extraction methods. Finally, with the extracted image features from body images, the recognition task is performed by measuring the distance between the input and enrolled samples. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient for enhancing recognition accuracy compared to systems that use only visible light or thermal images of the human body.

  11. Cardiovascular Disease Burden: Evolving Knowledge of Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction and Stroke through Population-Based Research and Perspectives in Global Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gustavo B F; Avezum, Alvaro; Roever, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge and research perspectives on the top ranking causes of mortality worldwide, i.e., ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases have developed rapidly. In fact, until recently, the evidence describing the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, the underlying risk factors, and the clinical outcomes of those who have this acute ischemic coronary event has largely been based on studies conducted in developed countries, with limited data for women and usually of low-ethnic diversity. Recent reports by the WHO have provided striking public health information, i.e., the global burden of cardiovascular mortality for the next decades is expected to predominantly occur among developing countries. Therefore, multiethnic population-based research including prospective cohorts and, when appropriate, case-control studies, is warranted. These studies should be specifically designed to ascertain key public health measures, such as geographic variations in non-communicable diseases, diagnosis of traditional and potential newly discovered risk factors, causes of death and disability, and gaps for improvement in healthcare prevention (both primary and secondary) and specific treatments. As an example, a multinational, multiethnic population-based cohort study is the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology study, which is the largest global initiative of nearly 200,000 adults aged 35-70 years, looking at environmental, societal, and biological influences on obesity and chronic health conditions, such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer among urban and rural communities in low-, middle-, and high-income countries, with national, community, household, and individual-level data. Implementation of population-based strategies is crucial to optimizing limited health system resources while improving care and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  12. Breakeven analysis of computed tomography (Based on utilization of whole body C.T. scanner of SNU hospital)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Hwan; Choi, Myung Jun; Yoo, Chang Ho

    1986-01-01

    The C.T. scanner, an important tool for image-based diagnostics, is one of the costliest types of medical equipment. At present, there are in Korea a total of 66 units installed, and more units will be added in the future. For the fact the price of the C.T. scanner as well as scanning charge for using the equipment is very high as compared to those of the other kinds of medical equipment. The break-even analysis of computed tomography is considered fundamental as well as essential both to rational hospital management and keeping the charge for its use at an optimum level in consideration of the patient's medical expense burden. Even if pursuit of profits is not the role objective of a hospital, it cannot be denied that a break-even analysis provides an important factor for the decision making process in hospital management. The present study has the purpose of finding the ways and means to help rationalize hospital operation and improve its earning power through break-even analysis of C.T. scanner operation. For this purpose the total cost of the GE 8800 Whole Body C. T. Scanner installed at the Seoul National University Hospital was computed, and the records of its operation were analyzed. The expenses for its operation were divided into direct and indirect expenses depending on whether generation of the cost was recognized in the C. T. room or not, and the actual cost was computed for each of these accounting units

  13. An app-based blended intervention to reduce body dissatisfaction: A randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollei, Ines; Lukas, Christian Aljoscha; Loeber, Sabine; Berking, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    As a common experience in the general population, dissatisfaction with one's body is associated with a variety of psychological problems and unhealthy behaviors, including the development of eating disorders. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate an app-based intervention to reduce body dissatisfaction. Participants reporting elevated levels of body dissatisfaction were randomly allocated to an app-based intervention (n = 26) or to a wait list group (n = 27). The app-based intervention included a brief counseling session and 14 days of training with the Mindtastic Body Dissatisfaction app (MT-BD). The MT-BD app uses gamification strategies to systematically foster approach of functional and avoidance of dysfunctional stimuli. The primary outcome was body dissatisfaction as assessed with the Body Dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (Garner, 1991). Secondary outcome measures included severity of eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Participants in the intervention group showed significantly greater reductions in body dissatisfaction compared to the wait list group (d = -0.62). The intervention group also showed greater reductions in eating disorder symptoms compared to the wait list group (d = -0.46). Reductions in body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms were sustained at a 1-month follow-up. We found preliminary evidence that an app-based intervention may significantly reduce body dissatisfaction. Further research using larger samples and targeting clinical populations is necessary to evaluate the potential of interventions such as MT-BD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Effect of Disease Definition on Perceived Burden of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study Based on Symptom Diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, Beate; Günther, Annette; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are among the most frequent childhood diseases in Western countries. Assessment of ARI episodes for research purposes is usually based on parent-administered retrospective questionnaires or prospective symptom diaries. The aim of our analysis was to compare the effect of ARI definitions on the corresponding disease burden in a prospective cohort study using symptom diaries. A literature search was performed to identify definitions of ARI used in research studies. The definitions were applied to a symptom diary dataset from a cohort study of 1-3-year-old children conducted in the winter season 2013/2014. We compared the total number of ARI episodes, the total number of days with ARI and the median and mean duration of ARI episodes resulting from the use of the different definitions. Six ARI definitions were identified in the literature. Depending on ARI definition, the total number of ARI episodes and the total number of days with ARI in our dataset varied by a factor of 1.69 and 1.53, respectively, between the lowest and the highest. The median duration of the episodes ranged from 7 to 10 days. Different definitions led to considerable differences in the number and duration of ARI episodes, making direct comparisons of studies with different methods questionable. We propose the use of a standardized ARI definition in upcoming cohort studies working with diary data. This process could be conducted using a Delphi survey with experts in this study field.

  15. Burden on family carers and care-related financial strain at the end of life: a cross-national population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Block, Lieve; Pardon, Koen; Miccinesi, Guido; Vega Alonso, Tomás; Boffin, Nicole; Donker, Gé A.; Cancian, Maurizio; López-Maside, Aurora; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Deliens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Background: The rising number of deaths from cancer and other life-limiting illnesses is accompanied by a growing number of family carers who provide long-lasting care, including end-of-life care. This population-based epidemiological study aimed to describe and compare in four European countries the prevalence of and factors associated with physical or emotional overburden and difficulties in covering care-related costs among family carers of people at the end of life. Methods: A cross-national retrospective study was conducted via nationwide representative sentinel networks of general practitioners (GPs). Using a standardized form, GPs in Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy and Spain recorded information on the last 3 months of life of every deceased adult practice patient (1 January 2009–31 December 2010). Sudden deaths were excluded. Results: We studied 4466 deaths. GPs judged family carers of 28% (Belgium), 30% (The Netherlands), 35% (Spain) and 71% (Italy) of patients as physically/emotionally overburdened (P family carers and financial burden. Death from non-malignant illness (vs. cancer) (Belgium and Italy) and dying at home compared with other locations (The Netherlands and Italy) were associated with higher odds of difficulties in covering care-related costs. Conclusion: In all countries studied, and particularly in Italy, GPs observed a considerable extent of physical/emotional overburden as well as difficulties in covering care-related costs among family carers of people at the end of life. Implications for health- and social care policies are discussed. PMID:24642602

  16. Burden of epilepsy in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Ayala, Alejandro; Nariño, Daniel; Rosselli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy lays an important burden on healthcare systems and society in general. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been developed to compare the burden of this disease both between conditions and between geographical boundaries. With improving data on disease incidence and prevalence in Colombia, we can refine our DALYs-based estimates. Using different strategies, including the official healthcare provision database and death certificates, as well as extrapolation from published neuroepidemiologic studies, we estimated the incidence and prevalence by age groups, disease duration and attributable mortality. With this information we calculated DALYs for the year 2012. Overall, it was found that epilepsy was responsible for 0.88% of all deaths in Colombia. A total of 5.25 DALYs per 1,000 person-years are lost due to epilepsy in Colombia, 75% of which (3.91 DALYs) are due to premature mortality, with a higher burden in men (6.12 DALYs) than in women (4.41 DALYs). We reported new estimations on epilepsy incidence and prevalence by age groups in Colombia and conclude that DALYs lost due to epilepsy in Colombia are almost double the previous figure, mostly because of the underestimation of attributable mortality. With this figure, epilepsy ranks 12th instead of 19th in the list of the most important causes of DALYs lost. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Conservative rigid body dynamics by convected base vectors with implicit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    2014-01-01

    A conservative time integration formulation is developed for rigid bodies based on a convected set of orthonormal base vectors. The base vectors are represented in terms of their absolute coordinates, and thus the formulation makes use of three translation components, plus nine components...... of the base vectors. Orthogonality and unit length of the base vectors are imposed by constraining the equivalent Green strain components, and the kinetic energy is represented corresponding to rigid body motion. The equations of motion are obtained via Hamilton’s equations including the zero...... are eliminated explicitly within each integration interval leaving a projection operator expressed in terms of displacement component mean values. Hereby the number of variables is reduced by six for each rigid body in the problem, and the difference equations lead to conservation of the orthonormality...

  18. Monte Carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shypailo, R.J.; Ellis, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized reference phantom. Prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) provides the only direct measure of total body nitrogen (TBN), an index of the body's lean tissue mass. In PGNA systems, body size influences neutron flux attenuation, induced gamma signal distribution, and counting efficiency. Thus, calibration based on a single-sized phantom could result in inaccurate TBN values. We used Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP-5; Los Alamos National Laboratory) in order to map a system's response to the range of body weights (65-160 kg) and body fat distributions (25-60%) in obese humans. Calibration curves were constructed to derive body-size correction factors relative to a standard reference phantom, providing customized adjustments to account for differences in body habitus of obese adults. The use of MCNP-generated calibration curves should allow for a better estimate of the true changes in lean tissue mass that many occur during intervention programs focused only on weight loss. (author)

  19. Thyroid Function and Body Weight: A Community-Based Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergved, Lena; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Body weight and overt thyroid dysfunction are associated. Cross-sectional population-based studies have repeatedly found that thyroid hormone levels, even within the normal reference range, might be associated with body weight. However, for longitudinal data, the association is less...... clear. Thus, we tested the association between serum thyrotropin (TSH) and body weight in a community-based sample of adult persons followed for 11 years. Methods: A random sample of 4,649 persons aged 18-65 years from a general population participated in the DanThyr study in 1997-8. We included 2....... Results: Baseline TSH concentration was not associated with change in weight (women, P = 0.17; men, P = 0.72), and baseline body mass index (BMI) was not associated with change in TSH (women, P = 0.21; men, P = 0.85). Change in serum TSH and change in weight were significantly associated in both sexes...

  20. Validity of the Medication-based Disease Burden Index compared with the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for geriatrics: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloosesky, Yichayaou; Weiss, Avraham; Mansur, Nariman

    2011-12-01

    Co-morbidity is common in older people. A co-morbidity index reduces coexisting illnesses and their severity to a single numerical score, allowing comparison with scores from other patients. Recently, the Medication-Based Disease Burden Index (MDBI) was developed. The aim of the study was to assess the MDBI's validity in hospitalized elderly patients. Clinical and demographic data and data on patients' medications on admission were obtained prospectively. Retrospectively, we applied the MDBI to the patients' medication regimens, determining their co-morbidity using the Charlson Comorbidity Index and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G). The MDBI's criterion validity was assessed against the Charlson and CIRS-G indices. Convergent and discriminant validities were also assessed. The MDBI's predictive validity was assessed by its ability to predict 3-month post-discharge readmissions or mortality compared with the Charlson and CIRS-G indices. MDBI scores were correlated with the Charlson and CIRS-G indices' scores (r = 0.44 and r = 0.37, respectively [p indices had good predictive ability for mortality (OR 1.50 [95% CI 1.22, 1.84; p failed to differentiate between cognitive and functional patient groups. The MDBI should be investigated in larger studies to determine its validity in settings where medication data rather than diagnostic data are more readily available. In clinical practice with elderly patients, we recommend employing co-morbidity indices that are based on medical records, such as the Charlson Comorbidity Index and CIRS-G.

  1. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Tanga, Tanzania: First insight of MIRU-VNTR and microarray-based spoligotyping in a high burden country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoza, Abubakar S; Mfinanga, Sayoki G; Moser, Irmgard; König, Brigitte

    2016-05-01

    Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB) has greatly enhanced the understanding of the population structure of MTB isolates and epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). To characterize prevalent genotypes of MTB, microarrays‑based spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit‑variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU‑VNTR) were applied on 80 isolates collected from primary health care facilities in Tanga, North‑eastern Tanzania. A total of 18 distinct spoligotypes were identified. The lineages by order of their predominance were EAI and CAS families (26.25%, 21 isolates each), LAM family and T super‑family (10%, 8 isolates each), MANU family (3.75%, 3 isolates), Beijing family (2.5%, 2 isolates) and S family (1.25%, 1 isolate). Overall, sixteen (20%) strains could not be allocated to any lineage according to the SITVIT_WEB database. The allelic diversity (h) for specific MIRU‑VNTR loci showed a considerable variation ranging from 0.826 of VNTR locus 3192 to 0.141 of VNTR locus 2059. The allelic diversity for 11 loci (VNTR 3192, 2996, 2165, 960, 4052, 424, 4156, 2531, 1644, 802 and 3690) exceeded 0.6, indicating highly discriminatory power. Seven loci (VNTR 2163b, 2401, 1955, 577, 4348, 2687 and 580) showed moderate discrimination (0.3 ≤ h ≥ 0.6), and three loci (VNTR3007, 154 and 2059) were less polymorphic. The present study suggests that the TB cases in Tanga might be caused by a diverse array of MTB strain families that may be indicative of a cosmopolitan population with frequent migration and travel. Microarray‑based spoligotyping and MIRU‑VNTR could be reliable tools in detecting different MTB genotypes in high burden settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scientific evidence-based effects of hydrotherapy on various systems of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooventhan, A; Nivethitha, L

    2014-05-01

    The use of water for various treatments (hydrotherapy) is probably as old as mankind. Hydrotherapy is one of the basic methods of treatment widely used in the system of natural medicine, which is also called as water therapy, aquatic therapy, pool therapy, and balneotherapy. Use of water in various forms and in various temperatures can produce different effects on different system of the body. Many studies/reviews reported the effects of hydrotherapy only on very few systems and there is lack of studies/reviews in reporting the evidence-based effects of hydrotherapy on various systems. We performed PubMed and PubMed central search to review relevant articles in English literature based on "effects of hydrotherapy/balneotherapy" on various systems of the body. Based on the available literature this review suggests that the hydrotherapy has a scientific evidence-based effect on various systems of the body.

  3. BodiMojo: Efficacy of a Mobile-Based Intervention in Improving Body Image and Self-Compassion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Donovan, Elizabeth; Cousineau, Tara; Yates, Kayla; McGowan, Kayla; Cook, Elizabeth; Lowy, Alice S; Franko, Debra L

    2018-01-18

    Mobile interventions promoting positive body image are lacking. This study presents a randomized controlled evaluation of BodiMojo, a mobile application (app) intervention grounded in self-compassion to promote positive body image. A sample of 274 adolescents, mean (SD) age = 18.36 (1.34) years, 74% female, were allocated to a control group or used BodiMojo for 6 weeks. Appearance esteem, body image flexibility, appearance comparison, mood, and self-compassion were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. Significant time by group interactions emerged for appearance esteem and self-compassion, with appearance esteem and self-compassion increasing in the intervention relative to the control group. These findings provide preliminary support for BodiMojo, a cost-effective mobile app for positive body image.

  4. A Malaria Ecology Index Predicted Spatial and Temporal Variation of Malaria Burden and Efficacy of Antimalarial Interventions Based on African Serological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Gordon C; Anttila-Hughes, Jesse K

    2017-03-01

    AbstractReducing the global health burden of malaria is complicated by weak reporting systems for infectious diseases and a paucity of vital statistics registration. This limits our ability to predict changes in malaria health burden intensity, target antimalarial resources where needed, and identify malaria impacts in retrospective data. We refined and deployed a temporally and spatially varying Malaria Ecology Index (MEI) incorporating climatological and ecological data to estimate malaria transmission strength and validate it against cross-sectional serology data from 39,875 children from seven sub-Saharan African countries. The MEI is strongly associated with malaria burden; a 1 standard deviation higher MEI is associated with a 50-117% increase in malaria risk and a 3-5 g/dL lower level of Hg. Results show that the relationship between malaria ecology and disease burden is attenuated with sufficient coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS). Having both ITNs and IRS reduce the added risk from adverse malaria ecology conditions by half. Readily available climate and ecology data can be used to estimate the spatial and temporal variation in malaria disease burden, providing a feasible alternative to direct surveillance. This will help target resources for malaria programs in the absence of national coverage of active case detection systems, and facilitate malaria research using retrospective health data.

  5. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  6. Prevalence and burden of gait disorders in elderly men and women aged 60-97 years: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Kiechl, Stefan; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Willeit, Johann; Scherfler, Christoph; Gasperi, Arno; Rungger, Gregorio; Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Although gait disorders are common in the elderly, the prevalence and overall burden of these disorders in the general community is not well defined. In a cross-sectional investigation of the population-based Bruneck Study cohort, 488 community-residing elderly aged 60-97 years underwent a thorough neurological assessment including a standardized gait evaluation. Gait disorders were classified according to an accepted scheme and their associations to falls, neuropsychological measures, and quality of life were explored. Overall, 32.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.2%-36.4%) of participants presented with impaired gait. Prevalence increased with age (pgait. A total of 24.0% (95%CI 20.4%-28.0%) manifested neurological gait disorders, 17.4% (14.3%-21.0%) non-neurological gait problems, and 9.2% (6.9%-12.1%) a combination of both. While there was no association of neurological gait disorders with gender, non-neurological gait disorders were more frequent in women (p = 0.012). Within the group of neurological gait disorders 69.2% (95%CI 60.3%-76.9%) had a single distinct entity and 30.8% (23.1%-39.7%) had multiple neurological causes for gait impairment. Gait disorders had a significant negative impact on quantitative gait measures, but only neurological gait disorders were associated with recurrent falls (odds ratio 3.3; 95%CI 1.4-7.5; p = 0.005 for single and 7.1; 2.7-18.7; pgait disorders). Finally, we detected a significant association of gait disorders, in particular neurological gait disorders, with depressed mood, cognitive dysfunction, and compromised quality of life. Gait disorders are common in the general elderly population and are associated with reduced mobility. Neurological gait disorders in particular are associated with recurrent falls, lower cognitive function, depressed mood, and diminished quality of life.

  7. Body Composition Assessment in Axial CT Images Using FEM-Based Automatic Segmentation of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popuri, Karteek; Cobzas, Dana; Esfandiari, Nina; Baracos, Vickie; Jägersand, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The proportions of muscle and fat tissues in the human body, referred to as body composition is a vital measurement for cancer patients. Body composition has been recently linked to patient survival and the onset/recurrence of several types of cancers in numerous cancer research studies. This paper introduces a fully automatic framework for the segmentation of muscle and fat tissues from CT images to estimate body composition. We developed a novel finite element method (FEM) deformable model that incorporates a priori shape information via a statistical deformation model (SDM) within the template-based segmentation framework. The proposed method was validated on 1000 abdominal and 530 thoracic CT images and we obtained very good segmentation results with Jaccard scores in excess of 90% for both the muscle and fat regions.

  8. A weighty issue: explaining the association between body mass index and appearance-based social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchener, Kristen; Wong, Quincy J J

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that individuals who are overweight or obese are more likely to experience mental health difficulties. One line of research has indicated that body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with appearance-based social anxiety, rather than social anxiety more generally. However, there is a lack of research that has attempted to explain this association. Thus, the current study recruited an undergraduate sample (N=90) and aimed (a) to replicate previous research by examining the associations between BMI, social anxiety, and appearance-based social anxiety and (b) to extend previous research by examining two potential mediators in the relationship between BMI and appearance-based social anxiety suggested in the literature (i.e., body image dissatisfaction and emotional eating). Analyses indicated that BMI was not associated with social anxiety but positively associated with appearance-based social anxiety. The association between BMI and appearance-based social anxiety was only mediated by body image dissatisfaction, and the model of these relationships emerged as the best fitting model relative to a plausible alternative model. The findings replicate and extend previous research on weight status and psychological factors and highlight the need for future longitudinal research on BMI, appearance-based social anxiety, and body image dissatisfaction so that interventions for obesity and weight loss maintenance programs can be ultimately enhanced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CEPP: Perceiving the Emotional State of the User Based on Body Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Kyu Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted in the area of face and gesture recognition in order to classify one’s emotional state. Surprisingly, utilizing computerized algorithms which recognize emotional conditions based on body postures has not yet been systematically developed. In this paper, we propose a novel method, Computerized Emotion Perception based on Posture (CEPP, to determine the emotional state of the user. This method extracts features from body postures and estimates the emotional state by computing a similarity distance. With the proposed algorithm, we will provide new insights into automatically recognizing one’s emotional state.

  10. Signal transmission in a human body medium-based body sensor network using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jingwen; Jin, Xuefeng; Sun, He

    2012-11-30

    The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO) sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium.

  11. The personification of animals: coding of human and nonhuman body parts based on posture and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Timothy N; McDougall, Laura; Paulson, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine how humans represent the bodies and limbs of nonhuman mammals based on anatomical and functional properties. To this end, participants completed a series of body-part compatibility tasks in which they responded with a thumb or foot response to the color of a stimulus (red or blue, respectively) presented on different limbs of several animals. Across the studies, this compatibility task was conducted with images of human and nonhuman animals (bears, cows, and monkeys) in bipedal or quadrupedal postures. The results revealed that the coding of the limbs of nonhuman animals is strongly influenced by the posture of the body, but not the functional capacity of the limb. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects were present for both human and nonhuman animals when the figures were in a bipedal posture, but were not present when the animals were in a quadrupedal stance (Experiments 1a-c). Experiments 2a and 2b revealed that the posture-based body-part compatibility effects were not simply a vertical spatial compatibility effect or due to a mismatch between the posture of the body in the image and the participant. These data indicate that nonhuman animals in a bipedal posture are coded with respect to the "human" body representation, whereas nonhuman animals in a quadrupedal posture are not mapped to the human body representation. Overall, these studies provide new insight into the processes through which humans understand, mimic, and learn from the actions of nonhuman animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wearable sensors in intelligent clothing for measuring human body temperature based on optical fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Yang, Haijing; Li, Enbang; Liu, Zhihui; Wei, Kejia

    2012-05-21

    Measuring body temperature is considerably important to physiological studies as well as clinical investigations. In recent years, numerous observations have been reported and various methods of measurement have been employed. The present paper introduces a novel wearable sensor in intelligent clothing for human body temperature measurement. The objective is the integration of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors into functional textiles to extend the capabilities of wearable solutions for body temperature monitoring. In addition, the temperature sensitivity is 150 pm/°C, which is almost 15 times higher than that of a bare FBG. This study combines large and small pipes during fabrication to implant FBG sensors into the fabric. The law of energy conservation of the human body is considered in determining heat transfer between the body and its clothing. The mathematical model of heat transmission between the body and clothed FBG sensors is studied, and the steady-state thermal analysis is presented. The simulation results show the capability of the material to correct the actual body temperature. Based on the skin temperature obtained by the weighted average method, this paper presents the five points weighted coefficients model using both sides of the chest, armpits, and the upper back for the intelligent clothing. The weighted coefficients of 0.0826 for the left chest, 0.3706 for the left armpit, 0.3706 for the right armpit, 0.0936 for the upper back, and 0.0826 for the right chest were obtained using Cramer's Rule. Using the weighting coefficient, the deviation of the experimental result was ± 0.18 °C, which favors the use for clinical armpit temperature monitoring. Moreover, in special cases when several FBG sensors are broken, the weighted coefficients of the other sensors could be changed to obtain accurate body temperature.

  13. Components of Burden: Interventive Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosberg, Jordan I.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studied 127 informal caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients to determine correlates of 5 components of burden as measured by Cost of Care Index. Significant relationships between predictor variables and burden components suggest that global scores and measures of burden do not identify specific problem areas relative to various components of…

  14. Relativistic three-body quark model of light baryons based on hypercentral approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we have treated the light baryons as a relativistic three-body bound system. Inspired by lattice QCD calculations, we treated baryons as a spin-independent three-quark system within a relativistic three-quark model based on the three-particle Klein-Gordon equation. We presented the analytical solution of three-body Klein-Gordon equation with employing the constituent quark model based on a hypercentral approach through which two- and three-body forces are taken into account. Herewith the average energy values of the up, down and strange quarks containing multiplets are reproduced. To describe the hyperfine structure of the baryon, the splittings within the SU(6)-multiplets are produced by the generalized Gürsey Radicati mass formula. The considered SU(6)-invariant potential is popular "Coulomb-plus-linear" potential and the strange and non-strange baryons spectra are in general well reproduced.

