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Sample records for boars

  1. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  2. Colloid centrifugation of boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Wallgren, M

    2011-09-01

    Colloid centrifugation of boar semen has been reported sporadically for at least the last two decades, beginning with density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and progressing more recently to single layer centrifugation (SLC). Single layer centrifugation through a species-specific colloid has been shown to be effective in selecting the best spermatozoa (spermatozoa with good motility and normal morphology) from boar sperm samples. The method is easier to use and less time-consuming than DGC and has been scaled-up to allow whole ejaculates from other species, e.g. stallions, to be processed in a practical manner. The SLC technique is described, and various scale-up versions are presented. The potential applications for SLC in boar semen preservation are as follows: to improve sperm quality in artificial insemination (AI) doses for 'problem' boars; to increase the shelf-life of normal stored sperm samples, either by processing the fresh semen before preparing AI doses or by processing the stored semen dose to extract the best spermatozoa; to remove pathogens (viruses, bacteria), thus improving biosecurity of semen doses and potentially reducing the use of antibiotics; to improve cryosurvival by removing dead and dying spermatozoa prior to cryopreservation; to select spermatozoa for in vitro fertilization. These applications are discussed and practical examples are provided. Finally, a few thoughts about the economic value of the technique to the boar semen industry are presented. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Ractopamine hydrochloride improves growth performance and carcass composition in immunocastrated boars, intact boars, and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikard-Bell, C; Curtis, M A; van Barneveld, R J; Mullan, B P; Edwards, A C; Gannon, N J; Henman, D J; Hughes, P E; Dunshea, F R

    2009-11-01

    The beta-agonist ractopamine is a dietary ingredient that improves growth and increases the lean mass with little change in fat mass in gilts and barrows. Limited data in boars indicate that dietary ractopamine may increase lean tissue and decrease fat deposition, whereas there are no data for immunocastrated boars. The aims of this investigation were 1) to assess whether the growth performance of all sexes could be maintained over 31 d by using a step-up dietary ractopamine feeding program of 5 mg/kg of ractopamine for the first 14 d, then increasing the dose to 10 mg/kg for a further 17 d, and 2) to determine if dietary ractopamine would increase lean mass in all sexes and decrease fat mass in boars and immunocastrated boars. The study involved 286 pigs randomized and proportionally allocated by breed into 24 groups of 11 or 12 pigs at 17 wk of age, with equal groups of boars, immunocastrated boars, and gilts. Dietary ractopamine decreased (P = 0.005) ADFI during the first 2 wk, particularly in the intact and immunocastrated boars, with the reduction in ADFI being maintained in the immunocastrated boars after the increment in dietary ractopamine. Daily BW gain was not altered by dietary ractopamine during the first 2 wk, but was increased (P ractopamine. Dietary ractopamine decreased (P ractopamine. Carcass weight was increased (P ractopamine in all sexes, whereas back fat tended (P = 0.076) to be reduced in the immunocastrated boars. Dietary ractopamine increased (P = 0.018) lean tissue mass by 4.0, 4.8, and 6.5 kg in the intact boars, gilts, and immunocastrated boars, respectively. In the entire and immunocastrated boars, the increase in lean tissue was accompanied with a decrease (P = 0.004) in fat mass. There was little effect of dietary ractopamine on fat mass in gilts. However, carcass percent fat was decreased (P = 0.004) and percent lean increased (P = 0.006) in all sexes. Immunocastration caused a decrease in lean tissue mass and an increase in fat mass

  4. The effects of three extenders on refrigerated boar semen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sofiateixeira

    2015-03-19

    Mar 19, 2015 ... This study aims to evaluate the quality of boar sperm that was refrigerated for 14 days at 17 ºC with three extenders. ... preferred method of storage for boar semen that is to be used for artificial insemination (AI) (Johnson et al.,. 2000). Pursel et ..... Boar sperm viability after freezing and thawing. Proc. 1st Int.

  5. BOAR EFFECT“ INFLUENCE ON GILTS ESTRUAL REACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Stančić; Ivan Radović; Blagoje Stančić; Ognjen Stevančević; Milenko Stevančević

    2012-01-01

    Induction of synchronised estrus in prepubertal gilts by the sexually mature boar contact is a phenomenon known as “boar effect”. This effect is used for more efficient estrus detection in sexually mature (cyclic) gilts. The best results of application of “boar effect” are achieved if the stimulation is performed by direct contact between gilts and a sexually mature boar, at least two times a day every 12 hours. This paper presents the results of foreign and domestic authors on the “boar effe...

  6. Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for a non-stinging wasp to be used as a biosensor in the pig industry, we trained wasps to 3 individual chemicals associated with boar taint. Training consisted of presenting the odors to hungry wasps while they were feeding on sugar. This associates the chemical with a fo...

  7. Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Boar Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacyno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of addition of L-carnitine on boar semen quality was studied in 5 Pietrain boars at age 1.5 - 2.0 years. The boars received 500 mg of L-carnitine per day for 5 weeks. During this period, their ejaculates were collected once a week and evaluated for quality. The control ejaculates had been collected before the application of L-carnitine. It was found that the addition of L-carnitine to the boars' feed had a positive effect on the quality of boar semen. The total ejaculate volume and sperm-rich fraction volume increased by 11% and 10%, respectively; the total ejaculate sperm count increased by 11.5% (P P < 0.01. Sperm concentration and motility, as well as normal acrosome sperm percentage, did not increase considerably. The positive effect of L-carnitine on boar semen quality was observable as early as after one week of its application.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN WILD BOARS FROM CALABRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naccari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn organochlorine pesticides (POCs and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs in some samples (heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle tissue and spleen of wild boars (utilized as “bioindicator” from various areas from Calabria. Quantitative determination of POCs and PCBs were carried out using GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined by a Varian Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy instrument. Our data have shown low residual levels of OCs, heavy metals and the absence of PCBs in all samples analyzed and therefore the boar meat products are not dangerous for the consumer. Moreover, results obtained deserve particular attention not only for their significance but especially because they were recorded in Calabria, a region a low risk of environmental pollution due to the shortage of industries and the traditional agricultural activity.

  9. Characterization of proteins from boar prostate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková, Pavla; Ryšlavá, H.; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2002), s. 283-290 ISSN 8755-8920. [International Congress of Reproductive Immunology /8./. Opatija, 02.07.2001-06.07.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/00/0205; GA ČR GP303/02/P069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : boar prostate * beta-microseminoprotein * serotransferrin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.413, year: 2002

  10. Acrosin inhibitor detecting along the boar epididymis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla; Cozlová, Nina; Dorosh, Andriy; Šulc, Miroslav; Guyonet, B.; Jonáková, Věra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, Jan 2016 (2016), s. 733-739 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GA14-05547S Institutional support: RVO:86652036 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Acrosin inhibitor * Boar epididymis * Sperm atozoa Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.671, year: 2016

  11. Olfactory evaluation of boar taint: effect of factors measured at slaughter and link with boar taint compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, E; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Janssens, S; Buys, N; Wauters, J; Vanhaecke, L; Aluwé, M

    2017-11-01

    There is a commitment by the European pig sector to ban surgical castration of male piglets in the European Union in 2018. One alternative to castration is to raise entire male pigs, with an increased risk of boar taint. A field study was performed to: (1) evaluate inter- and intra-farm variation in boar taint prevalence, (2) investigate factors measured at slaughter influencing boar taint and (3) evaluate the relationship between sensorial scoring by a trained panel and the concentration of boar taint components. From 34 farms, neck fat samples were collected from all entire male pigs in at least two slaughter batches per farm (78 batches; 9167 animals). In addition to olfactory boar taint analysis, data were also collected on fresh skin lesions (score 0 to 3) at the slaughter line, slaughter weight, lean meat percentage, duration of transport, time spent in lairage, total delivery duration, day length, shortening of days and outdoor mean temperature. Using the hot iron method, neck fat samples were scored (eight-point scale) for boar taint. Average boar taint prevalence (score ≥3) was 5.6±2.5% and the mean difference between the maximum and minimum prevalence per farm was 4.3±3.2%. Androstenone (AND), skatole (SKA) and indole concentrations were measured for a subset (n=254) of the samples. According to binomial univariate mixed models, entire male pigs with a higher skin lesion score had higher odds of having boar taint (P=0.031), as did fatter entire male pigs (Pmeat percentage (P<0.001) and outdoor mean temperature (P=0.005) remained as only significant factors. Based on our results, we can conclude that these statistically significant at least partially influence the prevalence of boar taint. According to the binomial univariate mixed models SKA concentration in liquid fat seems a better predictor for boar taint than AND. There were no significant synergetic effects between boar taint compounds.

  12. The influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Abstract. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters. The research material consisted of 31 boars: Polish Large White (PLW), Polish Landrace (PL), and Duroc × Pietrain (D × P), aged 8 to 24 months. The analysed material consisted of ...

  13. Effects of supplemental seminal plasma on cryopreserved boar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To analyse the effects of supplemental autologous seminal plasma on boar semen quality before freezing and after thawing, thirty ejaculates were collected from six Pietrain boars. The main factors of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments were Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), seminal plasma before freezing, and ...

  14. Spermometer: electrical characterization of single boar sperm motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Geijs, Daan J.; de Boer, Hans L.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study single sperm boar motility using electrical impedance measurements in a microfluidic system. Design: Comparison of the optical data and electrical impedance data. Setting: Research laboratory at a university. Animal(s): Boar semen sample were used. Intervention(s): A microfluidic

  15. Crossreactivity of boar sperm monoclonal antibodies with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monoclonal antibodies against the head (H mabs) and tail (Tmabs) of boar spermatozoa were produced. Spermatozoa from boar, stallion, bull, human, ram, goat and rabbit were independently incubated with the monoclonal antibodies and later stained by immunofluorescence method. There were positive reactions of the ...

  16. Variability in ejaculation rate and libido of boars during reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the study was to evaluate variability in the ejaculation rate and libido of boars under various genetic and non-genetic influences. A total of 7171 semen samples were collected from Swedish Landrace, Large White and Duroc boars reared under commercial production conditions. Time spent in ...

  17. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  18. The influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters. The research material consisted of 31 boars: Polish Large White (PLW), Polish Landrace (PL), and Duroc × Pietrain (D × P), aged 8 to 24 months. The analysed material consisted of 1390 ejaculates, collected ...

  19. Variability in ejaculation rate and libido of boars during reproductive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    You

    2015-08-29

    Aug 29, 2015 ... Time spent in preparing or collecting, constituted the period from the entry of boars into the room for collecting semen to onset of ejaculation. Ejaculation rate was defined as the volume of sperm extracted (mL) per unit of time (min). The index of boar libido was defined as the relationship between productive ...

  20. The effects of three extenders on refrigerated boar semen | Teixeira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to evaluate the quality of boar sperm that was refrigerated for 14 days at 17 ºC with three extenders. For this study, samples from four boars were collected twice a week using the gloved-hand technique. After collection, only ejaculates showing total motility of 75% or greater were submitted to the refrigeration ...

  1. Application of antioxidants and centrifugation for cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yi, Kangle; Chen, Chao; Hou, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xu

    2012-06-01

    Although cryopreserved boar semen has been available since 1975, a major breakthrough in commercial application has not yet occurred due to the high susceptibility of boar spermatozoa to damage during cryopreservation and the complicated process required for deep freezing. In recent years, the application of antioxidants during the cryopreservation of boar semen has been the subject of considerable research aimed at improving the quality of post-thaw semen. Centrifugation is necessary before using cryopreservation protocols for freezing boar spermatozoa. Studies of the effect of different centrifugation regimens on boar sperm recovery, yield and cryosurvival have made significant contributions. Therefore this review elucidates results of recent applications of various antioxidants and centrifugation regimens used in efforts to improve cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa. This review is intended to enhance understanding of the roles of these antioxidants and centrifugation regimens with respect to mechanisms that increase resistance to cryodamage of boar spermatozoa. In addition, the discussion addresses the need for developing an objective evaluation of effectiveness and estimating the prospect of application of new techniques for the cryopreservation of boar semen and its use in artificial insemination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The biopsy of the boar testes using ultrasonographic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laima Liepa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biopsy of live animal testes is an important clinical manipulation to control spermatogenesis and reproductive system pathologies. The aim was to develop a method of boar testes biopsy using a biopsy gun with ultrasound guidance and to investigate the influence of this procedure on the boar testes parenchyma and quality of ejaculate. The biopsy was carried out in six 8-month-old boars. Fourteen days prior to and 21 days after biopsy, the quality of ejaculate was examined (weight of ejaculate; concentration and motility of spermatozoa with a seven-day intervals. Ultrasound images of the testes parenchyma were recorded three times: directly before and 15 minutes after the biopsy, then 21 days after the procedure. The testes biopsies of generally anesthetized boars were performed with the biopsy gun for needle biopsy with a 12cm long, disposable 16-gauge needle 1.8mm in diameter (Vitesse through 1cm skin incision in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm of parenchyma. Fifteen minutes after the biopsy, macroscopic injures of the parenchyma of all the boar testes were not detected in the ultrasound image. Twenty one days after biopsy, the hyperechogenic line 0.1-0.2cm in diameter was seen in the testes parenchyma of six boars in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm. The biopsy of boar testes did not influence the quality of boars ejaculate. The ultrasonographic examination of boar testicles before the biopsy reduced possibilities to traumatize large blood vessels of the testes. A perfect boar testicular biopsy was easy to perform using ultrasonographic examination in the pigsty conditions.

  3. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2004-01-01

    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high...

  4. Familial Hepatitis E Outbreak Linked to Wild Boar Meat Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Juarez, A; Frias, M; Martinez-Peinado, A; Risalde, M A; Rodriguez-Cano, D; Camacho, A; García-Bocanegra, I; Cuenca-Lopez, F; Gomez-Villamandos, J C; Rivero, A

    2017-11-01

    An HIV-infected patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E infection in our hospital. An epidemiological inquiry was performed to collect demographic, food and animal exposure variables in order to identify the potential route of transmission. The patient reported that his family traditionally hunted wild boar for food. All family members were analysed for hepatitis E virus infection. Additionally, route of transmission by wild boar meat consumption and prevalence of HEV infection among wild boar from the same hunting area were investigated. In all-family members (n = 8), HEV-RNA was amplified. Two wild boar meat slices consumed was analysed, showing the presence of HEV. The virus isolated was consistent with genotype 3, revealing 100% homology between family members and meat. Additionally, we tested nine wild boar hunted in the same hunting area. All of them were RNA-HEV positive, isolating the same HEV genotype 3 viral strain. We demonstrated by phylogenetic analysis zoonotic transmission of HEV by wild boar meat consumption. The prevalence of HEV infection among wild boar found in our study suggests that this species is an important route of transmission to human. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Effect of photoperiod on sexual activity of boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Savić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of photoperiod on sexual activity of three breeds of boars: Swedish Landrace (n=34, Large White (n=38, and Duroc (n=32. Boar sexual activity was analysed based on the libido index and intensity of ejaculation. The libido index was calculated as the ratio between the duration of ejaculation and time of preparation until ejaculation. The intensity of ejaculation was the volume of ejaculate (mL secreted in the unit of time (min. The effect of photoperiod was analysed as the effect of duration of daylight (12 h within photoperiod intervals (increasing and decreasing. Impact assessment was carried out by applying the General Linear Model procedure. Libido and intensity of ejaculation varied under the impact of photoperiod and the breed of boars. With the increase in age, the boar libido weakened, while the volume of ejaculate and intensity of ejaculation increased. Boars manifested better libido when the daylight lasted longer than 12 h in both photoperiod intervals. Different from libido, the volume of ejaculate and intensity of ejaculation were highest when the daylight was shorter than 12 h, but only in the decreasing photoperiod interval. Swedish Landrace boars manifested best libido, while in the production of sperm the Duroc boars were inferior compared with Swedish Landrace and Large White. The phenotypic relationship among libido, ejaculate volume, and ejaculation intensity ranges from very low to high; however, the coefficients were positive, which indicates the possibility of simultaneous improvement of these traits.

  6. Intestinal protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, S; Rezaian, M; Hooshyar, H; Mowlavi, G R; Babaei, Z; Anwar, M A

    2004-10-01

    A total of 12 gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars (Sus scrofa) from western Iran (Luristan) were examined for protozoan infection between September 2000 and November 2001. Of 12 boars examined, 67% harbored one or more species of the following protozoa: Balantidium coli (25%), Tritrichomonas suis (25%), Blastocystis sp. (25%), Entamoeba polecki (17%), Entamoeba suis (8%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), and Chilomastix mesnili (8%). Four of these protozoan species also are reported in humans, and persons living in rural areas where wild boars are abundant should take precaution to avoid infection.

  7. How does supplementary feeding affect endoparasite infection in wild boar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oja, Ragne; Velstrom, Kaisa; Moks, Epp

    2017-01-01

    , as well as accumulation of parasites in the environment, may increase parasite prevalence. Our aim was to investigate whether host density or the number of feeding sites drives endoparasite infection in an Estonian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population. For this, we collected wild boar faeces from forests...... contamination or indicate that supplementary feeding sites are suitable habitat for soil-dwelling nematodes. These results suggest that the effects of supplementary feeding on parasite prevalence in wild boar are mediated by the characteristics of parasite life cycles....

  8. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2004-01-01

    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high......-resolution DNA flow cytometry on DAPI-stained sperm cell nuclei (CV cytogenetic quality of boars. By analyzing a series of 25 animals judged normal by their fertility statistics and a series of seven animals with known reciprocal translocations, a model...... for identifying sperm cells from cytogenetically aberrant animals was proposed. This model was applied to a series of 50 uncharacterized animals. The model successfully identified a mosaic or chimaeric carrier of an aberrant X chromosome. However, implementation of this technique for screening purposes would...

  9. [Classical swine fever in wild boars in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M A; Thür, B; Vanzetti, T; Schleiss, W; Schmidt, J; Griot, C

    1999-01-01

    In May 1998, wild boars with classical swine fever (CSF) symptoms were detected in the southern part (Canton Ticino) of Switzerland. CSF virus was isolated from the submitted samples and RT-PCR followed by direct nucleotide sequencing of the 5' non-translated region showed that this virus was identical to the isolate previously recognized in wild boars from the area of Varese (Italy). In most animals, antibodies to CSF virus were detected as well. An immediate measurement was taken by limiting the movement of pigs and identifying both risk and surveillance zones. In order not to disturb potentially infected wild boars within their habitat a complete hunting prohibition for 2 months was enforced. The different possibilities of the control of CSF outbreaks in wild boars are discussed.

  10. Helminth parasites of wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, A; Farsad-Hamdi, S

    1992-04-01

    Fifty-seven wild boars (Sus scrofa) from protected regions of Iran were examined for helminths. Sixteen species of helminths were collected; there were ten nematodes, one acanthocephalan, two trematodes and three larval cestodes. New host and distribution records were established for all helminths except of Taenia solium cysticerci. Wild boar shared nine of these helminths with domestic pigs, six with ruminants and three with human beings in Iran. Metastrongylus pudendotectus and M. salmi are reported for the first time from Iran.

  11. Analysis of intravital assessment results in purebred and crossbred boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Milewska

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available 1879 purebred boars: Duroc (D, Hampshire (H and Pietrain (Pn as well as their two-crossbreds (D x H, H x D, Pn x H, H x Pn, Pn x D, D x Pn were analysed after a living assessment completed between 1995–1998 within the area of activity of the Animal Breeding Station in Olsztyn. The standardi- zed daily gains in body weight ranged between 594 g (H and 628 g (Pn x D. The thinnest backfat layer was observed in Pietrain boars and their crossbred boars. The height of loin eye was the best for boars Pn and for all crossbred animals. The lean content in the body of the assessed boars ranged from 56.2% (H to 60.0% (Pn. The highest value of selection index was found for Pn boars (124 points and crossbred boars Pn x D and Pn x H, the lowest index value was observed for purebred H boars (109 points. The correlation coefficient between the index and daily gains range from 0.69 (P ≤ 0.01 (H to 0.91 (P ≤ 0.01 (H x D, between the index and the height of loin eye range from 0.57 (P ≤ 0.01 (H to 0.75 (P ≤ 0.01 (Pn and between the index and the lean content range from 0.13 (P ≤ 0.05 (H to 0.71 (P ≤ 0.01 (Pn.

  12. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

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    Volker eMoennig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV are members of the family Suidae, i.e. Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0<1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  13. Association of GH Gene Polymorphism with Semen Parameters of Boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kmieć

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between polymorphism of the Growth Hormone gene and semen characters were analyzed. The DNA for the purpose of examination was isolated from the peripheral blood of 173 boars. In the boar herd under study the frequency of allele occurrence for the GH/MspI was as follows: allele GHA - 0.79 and allele GHB - 0.21. As far as the GH/HaeII polymorphism is concerned, the relevant frequency was as follows: allele GHA - 0.53 and allele GHB - 0.47, respectively. The relationship between the GH genotypes and semen characteristic traits were analyzed. The study showed that boars with GHBGHB genotype of both polymorphous loci of the GH gene produced ejaculates of larger volume, higher percentage, number of normozosperms in the ejaculate and number of insemination as compared to GHA GHA and GHAGHB boars. Our current findings suggested that polymorphism of the GH/MspI and GH/HaeII might have potential effect for reproductive performance traits of boars.

  14. The adult boar testicular and epididymal transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyonnet Benoît

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalians gamete production takes place in the testis but when they exit this organ, although spermatozoa have acquired a specialized and distinct morphology, they are immotile and infertile. It is only after their travel in the epididymis that sperm gain their motility and fertility. Epididymis is a crescent shaped organ adjacent to the testis that can be divided in three gross morphological regions, head (caput, body (corpus and tail (cauda. It contains a long and unique convoluted tubule connected to the testis via the efferent ducts and finished by joining the vas deferens in its caudal part. Results In this study, the testis, the efferent ducts (vas efferens, VE, nine distinct successive epididymal segments and the deferent duct (vas deferens, VD of four adult boars of known fertility were isolated and their mRNA extracted. The gene expression of each of these samples was analyzed using a pig generic 9 K nylon microarray (AGENAE program; GEO accession number: GPL3729 spotted with 8931 clones derived from normalized cDNA banks from different pig tissues including testis and epididymis. Differentially expressed transcripts were obtained with moderated t-tests and F-tests and two data clustering algorithms based either on partitioning around medoid (top down PAM or hierarchical clustering (bottom up HCL were combined for class discovery and gene expression analysis. Tissue clustering defined seven transcriptomic units: testis, vas efferens and five epididymal transcriptomic units. Meanwhile transcripts formed only four clusters related to the tissues. We have then used a specific statistical method to sort out genes specifically over-expressed (markers in testis, VE or in each of the five transcriptomic units of the epididymis (including VD. The specific regional expression of some of these genes was further validated by PCR and Q-PCR. We also searched for specific pathways and functions using available gene ontology

  15. Meat quality characteristics of DurocxYorkshire, DurocxYorkshirexwild boar and wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, pH value, fatty acids profile, cholesterol content, color and sensory analysis of pork meat from Duroc x Yorkshire (D x Y, Duroc x Yorkshire x wild boar (D x Y x WB crossbreeds and wild boars (WB was investigated. Samples for all tests were taken from m. longissimus dorsi. Chemical composition and pH value were tested by ISO methods. Fatty acid and cholesterol determination was performed by gas chromatography technique with external standard method. Color was determined instrumentally using the thristimulus colourimeter. The overall sensoric quality (appearance, texture and smell of samples of raw meat was evaluated. In evaluation of results the scoring system was used. In chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash and pH values statistically significant difference was noted (p<0,05 between each of the examined groups. Also, among all the examined groups statistically significant difference (p<0,05 was found for fatty acids and cholesterol content. Measurment of the color of meat from all three groups showed that the L*, a * b *, Chroma and Hue angle were also statistically significantly different (p<0,01.

  16. Effect of liquid storage on sorted boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinaci, M; Vallorani, C; Bucci, D; Bernardini, C; Tamanini, C; Seren, E; Galeati, G

    2010-09-15

    A routine use of boar sexed semen is far from being a reality due to many limiting factors among which is the long sorting time necessary to obtain the adequate number of sexed spermatozoa for artificial insemination and the high susceptibility to damages induced by cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modification induced by 24-26 h storage on sorted boar spermatozoa on the basis of their viability, acrosome status, Hsp70 presence, and in vitro fertilizing ability. The percentage of viable cells, according to SYBR green/PI staining, was negatively affected (P fertilization, these parameters were negatively (P fertility and function of sex-sorted boar spermatozoa, the mechanisms by which sorting and liquid storage cause these injures require further study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigations on the contamination of Saxonian wild boars with radiocaesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, T.; Abraham, A.; Preusse, W.; Pianski, J.; Alisch-Mark, M.; Lange, S.

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl fallout some parts of the free state of Saxony were contaminated with radioactive caesium. Based on published maps of the soil contamination and on additional investigations some regions of elevated contamination could be localized. Parallel to soil investigations a game monitoring to wild boars and roe deer was performed. For both types of game typical seasonal variations of contamination were found. In Saxony only the contamination of wild boars is important. In the south of the Vogtland a region was found, where in all seasons the recommended high value of 600 Bq/kg was exceeded in game. In this region the investigation on radiocaesium is now obligatory for wild boars. The hunter can combine this analysis with the analysis on trichina. After three years measurements the region for obligatory analysis was adapted and expanded to neighbouring counties.

  18. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roelandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238 in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT, using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15. Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15 to high (>1/125 SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15. This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended.

  19. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelandt, Sophie; Suin, Vanessa; Van der Stede, Yves; Lamoral, Sophie; Marche, Sylvie; Tignon, Marylène; Saiz, Juan Carlos; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Casaer, Jim; Brochier, Bernard; Van Gucht, Steven; Roels, Stefan; Vervaeke, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238) in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT), using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15). Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15) to high (>1/125) SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15). This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended. PMID:27087689

  20. The effect of the MC4R gene on boar taint compounds, sexual maturity and behaviour in growing-finishing boars and gilts

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Broeke, A; Aluwé, M; Janssens, Steven; Wauters, J; Vanhaecke, L; Buys, Nadine; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-01-01

    Societal pressure to ban surgical castration of male piglets is rising due to animal welfare concerns, thus other methods to prevent boar taint need to be explored. Genetic selection against boar taint appears to be a long-term sustainable alternative. However, as boar taint is linked to reproductive hormones, it is important to consider possible negative side effects such as delayed sexual maturity or changes in behaviour. We reported earlier that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) marker ca...

  1. Niche conservatism and the invasive potential of the wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Ribeiro, Bruno R; Hayward, Matt Warrington; Paglia, Adriano; Passamani, Marcelo; Loyola, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species' fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unravelling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We also predicted potential invadable areas based on an ensemble of three ecological niche modelling methods, and evaluated the performance of models calibrated with native vs. pooled (native plus invaded) species records. By disentangling the drivers of change on the exotic wild boar population's niches, we found strong evidence for niche conservatism during biological invasion. Ecological niche models calibrated with both native and pooled range records predicted convergent areas. Also, observed niche shifts are mostly explained by niche unfilling, i.e. there are unoccupied areas in the exotic range where climate is analogous to the native range. Niche unfilling is expected as result of recent colonization and ongoing dispersal, and was potentially stronger for the Neotropics, where a recent wave of introductions for pig-farming and game-hunting has led to high wild boar population growth rates. The invasive potential of wild boar in the Neotropics is probably higher than in other regions, which has profound management implications if we are to prevent their invasion into species-rich areas, such as Amazonia, coupled with expansion of African swine fever and possibly great economic losses. Although the originally Eurasian-wide distribution suggests a pre-adaptation to a wide array of climates, the wild boar world-wide invasion does not exhibit evidence of niche evolution. The invasive potential of the wild boar therefore probably lies on the reproductive, dietary and

  2. New insights into transduction pathways that regulate boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado de Llera, A; Martin-Hidalgo, D; Gil, M C; Garcia-Marin, L J; Bragado, M J

    2016-01-01

    Detailed molecular mechanisms mediating signal transduction cascades that regulate boar sperm function involving Ser/Thr and tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins have been reviewed previously. Therefore, this review will focus in those kinase pathways identified recently (functional spermatozoa processes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cell energy sensor kinase that was first identified in mammalian spermatozoa in 2012, and since then it has emerged as an essential regulator of boar sperm function. Signaling pathways leading to AMPK activation in boar sperm are highlighted in this review (PKA, CaMKKα/β, and PKC as well as Ca(2+) and cAMP messengers as upstream regulators). Interestingly, stimuli considered as cell stress (hyperosmotic stress, inhibition of mitochondrial activity, absence of intracellular Ca(2+)) markedly activate AMPK in boar spermatozoa. Moreover, AMPK plays a remarkable and necessary regulatory role in mammalian sperm function, controlling essential boar sperm functional processes such as motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, organization and fluidity of plasma membrane, and outer acrosome membrane integrity. These mentioned processes are all required under fluctuating environment of spermatozoa when transiting through the female reproductive tract to achieve fertilization. An applied role of AMPK in artificial insemination techniques is also suggested as during boar seminal doses preservation at 17 °C, physiological levels of AMPK activity markedly increase (maximum on Day 7) and result essential to maintain the aforementioned fundamental sperm processes. Moreover, regulation of sperm function exerted by the glycogen synthase kinase 3 and Src family kinase pathways is summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Threshold detection of boar taint chemicals using parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dawn; Wäckers, Felix; Haugen, John-Erik

    2012-10-01

    Surgical castration has been long used to prevent consumers from experiencing taint in meat from male pigs, which is a large problem in the pig husbandry industry. Due to obvious animal welfare issues, the EU now wants an alternative for castration, suggesting an urgent need for novel methods of boar taint detection. As boar taint is only a problem when taint chemicals exceed a well-defined threshold, detection methods should be concentration-specific. The wasp, Microplitis croceipes' ability to learn and respond to particular concentrations of the boar taint compounds, skatole, androstenone, and indole was tested. Also tested was the wasps' ability to discriminate between known concentrations of indole, skatole, and androstenone in real boar fat samples at room temperature. Wasps were trained using associative learning by providing food-deprived wasps with sucrose-water in the presence of specific odor concentrations. Trained wasps' responses were tested to a range of concentrations of 3 compounds. Wasps showed unidirectional generalization of learned concentration responses, whereby the direction of concentration generalization was shown to be chemical-dependent. Through both positive (sucrose) and negative feeding experiences (water only) with varying compound concentrations, the wasps can also be conditioned to respond to concentrations exceeding a defined threshold, and they were successful in reporting low, medium, and high concentrations of indole, skatole, and androstenone in boar fat at room temperature. The need for threshold detection rather than simple detection of absence/presence applies to many food quality issues, including the detection of spoilage or pest damage in crops or stored foods. An inexpensive and reliable means of detecting boar tainted pork at slaughter to avoid tainted meat on the market and dissatisfied consumers. Journal of Food Science © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  4. Antibody Prevalence to Influenza Type A in Wild Boar of Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Ganna; Molozhanova, Alona; Halka, Ihor; Nychyk, Serhiy

    2017-12-01

    A preliminary serological survey was carried out to assess the likelihood of influenza A (IA) infection in wild boar and begin to characterize the role of wild boar in the epidemiology of the IA virus (IAV). Sera collected from 120 wild boar that were hunted in 2014 were tested. To detect antibodies to IA, a blocking the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Thirty boar were collected from each of four oblasts in the north central and northwestern regions of Ukraine. Antibodies against IAV were detected in 27 samples (22.5%; 95% confidence interval 16.0-30.8) and in at least some of the wild boar from all of the four oblasts. This preliminary survey of IA antibodies in wild boar populations of northern Ukraine indicates a substantial frequency of exposure to IAV throughout the region. Infection of wild boar populations could provide an alternative or additional route for spillover from wild populations to domestic animals and humans.

  5. Evaluation of sperm chromatin structure in boar semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszewska Dorota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to evaluate sperm chromatin structure in the semen of insemination boars. Preparations of semen were stained with acridine orange, aniline blue, and chromomycin A3. Abnormal protamination occurred more frequently in young individuals whose sexual development was not yet complete, but may also be an individual trait. This possibility is important to factor into the decision regarding further exploitation of insemination boars. Thus a precise assessment of abnormalities in the protamination process would seem to be expedient as a tool supplementing morphological and molecular evaluation of semen. Disruptions in nucleoprotein structure can be treated as indicators of the biological value of sperm cells.

  6. Head (H) And Tail (T) Monoclonal Antibodies of Boar Spermatozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen collected from three boars were pooled and the sperm cells separated from the semen, washed, sonicated and mixed with equal volume of Freund's adjuvant. The mixture of sperm with complete Freund's adjuvant was used to immunize five mice of the BALB/C strain intraperitoneally on Day O. The sonicated sperm ...

  7. The influence of hemi orchidectomy on reproductive efficiency of boars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    APR

    Abstract. Large White boars (n = 120) were assigned to hemi-orchidectomy at 60, 100, 140 or 300 days of age or as intact controls throughout the 450 day observation period to evaluate the effects of unilateral testicular hypertrophy on libido (reaction time - RT), ejaculation rate (EJACS) and sperm quality in hemi-.

  8. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    2015-06-08

    Jun 8, 2015 ... Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells. B.M. van den Berg*. Barex Biochemical Products, Seb. Centenweg 45, 1602ML Enkhuizen, The Netherlands. Abstract. The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric.

  9. LVQ acrosome integrity assessment of boar sperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Alegre, Enrique; Biehl, Michael; Sánchez, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    We consider images of boar spermatozoa obtained with an optical phase-contrast microscope. Our goal is to automatically classify single sperm cells as acrosome-intact (class 1) or acrosome-reacted (class 2). Such classification is important for the estimation of the fertilization potential of a

  10. The effects of three extenders on refrigerated boar semen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sofiateixeira

    2015-03-19

    Mar 19, 2015 ... Ambrogi, M., Ballester, J., Saravia, F., Caballero, I., Johannisson, A., Wallgren, M., Andersson, M. &. Rodriguez-Martinez, H., 2006. Effect of storage in short and long term commercial semen extenders on the motility, plasma membrane and chromatin integrity of boar spermatozoa. Int. J. Androl. 29,. 543-552.

  11. Parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild ruminants and wild boar belong to the order Artiodactyla, the suborders Ruminantia and Nonruminantia and are classified as wild animals for big game hunting, whose breeding presents a very important branch of the hunting economy. Diseases caused by protozoa are rarely found in wild ruminants in nature. Causes of coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystiosis, giardiasis, babesiosis, and theileriosis have been diagnosed in deer. The most significant helminthoses in wild ruminants are fasciosis, dicrocoeliasis, paramphistomosis, fascioloidosis, cysticercosis, anoplocephalidosis, coenurosis, echinococcosis, pulmonary strongyloidiasis, parasitic gastroenteritis, strongyloidiasis and trichuriasis, with certain differences in the extent of prevalence of infection with certain species. The most frequent ectoparasitoses in wild deer and doe are diseases caused by ticks, mites, scabies mites, and hypoderma. The most represented endoparasitoses in wild boar throughout the world are coccidiosis, balantidiasis, metastrongyloidiasis, verminous gastritis, ascariasis, macracanthorhynchosis, trichinelosis, trichuriasis, cystecercosis, echinococcosis, and less frequently, there are also fasciolosis and dicrocoeliasis. The predominant ectoparasitoses in wild boar are ticks and scabies mites. Knowledge of the etiology and epizootiology of parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar is of extreme importance for the process of promoting the health protection system for animals and humans, in particular when taking into account the biological and ecological hazard posed by zoonotic infections.

  12. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lervik, Siri; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Conley, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Androstenone is a steroid pheromone occurring in the pubertal Leydig cells. Breeding against androstenone can decrease pheromone odour in swine meat but appears to cause unwanted side effects such as delayed onset of puberty. To study causality, global gene expression in developing boar testes...

  13. Alkaline phosphatase in boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, D; Isani, G; Giaretta, E; Spinaci, M; Tamanini, C; Ferlizza, E; Galeati, G

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) catalyses the detachment of phosphate residues from different substrates. Its activity has been demonstrated in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from porcine and other mammalian species; anyway, the role of AP in male reproduction has not been clarified yet and the aim of this study was to determine AP function in boar sperm capacitation and in vitro fertilization (IVF). AP activity was assayed in seminal plasma and in uncapacitated and in vitro capacitated (IVC) spermatozoa; in addition, capacitation was studied in presence of different doses of AP (1.2 and 2.5 IU/mL). The effect of different doses of AP (1.2 and 2.5 IU/mL) on several sperm parameters after IVC (viability, acrosome integrity with FITC-PSA, capacitation status with CTC staining, tyrosine phosphorylation) and on fertilizing ability during IVF were also evaluated. High AP activity was detected in seminal plasma, in particular in sperm-rich fraction; a lower activity was detected in uncapacitated spermatozoa while a significant decrease was evidenced after IVC. Viability was not changed by AP supplementation of the capacitating medium, whereas acrosome integrity and capacitation status were significantly affected by 1.2 and 2.5 doses, with a dose-dependent decrease in acrosome-reacted cells as well as in CTC B pattern displaying cells. As for sperm head protein phosphorylation, a decrease in relative fluorescence was detected in AP 2.5 group, if compared with capacitated one. After IVF, a dose-dependent decrease in penetrated oocytes was recorded, with an increase in monospermic zygote rate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AP activity decreases under capacitating condition and that addition of AP to spermatozoa during capacitation results in a depression of the capacitating process and IVF. We can infer that AP plays a role in keeping spermatozoa quiescent until they are ejaculated and in modulating the acquisition of the fertilizing ability. © 2013 American Society of

  14. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  15. The effect of breeding facility and sexual stimulation on plasma cortisol in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, D G; Barnett, J L; Hemsworth, P H; Jongman, E

    1995-12-01

    Nine boars were used to evaluate effects of breeding facility design and sexual activity on plasma cortisol concentrations . In one breeding facility (conventional), boars were housed individually in small pens, and female pigs were mated in those boar pens. In another breeding facility (Detection-Mating Area [DMA] system), boars were housed individually in stalls, and female pigs were mated in a specific mating pen adjacent to the front of stalls where boars were housed. After 51 d of housing treatment, a catheter was surgically implanted in the cephalic vein for collection of blood samples. Daytime profiles (hourly collections from 0900 to 1700) of cortisol did not differ among boars in the two treatment groups. Cortisol was greater (P cortisol in boars, but breeding facility did not affect the ACTH-induced changes in cortisol concentrations. There was a treatment x time interaction (P cortisol after sexual stimulation, and the magnitude and duration of increase in cortisol were greater (P Cortisol was greater (P cortisol concentration in boars seems to be a normal biological response to sexual activity. However, magnitude and duration of the increase in cortisol may be influenced by breeding facility design and mating procedure. There is no evidence, based on physiological data, that housing boars in stalls in the DMA system has any adverse effects on their welfare.

  16. How much does it cost to look like a pig in a wild boar group?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batocchio, Daniele; Iacolina, Laura; Canu, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization between domestic and wild species is known to widely occur and it is reported to be oneof the major causes of the current biodiversity crisis. Despite this, poor attention has been deserved tothe behavioural ecology of hybrids, in particular in relation to their social behaviour. We...... carried out acamera trap study to assess whether phenotypically anomalous colouration in wild boar, i.e. potentiallyintrogressed with domestic pigs, affected the hierarchical structure of wild boar social groups. Chromat-ically anomalous wild boars (CAWs) were detected in 32 out of 531 wild boar videos...

  17. The effect of the MC4R gene on boar taint compounds, sexual maturity and behaviour in growing-finishing boars and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeke, A; Aluwé, M; Janssens, S; Wauters, J; Vanhaecke, L; Buys, N; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-10-01

    Societal pressure to ban surgical castration of male piglets is rising due to animal welfare concerns, thus other methods to prevent boar taint need to be explored. Genetic selection against boar taint appears to be a long-term sustainable alternative. However, as boar taint is linked to reproductive hormones, it is important to consider possible negative side effects such as delayed sexual maturity or changes in behaviour. We reported earlier that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) marker can be used to reduce boar taint levels in fat of boars. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether MC4R marker-assisted selection for lower boar taint prevalence affects plasma levels of boar taint compounds and testosterone; sexual maturity; behaviour; skin lesions; and lameness in boars and gilts. Using an intervention study with a 2×2 design, 264 boars and gilts differing on position 893 of the MC4R gene (AA v. GG) were compared. The MC4R polymorphism did not affect the plasma concentration of either androstenone or testosterone at different time points, whereas the concentration of skatole was significantly lower (P=0.003) and the concentration of indole tended to be lower (P=0.074) in GG compared with AA boars. A higher percentage of gilts of the GG genotype were in puberty at slaughter age compared with AA gilts (Pslaughter, boars and gilts of the GG genotype showed more playing behaviour (P=0.015) and less passive and feeding behaviour (P=0.003). They showed more skin lesions on their back and caudal area (P=0.022), and tended to show more skin lesions on their head and anterior area (P=0.093) compared with AA animals. In conclusion, the polymorphism in the MC4R gene can be used as a marker without negative effects on reproduction characteristics in boars and gilts. Genetic selection towards a lower prevalence of boar taint will lead to more active pigs with more skin lesions. Management strategies may therefore be necessary to reduce skin lesions in the

  18. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lervik, Siri; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Conley, Lene

    2015-01-01

    and rodents, act at specific ages and developmental stages in the boar testis. The age dependency and complexity shown for development-specific testis transcripts must be considered when selecting phenotypic parameters for genetic selection for low androstenone. The results of selection based on measurement......Androstenone is a steroid pheromone occurring in the pubertal Leydig cells. Breeding against androstenone can decrease pheromone odour in swine meat but appears to cause unwanted side effects such as delayed onset of puberty. To study causality, global gene expression in developing boar testes...... with the onset of pubertal development. With elevated steroidogenesis (weeks 16 to 27), there was an increase in the expression of genes in the MAPK pathway, STAR and its analogue STARD6. A pubertal shift in genes coding for cellular cholesterol transport was observed. Increased expression of meiotic pathways...

  19. Evaluations of boar gonad development, spermatogenesis with regard to semen characteristics, libido and serum testosterone levels based on large White Duroc x Chinese Erhualian crossbred boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, D; Xing, Y; Lin, M; Wu, Y; Li, K; Li, W; Yang, S; Guo, T; Ren, J; Ma, J; Lan, L; Huang, L

    2009-12-01

    Chinese Erhualian pigs are known for prolificacy with distinct reproductive traits compared with Western commercial breeds. In this study, a four-generation intercross resource population was constructed using White Duroc boars and Chinese Erhualian sows as founder animals, and a total of 14 male reproductive traits were recorded in 411 F2/F3 boars including the testis and epididymis weights, the seminiferous tubular diameter and spermatogenesis at 60, 90 and 300 days of age, semen characteristics, serum testosterone concentration and libido level at 300 days of age. The White Duroc-Erhualian boars showed remarkable segregations in the traits measured except for the seminiferous tubular diameter and had high ratio (13.9%) of the abnormality of spermatogenesis, providing a good experimental population for detecting quantitative trait loci affecting these male reproductive traits. Furthermore, the correlations among nine male reproductive traits at 300 days of age indicated that the testis weight and the body weight were strongly correlated with the sperm production, supporting the two traits as important parameters for boar selection to increase sperm production and ultimately improve boar fertility. The libido level in the White Duroc-Erhualian boars that was evaluated by a new and easily recorded scoring system showed a significant correlation with serum testosterone concentration. Yet, both libido and serum testosterone concentration were not correlated with the sperm production. Results of this study provided new information on the male reproductive physiology and genetics in Chinese Erhualian and White Duroc boars.

  20. Preliminary characterization of multiple hyaluronidase forms in boar reproductive tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cibulková, Eva; Maňásková, Pavla; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2007), s. 1047-1054 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0895; GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : hyaluronidase * boar sperm * seminal plasma * epididymis * seminal vesicle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2007

  1. Proteinase inhibitors in aggregated forms of boar seminal plasma proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Petra; Maňásková, Pavla; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2003), s. 99-107 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : proteinase inhibitors, aggregated forms, boar seminal plasma proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2003

  2. Blood parameters of boars fed diets supplemented with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-two cross-bred (Large White X Landrace) male weanling pigs aged 8-9 weeks and weighing between 7.37 and 7.62kg (averaging 7.49 + 0.36kg individually) were used to assess the haematological profile of boars fed varied dietary copper. Four experimental diets were formulated: control (diet 1) with no inclusion of ...

  3. Expression and localization of acrosin inhibitor in boar reproductive tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davidová, Nina; Jonáková, Věra; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 338, č. 2 (2009), s. 303-311 ISSN 0302-766X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/1285; GA MŠk 1M06011; GA ČR GD523/08/H064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Acrosin inhibitor * Reproductive tract * Spermatozoa * Boar Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.308, year: 2009

  4. Elimination of apoptotic boar spermatozoa using magnetic activated cell sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Mrkun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of apoptosis is the externalization of phosphatidylserine which could be used to remove apoptotic cells from semen preparations. Magnetic-activated cell sorting using annexin V-conjugated microbeads which bind to phosphatidylserine could be used to enhance semen quality. Twelve boar semen samples after 3 days of liquid storage at 16­­–17 °C were subjected to magnetic-activated cell sorting. Bound and unbound fractions and control samples were subjected to flow cytometry following the staining of spermatozoa with Annexin V conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488 and propidium iodide. Four subpopulations were obtained: live, early apoptotic live, late apoptotic, early necrotic dead and late necrotic dead. The frequency of early apoptotic and late necrotic spermatozoa was significantly higher (P P P P < 0.05 lower proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa was observed in both fractions compared to control (67.2 ± 17.0%. Boar spermatozoa were separated by the above method for the first time, however, the results showed this method to be inappropriate for boar semen separation under the tested conditions.

  5. Boar effects and their relations to fertility and litter size in sows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Boar effects and their relations to fertility and litter size in sows. D.O. Umesiobi. Department of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Central University of Technology,. Free State, Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa. Abstract. Twenty Large White boars and 60 sows were used in ...

  6. Linear model analysis of the influencing factors of boar longevity in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Jia-Lian; Wei, Hong-Kui; Zhou, Yuan-Fei; Jiang, Si-Wen; Peng, Jian

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the boar herd life month (BHLM) in Southern China. A total of 1630 records of culling boars from nine artificial insemination centers were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. A logistic regression model and two linear models were used to analyze the effects of breed, housing type, age at herd entry, and seed stock herd on boar removal reason and BHLM, respectively. Boar breed and the age at herd entry had significant effects on the removal reasons (P linear models (with or without removal reason including) showed boars raised individually in stalls exhibited shorter BHLM than those raised in pens (P introduction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Social genetic effects for growth in pigs differ between boars and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hanne M; Ask, Birgitte; Madsen, Per

    2018-02-01

    Average daily gain (ADG) in pigs is affected by the so-called social (or indirect) genetic effects (SGE). However, SGE may differ between sexes because boars grow faster than gilts and their social behaviours differ. We hypothesized that direct genetic effects (DGE) and SGE for ADG in pigs differ between boars and gilts and that accounting for these differences will improve the predictive ability of a social genetic effects model (SGM). Our data consisted of ADG from 30 to 94 kg for 32,212 uncastrated males (boars) and 48,252 gilts that were raised in sex-specific pens. Data were analyzed using a univariate model with sex as a fixed effect and a bivariate model with ADG in boars and gilts as separate traits using both a classical animal model (CM) and a SGM. With the univariate model, the heritability for ADG was 0.22 ± 0.01 for the CM, while the estimate of the total heritable variance (T 2 ) was 0.23 ± 0.01 with the SGM. With the bivariate model, the genetic variance for SGE was higher for boars (13.8 ± 5.8) than for gilts (9.3 ± 3.9). For the bivariate model, T 2 was 0.32 ± 0.02 for boars and 0.27 ± 0.01 for gilts. Estimates of the genetic correlations between DGE (0.88 ± 0.02) and SGE (0.30 ± 0.30) for boars versus gilts indicated that ADG in boars and gilts are different traits. Moreover, the estimate of the genetic correlation between DGE and SGE indicated presence of genetic effects of competition among gilts but not among boars. Compared to a CM, the univariate SGM improved predictive ability significantly only for gilts and the bivariate SGM improved predictive ability significantly for both boars and gilts. We found significant genetic variances of SGE for ADG. The covariance between DGE and SGE was much more negative for gilts than for boars when applying the bivariate model. Because the estimate of the genetic correlation for ADG between gilts and boars differed significantly from 1 and the predictive ability for boars and gilts

  8. Deep-freezing of boar semen in plastic film 'cochettes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, B M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-03-01

    The motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa from nine boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine in plastic bags, 'cochettes', and in 'maxi-straws', in total doses of 5 x 10(9) spermatozoa/5 ml with glycerol (3%) used as cryoprotectant, were assessed after thawing. A computer-based cell motion analyser was used to evaluate sperm motility, while the integrity of the plasmalemma was assessed with fluorescent supravital dyes (C-FDA/PI). The fertilizing capacity of the semen frozen in the two containers was investigated by inseminating (AI) gilts. Pregnancy was monitored by Doppler-ultrasound, and the numbers of corpora lutea and viable embryos counted at slaughter, between days 30 and 38 after AI. The cochettes sustained the overall procedure of freezing/thawing (FT), with 30 min post-thaw (PT) sperm motility being significantly higher than for straws, 46.9 vs. 39.5%. The only significant difference in motility patterns detected when comparing the packages was a higher sperm velocity (VCL) in cochettes at 30 min PT. However, percentages of FT-spermatozoa with intact membranes, detected with the supravital probes, were higher in maxi-straws than in cochettes, 46.8 vs. 43.0% (P straws and those frozen in cochettes. The results indicate that although the deep-freezing of AI-doses of boar semen in large plastic bags is feasible, problems such as their inconvenient size for storage and inconsistent thawing must be solved before this type of container can be used for the commercial cryopreservation of boar semen.

  9. Structural Classification of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Gingras, Bruno; Bowling, Daniel L; Herbst, Christian T; Boeckle, Markus; Locatelli, Yann; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-04-01

    Determining whether a species' vocal communication system is graded or discrete requires definition of its vocal repertoire. In this context, research on domestic pig ( Sus scrofa domesticus ) vocalizations, for example, has led to significant advances in our understanding of communicative functions. Despite their close relation to domestic pigs, little is known about wild boar ( Sus scrofa) vocalizations. The few existing studies, conducted in the 1970s, relied on visual inspections of spectrograms to quantify acoustic parameters and lacked statistical analysis. Here, we use objective signal processing techniques and advanced statistical approaches to classify 616 calls recorded from semi-free ranging animals. Based on four spectral and temporal acoustic parameters-quartile Q25, duration, spectral flux, and spectral flatness-extracted from a multivariate analysis, we refine and extend the conclusions drawn from previous work and present a statistically validated classification of the wild boar vocal repertoire into four call types: grunts, grunt-squeals, squeals, and trumpets. While the majority of calls could be sorted into these categories using objective criteria, we also found evidence supporting a graded interpretation of some wild boar vocalizations as acoustically continuous, with the extremes representing discrete call types. The use of objective criteria based on modern techniques and statistics in respect to acoustic continuity advances our understanding of vocal variation. Integrating our findings with recent studies on domestic pig vocal behavior and emotions, we emphasize the importance of grunt-squeals for acoustic approaches to animal welfare and underline the need of further research investigating the role of domestication on animal vocal communication.

  10. Cryopreservation of boar sperm induces differential microRNAs expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Dai, Dinghui; Chang, Yu; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Guangbin; Peng, Zhanghua; Zeng, Changjun

    2017-06-01

    Lower conception rates and litter sizes limit the wide use of artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm, due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms that cause cryodamage and cryoinjury to sperm during cryopreservation. CryoMiRs, a family of freeze-related microRNAs (miRNAs), are associated with freeze tolerance, and regulate metabolism in mammalian hibernators and insects. Thus, we speculate that miRNAs maybe involved in the regulation of the freeze-thaw process and may affect boar sperm function. In this study, we studied the differential expression of 46 miRNAs that have roles in spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and sperm quality in response to cryopreservation (with or without 3% glycerol). The results indicated that, in response to cryopreservation with 3% glycerol, 14 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated, but only two miRNAs (miR-22 and miR-450b-5p) were significantly down-regulated, relative to fresh sperm. Preservation with 3% glycerol caused up-regulation of 17 miRNAs, but only caused down-regulation of one miRNA (miR-24), relative to sperm cryopreserved without glycerol. Functional annotations of these differentially expressed miRNAs indicated that these miRNAs and their targets are mainly associated with metabolic and cellular processes. Therefore, our findings show that cryopreservation results in changes in miRNA expression, and suggest that the anti-freeze mechanisms of boar sperm need to be studied further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. First isolation and characterization of Brucella microti from wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dán, Ádám; Drees, Kevin; Foster, Jeffrey T; Bányai, Krisztián; Marton, Szilvia; Szeredi, Levente; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-07-11

    Brucella microti was first isolated from common vole (Microtus arvalis) in the Czech Republic in Central Europe in 2007. As B. microti is the only Brucella species known to live in soil, its distribution, ecology, zoonotic potential, and genomic organization is of particular interest. The present paper is the first to report the isolation of B. microti from a wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is also the first isolation of this bacterial species in Hungary. The B. microti isolate was cultured, after enrichment in Brucella-selective broth, from the submandibular lymph node of a female wild boar that was taken by hunters in Hungary near the Austrian border in September 2014. Histological and immunohistological examinations of the lymph node sections with B. abortus-, B. suis- and B. canis-specific sera gave negative results. The isolate did not require CO2 for growth, was oxidase, catalase, and urease positive, H2S negative, grew well in the presence of 20 μg/ml basic fuchsin and thionin, and had brownish pigmentation after three days of incubation. It gave strong positive agglutination with anti-A and anti-M but had a negative reaction with anti-R monospecific sera. The API 20 NE test identified it as Ochrobactrum anthropi with 99.9% identity, and it showed B. microti-specific banding pattern in the Bruce- and Suis-ladder multiplex PCR systems. Whole genome re-sequencing identified 30 SNPs in orthologous loci when compared to the B. microti reference genome available in GenBank, and the MLVA analysis yielded a unique profile. Given that the female wild boar did not develop any clinical disease, we hypothesize that this host species only harboured the bacterium, serving as a possible reservoir capable of maintaining and spreading this pathogen. The infectious source could have been either a rodent, a carcass that had been eaten or infection occurred via the boar rooting in soil. The low number of discovered SNPs suggests an unexpectedly high level of genetic homogeneity

  12. Mannan-binding proteins from boar seminal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková-Slavíčková, Petra; Liberda, J.; Maňásková, Pavla; Ryšlavá, H.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2004), s. 167-182 ISSN 0165-0378. [Congress of the European Society for Reproductive & Developmental Immunology /4./. Rhodes, 04.06.2003-06.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MŠk VS96141; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : boar seminal plasma proteins * mannan-binding proteins * oviductal epithelium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2004

  13. Exposure of extensively farmed wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa) to selected pig pathogens in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinou, K A; Papatsiros, V G; Gkotsopoulos, E K; Odatzoglou, P K; Athanasiou, L V

    2015-06-01

    Increased density and distribution of wild boar populations are likely to promote interactions and transmission of certain pathogens, not only among wild boar but also from wild boar to livestock or humans and vice versa. The purpose of this study was to determine seroprevalence against seven selected pathogens in wild boar living in four different areas in Greece. In total, 359 serum samples were collected from extensively farmed wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) originating from four distinct geographical areas throughout Greece from April 2012 to August 2013. Samples were tested for antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, African swine fever virus (ASFV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Prevalence was compared among the four regions using Fisher's exact test. Low overall seropositivities of 2.4% and 5.6% were detected for E. rhusiopathiae and PRRSV, respectively, higher ones for ADV (32.0%) and the highest (72.5% and 90.5%) for M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae, respectively. All sera tested were found negative for antibodies directed against CSFV and ASFV. This is the first report of exposure of wild boars to selected pig pathogens in Greece. These results are indicative of the circulation of these pathogens in Greece with the exception of CSFV and ASFV and suggestive of the potential role of wild boars on their maintenance and transmission to their domestic counterparts and vice versa.

  14. The Dynamic of Main Indices of Spermiogram at Boars, in Function on Some Factors of Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherasim Nacu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Breeding boars used for semen production. This is conditioned by many factors. The research aim was to assess the some indices of spermogram (volume, mobility, concentration, total sperm / ejaculate at 21 boars, the breeds Large White, Landrace, Duroc and Pietrain in relation with some factors of influence: the race, age, individual and harvesting season. The age of boars was between 8 months and 30 months. The rhythm of harvesting was following: one harvesting followed by the five days break. Depending on the breed, were differences for volume (183,5± 4,88 ml at Pietrain boars and 256±5,3 ml at Landrace boars and for concentration (309,7±6,0 millions/ml at Duroc boars and 430,7±9,3 millions/ml at Pietrain boars. In function on the season, semen volume varied insignificant between summer (minimum values: 188.4 ± 5.6 ml and winter (maximum values: 222.1 ± 6.6 ml. The spermatozoon concentration was insignificantly influenced by the season (371.6 ± 11.7 million/ml - summer; 399.4 ± 12.6 million/ ml – autumn. The greatest differences for all indices of semen analysis were in function on individual. The results show that the indices analyzed are strongly influenced by internal environmental factors (breed, individual and are less conditioned by environmental factors such as the season.