  15. Evidence that self-affirmation reduces body dissatisfaction by basing self-esteem on domains other than body weight and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and shape. Adolescents (N = 220) were randomized to complete a self-affirmation manipulation or an equivalently active control task before rating their body shape and weight, and completing measures of perceived threat, body satisfaction and self-esteem. Affirmed girls showed significantly greater body satisfaction and perceived significantly less threat from having to rate their body shape and weight compared with an equivalently active control group. Mediator analyses showed that the effects were due both to increases in self-esteem and shifts away from using body shape and weight as a source of self-esteem. Self-affirmation did not affect boys because they: (a) were less threatened by having to rate their body shape and weight, and (b) principally derived their self-esteem from sources other than body shape and weight. The findings provide support for the unique effects of self-affirmation on girls' body satisfaction thereby isolating one active ingredient of programs to increase body satisfaction and identify a potential mechanism for understanding self-affirmation effects. Further research is required to establish the long-term effects of self-affirmation and test how self-affirmation interacts with other active ingredients in treatment programs. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Dementia Caregiver Burden: a Research Update and Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2017-08-10

    This article provides an updated review of the determinants of caregiver burden and depression, with a focus on care demands and especially the differential effects of various neuropsychiatric symptoms or symptom clusters. Moreover, studies on caregivers for frontotemporal and Lewy body dementias were referred to in order to identify differences and similarities with the mainstream literature based largely on Alzheimer caregivers. As a group, neuropsychiatric symptoms are most predictive of caregiver burden and depression regardless of dementia diagnosis, but the effects appear to be driven primarily by disruptive behaviors (e.g., agitation, aggression, disinhibition), followed by delusions and mood disturbance. Disruptive behaviors are more disturbing partly because of the adverse impact on the emotional connection between the caregiver and the care-recipient and partly because they exacerbate difficulties in other domains (e.g., caring for activities of daily living). In behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, not only are these disruptive behaviors more prominent but they are also more disturbing due to the care-recipient's insensitivity to others' feelings. In Lewy body dementia, visual hallucinations also appear to be distressing. The disturbing nature of disruptive behaviors cuts across dementia conditions, but the roles played by symptoms that are unique or particularly serious in a certain condition need to be explored further.

  17. Worldwide burden of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaikrit Bhutani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a pandemic of major public health importance cannot be disputed. While the IDF data does emphasis the importance of diabetes as a global public health problem, it does not place in perspective the ranking of diabetes as compared to other diseases and illnesses. The GBD data highlight this fact in multiple ways. The disease and its complications or comorbid conditions rank high in the list of risk factors, and causes of death. This communication describes the global burden of diabetes especially south-east Asia and the statistical sequelae of the disease.

  18. Feasibility of MR-Based Body Composition Analysis in Large Scale Population Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne West

    Full Text Available Quantitative and accurate measurements of fat and muscle in the body are important for prevention and diagnosis of diseases related to obesity and muscle degeneration. Manually segmenting muscle and fat compartments in MR body-images is laborious and time-consuming, hindering implementation in large cohorts. In the present study, the feasibility and success-rate of a Dixon-based MR scan followed by an intensity-normalised, non-rigid, multi-atlas based segmentation was investigated in a cohort of 3,000 subjects.3,000 participants in the in-depth phenotyping arm of the UK Biobank imaging study underwent a comprehensive MR examination. All subjects were scanned using a 1.5 T MR-scanner with the dual-echo Dixon Vibe protocol, covering neck to knees. Subjects were scanned with six slabs in supine position, without localizer. Automated body composition analysis was performed using the AMRA Profiler™ system, to segment and quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT and thigh muscles. Technical quality assurance was performed and a standard set of acceptance/rejection criteria was established. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all volume measurements and quality assurance metrics.Of the 3,000 subjects, 2,995 (99.83% were analysable for body fat, 2,828 (94.27% were analysable when body fat and one thigh was included, and 2,775 (92.50% were fully analysable for body fat and both thigh muscles. Reasons for not being able to analyse datasets were mainly due to missing slabs in the acquisition, or patient positioned so that large parts of the volume was outside of the field-of-view.In conclusion, this study showed that the rapid UK Biobank MR-protocol was well tolerated by most subjects and sufficiently robust to achieve very high success-rate for body composition analysis. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource.

  19. Body Talk: A School-based Group Intervention for Working with Disordered Eating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Susan Dahlgren

    2000-01-01

    Describes a school-based group intervention designed to address issues of body image, self-esteem, weight, and eating disturbances. This 10-session group provides female high school students with opportunities to explore their concerns about relationships, appearance, and what it means to be female. Provides descriptions of narrative techniques…

  20. Rigid Body Time Integration by Convected Base Vectors with Implicit Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    2013-01-01

    of the kinetic energy used in the present formulation is deliberately chosen to correspond to a rigid body rotation, and the orthonormality constraints are introduced via the equivalent Green strain components of the base vectors. The particular form of the extended inertia tensor used here implies a set...

  1. An Evaluation-Driven Design Approach to Develop Learning Environments Based on Full-Body Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, Laura; Schaper, Marie-Monique; Pares, Narcís

    2016-01-01

    The development of learning environments based on full-body interaction has become an increasingly important field of research in recent years. However, the design and evaluation strategies currently used present some significant limitations. Two major shortcomings are: the inadequate involvement of children in the design process and a lack of…

  2. Dynamic response of sliced rigid bodies subjected to harmonic base excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, G.C.; Demosthenous, M.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic response of sliced rigid-block type bodies is investigated by subjecting a number of specimens to a variety of horizontal sinusoidal base motions as they are reproduced by the Earthquake Simulator of Aristotle University. The sliced specimens are either square prisms, cylinders or truncate cones and are assumed to represent models of prototype structures 20 times larger. (author)

  3. Parent Reactions to a School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Lamp, Camilla; He, Jianghua; Deeb, Larry C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study assessed parent reactions to school-based body mass index (BMI) screening. Methods: After a K-8 BMI screening program, parents were sent a letter detailing their child's BMI results. Approximately 50 parents were randomly selected for interview from each of 4 child weight-classification groups (overweight, at risk of…

  4. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  5. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Reddy, Bhanu Pratap; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-04-22

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  6. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Peter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Body area sensor networks (BANs utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  7. Methodological Challenges in Estimating Trends and Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob K. Kariuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although 80% of the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD is in developing countries, the 2010 global burden of disease (GBD estimates have been cited to support a premise that sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is exempt from the CVD epidemic sweeping across developing countries. The widely publicized perspective influences research priorities and resource allocation at a time when secular trends indicate a rapid increase in prevalence of CVD in SSA by 2030. Purpose. To explore methodological challenges in estimating trends and burden of CVD in SSA via appraisal of the current CVD statistics and literature. Methods. This review was guided by the Critical review methodology described by Grant and Booth. The review traces the origins and evolution of GBD metrics and then explores the methodological limitations inherent in the current GBD statistics. Articles were included based on their conceptual contribution to the existing body of knowledge on the burden of CVD in SSA. Results/Conclusion. Cognizant of the methodological challenges discussed, we caution against extrapolation of the global burden of CVD statistics in a way that underrates the actual but uncertain impact of CVD in SSA. We conclude by making a case for optimal but cost-effective surveillance and prevention of CVD in SSA.

  8. Expenditure and financial burden for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China: a hospital-based, multicenter, cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Yao; Shi, Ju-Fang; Guo, Lan-Wei; Bai, Ya-Na; Liao, Xian-Zhen; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Mao, A-Yan; Ren, Jian-Song; Sun, Xiao-Jie; Zhu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Le; Song, Bing-Bing; Du, Ling-Bin; Zhu, Lin; Gong, Ji-Yong; Zhou, Qi; Liu, Yu-Qin; Cao, Rong; Mai, Ling; Lan, Li; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Ren, Ying; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Wang, Yuan-Zheng; Qi, Xiao; Lou, Pei-An; Shi, Dian; Li, Ni; Zhang, Kai; He, Jie; Dai, Min

    2017-04-28

    The increasing prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in China and the paucity of information about relevant expenditure highlight the necessity of better understanding the financial burden and effect of CRC diagnosis and treatment. We performed a survey to quantify the direct medical and non-medical expenditure as well as the resulting financial burden of CRC patients in China. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional survey in 37 tertiary hospitals in 13 provinces across China between 2012 and 2014. Each enrolled patient was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. All expenditure data were inflated to the 2014 Chinese Yuan (CNY; 1 CNY = 0.163 USD). We quantified the overall expenditure and financial burden and by subgroup (hospital type, age at diagnosis, sex, education, occupation, insurance type, household income, clinical stage, pathologic type, and therapeutic regimen). We then performed generalized linear modeling to determine the factors associated with overall expenditure. A total of 2356 patients with a mean age of 57.4 years were included, 57.1% of whom were men; 13.9% of patients had stage I cancer; and the average previous-year household income was 54,525 CNY. The overall average direct expenditure per patient was estimated to be 67,408 CNY, and the expenditures for stage I, II, III, and IV disease were 56,099 CNY, 59,952 CNY, 67,292 CNY, and 82,729 CNY, respectively. Non-medical expenditure accounted for 8.3% of the overall expenditure. The 1-year out-of-pocket expenditure of a newly diagnosed patient was 32,649 CNY, which accounted for 59.9% of their previous-year household income and caused 75.0% of families to suffer an unmanageable financial burden. Univariate analysis showed that financial burden and overall expenditure differed in almost all subgroups (P financial burden varied among subgroups, especially among patients with different clinical stages of disease, which suggests that, in China, CRC screening might be cost-effective.

  9. Prevalence and Burden of Gait Disorders in Elderly Men and Women Aged 60–97 Years: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Kiechl, Stefan; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Willeit, Johann; Scherfler, Christoph; Gasperi, Arno; Rungger, Gregorio; Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Although gait disorders are common in the elderly, the prevalence and overall burden of these disorders in the general community is not well defined. Methods In a cross-sectional investigation of the population-based Bruneck Study cohort, 488 community-residing elderly aged 60–97 years underwent a thorough neurological assessment including a standardized gait evaluation. Gait disorders were classified according to an accepted scheme and their associations to falls, neuropsychological measures, and quality of life were explored. Results Overall, 32.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.2%–36.4%) of participants presented with impaired gait. Prevalence increased with age (pgait. A total of 24.0% (95%CI 20.4%–28.0%) manifested neurological gait disorders, 17.4% (14.3%–21.0%) non-neurological gait problems, and 9.2% (6.9%–12.1%) a combination of both. While there was no association of neurological gait disorders with gender, non-neurological gait disorders were more frequent in women (p = 0.012). Within the group of neurological gait disorders 69.2% (95%CI 60.3%–76.9%) had a single distinct entity and 30.8% (23.1%–39.7%) had multiple neurological causes for gait impairment. Gait disorders had a significant negative impact on quantitative gait measures, but only neurological gait disorders were associated with recurrent falls (odds ratio 3.3; 95%CI 1.4–7.5; p = 0.005 for single and 7.1; 2.7–18.7; pgait disorders). Finally, we detected a significant association of gait disorders, in particular neurological gait disorders, with depressed mood, cognitive dysfunction, and compromised quality of life. Conclusions Gait disorders are common in the general elderly population and are associated with reduced mobility. Neurological gait disorders in particular are associated with recurrent falls, lower cognitive function, depressed mood, and diminished quality of life. PMID:23894511

  10. Effective dose and time-integrated effective dose to humans from internal contamination of 134Cs and 137Cs: Results from a compilation of a Swedish national database of internal body burden of radiocaesium in various populations between 1964 and 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeaef, L.C.; Zakaria, M.; Hubbard, L.; Falk, R.; Aagren, G.; Vesanen, R.

    2003-01-01

    A compilation of data on the whole-body burden of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in various Swedish populations between 1964 and 2002 has been made. The compilation was carried out in co-operation with the Department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe, the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), the Swedish Defence Research Agency Department (FOI) and the Department of Radiation Physics, Goeteborg University. Individual body burden values have been inserted into a calculation spread sheet, with data on body weight, gender, age, occupation (if available) and place of residence. The database enables a study of the time-pattern and geographical dependence of radiocaesium transfer from ground deposition to man, and the associated absorbed dose. The Swedish government has assigned SSI the responsibility for obtaining and assuring one of Sweden's national environmental quality objectives, A Safe Radiation Environment. A natural consequence of this responsibility is that a means for quantifying progress towards the objective is necessary. The data compilation discussed here is one important component in the national environmental monitoring programme that is currently (2002) being developed at SSI. The new program for monitoring environmental radiation has the goal of following geographical and ecological differences in the radiological effects to both mankind and the environment, and assessing relevant doses and risks. During the period between 1964 and 2002, fallout of radiocaesium from nuclear weapons tests (only 137 Cs) and from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 (both 134 Cs and 137 Cs) have occurred in Sweden. The ground deposition of the radiocaesium has gradually been transferred through different ecological pathways to man. From the database it can be deduced that large regional variations in the body burden of radiocaesium in man have occurred through this period. Three populations exhibit considerably higher body content levels than others; (i) reindeer herders in

  11. Response Burden in Official Business Surveys: Measurement and Reduction Practices of National Statistical Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavdaž Mojca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Response burden in business surveys has long been a concern for National Statistical Institutes (NSIs for three types of reasons: political reasons, because response burden is part of the total administrative burden governments impose on businesses; methodological reasons, because an excessive response burden may reduce data quality and increase data-collection costs; and strategic reasons, because it affects relations between the NSIs and the business community. This article investigates NSI practices concerning business response burden measurement and reduction actions based on a survey of 41 NSIs from 39 countries. Most NSIs monitor at least some burden aspects and have implemented some actions to reduce burden, but large differences exist between NSIs’ methodologies for burden measurement and actions taken to reduce burden. Future research should find ways to deal with methodological differences in burden conceptualization, operationalization, and measurement, and provide insights into the effectiveness and efficiency of burden-reduction actions.

  12. Time to add a new priority target for child injury prevention? The case for an excess burden associated with sport and exercise injury: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Wong Shee, Anna; Clapperton, Angela

    2014-07-02

    To determine the population-level burden of sports injuries compared with that for road traffic injury for children aged sports injury and road traffic injury cases for children aged sports injury and road traffic injury cases in children aged sports-related cases and ICD-10-AM cause and location codes to identify road traffic injuries; and injury presentations to 38 Victorian public hospital emergency departments, using a combination of activity, cause and location codes. Trends in injury frequency and rate were analysed by log-linear Poisson regression and the population-level injury burden was assessed in terms of years lived with disability (YLD), hospital bed-days and direct hospital costs. Over the 7-year period, the annual frequency of non-fatal hospital-treated sports injury increased significantly by 29% (from N=7405 to N=9923; pSports injury accounted for a larger population health burden than did road traffic injury on all measures: 3-fold the number of YLDs (7324.8 vs 2453.9); 1.9-fold the number of bed-days (26 233 vs 13 886) and 2.6-fold the direct hospital costs ($A5.9 millions vs $A2.2 millions). The significant 7-year increase in the frequency of hospital-treated sports injury and the substantially higher injury population-health burden (direct hospital costs, bed-day usage and YLD impacts) for sports injury compared with road traffic injury for children aged sports injury prevention in this age group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Population-based hospitalization burden of influenza a virus subtypes and antigenic drift variants in children in Hong Kong (2004-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Susan S; Lo, Janice Y C; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Eunice L Y; So, Lok-Yee; Wu, Peng; Cowling, Benjamin J; Chen, Robin; Peiris, J S Malik

    2014-01-01

    We aim to document and analyze influenza hospitalization burden in light of antigenic changes in circulating influenza viruses in Hong Kong. The pediatric age-specific rates of influenza A hospitalization in Hong Kong for 2004-2011 which encompassed the emergence of H1N1pdm09 were extrapolated from admissions to 2 hospitals that together catered for 72.5% of all pediatric admissions on Hong Kong Island. Influenza A was detected by immunofluorescence, culture and/or PCR on nasopharyngeal aspirates. Influenza A caused high rates of hospitalization in children with year to year fluctuations. The highest hospitalization burden was seen with H1N1pdm09 in 2009. Additional factors affecting hospitalization were the proportion of viral circulation among different subtypes, and antigenic drifts. Taking these into effect, an H3N2 dominated year was not always associated with more hospitalizations than a 'seasonal' H1N1 year. Hospitalization burden was higher in seasons when drifted viruses of H1N1 or H3N2 dominated. No hospitalization was documented in infants <6 months of age during years when an undrifted virus circulated (2006 for H1N1 and 2008 for H3N2) but significant hospitalization was observed with a drifted or shifted virus (2004, 2005, 2007 and 2010 for H3N2, and 2009 for H1N1pdm09). We documented a consistently high pediatric hospitalization burden of influenza A. Knowledge of antigenic changes and their proportion of circulation aids in the interpretation of impact of the subtypes. Year-to-year variation in hospitalization rates in young infants appeared to correlate with antigenic variation, lending support to the role of protection from maternal antibodies.

  14. An Information System of Human Body Composition Based on Android Client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an information system of human body composition based on Android client. The system consists of the Android client, the measurement unit, the Database Server, the FTP Server, the Web Server and portable storage devices. It is able to collect, restore, synchronize, and batch import and export user profile information and human body composition information. The merits of the system are that the development cycle is shortened, the cost and energy consumption of equipment are reduced, and the portability and mobility are enhanced. The system has also optimized the communication of human body composition measurement. As a result, the client and the measurement unit are robust and capable of addressing the fault and solving deficiencies in the communication process. With a more reliable system, accurate transmission of data can be guaranteed.

  15. Genomics-Based Identifcation of Microorganisms in Human Ocular Body Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstahler, Philipp; Solborg Bjerrum, Søren; Friis-Møller, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Advances in genomics have the potential to revolutionize clinical diagnostics. Here, we examine the microbiome of vitreous (intraocular body fluid) from patients who developed endophthalmitis following cataract surgery or intravitreal injection. Endophthalmitis is an inflammation of the intraocul...... through analyses of whole genome sequence (WGS) assemblies of isolates and metagenomic assemblies. Together, we conclude that genomics-based analyses of human ocular body fluid specimens can provide actionable information relevant to infectious disease management.......Advances in genomics have the potential to revolutionize clinical diagnostics. Here, we examine the microbiome of vitreous (intraocular body fluid) from patients who developed endophthalmitis following cataract surgery or intravitreal injection. Endophthalmitis is an inflammation of the intraocular...... to reduce background DNA in these low microbial biomass samples. We created a curated microbial genome database (>5700 genomes) and designed a metagenomics workflow with filtering steps to reduce DNA sequences originating from: (i) human hosts, (ii) ambiguousness/contaminants in public microbial reference...

  16. Performance of human body communication-based wearable ECG with capacitive coupling electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Jun; Anzai, Daisuke; Wang, Jianqing

    2016-09-01

    Wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) is attracting much attention in daily healthcare applications, and human body communication (HBC) technology provides an evident advantage in making the sensing electrodes of ECG also working for transmission through the human body. In view of actual usage in daily life, however, non-contact electrodes to the human body are desirable. In this Letter, the authors discussed the ECG circuit structure in the HBC-based wearable ECG for removing the common mode noise when employing non-contact capacitive coupling electrodes. Through the comparison of experimental results, they have shown that the authors' proposed circuit structure with the third electrode directly connected to signal ground can provide an effect on common mode noise reduction similar to the usual drive-right-leg circuit, and a sufficiently good acquisition performance of ECG signals.

  17. Acute Gastroenteritis and Recreational Water: Highest Burden ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECT I VES : To provide summary estimates of gastroenteritis risks and illness burden associated with recreational water exposure and determine whether children have higher risks and burden.METHODS: We combined individual participant data from 13 prospective cohorts at marine and freshwater beaches throughout the United States (n = 84 411). We measured incident outcomes within 10 days of exposure: diarrhea, gastrointestinal illness, missed daily activity (work, school, vacation), and medical visits. We estimated the relationship between outcomes and 2 exposures: body immersion swimming and Enterococcus spp. fecal indicator bacteria levels in the water. We also estimated the population-attributable risk associated with these exposures.RESULTS: Water exposure accounted for 21% of diarrhea episodes and 9% of missed daily activities but was unassociated with gastroenteritis leading to medical consultation. Children aged 0 to 4 and 5 to 10 years had the most water exposure, exhibited stronger associations between levels of water quality and illness, and accounted for the largest attributable illness burden.CONCLUSIONS: The higher gastroenteritis risk and associated burden in young children presents important new information to inform future recreational water quality guidelines designed to protect public health. Meta-analysis of 13 beach sites and nearly 90,000 subjects found that swimming at the beach increased diarrhea incidence and individuals who swam in water

  18. A novel body motion model based personal dead-reckoning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhiyu; Qi, Baozhen; Wang, Jiafeng

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a novel human body motion model based dead reckoning approach. After brief description of system overview, a new body motion model is given based on the inherent relationship between step frequency and step length existed in two common motion patterns: walking and running. The parameter calibration of the model is given as well. Upon receiving the data from sensors, step frequency is first computed by detecting the periodic changing of linear acceleration in vertical axis, and then the real-time footstep length can be obtained according to the proposed motion model. Angular velocity measurement produced by vertical gyroscope is filtered and integrated by Kalman filter to obtain motion direction change. With movement distance and direction in hand, dead-reckoning can be easily carried out. Experimental results based on real data acquired under different motion patterns show the promising performance of the system.

  19. A systematic meta-review of manipulative and body-based CAM for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Johannessen, Helle

    another review warns against the use of massage for fragile patients. Conclusion: There is fairly good evidence that massage can help to reduce stress and anxiety in cancer patients if it is provided by well qualified practitioners. Massage can safely be combined with conventional cancer treatment......  Background: There is a need for high-level evidence on the effects of CAM for cancer. 36% of European cancer patients have used CAM, and CAM is increasing integrated in oncology without a firm evidence base. This presentation provides a meta review of effects of manipulative and body......-based complementary medicine for cancer. Methods: Pubmed, the Cochrane library, AMED and Science citation index were systematically searched for reviews of quantitative and qualitative studies on effects of CAM for cancer or cancer related systems published 2000-2007. All reviews on manipulative and body-based CAM...

  20. Hierarchical decomposition of burn body diagram based on cutaneous functional units and its utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Reg; Jones, John A; Parshley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A burn body diagram (BBD) is a common feature used in the delivery of burn care for estimating the TBSA burn as well as calculating fluid resuscitation and nutritional requirements, wound healing, and rehabilitation intervention. However, little change has occurred for over seven decades in the configuration of the BBD. The purpose of this project was to develop a computerized model using hierarchical decomposition (HD) to more precisely determine the percentage burn within a BBD based on cutaneous functional units (CFUs). HD is a process by which a system is degraded into smaller parts that are more precise in their use. CFUs were previously identified fields of the skin involved in the range of motion. A standard Lund/Browder (LB) BBD template was used as the starting point to apply the CFU segments. LB body divisions were parceled down into smaller body area divisions through a HD process based on the CFU concept. A numerical pattern schema was used to label the various segments in a cephalo/caudal, anterior/posterior, medial/lateral manner. Hand/fingers were divided based on anatomical landmarks and known cutaneokinematic function. The face was considered using aesthetic units. Computer code was written to apply the numeric hierarchical schema to CFUs and applied within the context of the surface area graphic evaluation BBD program. Each segmented CFU was coded to express 100% of itself. The CFU/HD method refined the standard LB diagram from 13 body segments and 33 subdivisions into 182 isolated CFUs. Associated CFUs were reconstituted into 219 various surface area combinations totaling 401 possible surface segments. The CFU/HD schema of the body surface mapping is applicable to measuring and calculating percent wound healing in a more precise manner. It eliminates subjective assessment of the percentage wound healing and the need for additional devices such as planimetry. The development of CFU/HD body mapping schema has rendered a technologically advanced

  1. Viewing the body after bereavement due to suicide: a population-based survey in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Omerov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on the assumed, positive and negative, psychological effects of viewing the body after a suicide loss is sparse. We hypothesized that suicide-bereaved parents that viewed their childs body in a formal setting seldom regretted the experience, and that viewing the body was associated with lower levels of psychological morbidity two to five years after the loss. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 915 suicide-bereaved parents by linkage of nationwide population-based registries and collected data by a questionnaire. The outcome measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. In total, 666 (73% parents participated. Of the 460 parents (69% that viewed the body, 96% answered that they did not regret the experience. The viewing was associated with a higher risk of reliving the child's death through nightmares (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.32 and intrusive memories (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38, but not with anxiety (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.40 and depression (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.83. One limitation of our study is that we lack data on the informants' personality and coping strategies. CONCLUSIONS: In this Swedish population-based survey of suicide-bereaved parents, we found that by and large everyone that had viewed their deceased child in a formal setting did not report regretting the viewing when asked two to five years after the loss. Our findings suggest that most bereaved parents are capable of deciding if they want to view the body or not. Officials may assist by giving careful information about the child's appearance and other details concerning the viewing, thus facilitating mental preparation for the bereaved person. This is the first large-scale study on the effects of viewing the body after a suicide and additional studies are needed before clinical recommendations can be made.

  2. Exploring the human body space: A geographical information system based anatomical atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbeito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical atlases allow mapping the anatomical structures of the human body. Early versions of these systems consisted of analogical representations with informative text and labeled images of the human body. With computer systems, digital versions emerged and the third and fourth dimensions were introduced. Consequently, these systems increased their efficiency, allowing more realistic visualizations with improved interactivity and functionality. The 4D atlases allow modeling changes over time on the structures represented. The anatomical atlases based on geographic information system (GIS environments allow the creation of platforms with a high degree of interactivity and new tools to explore and analyze the human body. In this study we expand the functions of a human body representation system by creating new vector data, topology, functions, and an improved user interface. The new prototype emulates a 3D GIS with a topological model of the human body, replicates the information provided by anatomical atlases, and provides a higher level of functionality and interactivity. At this stage, the developed system is intended to be used as an educational tool and integrates into the same interface the typical representations of surface and sectional atlases.