  15. [Effect of experimental classical swine fever (CSF) infection on libido and ejaculate parameters in boars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrend, A; Fritzemeier, J; Flögel-Niesmann, G; Mönnig, V; Hollen-Horst, M; Meinecke, B

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of an experimental infection with the classical swine fever (CSF) virus on libido and ejaculate parameters of adult boars. Four boars 10 month old were infected with a CSF field isolate (Visbek/Han95). Semen was collected every second day after infection and daily during the pyrexic phase. The only clinical signs in the boars were an increase in body temperature, but never above 39.9 degrees C and a temporally reduction of food intake. The libido was always good, so semen collection was performed in three boars without difficulty and the semen quality was always in the range of the minimum requirements for sperm that is used for artificial insemination. Although one boar had a good libido only a sperm free ejaculate could be collected on one day. The results show that a CSF virus infection of adult boars hardly causes any clinical symptoms and that sperm can be obtained despite fever. Insemination boars may thus be of special epidemiological relevance for the dissemination of the CSF virus.

  16. Camera traps and activity signs to estimate wild boar density and derive abundance indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, Giovanna; Coats, Julia; Lambert, Mark Simon; Pietravalle, Stephane; Gill, Robin; Cowan, Dave

    2018-04-01

    Populations of wild boar and feral pigs are increasing worldwide, in parallel with their significant environmental and economic impact. Reliable methods of monitoring trends and estimating abundance are needed to measure the effects of interventions on population size. The main aims of this study, carried out in five English woodlands were: (i) to compare wild boar abundance indices obtained from camera trap surveys and from activity signs; and (ii) to assess the precision of density estimates in relation to different densities of camera traps. For each woodland, we calculated a passive activity index (PAI) based on camera trap surveys, rooting activity and wild boar trails on transects, and estimated absolute densities based on camera trap surveys. PAIs obtained using different methods showed similar patterns. We found significant between-year differences in abundance of wild boar using PAIs based on camera trap surveys and on trails on transects, but not on signs of rooting on transects. The density of wild boar from camera trap surveys varied between 0.7 and 7 animals/km 2 . Increasing the density of camera traps above nine per km 2 did not increase the precision of the estimate of wild boar density. PAIs based on number of wild boar trails and on camera trap data appear to be more sensitive to changes in population size than PAIs based on signs of rooting. For wild boar densities similar to those recorded in this study, nine camera traps per km 2 are sufficient to estimate the mean density of wild boar. © 2017 Crown copyright. Pest Management Science © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Crown copyright. Pest Management Science © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. First report of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-Li; Zou, Yang; Gao, Yun-Hang; Nie, Lan-Bi; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Hu, Gui-Xue; Du, Rui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2018-06-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae affects the global pig industry with significant economic losses. It is yet to know whether wild boars in China were infected with M. hyopneumoniae. The present study was conducted to examine the seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors of M. hyopneumoniae infection in farmed wild boars in China. A total of 882 serum samples were collected from farmed wild boars in Jilin City, Siping City and Baishan City in Jilin Province, northeastern China from April 2015 to February 2016, and were examined by the double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seventy-eight out of 882 (8.8%) serum samples were M. hyopneumoniae-seropositive. Among region groups, wild boars from Jilin city (11.7%, 33/281) had the highest seropositivity, followed by Siping city (11%, 29/263) and Baishan city (4.7%, 16/338), and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0031). The M. hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in the female wild boars (9.0%, 75/831) was higher than that in the male wild boars (5.9%, 3/51) (P = 0.4429). The results of this investigation showed that farmed wild boars were susceptible to M. hyopneumoniae. Logistic regression analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between the geographical area and M. hyopneumoniae infection, which may be related to the regional environment. This is the first report of M. hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in China, which provided baseline information for further studies and control of M. hyopneumoniae infection in wild boars in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Social genetic effects for growth in pigs differ between boars and gilts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne M.; Ask, Birgitte; Madsen, Per

    2018-01-01

    between boars and gilts and that accounting for these differences will improve the predictive ability of a social genetic effects model (SGM). Our data consisted of ADG from 30 to 94 kg for 32,212 uncastrated males (boars) and 48,252 gilts that were raised in sex-specific pens. Data were analyzed using......Average daily gain (ADG) in pigs is affected by the so-called social (or indirect) genetic effects (SGE). However, SGE may differ between sexes because boars grow faster than gilts and their social behaviours differ. We hypothesized that direct genetic effects (DGE) and SGE for ADG in pigs differ...

  19. Social genetic effects for growth in pigs differ between boars and gilts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne M.; Ask, Birgitte; Madsen, Per

    2018-01-01

    Average daily gain (ADG) in pigs is affected by the so-called social (or indirect) genetic effects (SGE). However, SGE may differ between sexes because boars grow faster than gilts and their social behaviours differ. We hypothesized that direct genetic effects (DGE) and SGE for ADG in pigs differ...... between boars and gilts and that accounting for these differences will improve the predictive ability of a social genetic effects model (SGM). Our data consisted of ADG from 30 to 94 kg for 32,212 uncastrated males (boars) and 48,252 gilts that were raised in sex-specific pens. Data were analyzed using...

  20. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI Stations is limited.

  1. Infection with Paragonimus westermani of boar-hunting dogs in Western Japan maintained via artificial feeding with wild boar meat by hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Takao; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Guo, Zhi Hong; Habe, Shigehisa; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2017-08-18

    Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for the parasite infection because of their stronger reactivity against P. westermani antigen than against antigens of other species of Paragonimus. A spatial analysis showed that all of the P. westermani infections were found in Kinki and Chugoku Districts. In this area, dogs' experience of being fed with raw boar meat showed high odds ratio (3.35) to the sero-positivity in the screening ELISA, and the frequency of such experiences was significantly higher in sero-positive dogs. While clear relationship was not obtained between predation of boars by dogs during hunting and their sero-positivity. Therefore, it is suggested that human activity of feeding with wild boar meat is the risk factor for P. westermani infection in boar-hunting dogs. Considering that hunting dogs could play as a major definitive host and maintain the present distribution of P. westermani in Western Japan, control measures for the infection in hunting dogs, such as prohibition of raw meat feeding and regular deworming, should be undertaken.

  2. Infection with Paragonimus westermani of boar-hunting dogs in Western Japan maintained via artificial feeding with wild boar meat by hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    IRIE, Takao; YAMAGUCHI, Yohei; DOANH, Pham Ngoc; GUO, Zhi Hong; HABE, Shigehisa; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2017-01-01

    Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for the parasite infection because of their stronger reactivity against P. westermani antigen than against antigens of other species of Paragonimus. A spatial analysis showed that all of the P. westermani infections were found in Kinki and Chugoku Districts. In this area, dogs’ experience of being fed with raw boar meat showed high odds ratio (3.35) to the sero-positivity in the screening ELISA, and the frequency of such experiences was significantly higher in sero-positive dogs. While clear relationship was not obtained between predation of boars by dogs during hunting and their sero-positivity. Therefore, it is suggested that human activity of feeding with wild boar meat is the risk factor for P. westermani infection in boar-hunting dogs. Considering that hunting dogs could play as a major definitive host and maintain the present distribution of P. westermani in Western Japan, control measures for the infection in hunting dogs, such as prohibition of raw meat feeding and regular deworming, should be undertaken. PMID:28717056

  3. Comparative Bacteriological Study of Two Wild Boar Populations in Sierra Morena (Ja�n, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio NOTARIO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of various bacterial species in the wild boar populations of Lugar Nuevo and Selladores-Contadero woodlands from Sierra Morena (Spain. Bacteriological analyses were carried out on a total of 229 wild boar individuals hunted in the period 2000-2003 in eleven experimental plots which are representative for the different biotopes of the area. The following species were detected: Brucella ovis, Clostridium sp., Corynebacterium sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chlamydophila psittaci, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus sp. and the bacterial prevalence was estimated for each of them. The results provide useful indications of the health status of wild boar in both locations and highlight the potential of the wild boar populations to act as biological reservoirs of certain microorganisms that can be passed onto other vertebrate wild animals and humans.

  4. First record of wild boar infected with Trichinella pseudospiralis in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilska-Zając Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper describes identification of Trichinella species isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa in the most popular hunting region of the West Pomeranian Province of Poland.

  5. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacour, Sandrine A.; Heckmann, Aurelie; Mace, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears...... spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals...... served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21 degrees C for 19,30 and 56h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam (R) image analysis software and their infectivities were...

  6. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig.

  7. Boar taint - the effects of selected candidate genes associated with androstenone and skatole levels - a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zadinová, K.; Stupka, R.; Stratil, Antonín; Čítek, J.; Vehovský, K.; Urbanová, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2016), s. 107-128 ISSN 0860-4037 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : boar teint * and rostenone * skatole Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.725, year: 2016

  8. Pre-birth sense of smell in the wild boar: the ontogeny of the olfactory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgione, Domenico; Trapanese, Martina; Buglione, Maria; Rippa, Daniela; Polese, Gianluca; Maresca, Viviana; Maselli, Valeria

    2017-08-01

    Animals recognize their surrounding environments through the sense of smell by detecting thousands of chemical odorants. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) completely depend on their ability to recognize chemical odorants: to detect food, during scavenging and searching partners, during breeding periods and to avoid potential predators. Wild piglets must be prepared for the chemical universe that they will enter after birth, and they show intense neuronal activity in the olfactory mucosa. With this in mind, we investigated the morpho-functional embryonic development of the olfactory mucosa in the wild boar (in five stages before birth). Using mRNA expression analysis of olfactory marker protein and neuropeptide Y, involved in the function of olfactory sensory neurons, we show early activation of the appropriate genes in the wild boar. We hypothesize olfactory pre-birth development in wild boar is highly adaptive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The Comparison Analysis of the Main Chemical Composition Parameters of Wild Boar Meat and Pork

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Bodnárné Skobrák; Károly Bodnár; Edit Mikóné Jónás; János Gundel; András Jávor

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of wild boar meat from wild boar parks with various habitats and different feeding facilities was analysed. Samples were collected from m. serratus anterior – during the winter hunting period. The protein, the total fat, the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content were measured and also and those elements which have great importance on human alimentation. The results were compared with other author’s data of the same parameters of pork. The aim of the study was t...

  10. Hormonal and behavioral correlates of emotional states in sexually trained boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J D; Malven, P V; Singleton, W L; Weesner, G D

    1999-12-01

    Physiological and behavioral traits of sexually mature boars were compared between episodes of copulation and sexual frustration in order to determine reliable indicators of the differences in emotional states. Ten boars, approximately 6 mo of age, were trained to mount a stationary artificial sow (ArtSow) and to ejaculate when digital pressure was applied to the extended penis. This method of semen collection is the typical procedure of the industry. All 10 boars used in this study were fully trained to this procedure before the onset of the study. Each boar was subjected to trials in which one of the following two treatments was applied. In the control (CTRL) treatment, boars were treated the same as during their training (i.e., allowed to complete ejaculation). In the frustration (FRUS) treatment, boars were allowed to mount the ArtSow, but because no manual pressure was applied to the extended penis, ejaculation never occurred. Blood was collected via indwelling catheters before onset of the trial, during exposure to the ArtSow, and after returning to their home pen. Concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, and beta-endorphin were quantified. Behavior of the boars was recorded during exposure to the ArtSow and for 30 min after return to their home pen. Relative to preexposure levels, serum cortisol increased (Pcortisol did not allow us to distinguish between the excitement of copulation and the negative affect associated with sexual frustration, whereas increases in serum beta-endorphin and motor activity seemed to be indicators of the negative emotional state of sexual frustration in trained boars.

  11. Variation in mitochondrial DNA of Vietnamese pigs: Relationships with Asian domestic pigs and Ryukyu wild boars

    OpenAIRE

    HONGO, Hitomi; ISHIGURO, Naotaka; WATANOBE, Takuma; SHIGEHARA, Nobuo; ANEZAKI, Tomoko; LONG, Vu The; BINH, Dang Vu; TIEN, Nguyen Trong; NAM, Nguyen Huu; 一美, 本郷

    2002-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences (574 bp) of 30 Vietnamese pigs (large and small) were examined and compared with those of 61 haplotypes from wild boars and domestic pigs from various locations in Asia. The large Vietnamese pigs had genetic links to Ryukyu wild boars in southern Japan. The small Vietnamese pigs were closely related to other East Asian domestic pigs. These results indicate that Vietnamese pigs are genetically diverse and may be descendents of wild and domestic pigs from oth...

  12. Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Prov-ince, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid MANSOURI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods.Results: Twenty-two (88% of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4% were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52% with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68% with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80% with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood samples were tested with Knott’s method.Conclusion: Wild boars are contaminated by some helminthes including zoonotic ones. These animals could be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic helminth by acting as reservoir hosts. This in turn may bring potential risk for locals and residents of the Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.

  13. Evaluation of zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol toxicity on boar sperm DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, Ioannis A; Lymberopoulos, Aristoteles G; Khalifa, Tarek A A; Boscos, Constanten M; Saratsi, Aikaterini; Alexopoulos, Costas

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed at investigating the in vitro effects of zearalenone (zen) and alpha-zearalenol (alpha-zen) on motility and nuclear chromatin integrity (NCI) of boar spermatozoa. Mycotoxins were tested, at levels ranging from 10 to 30 microg ml(-1) of diluted semen. Four boars were used for semen collection (eight replicates per boar, four per mycotoxin). After the addition of zen or alpha-zen, semen samples were incubated for 4 h at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO(2) and 96% humidified air. Motility and NCI were assessed at 0 and 4 h of incubation. No significant differences were noticed in motility among the experimental groups (P > 0.05) for all tested boars. Chromatin instability was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in spermatozoa of only one boar treated with zen and alpha-zen independently of the dose. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, zen and alpha-zen did not affect the motility of boar sperm, whereas the effects of these toxins on sperm NCI were individual-dependent. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  14. Hepatitis E Virus in Sylvatic and Captive Wild Boar from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, J R; Oliveira, R M S; Coelho, C; Vieira-Pinto, M; Nascimento, M S J

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic agent today considered a major Public Health issue in industrialized countries. HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine, being today considered important reservoirs for human disease. Unlike in swine, only scarce data are available on the circulation of HEV in wild boar. This study describes the detection and molecular characterization of HEV in livers from sylvatic wild boar hunted in Portugal and destined for consumption. Additionally, the detection of HEV in stools of a confined wild boar population also destined for consumption is also described. A total of 80 liver samples collected during the hunting season of 2011/2012 and 40 stools collected in February 2012 from a wild boar breeding farm in Portugal were tested by a nested broad-spectrum RT-PCR assay targeting open reading frame (ORF) 1. Twenty livers (25.0%) and 4 stools (10%) were positive for HEV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains clustered with sequences classified as HEV genotype 3 subgenotype e. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the occurrence and molecular analysis of HEV in sylvatic and captive wild boar destined for human consumption in Portugal. This report demonstrates for the first time the circulation of HEV in wildlife reservoirs of Portugal adding knowledge to the epidemiology of HEV in wild boar populations. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Expression patterns and role of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in boar spermatogonial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Won-Yong; Kim, Jin Hoi; Park, Chankyu; Song, Hyuk

    2018-03-15

    The signaling of chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptor C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is involved in the cellular proliferation, survival, and migration of various cell types. Although SDF-1/CXCR4 has been implicated in the maintenance of the spermatogonial population during mouse testis development, their expression patterns and functions in boar testis remain unclear. In the present study, the expression pattern of SDF-1 and CXCR4 was determined during pre-pubertal and post-pubertal stage boar testes and in vitro cultured porcine spermatogonial stem cells (pSSCs). The role of these proteins in colony formation in cultured pSSCs was also investigated. Interestingly, SDF-1 expression was observed in PGP 9.5-positve spermatogonia in all developing stages of boar testis; however, CXCR4 expression was only detected in spermatogonia from 5-day-old boar testis. In addition, SDF-1 and CXCR4 expression was observed in cultured pSSCs from 5-day-old boar testes, and inhibition of the CXCR4 receptor signaling pathway by AMD3100 significantly decreased the colony formation of pSSCs. These results suggest that SDF-1 and CXCR4 are useful markers for detecting stage-specific spermatogonia in boar testis. Our results reveal the role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in pSSC in vitro culture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Zoonotic tick-borne bacteria among wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate the occurrence of infections by the three zoonotic bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l. and Coxiella burnetii in wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy. The spleen samples from 100 hunted wild boars were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR assays were carried out to detect the three agents. One (1% animal was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reactions were observed for Coxiella burnetii. Wild boars did not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the three investigated agents. However, the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in the spleen of the tested animals showed that wild boars can harbor these pathogens, thus ticked that feeding on infected wild boars are likely to become infected, too, which represents a source of infection for other animals and humans. This is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in Italy.

  17. An assessment of the breeding maturity of insemination boars based on ejaculate quality changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewska, Dorota; Kondracki, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    We examined the sexual development and insemination capability of boars representing five breeds used at Polish sow insemination stations. The speed of attaining full breeding maturity by the boars and their insemination usefulness was assessed based on the results of experiments analysing age-related changes in the physical characteristics of the ejaculates. Directly after sampling, the ejaculates were analysed for the following physical parameters: ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa per ejaculate. The total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculates and the number of insemination doses obtained from one ejaculate were calculated using SYSTEM SUL v. 6.1 software. The sexual development of boars continues during insemination use, leading to improved ejaculatory performance. The physical parameters of the ejaculate change along with the age of the boar. The Duroc and Hampshire boars represent a pattern of sexual development that is different from that of the PLW, PL and Pietrain males, with an evident earlier termination of growth. The American boars (Duroc and Hampshire) acquire top ejaculatory performance approximately 6 months earlier.

  18. Contemporary Genetic Structure, Phylogeography and Past Demographic Processes of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Population in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all k...

  19. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Jori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV. In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%–31.6% of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%–56.7% of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%–91.9% of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation.

  20. Immunological castration temporarily reduces testis size and function without long-term effects on libido and sperm quality in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugar, D W; Rhoads, M L; Clark-Deener, S G; Callahan, S R; Revercomb, A K; Prusa, K J; Estienne, M J

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone on reproductive characteristics in boars. A total of 72 boars were used in a randomized design with three treatments: single immunization (SI) (10 weeks of age) or double immunization (DI) (10 and 15 weeks of age) with Improvest® and intact controls (no Improvest®; CNT) (n=24/group). At 10, 15, 20, 25 and 40 weeks of age, blood was collected and serum harvested to evaluate testosterone concentrations. Testosterone concentrations were less for DI boars compared with CNT boars and SI boars at 20 and 25 weeks (PLibido was assessed at 32, 36, 47, 60 and 63 weeks of age and semen collected at 60 weeks of age was analyzed for indicators of quality. There were no effects of treatment (P=0.41) or treatment by week (P=0.71) on libido. Semen volume, gel weight and total number of sperm cells, determined in a subset of boars (n=3/treatment), were not different among treatments. Sperm concentration was greater for DI than SI (P=0.01), and tended to be greater for DI compared with CNT (P=0.10). Sperm motility tended to be greater for DI boars compared with CNT boars (P=0.066). In conclusion, our results show that there are no long-term effects of immunocastration on reproductive characteristics in boars.

  1. Simulating the spread of classical swine fever virus between a hypothetical wild-boar population and domestic pig herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Goldbach, Stine G.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2008-01-01

    of CSFV between the hypothetical wild-boar population and the domestic population. Furthermore, the economic impact is assessed taking the perspective of the Danish national budget and the Danish pig industry. We used InterSpreadPlus to model the differential classical swine fever (CSF) risk due to wild...... boar. Nine scenarios were run to elucidate the effect of: (a) presence of wild boar (yes/no), (b) locations for the index case (domestic pig herd/wild-boar group),...

  2. Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun

    2014-11-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzic, Nina, E-mail: bilandzic@veinst.hr [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sedak, Marija [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vrataric, Darija; Peric, Tomislav [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management Veterinary Directorat, Ulica grada Vukovara 78, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Simic, Branimir [Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-01

    The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

  4. Involvement of glucocorticoids in testicular involution after active immunization of boars against GnRH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A; Claus, R

    2004-02-01

    Active GnRH immunization of boars inhibits LH and testicular steroids but the consequences for spermatogenesis are unknown. Six boars were immunized three times against GnRH at 20, 24 and 28 weeks. Another six boars served as controls. Plasma LH and FSH were determined at 28 and 31 weeks. Testosterone and cortisol were determined before killing the pigs at 32 weeks. Tissue samples were taken for histology and fluid from the seminiferous tubuli for steroid determination. Individual germ cells were counted in histological sections. The glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), mitosis of spermatogonia and apoptosis were characterized by immunocytochemistry. Immunization reduced LH and testosterone to base levels whereas FSH was not changed. Testis weight was reduced by 64% due to a loss of Leydig cell cytoplasm (90.3%) and a decrease of tubule diameters (60.6%). Except for A-spermatogonia, all other spermatogenic cells were reduced by about 60%. Mitosis was reduced in immunized boars. Expression of GCRs was limited to spermatogonia and differed between immunized boars (8% of spermatogonia) and controls (2%). In the controls, androgen concentrations in tubular fluid were tenfold higher compared with immunized boars. Cortisol concentrations were of the order of 40 nmol/l both in the tubular fluid and blood plasma. These concentrations did not differ between groups. Apoptosis occurred only in spermatogonia and pachytene spermatocytes and was twofold higher in immunized boars compared with controls. Thus the availability of glucocorticoids in the tubuli and the expression of GCRs initiate apoptosis, which in turn reduces sperm yield. Testosterone is known to be an inhibitor of GCR expression, thus increasing the efficiency of spermatogenesis.

  5. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: I. Presentation of the programme and measurement of boar taint compounds with different analytical procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneau, M.; Kempster, A.J.; Claus, R.; Claudi-Magnussen, C.; Diestre, A.; Tornberg, E.; Walstra, P.; Chevillon, P.; Weiler, U.; Cook, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    An international study, involving 11 participants in 7 European countries, was conducted to provide scientific evidence for an objective measurement of boar taint in entire male pigs and its possible variation between countries. The specific objectives were to determine the respective contributions

  6. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gassó

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS. The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE; hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalasa (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated

  7. Do changes in soil properties after rooting by wild boars (Sus scrofa) affect understory vegetation in Swiss hardwood forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sven Wirthner; Martin Schutz; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Matt D. Busse; James W. Kirchner; Anita C. Risch

    2012-01-01

    Recovering from small fragmented populations, wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) have considerably increased their numbers and their habitat range in many European countries during the past two decades. Although several studies have focused on the impact of wild boar rooting on selected vegetation properties, little is known about effects on entire forest ecosystems. The main...

  8. The Comparison Analysis of the Main Chemical Composition Parameters of Wild Boar Meat and Pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bodnárné Skobrák

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of wild boar meat from wild boar parks with various habitats and different feeding facilities was analysed. Samples were collected from m. serratus anterior – during the winter hunting period. The protein, the total fat, the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content were measured and also and those elements which have great importance on human alimentation. The results were compared with other author’s data of the same parameters of pork. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of different feeding systems on the ingredients of wild boar meat, and the accidental analogy with the ingredients of pork. There was no difference in protein content. The value of miristic acid (C14:0 in the samples of extensively and intensively fed group was more favourable than that of pork. Pork contains more MUFA (palmitoleic acid – C16:1. The semi-intensively fed wild boar’s meat and pork contained linoleic acid (C18:3 n3 almost on the same level. The greatest difference was detected in the level of arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6. The samples from all wild boar groups contained more of this fatty acid than it was published about domestic pigs. Out of the microelements, the iodine and zinc had higher value in wild boar meat than in pork.

  9. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Molecular characterization of Belgian pseudorabies virus isolates from domestic swine and wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpoest, Sara; Cay, Ann Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

    2014-08-06

    Aujeszky's disease is an economically important disease in domestic swine caused by suid herpesvirus 1, also called pseudorabies virus (PRV). In several European countries, including Belgium, the virus has successfully been eradicated from the domestic swine population. The presence of PRV in the wild boar population however poses a risk for possible reintroduction of the virus into the domestic pig population. It is therefore important to assess the genetic relatedness between circulating strains and possible epidemiological links. In this study, nine historical Belgian domestic swine isolates that circulated before 1990 and five recent wild boar isolates obtained since 2006 from Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were genetically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and phylogenetic analysis. While all wild boar isolates were characterized as type I RFLP genotypes, the RFLP patterns of the domestic swine isolates suggest that a shift from genotype I to genotype II might have occurred in the 1980s in the domestic population. By phylogenetic analysis, Belgian wild boar isolates belonging to both clade A and B were observed, while all domestic swine isolates clustered within clade A. The joint phylogenetic analysis of both wild boar and domestic swine strains showed that some isolates with identical sequences were present within both populations, raising the question whether these strains represent an increased risk for reintroduction of the virus into the domestic population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aquaporins 7 and 11 in boar spermatozoa: detection, localisation and relationship with sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Vilagran, Ingrid; Morató, Roser; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2016-04-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane water channels that allow transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Although water permeability is known to play a critical role in mammalian cells, including spermatozoa, little is known about their localisation in boar spermatozoa. Two aquaporins, AQP7 and AQP11, in boar spermatozoa were identified by western blotting and localised through immunocytochemistry analyses. Western blot results showed that boar spermatozoa expressed AQP7 (25kDa) and AQP11 (50kDa). Immunocytochemistry analyses demonstrated that AQP7 was localised in the connecting piece of boar spermatozoa, while AQP11 was found in the head and mid-piece and diffuse labelling was also seen along the tail. Despite differences in AQP7 and AQP11 content between boar ejaculates, these differences were not found to be correlated with sperm quality in the case of AQP7. Conversely, AQP11 content showed a significant correlation (Pspermatozoa express AQP7 and AQP11, and the amounts of AQP11 but not those of AQP7 are correlated with sperm motility and membrane integrity.

  12. Effect of Selenium, Zinc, Vitamin C and E on Boar Ejaculate Quality at Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of experiment was to test effect of selected antioxidants (selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E to reduce the impact of heat stress at boars. In the experiment, boars of Duroc breed were tested. The first control group (n = 10 was not supplemented with antioxidants. The second experimental group (n = 10 was supplemented with antioxidants in the following quantities of 0.5 mg of selenium (seleno-methionine, 100 mg of zinc (zinc-methionine, 70 mg of vitamin E (alpha‑tocopherol and 350 mg of vitamin C (ascorbic acid per kilogram of their feed. The experiment was carried out for 120 days and took place in summer (June to September. During the experiment, average and maximum daily temperatures, where boars were stabled, were monitored. Average daily temperature ranged from 12 to 28 °C. Maximum temperature during the day was from 13 to 32 °C. The evaluation of the semen quality has revealed increased number of abnormal spermatozoa in the control group of boars by 39 % (P < 0.05. There were observed no significant changes at other monitored parameters (ejaculate volume, total count of produced sperm, motility and sperm concentration. The results show that the addition of selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E may reduce the effect of heat stress to some extent at breeding boars.

  13. A comparison of mycotoxin adsorbents and their effects on some selected parameters of boar semen

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    Zdeněk Tvrdoň

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of two mycotoxin adsorbents with different mechanisms of action were followed in 180 purebred and terminal combination boars reared in artificial insemination stations. The following parameters of boar sperm quality were investigated: volume in millilitres, concentration and motility, and numbers of pathological spermatozoa. When processing the boar semen, the dilution ration and numbers of AI doses were recorded. Compared were two preparations: in case of Preparation 1 the number of evaluated ejaculates was 1,037 while in case of Preparation 2 altogether 1,109 ejaculates were evaluated. Boars receiving diets with Preparation 1 produced more voluminous ejaculates (by 4.1 ml and their concentration of spermatozoa was also higher (by 39 thous./ml; P ≤ 0.001. Dilution parameters were better as well and numbers produced of AI doses were also higher. In case of Preparation 2 the motility of spermatozoa was a higher while the numbers of sperms were lower. The obtained results demonstrated that a suitable adsorbent can show a positive effect on both quantitative and qualitative parameters of boar sperm.

  14. Trophic discrimination factors of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in hair of corn fed wild boar.

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    Michaela Holá

    Full Text Available Stable isotope measurements are increasingly being used to gain insights into the nutritional ecology of many wildlife species and their role in ecosystem structure and function. Such studies require estimations of trophic discrimination factors (i.e. differences in the isotopic ratio between the consumer and its diet. Although trophic discrimination factors are tissue- and species-specific, researchers often rely on generalized, and fixed trophic discrimination factors that have not been experimentally derived. In this experimental study, captive wild boar (Sus scrofa were fed a controlled diet of corn (Zea mays, a popular and increasingly dominant food source for wild boar in the Czech Republic and elsewhere in Europe, and trophic discrimination factors for stable carbon (Δ13C and nitrogen (Δ15N isotopes were determined from hair samples. The mean Δ13C and Δ15N in wild boar hair were -2.3‰ and +3.5‰, respectively. Also, in order to facilitate future derivations of isotopic measurements along wild boar hair, we calculated the average hair growth rate to be 1.1 mm d(-1. Our results serve as a baseline for interpreting isotopic patterns of free-ranging wild boar in current European agricultural landscapes. However, future research is needed in order to provide a broader understanding of the processes underlying the variation in trophic discrimination factors of carbon and nitrogen across of variety of diet types.