  3. A Full-Body Layered Deformable Model for Automatic Model-Based Gait Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haiping; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2007-12-01

    This paper proposes a full-body layered deformable model (LDM) inspired by manually labeled silhouettes for automatic model-based gait recognition from part-level gait dynamics in monocular video sequences. The LDM is defined for the fronto-parallel gait with 22 parameters describing the human body part shapes (widths and lengths) and dynamics (positions and orientations). There are four layers in the LDM and the limbs are deformable. Algorithms for LDM-based human body pose recovery are then developed to estimate the LDM parameters from both manually labeled and automatically extracted silhouettes, where the automatic silhouette extraction is through a coarse-to-fine localization and extraction procedure. The estimated LDM parameters are used for model-based gait recognition by employing the dynamic time warping for matching and adopting the combination scheme in AdaBoost.M2. While the existing model-based gait recognition approaches focus primarily on the lower limbs, the estimated LDM parameters enable us to study full-body model-based gait recognition by utilizing the dynamics of the upper limbs, the shoulders and the head as well. In the experiments, the LDM-based gait recognition is tested on gait sequences with differences in shoe-type, surface, carrying condition and time. The results demonstrate that the recognition performance benefits from not only the lower limb dynamics, but also the dynamics of the upper limbs, the shoulders and the head. In addition, the LDM can serve as an analysis tool for studying factors affecting the gait under various conditions.

  4. The humanistic burden of hereditary angioedema: results from the Burden of Illness Study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Teresa; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen; Hautamaki, Emily; Sisic, Zlatko; Wait, Suzanne; Boysen, Henrik B

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling. The broad range of consequences of HAE on patients' lives is not well understood. The study objective was to comprehensively characterize the burden of illness and impact of HAE types I and II from the patient perspective. The HAE Burden of Illness Study in Europe was conducted in Spain, Germany, and Denmark to assess the real-world experience of HAE from the patient perspective via a one-time survey, which included items on clinical characteristics and physical and emotional impacts. One hundred eighty-six patients participated; 59% reported having an attack at least once a month, 67% reported moderate-to-severe pain during their last attack, and 74% reported moderate-to-severe swelling. The most common sites of the last attack were the abdomen and extremities; 24% experienced an attack in more than one site. The impact of HAE on daily activities was high during attacks and did not vary significantly by body site affected; patients also reported that HAE impacted their daily activities between attacks. Patients reported substantial anxiety about future attacks, traveling, and passing HAE to their children. Based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, 38 and 14% had clinically meaningful anxiety and depression, respectively. Despite standard of care, HAE patients still have frequent and painful attacks. Patients experience substantial impairment physically and emotionally both during and between attacks. A better understanding of these effects may help in the clinical management of HAE patients.

  5. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Siew Li; Chong, Huey Yi; Abdul Aziz, Salina; Chemi, Norliza; Othman, Abdul Razak; Md Zaki, Nurzuriana; Vanichkulpitak, Possatorn; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia. A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient's identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted. The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million (M) which was equivalent to 0.04% of the national gross domestic product. On average, the mean cost per patient was USD 6,594. Of the total economic burden of SCZ, 72% was attributed to indirect cost, costing at USD 72M, followed by direct medical cost (26%), costing at USD 26M, and direct non-medical cost (2%), costing at USD 1.7M. This study highlights the magnitude of economic burden of SCZ and informs the policy-makers that there is an inadequate support for SCZ patients. More resources should be allocated to improve the condition of SCZ patients and to reduce the economic burden.

  6. The global burden of cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Methods Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. Findings About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4–4.3) and an estimated 87 000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91 000 people (uncertainty range: 28 000 to 142 000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. Conclusion The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera. PMID:22461716

  7. The body project 4 all: A pilot randomized controlled trial of a mixed-gender dissonance-based body image program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Blomquist, Kerstin; Verzijl, Christina; Wilfred, Salomé; Beyl, Robbie; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2016-06-01

    The Body Project is a cognitive dissonance-based body image improvement program with ample research support among female samples. More recently, researchers have highlighted the extent of male body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors; however, boys/men have not been included in the majority of body image improvement programs. This study aims to explore the efficacy of a mixed-gender Body Project compared with the historically female-only body image intervention program. Participants included male and female college students (N = 185) across two sites. We randomly assigned women to a mixed-gender modification of the two-session, peer-led Body Project (MG), the two-session, peer-led, female-only (FO) Body Project, or a waitlist control (WL), and men to either MG or WL. Participants completed self-report measures assessing negative affect, appearance-ideal internalization, body satisfaction, and eating disorder pathology at baseline, post-test, and at 2- and 6-month follow-up. Linear mixed effects modeling to estimate the change from baseline over time for each dependent variable across conditions were used. For women, results were mixed regarding post-intervention improvement compared with WL, and were largely non-significant compared with WL at 6-month follow-up. Alternatively, results indicated that men in MG consistently improved compared with WL through 6-month follow-up on all measures except negative affect and appearance-ideal internalization. Results differed markedly between female and male samples, and were more promising for men than for women. Various explanations are provided, and further research is warranted prior to drawing firm conclusions regarding mixed-gender programming of the Body Project. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:591-602). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Quantitative Risk Evaluation Model for Network Security Based on Body Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, in allusion to the traditional network security risk evaluation model, which have certain limitations for real-time, accuracy, characterization. This paper proposed a quantitative risk evaluation model for network security based on body temperature (QREM-BT, which refers to the mechanism of biological immune system and the imbalance of immune system which can result in body temperature changes, firstly, through the r-contiguous bits nonconstant matching rate algorithm to improve the detection quality of detector and reduce missing rate or false detection rate. Then the dynamic evolution process of the detector was described in detail. And the mechanism of increased antibody concentration, which is made up of activating mature detector and cloning memory detector, is mainly used to assess network risk caused by various species of attacks. Based on these reasons, this paper not only established the equation of antibody concentration increase factor but also put forward the antibody concentration quantitative calculation model. Finally, because the mechanism of antibody concentration change is reasonable and effective, which can effectively reflect the network risk, thus body temperature evaluation model was established in this paper. The simulation results showed that, according to body temperature value, the proposed model has more effective, real time to assess network security risk.

  9. A regional flux-based risk assessment approach for multiple contaminated sites on groundwater bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, P; Dollé, F; Chisala, B; Orban, Ph; Popescu, I-C; Hérivaux, C; Dassargues, A; Brouyère, S

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the Water Framework Directive (EP and CEU, 2000), management plans have to be set up to monitor and to maintain water quality in groundwater bodies in the EU. In heavily industrialized and urbanized areas, the cumulative effect of multiple contaminant sources is likely and has to be evaluated. In order to propose adequate measures, the calculated risk should be based on criteria reflecting the risk of groundwater quality deterioration, in a cumulative manner and at the scale of the entire groundwater body. An integrated GIS- and flux-based risk assessment approach for groundwater bodies is described, with a regional scale indicator for evaluating the quality status of the groundwater body. It is based on the SEQ-ESO currently used in the Walloon Region of Belgium which defines, for different water uses and for a detailed list of groundwater contaminants, a set of threshold values reflecting the levels of water quality and degradation with respect to each contaminant. The methodology is illustrated with first results at a regional scale on a groundwater body-scale application to a contaminated alluvial aquifer which has been classified to be at risk of not reaching a good quality status by 2015. These first results show that contaminants resulting from old industrial activities in that area are likely to contribute significantly to the degradation of groundwater quality. However, further investigations are required on the evaluation of the actual polluting pressures before any definitive conclusion be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Frame-Based Immobilization and Targeting for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Bryan C.; Forster, Kenneth; Timmerman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Frame-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), such as that conducted with Elekta's Stereotactic Body Frame, can provide an extra measure of precision in the delivery of radiation to extracranial targets, and facilitates secure patient immobilization. In this paper, we review the steps involved in optimal use of an extra-cranial immobilization device for SBRT treatments. Our approach to using frame-based SBRT consists of 4 steps: patient immobilization, tumor and organ motion control, treatment/planning correlation, and daily targeting with pretreatment quality assurance. Patient immobilization was achieved with the Vac-Loc bag, which uses styrofoam beads to conform to the patient's shape comfortably within the body frame. Organ and motion control was assessed under fluoroscopy and controlled via a frame-mounted abdominal pressure plate. The compression screw was tightened until the diaphragmatic excursion range was < 1 cm. Treatment planning was performed using the Philips Pinnacle 6.2b system. In this treatment process, a 20 to 30 noncoplanar beam arrangement was initially selected and an inverse beam weight optimization algorithm was applied. Those beams with low beam weights were removed, leaving a manageable number of beams for treatment delivery. After planning, daily targeting using computed tomography (CT) to verify x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the treatment isocenter were used as a measure of quality assurance. We found our daily setup variation typically averaged < 5 mm in all directions, which is comparable to other published studies on Stereotactic Body Frame. Treatment time ranged from 30 to 45 minutes. Results demonstrate that patients have experienced high rates of local control with acceptable rates of severe side effects-by virtue of the tightly constrained treatment fields. The body frame facilitated comfortable patient positioning and quality assurance checks of the tumor, in relation to another set of independent set of coordinates

  11. Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Anderson, S T; Appleton, D J; Morton, J M; Vankan, D

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computational anatomy based on whole body imaging basic principles of computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Masutani, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with computational anatomy, an emerging discipline recognized in medical science as a derivative of conventional anatomy. It is also a completely new research area on the boundaries of several sciences and technologies, such as medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics. Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging highlights the underlying principles, basic theories, and fundamental techniques in computational anatomy, which are derived from conventional anatomy, medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics, in addition to various examples of applications in clinical data. The book will cover topics on the basics and applications of the new discipline. Drawing from areas in multidisciplinary fields, it provides comprehensive, integrated coverage of innovative approaches to computational anatomy. As well,Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging serves as a valuable resource for researchers including graduate students in the field and a connection with ...

  13. Burden of Illness in Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Beusterien, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the Hereditary Angioedema Burden of Illness Study in Europe was to assess the real-world experience of HAE from the patient perspective. Based on open-ended qualitative interviews with 30 patients from Spain, Germany and Denmark, 5 key themes emerged characterizing the impact...

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Python Telecare System Based on a Bluetooth Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Morón; A. Gómez-Jaime; J. R. Luque; E. Casilari

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a telemonitoring system, based on a BAN (Body Area Network) that is integrated by a Bluetooth (BT) pulse oximeter, a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit, and a smartphone. The smartphone is the hardware platform for running a Python software that manages the Bluetooth piconet formed by the sensors. Thus the smartphone forwards the data received from the Bluetooth devices, encoded into JSON (JavaScript Object Notation), to a central server. This server prov...

  15. Game Theory Based Security in Wireless Body Area Network with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is effectively used in healthcare to increase the value of the patient's life and also the value of healthcare services. The biosensor based approach in medical care system makes it difficult to respond to the patients with minimal response time. The medical care unit does not deploy the accessing of ubiquitous broadband connections full time and hence the level of security will not be high always. The security issue also arises in monitoring the user body function records. Most of the systems on the Wireless Body Area Network are not effective in facing the security deployment issues. To access the patient's information with higher security on WBAN, Game Theory with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium (GTSSE) is proposed in this paper. GTSSE mechanism takes all the players into account. The patients are monitored by placing the power position authority initially. The position authority in GTSSE is the organizer and all the other players react to the organizer decision. Based on our proposed approach, experiment has been conducted on factors such as security ratio based on patient's health information, system flexibility level, energy consumption rate, and information loss rate. Stackelberg Security considerably improves the strength of solution with higher security. PMID:26759829

  16. Game Theory Based Security in Wireless Body Area Network with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, M; Sivakumar, R

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is effectively used in healthcare to increase the value of the patient's life and also the value of healthcare services. The biosensor based approach in medical care system makes it difficult to respond to the patients with minimal response time. The medical care unit does not deploy the accessing of ubiquitous broadband connections full time and hence the level of security will not be high always. The security issue also arises in monitoring the user body function records. Most of the systems on the Wireless Body Area Network are not effective in facing the security deployment issues. To access the patient's information with higher security on WBAN, Game Theory with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium (GTSSE) is proposed in this paper. GTSSE mechanism takes all the players into account. The patients are monitored by placing the power position authority initially. The position authority in GTSSE is the organizer and all the other players react to the organizer decision. Based on our proposed approach, experiment has been conducted on factors such as security ratio based on patient's health information, system flexibility level, energy consumption rate, and information loss rate. Stackelberg Security considerably improves the strength of solution with higher security.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of the dual burden of malnutrition at the household level in Puna and Quebrada of Humahuaca, Jujuy, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassete, M N; Romaguera, D; Giménez, M A; Lobo, M O; Samman, N C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify households in which overweight and underweight coexisted (dual burden of malnutrition) and explore the factors that could be contributing to the dual burden of malnutrition at the household level in this population. Cross-sectional nutritional survey. After applying the exclusion criteria, 136 households were included. Mothers were classified as normal weight or overweight/obese based on body mass index (BMI) cut-off points and children and adolescents were classified as stunted or not based on height-for-age z-score. Households with an obese mother and a stunted children or adolescent were categorized as dual burden households. The prevalence of dual burden household was 12%. Compared with other households, dual burden households tended to have more people living in the house, and the educational level of the head of household was lower. Individuals living in dual burden households showed overall lower energy intakes and were more likely to have inadequate intakes of calcium and iron. The nutrition transition in this community might be one of the leading causes of the observed dual burden of malnutrition. The results presented here indicate the need to consider whether programs that focus on only one type of nutritional problem come might actually exacerbate the other. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Burden of obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study

    OpenAIRE

    Global Burden of Disease 2015 Eastern Mediterranean Region Obesity Collaborators,; Bennet, DA; Hay, SI

    2017-01-01

    Objectives\\ud \\ud We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 study results to explore the burden of high body mass index (BMI) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR).\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud \\ud We estimated the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (2–19 years) and adults (≥20 years) in 1980 and 2015. The burden of disease related to high BMI was calculated using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach.\\ud \\ud Results\\ud \\ud The prevalence of obesity increased for adults...

  19. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  20. How small could a pup sound? The physical bases of signaling body size in harbor seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Stephanie; Garcia, Maxime; Rubio-Garcia, Ana; de Boer, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Vocal communication is a crucial aspect of animal behavior. The mechanism which most mammals use to vocalize relies on three anatomical components. First, air overpressure is generated inside the lower vocal tract. Second, as the airstream goes through the glottis, sound is produced via vocal fold vibration. Third, this sound is further filtered by the geometry and length of the upper vocal tract. Evidence from mammalian anatomy and bioacoustics suggests that some of these three components may covary with an animal’s body size. The framework provided by acoustic allometry suggests that, because vocal tract length (VTL) is more strongly constrained by the growth of the body than vocal fold length (VFL), VTL generates more reliable acoustic cues to an animal’s size. This hypothesis is often tested acoustically but rarely anatomically, especially in pinnipeds. Here, we test the anatomical bases of the acoustic allometry hypothesis in harbor seal pups Phoca vitulina. We dissected and measured vocal tract, vocal folds, and other anatomical features of 15 harbor seals post-mortem. We found that, while VTL correlates with body size, VFL does not. This suggests that, while body growth puts anatomical constraints on how vocalizations are filtered by harbor seals’ vocal tract, no such constraints appear to exist on vocal folds, at least during puppyhood. It is particularly interesting to find anatomical constraints on harbor seals’ vocal tracts, the same anatomical region partially enabling pups to produce individually distinctive vocalizations. PMID:29492005

  1. Distributed Group-Based Mobility Management Scheme in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moneeb Gohar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For group-based mobility management in 6LoWPAN-based wireless body area networks (WBAN, some schemes using the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIP have been proposed. However, the existing PMIP-based mobility schemes tend to induce large registration delay and handover delay. To overcome such limitations, we propose a new distributed group-based mobility management scheme, in which the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA function is implemented by each Mobile Access Gateway (MAG and the handover operation is performed between two neighboring MAGs without the help of LMA. Besides, each MAG maintains the information of the group of mobile sensors and aggregates the Authentication-Authorization-Accounting (AAA query messages for a group of mobile sensors as a “single” message to decrease the control overhead. By numerical analysis, it is shown that the proposed scheme can reduce the registration and handover delays, compared to the existing PMIP-based mobility schemes.

  2. An in vivo animal study assessing long-term changes in hypothalamic cytokines following perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture based on Arctic maternal body burden

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley, Shawn; Mangano, Emily; Crowe, Geoffrey; Li, Nanqin; Bowers, Wayne J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The geographic distribution of environmental toxins is generally not uniform, with certain northern regions showing a particularly high concentration of pesticides, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. For instance, Northern Canadians are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and methylmercury (MeHg), primarily through country foods. Previous studies have reported association...

  3. Validation of a new whole-body cryotherapy chamber based on forced convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzigon, Romain; Arfaoui, Ahlem; Grappe, Frédéric; Ravier, Gilles; Jarlot, Benoit; Dugue, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) and partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) are two methods of cold exposure (from -110 to -195°C according to the manufacturers). However, temperature measurement in the cold chamber during a PBC exposure revealed temperatures ranging from -25 to -50°C next to the skin of the subjects (using isolating layer placed between the sensor and the skin). This discrepancy is due to the human body heat transfer. Moreover, on the surface of the body, an air layer called the boundary layer is created during the exposure and limits heat transfer from the body to the cabin air. Incorporating forced convection in a chamber with a participant inside could reduce this boundary layer. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a new WBC technology based on forced convection (frontal unilateral wind) through the measurement of skin temperature. Fifteen individuals performed a 3-min WBC exposure at -40°C with an average wind speed of 2.3ms -1 . The subjects wore a headband, a surgical mask, underwear, gloves and slippers. The skin temperature of the participants was measured with a thermal camera just before exposure, just after exposure and at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20min after exposure. Mean skin temperature significantly dropped by 11°C just after exposure (pcryosauna devices with reported exposures between -140°C and -160°C and those in two other WBC devices with reported exposures between -60°C and -110°C. The use of this new technology provides the ability to reach decreases in skin temperature similar to other technologies. The new chamber is suitable and relevant for use as a WBC device. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Passive control of base pressure on an axisymmetric blunt body using a perimetric slit

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de la Cruz, Juan Marcos; Oxlade, Anthony R.; Morrison, Jonathan F.

    2017-04-01

    The effect on the base pressure of a thin slit located at the base edge of a blunt axisymmetric body, communicating an internal cavity with the external flow, is investigated. A parametric study is performed of the effect on base pressure of changes in slit size and cavity depth. The base pressure increases initially with increasing cavity depth, but saturates at a depth which depends on the slit size. The base pressure increases monotonically up to 5 % with increasing slit size for the geometries tested. An upper limit of base pressure recovery of 20 % is extrapolated from the data. It is observed that the main effect of the slit is to reduce the instantaneous pressure asymmetry, which is linked to the total base pressure in a similar fashion for all the slit sizes. As a second-order effect, for highly asymmetric pressure distributions, the slit produces a base pressure increase not associated with the base pressure asymmetry. The results suggest a global effect of the slit on the wake due to a diametrical flow within the cavity driven by the pressure differences across the slit and regulated by the largest of the pressure drops between the slit and cavity. The slit also reduces the periodic base pressure fluctuations, corresponding mainly to the vortex shedding, and increases the rotational speed of the wake.

  5. Body-Based Gender Recognition Using Images from Visible and Thermal Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    Gender information has many useful applications in computer vision systems, such as surveillance systems, counting the number of males and females in a shopping mall, accessing control systems in restricted areas, or any human-computer interaction system. In most previous studies, researchers attempted to recognize gender by using visible light images of the human face or body. However, shadow, illumination, and time of day greatly affect the performance of these methods. To overcome this problem, we propose a new gender recognition method based on the combination of visible light and thermal camera images of the human body. Experimental results, through various kinds of feature extraction and fusion methods, show that our approach is efficient for gender recognition through a comparison of recognition rates with conventional systems. PMID:26828487

  6. Aft-body loading function for penetrators based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcope, Donald B., Jr.; Warren, Thomas Lynn; Duong, Henry

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we develop an aft-body loading function for penetration simulations that is based on the spherical cavity-expansion approximation. This loading function assumes that there is a preexisting cavity of radius a{sub o} before the expansion occurs. This causes the radial stress on the cavity surface to be less than what is obtained if the cavity is opened from a zero initial radius. This in turn causes less resistance on the aft body as it penetrates the target which allows for greater rotation of the penetrator. Results from simulations are compared with experimental results for oblique penetration into a concrete target with an unconfined compressive strength of 23 MPa.

  7. The evolution of the Global Burden of Disease framework for disease, injury and risk factor quantification: developing the evidence base for national, regional and global public health action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Alan D

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reliable, comparable information about the main causes of disease and injury in populations, and how these are changing, is a critical input for debates about priorities in the health sector. Traditional sources of information about the descriptive epidemiology of diseases, injuries and risk factors are generally incomplete, fragmented and of uncertain reliability and comparability. Lack of a standardized measurement framework to permit comparisons across diseases and injuries, as well as risk factors, and failure to systematically evaluate data quality have impeded comparative analyses of the true public health importance of various conditions and risk factors. As a consequence the impact of major conditions and hazards on population health has been poorly appreciated, often leading to a lack of public health investment. Global disease and risk factor quantification improved dramatically in the early 1990s with the completion of the first Global Burden of Disease Study. For the first time, the comparative importance of over 100 diseases and injuries, and ten major risk factors, for global and regional health status could be assessed using a common metric (Disability-Adjusted Life Years which simultaneously accounted for both premature mortality and the prevalence, duration and severity of the non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. As a consequence, mental health conditions and injuries, for which non-fatal outcomes are of particular significance, were identified as being among the leading causes of disease/injury burden worldwide, with clear implications for policy, particularly prevention. A major achievement of the Study was the complete global descriptive epidemiology, including incidence, prevalence and mortality, by age, sex and Region, of over 100 diseases and injuries. National applications, further methodological research and an increase in data availability have led to improved national, regional and global estimates

  8. Epidemiology and burden of alopecia areata: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villasante Fricke AC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra C Villasante Fricke, Mariya MitevaDepartment of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USABackground: Alopecia areata (AA is an autoimmune disorder characterized by patches of non-scarring alopecia affecting scalp and body hair that can be psychologically devastating. AA is clinically heterogenous, and its natural history is unpredictable. There is no preventative therapy or cure.Objective: The objective of this study is to provide an evidence-based systematic review on the epidemiology and the burden of AA.Methods and selection criteria: A search was conducted of the published, peer-reviewed literature via PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Studies published in English within the last 51 years that measured AA’s incidence, prevalence, distribution, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, quality of life, and associated psychiatric and medical comorbidities were included. Two authors assessed studies and extracted the data.Results: The lifetime incidence of AA is approximately 2% worldwide. Both formal population studies found no sex predominance. First onset is most common in the third and fourth decades of life but may occur at any age. An earlier age of first onset corresponds with an increased lifetime risk of extensive disease. Global DALYs for AA were calculated at 1,332,800 in 2010. AA patients are at risk for depression and anxiety, atopy, vitiligo, thyroid disease, and other autoimmune conditions.Conclusion: AA is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder and the second most prevalent hair loss disorder after androgenetic alopecia, and the lifetime risk in the global population is approximately 2%. AA is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and several autoimmune disorders, and an increased global burden of disease.Keywords: hair loss, hair, prevalence, incidence, burden of disease

  9. Discriminant models to estimate the body weight loss after a six-month long diet and exercise-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Peinado, Ana B; Zapico, Augusto G; Calderón, Franciso J

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of the people who follow a weight loss program is the body weight loss, independently of the body composition. The aim of this study was to create a mathematical model able to discriminate the body weight change based on initial body composition variables. The study included 239 overweight and obese participants (18-50 years; Body Mass Index (BMI)>25 and weight loss, during twenty-four weeks while having 25-30% caloric restriction. Two multivariate discriminant models were performed taking into account the groups below and above the mean body weight change. The discriminant models obtained could discriminate the body weight change with a 65-70% of correct classification. BW, fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) were shown to be the most discriminant variables for the discriminant models. People having higher FM and FFM at the beginning of an intervention will lose a greater amount of weight until the end of it.

  10. A Large-Scale Distribution of Milk-Based Fortified Spreads: Evidence for a New Approach in Regions with High Burden of Acute Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defourny, Isabelle; Minetti, Andrea; Harczi, Géza; Doyon, Stéphane; Shepherd, Susan; Tectonidis, Milton; Bradol, Jean-Hervé; Golden, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background There are 146 million underweight children in the developing world, which contribute to up to half of the world's child deaths. In high burden regions for malnutrition, the treatment of individual children is limited by available resources. Here, we evaluate a large-scale distribution of a nutritional supplement on the prevention of wasting. Methods and Findings A new ready-to-use food (RUF) was developed as a diet supplement for children under three. The intervention consisted of six monthly distributions of RUF during the 2007 hunger gap in a district of Maradi region, Niger, for approximately 60,000 children (length: 60–85 cm). At each distribution, all children over 65 cm had their Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) recorded. Admission trends for severe wasting (WFHmalnutrition (MUACmalnutrition. PMID:19421316

  11. A large-scale distribution of milk-based fortified spreads: evidence for a new approach in regions with high burden of acute malnutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Defourny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are 146 million underweight children in the developing world, which contribute to up to half of the world's child deaths. In high burden regions for malnutrition, the treatment of individual children is limited by available resources. Here, we evaluate a large-scale distribution of a nutritional supplement on the prevention of wasting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A new ready-to-use food (RUF was developed as a diet supplement for children under three. The intervention consisted of six monthly distributions of RUF during the 2007 hunger gap in a district of Maradi region, Niger, for approximately 60,000 children (length: 60-85 cm. At each distribution, all children over 65 cm had their Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC recorded. Admission trends for severe wasting (WFH<70% NCHS in Maradi, 2002-2005 show an increase every year during the hunger gap. In contrast, in 2007, throughout the period of the distribution, the incidence of severe acute malnutrition (MUAC<110 mm remained at extremely low levels. Comparison of year-over-year admissions to the therapeutic feeding program shows that the 2007 blanket distribution had essentially the same flattening effect on the seasonal rise in admissions as the 2006 individualized treatment of almost 60,000 children moderately wasted. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the potential for distribution of fortified spreads to reduce the incidence of severe wasting in large population of children 6-36 months of age. Although further information is needed on the cost-effectiveness of such distributions, these results highlight the importance of re-evaluating current nutritional strategies and international recommendations for high burden areas of childhood malnutrition.

  12. Hypertension and diabetes in Africa: design and implementation of a large population-based study of burden and risk factors in rural and urban Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampin, Amelia Catharine; Kayuni, Ndoliwe; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Musicha, Crispin; Koole, Olivier; Tafatatha, Terence; Branson, Keith; Saul, Jacqueline; Mwaiyeghele, Elenaus; Nkhwazi, Lawrence; Phiri, Amos; Price, Alison Jane; Mwagomba, Beatrice; Mwansambo, Charles; Jaffar, Shabbar; Nyirenda, Moffat Joha

    2016-01-01

    The emerging burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa threatens the gains made in health by the major international effort to combat infectious diseases. There are few data on distribution of risk factors and outcomes in the region to inform an effective public health response. A comprehensive research programme is being developed aimed at accurately documenting the burden and drivers of NCDs in urban and rural Malawi; to design and test intervention strategies. The programme includes population surveys of all people aged 18 years and above, linking individuals with newly diagnosed hypertension and diabetes to healthcare and supporting clinical services. The successes, challenges and lessons learnt from the programme to date are discussed. Over 20,000 adults have been recruited in rural Karonga and urban Lilongwe. The urban population is significantly younger and wealthier than the rural population. Employed urban individuals, particularly males, give particular recruitment challenges; male participation rates were 80.3 % in the rural population and 43.6 % in urban, whilst female rates were 93.6 and 75.6 %, respectively. The study is generating high quality data on hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and risk factors. It is feasible to develop large scale studies that can reliably inform the public health approach to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other NCDs in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is essential for studies to capture both rural and urban populations to address disparities in risk factors, including age structure. Innovative approaches are needed to address the specific challenge of recruiting employed urban males.

  13. Hypertension and diabetes in Africa: design and implementation of a large population-based study of burden and risk factors in rural and urban Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Catharine Crampin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emerging burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa threatens the gains made in health by the major international effort to combat infectious diseases. There are few data on distribution of risk factors and outcomes in the region to inform an effective public health response. A comprehensive research programme is being developed aimed at accurately documenting the burden and drivers of NCDs in urban and rural Malawi; to design and test intervention strategies. The programme includes population surveys of all people aged 18 years and above, linking individuals with newly diagnosed hypertension and diabetes to healthcare and supporting clinical services. The successes, challenges and lessons learnt from the programme to date are discussed. Results Over 20,000 adults have been recruited in rural Karonga and urban Lilongwe. The urban population is significantly younger and wealthier than the rural population. Employed urban individuals, particularly males, give particular recruitment challenges; male participation rates were 80.3 % in the rural population and 43.6 % in urban, whilst female rates were 93.6 and 75.6 %, respectively. The study is generating high quality data on hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and risk factors. Conclusions It is feasible to develop large scale studies that can reliably inform the public health approach to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other NCDs in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is essential for studies to capture both rural and urban populations to address disparities in risk factors, including age structure. Innovative approaches are needed to address the specific challenge of recruiting employed urban males.

  14. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh SL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Siew Li Teoh,1 Huey Yi Chong,1 Salina Abdul Aziz,2 Norliza Chemi,2 Abdul Razak Othman,2 Nurzuriana Md Zaki,2 Possatorn Vanichkulpitak,3 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1,4–6 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, 4Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 6Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21 Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaIntroduction: Schizophrenia (SCZ is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL. The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient’s identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted.Results: The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million

  15. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-08-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that accounts for different detectability in March 2008 and 2009, respectively. We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11.4% males, with significant seasonal deviation. Total tick infestation was high, with considerable individual variation (from 0 to 270 ticks/deer). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with roe deer body indices (body mass, age, hind foot length). Significantly more nymphs were found on deer from forest departments with high roe deer density indices, indicating a positive correlation with deer abundance. Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer.

  16. MODELING MAIN BODY OF OVERCROSSING BRIDGE BASED ON VEHICLE-BORNE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-borne laser scanning (VBLS is widely used to collect urban data for various mapping and modelling systems. This paper proposes a strategy of feature extraction and 3d model reconstruction for main body of overcrossing bridges based on VBLS point clouds. As the bridges usually have a large span, and the clouds data is often affected by obstacles, we have to use round-trip cloud data to avoid missing part. To begin with, pick out the cloud of the bridge body by an interactive clip-box, and group points by scan-line, then sort the points by scanning angle on each scan line. Since the position under the vehicle have a fixed scan-angle, a virtual path can be obtained. Secondly, extract horizontal line segments perpendicular to the virtual path along adjacent scan-lines, and then cluster line segments into long line-strings, which represent the top and bottom edge. Finally, regularize the line-strings and build 3d surface model of the bridge body. Experimental studies have demonstrated its efficiency and accuracy in case of building bridge model. Modelling the stairs at the both end of the bridge will be the direction of the next step.

  17. Stereotactic Body Radiosurgery for Spinal Metastatic Disease: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Hall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal metastasis is a problem that afflicts many cancer patients. Traditionally, conventional fractionated radiation therapy and/or surgery have been the most common approaches for managing such patients. Through technical advances in radiotherapy, high dose radiation with extremely steep drop off can now be delivered to a limited target volume along the spine under image-guidance with very high precision. This procedure, known as stereotactic body radiosurgery, provides a technique to rapidly treat selected spinal metastasis patients with single- or limited-fraction treatments that have similar to superior efficacies compared with more established approaches. This review describes current treatment systems in use to deliver stereotactic body radiosurgery as well as results of some of the larger case series from a number of institutions that report outcomes of patients treated for spinal metastatic disease. These series include nearly 1400 patients and report a cumulative local control rate of 90% with myelopathy risk that is significantly less than 1%. Based on this comprehensive review of the literature, we believe that stereotactic body radiosurgery is an established treatment modality for patients with spinal metastatic disease that is both safe and highly effective.

  18. Smooth transition for CPG-based body shape control of a snake-like robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor, Norzalilah Mohamad; Ma, Shugen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a locomotion control based on central pattern generator (CPG) of a snake-like robot. The main point addressed in this paper is a method that produces a smooth transition of the body shape of a snake-like robot. Body shape transition is important for snake-like robot locomotion to adapt to different space widths and also for obstacle avoidance. By manipulating the phase difference of the CPG outputs instantly, it will results in a sharp point or discontinuity which lead to an unstable movement of the snake-like robot. To tackle the problem, we propose a way of controlling the body shape: by incorporating activation function in the phase oscillator CPG model. The simplicity of the method promises an easy implementation and simple control. Simulation results and torque analysis confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control method and thus, can be used as a locomotion control in various potential applications of a snake-like robot. (paper)

  19. What works in secondary schools? A systematic review of classroom-based body image programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Halliwell, Emma

    2013-06-01

    Governments, schools, and curriculum authorities are increasingly recognizing that body image during adolescence is a public health issue that warrants attention in the school setting. After 30 years of eating disorder prevention research, and given the current interest in this area, it seems timely to review the research on interventions to improve body image in schools. We reviewed universal-selective, classroom-based programs that have been conducted since the year 2000, among adolescents, and found 16 eligible intervention programs. Seven of these programs were effective in improving body image on at least one measure, from pre to post test, though effect sizes were small (d=0.22-0.48). These effective programs were conducted among younger adolescents 12.33-13.62 years, and included activities focusing on media literacy, self esteem, and the influence of peers. Implications for school personnel and curriculum authorities are discussed, and we provide recommendations for a strategic approach to future research in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Periodic orbits for space-based reflectors in the circular restricted three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F. J. T.; McInnes, C. R.; Winter, O. C.

    2017-05-01

    The use of space-based orbital reflectors to increase the total insolation of the Earth has been considered with potential applications in night-side illumination, electric power generation and climate engineering. Previous studies have demonstrated that families of displaced Earth-centered and artificial halo orbits may be generated using continuous propulsion, e.g. solar sails. In this work, a three-body analysis is performed by using the circular restricted three body problem, such that, the space mirror attitude reflects sunlight in the direction of Earth's center, increasing the total insolation. Using the Lindstedt-Poincaré and differential corrector methods, a family of halo orbits at artificial Sun-Earth L_2 points are found. It is shown that the third order approximation does not yield real solutions after the reflector acceleration exceeds 0.245 mm s^{-2}, i.e. the analytical expressions for the in- and out-of-plane amplitudes yield imaginary values. Thus, a larger solar reflector acceleration is required to obtain periodic orbits closer to the Earth. Derived using a two-body approach and applying the differential corrector method, a family of displaced periodic orbits close to the Earth are therefore found, with a solar reflector acceleration of 2.686 mm s^{-2}.

  1. Modeling Main Body of Overcrossing Bridge Based on Vehicle-Borne Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Chen, M.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Vehicle-borne laser scanning (VBLS) is widely used to collect urban data for various mapping and modelling systems. This paper proposes a strategy of feature extraction and 3d model reconstruction for main body of overcrossing bridges based on VBLS point clouds. As the bridges usually have a large span, and the clouds data is often affected by obstacles, we have to use round-trip cloud data to avoid missing part. To begin with, pick out the cloud of the bridge body by an interactive clip-box, and group points by scan-line, then sort the points by scanning angle on each scan line. Since the position under the vehicle have a fixed scan-angle, a virtual path can be obtained. Secondly, extract horizontal line segments perpendicular to the virtual path along adjacent scan-lines, and then cluster line segments into long line-strings, which represent the top and bottom edge. Finally, regularize the line-strings and build 3d surface model of the bridge body. Experimental studies have demonstrated its efficiency and accuracy in case of building bridge model. Modelling the stairs at the both end of the bridge will be the direction of the next step.

  2. Experimental evaluation of regression model-based walking speed estimation using lower body-mounted IMU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihajehzadeh, Shaghayegh; Park, Edward J

    2016-08-01

    This study provides a concurrent comparison of regression model-based walking speed estimation accuracy using lower body mounted inertial sensors. The comparison is based on different sets of variables, features, mounting locations and regression methods. An experimental evaluation was performed on 15 healthy subjects during free walking trials. Our results show better accuracy of Gaussian process regression compared to least square regression using Lasso. Among the variables, external acceleration tends to provide improved accuracy. By using both time-domain and frequency-domain features, waist and ankle-mounted sensors result in similar accuracies: 4.5% for the waist and 4.9% for the ankle. When using only frequency-domain features, estimation accuracy based on a waist-mounted sensor suffers more compared to the one from ankle.

  3. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Bhandari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In wireless body area networks (WBANs, various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  4. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-03-18

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  5. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Pirbhulal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Body Sensor Network (BSN is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG, Photoplethysmography (PPG, Electrocardiogram (ECG, etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA, Data Encryption Standard (DES and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA. Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption.

  6. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-06-26

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption.

  7. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    square distance (MSD) as image similarity measures for calculating the weighting factors, along with other atlas-dependent algorithms, such as (v) shape-based averaging (SBA) and (vi) Hofmann's pseudo-CT generation method. The performance evaluation of the different segmentation techniques was carried...... criterion, global weighting atlas fusion methods provided moderate improvement of whole-body bone segmentation (DSC ='0.65'±'0.05) compared to non-weighted IA (DSC ='0.60'±'0.02). The local weighed atlas fusion approach using the MSD similarity measure outperformed the other strategies by achieving a DSC...

  8. Kinematic Model-Based Pedestrian Dead Reckoning for Heading Correction and Lower Body Motion Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Su Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method for finding the enhanced heading and position of pedestrians by fusing the Zero velocity UPdaTe (ZUPT-based pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR and the kinematic constraints of the lower human body. ZUPT is a well known algorithm for PDR, and provides a sufficiently accurate position solution for short term periods, but it cannot guarantee a stable and reliable heading because it suffers from magnetic disturbance in determining heading angles, which degrades the overall position accuracy as time passes. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is integrating the left and right foot positions obtained by ZUPTs with the heading and position information from an IMU mounted on the waist. To integrate this information, a kinematic model of the lower human body, which is calculated by using orientation sensors mounted on both thighs and calves, is adopted. We note that the position of the left and right feet cannot be apart because of the kinematic constraints of the body, so the kinematic model generates new measurements for the waist position. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF on the waist data that estimates and corrects error states uses these measurements and magnetic heading measurements, which enhances the heading accuracy. The updated position information is fed into the foot mounted sensors, and reupdate processes are performed to correct the position error of each foot. The proposed update-reupdate technique consequently ensures improved observability of error states and position accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method provides all the information about the lower human body, so that it can be applied more effectively to motion tracking. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified via experimental results, which show that a 1.25% Return Position Error (RPE with respect to walking distance is achieved.

  9. Kinematic Model-Based Pedestrian Dead Reckoning for Heading Correction and Lower Body Motion Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Su; Ju, Hojin; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Chan Gook

    2015-11-06

    In this paper, we present a method for finding the enhanced heading and position of pedestrians by fusing the Zero velocity UPdaTe (ZUPT)-based pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) and the kinematic constraints of the lower human body. ZUPT is a well known algorithm for PDR, and provides a sufficiently accurate position solution for short term periods, but it cannot guarantee a stable and reliable heading because it suffers from magnetic disturbance in determining heading angles, which degrades the overall position accuracy as time passes. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is integrating the left and right foot positions obtained by ZUPTs with the heading and position information from an IMU mounted on the waist. To integrate this information, a kinematic model of the lower human body, which is calculated by using orientation sensors mounted on both thighs and calves, is adopted. We note that the position of the left and right feet cannot be apart because of the kinematic constraints of the body, so the kinematic model generates new measurements for the waist position. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) on the waist data that estimates and corrects error states uses these measurements and magnetic heading measurements, which enhances the heading accuracy. The updated position information is fed into the foot mounted sensors, and reupdate processes are performed to correct the position error of each foot. The proposed update-reupdate technique consequently ensures improved observability of error states and position accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method provides all the information about the lower human body, so that it can be applied more effectively to motion tracking. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified via experimental results, which show that a 1.25% Return Position Error (RPE) with respect to walking distance is achieved.

  10. Equations based on anthropometry to predict body fat measured by absorptiometry in schoolchildren and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Vega López, A Valeria; Ramos-Ibáñez, Norma; Cázares Lara, L Joana; Medina Gómez, R Joab; Pérez-Salgado, Diana

    To develop and validate equations to estimate the percentage of body fat of children and adolescents from Mexico using anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 601 children and adolescents from Mexico aged 5-19 years. The participants were randomly divided into the following two groups: the development sample (n=398) and the validation sample (n=203). The validity of previously published equations (e.g., Slaughter) was also assessed. The percentage of body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height, weight, waist and arm circumferences, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, and calf), and elbow and bitrochanteric breadth. Linear regression models were estimated with the percentage of body fat as the dependent variable and the anthropometric measurements as the independent variables. Equations were created based on combinations of six to nine anthropometric variables and had coefficients of determination (r 2 ) equal to or higher than 92.4% for boys and 85.8% for girls. In the validation sample, the developed equations had high r 2 values (≥85.6% in boys and ≥78.1% in girls) in all age groups, low standard errors (SE≤3.05% in boys and ≤3.52% in girls), and the intercepts were not different from the origin (p>0.050). Using the previously published equations, the coefficients of determination were lower, and/or the intercepts were different from the origin. The equations developed in this study can be used to assess the percentage of body fat of Mexican schoolchildren and adolescents, as they demonstrate greater validity and lower error compared with previously published equations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Equations based on anthropometry to predict body fat measured by absorptiometry in schoolchildren and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ortiz-Hernández

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To develop and validate equations to estimate the percentage of body fat of children and adolescents from Mexico using anthropometric measurements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 601 children and adolescents from Mexico aged 5-19 years. The participants were randomly divided into the following two groups: the development sample (n = 398 and the validation sample (n = 203. The validity of previously published equations (e.g., Slaughter was also assessed. The percentage of body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height, weight, waist and arm circumferences, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, and calf, and elbow and bitrochanteric breadth. Linear regression models were estimated with the percentage of body fat as the dependent variable and the anthropometric measurements as the independent variables. Results: Equations were created based on combinations of six to nine anthropometric variables and had coefficients of determination (r2 equal to or higher than 92.4% for boys and 85.8% for girls. In the validation sample, the developed equations had high r2 values (≥85.6% in boys and ≥78.1% in girls in all age groups, low standard errors (SE ≤ 3.05% in boys and ≤3.52% in girls, and the intercepts were not different from the origin (p > 0.050. Using the previously published equations, the coefficients of determination were lower, and/or the intercepts were different from the origin. Conclusions: The equations developed in this study can be used to assess the percentage of body fat of Mexican schoolchildren and adolescents, as they demonstrate greater validity and lower error compared with previously published equations.

  12. Burden of menstrual symptoms in Japanese women – an analysis of medical care-seeking behavior from a survey-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka E

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Erika Tanaka,1 Mikio Momoeda,2 Yutaka Osuga,3 Bruno Rossi,4 Ken Nomoto,5 Masakane Hayakawa,5 Kinya Kokubo,6 Edward CY Wang1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Integrated Women's Health, St Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 4Market Access, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 5Medical Affairs Women's Health and Dermatology, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 6Consumer Goods/Service and Healthcare Industry Consulting Department, Nomura Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan Background: Menstrual symptoms are associated with various health problems in women of reproductive age, and this may impact their quality of life. Despite this, Japanese women are likely to hesitate seeking a specialist's medical help for their menstrual symptoms. Purpose: To study subject parameters including symptom severity, gynecological disorders, and treatments in medical care-seeking women (outpatient and women opting for self-care (nonvisit, to identify reasons why Japanese women do not see a gynecologist, and to document the benefit of gynecologist visits by assessing the impact on women's daily lives. Methods: Two online surveys were conducted among women aged 15–49 years. Sampling was structured to approximate the age and geographic distribution in Japan. Results of the first survey and part of the second survey on the overall current burden of menstrual symptoms are reported in a separate publication. Further outcomes from the second survey reported in this paper included data from the outpatient (n=274 and nonvisit (n=500 groups on symptom severity, gynecological disorders, medical treatment use, reasons for not seeking medical care, and the improvement of daily life. Results: The outpatient group tended to have greater symptom severity compared to the nonvisit group. Uterine fibroids, dysmenorrhea

  13. Relationships between Body Image, Body Mass Index, and Smoking in Korean Adolescents: Results of a Nationwide Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Taek; Kim, Hye In; Kim, Jee Hoon; Lee, Seok-Jin R; Hong, Seri; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the association between subjective body image or objective body mass index (BMI) and the risk of daily smoking in Korean adolescents, with a purpose of identifying the most suitable models. Using the 2013 9th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data for 72,435 students, odds ratios were calculated for daily smoking in the past month, according to the subjective body image and calculated BMI using a respective multiple logistic regression model. The combined effect of these two factors was also analyzed by pairing a BMI category with a subjective body image category, using odds ratios for the same event within each sex group. Among the surveyed students, 7.2% of boys and 1.8% of girls were classified as daily smokers. Students who perceived themselves as being very obese tended to be at lower risk of daily smoking (OR=0.61 in boys with 95% CI=0.47 to 0.79; OR=0.66 in women with 95% CI=0.47 to 0.93). In addition, boys within the obese or overweight BMI category showed a lower risk of daily smoking (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.77-0.96). Lean BMI was significantly associated with higher odds ratios for daily smoking only in female students (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.02-1.52). When pairing these two objective and subjective factors, results suggested that subjective body image has a greater effect on daily smoking than BMI in both boys and girls. In both male and female students, subjective body image had a greater effect on daily smoking than body mass index. A model using the combination of BMI and subjective body image was the best fit in girls, in contrast to the model using subjective body image only best suitable in boys, for the prediction of daily smoking. These results including several factors associated with daily smoking in Korean students, provide useful data for the development and implementation of smoking intervention and cessation programs for adolescents.

  14. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  15. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; Hennekam, Raoul C; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation) were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  16. Effects of circuit-based exercise programs on the body composition of elderly obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocalini DS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Sales Bocalini,1 Lucas S Lima,3 Socrates de Andrade,4 Angelo Madureira,4 Roberta L Rica,4,5 Rodrigo Nolasco dos Santos,4 Andrey Jorge Serra,1,2 Jose Antonio Silva Jr,2 Daniel Rodriguez,6 Aylton Figueira Jr,6 Francisco Luciano Pontes Jr31Departamenteo de Educação Física e, 2Ciências da Reabilitação da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3Curso de Gerontologia, Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades da Universidade de São Paulo (EACH, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 4Universidade Gama Filho (UGF, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; 5Departamento de Educação Física, Colegio Arbos, São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 6Departamento de Educação Física. Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAim: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit-based exercise on the body composition in obese older women by focusing on physical exercise and body weight (BW gain control in older people.Methods: Seventy older women (>60 years old voluntarily took part in the study. Participants were randomized into six different groups according to body mass index (BMI: appropriate weight (AW control (AWC and trained (AWT groups, overweight (OW control (OWC and trained (OWT groups, and obesity (O control (OC and trained (OT groups. The exercise program consisted of 50 minutes of exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The exercises were alternated between upper and lower body using rest between sets for 40 seconds with intensity controlled by heart rate (70% of work. The contraction time established was 5 seconds to eccentric and concentric muscular action phase. The following anthropometric parameters were evaluated: height (m, body weight (BW, kg, body fat (BF, %, fat mass (FM, kg, lean mass (LM, kg, and BMI (kg/m2.Results: The values (mean ± standard deviation [SD] of relative changes to BW (−8.0% ± 0.8%, BF (−21.4% ± 2.1%, LM (3.0% ± 0.3%, and FM (−31.2% ± 3.0% to the OT group were higher

  17. Application of random seismic inversion method based on tectonic model in thin sand body research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianju, W.; Jianghai, L.; Qingkai, F.

    2017-12-01

    The oil and gas exploitation at Songliao Basin, Northeast China have already progressed to the period with high water production. The previous detailed reservoir description that based on seismic image, sediment core, borehole logging has great limitations in small scale structural interpretation and thin sand body characterization. Thus, precise guidance for petroleum exploration is badly in need of a more advanced method. To do so, we derived the method of random seismic inversion constrained by tectonic model.It can effectively improve the depicting ability of thin sand bodies, combining numerical simulation techniques, which can credibly reducing the blindness of reservoir analysis from the whole to the local and from the macroscopic to the microscopic. At the same time, this can reduce the limitations of the study under the constraints of different geological conditions of the reservoir, accomplish probably the exact estimation for the effective reservoir. Based on the research, this paper has optimized the regional effective reservoir evaluation and the productive location adjustment of applicability, combined with the practical exploration and development in Aonan oil field.

  18. Organ/body-on-a-chip based on microfluidic technology for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Teruo

    2018-02-01

    Although animal experiments are indispensable for preclinical screening in the drug discovery process, various issues such as ethical considerations and species differences remain. To solve these issues, cell-based assays using human-derived cells have been actively pursued. However, it remains difficult to accurately predict drug efficacy, toxicity, and organs interactions, because cultivated cells often do not retain their original organ functions and morphologies in conventional in vitro cell culture systems. In the μTAS research field, which is a part of biochemical engineering, the technologies of organ-on-a-chip, based on microfluidic devices built using microfabrication, have been widely studied recently as a novel in vitro organ model. Since it is possible to physically and chemically mimic the in vitro environment by using microfluidic device technology, maintenance of cellular function and morphology, and replication of organ interactions can be realized using organ-on-a-chip devices. So far, functions of various organs and tissues, such as the lung, liver, kidney, and gut have been reproduced as in vitro models. Furthermore, a body-on-a-chip, integrating multi organ functions on a microfluidic device, has also been proposed for prediction of organ interactions. We herein provide a background of microfluidic systems, organ-on-a-chip, Body-on-a-chip technologies, and their challenges in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The burden of obesity in women of reproductive age and in pregnancy in a middle-income setting: A population based study from Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanguru, Lovney; McCaw-Binns, Affette; Bell, Jacqueline; Yonger-Coleman, Novie; Wilks, Rainford; Hussein, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is rising globally and is associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aims to investigate overweight and obesity and its consequences among Jamaican women of reproductive age, particularly development of diabetes, hypertension and the risk of maternal death. A national lifestyle survey (2007/8) of 1371 women of reproductive age provided data on the prevalence of high BMI, associated risk factors and co-morbidities. A national maternal mortality surveillance database (1998-2012) of 798 maternal deaths was used to investigate maternal deaths in obese women. Chi-squared and Fisher exact tests were used. High BMI (> = 25kg/m2) occurred in 63% of women aged between 15 and 49 years. It was associated with increasing age, high gravidity and parity, and full time employment (pproblem of maternal overweight and obesity. While survey diagnostic conditions require cautious interpretation of findings, it is clear that obesity and related medical conditions present a substantial public health problem for emerging LMICs like Jamaica. There is an urgent need for global consensus on routine measures of the burden and risk factors associated with obesity and development of culturally appropriate interventions.

  20. A Smoothed Finite Element-Based Elasticity Model for Soft Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in mesh-based deformation simulation in computer graphics is to deal with mesh distortion. In this paper, we present a novel mesh-insensitive and softer method for simulating deformable solid bodies under the assumptions of linear elastic mechanics. A face-based strain smoothing method is adopted to alleviate mesh distortion instead of the traditional spatial adaptive smoothing method. Then, we propose a way to combine the strain smoothing method and the corotational method. With this approach, the amplitude and frequency of transient displacements are slightly affected by the distorted mesh. Realistic simulation results are generated under large rotation using a linear elasticity model without adding significant complexity or computational cost to the standard corotational FEM. Meanwhile, softening effect is a by-product of our method.