  15. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

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    Rachubik J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008–2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  16. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in liver and muscle tissue from wild boar in Hesse, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, T; Falk, S; Failing, K; Berger, J; Georgii, S; Brunn, H

    2012-05-01

    Approximately 15,000 tons of wild boar meats (Sus scrofa) are consumed per year in Germany. Boar meat therefore plays a definite role in regard to human diet. Because they are omnivores and because of their high body fat quotient, wild boar may accumulate large concentrations of persistent organic compounds, such as halogenated hydrocarbons, and could thus possibly serve as bioindicators for persistent xenobiotics. In addition, consumption of wild boar meat and liver could lead to increased contaminant levels in humans. Between 2007 and 2009, we tested a total of 529 livers and 506 muscle tissue samples from wild boar for the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOA concentrations ≤45 μg/kg and PFOS concentrations ≤1,780 μg/kg were detected in the liver samples. PFOA concentrations ≤7.4 μg/kg and PFOS concentrations ≤28.6 μg/kg were detected in muscle tissue. Our results show that PFOS may be detected in considerably greater concentrations than PFOA in organs and tissues, which is in agreement with results from other published studies. The comparisons between both organs for the same substance, as well as the comparisons between the substances within an organ, showed clear and statistically significant differences at P meat or liver.

  17. Supplemental feeding drives endoparasite infection in wild boar in Western Spain.

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    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Mentaberre, Gregorio; López-Martín, José M; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2013-09-01

    Wildlife population management is thought to destabilize existing host-parasite equilibriums in opposing directions, that is, it may increase parasite success or host resilience once infection takes place. This process is of special importance for species such as the wild boar (Sus scrofa) that are managed for game purposes throughout much of Europe. However, little is known about how this practices influcences either gastrointestinal or pulmonary parasitism in the wild boar. Twelve hunting estates were chosen in order to study the relationship of management measures (feeder density, wild boar abundance, the ratio of wild boar per feeder and the percentage of sclerophyllous vegetation) and host factors (age and sex) with gastrointestinal and pulmonary parasite aggregation, richness, infection probability and intensity of infection. Parasitological analyses from 300 wild boar gastrointestinal and 269 respiratory tracts were performed for this purpose. A set of general linear models with combinations of the explanatory variables was built and the model with the smallest Akaike Information Criterion was selected as the best. The feeder density increased gastrointestinal parasite traits (richness, infection probability and intensity of infection), probably due to the contamination of feeding sites with infective parasite forms. Pulmonary parasite traits, on the other hand, were only influenced by host sex and age class, and parasite aggregation was as expected for a wild population. Managers should be aware of the consequences on parasitism when implementing supplemental feeding in hunting estates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microsatellite markers for identification and parentage analysis in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa

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    Costa Vânia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wild boar (Sus scrofa is among the most widespread mammal species throughout the old world. Presently, studies concerning microsatellites in domestic pigs and wild boars have been carried out in order to investigate domestication, social behavior and general diversity patterns among either populations or breeds. The purpose of the current study is to develop a robust set of microsatellites markers for parentage analyses and individual identification. Findings A set of 14 previously reported microsatellites markers have been optimized and tested in three populations from Hungary, Portugal and Spain, in a total of 167 samples. The results indicate high probabilities of exclusion (0.99999, low probability of identity (2.0E-13 – 2.5E-9 and a parentage assignment of 100%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this set of markers is a useful and efficient tool for the individual identification and parentage assignment in wild boars.

  19. Evidence for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae in a wild boar (Sus scrofa population in Italy

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    Antonietta Di Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival swabs from 44 free-living wild boars culled during a demographic control programme applied in a Regional Park located in the Northern Italy were examined by 16S rRNA encoding gene nested PCR. In total, 22 (50% wild boars were PCR positive. Sequencing of the amplicons identified Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia pecorum in 12 and 5 samples, respectively. For one sample found PCR positive, the nucleotide sequence could not be determined. Four conjunctival samples showed ≥ 92% sequence similarities to 16S rRNA sequences from Chlamydia-like organisms, as did large intestine, uterus, and vaginal swabs from the same four animals. Amoeba DNA was found in one Chlamydia-like organism positive conjunctival swab. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of members of the Parachlamydiaceae family in wild boars, confirming a large animal host range for Chlamydia-like organisms.

  20. INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN BIOACTIVE PREPARATIONS ON THE DURATION OF BOAR SEMEN PRESERVATION

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    V. HAREA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiences were held on the boar sperm. There were studied the bioactive substances with the role of antioxidizer made at the Institute of Genetic of Science Academy of Republic of Moldova. The bioactive substances (GL-2 were used as a structure dilution GHTS what is used for boars sperm dilution with the concentration of 0,1 – 1%. The experimental researches showed that the studied substances were not toxic for sperm used in the structure of GHTS dilution with the concentration of 0,1-1 whit gave the possibility to increase the period of boar sperm stoking till 168 hours, keeping the sperms mobility at the level of standard of artificial insemination.

  1. HORMONAL PROFILE AND NONSPECIFIC RESISTANCE IN BOAR UNDER PRE-SLAUGHTER STRESS

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    S.S. Grabovskyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to determination of hormonal profile and nonspecific resistance in boars blood before slaughter after using of biologically active substances — animal origin antistressors andimmunostimulators. The purpose of research — determination of changes of insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortisol content in boars blood before slaughter and their correction of natural origin biologically active substances of spleen extract. Object and research methods. The spleen extract has been additionally entered to the boars feed at 5 days before slaughter as an antistressors and immunostimulators in pre-slaughter period. The experiment was conducted on 15 boars with standard diet. Three groups of boars six months of age (5 boars each were formed for research. The pig’s spleen extract was obtained with ultrasound application (Iresearch group were using as a biologically active substances to the feed boars in pre-slaughter period. The extracts were applied to dry feed by aerosol method (70 % alcohol solution of spleen extract volume of 1.4 ml per kg body weight. The boars of II research group in the same way received to the feed of 70 % ethanol solution in the same volume. The boars of control group received only dry feed economy. Theboars slaughter was held on day 13 hours a.m. Mathematical treatment of the research results worked statistically using the software package Statistica 6.0. Results and discussion. The ACTH and cortisol level in the boars’ blood plasma of experimental and control groups significantly increased after transportation (before the slaughter compared with the indexes before transportation to meat plant. The ACTH concentration in the boars’ blood plasma of І experimental group, which was added to the basic diet spleen extract, was 10 % lower than in the control group boars compared with indicators before and after transportation

  2. Investigations on the contamination of Saxonian wild boars with radiocaesium; Untersuchungen zur Radiocaesiumbelastung von saechsischem Schwarzwild

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    Heinrich, T.; Abraham, A.; Preusse, W.; Pianski, J.; Alisch-Mark, M.; Lange, S. [Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft, Radebeul (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl fallout some parts of the free state of Saxony were contaminated with radioactive caesium. Based on published maps of the soil contamination and on additional investigations some regions of elevated contamination could be localized. Parallel to soil investigations a game monitoring to wild boars and roe deer was performed. For both types of game typical seasonal variations of contamination were found. In Saxony only the contamination of wild boars is important. In the south of the Vogtland a region was found, where in all seasons the recommended high value of 600 Bq/kg was exceeded in game. In this region the investigation on radiocaesium is now obligatory for wild boars. The hunter can combine this analysis with the analysis on trichina. After three years measurements the region for obligatory analysis was adapted and expanded to neighbouring counties.

  3. Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Bonet, Sergi

    2017-09-01

    Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen in pigs is not a routine technique; its use is restricted to specific cases, such as preservation of valuable genetic material (germplasm banks), safety strategies in case of natural disasters, long-distance transport of sperm, and in combination with sex-sorting. Cryoinjuries resulting from freeze-thawing protocols are a major concern with regard to the fertilization capacity of the treated sperm, which is lower than that of liquid-stored semen. Here, we provide an overview of artificial insemination using cryopreserved sperm, and summarize the factors that influence cryopreservation success before, during, and after freeze-thaw (i.e., sperm selection before starting the cryopreservation process, holding time, use of cryoprotectants, and rates of freezing and thawing) and that are driving the identification of biomarkers to predict sensitivity to cryodamage. Three different artificial insemination techniques (conventional or intracervical; intrauterine; and deep intrauterine) are also discussed with regards to their relevance when using frozen-thawed semen. Finally, we review the use of additives to freezing and thawing media, given reports that they may maintain and improve the quality and fertilizing capacity of frozen-thawed sperm. In sum, artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm can provide reasonable fertility outcomes, if freezable ejaculates, specific additives, and appropriate insemination techniques are used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The reproductive pattern and potential of free ranging female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden.

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    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The number and spatial distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa) has increased remarkably in Sweden as well as in other European countries. To understand the population dynamics of the wild boar, knowledge of its reproductive period, oestrus cycle and reproductive success is essential. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the seasonal reproductive pattern and reproductive potential of a wild boar population in Sweden. The study was based on findings from macroscopic examinations of the reproductive organs from 575 hunter-harvested female wild boars (>30 kg body weight). Samples were collected between December 2011 and December 2015 in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. The age of the sampled animals was determined and dressed weight was noted. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to ovarian structures and in relation to the appearance of/and findings in the uterus. The crown-rump length (CRL) of the embryos/foetuses was used to calculate the oestrus/mating month and month for the expected farrowing. The macroscopic examination revealed a seasonal variation of reproductive stages, although cyclic and pregnant females were found in all seasons. Moreover, the estimated oestrus/mating and farrowing months based on the CRL showed that mating and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. The average litter size (no. of embryos or foetuses) per pregnant female was 5.4. Sow weight and age had significant effect on both the reproductive potential (ovulation rate and litter size) and pregnancy rate, respectively. The reproductive potential in the studied wild boar population was high compared to studies from other countries and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. This suggests that the environmental conditions in Sweden, including supplemental feeding, are favourable for wild boar reproduction.

  5. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Sandrine A; Heckmann, Aurélie; Macé, Pauline; Grasset-Chevillot, Aurélie; Zanella, Gina; Vallée, Isabelle; Kapel, Christian M O; Boireau, Pascal

    2013-05-20

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21°C for 19, 30 and 56 h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam(®) image analysis software and their infectivities were evaluated using mouse bioassays. Samples frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h allowed recovery of mobile ML, but samples frozen for 1 or 2 weeks did not. Correspondingly, only T. spiralis and T. britovi larvae isolated from wild boar meat frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h established in mice. This study showed that freezing at -21°C for 1 week inactivated T. spiralis and T. britovi ML encapsulated in wild boar meat for 24 weeks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-related Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in Dutch wild boar inconsistent with lifelong persistence of antibodies.

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    Marieke Opsteegh

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the "Roerstreek" (n = 673 or the "Veluwe" (n = 241. A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (-0.685 and accompanying sensitivity (90.6% and specificity (93.6%. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1-27.7%. The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I and seronegatives as either susceptible (S or resistant (R. A model with a recovery rate (SIS was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI. This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii.

  7. Effects of pituitary-specific overexpression of FSHα/β on reproductive traits in transgenic boars

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    Wenting Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH is a gonadotropin synthesized and secreted by the pituitary gland. FSH stimulates follicle development and maturation in females. It also plays an important role in spermatogenesis in males, including humans and mice. However, the effects of FSH on male pigs are largely unknown. In this study, we generated transgenic pigs to investigate the effects of FSHα/β overexpression on reproductive traits in boars. Results After five transgenic F0 founders were crossed with wide-type pigs, 193 F1 animals were obtained. Of these, 96 were confirmed as transgenic. FSHα and FSHβ mRNAs were detected only in pituitary tissue. Transgenic boars exhibited significantly higher levels of FSHα and FSHβ mRNA, serum FSH, and serum testosterone, compared to full-sib non-transgenic boars. Significant increases in testis weight, vas deferens diameter, seminiferous tubule diameter, and the number of Leydig cells were observed, suggesting that the exogenous FSHα/β affects reproductive traits. Finally, transgenic and non-transgenic boars had similar growth performance and biochemical profiles. Conclusions Pituitary-specific overexpression of FSHα/β genes is likely to impact reproductive traits positively, as indicated by enhancements in serum testosterone level, testis weight, the development of vas deferens, seminiferous tubules, and Leydig cells in transgenic boars. A high level of serum FSH induces secretion of serum testosterone, possibly by boosting the number of Leydig cells, which presumably increases the libido and the frequency of sexual activity in transgenic boars. Our study provides a preliminary foundation for the genetic improvement of reproductive traits in male pigs.

  8. Reducing endogenous estrogen during prepuberal life does not affect boar libido or sperm fertilizing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Trish; Conley, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Increasing sperm production per breeding male has economic significance with increasing use of artificial insemination. Manipulations to increase sperm production in livestock will only be useful if libido and sperm fertilizing capacity are not adversely affected. Reducing endogenous estrogens in the postnatal interval increases the number of Sertoli cells and hence testicular sperm production capacity. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of reducing endogenous estrogens on libido and sperm fertilizing capacity. Boars were treated with an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, to reduce testicular estrogen production between 1 and 6 weeks of age or between 11 and 16 weeks of age, and the littermates to these boars were treated with the canola oil vehicle. Letrozole treatment did not affect time to first mount at 22 weeks of age, regardless of whether the treatment occurred from 1 to 6 weeks of age (118 seconds vs. 233 seconds, SEM = 161 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively) or from 11 to 16 weeks of age (107 seconds vs. 67 seconds, SEM = 63 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively). Similarly, sperm fertilizing ability and in vivo fertility were equivalent in letrozole-treated boars and their vehicle-treated littermates. Surprisingly, the increase in Sertoli cell numbers observed in the letrozole-treated boars at 20 weeks of age (5.8 vs. 4.3 billion, SEM = 0.5; P libido or sperm fertilizing capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from Portugal.

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    Pereira, André; Parreira, Ricardo; Nunes, Mónica; Casadinho, Afonso; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the Centre and South of Portugal. One hundred and forty one blood samples from free-ranging ungulates including 73 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 65 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and three fallow deer (Dama dama) were tested for the presence of Anaplasma marginale/A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (s.l.), and Rickettsia spp. DNA by PCR. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in 33 (43.4 %) cervids (31 red deer and two fallow deer) and in two (3.1 %) wild boars while Theileria spp. were found in 34 (44.7 %) cervids (32 red deer and two fallow deer) and in three (4.6 %) wild boar blood samples. Sequence analysis of msp4 sequences identified A. marginale, A. ovis, while the analysis of rDNA sequence data disclosed the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum and T. capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3. Anaplasma spp./Theileria spp. mixed infections were found in 17 cervids (22.4 %) and in two wild boars (3.1 %). All samples were negative for Babesia sp., B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Ehrlichia sp. or Rickettsia sp. This is the first detection of Anaplasma marginale, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, Theileria capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3 in cervids and wild boars from Portugal. Further studies concerning the potential pathogenicity of the different species of  Anaplasma and Theileria infecting wild ungulates, the identification of their vector range, and their putative infectivity to domestic livestock and humans should be undertaken.

  10. Detection of atypical porcine pestivirus in semen from commercial boar studs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, I R H; Arruda, P H; Visek, C A; Victoria, J G; Patterson, A R; Krull, A C; Schwartz, K J; de Oliveira, L G; Arruda, B L

    2018-04-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has recently been identified as a cause of congenital tremor (CT) in pigs and has been detected in semen and preputial swabs from boars that were known to be clinically affected with CT. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to 1) detect the presence of APPV in semen, preputial fluids and preputial swabs from adult boars by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and 2) genetically characterize a subset of positive samples to better understand the ecology of APPV in commercial boar studs and the potential risk of transmission of APPV via semen. A total of 597 samples of semen, preputial fluid and preputial swabs each representing a different boar were obtained from four commercial boar studs located in three different states in the United States. Viral RNA was detected by qRT-PCR in 90 samples (15.08%; 90/597), with the greatest per cent positive from preputial swabs (23.81%; 5/21) followed by preputial fluid (22.81%; 26/114) and semen (12.91%; 59/457). The mean cycle quantification (Cq) between sample types was similar while eleven semen samples had Cq values lower than 27.0 corresponding to approximately 2 × 10 6  copies/ml. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the Npro gene, different viral strains can be on the same farm at the same and different times. This is the first report of detection of APPV in semen from commercial boar studs. Studies investigating the role of semen in the transmission of APPV and production of CT are needed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in the Basque Country, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrausi-Subiza, Maialen; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Alvarez, Vega; Ibabe, Jose Carlos; Barral, Marta

    2016-01-20

    Yersiniosis is a zoonosis widely distributed in Europe and swine carry different serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in northern Spain. The blood of wild boars (n = 505) was sampled between 2001 and 2012. Seroprevalence was determined in 490 serum samples with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seventy-two of the animals were also examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica or Y. pseudotuberculosis in the tonsils with real-time polymerase chain reaction. All the tonsils were analysed twice, directly and after cold enrichment in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 1 % mannitol and 0.15 % bile salts. Antibodies directed against Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were detected in 52.5 % of the animals. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction in 33.3 % of the wild boars and Y. pseudotuberculosis in 25 %. Significant differences were observed according to the sampling year, and the highest prevalence was during winter and spring. The highest antibody levels and Y. enterocolitica prevalence were observed in mountainous areas at altitudes higher than 600 m, with very cold winters, and with the highest annual rainfall for each dominant climate. Areas with low and medium livestock populations were associated with the highest seroprevalence of Yersinia spp. in wild boars, whereas areas with high ovine populations had the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica. This study shows that Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are highly prevalent among wild boars in the Basque country, with Y. enterocolitica most prevalent. The risk of infection among wild boars is influenced by the season and the area in which they live.

  12. 137Cs monitoring in the meat of wild boar population in Slovakia

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    Katarina Beňová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the elapsed time and the nature of the Chernobyl accident, the only artificial radionuclide present in the soil is 137Cs, with a physical half-life conversion of 30.17 years. The 137Cs is quickly integrated into a biological cycle, similar to potassium. Generally, radionuclides are characterized by their mobility in soil. Contamination of materials and food by radionuclides represent a serious problem and has a negative impact on human health. The threat of international terrorism and the inability to forestall the impact of natural disasters on nuclear energetic (Fukushima accident, are also reasons for continuous monitoring of food safety. According screening measurement performed in European countries, high radioactivity levels were reported in the wild boars muscles from Sumava (Czech Republic. Seasonal fluctuation of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples was observed in the forests on the southern Rhineland. Monitoring of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples in the hunting grounds in Slovakia was initiated based on the reports on exceeding limits of the content of radiocaesium in the meat of wild boar from the surrounding countries. The aim of this study was to determine the 137Cs post Chernobyl contamination of wild boars population in different hunting districts of Slovakia during 2013 - 2014. A total of 60 thigh muscle samples from wild boars of different age categories (4 months - 2 years were evaluated. 137Cs activity was measured by gamma spectrometry (Canberra. Despite the fact Slovakia is closer to Chernobyl as Czech Republic and Germany, the 137Cs activity measured was very low and far below the permitted limit. The highest radiocaesium activity level measured in muscle was 37.2 Bq.kg-1 ±4.7%. Wild boar originated from Zlate Moravce district. The measurement results show, that 137Cs contamination levels of game in Slovakia are low. Radiocaesium activity in examined samples was very low and

  13. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataruch, F.; Klansek, E.; Schoenhofer, F.

    1996-01-01

    A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

  14. MBL1 genotypes in wild boar populations from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, I.-M.; Sandholm, K.; Ekdahl, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan were determined in regard to five previously described SNPs in MBL1. The T allele of G949T was present among the BC 2 animals. MBL-A serum concentration in the BC 2 animals showed a bimodal distribution, with one-third of the animals at levels between...... in the Austrian and Japanese samples and is thus unlikely to be an original feature of wild boars. In contrast, it was present at high frequency (0.35) among the Swedish wild boars, probably representing a founder effect. Five MBL1 haplotypes were resolved. Only two of these were present among the Japanese wild...

  15. Association between SNPs within candidate genes and compounds related to boar taint and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Lien, Sigbjørn; Aasmundstad, Torunn

    2009-01-01

    and reproduction were carried out in Duroc and Norwegian Landrace boars. Phenotypes investigated were levels of androstenone, skatole and indole in adipose tissue, levels of androstenone, testosterone, estrone sulphate and 17beta-estradiol in plasma, and length of bulbo urethralis gland. The SNPs were genotyped...... indicate that polymorphisms in CYP2E1, CYP21, CYP2D6, CYP2C49, NGFIB and CTNND1 might be used to reduce levels of boar taint without affecting levels of testosterone, estrone sulphate, 17beta-estradiol or length of bulbo urethralis gland. Udgivelsesdato: July...

  16. Strategic use of anti-GnRH vaccine allowing selection of breeding boars without adverse effects on reproductive or production performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Claudio; Ollila, Anna; Andersson, Magnus; Heinonen, Mari; Voutila, Liisa; Serenius, Timo; Peltoniemi, Olli

    2016-02-01

    Boar stations raise only entire male pigs for selection as reproductive boars, but the majority of them will fail the selection process, ending at slaughter with a high risk of boar tainted meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single dose of Improvac given to 16-week old boars had a negative effect on their subsequent sperm numbers and motility in 16 artificial insemination boars. We also aimed to generate more knowledge on incidence of boar taint at slaughter among Finnish pigs, compare production performances as average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass and meat quality (lean meat percentage, back fat, pH, color, androstenone, and skatole) of immunocastrated boars (n = 248) with those of entire boars (n = 268). Moreover, we aimed also to explore whether a fat biopsy taken at 16 weeks of age could already reveal the presence of boar taint compounds and be predictive of boar taint development at slaughter age. We found that 32% of entire boars (Figen Landrace, Figen Large White, and their crossbreed) slaughtered at an age of 25 weeks presented levels of androstenone and/or skatole above the threshold for boar taint in their meat. These boars (control) had higher androstenone and skatole levels in the back fat samples at slaughter (0.77 ± 0.55 and 0.09 ± 0.06 μg/g, respectively, mean ± standard deviation) than those in the immuno group (0.20 ± 0.25 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μg/g, respectively, P artificial insemination. We found no difference in the levels of testosterone, anti-GnRH antibodies titers, testicle morphology, and sperm numbers and motility between the boars vaccinated once, at 16 weeks of age, with anti-GnRH vaccine and the control boars (no vaccination). There were no differences in average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, and back fat between the immunocastrated boars and entire boars. Meat from immunocastrated boars had a higher pH and better color than meat from entire boars (P meat quality

  17. Parenteral Vaccination with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Reduces the Prevalence of Tuberculosis-Compatible Lesions in Farmed Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Delgado, I; Rodríguez, O; Boadella, M; Garrido, J M; Sevilla, I A; Bezos, J; Juste, R; Domínguez, L; Gortázar, C

    2017-10-01

    In 2012, a wild boar (Sus scrofa) tuberculosis (TB) control programme was set up in a wild boar farm by means of intramuscular (IM) vaccination with a heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). The goal was to assess safety and efficacy of the parenterally administered IV in a large farm setting with natural M. bovis circulation. Based on preceding results under laboratory conditions, we hypothesized that vaccinated piglets would show smaller scores of TB-compatible lesions (TBCL) than unvaccinated controls. After vaccination, no adverse reactions were detected by visual inspection or at post-mortem examination (n = 668 and 97, respectively). Post-mortem data on TBCL were available for 97 vaccinated wild boar and 182 controls. The observed TBCL prevalence was 4.1% (95% CI = 0.2-8%) and 12.1% (95% CI = 7.1-17.1%) for vaccinated and control wild boar, respectively (P  0.05). The results show that IV administered intramuscularly to wild boar piglets is safe and protects vaccinated individuals (66% reduction in TBCL prevalence) against natural challenge in a low-prevalence setting. In a context of increasing TB prevalence in wild boar in Mediterranean habitats, vaccination achieved a progressive though slow decline in lesion prevalence since the onset of the vaccination scheme. Hence, vaccination might contribute, along with other tools, to TB control in wild boar and in pigs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  19. Preliminary study on the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV antibodies in pigs and wild boars in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although HEV infection in pigs does not pose a major economic risk to pork production, the risk of zoonotic transmission to humans is an important aspect of public health. HEV genotype 3 infections were reported in developed countries in individuals who had consumed raw meat or meat products from deer, wild boars, or pigs. The aim of the study was the analysis of the occurrence of HEV-specific antibodies among wild boars and domestic pigs in Poland. Material and Methods: A total of 290 samples from wild boars and 143 samples from pigs were tested. The antibodies were tested by ELISA. Results: The presence of anti-HEV IgG was demonstrated in 44.1% of pigs and 31.0% of wild boars. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 1.4% of samples from pigs and in 2.1% of samples from wild boars at borderline level. The statistical analysis shows significant differences in the positive results for anti-HEV IgG between the groups of pigs and wild boars (P = 0.0263. Conclusion: Regular surveillance of the occurrence of HEV in swine and wild boars should be performed in the future.

  20. Secrets of Success in a Landscape of Fear: Urban Wild Boar Adjust Risk Perception and Tolerate Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Stillfried

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas with a high level of human disturbance, wildlife has to adjust its behavior to deal with the so called “landscape of fear.” This can be studied in risk perception during movement in relation to specific habitat types, whereby individuals trade-off between foraging and disturbance. Due to its high behavioral plasticity and increasing occurrence in urban environments, wild boar (Sus scrofa is an excellent model organism to study adjustment to urbanization. With the help of GPS tracking, space use of 11 wild boar from Berlin's metropolitan region was analyzed: we aimed at understanding how animals adjust space use to deal with the landscape of fear in urban areas compared to rural areas. We compared use vs. availability with help of generalized linear mixed models. First, we studied landscape types selected by rural vs. urban wild boar, second, we analyzed distances of wild boar locations to each of the landscape types. Finally, we mapped the resulting habitat selection probability to predict hotspots of human-wildlife conflicts. A higher tolerance to disturbance in urban wild boar was shown by a one third shorter flight distance and by an increased re-use of areas close to the trap. Urban wild boar had a strong preference for natural landscapes such as swamp areas, green areas and deciduous forests, and areas with high primary productivity, as indicated by high NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index values. The areas selected by urban wild boar were often located closely to roads and houses. The spatial distribution maps show that a large area of Berlin would be suitable for urban wild boar but not their rural conspecifics, with the most likely reason being a different perception of anthropogenic disturbance. Wild boar therefore showed considerable behavioral plasticity suitable to adjust to human-dominated environments in a potentially evolutionarily adaptive manner.

  1. Cryopreservation of boar semen in mini- and maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; de Braganca, M M; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1990-10-01

    Split ejaculates from four boars were frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini- (0.25 ml) and maxi- (5 ml) plastic straws with an extender at either acidic (6.3) or alkaline (7.4) pH. Glycerol (3%) was used as cryoprotectant. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermocouples placed in the straws. Post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity were evaluated; the latter using phase contrast microscopy, eosin-nigrosin stain and electron microscopy. Post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws than in maxi-straws. For the mini-straws, the motility was better when semen was exposed to an acidic environment during freezing, but this beneficial effect of the low extracellular pH was not evident when maxi-straws were thawed. The motility of the spermatozoa diminished significantly during the thermoresistance test (0 h and 2 h time) at 37 degrees C in a similar way for both straws and extracellular pH's. The freezing procedure, no matter the extracellular pH, did not cause major acrosomal damages, but significantly more normal apical ridges were present in the mini-straws than in the maxi-straws. This in vitro evaluation indicated that the freezing method employed was better for mini- than for maxi-straws since the freezing of the 5 ml volumes was not homogeneous, due to the large section area between the surface and the core of the straw.