  1. Global burden of stroke and risk factors in 188 countries, during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Valery L; Roth, Gregory A; Naghavi, Mohsen; Parmar, Priya; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Chugh, Sumeet; Mensah, George A; Norrving, Bo; Shiue, Ivy; Ng, Marie; Estep, Kara; Cercy, Kelly; Murray, Christopher J L; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H

    2016-08-01

    The contribution of modifiable risk factors to the increasing global and regional burden of stroke is unclear, but knowledge about this contribution is crucial for informing stroke prevention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) to estimate the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of stroke-related disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) associated with potentially modifiable environmental, occupational, behavioural, physiological, and metabolic risk factors in different age and sex groups worldwide and in high-income countries and low-income and middle-income countries, from 1990 to 2013. We used data on stroke-related DALYs, risk factors, and PAF from the GBD 2013 Study to estimate the burden of stroke by age and sex (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UI]) in 188 countries, as measured with stroke-related DALYs in 1990 and 2013. We evaluated attributable DALYs for 17 risk factors (air pollution and environmental, dietary, physical activity, tobacco smoke, and physiological) and six clusters of risk factors by use of three inputs: risk factor exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level. For most risk factors, we synthesised data for exposure with a Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR) or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. We based relative risks on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks, such as high body-mass index (BMI), through other risks, such as high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and high total cholesterol. Globally, 90·5% (95% UI 88·5-92·2) of the stroke burden (as measured in DALYs) was attributable to the modifiable risk factors analysed, including 74·2% (95% UI 70·7-76·7) due to behavioural factors (smoking, poor diet, and low physical activity). Clusters of metabolic factors (high SBP, high BMI, high

  2. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Jesper; Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alström, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian

    2016-02-02

    To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Academic medical centre. 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥ 20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ≥ 30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference -7.1 points, 95% confidence interval -9.8 to -4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference -4.5 points, -7.5 to -1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self reported satisfaction was high. CBT can be delivered safely via the internet to patients with body

  4. The equations of Lagrange for a continuous deformable body with rigid body degrees of freedom, written in a momentum based formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irschik, H.; Krommer, M.; Nader, M.; Vetyukov, Y.; von Garssen, H.-G.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with Lagrange's Equations, applied to a deformable body in the presence of rigid body degrees of freedom. The Lagrange description of Continuum Mechanics is used. An exact version of the Equations is derived first. This version, which represents an identical extension of the Fundamental Law of Dynamics, does involve the idea of virtual motions. The virtual motion is described in the framework of the Ritz-Ansatz, but our derivation does not make use of D'Alemberts principle, the principle of virtual work, or variational principles. From the exact version, by involving arguments related to the Galerkin approximation technique, we derive an approximate Ritz type version of Lagrange's Equations. This approximate version coincides with the traditional one, which is based on the notion of kinetic energy. However, since our derivation stems from the Fundamental Law of Dynamics, we have at our disposal an alternative formulation, which is based on the notion of local momentum. This momentum based version, which is the main topic of the present contribution, can be used for the purpose of performing independent checks of the energy based version of Lagrange's Equations. The momentum based version also clarifies that and how certain terms in the energy based version do cancel out. The momentum based version is worked out in the framework of the Floating Frame of Reference Formulation of Multibody Dynamics. Explicit formulas for the single terms of Lagrange's Equations are derived for the translational, rotational and flexible degrees of freedom of the deformable body, respectively. Corresponding Lagrange's Equations are explained in the light of the relations of Balance of Total Momentum, Balance of Total Moment of Momentum, of the Mean Stress Theorem and the notion of Virial of Forces. An embedding into the literature is given.

  5. Positive effect of pedometer-based walking intervention on body image and physical activity enjoyment in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantanista Adam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: To assess the effects of an eight-week pedometer-based walking intervention, using different strategies of goalsetting, on self-efficacy, physical activity enjoyment, and body image.

  6. Personal and appearance-based rejection sensitivity in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Megan M; Didie, Elizabeth R; Phillips, Katharine A

    2014-06-01

    Although rejection sensitivity may be an important feature of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), no studies have examined rejection sensitivity in a clinical sample and compared types of rejection sensitivity in individuals with BDD. Personal and appearance-based rejection sensitivity scores in forty-six patients diagnosed with BDD were compared with published norms. Associations between rejection sensitivity, BDD severity, and other clinical variables were examined. Personal and appearance-based rejection sensitivity scores were 0.6 and 1.1 standard deviation units above published norms, respectively. Greater personal rejection sensitivity was associated with more severe BDD and depressive symptoms, poorer mental health, general health, and physical and social functioning. Greater appearance-based rejection sensitivity was associated with more severe BDD and depressive symptoms, and poorer general health. Appearance-based rejection sensitivity contributed more unique variance to BDD severity than personal rejection sensitivity did; however, personal rejection sensitivity contributed more unique variance to general health than appearance-based rejection sensitivity did. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A Program to Protect Integrity of Body-Mind-Spirit: Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oznur Korukcu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness-based applications allow health care staffs to understand themselves as well as other individuals. Awareness based applications are not only stress reduction techniques but also a way of understanding the life and human existence, and it should not be only used to cope with the diseases. Emotions, thoughts and judgments of people might give direction to their life sometimes. Accessing a life without judgment and negative feelings brings a peaceful and happy life together. Mindfulness based stress reduction exercises may help to enjoy the present time, to cope with the challenges, stress and diseases and accept the negative life experiences rather than to question their reasons. About three decades ago, Kabat-Zin conducted the first investigation of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program which is used commonly all around the world. The 8-weeks program, which contains mindful living exercises (such as eating, walking, cooking, etc., yoga, body scan and meditation practices, requires doing daily life activity and meditation with attention, openness and acceptance. The aim of this review article is to give information about Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction program and to emphasize its importance. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 68-80

  8. A pilot study on health risk assessment based on body loadings of PCBs of lactating mothers at Taizhou, China, the world's major site for recycling transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yu Bon; Chow, Ka Lai; Xing, Guan Hua; Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2017-08-01

    Our early study reported an extraordinarily high Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of PCBs of lactating mothers from Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China (based on a food consumption survey and food basket analysis). The EDI well exceeded the intake limit stipulated by FAO/WHO 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight (bw)/month. The present pilot study provided further information on PCBs body burden in lactating mothers of Taizhou. The total PCBs detected in human milk, placenta and hair samples of these lactating mothers were 363 ng/g lipid, 224 ng/g lipid, and 386 ng/g dry wt. Respectively, three times higher than those samples collected from the reference site (Lin'an). Compared with the previous reported values in the 3rd WHO coordinated study, Taizhou topped the list of 32 countries/regions with regards to WHO-PCB-TEQ values of milk samples, which could be attributed to the relatively higher level of PCB-126 derived from electronic waste. In addition, the corresponding EDI of PCBs of Taizhou mothers (12.9 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ/kg bw/day) and infants (438 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ/kg) were derived from individual congener levels in human milk. The results were also higher than the tolerable daily intakes recommended by WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day) by 3 and 110 times, for mothers and infants, respectively. A more intensive epidemiological study on the potential health effects of e-waste recycling activities affecting both workers and residents seems to be of top priority, based on findings of this pilot study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Burden of Fungal Infections in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chekiri-Talbi, Mey; Denning, David

    2017-01-01

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates.We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the Service (Office) of the Statistics (ONES), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies...

  10. Microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment for reuse in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Han; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Dao, Guo-Hua; Xu, Xue-Qiao; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong -Ying

    2017-04-01

    Reuse of secondary municipal effluent from wastewater treatment plants in water bodies could effectively alleviate freshwater resource shortage. However, excessive nutrients must be efficiently removed to prevent eutrophication. Compared with other means of advanced wastewater treatment, microalgae-based processes display overwhelming advantages including efficient and simultaneous N and P removal, no requirement of additional chemicals, O 2 generation, CO 2 mitigation, and potential value-added products from harvested biomass. One particular challenge of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment compared to treatment of other types of wastewater is that concentrations of nutrients and N:P ratios in secondary municipal effluent are much lower and imbalanced. Therefore, there should be comprehensive considerations on nutrient removal from this specific type of effluent. Removal of nutrients and organic substances, and other environmental benefits of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment systems were summarized. Among the existing studies on microalgal advanced nutrient removal, much information on major parameters is absent, rendering performances between studies not really comparable. Mechanisms of microalgae-based nitrogen and phosphorus removal were respectively analyzed to better understand advanced nutrient removal from municipal secondary effluent. Factors influencing microalgae-based nutrient removal were divided into intrinsic, environmental, and operational categories; several factors were identified in each category, and their influences on microalgal nutrient removal were discussed. A multiplicative kinetic model was integrated to estimate microalgal growth-related nutrient removal based majorly on environmental and intrinsic factors. Limitations and prospects of future full-scale microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment were also suggested. The manuscript could offer much valuable information for future

  11. The relationship between waterpipe smoking and body weight: population-based findings from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth D; Ahn, SangNam; Mzayek, Fawaz; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Asfar, Taghrid; Fouad, Fouad; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has well known effects on body weight, with current smokers weighing less than never-smokers, and cessation producing weight gain. Use of waterpipe (or "hookah") is increasing in many parts of the world but its effects on body weight are not known. We compared body mass index (BMI) among 2,536 adults (age ≥ 18 years old), who were never, former, current nondaily, or current daily waterpipe smokers, drawn from 2 representative, population-based household surveys of adults in Aleppo, Syria. Overall, 84.1% (n = 2,134) never-smoked waterpipe, 4.6% (n = 116) were former smokers, 9.9% (n = 251) were current nondaily smokers, and 1.4% (n = 35) were current daily smokers. Mean BMI of the sample was 30.2 kg/m(2) (SD = 6.3). Adjusted for cigarette smoking, number of chronic diseases, age, gender, income, and marital status, daily waterpipe users were 2.26 BMI units greater than never-smokers (beta = 2.26, 95% CI = 0.79-3.72), and had nearly threefold odds of being obese (odds ratio = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.06-7.76). Nondaily and former waterpipe users were similar to never-smokers in terms of BMI and obesity risk. Results indicate that daily waterpipe users, compared to never-users, have higher BMI, translating into 6 extra kilograms of weight on average, and are 3 times as likely to be obese. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Indicator for success of obesity reduction programs in adolescents: Body composition or body mass index? evaluating a school-based health promotion project after 12 weeks of intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Kalantari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity in adolescence is the strongest risk factor for obesity in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on different anthropometric indices in 12–16-year-old boy adolescents after 12 Weeks of Intervention. Methods: A total of 96 male adolescents from two schools participated in this study. The schools were randomly assigned to intervention (53 students and control school (43 students. Height and weight of students were measured and their body mass index (BMI was calculated. Body fat percent (BF and body muscle percent (BM was assessed using a bioimpedance analyzer considering the age, gender, and height of students at baseline and after intervention. The obesity reduction intervention was implemented in the intervention school based on the Ottawa charter for health promotion. Results: Twelve weeks of intervention decreased BF percent in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (decreased by 1.81% in the intervention group and increased by 0.39% in the control group, P < 0.01. However, weight, BMI, and BM did not change significantly. Conclusions: The result of this study showed that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention decreased the body fat percent in obese adolescents, although these changes was not reflected in the BMI. It is possible that BMI is not a good indicator in assessment of the success of obesity management intervention.

  13. Global burden of sickle cell anaemia in children under five, 2010-2050: modelling based on demographics, excess mortality, and interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric B Piel

    Full Text Available The global burden of sickle cell anaemia (SCA is set to rise as a consequence of improved survival in high-prevalence low- and middle-income countries and population migration to higher-income countries. The host of quantitative evidence documenting these changes has not been assembled at the global level. The purpose of this study is to estimate trends in the future number of newborns with SCA and the number of lives that could be saved in under-five children with SCA by the implementation of different levels of health interventions.First, we calculated projected numbers of newborns with SCA for each 5-y interval between 2010 and 2050 by combining estimates of national SCA frequencies with projected demographic data. We then accounted for under-five mortality (U5m projections and tested different levels of excess mortality for children with SCA, reflecting the benefits of implementing specific health interventions for under-five patients in 2015, to assess the number of lives that could be saved with appropriate health care services. The estimated number of newborns with SCA globally will increase from 305,800 (confidence interval [CI]: 238,400-398,800 in 2010 to 404,200 (CI: 242,500-657,600 in 2050. It is likely that Nigeria (2010: 91,000 newborns with SCA [CI: 77,900-106,100]; 2050: 140,800 [CI: 95,500-200,600] and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2010: 39,700 [CI: 32,600-48,800]; 2050: 44,700 [CI: 27,100-70,500] will remain the countries most in need of policies for the prevention and management of SCA. We predict a decrease in the annual number of newborns with SCA in India (2010: 44,400 [CI: 33,700-59,100]; 2050: 33,900 [CI: 15,900-64,700]. The implementation of basic health interventions (e.g., prenatal diagnosis, penicillin prophylaxis, and vaccination for SCA in 2015, leading to significant reductions in excess mortality among under-five children with SCA, could, by 2050, prolong the lives of 5,302,900 [CI: 3

  14. Global burden of sickle cell anaemia in children under five, 2010-2050: modelling based on demographics, excess mortality, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Frédéric B; Hay, Simon I; Gupta, Sunetra; Weatherall, David J; Williams, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is set to rise as a consequence of improved survival in high-prevalence low- and middle-income countries and population migration to higher-income countries. The host of quantitative evidence documenting these changes has not been assembled at the global level. The purpose of this study is to estimate trends in the future number of newborns with SCA and the number of lives that could be saved in under-five children with SCA by the implementation of different levels of health interventions. First, we calculated projected numbers of newborns with SCA for each 5-y interval between 2010 and 2050 by combining estimates of national SCA frequencies with projected demographic data. We then accounted for under-five mortality (U5m) projections and tested different levels of excess mortality for children with SCA, reflecting the benefits of implementing specific health interventions for under-five patients in 2015, to assess the number of lives that could be saved with appropriate health care services. The estimated number of newborns with SCA globally will increase from 305,800 (confidence interval [CI]: 238,400-398,800) in 2010 to 404,200 (CI: 242,500-657,600) in 2050. It is likely that Nigeria (2010: 91,000 newborns with SCA [CI: 77,900-106,100]; 2050: 140,800 [CI: 95,500-200,600]) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2010: 39,700 [CI: 32,600-48,800]; 2050: 44,700 [CI: 27,100-70,500]) will remain the countries most in need of policies for the prevention and management of SCA. We predict a decrease in the annual number of newborns with SCA in India (2010: 44,400 [CI: 33,700-59,100]; 2050: 33,900 [CI: 15,900-64,700]). The implementation of basic health interventions (e.g., prenatal diagnosis, penicillin prophylaxis, and vaccination) for SCA in 2015, leading to significant reductions in excess mortality among under-five children with SCA, could, by 2050, prolong the lives of 5,302,900 [CI: 3,174,800-6,699,100] newborns with

  15. Burden of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'eno, Bernadette; Mwangi, Ann; Ng'ang'a, Lucy; Kim, Andrea A; Waruru, Anthony; Mukui, Irene; Ngugi, Evelyn W; Rutherford, George W

    2014-05-01

    In Kenya, mathematical models estimate that there are approximately 220,000 children aged less than 15 years infected with HIV. We analyzed data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years. KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative 2-stage cluster sample household survey. We studied children aged 18 months to 14 years whose parents or guardians answered questions pertaining to their children by interview. Blood specimens were collected for HIV serology and viral load measurement. We identified 5162 children who were eligible for the study. Blood was obtained for 3681 (71.3%) children. Among child participants, 16.4% had been tested for HIV infection in the past, and among children with parents or guardians who self-reported HIV-positive status, 52.9% had been tested for HIV infection. Twenty-eight (0.9%) children tested HIV-positive in the survey. Of these, 11 had been previously diagnosed with HIV infection before the survey. All 11 children were in HIV care and receiving cotrimoxazole; 8 were on antiretorivral therapy (ART). Among those on ART, 4 were virologically suppressed. HIV causes a substantial burden of disease in the Kenyan pediatric population. Although most children who had been diagnosed with HIV before the survey were engaged in care and treatment, they represented less than half of HIV-infected children identified in the survey. Future efforts should focus on identifying infected children and getting them into care and on suppressive ART as early as possible.

  16. Epidemiology and long-term disease burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Taiwan: a population-based, propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wan-Hsuan; Lin, Chih-Wan; Wang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Liang-Kung; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan

    2018-03-20

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the burden of herpes zoster, as well as the longitudinal and incremental changes of healthcare service utilization among individuals with herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) compared to those without. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), we established a herpes zoster cohort of people diagnosed with herpes zoster between 2004 and 2008 as study cases. Another subset of the NHIRD, which was randomly selected from all elderly beneficiaries between 2004 and 2008 served as a non-herpes-zoster elderly control pool. Each case was then assigned one matched control according to age, gender, index date and propensity score. PHN cases were defined as those with persisting pain for more than 90 days after the onset of herpes zoster. Between 2004 and 2008, about 0.6 million patients were newly diagnosed with herpes zoster. The incidence increased with age, and most cases were identified during the summer period. Herpes zoster cases were found to have higher consumption of all types of healthcare services in the first year after the index date. Such increases were particularly obvious for patients with PHN, who showed incremental increases on average of 16.3 outpatient visits, 0.4 emergency room visits and 0.24 inpatient admissions per year. The incidence of herpes zoster increased with age and changed according to the seasons. Patients with herpes zoster were associated with higher healthcare utilization and this increase in healthcare utilization was most obvious for herpes zoster patients with PHN.

  17. Asthma in British Columbia: Are we finally breathing easier? A population-based study of the burden of disease over 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardal, Stan; Smith, Anne; Luo, Hao Allan; Zhang, Tingting; Groeneweg, Gabriella; Jimenez Mendez, Ricardo; Goldman, Ran; Carleton, Bruce C

    2017-04-01

    Asthma presents a significant global burden, but whether the incidence and prevalence of asthma is rising is still debated. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of asthma in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and characterize associated health services utilization. We extracted data from provincial administrative hospitalization, medical services, and prescription drug databases for patients aged 5 to 55 years, during 1996 to 2009 having ≥270 MSP registration days and meeting asthma definition of: ≥1 hospital admissions with asthma as the principal diagnosis, or ≥2 physician visits for asthma as the principal diagnosis, or ≥3 asthma drug dispensings. Regression models were used to test change in asthma incidence and prevalence, and use of various health care services, such as physician and emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations. 379,950 patients met the study criteria. The prevalence (2.6%) and incidence (0.7%) of asthma was relatively stable over the study period. There was a decline in proportion of patients visiting family practitioners (FP) (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.90-0.94), specialists (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.58-0.62), using ED services (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.30-0.32) and hospitalizations (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.31-0.37). Regional differences were noted, with lower rates of FP and specialist visits and higher rates of ED visits for asthma in rural versus urban areas. In BC, the incidence and prevalence of asthma has remained stable over 14 years. Although health service utilization declined, there is variation between rural and urban regions.

  18. Living green saves money. Personal environmental burden test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Based on a number of questions one can calculate the environmental burden of a lifestyle and determine which measures can unburden the environment and how much money can be saved by changing a lifestyle [nl

  19. 47 CFR 64.2333 - Burden of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Subscriber List Information § 64.2333 Burden of proof. (a) In any... listing for base file subscriber list information or $0.06 per listing for updated subscriber list...

  20. Genetic and environmental factors in body composition. A review based upon studies of familial aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José António Ribeiro Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal dessa revisão foi abordar aspectos relacionados com a influência dos fatores genéticos e ambientais nos indicadores da composição corporal. Realizou-se uma pesquisa na base de dados Pubmed, selecionandose os estudos que apresentassem informações acerca de agregação familiar, com base em estimativas de heritabilidade, em delineamentos de famílias nucleares e/ou pedigrees extensos, em que as técnicas para a avaliação da composição corporal fossem a densitometria computadorizada por absorciometria radiológica de dupla energia, a pesagem hidrostática, a tomografi a computadorizada, a impedância bioelétrica ou a mensuração de dobras cutâneas. Os resultados mostraram que uma parte moderada a elevada dos diferentes fenótipos da composição corporal são condicionados por fatores genéticos, evidenciando uma forte agregação familiar. Verifi cou-se uma ampla variabilidade nas estimativas de heritabilidade inter e intra fenótipos. Além das diferenças nas técnicas utilizadas, a discrepância pode ser devida a aspectos relacionados com a magnitude da amostra, aspectos étnicos e culturais inerentes a cada população e o design do estudo. Conclui-se que os fenótipos da composição corporal são de natureza multifatorial onde, em alguns casos, o ambiente possui uma forte contribuição na característica observada. Os fatores genéticos são responsáveis por 30 a 76% da variabilidade dos diferentes fenótipos da composição corporal. ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study was to review relevant information related to genetic and environmental factors influencing different indicators of body composition. Based upon Pubmed data, a search was made concerning studies related to information of familial aggregation with heritability estimates using nuclear families and/or extended pedigree and which had assessed body composition by means of DEXA, hydrostatic weighting, computerized tomography, bioelectric

  1. Aerodynamic Optimal Shape Design Based on Body-Fitted Grid Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with an optimal shape design problem in aerodynamics. The inverse problem in question consists in finding the optimal shape an airfoil placed in a potential flow at a given angle of attack should have such that the pressure distribution on its surface matches a desired one. The numerical method to achieve this aim is based on a body-fitted grid generation technique (elliptic, O-type to generate a mesh over the airfoil surface and solve for the flow equation. The O-type scheme is used due to its ability to generate a high quality (fine and orthogonal grid around the airfoil surface. This paper describes a novel and very efficient sensitivity analysis scheme to compute the sensitivity of the pressure distribution to variation of grid node positions and both the conjugate gradient method (CGM and a version of the quasi-Newton method (i.e., BFGS are used as optimization algorithms to minimize the difference between the computed pressure distribution on the airfoil surface and desired one. The elliptic grid generation technique allows us to map the physical domain (body onto a fixed computational domain and to discretize the flow equation using the finite difference method (FDM.

  2. Estimation of adaptive computed tomography dose index based on body weight in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Masaki, Hidekazu; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Miyasaka, Mikiko; Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to create an adaptive computed tomography dose index (by volume) (CTDI vol ) for pediatric patients that would be fitted to a patient's particular body weight and to compare the adaptive CTDI vol with the CTDI vol displayed on the screen of the CT console. CT images of 60 children whose body weights were known were available for calculating the total amount of modified CT numbers as an attenuation area. The attenuation area values of four different-sized acryl phantoms were also calculated. The dose measurements of all four phantoms were carried out. We combined the results of the abdominal CT and phantom experiments. The weight-based complementary ratio for adaptive CTDI vol was calculated, and the result was applied to an example of pediatric abdominal CT protocol. The adaptive CTDI vol was always larger than the displayed CTDI vol with both small and large fields of view (FOV). The adaptive CTDI vol was 2.2 times larger than the displayed CTDI vol in the maximum value with the large FOV and 1.2 times larger with the small FOV. We radiologists must be the child's advocate and protect children from the deleterious effects of any of our technologies, including a lower indication of CTDI vol on the screen of a CT console. (author)

  3. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  4. A physiologically based biokinetic model for cesium in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Williams, L.R.; Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    A physiologically descriptive model of the biological behavior of cesium in the human body has been constructed around a detailed blood flow model. The rate of transfer from plasma into a tissue is determined by the blood perfusion rate and the tissue-specific extraction fraction of Cs during passage from arterial to venous plasma. Information on tissue-specific extraction of Cs is supplemented with information on the Cs analogues, K and Rb, and known patterns of discrimination between these metals by tissues. The rate of return from a tissue to plasma is estimated from the relative contents of Cs in plasma and the tissue at equilibrium as estimated from environmental studies. Transfers of Cs other than exchange between plasma and tissues (e.g. secretions into the gastrointestinal tract) are based on a combination of physiological considerations and empirical data on Cs or related elements. Model predictions are consistent with the sizable database on the time-dependent distribution and retention of radiocesium in the human body

  5. IEEE-802.15.4-based low-power body sensor node with RF energy harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thang Viet; Chung, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the design and implementation of a low-voltage and low-power body sensor node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard to collect electrocardiography (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. To achieve compact size, low supply voltage, and low power consumption, the proposed platform is integrated into a ZigBee mote, which contains a DC-DC booster, a PPG sensor interface module, and an ECG front-end circuit that has ultra-low current consumption. The input voltage of the proposed node is very low and has a wide range, from 0.65 V to 3.3 V. An RF energy harvester is also designed to charge the battery during the working mode or standby mode of the node. The power consumption of the proposed node reaches 14 mW in working mode to prolong the battery lifetime. The software is supported by the nesC language under the TinyOS environment, which enables the proposed node to be easily configured to function as an individual health monitoring node or a node in a wireless body sensor network (BSN). The proposed node is used to set up a wireless BSN that can simultaneously collect ECG and PPG signals and monitor the results on the personal computer.