  2. Discovery of Predictive Biomarkers for Litter Size in Boar Spermatozoa*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Rahman, Md Saidur; Lee, June-Sub; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    Conventional semen analysis has been used for prognosis and diagnosis of male fertility. Although this tool is essential for providing initial quantitative information about semen, it remains a subject of debate. Therefore, development of new methods for the prognosis and diagnosis of male fertility should be seriously considered for animal species of economic importance as well as for humans. In the present study, we applied a comprehensive proteomic approach to identify global protein biomarkers in boar spermatozoa in order to increase the precision of male fertility prognoses and diagnoses. We determined that l-amino acid oxidase, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (MDH2), cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1B, lysozyme-like protein 4, and calmodulin (CALM) were significantly and abundantly expressed in high-litter size spermatozoa. We also found that equatorin, spermadhesin AWN, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), Ras-related protein Rab-2A (RAB2A), spermadhesin AQN-3, and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2 (NDUFS2) were significantly and abundantly expressed in low-litter size spermatozoa (>3-fold). Moreover, RAB2A, TPI, and NDUFS2 were negatively correlated with litter size, whereas CALM and MDH2 were positively correlated. This study provides novel biomarkers for the prediction of male fertility. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that shows significantly increased litter size using male fertility biomarkers in a field trial. Moreover, these protein markers may provide new developmental tools for the selection of superior sires as well as for the prognosis and diagnosis of male fertility. PMID:25693803

  3. Infection with Paragonimus westermani of boar-hunting dogs in Western Japan maintained via artificial feeding with wild boar meat by hunters

    OpenAIRE

    IRIE, Takao; YAMAGUCHI, Yohei; DOANH, Pham Ngoc; GUO, Zhi Hong; HABE, Shigehisa; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2017-01-01

    Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for...

  4. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Peixoto, Raquel; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, M Adela

    2013-12-06

    Fasciolosis is an emerging or reemerging human and animal disease in numerous parts of the world. In Galicia (NW, Spain), the wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wild ungulate in terms of abundance and distribution. Its population has continuously increased over the past decades and this population growth has been accompanied by a reduction of habitats, so that the wild boar populations encroach more and more frequently onto agricultural lands. The increase of the interface area between livestock and the wild boars frequently involves the sharing of pastures and water sources, so that the circulation of common pathogens is propitiated. This is the first report concerning the importance of the wild boar as a possible reservoir of Fasciola hepatica infection in Spain. Livers from 358 hunted wild boars were analyzed showing that 11.2% were parasitized by F. hepatica, with burdens ranging from 1 to 14 flukes (mean=2.3). Fecal analysis demonstrated that 40.0% of parasitized animals shed F. hepatica eggs with a mean excretion of 6.1 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The presence of coproantigens analyzed by MM3-COPRO ELISA was positive in 62.9% of infected wild boars. After incubation, the percentage of hatched eggs ranged between 41.0% and 90.0% suggesting that the wild boar is very likely to contribute to the environmental contamination with viable parasite eggs. Comparative morphometric data were obtained using a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements. F. hepatica from cattle, sheep and wild boars from the same geographical area presents a similar body development and gravidity. Our study shows for the first time that the F. hepatica uterus from the wild boar presents an intermediate size between that found in primary reservoir hosts such as cattle and sheep, i.e., the individual potential egg output capacity of the wild boar does not greatly differ from that detected in Galician livestock. These results show that F. hepatica in

  5. Pattern of protein retention in growing boars of different breeds, and estimation of maximum protein retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A H; Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K

    1998-01-01

    Protein and energy metabolism in boars of different breeds, 10 each of Hampshire, Duroc and Danish Landrace was measured in balance and respiration experiments by means of indirect calorimetry in an open-air circulation system. Measurements were performed in four periods (Period I-IV) covering th...

  6. Factors influencing wild boar damage to agricultural crops in Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardini, Marco; Meriggi, Alberto; Fozzi, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Crop damage by wildlife is a frequent source of human-wildlife conflict. Understanding which factors increase the risk of damage is crucial to the development of effective management strategies. The aims of this study were to provide a general description of agricultural damage caused by wild boar Sus scrofa meridionalis over a 7-year period in North-eastern Sardinia (Mediterranean Italy), and to formulate a predictive model of damage risk. We recorded a total of 221 cases of wild boar damage, with economic losses amounting to 483,982 Euros. Damage events mostly involved vineyards, meadows and oat fields, and were characterized by a peak incidence in summer and early autumn, and a minimum in spring. Damaged fields were characterized by an increasing presence of permanent crops, a decreasing presence of woodlands, maquis and urban areas, and a reduced distance from shelter areas (forests and shrublands). The analysis of spatiotemporal variation of boar-induced damage and the identification of factors that augment the risk of damage provides essential information for contributing to the development of a more effective plan for managing wild boar populations.

  7. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on boar spermatozoa quality during freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Li, Cong-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Chen; Li, Qing-Wang

    2016-04-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is known to be a natural antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of ALA on the motility of boar spermatozoa and its antioxidant effect on boar spermatozoa during freezing-thawing. Different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 or 10.0 mg/ml) of ALA were added to the extender used to freeze boar semen, and the effects on the quality and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities of frozen-thawed spermatozoa were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of ALA to the extender resulted in a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa post-thaw (P < 0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and catalase improved after adding ALA to the extender (P < 0.05). Artificial insemination results showed that pregnancy rate and litter size were significantly higher at 6.0 mg/ml in the ALA group than in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ALA conferred a cryoprotective capacity to the extender used for boar semen during the process of freezing-thawing, and the optimal concentration of ALA for the frozen extender was 6.0 mg/ml.

  8. Enhanced fertility prediction of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa using novel sperm function assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryopreserved semen is seldom used for commercial porcine artificial insemination (AI) despite many advantages that cryopreservation provides. Compared to fresh semen, the fertility of frozen-thawed boar sperm is more variable but usually less. Predicting the fertility of individual ejaculates for s...

  9. Interactions of egg yolk lipoprotein fraction with boar spermatozoa assessed with a fluorescent membrane probe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Zasiadczyk

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of a fluorescent membrane probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS, with boar spermatozoa were followed through the use of lipoprotein fraction of ostrich egg yolk (LPFo. Semen samples, extended in Kortowo 3 (K3 extender, were supplemented with 2% or 5% LPFo and stored for 3h at 16 degrees C. Additionally, cold shock-treated spermatozoa (1h at 4 degrees C were stored in K3 extender supplemented with LPFo for 3h at 16 degrees C. In each boar, the fluorescent enhancement of ANS was observed in K3-extended semen supplemented with LPFo, prior to storage. Following storage, there was a significant increase in LPFo-ANS fluorescence, particularly in the sperm membrane overlying the head and midpiece regions. There were significant differences among the boars with respect to the sperm populations defined by the LPFo-ANS fluorescence. Sperm viability was not significantly affected during the storage period. Furthermore, the proportions of spermatozoa defined by the different patterns of LPFo-ANS fluorescence were low and remained unchanged after storage of cold shock-treated spermatozoa with 2% or 5% LPFo, suggesting irreversible damage to the sperm membrane architecture. These findings indicate that the ANS fluorescent probe could be used to shed more light on the nature of the interactions between LPFo and sperm membrane following semen preservation. Such valuable information could contribute to the development of an optimal protocol for cryopreservation of boar semen.

  10. Evaluation of different soil parameters and wild boar (Sus scrofa [L.] grassland damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Laznik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper are the correlations between different soil parameters [presence of grubs, earthworms, pH, content of P2O5, K2O and organic matter (OM in soil] and wild boar (Sus scrofa [L.] damage to grasslands. The soil samples and damage assessments were performed at six locations in the Kočevje region, which is a densely wooded part of South East Slovenia. A significant positive correlation was discovered between the extent of damage due to wild boar rooting in grasslands and the number of grubs (r=0.73, the weight of grubs (r=0.69 and the content of P2O5 (r=0.87 in the soil. The quantity and weight of grubs in soil were significantly influenced by soil pH, the content of CaCl2 (r=0.71/0.72, P2O5 (r=0.90/0.91, and OM (r=0.74/0.77; while the quantity and weight of earthworms in soil were influenced by the content of K2O (r=0.81/-0.84. A moderate yet insignificant correlation (r=0.48/0.56 was discovered between the number and weight of earthworms in soil and the extent of grassland damage. Grubs represent a more important source of protein for wild boars than earthworms; consequently, reducing the quantity of grubs in soil could minimise the extent of damage caused by boars.

  11. High hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in forestry workers and in wild boars in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Audrey; Chaussade, Hélène; Rigaud, Emma; Rodriguez, Josefa; Berthault, Camille; Boué, Franck; Tognon, Mauro; Touzé, Antoine; Garcia-Bonnet, Nathalie; Choutet, Patrick; Coursaget, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a fecally and orally transmitted human pathogen of worldwide distribution. In industrial countries, HEV is observed in an increasing number of autochthonous cases and is considered to be an emerging pathogen. A growing body of evidence suggests that HEV is a zoonotic disease, and pig handlers and pig veterinarians have been reported to be high-risk groups for HEV infection. The aims of the present study were to establish the prevalence of anti-HEV in wild boars in France and to identify whether forestry workers are at a higher risk of HEV infection. Three different anti-HEV tests were used to compare their effectiveness in detecting anti-HEV in the general population. The most sensitive test was then used to investigate HEV seroprevalence in 593 forestry workers and 421 wild boars. Anti-HEV was detected in 31% of the forestry workers and 14% of the wild boars. Detection of anti-HEV in humans was correlated with age, geographical location, and occupational activity and in wild boars was correlated with geographical location. HEV infection is frequent in woodcutters in France, and it varies geographically. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the transmission route and the exact virus reservoirs.

  12. Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Scandura, Massimo; J. Goedbloed, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly manag...

  13. Investigations on breeding boars to contribute to a functional feeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, B.

    1989-01-01

    Artificial insemination (A.I.) is a rapid growing industrial activity. In 1987 about 45 % of the Dutch breeding sows were fertilized by means of Artificial Insemination. One of the factors influencing the efficiency of an A.I. Centre is reproductive output of the breeding boars. A good

  14. Effects of herbal preparation on libido and semen quality in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrychová, S; Opletal, L; Macáková, K; Lustyková, A; Rozkot, M; Lipenský, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a preparation from herbal extracts (PHE) on libido and semen quality in breeding artificial insemination boars. Ten fertile boars were divided into control and experimental groups according to significant difference of libido. There were no differences in semen quality between groups. Animals were fed a commercial feeding mixture for boars. The feeding mixture for the experimental group was enriched with PHE, which was prepared from Eurycoma longifolia, Tribulus terrestris and Leuzea carthamoides. Duration of the experiment was 10 weeks. Samples of ejaculate were collected weekly. Libido was evaluated according to a scale of 0-5 points. Semen volume, sperm motility, percentage of viable spermatozoa, sperm concentration, morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, daily sperm production and sperm survival were assessed. Amounts of mineral components and free amino acids were analysed in seminal plasma. Significant differences were found in these parameters: libido (4.05 ± 0.22 vs 3.48 ± 0.78; p libido was increased by 20% in comparison with the beginning of the experiment. Results of this study showed positive effect of PHE on libido and some parameters of boar semen quality. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Isolation of total ribonucleic acid from fresh and frozen-thawed boar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RNA) from raw fresh semen and frozen-thawed boar semen, using a protocol comprising the conventional TRIzol assay and a membrane-based technique, the PureLink RNA mini kit. Bioanalyzer profile revealed that the sperm RNA size ...

  16. Overview of the current measuring results on radioactive contamination of wild boars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to clarify the reasons for the continuously high contamination of wild boars when the soil is of low contamination, a study was initiated and sample of wild boars were analysed. From 2132 wild boars samples examined in the year 2001 in the Palatine forest, 9.4 % had more than 600 Bq/kg radiocesium (not allowed to be marketed). Wild boars take up radiocesium via their fodder. Elaphomyces granulatus play a special role, because their fruit body growing underground is a preferred delicacy. With a peak value of about 122 000 Bq/kg in the year 2002, elaphomyces granulatus in the Bavarian forest were contaminated by one order of magnitude higher than edible mushrooms. Also large thick forest areas are of great significance: the more animals move to agricultural areas on search for food and feed low contaminated fodder, the less is the radiocesium content in their muscle flesh. Breeding animals fed exclusively with agricultural products have only very low contamination levels which can be compared with that of beef, pork or chicken. (N.C.)

  17. Do age-specific survival patterns of wild boar fit current evolutionary theories of senescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, Marlène; Focardi, Stefano; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gimenez, Olivier; Bonenfant, Christophe; Franzetti, Barbara; Choquet, Rémi; Ronchi, Francesca; Baubet, Eric; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    Actuarial senescence is widespread in age-structured populations. In growing populations, the progressive decline of Hamiltonian forces of selection with age leads to decreasing survival. As actuarial senescence is overcompensated by a high fertility, actuarial senescence should be more intense in species with high reproductive effort, a theoretical prediction that has not been yet explicitly tested across species. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females have an unusual life-history strategy among large mammals by associating both early and high reproductive effort with potentially long lifespan. Therefore, wild boar females should show stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized related mammals. Moreover, being polygynous and much larger than females, males should display higher senescence rates than females. Using a long-term monitoring (18 years) of a wild boar population, we tested these predictions. We provided clear evidence of actuarial senescence in both sexes. Wild boar females had earlier but not stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized ungulates. Both sexes displayed similar senescence rates. Our study indicates that the timing of senescence, not the rate, is associated with the magnitude of fertility in ungulates. This demonstrates the importance of including the timing of senescence in addition to its rate to understand variation in senescence patterns in wild populations. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Genetic parameters for male fertility and its relationship to skatole and androstenone in Danish Landrace boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Velander, I.H.; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , and total number of sperm were available from 95,267 ejaculates. These ejaculates were collected between 2005 and 2012 and originated from 3,145 Landrace boars from 12 AI stations in Denmark. The traits were analyzed using single and multitrait animal models including univariate random regression models...

  19. Enhanced fertility prediction of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa using novel sperm function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, B W; McNamara, K A; Purdy, P H; Krisher, R L; Knox, R V; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Miller, D J

    2015-05-01

    Due to reduced fertility, cryopreserved semen is seldom used for commercial porcine artificial insemination (AI). Predicting the fertility of individual frozen ejaculates for selection of higher quality semen prior to AI would increase overall success. Our objective was to test novel and traditional laboratory analyses to identify characteristics of cryopreserved spermatozoa that are related to boar fertility. Traditional post-thaw analyses of motility, viability, and acrosome integrity were performed on each ejaculate. In vitro fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst development were also determined. Finally, spermatozoa-oviduct binding and competitive zona-binding assays were applied to assess sperm adhesion to these two matrices. Fertility of the same ejaculates subjected to laboratory assays was determined for each boar by multi-sire AI and defined as (i) the mean percentage of the litter sired and (ii) the mean number of piglets sired in each litter. Means of each laboratory evaluation were calculated for each boar and those values were applied to multiple linear regression analyses to determine which sperm traits could collectively estimate fertility in the simplest model. The regression model to predict the percent of litter sired by each boar was highly effective (p functions of spermatozoa. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Classification of boar spermatozoid head images using a model intracellular density distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, Lidia; Petkov, Nicolai; Alegre, Enrique; Sanfeliu, A; Cortes, ML

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel classification method to identify boar spermatozoid heads which present an intracellular intensity distribution similar to a model. From semen sample images, head images are isolated and normalized. We define a model intensity distribution averaging a set of head images assumed as

  1. Immunoglobulin changes in boars exposed to administration of levamisole and exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone

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    Bilandžić Nina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the effect of levamisole (LEV on immunoglobulin concentration in the serum of boars exposed to 3-day stress induced by exogenous ACTH. Boars were assigned to 4 groups (n=7. The first group received LEV for 3 days (2.5 mg/kg BW, the second group received ACTH (10 μg/kg BW for 3 days and the third group received LEV for 3 consecutive days and ACTH for the following 3 days (2.5 mg/kg BW; ACTH 10 μg/kg BW. The control group received saline solution during the 6 days. Concentrations of cortisol, total protein, globulin, albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA and IgM were determined during treatments and on the 16th day post-administration. Cortisol concentration was increased in both ACTH treated groups during all three days of administration and the day after the last ACTH treatment (p<0.05. ACTH increased total protein levels during the stress period and over the next 16 days (p<0.05. However, in the LEV+ACTH group total protein levels were elevated only on day 1 and 2 of ACTH injection (p<0.05 and after the end of treatment on day 11 and 22 (p<0.05. LEV stimulated the increase of protein concentrations compared to control values after LEV treatment, on days 5, 14, 18 and 22 (p<0.05. Serum albumins were not affected by LEV or ACTH treatment. Globulin concentrations were increased throughout and on the 16th day after administration of ACTH in the ACTH and LEV+ACTH groups (p<0.05. Globulin concentrations did not differ between LEV and control groups of boars. ACTH treatment elevated serum IgG concentration during the stress period (p<0.05 and over the next 16 days (p<0.05. However, in the LEV+ACTH group of boars, IgG levels were elevated on days 1 and 3 after ACTH injection (p<0.05 and days 1 and 5 in the post-treatment period (p<0.05. LEV had no impact on IgG levels compared to the control boars. However, increased IgA concentrations in boars treated with LEV were determined on day 2 (p<0.05 and day 11 (p

  2. Dietary l-arginine supplementation improves semen quality and libido of boars under high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Q; Li, Y S; Li, Z J; Lu, H X; Zhu, P Q; Li, C M

    2017-12-04

    l-Arginine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for spermatogenesis and plays versatile roles in animal health and can be utilized as a potential agent to improve reproductive performance of boars under high ambient temperature. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary l-arginine could alleviate heat stress-induced infertility in boars. In all, 20 boars (PIC 1040; 248.59±3.84 kg BW and 407.65±6.40 days of age) were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (group 0.0%, basal diet; group 0.6%, 0.8% or 1.0%, basal diet added with 0.6%, 0.8% or 1.0% l-arginine (wt:wt), respectively.) The four diets were made isonitrogenous by addition of appropriate amounts of l-alanine. Boars were pre-fed the corresponding experimental diet for 42 days. Then, the semen characteristics and libido were accessed for 6 weeks during the hot summer period (25.5° to 33.0°C). Results show that dietary l-arginine remarkably improved sperm motility, normality, total sperm number and effective total sperm number. Also, dietary l-arginine improved semen antioxidant capacity, such as decrease of malondialdehyde and 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine content in sperm (Pl-arginine-supplemented group which also accompany with higher ATP content than the 0.0% group. The boars fed 0.8% l-arginine show increased levels of estradiol-17β and testosterone and exhibit improved libido performance than boars in the 0.0% group. Adding dietary l-arginine linearly increased (P=0.002) nitric oxide content (as l-arginine increased). The scrotal surface temperature in the 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% group were decreased by 0.9°C, 0.9°C and 0.4°C, respectively, compared with the 0.0% group. l-Arginine levels caused linear effect on semen quality and antioxidant capacity, also caused quadratic effect on libido performance. During the hot summer months, the predicted optimal l-arginine levels for best semen quality and antioxidant capacity was 0.8% to 1.0% and for best libido performance was 0.8%. It can

  3. The Fertility of Frozen Boar Sperm When used for Artificial Insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2015-07-01

    One of the limits to practical use of frozen boar sperm involves the lowered fertility when used for artificial insemination. Years of studies have shown that 5-6 billion sperm (approximately 3 billion viable) used in single or multiple inseminations results in pregnancy rates most often between 60 and 70% and with litter sizes between nine and 10 pigs. Yet today, it is not uncommon for studies to report pregnancy rates from 70 to 85% and litter sizes with 11-12 pigs. While global statements about the incidence and reasons for higher fertility are not conclusive, incremental fertility improvements appear independently associated with use of a minimum number of viable sperm (1-2 billion), insemination timing that increases the probability that sperm will be present close to ovulation for groups of females, selection for boar sperm survival following cryopreservation, and modification of the freeze and thaw conditions using additives to protect sperm from oxidative damage. Studies show that techniques such as intrauterine and deep uterine insemination can provide an opportunity to reduce sperm numbers and that control of time of ovulation in groups of females can reduce the need for multiple inseminations and improve the chance for AI close to ovulation. However, optimal and consistent fertility with cryopreserved boar sperm may require a multifaceted approach that includes boar selection and screening, strategic use of additives during the freezing and thawing process, post-thaw evaluation of sperm and adjustments in sperm numbers for AI, assessment of female fertility and ovulation induction for single insemination. These sequenced procedures should be developed and incorporated into a quality control system for improved fertility when using minimal numbers of cryopreserved boar sperm. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. In search of epigenetic marks in testes and sperm cells of differentially fed boars.

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    Rémy Bruggmann

    Full Text Available In search of transmittable epigenetic marks we investigated gene expression in testes and sperm cells of differentially fed F0 boars from a three generation pig feeding experiment that showed phenotypic differences in the F2 generation. RNA samples from 8 testes of boars that received either a diet enriched in methylating micronutrients or a control diet were analyzed by microarray analysis. We found moderate differential expression between testes of differentially fed boars with a high FDR of 0.82 indicating that most of the differentially expressed genes were false positives. Nevertheless, we performed a pathway analysis and found disparate pathway maps of development_A2B receptor: action via G-protein alpha s, cell adhesion_Tight junctions and cell adhesion_Endothelial cell contacts by junctional mechanisms which show inconclusive relation to epigenetic inheritance. Four RNA samples from sperm cells of these differentially fed boars were analyzed by RNA-Seq methodology. We found no differential gene expression in sperm cells of the two groups (adjusted P-value>0.05. Nevertheless, we also explored gene expression in sperm by a pathway analysis showing that genes were enriched for the pathway maps of bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis (CF airways, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis p.3 and cell cycle_Initiation of mitosis. Again, these pathway maps are miscellaneous without an obvious relationship to epigenetic inheritance. It is concluded that the methylating micronutrients moderately if at all affects RNA expression in testes of differentially fed boars. Furthermore, gene expression in sperm cells is not significantly affected by extensive supplementation of methylating micronutrients and thus RNA molecules could not be established as the epigenetic mark in this feeding experiment.

  5. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

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    David Risco

    Full Text Available Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa, a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes, or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs, was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV, swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates from Wild Boars Hunted in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Altrock, Alexandra; Seinige, Diana; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-07-01

    Yersiniosis is strongly associated with the consumption of pork contaminated with enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is harbored by domestic pigs without showing clinical signs of disease. In contrast to data on Y. enterocolitica isolated from conventionally reared swine, investigations into the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica in wild boars in Germany are rare. The objectives of the study were to get knowledge about these bacteria and their occurrence in wild boars hunted in northern Germany by isolation of the bacteria from the tonsils, identification of the bioserotypes, determination of selected virulence factors, macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility. Altogether, tonsils from 17.1% of 111 tested wild boars were positive for Y. enterocolitica by culture methods. All but two isolates belonged to biotype (BT) 1A, with the majority of isolates bearing a ystB nucleotide sequence which was revealed to have 85% identity to internal regions of Y. enterocolitica heat-stable enterotoxin type B genes. The remaining Y. enterocolitica isolates were identified to be BT 1B and did not carry the virulence plasmid. However, two BT 1A isolates carried the ail gene. Macrorestriction analysis and results from MLST showed a high degree of genetic diversity of the isolates, although the region where the samples were taken was restricted to Lower Saxony, Germany, and wild boars were shot during one hunting season. In conclusion, most Y. enterocolitica isolates from wild boars investigated in this study belonged to biotype 1A. Enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9, usually harbored by commercially raised pigs in Europe, could not be identified. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. THE IMPACT OF SEASON OF BIRTH AND BREEDING OF BOARS OF POLISH LANDRACE BREED ON THEIR INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY

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    Kazimierz Pokrywka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of breeding boars in insemination depends mainly on the skill of optimal use of their reproductive potential. Nevertheless, their semen is highly variable in its quality and physical characteristics, which makes it difficult to organise semen production for artificial insemination purposes. The present study contains an analysis of semen collected from Polish Landrace breed boars - the most popular pigs bred in Poland. It demonstrates that there is a statistically significant interaction between season of birth and reproductive season of Polish Landrace boars. What is more, it proves that these significant differences between reproductive performances of boars are closely connected to their breeding season and seasons of their birth and life. The results also illustrate how to improve organisation of insemination centres and make them better financially efficient.

  8. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

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    Szilvia Kusza

    Full Text Available The wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia. We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1 clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023 and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002. SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1 north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2 Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3 Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  9. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deksne, Gunita; Kirjušina, Muza

    2013-02-01

    Consumption of undercooked pork products is considered a major risk factor for contracting toxoplasmosis in humans in several countries. In total, 803 pork samples and 606 wild boar meat samples were collected from different regions of Latvia during June 2010 and February 2011 were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using an in-house ELISA assay. Seroprevalence in wild boar (33.2%, P Latvia.

  11. Molecular tracing of classical swine fever viruses isolated from wild boars and pigs in France from 2002 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Le Dimna, Mireille; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Pol, Françoise

    2013-10-25

    There were three outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) in north-eastern France between 2002 and 2011. The first two occurred in April 2002 in the Moselle department, in a wild boar and pig herd, respectively, while the third occurred in April 2003, in the Bas-Rhin department, in a wild boar. A survey was subsequently implemented in wild boar and domestic pig populations, during which 43 CSF viruses (CSFVs) were genetically characterized to provide information on virus sources, trace virus evolution and help in the monitoring of effective control measures. Phylogenetic analyses, based on fragments of the 5'NTR, E2 and NS5B genes, showed that all French CSFVs could be assigned to genotype 2, subgenotype 2.3. CSFVs isolated in Moselle were classified in the "Rostock" lineage, a strain first described in 2001 in wild boar populations in the Eifel region of north-western Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany, and in Luxemburg. In contrast, the CSFVs isolated in Bas-Rhin were homologous to strains from the "Uelzen" lineage, a strain previously isolated from wild boars in south-eastern Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, as well as in Vosges du Nord, France, during a previous outbreak that had occurred in wild boars between 1992 and 2001. The outbreak in Moselle domestic pigs was quickly resolved as it concerned only one herd. The infection in wild boars from Moselle was extinguished after a few months whereas wild boars from Bas-Rhin remained infected until 2007. Molecular tracing showed that the Bas-Rhin index virus strain evolved slightly during the period but that no strain from a novel lineage was introduced until this outbreak ended after application of a vaccination scheme for six years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of growth rate and onset of boar contact on puberty attainment of replacement gilts raised in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn; Olanratmanee, Em-On; Tummaruk, Padet

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of growth rate and onset of boar contact on age at first observed estrus of the replacement gilts raised in Thailand. In total, 766 gilts were measured for body weight and backfat thickness prior to insemination. Body weight was further calculated for growth rate. Estrus detection was performed twice a day by back pressure test with an existence of mature boars with high libido. The first date of boar exposure and that of first observed estrus were individually recorded. Due to growth rate, they were classified into three groups: high (>700 g/day), moderate (600-700 g/day), and low (gilts were grouped into two categories: early (gilts expressed first observed estrus, averagely, at age 205.1 ± 34.1 days, had a growth rate of 615.5 ± 57.6 g/day, and first contact with boars at 160.7 ± 19.9 days of age. The gilts with low growth rate expressed first estrus later than those with moderate (208.6 ± 2.0 vs 198.0 ± 3.2 days, P = 0.033) and high growth rate (208.6 ± 2.0 vs 193.9 ± 6.7 days, P = 0.005) groups. Together with the influence of boar exposure, the gilts contacted boar earlier with high growth rate showed first estrus at age 180.3 ± 10.1 days, whereas those with later boar contact with low growth rate showed first estrus at age 197.9 ± 3.2 days. In summary, the replacement gilts should have high growth rate and contact boar early to attain puberty faster and possess decent subsequent reproductive performance.

  13. DETECTION OF Toxoplasma gondii CYSTS FROM WILD BOAR MUSCLES: DOES IT REPRESENT A RISK FOR READY TO EAT FOOD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Terio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infection is a parasitological antropozoonoses widely distributed in the world. Toxoplasmosis is mainly followed by serious disease in fetuses and immunocompromised people. Wild boars represent an important source for this parasite and evisceration, handling and consumption of raw or undercooked meat are important risk factors. The study confirms the presence of potentially infectious cysts in wild boars muscles, detected by histological and biomolecular methods.

  14. RNA deep sequencing reveals novel candidate genes and polymorphisms in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels.

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    Asep Gunawan

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an unpleasant smell and taste of pork meat derived from some entire male pigs. The main causes of boar taint are the two compounds androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one and skatole (3-methylindole. It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanism of boar taint to select pigs for lower androstenone levels and thus reduce boar taint. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptome differences in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels using RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each testis and liver sample ranged from 13,221,550 to 33,206,723 and 12,755,487 to 46,050,468, respectively. In testis samples 46 genes were differentially regulated whereas 25 genes showed differential expression in the liver. The fold change values ranged from -4.68 to 2.90 in testis samples and -2.86 to 3.89 in liver samples. Differentially regulated genes in high androstenone testis and liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and molecular transport. This study provides evidence for transcriptome profile and gene polymorphisms of boars with divergent androstenone level using RNA-Seq technology. Digital gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in flavin monooxygenease family, cytochrome P450 family and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family. Moreover, polymorphism and association analysis revealed mutation in IRG6, MX1, IFIT2, CYP7A1, FMO5 and KRT18 genes could be potential candidate markers for androstenone levels in boars. Further studies are required for proving the role of candidate genes to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs.