  6. A dielectric elastomer actuator-based tactile display for multiple fingertip interaction with virtual soft bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boys, Hugh; Frediani, Gabriele; Poslad, Stefan; Busfield, James; Carpi, Federico

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel wearable tactile haptic display for rendering soft body sensations to multiple fingertips with electroactive smart elastomers. The system uses newly developed multi-layered hydrostatically coupled dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), which have been designed to apply a localised tunable force to a user's fingertip via a soft electrically-deformable interface. The system is comprised of DEAs which are fingertip mounted and are driven individually by a wired connection to a control unit. The force applied to the user's fingertip is based on the user's fingertip position which is monitored by an optical three dimensional finger tracking system. This novel tactile display system is conceived to convey soft body interactions within virtual environments. To demonstrate this, a simulator capable of demonstrating virtual objects of varying tactile haptic properties has been developed. This paper presents preliminary results of ongoing testing, as well as data pertaining to the characterization of the device in terms of force response. The paper also outlines the current limitations of the proposed technology and challenges to be addressed for further developments.

  7. Encountering Bodies, Prosthetics, and Bleeding: A Rhizomatic Arts-Based Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Guyotte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Once a resolute constructivist, new readings, new theories, new onto-epistemologies nudged me into an unfamiliar and frightening, yet familiar and generative, space during my first years on the tenure track. I found myself in an ambiguous and fluid space between the paradigms of interpretivist and deconstructionist posthuman and ‘new’ materialism theories, and turned to arts-based research to research-create and think-with new scholarship. This paper, artmaking, and video of my artmaking entangle and provide lines of flight through art-text encounters with what became three interconnected concepts that emerged in and, thus, guide this inquiry: bodies, prosthetics, and bleeding. These concepts emerged as generative entanglements of becoming different through artful doing. Inspired by the concept of rhizomatic assemblage, this work seeks to move through various openings, creating various slippages between bodies (of writing, of making, of images to explore what artistic research-creation might become through post-qualitative inquiry.

  8. Samoan body and soul: adapting an evidence-based obesity and cancer prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Kevin D; Braun, Kathryn; Ka'opua, Lana; Soa, Fuamaila; Nigg, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    Obesity-associated chronic diseases persist in Samoan populations in the United States. Samoans and African Americans share cultural similarities such as church affiliation, perceptions of weight and body size, and obesity-related health risks. Adapting an effective energy balance intervention originally designed for African Americans--Body and Soul--might be useful in reducing obesity among U.S. Samoans. To determine potential attractiveness and adaptations, we used aspects of grounded theory to analyze key-informant and focus group interviews with 31 purposively selected Samoans in Hawaii. We incorporated participatory features into the research with Samoan community members conducting parts of the study. From interview narratives, we identified relevant themes from Samoan culture, such as "fa'aSamoa", or the Samoan way, and specific energy balance activities to include in an obesity and cancer prevention intervention for U.S.-dwelling Samoans. Our findings describe methods to address health disparities by incorporating culturally appropriate health concepts into existing evidence-based interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  10. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfraz Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU; Gankeng River (GKS; Xia Zhang River (XZY; Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR; Jiu Haogang River (JHH in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD, dissolved oxygen (DO, total phosphorus (TP, and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP. The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river’s water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  11. Is Frequent Self-Weighing Associated with Poorer Body Satisfaction? Findings from a Phone-Based Weight Loss Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Hotop, Anne Marie; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of self-weighing frequency on weight change and body satisfaction. Design: Observational study based on findings from a 6-month randomized controlled telephone-based weight loss trial. Data collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting: Metropolitan community-based sample. Participants: Sixty-three obese adults. Mean…

  12. Body surface assessment with 3D laser-based anthropometry: reliability, validation, and improvement of empirical surface formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnapfel, Andreas; Ahnert, Peter; Loeffler, Markus; Scholz, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Body surface area is a physiological quantity relevant for many medical applications. In clinical practice, it is determined by empirical formulae. 3D laser-based anthropometry provides an easy and effective way to measure body surface area but is not ubiquitously available. We used data from laser-based anthropometry from a population-based study to assess validity of published and commonly used empirical formulae. We performed a large population-based study on adults collecting classical anthropometric measurements and 3D body surface assessments (N = 1435). We determined reliability of the 3D body surface assessment and validity of 18 different empirical formulae proposed in the literature. The performance of these formulae is studied in subsets of sex and BMI. Finally, improvements of parameter settings of formulae and adjustments for sex and BMI were considered. 3D body surface measurements show excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability of 0.998 (overall concordance correlation coefficient, OCCC was used as measure of agreement). Empirical formulae of Fujimoto and Watanabe, Shuter and Aslani and Sendroy and Cecchini performed best with excellent concordance with OCCC > 0.949 even in subgroups of sex and BMI. Re-parametrization of formulae and adjustment for sex and BMI slightly improved results. In adults, 3D laser-based body surface assessment is a reliable alternative to estimation by empirical formulae. However, there are empirical formulae showing excellent results even in subgroups of sex and BMI with only little room for improvement.

  13. An improved scheme of IPI-based entity identifier generation for securing body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tian; Bao, Shu-Di; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Li, Ye; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Securing body sensor network (BSN) in an efficient manner is very important for preserving the privacy of medical data. Protecting data confidentiality, integrity and to authenticate the communicating nodes are basic requirements to secure BSN. The existing method to generate entity identifier (EI) from inter-pulse intervals (IPIs) of heartbeats has its advantages in authenticating and identifying nodes, which however was found in this study that such generated EIs are not so resistant to attacks because of potential error patterns. This paper presents an improved scheme of IPI-based EI generation to eliminate the error patterns. The performance of randomness and node identification, i.e. false acceptance rate and false rejection rate, is experimentally evaluated. The results indicate that compared with the existing one, the new scheme is effective to eliminate the error patterns and thus more tolerant to attacks, while there is no compromise on the randomness level and identification performance.

  14. Mushroom body output neurons encode valence and guide memory-based action selection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Yoshinori; Sitaraman, Divya; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Kaun, Karla R; Vogt, Katrin; Belliart-Guérin, Ghislain; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Robie, Alice A; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Schnaitmann, Christopher; Rowell, William J; Johnston, Rebecca M; Ngo, Teri-T B; Chen, Nan; Korff, Wyatt; Nitabach, Michael N; Heberlein, Ulrike; Preat, Thomas; Branson, Kristin M; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Rubin, Gerald M

    2014-12-23

    Animals discriminate stimuli, learn their predictive value and use this knowledge to modify their behavior. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) plays a key role in these processes. Sensory stimuli are sparsely represented by ∼2000 Kenyon cells, which converge onto 34 output neurons (MBONs) of 21 types. We studied the role of MBONs in several associative learning tasks and in sleep regulation, revealing the extent to which information flow is segregated into distinct channels and suggesting possible roles for the multi-layered MBON network. We also show that optogenetic activation of MBONs can, depending on cell type, induce repulsion or attraction in flies. The behavioral effects of MBON perturbation are combinatorial, suggesting that the MBON ensemble collectively represents valence. We propose that local, stimulus-specific dopaminergic modulation selectively alters the balance within the MBON network for those stimuli. Our results suggest that valence encoded by the MBON ensemble biases memory-based action selection.

  15. A computed torque method based attitude control with optimal force distribution for articulated body mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Edwardo F.; Hirose, Shigeo

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces an attitude control scheme based in optimal force distribution using quadratic programming which minimizes joint energy consumption. This method shares similarities with force distribution for multifingered hands, multiple coordinated manipulators and legged walking robots. In particular, an attitude control scheme was introduced inside the force distribution problem, and successfully implemented for control of the articulated body mobile robot KR-II. This is an actual mobile robot composed of cylindrical segments linked in series by prismatic joints and has a long snake-like appearance. These prismatic joints are force controlled so that each segment's vertical motion can automatically follow the terrain irregularities. An attitude control is necessary because this system acts like a system of wheeled inverted pendulum carts connected in series, being unstable by nature. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by computer simulation and experiments with the robot KR-II. (author)

  16. Caregiver Burden in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ilhan Atagun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Duration of human life has been substantially increased in the last fifty years. Survivals of diseases have been prolonged through the advances in medicine. Together with these gratifying consequences, there appeared novel difficulties to cope with. Furthermore developments including globalization, industrialization and transition from rural to urban life occurred during the last century; so family units became smaller and numbers of members on employment in family units increased. As a result numbers of family members to undertake the responsibility of care decreased. As a concept, caregiver burden expresses physical, psychosocial and financial reactions during the course of care providing. Distinct factors including structures of social, cultural and family units and health care systems may affect conditions of care. Caregiver’s age, gender, ethnicity, education, relationship with the patient, attitude towards providing care, financial situation, coping abilities, her own health, beliefs, social support and cultural pattern are the personal factors that are related to perception of caregiver burden. Burden of care giving is geared to differential aspects of care needs. For instance care needs of physically disabled and medical care requiring patients with spinal cord injuries may differ from care needs of chronic psychiatric disorders, demented patients in advanced age of their lives or cancer patients in terminal periods. Strain due to care giving may differ as a result of properties of care demands. It is aimed to review the burden of caregivers in different medical and psychiatric care requiring conditions and to introduce differential aspects of caregiver burden in these different conditions.

  17. Study of variation in human upper body parameters and motion for use in robotics based simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lura, Derek J; Carey, Stephanie L; Dubey, Rajiv V

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the variations in human upper body motion of subjects completing activities of daily living. This study was completed to serve as a reference to evaluate the quality of simulated of human motion. In this paper we define the variation in motion as the variation in subjects' parameters (link lengths), joint angles, and hand positions, for a given task. All of these variations are related by forward kinematic equations. Motion data from eight healthy right hand dominant adults performing three activities of daily living (brushing hair, drinking from a cup, and opening a door) were collected using an eight camera Vicon motion analysis system. Subject parameters were calculated using relative positions of functional joint center locations between segments. Joint angles were calculated by Euler angle rotations between body segments. Hand position was defined as the origin of the hand frame relative to the pelvis frame. The variance of recorded human motion was analyzed based on the standard deviations of subject parameters, joint angles, and hand positions. Variances in joint angles were found to be similar in magnitude to root mean squared error of kinematics based motion simulation. To evaluate the relative variance, the forward kinematic solutions of the trials were found after removing subject parameter variance and reducing joint angle variance. The variance in the forward kinematic solution was then compared to the recorded hand position variance. Reductions in subject parameter and joint angle variance produced a proportionally much smaller reduction in the calculated hand position variance. Using the average instead of individual subject parameters had only a small impact on hand position variance. Modifying joint angles to reduce variance had a greater impact on the calculated hand position variance than using average subject parameters, but was still a relatively small change. Future work will focus on using these results to create formalized

  18. Acceptance-Based Exposure Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Johanna; Rück, Christian; Bjureberg, Johan; Ivanov, Volen Z; Djurfeldt, Diana Radu; Ramnerö, Jonas

    2015-07-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an often severe, chronic, and disabling disorder, and although some controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have shown efficacy, the body of evidence is still limited. The condition is generally considered difficult to treat, and further research to determine the effectiveness of psychological treatments for BDD is needed. The present study is the first to evaluate an acceptance-based therapy for BDD. In total, 21 patients received a 12-week group treatment consisting of weekly sessions of psychoeducation, acceptance and defusion practice, and exposure exercises to foster acceptance of internal discomfort and to strengthen the patients' committed purposeful actions. The primary outcome was BDD symptomatology (measured on the BDD-YBOCS) assessed by a psychiatrist before and after treatment and at 6months follow-up. The secondary outcomes were self-rated BDD symptoms, psychological flexibility, depressive symptoms, quality of life, and disability. Reductions in BDD symptomatology from pre- to posttreatment were significant and showed a large effect size, d=1.93 (95% CI 0.82-3.04). At posttreatment, 68% of the participants showed clinically significant improvement in the primary outcome variable. Treatment gains were maintained at 6months follow-up. The treatment also resulted in significant improvements in all secondary outcomes. The dropout rate was low; 90.5% of the participants completed treatment. This study suggests that acceptance-based exposure therapy may be an efficacious and acceptable treatment for BDD that warrants further investigation in larger controlled trials. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Development of Anthropometry-Based Equations for the Estimation of the Total Body Water in Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Woo; Kim, Gyeong A; Lim, Hee Jung; Lee, Sun Young; Park, Geun Ho; Song, Joon Ho

    2005-01-01

    For developing race-specific anthropometry-based total body water (TBW) equations, we measured TBW using bioelectrical impedance analysis (TBWBIA) in 2,943 healthy Korean adults. Among them, 2,223 were used as a reference group. Two equations (TBWK1 and TBWK2) were developed based on age, sex, height, and body weight. The adjusted R2 was 0.908 for TBWK1 and 0.910 for TBWK2. The remaining 720 subjects were used for the validation of our results. Watson (TBWW) and Hume-Weyers (TBWH) formulas were also used. In men, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWH, followed by TBWK1, TBWK2 and TBWW. TBWK1 and TBWK2 showed the lower root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean prediction errors (ME) than TBWW and TBWH. On the Bland-Altman plot, the correlations between the differences and means were smaller for TBWK2 than for TBWK1. On the contrary, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1, and TBWH in females. RMSE was smallest in TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1 and TBWH. ME was closest to zero for TBWK2, followed by TBWK1, TBWW and TBWH. The correlation coefficients between the means and differences were highest in TBWW, and lowest in TBWK2. In conclusion, TBWK2 provides better accuracy with a smaller bias than the TBWW or TBWH in males. TBWK2 shows a similar accuracy, but with a smaller bias than TBWW in females. PMID:15953867

  20. A broadcast-based key agreement scheme using set reconciliation for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aftab; Khan, Farrukh Aslam

    2014-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have thrived over the last few years. Healthcare systems have also benefited from this progression. A wireless body area network (WBAN) consists of small, low-power sensors used to monitor human physiological values remotely, which enables physicians to remotely monitor the health of patients. Communication security in WBANs is essential because it involves human physiological data. Key agreement and authentication are the primary issues in the security of WBANs. To agree upon a common key, the nodes exchange information with each other using wireless communication. This information exchange process must be secure enough or the information exchange should be minimized to a certain level so that if information leak occurs, it does not affect the overall system. Most of the existing solutions for this problem exchange too much information for the sake of key agreement; getting this information is sufficient for an attacker to reproduce the key. Set reconciliation is a technique used to reconcile two similar sets held by two different hosts with minimal communication complexity. This paper presents a broadcast-based key agreement scheme using set reconciliation for secure communication in WBANs. The proposed scheme allows the neighboring nodes to agree upon a common key with the personal server (PS), generated from the electrocardiogram (EKG) feature set of the host body. Minimal information is exchanged in a broadcast manner, and even if every node is missing a different subset, by reconciling these feature sets, the whole network will still agree upon a single common key. Because of the limited information exchange, if an attacker gets the information in any way, he/she will not be able to reproduce the key. The proposed scheme mitigates replay, selective forwarding, and denial of service attacks using a challenge-response authentication mechanism. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has a great deal of

  1. Estimation of Radiation Doses in the Marshall Islands Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Urinalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J; Hickman, D; Kehl, S; Hamilton, T

    2007-06-11

    Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have recently implemented a series of initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former nuclear test sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The aim of this radiological surveillance monitoring program (RSMP) is to provide timely radiation protection for individuals in the Marshall Islands with respect to two of the most important internally deposited fallout radionuclides-cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and long-lived isotopes 239 and 240 of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) (Robison et al., 1997 and references therein). Therefore, whole-body counting for {sup 137}Cs and a sensitive bioassay for the presence of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine were adopted as the two most applicable in vivo analytical methods to assess radiation doses for individuals in the RMI from internally deposited fallout radionuclides (see Hamilton et al., 2006a-c; Bell et al., 2002). Through 2005, the USDOE has established three permanent whole-body counting facilities in the Marshall Islands: the Enewetak Radiological Laboratory on Enewetak Atoll, the Utrok Whole-Body Counting Facility on Majuro Atoll, and the Rongelap Whole-Body Counting Facility on Rongelap Atoll. These whole-body counting facilities are operated and maintained by trained Marshallese technicians. Scientists from LLNL provide the technical support and training necessary for maintaining quality assurance for data acquisition and dose reporting. This technical basis document summarizes the methodologies used to calculate the annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE; or dose for the calendar year of measurement) based on whole-body counting of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and the measurement of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine. Whole-body counting provides a direct measure of the total amount (or burden) of {sup 137}Cs present in the human body at the time of

  2. Study into Point Cloud Geometric Rigidity and Accuracy of TLS-Based Identification of Geometric Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapa, Przemyslaw; Mitka, Bartosz; Zygmunt, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    Capability of obtaining a multimillion point cloud in a very short time has made the Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) a widely used tool in many fields of science and technology. The TLS accuracy matches traditional devices used in land surveying (tacheometry, GNSS – RTK), but like any measurement it is burdened with error which affects the precise identification of objects based on their image in the form of a point cloud. The point’s coordinates are determined indirectly by means of measuring the angles and calculating the time of travel of the electromagnetic wave. Each such component has a measurement error which is translated into the final result. The XYZ coordinates of a measuring point are determined with some uncertainty and the very accuracy of determining these coordinates is reduced as the distance to the instrument increases. The paper presents the results of examination of geometrical stability of a point cloud obtained by means terrestrial laser scanner and accuracy evaluation of solids determined using the cloud. Leica P40 scanner and two different settings of measuring points were used in the tests. The first concept involved placing a few balls in the field and then scanning them from various sides at similar distances. The second part of measurement involved placing balls and scanning them a few times from one side but at varying distances from the instrument to the object. Each measurement encompassed a scan of the object with automatic determination of its position and geometry. The desk studies involved a semiautomatic fitting of solids and measurement of their geometrical elements, and comparison of parameters that determine their geometry and location in space. The differences of measures of geometrical elements of balls and translations vectors of the solids centres indicate the geometrical changes of the point cloud depending on the scanning distance and parameters. The results indicate the changes in the geometry of scanned objects

  3. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Tolomio, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Sergi, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG), land group (LG), and control group (CG). AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C) while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG -19.3%, P decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P decreased by 9.2% (P flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly.

  4. THE PARADIGM OF TAX BURDEN, ITS COMPETITIVENESS IN THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY TAXATION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria O. Shatkhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretic issues of tax burden have been studied, as well as its competitiveness; the structure specifics of Russian tax burden in the system of the Russian Federation political state have been analyzed. There is no legislative definition of tax burden conception at present, which does not interfere with its formulization based on the generally accepted standards of the current legislation.

  5. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Longitudinal measurements of the cadmium burden of 'jig solderers' using IVNAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, B; Green, S; Morgan, W D

    1998-01-01

    The liver and kidney cadmium burdens of a population of 10 'jig solderers' were measured in 1983 and 1995 using similar IVNAA measuring systems. Cadmium exposure ceased in 1985. No significant variation in kidney content was observed. The mean body burden had fallen by 18%, due to a decrease of mean liver content of 35%.

  7. Multiple ECG Fiducial Points-Based Random Binary Sequence Generation for Securing Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guanglou; Fang, Gengfa; Shankaran, Rajan; Orgun, Mehmet A; Zhou, Jie; Qiao, Li; Saleem, Kashif

    2017-05-01

    Generating random binary sequences (BSes) is a fundamental requirement in cryptography. A BS is a sequence of N bits, and each bit has a value of 0 or 1. For securing sensors within wireless body area networks (WBANs), electrocardiogram (ECG)-based BS generation methods have been widely investigated in which interpulse intervals (IPIs) from each heartbeat cycle are processed to produce BSes. Using these IPI-based methods to generate a 128-bit BS in real time normally takes around half a minute. In order to improve the time efficiency of such methods, this paper presents an ECG multiple fiducial-points based binary sequence generation (MFBSG) algorithm. The technique of discrete wavelet transforms is employed to detect arrival time of these fiducial points, such as P, Q, R, S, and T peaks. Time intervals between them, including RR, RQ, RS, RP, and RT intervals, are then calculated based on this arrival time, and are used as ECG features to generate random BSes with low latency. According to our analysis on real ECG data, these ECG feature values exhibit the property of randomness and, thus, can be utilized to generate random BSes. Compared with the schemes that solely rely on IPIs to generate BSes, this MFBSG algorithm uses five feature values from one heart beat cycle, and can be up to five times faster than the solely IPI-based methods. So, it achieves a design goal of low latency. According to our analysis, the complexity of the algorithm is comparable to that of fast Fourier transforms. These randomly generated ECG BSes can be used as security keys for encryption or authentication in a WBAN system.

  8. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamin M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Bergamin,1 Andrea Ermolao,1 Silvia Tolomio,1 Linda Berton,2 Giuseppe Sergi,2 Marco Zaccaria1 1Sports Medicine Division, 2Geriatrics Division, University of Padova, Padua, Italy Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG, land group (LG, and control group (CG. AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG −19.3%, P < 0.05; LG −12.6%, P < 0.05, with a significantly greater decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P < 0.05, while the sit-and-reach test improved in all groups. Finally, AG reduced fat mass by 4% (P < 0.05, and dominant forearm fat decreased by 9.2% (P < 0.05. In addition, calf muscle density increased by 1.8% (P < 0.05. In summary, both water- and land-based activities were beneficial in maintaining strength and in improving lower-body flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly. Keywords: aging, multimodality exercise, performance, muscle mass

  9. Modeling and characterization of different channels based on human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingzhen Li; Zedong Nie; Yuhang Liu; Lei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Human body communication (HBC), which uses the human body as a transmission medium for electrical signals, provides a prospective communication solution for body sensor networks (BSNs). In this paper, an inhomogeneous model which includes the tissue layers of skin, fat, and muscle is proposed to study the propagation characteristics of different HBC channels. Specifically, the HBC channels, namely, the on-body to on-body (OB-OB)channel, on-body to in-body (OB-IB) channel, in-body to on-body (IB-OB) channel, and in-body to in-body (IB-IB)channel, are studied over different frequencies (from 1MHz to 100MHz) through numerical simulations with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results show that the gain of OB-IB channel and IB-OB channel is almost the same. The gain of IB-IB channel is greater than other channels in the frequency range 1MHz to 70MHz. In addition, the gain of all channels is associated with the channel length and communication frequency. The simulations are verified by experimental measurements in a porcine tissue sample. The results show that the simulations are in agreement with the measurements.

  10. Indigenous identity: burden or liberation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of ‘adivasi’ (‘indigenous’ or ‘tribal’) movements in different parts of South Asia in the past two decades, the question of how to understand ‘adivasi identity’ has become hotly debated: is it a burden, inviting distorted stereotypical depictions of subaltern people, or is it a prom......With the rise of ‘adivasi’ (‘indigenous’ or ‘tribal’) movements in different parts of South Asia in the past two decades, the question of how to understand ‘adivasi identity’ has become hotly debated: is it a burden, inviting distorted stereotypical depictions of subaltern people...

  11. Comparison of Organ Dosimetry for Astronaut Phantoms: Earth-Based vs. Microgravity-Based Anthropometry and Body Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBaalen, Mary; Bahadon, Amir; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use NASA radiation transport codes to compare astronaut organ dose equivalents resulting from solar particle events (SPE), geomagnetically trapped protons, and free-space galactic cosmic rays (GCR) using phantom models representing Earth-based and microgravity-based anthropometry and positioning. Methods: The Univer sity of Florida hybrid adult phantoms were scaled to represent male and female astronauts with 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile heights and weights as measured on Earth. Another set of scaled phantoms, incorporating microgravity-induced changes, such as spinal lengthening, leg volume loss, and the assumption of the neutral body position, was also created. A ray-tracer was created and used to generate body self-shielding distributions for dose points within a voxelized phantom under isotropic irradiation conditions, which closely approximates the free-space radiation environment. Simplified external shielding consisting of an aluminum spherical shell was used to consider the influence of a spacesuit or shielding of a hull. These distributions were combined with depth dose distributions generated from the NASA radiation transport codes BRYNTRN (SPE and trapped protons) and HZETRN (GCR) to yield dose equivalent. Many points were sampled per organ. Results: The organ dos e equivalent rates were on the order of 1.5-2.5 mSv per day for GCR (1977 solar minimum) and 0.4-0.8 mSv per day for trapped proton irradiation with shielding of 2 g cm-2 aluminum equivalent. The organ dose equivalents for SPE irradiation varied considerably, with the skin and eye lens having the highest organ dose equivalents and deep-seated organs, such as the bladder, liver, and stomach having the lowest. Conclus ions: The greatest differences between the Earth-based and microgravity-based phantoms are observed for smaller ray thicknesses, since the most drastic changes involved limb repositioning and not overall phantom size. Improved self-shielding models

  12. Indicator for Success of Obesity Reduction Programs in Adolescents: Body Composition or Body Mass Index? Evaluating a School-based Health Promotion Project after 12 Weeks of Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Naser; Mohammadi, Nastaran Keshavarz; Rafieifar, Shahram; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Aminifard, Atefeh; Malmir, Hanieh; Ashoori, Narjes; Abdi, Sheyda; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Doaei, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Obesity in adolescence is the strongest risk factor for obesity in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on different anthropometric indices in 12-16-year-old boy adolescents after 12 Weeks of Intervention. A total of 96 male adolescents from two schools participated in this study. The schools were randomly assigned to intervention (53 students) and control school (43 students). Height and weight of students were measured and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Body fat percent (BF) and body muscle percent (BM) was assessed using a bioimpedance analyzer considering the age, gender, and height of students at baseline and after intervention. The obesity reduction intervention was implemented in the intervention school based on the Ottawa charter for health promotion. Twelve weeks of intervention decreased BF percent in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (decreased by 1.81% in the intervention group and increased by 0.39% in the control group, P success of obesity management intervention.