  15. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and potentially zoonotic helminths in wild boars (Sus scrofa hunted in central Italy

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    Roberto Amerigo Papini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the risk of human toxoplasmosis via meat consumption from wild boars by estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in animals hunted in central Italy. Using a modified agglutination test, 213 sera from wild boars were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Diaphragm samples (n=65 from seropositive and seronegative animals were tested by nested-PCR to detect T. gondii DNA. Toxoplasma DNA from diaphragms was genotyped by PCR-RFLP using 12 genetic markers. Moreover, the aim of the study was also to identify helminth infections of wild boars in the selected area and to evaluate their hazard for humans. Examination of sera revealed a seroprevalence of 12.2%. Only one T. gondii strain could be genotyped from a seropositive animal and PCR-RFLP revealed that it belonged to type II. Analysis of 50 samples of faeces and 32 small intestines revealed that 78% and 15.6% of the samples harboured parasites, respectively, with the occurrence of parasites potentially dangerous for humans. These latter included Ascaris suum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Trichuris suis, and Metastrongylus spp. A significant association was found between coprological positivity and male sex. These results indicate that T. gondii infection may be present in wild boar tissues and consumption of undercooked or raw wild boar meat may expose humans to risk of toxoplasmosis in the study area. Furthermore, the study highlights that wild boars are hosts of helminths of veterinary and medical importance transmissible to pigs and humans.

  16. Does the infection with endoparasites influence the effect of oral vaccination against classical swine fever in wild boar?

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    Anna Ondrejková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease that affects domestic and wild suids and could cause important economic losses. It is the most dangerous infectious disease of the wild boar that can cause severe death in densely populated areas. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of endoparasites on the oral vaccination against classical swine fever in wild boar. The study compared classical swine fever antibody titres in wild boar treated and untreated with antiparasitics. Fourteen six-month-old wild boar piglets were tested via direct ELISA to detect specific antibodies in blood serum after vaccination. Before the vaccination, one group of piglets was administered antiparasitic therapy; the other group of animals remained untreated. Twenty-eight days post vaccination, piglets from the first group (free of parasites showed significantly (P = 0.0015 higher concentrations of specific antibodies than the infected animals. Obtained results proved that parasitic infections substantially influence the efficacy of oral vaccination against classical swine fever and may support the ability of the virus to produce infectious diseases and its transmission in the wild boar population. For that reason, antiparasitic therapy of wild boar populations before their vaccination is highly recommended in order to increase the vaccine’s efficacy.

  17. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Chloé; Rossi, Sophie; Meier, Roman; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) but has been poorly described in this species. We evaluated the performance of a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in domestic swine when applied to wild boar sera. We tested 96 sera from wild boar in populations without mange history ("truly noninfected") collected in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2014, and 141 sera from free-ranging wild boar presenting mange-like lesions, including 50 live animals captured and sampled multiple times in France between May and August 2006 and three cases submitted to necropsy in Switzerland between April 2010 and February 2014. Mite infestation was confirmed by skin scraping in 20 of them ("truly infected"). We defined sensitivity of the test as the proportion of truly infected that were found ELISA-positive, and specificity as the proportion of truly noninfected that were found negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively. Success of antibody detection increased with the chronicity of lesions, and seroconversion was documented in 19 of 27 wild boar sampled multiple times that were initially negative or doubtful. In conclusion, the evaluated ELISA has been successfully applied to wild boar sera. It appears to be unreliable for early detection in individual animals but may represent a useful tool for population surveys.

  18. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in central and eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgorski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Javor, Andras; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all k...

  19. African swine fever virus infection in Classical swine fever subclinically infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Muñoz-González, Sara; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Rosell, Rosa; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi; Fraile, Lorenzo; de la Riva, Paloma Martínez; Rodríguez, Fernando; Domínguez, Javier; Ganges, Llilianne

    2017-08-01

    Recently moderate-virulence classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains have been proven capable of generating postnatal persistent infection (PI), defined by the maintenance of viremia and the inability to generate CSFV-specific immune responses in animals. These animals also showed a type I interferon blockade in the absence of clinical signs. In this study, we assessed the infection generated in 7-week-old CSFV PI wild boars after infection with the African swine fever virus (ASFV). The wild boars were divided in two groups and were infected with ASFV. Group A comprised boars who were CSFV PI in a subclinical form and Group B comprised pestivirus-free wild boars. Some relevant parameters related to CSFV replication and the immune response of CSFV PI animals were studied. Additionally, serum soluble factors such as IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ and sCD163 were analysed before and after ASFV infection to assess their role in disease progression. After ASFV infection, only the CSFV PI wild boars showed progressive acute haemorrhagic disease; however, the survival rates following ASFV infection was similar in both experimental groups. Notwithstanding, the CSFV RNA load of CSFV PI animals remained unaltered over the study; likewise, the ASFV DNA load detected after infection was similar between groups. Interestingly, systemic type I FN-α and IL-10 levels in sera were almost undetectable in CSFV PI animals, yet detectable in Group B, while detectable levels of IFN-γ were found in both groups. Finally, the flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in myelomonocytic cells (CD172a + ) and a decrease in CD4 + T cells in the PBMCs from CSFV PI animals after ASFV infection. Our results showed that the immune response plays a role in the progression of disease in CSFV subclinically infected wild boars after ASFV infection, and the immune response comprised the systemic type I interferon blockade. ASFV does not produce any interference with CSFV replication, or vice

  20. In vitro effect of zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol on boar sperm characteristics and acrosome reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, I A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Alexopoulos, C; Boscos, C M; Kyriakis, S C

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro effects of three different concentrations (125, 187.5 and 250 microM in diluted semen) of zearalenone (zen) and alpha-zearalenol (alpha-zen) on boar sperm. Semen parameters such as motility, viability and spontaneous acrosome reaction were evaluated. From the results it was shown that both zen and alpha-zen affected the sperm characteristics significantly (p < 0.05), except for alpha-zen at the low concentration which did not decrease the percentage of live reacted spermatozoa significantly. In conclusion, zen and alpha-zen are directly toxic when they affect boar semen in vitro and consequently decrease the fertilization ability of the sperm. The higher the concentration of mycotoxin tested, the greater the decline of sperm parameters noticed. The influence of mycotoxins was found to be time- and dose-dependent.

  1. Reduced curvilinear velocity of boar sperm on substrates with increased hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Matthew; Kennelly, Thomas M; Howse, Jonathan R; Tarmey, Drew S; Geoghegan, Mark; Pacey, Allan A

    2014-03-15

    The curvilinear velocity (VCL) of boar spermatozoa between standard microscopy glassware decreases when the slides are coated with the hydrophobic polymer polystyrene (PS) compared with the less hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coating. Sperm from three boars were observed and analyzed using particle tracking software. The VCL did not differ significantly between coatings of different thickness, indicating no penetration of the sperm into the coating and that only the surface layer of the polymer film interacts with the sperm and buffer medium. The VCL of sperm between PS-coated surfaces was significantly reduced compared with PMMA surfaces (P velocity of sperm using the interaction properties of inert polymer coatings could lead to new sperm selection procedures for clinical use or the development of model systems to better understand sperm-surface interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of Zoonotic Protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in Wild Boars from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, R; Pérez-Martín, J E; Reina, D; Serrano, F J; Frontera, E; Fuentes, I; Dubey, J P

    2016-08-01

    Food safety regulations require the control of the presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence were detected among wild boars hunted in Southwestern areas of Spain. Identity of Sarcocystis spp. was performed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing, detecting S. miescheriana (7/8) and the zoonotic S. suihominis (1/8). Risk assessment studies of these coccidian in meats destined to human consumption are needed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Boar sperm storage capacity of BTS and Androhep Plus: viability, motility, capacitation, and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Charlotte; Beaulieu, Martin; Reyes-Moreno, Carlos; Guillemette, Christine; Bailey, Janice L

    2004-09-01

    Androhep Plus, a long-term extender (up to 7 days) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), a short-term extender (up to 3 days), are commonly used for liquid storage of porcine semen. To test the hypothesis that modifications in sperm viability, motility, chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence patterns, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation occur during semen storage in extenders, we compared these end points at different periods of storage in either Androhep Plus or BTS. Sperm from five boars were assessed daily over 12 days of storage (n = 5 ejaculates from different boars). Viability was not different (P BTS (P BTS. A tyrosine-phosphorylated protein of Mr 21,000 appeared after 10 days in sperm incubated in BTS, and was identified as a phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, modifications in viability, motility, CTC fluorescence patterns, and sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation were apparent during sperm storage in extenders; these may affect the fertilizing capacity of the semen.

  4. The association between disease and profitability in individual finishing boars at a test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Baadsgaard, Niels Peter; Houe, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Endemic diseases in finisher herds are considered to be costly for the pig producer. We investigated the effect of diseases on the profit margin using data from a Danish boar test station (n = 5777) collected from July 2002 to December 2004. Boars reaching a target slaughter weight of at least 80...... a reduction in the range from 0.54 to 2.41 € (corresponding to a reduction in the profit margin ranging from 4 to 20%). The results were robust to changes in price of a 30 kilogram piglet and, relatively robust in regard to changes in the feed price. However, price per kilogram carcass weight appeared...... to influence the economic effect of oral and parenteral treatment and pathological findings on the profit margin. The effect of oral and parenteral treatments was also sensitive to changes in medicine prices....

  5. Metabolic incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into boar spermatozoa lipids and de novo formation of diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svetlichnyy, V.; Müller, P.; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in the maturation, viability and function of sperm cells. In this study, we examined the neutral and polar lipid composition of boar spermatozoa by thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry. Main representatives of the neutral lipid classes were diacylglycerols...... containing saturated (myristoyl, palmitoyl and stearoyl) fatty acyl residues. Glycerophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphatidylethanolamine with alk(en)yl ether residues in the sn-1 position and unsaturated long chained fatty acyl residues in sn-2 position were identified as the most prominent polar lipids....... The only glycoglycerolipid was sulfogalactosylglycerolipid carrying 16:0-alkyl- and 16:0-acyl chains. Using stable isotope-labelling, the metabolic incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids was analysed. Boar spermatozoa incorporated hexadecenoic (16:1), octadecenoic (18:1), octadecadienoic (18...

  6. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress.

  7. Immunization against recombinant GnRH-I alters testicular structure in an experimental boar model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunsheng; Liu, Ya; Su, Shiping; Pu, Yong; Zhang, Xiaorong; Fang, Fugui

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare testicular tissue in immunized and control boars. Eighteen male piglets, aged 12 weeks, were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with a maltose-binding protein-gonadotropin-releasing hormone I hexamer peptide (MBP-GnRH-I6). Blood samples were taken at 12, 18, 21 and 24 weeks of age. Serum concentrations of testosterone and GnRH-I antibodies were determined by radioimmunoassay. The pigs were sacrificed 6 weeks after the second immunization. Testicular weight and size were recorded and tissue samples were collected for histological examination. The results demonstrated that active immunization against MBP-GnRH-I6 increased serum GnRH-I antibody levels (P immunized pigs, and a significant reduction (P immunized boars.

  8. Seroprevalence of brucellosis, tularemia, and yersiniosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K; Tomaso, H; Splettstoesser, W D; Jungersen, G; Riber, U; Petry, T; Hoffmann, D; Scholz, H C; Hensel, A; Neubauer, H

    2005-12-01

    Brucellosis and tularemia are classical zoonotic diseases transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonoses. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas systematic disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies in wild boars from North-Eastern Germany to assess public health risks. A total of 763 sera of wild boars from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania hunted in 1995/1996 were tested using a commercially available Brucella suis ELISA, an in-house lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based Francisella ELISA, and commercially available Western blot kits for the detection of anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies. The Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 LPS is able to induce serological cross-reactions indistinguishable from brucellosis due to a similar immunodominant epitope in the Brucella O-polysaccharide. The Yersinia Western blot assay was, therefore, based on five recombinant Yersinia outer proteins which have been proved to be specific for the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies were detected in 22.0%, 3.1%, and 62.6% of the wild boars, respectively. The high seroprevalence of tularemia and brucellosis in wild boars indicates that natural foci of these zoonoses are present in wildlife in Germany. However, the impact of transmission of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to livestock is unknown. Only careful and systematic monitoring will help to prevent the (re)emergence of these zoonotic diseases in domestic animals and consequently human infection.

  9. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Janiszewski, P.; Forejtek, P.; Rajský, D.; Ravaszová, P.; McEvoy, J.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 197, 3-4 (2013), s. 504-508 ISSN 0304-4017 Grant - others:Jihočeská univerzita(CZ) 022/2010/Z; Jihočeská univerzita(CZ) 11/2013/Z Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Central Europe * Cryptosporidium scrofarum * Cryptosporidium suis * Eurasian wild boar * PCR * SSU Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  10. West Nile virus serosurveillance in pigs, wild boars, and roe deer in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Lupulović, Diana; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Lazić, Gospava; Lazić, Sava; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Petrović, Tamaš

    2015-04-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes, but it also infects many other vertebrates, including humans and horses, in which it can induce severe neurological diseases; however, data about virus circulation in other mammals is scarce. WNV has a history of recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia, where it was identified for the first time in 2010 in mosquitoes and in 2012 in birds and humans, being responsible for over 300 confirmed human cases and 35 deaths there along 2013. To assess WNV circulation among mammals in the country, 688 samples obtained from 279 farm pigs, 318 wild boars, and 91 roe deer were investigated for the presence of antibodies to WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and viral neutralization test (VNT), and the specificity of their reactivity was assayed against Usutu virus (USUV). ELISA-reactive sera were identified in 43 (15.4%) pigs, 56 (17.6%) wild boars, and 17 (18.7%) roe deer. Of these, 6 (14%), 33 (59%), and 4 (23.5%) respectively, neutralized WNV. One out of the 45 ELISA negative sera tested, from a roe deer, neutralized WNV. Cross-reactivity neutralization test indicated that all deer and pigs neutralizing sera were WNV specific, while in 5 (15.2%) of the wild boar samples the specificity could not be established. Four wild boar sera showed USUV specificity. All these data confirm the circulation of both flaviviruses in Serbia, and highlight the need for the implementation of global coordinated surveillance programs in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A maximum entropy model for predicting wild boar distribution in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bosch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar (Sus scrofa populations in many areas of the Palearctic including the Iberian Peninsula have grown continuously over the last century. This increase has led to numerous different types of conflicts due to the damage these mammals can cause to agriculture, the problems they create in the conservation of natural areas, and the threat they pose to animal health. In the context of both wildlife management and the design of health programs for disease control, it is essential to know how wild boar are distributed on a large spatial scale. Given that the quantifying of the distribution of wild species using census techniques is virtually impossible in the case of large-scale studies, modeling techniques have thus to be used instead to estimate animals’ distributions, densities, and abundances. In this study, the potential distribution of wild boar in Spain was predicted by integrating data of presence and environmental variables into a MaxEnt approach. We built and tested models using 100 bootstrapped replicates. For each replicate or simulation, presence data was divided into two subsets that were used for model fitting (60% of the data and cross-validation (40% of the data. The final model was found to be accurate with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC value of 0.79. Six explanatory variables for predicting wild boar distribution were identified on the basis of the percentage of their contribution to the model. The model exhibited a high degree of predictive accuracy, which has been confirmed by its agreement with satellite images and field surveys.

  12. Saccharide-mediated interactions of boar sperm surface proteins with components of the porcine oviduct

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liberda, J.; Maňásková, Pavla; Prelovská, L.; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2006), s. 112-125 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP303/04/P070; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/06/0895; GA MZd(CZ) NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : boar seminal plasma proteins * saccharide-mediated events * sperm oviductal reservoir Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2006

  13. Heparin-binding proteins of human seminal plasma homologous with boar spermadhesins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, Marek; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2001), s. 131-144 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA ČR GV524/96/K162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : human seminal plasma * heparin -binding proteins * boar spermadhesins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.924, year: 2001

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Michał; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Mirosław; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans. © L. Witkowski et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  15. Epidemiology and control of an outbreak of classical swine fever in wild boar in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, M; Stärk, K D C; Vanzetti, T; Salman, M D; Thor, B; Schleiss, W; Griot, C

    2002-01-26

    An outbreak of classical swine fever in wild boar in the southern part of Switzerland (Canton of Ticino) was investigated after the implementation of control measures in a defined infected area (the risk zone), and in a surrounding surveillance zone (the non-risk zone). After the disease had been detected, hunting was not allowed in the risk zone for over six months, during which the disease was left to run its course, but hunting was continued in the non-risk zone for one month. After seven months, a hunting strategy targeted at young animals was implemented in both zones. Between May 1998 and January 2000,1294 wild boar were shot or found dead, and diagnostic and biological data were collected and analysed. Only one animal from the non-risk zone was found to be seropositive for antibodies to the virus, whereas 179 of 528 wild boar from the risk zone were virus positive and 162 were seropositive. The proportion of virus-positive animals decreased from 62.7 per cent to zero over one year. During the first hunting season, seropositive animals were found in all age groups, but 12 months later only animals more than one year old had antibodies against the virus.

  16. Bionic Design for Reducing Adhesive Resistance of the Ridger Inspired by a Boar's Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiao; Yan, Yunpeng; Chirende, Benard; Wu, Xuejiao; Wang, Zhaoliang

    2017-01-01

    The main feature of the boar's head used to root around for food is the front part, which is similar to the ridger in terms of function, load, and environment. In this paper, the boar's head was selected as the biological prototype for developing a new ridger. The point cloud of the head was captured by a 3D scanner, and then, the head surface was reconstructed using 3D coordinates. The characteristic curves of the front part of the boar's head were extracted, and then, five cross-sectional curves and one vertical section curve were fitted. Based on the fitted curves, five kinds of bionic ridgers were designed. The penetrating resistances of the bionic ridgers and traditional ridger were tested at different speeds in an indoor soil bin. The test results showed that bionic ridger B had the best penetrating resistance reduction ratio of 16.67% at 4.2 km/h velocity. In order to further evaluate the performance of the best bionic ridger (bionic ridger B), both the bionic ridger and traditional ridger were tested in a field under the same working conditions. The field results indicate that the bionic ridger reduces penetrating resistance by 6.91% compared to the traditional ridger, and the test results validate that the bionic ridger has an effect on reducing penetrating resistance. PMID:28757796

  17. Egg Yolk Protective Effect in Boar Spermatozoa Cooled at 5ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Vasile Rusu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many boar reproduction researches are directed to improve extenders and to increase cold shock protection of semen. Little research is focused on the influence of egg yolk combined with alternative cold shock protective media. Egg yolk could interfere with other compounds present in the extender composition. The influence of egg yolk addition was assessed in boar sperm cells, cooled at 5ºC, to elucidate its effect on motility and membrane integrity. Flow Cytometry and Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA were used to determine the rate of sperm with intact plasma and acrosomal membrane, respectively the sperm cells motility. Statistical analyses (T-Test were performed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00. Androhep Plus supplemented with 20% egg yolk (AhPlus+20%EY indicated a higher cold shock protection in progressive motility (93.9±2.64% and membrane integrity (79.78±4.14%, rather than the extender without egg yolk (p0.05. The combination egg yolk-AhPlus seems to be an alternative to standard extenders, conferring stability in boar sperm cells against cold shock.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  19. [Descriptive summary of the classical swine fever control in wild boar in Germany since 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubach, Christoph; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Blome, Sandra; Fröhlich, Andreas; Blicke, Julia; Jahn, Birgit; Teuffert, Jürgen; Kramers, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar repeatedly appeared in different federal states of the Federal Republic of Germany since 1995, from which it has been successfully eradicated sometimes fast, sometimes in a more time taking way using oral immunization as a main element of control. Since 2005 the cases focused solely on North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate. In the present study, therefore, the situation of CSF in wild boar has been closely investigated concerning the period 2005 to 2012 in these two regions. It is noteworthy that in this period two different variants of the virus subtype 2.3 occurred in two regionally defined areas of the "Eifel" and "Westerwald" as well as in the "Pfalz". The two Federal States have undertaken extensive oral vaccination campaigns and surveillance activities, which enabled an assessment of the existing virus prevalence and serological prevalence in the different regions. After an initial high serological prevalence, caused probably by interaction of infection and vaccination, the serological levels stabilized seasonally adjusted in a range from 50 to 60% in almost all areas. The vaccination campaigns have been maintained by both Federal States over a period of at least 2.5 years after virus has been detected for the last time. In consequence Germany as a whole has been recognized for the first time to be officially free from CSF in wild boar. By genotyping of virus isolates it has been demonstrated that the virus changed over time and played a role in the outbreak area "Westerwald".

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in a Domesticated Korean Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Goo; Ouh, In-Ohk; Kim, Munki; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Young-Hoan; Do, Jae-Cheul; Kwak, Dongmi

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis, a chronic progressive disease, has been reported in bovine, swine, and primate species. Here, we report the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a Korean wild boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus). The owners this domesticated boar brought it to the Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory in Korea after it was found dead and severely emaciated. Demarcated yellowish white nodules were found around the larynx and retropharyngeal lymph node during necropsy. The lungs had diffuse fibrinous pleuritis, severe congestion, and scattered nodules. More nodules were found in the spleen. Tuberculosis is characterized by massive macrophage infiltration and central caseous necrosis; both characteristics were found in the lungs. Histopathologic examination revealed that the alveolar lumen had marked fibrosis and exudates. Examination of the fluid revealed extensive macrophage permeation. To confirm a Mycobacterium infection, PCR was performed using two primer sets specific to the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium; Mycobacterium was detected in the lungs and spleen. To identify the species of Mycobacterium, immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis . The results revealed immunoreactivity against M. tuberculosis but not against M. bovis . The consumption of undercooked or raw meat from game animals may expose humans and other animals to sylvatic infection. Consequently, Koreans who ingest wild boar may be at risk of a tuberculosis infection. To reduce the risk of foodborne infection and maintain public health, continuous monitoring and control strategies are required.

  1. Atypical Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 isolated from hunted wild boars in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrali, C F; Cucco, L; Manuali, E; Sebastiani, C; Farneti, S; Ercoli, L; Pezzotti, G

    2014-06-25

    Atypical Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 was isolated from rectal contents of two wild boars hunted in Italy within a regional wildlife management program. No outbreak of yersiniosis was reported in this area in the same period and no lesions were found by the veterinarian at post-mortem inspection. Nevertheless, after histological examination, granulomatous lesions were detected in submandibular lymph nodes of one of the two wild boars. Microbiological and bio molecular characterization of the isolates revealed a melibiose-negative, biotype 2, wbyK+O:3 genotype, carrying inv, yop (yopH and yopB), virF, and R-HPI. Strains showing the same profile, matching to the criteria of genetic group 5, have been recently reported in fatal cases of yersiniosis in cynomolgus macaques and in farmed deer and atypical O:3 serotype has been suggested as a pathogenic subtype of O:3. This is the third report of an atypical O:3 Y. pseudotuberculosis strain, the first outside the American continent and the first one not associated to fatal yersiniosis. Wild boars could be a possible reservoir of this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cationic synthetic peptides: assessment of their antimicrobial potency in liquid preserved boar semen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Speck

    Full Text Available Various semen extender formulas are in use to maintain sperm longevity and quality whilst acting against bacterial contamination in liquid sperm preservation. Aminoglycosides are commonly supplemented to aid in the control of bacteria. As bacterial resistance is increasing worldwide, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs received lively interest as alternatives to overcome multi-drug resistant bacteria. We investigated, whether synthetic cationic AMPs might be a suitable alternative for conventional antibiotics in liquid boar sperm preservation. The antibacterial activity of two cyclic AMPs (c-WWW, c-WFW and a helical magainin II amide analog (MK5E was studied in vitro against two Gram-positive and eleven Gram-negative bacteria. Isolates included ATCC reference strains, multi-resistant E. coli and bacteria cultured from boar semen. Using broth microdilution, minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for all AMPs. All AMPs revealed activity towards the majority of bacteria but not against Proteus spp. (all AMPs and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (MK5E. We could also demonstrate that c-WWW and c-WFW were effective against bacterial growth in liquid preserved boar semen in situ, especially when combined with a small amount of gentamicin. Our results suggest that albeit not offering a complete alternative to traditional antibiotics, the use of AMPs offers a promising solution to decrease the use of conventional antibiotics and thereby limit the selection of multi-resistant strains.

  3. Radiocesium in roe deer and wild boars and their forage in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Jungskaer, W.; Gaichenko, V.; Panov, G.; Goshchak, S.; Jones, B.; Petrov, M.; Davydchuk, V.; Shcherbatchenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    Tissue samples from 67 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 73 wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) were obtained from the evacuated zone around the damaged nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The samplings were performed from June 1992 to February 1995 regularly during each typical season (spring in mid-May, summer in mid-August, autumn in mid-October and winter in late February). By using botanical analysis of rumen/stomach contents, dominant forage plants were identified and collected in the area where the animals had been foraging. The results show that there is a considerable individual variation in diet selection within each season for both these animal species and also a seasonal variation in the radiocesium contamination of muscular tissue. The seasonal variation is most pronounced in the wild boar. Minimum levels of 137Cs were seen during summer and autumn (mean 6kBq/kg w.w. and 2 kBq/kg w.w., resp.) and maximum levels in winter (mean 113 kBq/kg w.w.). In the roe deer, the minimum levels were seen in winter (mean 6kBq/kg w.w.) and maximum levels in autumn (mean 58 kBq/kg w.w.). These variations are caused by differences in pasture selection during different seasons of the year. One very important forage plant eaten both by roe deer and by wild boars during all seasons was evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). Also the underground parts of this plant are consumed by the wild boar. Also the role of soil as an intake source of radioactive contaminants has been estimated by determination of inorganic residues after ashing of rumen/stomach samples. In the winter, wild boars show the highest ash content with 32% (mean of dry matter) and the lowest in summer with 6%. In roe deer, the differences between seasons are smaller, with an average of 9% in the spring and 15% in winter. The level of 137Cs contamination in muscular tissue of these two species has not decreased noticeably in the studied area during the study period from summer 1992 to winter 1995

  4. Controlling of CSFV in European wild boar using oral vaccination: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eRossi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is among the most detrimental diseases for the swine industry worldwide. Infected wild boar populations can play a crucial role in CSF epidemiology and controlling wild reservoirs is of utmost importance for preventing domestic outbreaks. Oral mass vaccination (OMV has been implemented to control CSF in wild boars and limit the spill over to domestic pigs. This retrospective overview of vaccination experiences illustrates the potential for that option. The C-strain live vaccine was confirmed to be highly efficacious and palatable baits were developed for oral delivery in free ranging wild boars. The first field trials were performed in Germany in the 1990’s and allowed deploying oral baits at a large scale. The delivery process was further improved during the 2000’s among different European countries. Optimal deployment has to be early regarding disease emergence and correctly designed regarding the landscape structure and the natural food sources that can compete with oral baits. OMV deployment is also highly dependent on a local veterinary support working closely with hunters, wildlife and forestry agencies. Vaccination has been the most efficient strategy for CSF control in free ranging wild boar when vaccination is wide spread and lasting for a sufficient period of time. Alternative disease control strategies such as intensified hunting or creating physical boundaries such as fences have been, in contrast, seldom satisfactory and reliable. However, monitoring outbreaks has been challenging during and after vaccination deployment since OMV results in a low probability to detect virus-positive animals and the live-vaccine currently available does not allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. The development of a new marker vaccine and companion test is thus a promising option for better monitoring outbreaks during OMV deployment as well as help to better determine when to stop

  5. Boar genotype as a factor shaping age-related changes in semen parameters and reproduction longevity simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Damian; Jankowska-Mąkosa, Anna; Duziński, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was a detailed analysis of the boar genotypes used in AI stations with an indication of their production capacity, including age and a precise analysis of their culling time and reason. The study included 334 boars: 81 Polish Large White (PLW), 108 Polish Landrace (PL), 49 Pietrain (P), 56 Duroc × Pietrain (D × P) and 40 Hampshire × Pietrain (H × P). Semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, total number of spermatozoa, number of motile spermatozoa, and number of insemination doses were analyzed. Quadratic regression was used to illustrate the selected sperm parameters at specific ages. Among all the studied boars the lowest motilities of spermatozoa were identified in white breeds PLW and PL, and the difference between motility extremes was 3.53% (P ≤ 0.01). The highest number of insemination doses were produced from D × P crossbreed boars: about 0.7 portions more compared to PL, 1.13 to PLW, 1.18 to H × P and 1.8 to P (all differences P ≤ 0.01). It has been shown in the case of ejaculate volume that for PLW and H × P boars the culling moment was far too early in terms of production capacity and differences were, respectively, 16.35 ml for PLW and 12.61 ml for H × P. Based on the developed regression equations, the earliest maximum number of motile sperm (73.82 × 10 9 ) was obtained by H × P crossbreed boars as early as at age 24 months. The highest values for this parameter were achieved, however, by other D × P crossbreed boars: 74.30 × 10 9  at the later age of 32 months. A consequence of the high number of motile sperm in young H × P boars was that the theoretical maximum value of the number of AI doses was produced as early as the 14th month (25.59 portions). Curves of similar shape were obtained for PL and D × P boars; the difference in maximal values was 0.54 portions in favor of crossbreeds, at a later age of 7 months. It was noted that for PLW and D × P boars the highest number

  6. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination is effective in reducing disease and PCV2 shedding in semen of boars concurrently infected with PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if the amount of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) shed in semen will be increased in boars experimentally coinfected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO) and if PCV2 vaccination of the boars prior to PCV2 exposure will result in reduced PCV2 viremia and...

  7. The dependence of the growth rate and meat content of young boars on semen parameters and conception rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, D; Jankowska-Mąkosa, A; Duziński, K

    2017-05-01

    Boars have a decisive impact on the progress in pig production, however, there is no recent information about the optimal growth parameters during the rearing period for modern breed later used in artificial insemination (AI) stations. Therefore, the objective of the research was to conduct semen parameter and conception rate analyses on the basis of growth rate and meat content assessments made during the rearing of AI boars of different genotypes. The study was carried out between 2010 and 2014 and included 184 boars in five breed combinations: 46 Polish Large White, 50 Polish Landrace, 27 Pietrain, 36 Duroc×Pietrain and 25 Hampshire×Pietrain. Boars were qualified by daily gains and meat content assessment (between 170 and 210 days of life). A total number of 38 272 ejaculates were examined (semen volume (ml), spermatozoa concentration (×106 ml-1), total number of spermatozoa (×109) and number of insemination doses from one ejaculate (n)). The fertility was determined by the conception rate (%). Semen volume, spermatozoa concentration and conception rate (PMeat content affected semen volume, number of insemination doses and conception rate (Pmeat content helps AI stations to increase the efficiency and economic profitability, and the number of insemination doses to increase by up to 300 doses/boar within a year. The analyses of growth parameters may help increase the efficiency and economic viability of AI stations.

  8. Time trends (1986-2003) of radiocesium transfer to roe deer and wild boar in two Austrian forest regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebl, F. [Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC, Radiation Safety and Applications, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: friederike.strebl@arcs.ac.at; Tataruch, F. [Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Savoyenstr.1, A 1160 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Starting shortly after the Chernobyl accident, samples of roe deer and wild boar from two comparatively highly contaminated Austrian forest stands have been regularly analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Until 1995 average {sup 137}Cs concentrations exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} in both roe deer and wild boar. Long-term and seasonal trends are similar in both investigation sites. While {sup 137}Cs aggregated transfer factor (T{sub ag}) values show a significant decreasing trend in roe deer (ecological half-time 8.6 and 7.2 years, respectively), T{sub ag}-values in wild boar are highly variable, but rather increasing values are observed over the last years. T{sub ag}-values for roe deer are between 0.04 and 0.008 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} fresh weight (1987-2003); values for wild boar are between 0.008 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (1988) and 0.046 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (1996) fresh weight. Seasonal trends for both species are in good agreement with observations from German forests: increased mushroom ingestion leads to higher {sup 137}Cs T{sub ag}-values for roe deer in the second half of the year (August-December) compared to the first half (January-July). T{sub ag}-values for wild boar are highest in the first half of the year.

  9. Evaluation of pathogenesis caused in cattle and guinea pig by a Mycobacterium bovis strain isolated from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Rienzo Julio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many regions of the world, wild mammals act as reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, a situation that prevents the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. In order to observe whether a strain isolated from a wild boar, previously tested as highly virulent in a mice model, is also virulent in cattle, we performed cattle experimental inoculation with this strain Results Groups of Friesian calves were either infected with the wild boar strain M. bovis 04-303 or with the bovine strain NCTC10772 as a control. We found that antigen-specific IFN-γ release in whole blood samples occurred earlier in animals infected with M. bovis 04-303. Both M. bovis strains resulted in a positive skin test, with animals infected with the wild boar isolate showing a stronger response. These results and the presence of more severe organ lesions, with granuloma and pneumonic areas in cattle demonstrate that the wild boar isolate is more virulent than the NCTC10772 strain. Additionally, we tested the infectivity of the M. bovis strains in guinea pigs and found that M. bovis 04-303 had the highest pathogenicity. Conclusions M. bovis strains isolated from wild boars may be pathogenic for cattle, producing TB lesions.

  10. Effect of naloxone treatment on luteinizing hormone and testosterone concentrations in boars with high and low libido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estienne, Mark J; Harper, Allen F; Speight, Susan M; Crawford, Russell J; Barb, C Richard

    2009-11-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of the opioid peptide receptor antagonist, naloxone on circulating concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone in boars characterized as having high (n=8) or low libido (n=8) based on the willingness to mount an artificial sow and allow semen collection. On the day of the experiment, blood was sampled every 15 min for 4 h before and 4 h after i.v. injection of naloxone (1 mg/kg body weight). After naloxone treatment, a libido status by time interaction was detected and concentrations of LH within 15 min after treatment were greater (plibido boars than for Low-libido boars. Concentrations of testosterone were highly variable amongst boars and there were no effects of libido status (p=0.66) or libido status by time (p=0.66). There was, however, an effect of time (pboars displaying a high level of sexual motivation.

  11. Time-dependency of the {sup 137}Cs contamination of wild boar from a region in Southern Germany in the years 1998 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semizhon, Tatiana; Putyrskaya, Victoria [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenriedstr., 88250 Weingarten (Germany); International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya str. 23, 220070 Minsk (Belarus); Zibold, Gregor [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenriedstr., 88250 Weingarten (Germany); Klemt, Eckehard [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenriedstr., 88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: klemt@hs-weingarten.de

    2009-11-15

    Following the Chernobyl accident, {sup 137}Cs contamination levels of wild boar in some districts of Southern Germany are still exceeding thousands of Bq kg{sup -1}. While the long term {sup 137}Cs concentration in forest plants, mushrooms, and roe deer meat has decreased significantly, for wild boar it has remained constant during the last decade. Between 1998 and 2008, we analysed the muscle meat of 656 wild boars shot in the district ('Landkreis') Ravensburg. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration showed considerable variability from less than 5 up to 8266 Bq kg{sup -1} and it followed a seasonal pattern, which is attributed to changes in dietary habits, fodder availability, meteorological conditions and specific behaviour of {sup 137}Cs in wild boar organism. T{sub ag} values for wild boars from the district Ravensburg varied from 0.008 to 0.062 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} during 2000-2008.

  12. Time-dependency of the 137Cs contamination of wild boar from a region in Southern Germany in the years 1998 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semizhon, Tatiana; Putyrskaya, Victoria; Zibold, Gregor; Klemt, Eckehard

    2009-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, 137 Cs contamination levels of wild boar in some districts of Southern Germany are still exceeding thousands of Bq kg -1 . While the long term 137 Cs concentration in forest plants, mushrooms, and roe deer meat has decreased significantly, for wild boar it has remained constant during the last decade. Between 1998 and 2008, we analysed the muscle meat of 656 wild boars shot in the district ('Landkreis') Ravensburg. The 137 Cs activity concentration showed considerable variability from less than 5 up to 8266 Bq kg -1 and it followed a seasonal pattern, which is attributed to changes in dietary habits, fodder availability, meteorological conditions and specific behaviour of 137 Cs in wild boar organism. T ag values for wild boars from the district Ravensburg varied from 0.008 to 0.062 m 2 kg -1 during 2000-2008.

  13. Boar seminal plasma inhibits cryo-capacitation of frozen-thawed ram sperm and improves fertility following intracervical insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Zhong, Rongzhen; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhou, Daowei

    2018-01-01

    Cryopreservation has numerous deleterious effects on sperm structure and function, which can be reduced by adding seminal plasma (SP), either autologous or heterologous. The objective was to determine effects of adding boar SP to the freezing extender on sperm quality, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed ram sperm. Semen was collected from eight Small-tail Han rams and extended in a glucose-egg yolk buffer supplemented with 0, 20, 40, or 60% porcine SP (from Large white boars). Compared to all other groups, 40% boar SP increased sperm viability and motility (P intracervical AI (47.5 vs 33.3%; P < 0.05), apparently due to inhibition of cryo-capacitation, although pregnancy rate for intravaginal AI was not affected (31.6 vs 30.0%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Feeding of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident in the territory of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations of seasonal feed choice of a wild boar have been carried out during a 3-year period on the basis of the stomach content. Results of the investigations are given. A list of forage plants and forage animals is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is evaluated. Main plant assemblages of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident are analyzed for their significance in the diet of a wild boar. Special attention is paid to the role of underground forage (35% of average annual forage), and to consumption of Oenotera biennis roots comprising 26% of average annual forage. Recent state of the forage base and of the wild boar population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Campania Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnaro, Serena; Sasso, Simona; De Martino, Luisa; Longo, Mariangela; Iovane, Valentina; Ghiurmino, Gianbenedetto; Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Nava, Donatella; Baldi, Loredana; Pagnini, Ugo

    2010-01-01

    Serum samples were collected from wild boars (Sus scrofa) harvested during the 2005-2006 hunting season in Campania, southern Italy. Samples were tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogan, Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Aujeszky disease virus (ADV), porcine reproductive and respiratory stress syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Of the 342 serum samples tested, 15 (4.4%) were seropositive to Brucella spp., nine (2.6%) were seropositive to L. interrogans, 66 (19.3%) were seropositive for Salmonella spp., 105 (30.7%) were seropositive for ADV, 27 (7.9%) were seropositive for PPV, and 129 (37.7%) were seropositive for PRRSV. All sera tested seronegative for SVDV and CSFV antibodies. These results, recorded for the first time in Campania, support the hypothesis that wild boar are reservoirs of certain infectious agents, but some infections in wild boars originate from their domestic counterparts.

  16. Prevalence of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies and First Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žele, Diana; Barry, Aline F; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W; Vengušt, Gorazd; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, we investigated HEV presence in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) population of Slovenia. A total of 288 wild boar serum samples were collected throughout the country, and HEV infection was investigated by serology, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by HEV RNA detection using a real-time PCR assay. Antibodies against HEV were detected in 30.2% (87/288) of animals tested, whereas HEV RNA was detected in only one sample. This is the first evidence of HEV presence in the wild boar population in Slovenia, and these results suggest that these animals are part of the HEV epidemiological cycle in the country.

  17. Effect of production management on semen quality during long-term storage in different European boar studs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Kuster, C; Schäfer, J; Jung, M; Grossfeld, R

    2018-03-01

    The processing of ejaculates is a fundamental step for the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that affect quality of boar semen doses. The production process during 1 day of semen processing in 26 European boar studs was monitored. In each boar stud, nine to 19 randomly selected ejaculates from 372 Pietrain boars were analyzed for sperm motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and thermo-resistance (TRT). Each ejaculate was monitored for production time and temperature for each step in semen processing using the special programmed software SEQU (version 1.7, Minitüb, Tiefenbach, Germany). The dilution of ejaculates with a short-term extender was completed in one step in 10 AI centers (n = 135 ejaculates), in two steps in 11 AI centers (n = 158 ejaculates) and in three steps in five AI centers (n = 79 ejaculates). Results indicated there was a greater semen quality with one-step isothermal dilution compared with the multi-step dilution of AI semen doses (total motility TRT d7: 71.1 ± 19.2%, 64.6 ± 20.0%, 47.1 ± 27.1%; one-step compared with two-step compared with the three-step dilution; P < .05). There was a marked advantage when using the one-step isothermal dilution regarding time management, preservation suitability, stability and stress resistance. One-step dilution caused significant lower holding times of raw ejaculates and reduced the possible risk of making mistakes due to a lower number of processing steps. These results lead to refined recommendations for boar semen processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of the novel candidate genes and variants in boar liver tissues with divergent skatole levels using RNA deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Gunawan

    Full Text Available Boar taint is the unpleasant odour of meat derived from non-castrated male pigs, caused by the accumulation of androstenone and skatole in fat. Skatole is a tryptophan metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria in gut and catabolised in liver. Since boar taint affects consumer's preference, the aim of this study was to perform transcriptome profiling in liver of boars with divergent skatole levels in backfat by using RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each liver sample ranged from 11.8 to 39.0 million. Approximately 448 genes were differentially regulated (p-adjusted 1.5. Differentially regulated genes in the high skatole liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as small molecule biochemistry, protein synthesis, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pathway analysis identified the remodeling of epithelial adherens junction and TCA cycle as the most dominant pathways which may play important roles in skatole metabolism. Differential gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in ATP synthesis, cytochrome P450, keratin, phosphoglucomutase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and solute carrier family. Additionally, polymorphism and association analysis revealed that mutations in ATP5B, KRT8, PGM1, SLC22A7 and IDH1 genes could be potential markers for skatole levels in boars. Furthermore, expression analysis of exon usage of three genes (ATP5B, KRT8 and PGM1 revealed significant differential expression of exons of these genes in different skatole levels. These polymorphisms and exon expression differences may have impacts on the gene activity ultimately leading to skatole variation and could be used as genetic marker for boar taint related traits. However, further validation is required to confirm the effect of these genetic markers in other pig populations in order to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs.

  19. Effect of natural betaine on estimates of semen quality in mature AI boars during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, F A; Stewart, K R; Schinckel, A P; Barnes, W; Boyd, R D; Wilcock, P; Woodliff, J

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T)=22, n (line L)=10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T)=21, n (line L)=6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T)=23, n (line L)=7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16.34 and 32.68g, for the BET-0.63% and BET-1.26% diets, respectively. Serum homocysteine concentrations were less for animals with betaine treatments (P=0.016). Rectal temperatures of the boars were unaffected by betaine diets. Betaine tended to increase total sperm in the ejaculates when collectively compared with data of the control animals (P=0.093). Sperm morphology analysis indicated there was a greater percent of sperm with distal midpiece reflex (P=0.009) and tail (P=0.035) abnormalities in boars fed the BET-1.26% than boars fed the BET-0.63% diet. Betaine concentration in the seminal plasma was greater in boars with betaine treatments, with animals being fed the 0.63% and 1.26% diets having 59.2% and 54.5% greater betaine concentrations in seminal plasma as compared with boars of the control group (P=0.046). In conclusion, betaine supplementation at 0.63% and 1.26% tended to increase sperm concentration in the ejaculates by 6% and 13%, respectively, with no negative impacts on semen quality when 0.63% of betaine was included in the diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of feeding regimen on weight gain, semen characteristics, libido, and lameness in 170- to 250-kilogram Duroc boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Li, J L; Wei, H K; Zhou, Y F; Tan, J J; Sun, H Q; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2016-11-01

    A 2-period field trial was conducted to determine the effects of feeding regimen on weight gain, semen characteristics, libido, and lameness in 170- to 200-kg (period 1) and 200- to 250-kg (period 2) boars. Sixty-one Duroc boars were allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments and 15 g/d fish oil was also provided for each experimental boar, to maintain the n-6:n-3 intake ratio at approximately 6.1:1. The energy intakes of the 3 treatment groups were controlled by basing the feed intake on a corn-soybean meal-based diet (3.11 Mcal/kg of ME) to create: 1) low energy intake group (L, = 20, 7.3 Mcal/d of ME), 2) medium energy intake group (M, = 20, 7.7 Mcal/d of ME), and 3) high energy intake group (H, = 21, 8.3 Mcal/d of ME) in period 1. Feed intake was then increased to 7.6, 8.2, and 8.6 Mcal/d of ME for the 3 groups, respectively, in period 2. During the 28-wk experimental period, boar weight gain, testis volume, semen characteristics, libido, toe measurements, claw lesions, and lameness were examined, and the number of boars culled in each group was recorded to calculate the culling rate. Although there were no differences in testis volume, sperm concentration, and motility, the percentage of abnormal sperm, the percentage of claw lesions, and claw lesion scores differed among treatments ( > 0.05), and ADG was significantly increased with the increase of energy intake between the 2 periods ( 0.05). Nonetheless, the H boars took more time to mount the collection dummy and produce an ejaculate and, in particular, showed a greater percentage of lameness than the L and M boars ( < 0.05). Therefore, the medium energy intake regimen (energy intakes of 7.7 and 8.2 Mcal/d of ME with ADG of 454.5 and 375.3 g/d in 2 periods, respectively) improved the total sperm number and functional sperm number, and meanwhile decreased the occurrence of lameness in 170- to 250-kg Duroc boars.

  1. Cryopreservation of boar semen. II: Effect of cooling rate and duration of freezing point plateau on boar semen frozen in mini- and maxi-straws and plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1991-01-01

    The post-thaw motility and the acrosome integrity of semen from 4 boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini (0.25 ml) and maxi (5 ml) plastic straws and in 10 x 5 cm Teflon FEP-plastic bags (0.12 mm thick, 5 ml), were compared. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermo-couples placed in the straws and the bags. Three freezing programmes were used, namely A: from +5 degrees C, at a rate of 3 degrees C/min, to -6 degrees C, held for 1 min at -6 degrees C, and followed by a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min to -100 degrees C; B: a similar curve except that there was no holding time at -6 degrees C and that the cooling rate was 30 degrees C/min, and C: from +5 degrees C to -100 degrees C, with a cooling rate of 35 degrees C/min, followed by storage in liquid N2. Despite the freezing curve assayed, both the mini-straws and the bags depicted much shorter freezing point plateaus as compared to the maxi-straws. Post-thaw sperm motility as well as the amount of normal apical ridges were equally significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws or in bags than in maxi-straws. Significant differences in these post-thawing parameters were obtained between the freezing curves used. The stepwise freezing procedure A appeared as the best alternative for boar semen, considering this in vitro evaluation.

  2. Relationships between hair melanization, glutathione levels, and senescence in wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Negro, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of melanins, which are the most common animal pigments, is influenced by glutathione (GSH), a key intracellular antioxidant. At high GSH levels, pheomelanin (the lightest melanin form) is produced, whereas production of eumelanin (the darkest melanin form) does not require GSH. Oxidative damage typically increases with age, and age-related decreases in GSH have accordingly been found in diverse organisms. Therefore, there should be positive associations between the capacity to produce eumelanic traits, GSH levels, and senescence, whereas there should be negative associations between the capacity to produce pheomelanic traits, GSH levels, and senescence. We explored this hypothesis in a free-ranging population of wild boars Sus scrofa of different ages. As expected from the fact that pheomelanogenesis consumes GSH, levels of this antioxidant in muscle tended to be negatively related to pheomelanization and positively related to eumelanization in pelage, and the degree of pelage pheomelanization was positively related to oxidative damage as reflected by levels of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS), which is consistent with the hypothesis that pheomelanin synthesis has physiological costs. In our cross-sectional sample, GSH levels did not show senescence effects, and we did not detect senescence effects in pelage melanization. Prime body condition and low TBARS levels were also associated with hair graying, which is attributable to a loss of melanin produced by oxidative stress, thus raising the possibility that hair graying constitutes a signal of resistance to oxidative stress in wild boars. Our results suggest that the degree of melanization is linked to GSH levels in wild boars and that their antioxidant damage shows senescence effects.

  3. AMP-Activated Kinase AMPK Is Expressed in Boar Spermatozoa and Regulates Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado de Llera, Ana; Martin-Hidalgo, David; Gil, María C.

    2012-01-01

    The main functions of spermatozoa required for fertilization are dependent on the energy status and metabolism. AMP-activated kinase, AMPK, acts a sensor and regulator of cell metabolism. As AMPK studies have been focused on somatic cells, our aim was to investigate the expression of AMPK protein in spermatozoa and its possible role in regulating motility. Spermatozoa from boar ejaculates were isolated and incubated under different conditions (38,5°C or 17°C, basal medium TBM or medium with Ca2+ and bicarbonate TCM, time from 1–24 hours) in presence or absence of AMPK inhibitor, compound C (CC, 30 µM). Western blotting reveals that AMPK is expressed in boar spermatozoa at relatively higher levels than in somatic cells. AMPK phosphorylation (activation) in spermatozoa is temperature-dependent, as it is undetectable at semen preservation temperature (17°C) and increases at 38,5°C in a time-dependent manner. AMPK phosphorylation is independent of the presence of Ca2+ and/or bicarbonate in the medium. We confirm that CC effectively blocks AMPK phosphorylation in boar spermatozoa. Analysis of spermatozoa motility by CASA shows that CC treatment either in TBM or in TCM causes a significant reduction of any spermatozoa motility parameter in a time-dependent manner. Thus, AMPK inhibition significantly decreases the percentages of motile and rapid spermatozoa, significantly reduces spermatozoa velocities VAP, VCL and affects other motility parameters and coefficients. CC treatment does not cause additional side effects in spermatozoa that might lead to a lower viability even at 24 h incubation. Our results show that AMPK is expressed in spermatozoa at high levels and is phosphorylated under physiological conditions. Moreover, our study suggests that AMPK regulates a relevant function of spermatozoa, motility, which is essential for their ultimate role of fertilization. PMID:22719961

  4. Effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides on liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schulze

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E on boar sperm during semen storage at 16 °C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard, was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC, whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation.

  5. Effects of coffee husk as floor covering on the behavior of boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Cristina Teles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the influence of coffee husks as floor covering on the aspects of animal welfare such as behavioral characteristics, body surface temperature, and salivary cortisol levels of stabled boars. Sixteen boars were housed in individual stalls; eight were maintained in a conventional system with a concrete floor and eight were maintained on a concrete floor lined with coffee husks. The experimental period was 60 days. All animals were filmed two days prior to the start of the experiment, on both the 7th and 60th days after exposure to coffee husks, and finally two days after the removal of the material. During this period, the number of times that the animals ate, drank, stood, sat, lay down, and dug was recorded. Furthermore, both body surface temperature and salivary cortisol levels were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. The use of coffee husks did not influence body surface temperature. Salivary cortisol levels increased during the experimental period only in the animals maintained on coffee husks. In the morning, the coffee husks decreased the number of times that the animals sat and increased the number of times that they lay down. In the afternoon, the use of coffee husks decreased the number of times that the animals stood, sat, or dug and increased the number of times that the animals lay down. Although coffee husks do not change the behavior of the animals in an expressive way, they should not be used as floor covering for boars.

  6. Boar semen bacterial contamination in Italy and antibiotic efficacy in a modified extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bresciani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to identify microbial flora in boar semen under field conditions in northern Italy, to investigate antibiotic resistance and sensitivity of isolated bacteria, and to evaluate elimination of bacteria after storage in two types of extenders added with different antibiotics (amikacin vs gentamicin. A total of 60 boars were collected in 13 pig farms. Bacteriological and mycological investigations were performed immediately on raw semen samples, then at 48 and 120 h of storage on semen diluted randomly in a new short-term modified extender (ME-S or in a commercial one (CRONOSTM. Bacterial contamination was found in 63% of raw semen samples and different bacterial species were isolated: E.coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus epidermidis and aureus, Proteus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. E. coli was the most isolated contaminant (53%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found only in one semen sample. The analysis of variance of factors affecting contamination levels was significant for the farm of origin (P<0.05 and not significant for the breed. Antibiotic resistance of these bacteria was assessed using different antibiotics. Significant differences (P<0.05 between observed and expected frequencies of bacterial isolates resistant or not to the antibiotics contained in the extenders were found. At 48 h of storage a reduction of aerobic contamination was found after ME-S dilution by 85.3% and after CRONOSTM by 63.8%. This paper proved the presence of pathogenic bacteria in semen. We thus believe it is highly advisable to perform periodic microbiological screening of boar semen in the swine industry to avoid the use of low sperm quality.

  7. Cluster analysis reveals a binary effect of storage on boar sperm motility function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Heiko; Petrunkina, Anna M; Harrison, Robin A P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-06-01

    Storage of liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa is associated with a loss of fertilising ability of the preserved spermatozoa, which standard semen parameters barely reflect. Monitoring responses to molecular effectors of sperm function (e.g. bicarbonate) has proven to be a more sensitive approach to investigating storage effects. Bicarbonate not only initiates capacitation in spermatozoa, but also induces motility activation. This occurs at ejaculation, but also happens throughout passage through the oviduct. In the present study we tested whether the specific response of boar sperm subpopulations to bicarbonate, as assessed by motility activation, is altered with the duration of storage in vitro. Three ejaculates from each of seven boars were diluted in Beltsville thawing solution and stored at 17°C. Only minor changes in the parameters of diluted semen were revealed over a period of 72h storage. For assessment of bicarbonate responses, subsamples of diluted spermatozoa were centrifuged through a discontinuous Percoll gradient after 12, 24 and 72h storage. Subsequently, spermatozoa were incubated in two Ca2+-free variants of Tyrode's medium either without (TyrControl) or with (TyrBic) 15mM bicarbonate, and computer-aided sperm analysis motility measurements were made. Cluster analysis of imaging data from motile spermatozoa revealed the presence of five major sperm subpopulations with distinct motility characteristics, differing between TyrBic and TyrControl at any given time (Pfunction in both media, bicarbonate induced an increase in a 'fast linear' cohort of spermatozoa in TyrBic regardless of storage (66.4% at 12h and 63.9% at 72h). These results imply a binary pattern in response of sperm motility function descriptors to storage: although the quantitative descriptor (percentage of motile spermatozoa) declines in washed semen samples, the qualitative descriptor (percentage of spermatozoa stimulated into fast linear motion by bicarbonate) is sustained

  8. Genomics and systems biology of boar taint and meat quality in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Kogelman, Lisette JA; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    to enable optimized breeding strategies as alternative to castration. Male pigs with different genetic merit of BT were selected and tissue from liver and testes were subjected to transcriptomic profiling by stranded paired end RNA-Seq which produced ~30 mio. reads per sample. The reads were subjected......Boar taint (BT) is an offensive odour or taste of cooked porcine meat which may occur in entire male pigs due to skatole and androstenone accumulation in the adipose tissue. To avoid BT, surgical castration of young piglets is performed but castration is undesirable due to animal welfare concerns...

  9. Genetic trends of conformation traits and genetic correlations to osteochondrosis in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasmundstad, T; Gjerlaug-Enger, E; Grindflek, E; Vangen, O

    2014-07-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the heritabilities and genetic correlations between traits from a linear exterior assessment system and osteochondrosis (OC) measured by computed tomography (CT), and in addition, to study the genetic trend in a population where the conformation traits have been included in the breeding goal. The data material consisted of phenotypes from a total of 4571 Norsvin Landrace test boars. At the end of the test period, all boars were subjected to a detailed exterior assessment system. Within 10 days of the assessment, the boars were CT scanned for measuring OC. The total score of osteochondrosis (OCT), used in this study, is the sum of phenotypes from the assessment on the medial and lateral condyles at the distal end of both the humerus and the femur of the right and the left leg of the boar based on images from CT. The exterior assessment traits included in the study were; 'front leg knee' (FKNE), 'front leg pasterns' (FPAS), 'front leg stance' (FSTA), 'front leg twisted pasterns' (FFLK), 'hind leg stance', 'hind leg pasterns' (HPAS), 'hind leg standing under' (HSTU), 'hind leg small inner toe', 'dipped back', 'arched back' (ARCH) and 'waddling hindquarters' (WADL). The estimation of (co)variance components and breeding values were performed using bivariate animal genetic models. Breeding values for HSTU, HPAS, FPAS, WADL and OCT traits were additional outputs from the same bivariate analyses. The lowest heritability was found for FFLK (h 2 FFLK=0.05), whereas FPAS was estimated to have the highest heritability (h 2 FPAS=0.36), and OCT demonstrating a heritability of 0.29. Significant genetic correlations were found between several traits; the strongest correlation was between FSTA and FFLK (0.94), which was followed by the correlation between FPAS and FKNE (0.69). The traits ARCH and FSTA had significant genetic correlations to OCT, whereas all other genetic correlations between OCT and the conformation traits were low and

  10. Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leifer, I; Hoffmann, B; Höper, D

    2010-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) has caused significant economic losses in industrialized pig production, and is still present in some European countries. Recent CSF outbreaks in Europe were mainly associated with strains of genogroup 2 (subgroup 2.3). Although there are extensive datasets regarding 2.......3 strains, there is very little information available on longer fragments or whole classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genomes. Furthermore, there are no detailed analyses of the molecular epidemiology of CSFV wild boar isolates available. Nevertheless, complete genome sequences are supportive...