  13. Phenotypic differences based on staging of Alzheimer's neuropathology in autopsy-confirmed dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peavy, Guerry M; Edland, Steven D; Toole, Belinda M; Hansen, Lawrence A; Galasko, Douglas R; Mayo, Ann M

    2016-10-01

    The goal was to compare subgroups of dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) using neuropathological measures to differentiate 'pure' Lewy body (LB) dementia from 'mixed' DLB [co-occurring LB and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology] to facilitate diagnostic decision-making and future development of interventions based on predicted type(s) of neuropathology. Studies comparing these groups are rare relative to those differentiating 'pure' AD and all-cause DLB, and are limited by insufficient sample size, brief cognitive batteries, and/or absence of autopsy confirmation. To address these limitations, we assessed cognition and other features in a large, autopsy-confirmed DLB sample using an extensive neuropsychological battery. Subjects from an AD research center autopsy series satisfying DLB pathology criteria were divided by an AD neuropathology index into DLB-LB (Braak stage 0-3) (n = 38) and DLB-AD (Braak stage 4-6) (n = 41) and compared on baseline variables from chart reviews and standardized measures. DLB-LB subjects were more impaired on visuospatial constructions, visual conceptual reasoning, and speed of processing, but less impaired on verbal memory and confrontation naming. All-type hallucinations occurred more frequently in DLB-LB, while delusions were common in both groups. Groups were similar in education and age at onset, and in baseline age, dementia severity, and functional capacity. Salient findings included greater impairment on visual tasks and speed of processing and more frequent reports of all-type hallucinations in DLB-LB compared to DLB-AD. Relatively intact confrontation naming in DLB-LB and no differences in reported delusions were of note. Identifying differences in phenotypic features can improve prediction of underlying neuropathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repositioning the knee joint in human body FE models using a graphics-based technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Dhaval; Chawla, Anoop; Mukherjee, Sudipto; Goyal, Rahul; Vusirikala, Nataraju; Jayaraman, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Human body finite element models (FE-HBMs) are available in standard occupant or pedestrian postures. There is a need to have FE-HBMs in the same posture as a crash victim or to be configured in varying postures. Developing FE models for all possible positions is not practically viable. The current work aims at obtaining a posture-specific human lower extremity model by reconfiguring an existing one. A graphics-based technique was developed to reposition the lower extremity of an FE-HBM by specifying the flexion-extension angle. Elements of the model were segregated into rigid (bones) and deformable components (soft tissues). The bones were rotated about the flexion-extension axis followed by rotation about the longitudinal axis to capture the twisting of the tibia. The desired knee joint movement was thus achieved. Geometric heuristics were then used to reposition the skin. A mapping defined over the space between bones and the skin was used to regenerate the soft tissues. Mesh smoothing was then done to augment mesh quality. The developed method permits control over the kinematics of the joint and maintains the initial mesh quality of the model. For some critical areas (in the joint vicinity) where element distortion is large, mesh smoothing is done to improve mesh quality. A method to reposition the knee joint of a human body FE model was developed. Repositions of a model from 9 degrees of flexion to 90 degrees of flexion in just a few seconds without subjective interventions was demonstrated. Because the mesh quality of the repositioned model was maintained to a predefined level (typically to the level of a well-made model in the initial configuration), the model was suitable for subsequent simulations.

  15. Low is large: spatial location and pitch interact in voice-based body size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Isenstein, Sari G E; Montano, Kelyn J; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Feinberg, David R

    2017-05-01

    The binding of incongruent cues poses a challenge for multimodal perception. Indeed, although taller objects emit sounds from higher elevations, low-pitched sounds are perceptually mapped both to large size and to low elevation. In the present study, we examined how these incongruent vertical spatial cues (up is more) and pitch cues (low is large) to size interact, and whether similar biases influence size perception along the horizontal axis. In Experiment 1, we measured listeners' voice-based judgments of human body size using pitch-manipulated voices projected from a high versus a low, and a right versus a left, spatial location. Listeners associated low spatial locations with largeness for lowered-pitch but not for raised-pitch voices, demonstrating that pitch overrode vertical-elevation cues. Listeners associated rightward spatial locations with largeness, regardless of voice pitch. In Experiment 2, listeners performed the task while sitting or standing, allowing us to examine self-referential cues to elevation in size estimation. Listeners associated vertically low and rightward spatial cues with largeness more for lowered- than for raised-pitch voices. These correspondences were robust to sex (of both the voice and the listener) and head elevation (standing or sitting); however, horizontal correspondences were amplified when participants stood. Moreover, when participants were standing, their judgments of how much larger men's voices sounded than women's increased when the voices were projected from the low speaker. Our results provide novel evidence for a multidimensional spatial mapping of pitch that is generalizable to human voices and that affects performance in an indirect, ecologically relevant spatial task (body size estimation). These findings suggest that crossmodal pitch correspondences evoke both low-level and higher-level cognitive processes.

  16. Tribocorrosion in pressurized high temperature water: a mass flow model based on the third body approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadalupe Maldonado, S.

    2014-07-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWR) used for power generation are operated at elevated temperatures (280-300 °C) and under higher pressure (120-150 bar). In addition to these harsh environmental conditions some components of the PWR assemblies are subject to mechanical loading (sliding, vibration and impacts) leading to undesirable and hardly controllable material degradation phenomena. In such situations wear is determined by the complex interplay (tribocorrosion) between mechanical, material and physical-chemical phenomena. Tribocorrosion in PWR conditions is at present little understood and models need to be developed in order to predict component lifetime over several decades. The goal of this project, carried out in collaboration with the French company AREVA NP, is to develop a predictive model based on the mechanistic understanding of tribocorrosion of specific PWR components (stainless steel control assemblies, stellite grippers). The approach taken here is to describe degradation in terms of electro-chemical and mechanical material flows (third body concept of tribology) from the metal into the friction film (i.e. the oxidized film forming during rubbing on the metal surface) and from the friction film into the environment instead of simple mass loss considerations. The project involves the establishment of mechanistic models for describing the single flows based on ad-hoc tribocorrosion measurements operating at low temperature. The overall behaviour at high temperature and pressure in investigated using a dedicated tribometer (Aurore) including electrochemical control of the contact during rubbing. Physical laws describing the individual flows according to defined mechanisms and as a function of defined physical parameters were identified based on the obtained experimental results and from literature data. The physical laws were converted into mass flow rates and solved as differential equation system by considering the mass balance in compartments

  17. User Experiences While Playing Dance-Based Exergames and the Influence of Different Body Motion Sensing Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Thin, Alasdair G.; Brown, Craig; Meenan, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Dance Dance Revolution is a pioneering exergame which has attracted considerable interest for its potential to promote regular exercise and its associated health benefits. The advent of a range of different consumer body motion tracking video game console peripherals raises the question whether their different technological affordances (i.e., variations in the type and number of body limbs that they can track) influence the user experience while playing dance-based exergames both in terms of ...

  18. Lean body mass-based levothyroxine replacement in young athyrotic patients with differentiated carcinoma of thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Begum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to optimize dose of levothyroxine (LT4 based on lean body mass (LBM in young athyrotic patients with differentiated carcinoma of thyroid (DCT which has not been properly addressed in Bangladesh before. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with DCT (age, range: 20-39 years having total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine ablative therapy (RIT and 23 euthyroid volunteers were recruited. Clinical, biochemical parameters were obtained from all patients after 2 months of RIT and on LT4 replacement at a dose of 200 μg/day as first follow up visit and also from control subjects. Then 60 patients were divided into two groups consisting of 30 patients each. Patients of Group-I received LT4 replacement based on LBM measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and Group-II continued LT4 replacement in conventional dose. Patients of both groups were assessed again for same parameters at 6 to 12 months at the second visit. Results: Optimized dose of LT4 based on LBM by DXA (131 ±23 μg/day significantly reduced thyroid hormones and kept thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in expected levels in patients of Group-I at the second visit compared to patients of Group-II who continued conventional LT4 dose (200 μg/day. Hyperthyroid symptom scale (HSS was significantly reduced to 2 ± 1 in patients of Group-I but not in patients of Group-II, HSS, 8 ±1 ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: Optimization of LT4 dose based on LBM can avoid chronic exposure of mild excess of thyroid hormone in young patients with low risk DCT.

  19. Lean body mass-based levothyroxine replacement in young athyrotic patients with differentiated carcinoma of thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Fatima; Ahmed, Chaudhury M.; Afroz, Shahana; Kabir, Enamul; Alam, Faridul; Banerjee, Sajal; Zaman, Nazma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to optimize dose of levothyroxine (LT4) based on lean body mass (LBM) in young athyrotic patients with differentiated carcinoma of thyroid (DCT) which has not been properly addressed in Bangladesh before. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with DCT (age, range: 20-39 years) having total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine ablative therapy (RIT) and 23 euthyroid volunteers were recruited. Clinical, biochemical parameters were obtained from all patients after 2 months of RIT and on LT4 replacement at a dose of 200 μg/day as first follow up visit and also from control subjects. Then 60 patients were divided into two groups consisting of 30 patients each. Patients of Group-I received LT4 replacement based on LBM measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and Group-II continued LT4 replacement in conventional dose. Patients of both groups were assessed again for same parameters at 6 to 12 months at the second visit. Results: Optimized dose of LT4 based on LBM by DXA (131 ±23 μg/day) significantly reduced thyroid hormones and kept thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in expected levels in patients of Group-I at the second visit compared to patients of Group-II who continued conventional LT4 dose (200 μg/day). Hyperthyroid symptom scale (HSS) was significantly reduced to 2 ± 1 in patients of Group-I but not in patients of Group-II, HSS, 8 ±1 (P > 0.001). Conclusion: Optimization of LT4 dose based on LBM can avoid chronic exposure of mild excess of thyroid hormone in young patients with low risk DCT. PMID:23776898

  20. Acculturation and body mass index among marriage-based immigrant Vietnamese women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Eun; Lee, Ji-Eun; Park, So Yun; Chung, Hye Won

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the association of socioeconomic factors, acculturation, and body mass index (BMI) as the first large prospective cohort study to determine the state of health of Vietnamese-born migrant women residing in Korea. Participants were Vietnamese marriage-based immigrant women living in Korea. Data (n=1,066) was collected during both periods of baseline (2006-2011) and follow-up (2012-2014) in 34 cities in Korea. The results show that acculturation stress is relatively low among participants. Current BMI showed a significant difference according to the current age, monthly family income, and psychophysical stress. Depending on age, education level, monthly family income, we identified a significant difference in the annual BMI change. In correlation analysis, current BMI was significantly associated with age at arrival, reading and writing in Korean language adaptation, and psychophysical stress. Annual BMI change was significantly associated with age at arrival and years since immigration. Our analysis revealed that acculturation measured by Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students had no association with current BMI or annual BMI change, but had an association with several socioeconomic statuses. This study had the advantage that subjects had a homogenous background of marriage-based immigrant women, so we could see the association of BMI and acculturation, without considering cofounding factors.

  1. Body Parts Features-Based Pedestrian Detection for Active Pedestrian Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel pedestrian detection system based on vision in urban traffic situations is presented to help the driver perceive the pedestrian ahead of the vehicle. To enhance the accuracy and to decrease the time spent on pedestrian detection in such complicated situations, the pedestrian is detected by dividing their body into several parts according to their corresponding features in the image. The candidate pedestrian leg is segmented based on the gentle AdaBoost algorithm by training the optimized histogram of gradient features. The candidate pedestrian head is located by matching the pedestrian head and shoulder model above the region of the candidate leg. Then the candidate leg, head and shoulder are combined by parts constraint and threshold adjustment to verify the existence of the pedestrian. Finally, the experiments in real urban traffic circumstances were conducted. The results show that the proposed pedestrian detection method can achieve pedestrian detection rate of 92.1% with the average detection time of 0.2257 s.

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Python Telecare System Based on a Bluetooth Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morón MJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a prototype of a telemonitoring system, based on a BAN (Body Area Network that is integrated by a Bluetooth (BT pulse oximeter, a GPS (Global Positioning System unit, and a smartphone. The smartphone is the hardware platform for running a Python software that manages the Bluetooth piconet formed by the sensors. Thus the smartphone forwards the data received from the Bluetooth devices, encoded into JSON (JavaScript Object Notation, to a central server. This server provides universal access to the information of the patient's location and health status through a web application based on AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML technology. Additionally, for the described prototype, the study presents some performance analyses about several topics that are of great interest for the applicability of the prototype: (i the technique used to forward the patient's location and health status, (ii the power consumption of the smartphone (which is compared with the measurements of an equivalent software developed for Java Micro Edition platform, and (iii the web browser compatibility of the web application developed for the control and monitoring of the patients.

  3. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...... with an analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  4. Body weight estimation based on postmortem CT data--validation of a multiplication factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, C; Schwendener, N; Zeyer-Brunner, J; Schyma, C

    2015-09-01

    Postmortem computed tomography (pmCT) is increasingly applied in forensic medicine as a documentation and diagnostic tool. The present study investigated if pmCT data can be used to estimate the corpse weight. In 50 forensic cases, pmCT examinations were performed prior to autopsy and the pmCT data were used to determine the body volume using an automated segmentation tool. PmCT was performed within 48 h postmortem. The body weights assessed prior to autopsy and the body volumes assessed using the pmCT data were used to calculate individual multiplication factors. The mean postmortem multiplication factor for the study cases was 1.07 g/ml. Using this factor, the body weight may be estimated retrospectively when necessary. Severe artifact causing foreign bodies within the corpses limit the use of pmCT data for body weight estimations.

  5. The Physical Burdens of Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L.; Masicampo, E. J.; Toosi, Negin R.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    The present work examined whether secrets are experienced as physical burdens, thereby influencing perception and action. Four studies examined the behavior of people who harbored important secrets, such as secrets concerning infidelity and sexual orientation. People who recalled, were preoccupied with, or suppressed an important secret estimated…

  6. Burden of allergic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Dam Petersen, K; Hahn-Pedersen, J

    2016-01-01

    -specific and generic HRQL instruments, and was reflected by an impact on both physical and mental health. A systematic review of cost data on AR and AA in selected European countries demonstrated that the majority of the economic burden was indirectly caused by high levels of absenteeism and presenteeism...

  7. ANALYSIS OF TAX BURDEN PARAMETERS OF UKRAINE'S ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Moyseyenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The need to solve the problems of macro-economic stabilization of the country's economy on the basis of determining the tax system efficiency led to the actuality and importance of developing methodological issues of macro-economic tax regulation. In terms of macro-financial stability for the purpose of strategic analysis, the macroeconomic category of tax burden and its fiscal efficiency in terms of direct and indirect taxation is considered. Tax burden indicators at a macro-level quantitatively measure the total level of tax payment and pumping up the budget. Based on the analysis of tax burden it is found that in Ukraine the major fiscal function is performed by consumption taxes (indirect taxes. The methodological principles of the diagnostics of tax burden influence on macro-indices of economic stabilization are as follows: selecting parameters of monitoring tax burden state and fiscal burden efficiency; the assessment of an impact on fiscal efficiency on macro-indices. To prognosticate the efficiency of fiscal burden performance in terms of indirect taxes linear and exponential trend equations are calculated. In terms of the analysis of macro-financial stability the usage of tax rates of indirect taxes as indicators of fiscal efficiency provides sufficient reasons for the conclusions regarding long-term trends of pumping the budget.

  8. Study on the frame body structure of micro-electric vehicle based on frontal crash safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaoquan; Zhang, Sanchuan

    2017-08-01

    In order to research the safety of skeleton type body of micro-electric vehicles in the frontal collision, the method of finite element modeling and simulation are used to analyze frame body that is fitted with the energy absorption structure, the simulation results show that On the basis of absorbing the most energy and the least of body acceleration, the absorbent structure parameters can be optimized, the optimized parameters are length 180 mm, wall thickness 3 mm and materials Q460.

  9. An Approach to Biometric Verification Based on Human Body Communication in Wearable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach to biometric verification based on human body communication (HBC is presented for wearable devices. For this purpose, the transmission gain S21 of volunteer’s forearm is measured by vector network analyzer (VNA. Specifically, in order to determine the chosen frequency for biometric verification, 1800 groups of data are acquired from 10 volunteers in the frequency range 0.3 MHz to 1500 MHz, and each group includes 1601 sample data. In addition, to achieve the rapid verification, 30 groups of data for each volunteer are acquired at the chosen frequency, and each group contains only 21 sample data. Furthermore, a threshold-adaptive template matching (TATM algorithm based on weighted Euclidean distance is proposed for rapid verification in this work. The results indicate that the chosen frequency for biometric verification is from 650 MHz to 750 MHz. The false acceptance rate (FAR and false rejection rate (FRR based on TATM are approximately 5.79% and 6.74%, respectively. In contrast, the FAR and FRR were 4.17% and 37.5%, 3.37% and 33.33%, and 3.80% and 34.17% using K-nearest neighbor (KNN classification, support vector machines (SVM, and naive Bayesian method (NBM classification, respectively. In addition, the running time of TATM is 0.019 s, whereas the running times of KNN, SVM and NBM are 0.310 s, 0.0385 s, and 0.168 s, respectively. Therefore, TATM is suggested to be appropriate for rapid verification use in wearable devices.

  10. Image-based modeling and scoring of Howell-Jolly Bodies in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angay, Oguzhan; Friedrich, Mike; Pinnecker, Jürgen; Hintzsche, Henning; Stopper, Helga; Hempel, Klaus; Heinze, Katrin G

    2017-05-24

    The spleen selectively removes cells with intracellular inclusions, for example, detached nuclear fragments in circulating erythrocytes, called Howell-Jolly Bodies (HJBs). With absent or deficient splenic function HJBs appear in the peripheral blood and can be used as a simple and non-invasive risk-indicator for fulminant potentially life-threatening infection after spleenectomy. However, it is still under debate whether counting of the rare HJBs is a reliable measure of splenic function. Investigating HJBs in premature erythrocytes from patients during radioiodine therapy gives about 10 thousand times higher HJB counts than in blood smears. However, we show that there is still the risk of false-positive results by unspecific nuclear remnants in the prepared samples that do not originate from HJBs, but from cell debris residing above or below the cell. Therefore, we present a method to improve accuracy of image-based tests that can be performed even in non-specialized medical institutions. We show how to selectively label HJB-like clusters in human blood samples and how to only count those that are undoubtedly inside the cell. We found a "critical distance" d crit referring to a relative HJB-Cell distance that true HJBs do not exceed. To rule out false-positive counts we present a simple inside-outside-rule based on d crit -a robust threshold that can be easily assessed by combining conventional 2D imaging and straight-forward image analysis. Besides data based on fluorescence imaging, simulations of randomly distributed HJB-like objects on realistically modelled cell objects demonstrate the risk and impact of biased counting in conventional analysis. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  11. Value-Based Caching in Information-Centric Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi M. Al-Turjman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a resilient cache replacement approach based on a Value of sensed Information (VoI policy. To resolve and fetch content when the origin is not available due to isolated in-network nodes (fragmentation and harsh operational conditions, we exploit a content caching approach. Our approach depends on four functional parameters in sensory Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs. These four parameters are: age of data based on periodic request, popularity of on-demand requests, communication interference cost, and the duration for which the sensor node is required to operate in active mode to capture the sensed readings. These parameters are considered together to assign a value to the cached data to retain the most valuable information in the cache for prolonged time periods. The higher the value, the longer the duration for which the data will be retained in the cache. This caching strategy provides significant availability for most valuable and difficult to retrieve data in the WBANs. Extensive simulations are performed to compare the proposed scheme against other significant caching schemes in the literature while varying critical aspects in WBANs (e.g., data popularity, cache size, publisher load, connectivity-degree, and severe probabilities of node failures. These simulation results indicate that the proposed VoI-based approach is a valid tool for the retrieval of cached content in disruptive and challenging scenarios, such as the one experienced in WBANs, since it allows the retrieval of content for a long period even while experiencing severe in-network node failures.

  12. Obesity: definition, comorbidities, causes, and burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apovian, Caroline M

    2016-06-01

    Body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or higher is used to identify individuals with obesity. In the last 3 decades, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased 27.5% for adults and 47.1% for children. Obesity is the result of complex relationships between genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural influences. Consumption patterns, urban development, and lifestyle habits influence the prevalence of obesity. The condition may be the result of disease or pharmacologic treatment. It may also be a risk factor for the development of comorbid conditions. Persons who are obese have less school attendance, reduced earning potential, and higher healthcare costs that may result in an economic burden on society. A review of the prevalence and economic consequences of obesity is provided. Potential causes and comorbidities associated with obesity are also discussed.

  13. Using adapted quality-improvement approaches to strengthen community-based health systems and improve care in high HIV-burden sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Christiane M; Youngleson, Michele S; Moses, Edward; Stern, Amy F; Barker, Pierre M

    2015-07-01

    Achieving long-term retention in HIV care is an important challenge for HIV management and achieving elimination of mother-to-child transmission. Sustainable, affordable strategies are required to achieve this, including strengthening of community-based interventions. Deployment of community-based health workers (CHWs) can improve health outcomes but there is a need to identify systems to support and maintain high-quality performance. Quality-improvement strategies have been successfully implemented to improve quality and coverage of healthcare in facilities and could provide a framework to support community-based interventions. Four community-based quality-improvement projects from South Africa, Malawi and Mozambique are described. Community-based improvement teams linked to the facility-based health system participated in learning networks (modified Breakthrough Series), and used quality-improvement methods to improve process performance. Teams were guided by trained quality mentors who used local data to help nurses and CHWs identify gaps in service provision and test solutions. Learning network participants gathered at intervals to share progress and identify successful strategies for improvement. CHWs demonstrated understanding of quality-improvement concepts, tools and methods, and implemented quality-improvement projects successfully. Challenges of using quality-improvement approaches in community settings included adapting processes, particularly data reporting, to the education level and first language of community members. Quality-improvement techniques can be implemented by CHWs to improve outcomes in community settings but these approaches require adaptation and additional mentoring support to be successful. More research is required to establish the effectiveness of this approach on processes and outcomes of care.

  14. Predicting excessive body image concerns among British university students: the unique role of Appearance-based Rejection Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Rachel M; Park, Lora E; Rahemtulla, Zara K; Williams, Katherine C D

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined the extent to which interpersonal concerns about rejection based on appearance, or Appearance-based Rejection Sensitivity (Appearance-RS), serves as an indicator of risk for excessive body image concerns. Extending previous research, we examined the association between Appearance-RS and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and cosmetic surgery attitudes among 106 British university students. Consistent with predictions, Appearance-RS uniquely predicted greater degree of BDD symptoms after controlling for other known predictor variables. Also, as expected, Appearance-RS uniquely predicted acceptance of cosmetic surgery for both intrapersonal and social reasons and greater consideration of having cosmetic surgery in the future. These findings highlight the importance of assessing individuals' sensitivity to rejection from others based on their physical appearance in investigations of excessive body image concerns. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. Setting. South Africa. Subjects. Adults ≥ 30 years of age. Outcome measures. Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, hypertensive disease, osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, ...

  16. Do fish growth rates correlate with PCB body burdens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel; David R.. Bayne

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether growth rates of six fish species correlated with PCB concentrations in a moderately-to-heavily polluted freshwater ecosystem. Using a large dataset (n ¼ 984 individuals), and after accounting for growth effects related to fish age, habitat, sex, and lipids, growth correlated significantly, but positively with lipid-corrected PCB concentrations for...

  17. Economic Burden of Herpes Zoster and Post-Herpetic Neuralgia in Adults 60 Years of Age or Older: Results from a Prospective, Physician Practice-Based Cohort Study in Kushiro, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Mizukami, Akiko; Adachi, Koichi; Matthews, Sean; Holl, Katsiaryna; Asano, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiro; Adachi, Riri; Kiuchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Keiju; Sato, Keiko; Matsuki, Taizo; Kaise, Toshihiko; Curran, Desmond

    2017-12-01

    Herpes zoster has a high incidence rate among people aged ≥ 60 years and can lead to serious complications such as post-herpetic neuralgia. There are currently no data on the economic burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Japan, and the objective of this study was to address this gap. A total of 412 patients aged ≥ 60 years diagnosed with herpes zoster were recruited. Demographic, clinical, and healthcare resource utilization data on patients with herpes zoster or post-herpetic neuralgia collected via case report forms were used to estimate direct medical cost. Data obtained from a questionnaire survey among patients with herpes zoster/post-herpetic neuralgia were used to estimate transportation cost and productivity loss. The mean number of outpatient visits was 5.7. Prescription medications were the main cost driver accounting for 60% of the direct medical cost. The mean direct medical and total herpes zoster-related costs per patient were ¥43,925 and ¥57,112, respectively, and were higher in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia than in those with herpes zoster without complications. Direct medical cost represented 77%, productivity loss 19%, and transportation cost 4% of the total. This is the first study of the economic burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Japan and it demonstrated substantial direct medical cost as a result of the multiple outpatient visits and prescription medications required. These findings provide baseline data for possible future economic evaluations of new herpes zoster/post-herpetic neuralgia interventions. This cost analysis is part of a prospective, physician practice-based cohort study conducted between June 2013 and February 2015 in Kushiro, Japan (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01873365, registered on 6 June, 2013).

  18. A Photogrammetrically Based Model for Predicting Total Body Mass Centroid Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan J.; Depauw, Karen P.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical 18-link model of the human body was designed as a sex-generalized predictor of segmental inertial parameters. Body measurements of 40 male and female subjects from 6 to 35 years of age were used. The results were similar to those reported in other studies and the photogrammetric procedure was found to be facilitative. (Authors/JN)

  19. Yoga and body image: Findings from a large population-based study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Richard F; Watts, Allison W; Pacanowski, Carly R; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2018-03-01

    This study explored the potential for yoga to promote body satisfaction in a general population of young adults. The sample included 1664 participants (M age: 31.1, SD=1.6years) in Project EAT, a 15-year longitudinal study. Data from the third and fourth waves (EAT-III and EAT-IV), collected five years apart, were utilized. Practicing yoga (≥30min/week) was reported by 16.2% of young adults. After adjusting for EAT-III body satisfaction and body mass index, yoga practitioners had higher concurrent body satisfaction at EAT-IV than those not practicing yoga (difference: 1.5 units [95% CI: 0.1-2.8], p=.03). Among participants within the lowest quartile of prior (EAT-III) body satisfaction, there was preliminary evidence that body satisfaction at EAT-IV was higher among yoga practitioners than in other young adults. Findings suggest that yoga may be associated with improved body satisfaction, particularly among young adults with low prior body satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements of mindfulness-based Triarchic body-pathway relaxation technique: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S; Han, Yvonne M Y; Cheung, Mei-Chun

    2008-03-01

    The "Triarchic body-pathway relaxation technique" (TBRT) is a form of ancient Chinese mindfulness-based meditation professed to give rise to positive emotions and a specific state of consciousness in which deep relaxation and internalized attention coexist. The purpose of this study was to examine the EEG pattern generated during the practice of this mindfulness exercise, and compare it to music listening which has been shown to induce positive emotions. Nineteen college students (aged 19-22 years) participated in the study. Each participant listened to both the TBRT and music audiotapes while EEG was recorded. The order of presentation was counterbalanced to avoid order effect. Two EEG indicators were used: (1) alpha asymmetry index, an indicator for left-sided anterior activation, as measure of positive emotions, and (2) frontal midline theta activity, as a measure for internalized attention. Increased left-sided activation, a pattern associated with positive emotions, was found during both TBRT exercise and music conditions. However, only TBRT exercise was shown to exhibit greater frontal midline theta power, a pattern associated with internalized attention. These results provided evidence to support that the TBRT gives rise to positive emotional experience, accompanied by focused internalized attention.

  1. Probability density based gradient projection method for inverse kinematics of a robotic human body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lura, Derek; Wernke, Matthew; Alqasemi, Redwan; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the probability density based gradient projection (GP) of the null space of the Jacobian for a 25 degree of freedom bilateral robotic human body model (RHBM). This method was used to predict the inverse kinematics of the RHBM and maximize the similarity between predicted inverse kinematic poses and recorded data of 10 subjects performing activities of daily living. The density function was created for discrete increments of the workspace. The number of increments in each direction (x, y, and z) was varied from 1 to 20. Performance of the method was evaluated by finding the root mean squared (RMS) of the difference between the predicted joint angles relative to the joint angles recorded from motion capture. The amount of data included in the creation of the probability density function was varied from 1 to 10 subjects, creating sets of for subjects included and excluded from the density function. The performance of the GP method for subjects included and excluded from the density function was evaluated to test the robustness of the method. Accuracy of the GP method varied with amount of incremental division of the workspace, increasing the number of increments decreased the RMS error of the method, with the error of average RMS error of included subjects ranging from 7.7° to 3.7°. However increasing the number of increments also decreased the robustness of the method.

  2. Bicarbonate Concentration, Acid-Base Status, and Mortality in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel A.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Huston, Hunter K.; Sebastian, Anthony; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.; Patel, Kushang V.; Newman, Anne B.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Ix, Joachim H.; Fried, Linda F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Low serum bicarbonate associates with mortality in CKD. This study investigated the associations of bicarbonate and acid-base status with mortality in healthy older individuals. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We analyzed data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, a prospective study of well functioning black and white adults ages 70–79 years old from 1997. Participants with arterialized venous blood gas measurements (n=2287) were grouped into metabolic acidosis, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.46) for respiratory alkalosis, and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.69) for metabolic alkalosis categories. Respiratory acidosis did not associate with mortality. Conclusions In generally healthy older individuals, low serum bicarbonate associated with higher mortality independent of systemic pH and potential confounders. This association seemed to be present regardless of whether the cause of low bicarbonate was metabolic acidosis or respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis also associated with higher mortality. PMID:26769766

  3. A quasi-Bohmian approach for a homogeneous spherical solid body based on its geometric structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koupaei, Jalaledin Yousefi; Golshani, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we express the space of rotation as a Riemannian space and try to generalize the classical equations of motion of a homogeneous spherical solid body in the domain of quantum mechanics. This is done within Bohm's view of quantum mechanics, but we do not use the Schrödinger equation. Instead, we assume that in addition to the classical potential there is an extra potential and try to obtain it. In doing this, we start from a classical picture based on Hamilton-Jacobi formalism and statistical mechanics but we use an interpretation which is different from the classical one. Then, we introduce a proper action and extremize it. This procedure gives us a mathematical identity for the extra potential that limits its form. The classical mechanics is a trivial solution of this method. In the simplest cases where the extra potential is not a constant, a mathematical identity determines it uniquely. In fact the first nontrivial potential, apart from some constant coefficients which are determined by experiment, is the usual Bohmian quantum potential

  4. Mushroom body output neurons encode valence and guide memory-based action selection in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Yoshinori; Sitaraman, Divya; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Kaun, Karla R; Vogt, Katrin; Belliart-Guérin, Ghislain; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Robie, Alice A; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Schnaitmann, Christopher; Rowell, William J; Johnston, Rebecca M; Ngo, Teri-T B; Chen, Nan; Korff, Wyatt; Nitabach, Michael N; Heberlein, Ulrike; Preat, Thomas; Branson, Kristin M; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Rubin, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Animals discriminate stimuli, learn their predictive value and use this knowledge to modify their behavior. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) plays a key role in these processes. Sensory stimuli are sparsely represented by ∼2000 Kenyon cells, which converge onto 34 output neurons (MBONs) of 21 types. We studied the role of MBONs in several associative learning tasks and in sleep regulation, revealing the extent to which information flow is segregated into distinct channels and suggesting possible roles for the multi-layered MBON network. We also show that optogenetic activation of MBONs can, depending on cell type, induce repulsion or attraction in flies. The behavioral effects of MBON perturbation are combinatorial, suggesting that the MBON ensemble collectively represents valence. We propose that local, stimulus-specific dopaminergic modulation selectively alters the balance within the MBON network for those stimuli. Our results suggest that valence encoded by the MBON ensemble biases memory-based action selection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04580.001 PMID:25535794

  5. A Chinese Chan-based Mind-Body Intervention Improves Memory of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the adoption of lifestyle interventions to remediate age-related declines in memory functioning and physical and psychological health among older adults. This study aimed to investigate whether a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention, the Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI, leads to positive benefits for memory functioning in older adults. Fifty-six adults aged 60 years or older with subjective memory complaints (SMC were randomly assigned to receive the DMBI or a control intervention (i.e., a conventional memory intervention; MI once a week for 10 weeks; 48 of the adults completed the intervention. Participants’ verbal and visual memory functioning before and after the intervention were compared. In addition, changes in the participants’ subjective feelings about their memory performance and physical and psychological health after the intervention were examined. The results showed that both the DMBI and MI resulted in significant improvements in both verbal and visual memory functioning and that the extent of the improvements was correlated with participants’ level of performance at baseline. In addition, compared to the MI group, the DMBI group had significantly greater improvements in subjective physical and psychological health after the intervention. In summary, the present findings support the potential of the DMBI as an alternative lifestyle intervention for improving memory functioning, subjective physical and psychological health of older adults with SMC.

  6. R2NA: Received Signal Strength (RSS Ratio-Based Node Authentication for Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The body area network (BAN is an emerging branch of wireless sensor networks for personalized applications. The services in BAN usually have a high requirement on security, especially for the medical diagnosis. One of the fundamental directions to ensure security in BAN is how to provide node authentication. Traditional research using cryptography relies on prior secrets shared among nodes, which leads to high resource cost. In addition, most existing non-cryptographic solutions exploit out-of-band (OOB channels, but they need the help of additional hardware support or significant modifications to the system software. To avoid the above problems, this paper presents a proximity-based node authentication scheme, which only uses wireless modules equipped on sensors. With only one sensor and one control unit (CU in BAN, we could detect a unique physical layer characteristic, namely, the difference between the received signal strength (RSS measured on different devices in BAN. Through the above-mentioned particular difference, we can tell whether the sender is close enough to be legitimate. We validate our scheme through both theoretical analysis and experiments, which are conducted on the real Shimmer nodes. The results demonstrate that our proposed scheme has a good security performance.

  7. A generic whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for therapeutic proteins in PK-Sim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederalt, Christoph; Kuepfer, Lars; Solodenko, Juri; Eissing, Thomas; Siegmund, Hans-Ulrich; Block, Michael; Willmann, Stefan; Lippert, Jörg

    2018-04-01

    Proteins are an increasingly important class of drugs used as therapeutic as well as diagnostic agents. A generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in order to represent at whole body level the fundamental mechanisms driving the distribution and clearance of large molecules like therapeutic proteins. The model was built as an extension of the PK-Sim model for small molecules incorporating (i) the two-pore formalism for drug extravasation from blood plasma to interstitial space, (ii) lymph flow, (iii) endosomal clearance and (iv) protection from endosomal clearance by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) mediated recycling as especially relevant for antibodies. For model development and evaluation, PK data was used for compounds with a wide range of solute radii. The model supports the integration of knowledge gained during all development phases of therapeutic proteins, enables translation from pre-clinical species to human and allows predictions of tissue concentration profiles which are of relevance for the analysis of on-target pharmacodynamic effects as well as off-target toxicity. The current implementation of the model replaces the generic protein PBPK model available in PK-Sim since version 4.2 and becomes part of the Open Systems Pharmacology Suite.

  8. International whole body counter intercomparison based on BOMAB phantom simulating 4 years old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1995-11-01

    In April 1993 a whole body counter intercomparison campaign, The 1993 Intercomparison/Intercalibration, started. The campaign has been organized by The Canadian National Reference Centre for In-Vivo Monitoring of Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada and The United States Department of Energy and it was based on measurements on a BOMAB type phantom simulating a 4 years old child. The phantom was filled with radioactive tissue substitute resin and an unknown quantity of radioactivity. Each facility was asked to determine the identity and amount of the radionuclide(s), knowing that the specific activity in the 10 BOMAB's sections was the same. Each facility was also asked to calculate the minimum detectable activity of all the radionuclides detected in the phantom. 35 Facilities from 20 different Countries took part in the initiative. The Institute for Radiation Protection of the Environment Department of ENEA (ENEA AMB IRP) represented Italy. Intercomparison results supplied by ENEA AMB IRP as radionuclides identification, activity data and associated precision, minimum detectable activity levels, can be considered satisfactory and comparable with results supplied by similar-facilities

  9. Sleep positions and nocturnal body movements based on free-living accelerometer recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarpsno, Eivind Schjelderup; Mork, Paul Jarle; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2017-01-01

    Background: In order to establish normative values for body positions and movements during sleep, the objective of this study was to explore the distribution of sleep positions and extent of nocturnal body moments and the association with sex, age, body-mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol...... consumption, and insomnia symptoms. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study comprised data on a working population (363 men and 301 women) who participated in the Danish Physical Activity Cohort with Objective Measurements (DPHACTO). Measures of body position and movements were obtained from......), but more arm, thigh, and upper-back movements compared to normal-weight participants. Smokers had fewer shifts in body position than nonsmokers (-0.27, 95% CI -0.4 to -0.13). Conclusion: The predominant sleep position in adults is on the side. This preference increases with age and BMI. The extent...

  10. Sleep positions and nocturnal body movements based on free-living accelerometer recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarpsno, Eivind Schjelderup; Mork, Paul Jarle; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2017-01-01

    Background: In order to establish normative values for body positions and movements during sleep, the objective of this study was to explore the distribution of sleep positions and extent of nocturnal body moments and the association with sex, age, body-mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol...... consumption, and insomnia symptoms. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study comprised data on a working population (363 men and 301 women) who participated in the Danish Physical Activity Cohort with Objective Measurements (DPHACTO). Measures of body position and movements were obtained from...... had fewer position shifts (-0.37, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.24) and fewer arm, thigh, and upper-back movements. Participants aged 20-34 years had more arm, thigh, and upper-back movements compared to participants ≥35 years. Obese participants had fewer shifts in body position (-0.15, 95% CI -0.27 to 0...

  11. Quantitative vertebral morphometry based on parametric modeling of vertebral bodies in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, D; Njagulj, V; Likar, B; Pernuš, F; Vrtovec, T

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative vertebral morphometry (QVM) was performed by parametric modeling of vertebral bodies in three dimensions (3D). Identification of vertebral fractures in two dimensions is a challenging task due to the projective nature of radiographic images and variability in the vertebral shape. By generating detailed 3D anatomical images, computed tomography (CT) enables accurate measurement of vertebral deformations and fractures. A detailed 3D representation of the vertebral body shape is obtained by automatically aligning a parametric 3D model to vertebral bodies in CT images. The parameters of the 3D model describe clinically meaningful morphometric vertebral body features, and QVM in 3D is performed by comparing the parameters to their statistical values. Thresholds and parameters that best discriminate between normal and fractured vertebral bodies are determined by applying statistical classification analysis. The proposed QVM in 3D was applied to 454 normal and 228 fractured vertebral bodies, yielding classification sensitivity of 92.5% at 7.5% specificity, with corresponding accuracy of 92.5% and precision of 86.1%. The 3D shape parameters that provided the best separation between normal and fractured vertebral bodies were the vertebral body height and the inclination and concavity of both vertebral endplates. The described QVM in 3D is able to efficiently and objectively discriminate between normal and fractured vertebral bodies and identify morphological cases (wedge, (bi)concavity, or crush) and grades (1, 2, or 3) of vertebral body fractures. It may be therefore valuable for diagnosing and predicting vertebral fractures in patients who are at risk of osteoporosis.

  12. A novel flow cytometry-based method of analyzing Heinz bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasuwan, D; Palasuwan, A; Charoensappakit, A; Noulsri, E

    2017-02-01

    Heinz bodies are important to diagnosing and managing patients. However, microscopic examination of Heinz bodies has several disadvantages, demonstrating the need for a better method. We explored the potential use of flow cytometry to examine Heinz bodies. Whole-blood samples were collected from patients deficient in G6PD and healthy volunteers. Acetylphenylhydrazine was used to induce formation of Heinz bodies in red blood cells (RBCs). Then, RBCs positive for Heinz bodies were examined using a FACSCanto II cytometer. RBCs treated with acetylphenylhydrazine formed Heinz bodies and emitted a broad spectrum of fluorescence that could be detected by flow cytometry. The maximum emission of fluorescence was observed at 45 min after the incubation with acetylphenylhydrazine. In addition, the fluorescence emitted was stable for at least 72 h. The flow cytometer could detect the RBCs positive for Heinz bodies even if they made up as little as 0.1% of the total RBC population. Furthermore, the percentage and number, respectively, of RBCs positive for Heinz bodies in G6PD-deficient patients and normal donors exhibited a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 68.9 ± 27.5 vs. 50.9 ± 28.6 and 96 014 ±35 732 cells/μL vs. 74 688 ± 36 514 cells/μL. Heinz bodies induced by acetylphenylhydrazine emit fluorescence, and this fluorescence could be examined using flow cytometry. Our study suggests the potential use of the developed method to investigate the formation of Heinz bodies in clinical samples. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The relationship between distorted body image and lifestyle among Japanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Takako; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Nanri, Hinako; Nishimura, Rimei; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2015-01-01

    Distorted body image plays a significant role in the development of obesity, eating problems, and eating disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between distorted body image and lifestyle among Japanese adolescent boys and girls. Subjects were 1731 seventh graders (age 12-13 years) from the Ina-town's junior high schools, Japan, from 2005-2009. The height and weight of each subject were measured. Childhood underweight, overweight, and obesity were defined using the body mass index cutoff points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Information regarding the self-perceived weight status and lifestyles (exercise, snacking after dinner, breakfast, wakeup time, bedtime) of each subject was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Self-perceived weight status was categorized into three groups (thin, normal, or heavy), and compared with the subjects' actual weight status. Body image perception was categorized into the following three groups: an underestimated own weight status group (underestimated group), a correct own weight status group (correct group) and an overestimated own weight status group (overestimated group). The proportion of boys in the underestimated group was higher than that of girls, while the opposite was true for the overestimated group (P Adolescent boys tended to underestimate their body weight, whereas adolescent girls were likely to overestimate their body weight. Furthermore, lifestyle factors associated with distorted body image differed by sex, with exercise affecting body image perception among boys and snacking after dinner affecting body image perception among girls. Thus, lifestyle may lead to distorted body image among adolescents.

  14. Impact of one or two visits strategy on hypertension burden estimation in HYDY, a population-based cross-sectional study: implications for healthcare resource allocation decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Rapi, Stefano; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Baldereschi, Marzia; Massetti, Luciano; Padeletti, Luigi; Gensini, Gian Franco; Zhao, Dong; Al-Hidabi, Dawood; Al Goshae, Husni

    2012-01-01

    Context The prevalence of hypertension in developing countries is coming closer to values found in developed countries. However, surveys usually rely on readings taken at a single visit, the option to implement the diagnosis on readings taken at multiple visits, being limited by costs. Objective To estimate more accurately the magnitude and extent of the resource that should be allocated to the prevention of hypertension. Design Population-based cross-sectional survey with triplicate blood pressure (BP) readings taken on two separate home-visits. Setting Rural and urban locations in three areas of Yemen (capital, inland and coast). Participants A nationally representative sample of the Yemen population aged 15–69 years (5063 men and 5179 women), with an overall response rate of 92% in urban and 94% in rural locations. Main outcome measure Hypertension diagnosed as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg and/or self-reported use of antihypertensive drugs. Results Hypertension prevalence (age-standardised to the WHO world population 2001) based on fulfilling the same criteria on both visits (11.3%; 95% Cl 10.7% to 11.9%), was 35% lower than estimation based on the first visit (17.3%; 16.5% to 18.0%). Advanced age, blood glucose ≥7 mmol/l or proteinuria ≥1+ at dipstick test at visit one were significant predictors of confirmation at visit 2. The 959 participants found to be hypertensive at visit 1 or at visit 2 only and thus excluded from the final diagnosis had a rate of proteinuria (5.0%; 3.8% to 6.5%) comparable to rates of the general population (6.1%; 5.6% to 6.6%), and of subjects normotensive at both visits (5.6%; 5.1% to 6.2%). Only 1.9% of Yemen population classified at high or very high cardiovascular (CV) risk at visit 1 moved to average, low or moderate CV risk categories after two visits. Conclusions Hypertension prevalence based on readings obtained after two visits is 35% lower than estimation based on the first visit

  15. The biological effectiveness of targeted radionuclide therapy based on a whole-body pharmacokinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzinski, Joseph J; Tomé, Wolfgang; Weichert, Jamey P; Jeraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Biologically effective dose (BED) may be more of a relevant quantity than absorbed dose for establishing tumour response relationships. By taking into account the dose rate and tissue-specific parameters such as repair and radiosensitivity, it is possible to compare the relative biological effects of different targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) agents. The aim of this work was to develop an analytical tumour BED calculation for TRT that could predict a relative biological effect based on normal body and tumour pharmacokinetics. This work represents a step in the direction of establishing relative pharmacokinetic criteria of when the BED formalism is more applicable than absorbed dose for TRT. A previously established pharmacokinetic (PK) model for TRT was used and adapted into the BED formalism. An analytical equation for the protraction factor, which incorporates dose rate and repair rate, was derived. Dose rates within the normal body and tumour were related to the slopes of their time–activity curves which were determined by the ratios of their respective PK parameters. The relationships between the tumour influx-to-efflux ratio (k34:k43), central compartment efflux-to-influx ratio (k12:k21), central elimination (kel), and tumour repair rate (μ), and tumour BED were investigated. As the k34:k43 ratio increases and the k12:k21 ratio decreases, the difference between tumour BED and D increases. In contrast, as the k34:k43 ratios decrease and the k12:k21 ratios increase, the tumour BED approaches D. At large k34:k43 ratios, the difference between tumour BED and D increases to a maximum as kel increases. At small k34:k43 ratios, the tumour BED approaches D at very small kel. At small μ and small k34:k43 ratios, the tumour BED approaches D. For large k34:k43 ratios, large μ values cause tumour BED to approach D. This work represents a step in the direction of establishing relative PK criteria of when the BED formalism is more applicable than absorbed dose for

  16. The Comparative Burden of Chronic Widespread Pain and Fibromyalgia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Caroline; Mann, Rachael; Masters, Elizabeth T; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Daniel, Shoshana R; Zlateva, Gergana; McElroy, Heather J; Chandran, Arthi B; Adams, Edgar H; Assaf, Annlouise R; McNett, Michael; Mease, Philip; Silverman, Stuart; Staud, Roland

    2016-06-01

    Little information exists on the comparative patient and economic burden of chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia (FM) in the United States. This multistage, observational study included an online screening survey of a large geographically diverse US sample to assess CWP status, a physician/site visit to determine FM diagnosis, and an online subject questionnaire to capture clinical characteristics, pain, health status, functioning, sleep, healthcare resource use (HRU), productivity, and costs. Based on the screener and physician evaluation, mutually exclusive groups of subjects without CWP (CWP-), with CWP but without FM (CWP+), and with confirmed FM were identified. Disease burden was examined in 472 subjects (125 CWP-, 176 CWP+, 171 FM). Age, race, and ethnicity were similar across groups. Mean body mass index and number of comorbidities increased from CWP- to CWP+ to FM (P = 0.0044, P Pain severity, interference with function (BPI-SF), and overall work impairment (WPAI:SHP) increased from CWP- to CWP+ to FM (all P pain-related prescription medications relative to CWP- subjects (32.8%; P Fibromyalgia subjects were characterized by the greatest disease burden with more comorbidities and pain-related medications, poorer health status, function, sleep, lower productivity, and higher costs. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  17. Moving knowledge of global burden into preventive action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijkemans, Gerry J M; Takala, Jukka

    2005-12-01

    Estimation of the global burden of disease and injury due to selected occupational factors is a topic of interest to policy makers, governments, and international bodies. The World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented a Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) to estimate risk to exposed populations. Estimates of the risk factor-burden relationships by age, sex, and WHO subregion were generated. Risk measurements (relative risks and mortality rates) for the health outcomes were determined primarily from studies published in peer review journals. The resulting burden was described as the attributable fraction of disease or injury, using both mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The papers in this issue include discussions of worldwide mortality and morbidity from lung cancer, leukemia, and malignant mesothelioma arising from occupational exposures; mortality and morbidity from asthma, COPD, and pneumoconiosis; the global burden of low back pain; exposure to contaminated sharps injuries among health care workers; noise-induced hearing loss; and occupational injuries. Three papers focus on economic issues: estimation of net-costs for prevention of occupational low back pain; cost effectiveness of occupational health interventions; and the cost effectiveness of interventions in the prevention of silicosis. The magnitude of the occupational health burden in the world is overwhelming, and the causes and mechanisms are multiple and complex. Commitment from all stakeholders is imperative to translate economic progress into sustainable human development and well-being. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The Relationship between Sleep Quality and Brain Amyloid Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Belinda M; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Villemagne, Victor L; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Laws, Simon M; Taddei, Kevin; Macaulay, S Lance; Ames, David; Fowler, Christopher; Maruff, Paul; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the association between self-reported sleep quality and levels of brain β-amyloid (Aβ) burden, and to determine the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele on any associations found. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 184 cognitively healthy men and women aged over 60 y. We measured sleep quality factors: specifically, sleep duration, latency (time taken to fall asleep), disturbances, efficiency, daytime dysfunction, and overall sleep quality, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. All participants underwent Aβ positron emission tomography imaging for the quantification of brain Aβ burden and were APOE genotyped. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality factors and brain Aβ burden, adjusting for age, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, and symptoms of depression, with APOE ε4 carriage entered as a moderator. Of the sleep factors, longer sleep latency was associated with higher levels of brain Aβ (B = 0.003 [standard error = 0.001], P = 0.02). APOE ε4 allele (carrier/noncarrier) did not moderate the relationship between sleep latency and brain Aβ burden. Our findings suggest a relationship between brain Aβ burden and sleep latency, independent of APOE ε4 genotype. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. The humanistic burden of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Teresa; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling. The broad range of consequences of HAE on patients? lives is not well understood. The study objective was to comprehensively characterize the burden of illness......, traveling, and passing HAE to their children. Based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, 38 and 14% had clinically meaningful anxiety and depression, respectively. Despite standard of care, HAE patients still have frequent and painful attacks. Patients experience substantial impairment...

  20. Novel joint TOA/RSSI-based WCE location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takahiro; Anzai, Daisuke; Jianqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel joint time of arrival (TOA)/received signal strength indicator (RSSI)-based wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human tissues. Generally, TOA-based localization can achieve much higher localization accuracy than other radio frequency-based localization techniques, whereas wireless signals transmitted from a WCE pass through various kinds of human body tissues, as a result, the propagation velocity inside a human body should be different from one in free space. Because the variation of propagation velocity is mainly affected by the relative permittivity of human body tissues, instead of pre-measurement for the relative permittivity in advance, we simultaneously estimate not only the WCE location but also the relative permittivity information. For this purpose, this paper first derives the relative permittivity estimation model with measured RSSI information. Then, we pay attention to a particle filter algorithm with the TOA-based localization and the RSSI-based relative permittivity estimation. Our computer simulation results demonstrates that the proposed tracking methods with the particle filter can accomplish an excellent localization accuracy of around 2 mm without prior information of the relative permittivity of the human body tissues.