  11. Semen characteristics and libido in boars treated repeatedly with PGF2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estienne, M J; Harper, A F

    2004-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of repeated injections of PGF2alpha (Lutalyse; Pfizer) on semen and libido characteristics in terminal-line boars. Semen was collected once weekly from wk 0 to 15 and on four consecutive days during wk 16. Boars received an i.m. injection of 10 mg of PGF2alpha (n = 11) or 2 mL of vehicle (n = 11) immediately before entering the collection room. For the weekly collections, semen volume (220.3 +/- 3.2 mL; mean +/- SE), gel weight (38.7 +/- 0.7 g), total sperm cells (65.4 +/- 1.2 billion), motile sperm cells (67.4 +/- 0.6 %), and sperm velocity (125.9 +/- 1.2 microm/s), were affected by time (P 0.10). Sperm concentration (0.31 +/- 0.01 billion/mL) was not affected (P > 0.10) by time or treatment. The percentage of morphologically normal sperm cells, assessed at wk 16, did not differ (P = 0.39) between groups (80.8 +/- 1.0). Libido was evaluated from wk 0 to 16. There were no effects of treatment or time (P > 0.10) on the period from injection to the start of ejaculation (225.6 +/- 9.1 s). Duration of ejaculation was affected by treatment (P 0.10). The period from injection to the start of ejaculation tended to decrease (by 44%) during the intensive collection period in PGF2alpha-treated boars, but not in controls (treatment x time, P = 0.07). Regardless, the period from injection to the start of ejaculation did not differ (P = 0.63) between groups on d 4 of the intensive collection period. Duration of ejaculation was affected by treatment (P 0.10). Overall, there were no exceptional positive or negative effects of long-term treatment with PGF2alpha on semen characteristics and libido in boars.

  12. Gene co-expression networks and profiles reveal potential biomarkers of boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Skinkyté-Juskiené, R.; Do, D. N.

    Boar taint (BT) is an offensive odour or taste of porcine meat which may occur in entire male pigs due to skatole and androstenone accumulation. To avoid BT, castration of young piglets is performed but this strategy is under debate due to animal welfare concerns. The study aimed to reveal...... potential BT biomarkers for optimized breeding. Male pigs (n=48) with low, medium and high genetic merit of BT were selected and tissues from liver and testis were subjected to transcriptomic profiling by RNA-Seq. The reads were mapped to the Sus scrofa reference genome (Ensembl, ver. 79) which resulted...

  13. Influence of dietary amino acid level on chemical body composition and performance of growing-finishing boars of two sire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Caroline; Berk, Andreas; Müller, Simone; Weber, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    There is only little information available concerning the chemical body composition of growing-finishing boars. For that reason, a total of 26 entire male pigs (boars) of two different Piétrain sire lines were fed with different levels of dietary essential amino acids (EAA) and the influence of this treatment on performance and chemical body composition was evaluated. In addition, an initial group of eight boars (n = 4 per sire line) was slaughtered at approximately 21 kg live weight (LW). The other 26 boars were fed three different diets containing 11.5, 13.2 and 14.9 g lysine/kg during the grower period and 9.0, 10.4, 11.7 g lysine/kg during the finisher period, respectively. Other EAA were added in relation to lysine (Lys: Met + Cys: Thr: Trp: Val = 1: 0.60: 0.65: 0.18: 0.75). At a LW of approximately 122 kg these 26 boars (six groups with three to seven animals each) were also slaughtered. The effects of EAA level and sire line on fattening and slaughter performance was recorded, and body and weight gain composition were analysed. There were no significant effects of EAA level on performance or on chemical body composition. Boars sired with Piétrain line 1 demonstrated increased lean meat content and protein body content (p < 0.05) as compared to Piétrain line 2-sired boars.

  14. Anticipated changes in the emissions of green-house gases and ammonia from pork production due to shifts from fattening of barrows towards fattening of boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Berk, Andreas; Otten, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gases and of ammonia emissions from pork production will change when fattening of barrows switches towards to fattening of (intact) boars. The results of an accurate feeding experiment allow for the differentiation of the effects on emissions of gender (differentiating in boars, barrows...... effect of increased numbers of animals produced. The fattening of intact boars as compared to barrows is associated with a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and of ammonia per animal. For ammonia, all scenarios result in reduced emissions, most markedly when this shift is combined with increased...

  15. Genome-wide SNP analysis reveals recent genetic introgression from domestic pigs into Northwest European wild boar populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, D.J.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Hooft, van W.F.; Herrero-Medrano, J.; Lutz, W.; Alexandri, P.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Wieren, van S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2013-01-01

    Present-day genetic introgression from domestic pigs into European wild boar has been suggested in various studies. However, no hybrids have been identified beyond doubt mainly because available methods were unable to quantify the extent of introgression and rule out natural processes. Genetic

  16. Survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat juice of wild boar (Sus scrofa in several districts of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Račka

    2015-05-01

    The obtained results indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars can carry an important risk of toxoplasma infection. Post mortem detection of antibodies in meat juice samples using ELISA is a useful alternative to blood serum examination. In addition, a diaphragm sample has been well-proven as a matrix sample for the contemporaneous diagnostics of trichinellosis and toxoplasmosis.

  17. The first report on Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Jeníková, Martina; Kváč, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 184, 2/4 (2012), 122-125 ISSN 0304-4017 Grant - others:Mšk(CZ) 6007665806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cryptosporidium suis * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II * Eurasian wild boar * SSU * PCR Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012

  18. Five Years Seroprevalence Study of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Lithuanian Pig and Wild Boar Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevičius Arunas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Serological study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection in pigs and wild boars was conducted in Lithuania between 2009 and 2013. Antibody level was measured using a commercial ELISA. The 4.32% (95% CI 3.92-4.72 out of 9856 examined porcine sera were positive for the PRRSV antibodies. The antibodies were detected in 11.82% (95% CI 10.28-13.36 of all investigated serum samples of sows and gilts. As much as 8.2% of serologically positive samples (95% CI 6.83-9.57 were determined in the piglets under three months of age. Considerably smaller (P < 0.05 seroprevalence was detected in boars (0.62% and fattening pigs (1.84%. From 1357 examined sera of wild boar, collected between 2009 and 2013 hunting seasons, 5.38% (95% CI 4.52-8.2 of samples were positive for PRRSV antibodies in 23 locations out of 50 investigated. The analysis of seroprevalence in different age groups of wild boars showed that PRRSV antibodies were detected in all age groups; however, it was significantly higher in adults than in juveniles or subadults and reached up to 10.02% (95% CI 7.39-12.65.

  19. [Occurrence and geographical distribution of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in wild boars of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany (2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Nicolai; Borgwardt, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) may cause acute hepatitis in humans. In industrialised countries, acute hepatitis E generally occurs only sporadically. However, in recent years an increase in the number of reported cases has been observed. Concerning autochthonous, non-travel-associated cases, a zoonotic transmission, particularly from the animal reservoirs of domestic pig and wild boar, and via undercooked meat is assumed. Meanwhile, HEV has been detected in domestic pig holdings as well as in wild boars in many regions of the world, including Europe and Germany. The samples from wild boars in the German investigations usually originated from different sub-regions with relatively small sample sizes per region--with no samples stemming from the territory of the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt. Therefore, in 2011 330 blood samples from wild boars were examined serologically for antibodies to HEV, genotype 3, in Saxony-Anhalt. An average seroprevalence of 33% and a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of positive samples with statistically significant clusters in the southwest and east of the state territory were found.

  20. Wild boars from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic and Japan possess intact mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Ingrid-Maria; OkumuRA, N; Uenishi, H

    2015-01-01

    The two-nucleotide deletion recently detected in the mannose-binding lectin 2 gene in purebred and crossbred domestic pigs was not found among 68 wild boars representing 4 populations from Europe and Asia. This suggests that the deletion is a result of breeding and/or genetic drift/bottle necks....

  1. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health.

  2. Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, W L; Fernández-Llario, P; Benítez-Medina, J M; Cerrato, R; Cuesta, J; García-Sánchez, A; Gonçalves, P; Martínez, R; Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Serrano, E; Gómez, L; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2013-07-01

    Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population. The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detrimental Effects of Non-Functional Spermatozoa on the Freezability of Functional Spermatozoa from Boar Ejaculate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alborcia, Maria J.; Valverde, Anthony; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Roca, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of non-functional spermatozoa on the cryopreservation success of functional boar spermatozoa was evaluated. Fifteen sperm-rich ejaculate fractions collected from five fertile boars were frozen with different proportions of induced non-functional sperm (0 –native semen sample-, 25, 50 and 75% non-functional spermatozoa). After thawing, the recovery of motile and viable spermatozoa was assessed, and the functional of the spermatozoa was evaluated from plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation upon exposure to capacitation conditions. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the plasma membrane was assessed by the indirect measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) generation. The normalized (with respect to a native semen sample) sperm motility (assessed by CASA) and viability (cytometrically assessed after staining with Hoechst 33342, propidium iodide and fluorescein-conjugated peanut agglutinin) decreased (pspermatozoa in the semen samples before freezing decreased, irrespective of the semen donor. However, the magnitude of the effect differed (pspermatozoa of semen samples with a high proportion of non-functional spermatozoa before freezing were also functionally different from those of samples with a low proportion of non-functional spermatozoa. These differences consisted of higher (pspermatozoa in the semen samples before freezing negatively influence the freezability of functional spermatozoa. PMID:22567165

  4. Hyaluronic acid delays boar sperm capacitation after 3 days of storage at 15 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, M; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Sancho, S; Garcia-Gil, N; Badia, E; Bassols, J; Pruneda, A; Bussalleu, E; Casas, I; Bonet, S

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of the addition of hyaluronic acid (HA), ranged from 12.5 to 200 microg/ml, on boar sperm capacitation status during a storage time (up to 3 days) at 15 degrees C in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS). The raw extender was the negative control whereas different concentrations of caffeine (CAF), ranged from 0.25 to 8mM, served as positive controls. Sperm viability, motility, morphology, and osmotic resistance were also determined before and after assessing the treatments. Samples were obtained from 28 healthy and post-pubertal Piétrain boars and sperm parameters were tested immediately after the addition of treatments and after 1, 2 and 3 days of refrigeration at 15 degrees C. Sperm capacitation status was determined by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining and sperm viability by means of a multiple fluorochrome-staining test. Sperm motility and morphology were assessed using phase-contrast microscopy accompanied by a computer assisted sperm analysis system (CASA). Whereas HA delayed sperm capacitation, CAF increased the frequency of capacitated spermatozoa after 2 days of cooling. Moreover, HA did not modify other sperm parameters, such as sperm velocity, whereas CAF increased progressive motility during the first 2 days of cooling and then decreased. It can be concluded that the addition of HA at 50 and 100 microg/ml to the BTS extender may delay sperm capacitation after 3 days of cooling.

  5. Effects of centrifugation through three different discontinuous Percoll gradients on boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matás, C; Vieira, L; García-Vázquez, F A; Avilés-López, K; López-Úbeda, R; Carvajal, J A; Gadea, J

    2011-08-01

    In this study, different combinations of 2-step, discontinuous gradient centrifugation were used, consisting of three different combinations of isotonic Percoll (45/60, 60/75 and 45/90%) that allowed us to select different sperm subpopulations from fertile and normozoospermic boars. Our objective in this study is to evaluate the effects of centrifugation through three different discontinuous Percoll gradients on sperm function parameters (motility, viability, morphology, acrosome status, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, ROS generation, tyrosine phosphorylation and intracellular calcium concentration) and the sperm penetrating capacity in an IVF system. All the Percoll treatments evaluated increased the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology, the proportion of un-damaged DNA, normal chromatin condensation, motion parameters measured by CASA and the percentage of capacitated spermatozoa with tyrosine phosphorylated proteins compared to control group. Finally, the in vitro oocyte penetrating capacity of boar spermatozoa was significantly affected by Percoll centrifugation. All the Percoll treatments increased the penetration rates and mean number of sperm per penetrated oocyte. Despite the efficiency of all three of the sperm treatments tested in selecting spermatozoa with improved sperm parameters and capacity to penetrate oocytes in vitro, the optimum performance of this system was demonstrated after preselecting spermatozoa by centrifugation on a discontinuous 45/90 Percoll gradient. The P45/90 treatment leads to obtain a higher percentage of spermatozoa which develop properly the capacitation process as it was shown measuring tyrosine phosphorylation and intracellular calcium concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The fecal microbiota composition of boar Duroc, Yorkshire, Landrace and Hampshire pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingping Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbial diversity, we performed a structural survey of the fecal microbiota of four purebred boar pig lines: Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire, and Yorkshire. Methods The V3–V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced. Results A total of 783 operational taxonomic units were shared by all breeds, whereas others were breed-specific. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated the majority of the fecal microbiota; Clostridia, Bacilli, and Bacteroidia were the major classes. Nine predominant genera were observed in all breeds and eight of them can produce short-chain fatty acids. Some bacteria can secrete cellulase to aid fiber digestion by the host. Butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acid levels were highest in Landrace pigs, whereas acetic and propionic acid were highest in the Hampshire breed. Heatmap was used to revealed breed-specific bacteria. Principal coordinate analysis of fecal bacteria revealed that the Landrace and Yorkshire breeds had high similarity and were clearly separated from the Duroc and Hampshire breeds. Conclusion Overall, this study is the first time to compare the fecal microbiomes of four breeds of boar pig by high-throughput sequencing and to use Spearman’s rank correlation to analyze competition and cooperation among the core bacteria.

  7. First description of PVL-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in wild boar meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Britta; Fetsch, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne pathogen due to the ability of enterotoxigenic strains to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is also an important pathogen for humans, causing severe and hard to treat diseases in hospitals and in the community due to its multiresistance against antimicrobials. In particular, strains harbouring genes encoding for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin are of concern from a public health perspective as they are usually capable of causing severe skin and soft tissue infections (sSSTIs) and occasionally necrotizing pneumonia which is associated with high mortality. This is the first report on the detection of MRSA with genes encoding for PVL in wild boar meat. Among the 28 MRSA isolated from wild boar meat in the course of a national monitoring programme in Germany, seven harboured PVL-encoding genes. Six of the isolates were identical according to the results of spa-, MLST-, microarray- and PFGE-typing. They could be assigned to the epidemic MRSA clone USA300. Epidemiological investigations revealed that people handling the food were the most likely common source of contamination with these MRSA. These findings call again for suitable hygienic measures at all processing steps of the food production chain. The results of the study underline that monitoring along the food chain is essential to closely characterise the total burden of MRSA for public health. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effect of climate on the seminal characteristics of boars in a region of humid tropical forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao Restrepo, Guillermo; Trujillo Aramburo, Luis Emilio; Buritica Henao, Maria Elizabet; Sierra Perez, Carlos Ignacio; Correa Londono, Guillermo; Gonzalez Boto, Oscar Domingo

    2004-01-01

    In a region of humid tropical forest, ten boars of from 12 to 24 months of age were selected to evaluate the effect of climatic variables measured on the day of semen collection and for each of preceding 45 days. On seminal characteristics, the variability of each characteristic was separated into an intra individual component and an interindividual component, using maximum likelihood estimators (PROC VARCOMP of SAS). In order to relate the seminal characteristics with the climatic variables, morphological abnormalities were grouped according to the affected spermatic region, into head. Midsection and main section abnormalities; the other characteristics were evaluated without any modification. Possible correlations between seminal characteristics and climatic variables were evaluated. In a total of 298 ejaculates collected weekly during a period of 30 weeks, except for total volume and morphological abnormalities. The seminal characteristics presented low or moderate intra and interindividual variation and were similar to those found in other latitudes, with a tendency to present greater seminal volumes and concentrations maximum temperature minimum temperature. Range among temperatures. Relative humidity and precipitation of the day of the semen collection and on each of the preceding 45 days had low effects on the seminal characteristics. It is possible that the boars in warm humid tropical areas develop a high level of adaptation that permits an adequate testicular thermoregulation that favors the spermatogenic function of the seminiferous tubules in a way that does not perceptibly affect production the seminal quality

  9. Metabolic incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into boar spermatozoa lipids and de novo formation of diacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichnyy, Valentin; Müller, Peter; Pomorski, Thomas G; Schulze, Martin; Schiller, Jürgen; Müller, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in the maturation, viability and function of sperm cells. In this study, we examined the neutral and polar lipid composition of boar spermatozoa by thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry. Main representatives of the neutral lipid classes were diacylglycerols containing saturated (myristoyl, palmitoyl and stearoyl) fatty acyl residues. Glycerophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphatidylethanolamine with alk(en)yl ether residues in the sn-1 position and unsaturated long chained fatty acyl residues in sn-2 position were identified as the most prominent polar lipids. The only glycoglycerolipid was sulfogalactosylglycerolipid carrying 16:0-alkyl- and 16:0-acyl chains. Using stable isotope-labelling, the metabolic incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids was analysed. Boar spermatozoa incorporated hexadecenoic (16:1), octadecenoic (18:1), octadecadienoic (18:2) and octadecatrienoic (18:3) acids primarily in the diacylglycerols and glycerophosphatidylcholines. In contrast, incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) was not detected. The analysis of molecular species composition subsequent to the incorporation of exogenous [(14)C]-octadecadienoic acid suggests two pathways for incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into glycerophosphatidylcholine: (1) de novo synthesis of glycerophosphatidylcholine via the CDP-choline pathway and (2) reacylation of lysophosphatidylcholine via an acyltransferase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The anatomic surgical arterial segmentation of the kidney in wild boar (Sus scrofa

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    Elizângela Falcão Vale

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty pairs of kidneys of wild boar (Sus scrofa were studied from adult males, with permission from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment (Process nº 02001.003237/05, aiming to characterize the vasculature and anatomic surgical segmentation. The arteries of these kidneys were injected with red pigment and subsequently submitted to acid corrosion in order to identify the renal arterial vascular pattern, particularly its divisions and distribution. The results reveal the sectorial branches of the renal arteries, two in number (cranial and caudal; the sectorial arteries provide the segmentary branches to the dorsal and ventral portions of the kidney; in the right kidney, the segmentary branches are 2-6 in the cranial sector and 3-7 in the caudal sector. In the right kidney, the segmentary branches are 3-7 and 2-7 in the same respective sectors; the vascular arterial symmetry (25% between the right and left kidney in the animals is evident. There are 3 arterial anatomic surgical segments on both kidneys. On the basis of the distribution of the sectorial and segmentary arteries, it is possible to accomplish setorectomy and segmentectomy on the kidneys of the wild boar, with functional aspects such as species preservation and animal experimental modeling.

  11. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Main Porcine Infectious Pathogens in Wild Boars in Some Regions of Russia

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    BABORENKO, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of testing 107 serum samples from wild boars (Sus scrofa L., 1758 for thepresence of antibodies to six economically significant porcine infectious disease agents (porcinereproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV, swine influenza virus(SIV of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes, Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV, porcine transmissiblegastroenteritis virus (TGEV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are presented in the paper. Wild boarwere sampled in seven regions of Russia for diagnostic purposes. The obtained results showed thepresence of antibodies to ADV in 32.5% of samples (83/27, to PPV – in 62% of samples (92/57, toMycoplasma hyopneumoniae – in 52% of samples (98/51. All samples were seronegative to PRRSvirus (107/0, TGEV (91/0 and SIV of H1N1 (89/0 and H3N2 (58/0 subtypes. The researchesdemonstrated the extensive circulation of porcine parvovirus, Aujeszky’s disease virus andMycoplasma hyopneumoniae among Wild boar in some regions of Russia.

  12. Regulation of Porcine Hepatic Cytochrome P450 — Implication for Boar Taint

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    Martin Krøyer Rasmussen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP450 is the major family of enzymes involved in the metabolism of several xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Among substrates for CYP450 is the tryptophan metabolite skatole (3-methylindole, one of the major contributors to the off-odour associated with boar-tainted meat. The accumulation of skatole in pigs is highly dependent on the hepatic clearance by CYP450s. In recent years, the porcine CYP450 has attracted attention both in relation to meat quality and as a potential model for human CYP450. The molecular regulation of CYP450 mRNA expression is controlled by several nuclear receptors and transcription factors that are targets for numerous endogenously and exogenously produced agonists and antagonists. Moreover, CYP450 expression and activity are affected by factors such as age, gender and feeding. The regulation of porcine CYP450 has been suggested to have more similarities with human CYP450 than other animal models, including rodents. This article reviews the available data on porcine hepatic CYP450s and its implications for boar taint.

  13. DNA Detection Reveals Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Shedding Routes in Its Wildlife Reservoir the Eurasian Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasona, J A; Torres, M J; Aznar, J; Gortázar, C; Vicente, J

    2017-06-01

    Since the intensity and frequency of pathogen shedding by hosts determine the probability of infection through direct and indirect contact, the shedding characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in the key host reservoir in Iberia, the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), is crucial. We aimed (i) to describe the natural shedding routes of MTC in free-ranging wild boar by a new semi-automated PCR method and (ii) to determine the association of MTC shedding pattern with tuberculosis (TB) progression and individual factors. MTC shedding (by any of the possible routes) was detected in a total of 30.8% (±7.5) out of the sampled individuals with valid or interpretable test results (n = 39). The proportion of TB-positive shedders according to the route was 13.6% (±7.5) for oral swabs, 4.5% (±4.5) for nasal swabs, 4.5% (±4.4) for faecal swabs and 13.6% (±7.5) for individuals being positive to all swabs concomitantly. The probability of shedding mycobacteria (by any route) statistically associated with TB generalization, and the TB score was significantly higher in individuals testing positive to at least one route compared to negatives. Overall, a diversity of shedding routes in wild boar is possible, and it is remarkable that for the first time, the faecal shedding is confirmed for naturally infected wild boar. Our results are consistent with the role wild boar plays for TB maintenance in host communities and environments in Iberia and confirm that it is an important source of mycobacteria infection by different routes. Finally, we evidenced the use of a new PCR technique to detect MTC DNA in excretions can be practical and defined the target routes for sampling wild boar shedding in future studies, such as interventions to control TB in wild boar that can be measured in terms of impact on mycobacteria excretion and transmission (i.e. vaccination). © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs.

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    Markus Drag

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS were slaughtered at ~100 kg. Gene expression profiles were obtained by RNA-Seq, and genotype data were obtained by an Illumina 60K Porcine SNP chip. Following quality control and filtering, 10,545 and 12,731 genes from liver and testis were included in the eQTL analysis, together with 20,827 SNP variants. A total of 205 and 109 single-tissue eQTLs associated with 102 and 58 unique genes were identified in liver and testis, respectively. By employing a multivariate Bayesian hierarchical model, 26 eQTLs were identified as significant multi-tissue eQTLs. The highest densities of eQTLs were found on pig chromosomes SSC12, SSC1, SSC13, SSC9 and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits curated by the Animal Genome PigQTL database to be significantly overlapped by the genomic coordinates of cis-acting eQTLs. Finally, a subset of 35 cis-acting eQTLs overlapped with known boar taint QTL traits. These eQTLs could be useful in the development of a DNA test for boar taint but careful monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection.

  15. Spatio-temporal Analysis of African Swine Fever in Sardinia (2012-2014): Trends in Domestic Pigs and Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, I; Rodríguez, A; Feliziani, F; Rolesu, S; de la Torre, A

    2017-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable viral disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boars that has been endemic in Sardinia since 1978. Several risk factors complicate the control of ASF in Sardinia: generally poor level of biosecurity, traditional breeding practices, illegal behaviour in movements and feeding of pigs, and sporadic occurrence of long-term carriers. A previous study describes the disease in Sardinia during 1978-2013. The aim of this study was to gain more in-depth knowledge of the spatio-temporal pattern of ASF in Sardinia during 2012 to May 2014, comparing patterns of occurrence in domestic pigs and wild boar and identifying areas of local transmission. African swine fever notifications were studied considering seasonality, spatial autocorrelation, spatial point pattern and spatio-temporal clusters. Results showed differences in temporal and spatial pattern of wild boar and domestic pig notifications. The peak in wild boar notifications (October 2013 to February 2014) occurred six months after than in domestic pig (May to early summer 2013). Notifications of cases in both host species tended to be clustered, with a maximum significant distance of spatial association of 15 and 25 km in domestic pigs and wild boars, respectively. Five clusters for local ASF transmission were identified for domestic pigs, with a mean radius and duration of 4 km (3-9 km) and 38 days (6-55 days), respectively. Any wild boar clusters were found. The apparently secondary role of wild boar in ASF spread in Sardinia could be explained by certain socio-economic factors (illegal free-range pig breeding or the mingling of herds. The lack of effectiveness of previous surveillance and control programmes reveals the necessity of employing a new approach). Results present here provide better knowledge of the dynamics of ASF in Sardinia, which could be used in a more comprehensive risk analysis necessary to introduce a new approach in the eradication strategy. © 2015

  16. Distribution and numbers of the wild boar population in south eastern Poland

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    Fonseca, C.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available By using both plot sampling and line intercept snow track index, the population density and numbers of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains and Bieszczady Foothills was estimated during February 2000. The total number of wild boar inhabiting the study area (140.4 thousands ha of forest was equal to 655 animals with an average population density of 4.66 wild boar per 1000 ha, ranging from 0.0 (Forest Districts of Cisna and Wetlina to 23.21 individuals/1000 ha (Krasiczyn Forest District. The low density of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains is caused by the high wolf prédation and overharvest rate. The recomendation is to stop wild boar hunting in Bieszczady Mountains during the next 4 hunting seasons, and to use the harvest rate equal to 30% of the population size in February.

    [fr]
    En février 2000, nous avons estimé la densité de population et le nombre de sangliers sauvages dans les montagnes Bieszczady et les collines Bieszczady. Pour cela, un index des empreintes sur la neige interceptant une ligne ainsi que des parcelles d'échantillonage ont été utilisées. Le nombre total de sangliers habitant dans la zone d'étude -140.400 ha de forêts- s'élevait à 655 animais; la densité moyenne de population était de 4,66 sangliers sauvages par 1000 ha, chiffre oscillant entre 0,0 (Districts Forestiers de Cisna et Wetlina et 23,21 individus par 1000 ha (District de Krasiczyn. La très basse densité de sangliers sauvages dans les Montagnes Bieszczady est sans doute la conséquence de la forte prédation par le loup et de la chasse importante. Les auteurs proposent d'arrêter la chasse dans les Montagnes Bieszczady durant les 4 saisons suivantes et de limiter le taux d'extraction à 30% du niveau de la population en février.
    [es]
    Durante febrero de 2000, en las montañas Bieszczady y sus estribaciones, se estimó la densidad poblacional y número de jabalíes por medio del índice de intercepción lineal de huellas en nieve

  17. Assessment of wild boar rooting on ecological and pastoral values of alpine pyrenean grasslands

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    Bueno, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar rooting is nowadays one of the main disturbances in Pyrenean alpine grasslands. Its consequences for the ecosystem are not perfectly understood yet despite alpine grasslands in the Pyrenees have an important economic role and a priority conservation interest. The ecosystem services of this habitat lay mainly on pastoral and ecological values that wild boar rooting seems to affect. In this study, we measured those ecological and pastoral values at different scales to improve our understanding of the reach of these disturbances in this sensitive ecosystem. At landscape and community scales we compare disturbed and undisturbed areas in pastoral, ecological and community maps of the study area by means of a geographic information system. At a local scale we compare ecological and pastoral values of different plant groups (based on species abundance, within and outside wild boar rootings. A preference for areas of high pastoral and intermediate ecological values was found for wild boar rooting at the landscape level. However at the community level, disturbances notably reduced pastoral and ecological values in all communities. At the local level, the ecological value of bulbs and the pastoral value of annual dicots increased within disturbances, suggesting that disturbances may favour functional group diversity. In sum, wild boar rooting affects Pyrenean alpine grasslands moderately, with higher affection to pastoral than ecological values at all levels, what should be considered for the management and preservation of these habitats since these disturbances are likely to increase.

    Las hozaduras de jabalí son una de las mayores perturbaciones actuales de los pastos supraforestales pirenaicos. Sus consecuencias para el ecosistema no están todavía perfectamente descritas, a pesar de ser uno de los hábitats de mayor interés de conservación y que juegan un importante papel en las economías locales. Los bienes y servicios que provee

  18. Detection and molecular analysis of Pseudorabies virus strains isolated from dogs and a wild boar in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana; Sozzi, Enrica; Grilli, Guido; Gibelli, Lucia Rita; Gelmetti, Daniela; Lelli, Davide; Chiari, Mario; Prati, Paola; Alborali, Giovanni Loris; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Lavazza, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo

    2015-06-12

    Aujeszky's disease (AD) is one of the most economically important diseases of farmed pigs. Wild boars can act as reservoirs and might represent a potential threat for domestic animals, including dogs. The aim of this study was to report the results of an AD survey based on the Pseudorabies virus (PRV) genome detection in samples of dogs clinically suspected of AD and of wild boars collected during four consecutive hunting seasons in the period 2010-2014. Genomic characterization was based on the partial gC sequence of the Italian strains and the comparison with those from domestic pigs and European PRV strains circulating in wild boars. The Italian PRV strains were mainly distributed into three different clusters and revealed two interesting findings. First, there was a clear distinction between the viral strains that were isolated from dogs used for hunting and subsequently traced back to wild boars and the strains that were isolated from working dogs and subsequently found to be closely related to domestic pigs. Second, the Italian epidemiological situation was found to be different from those of European countries in that the Italian situation was characterized by the presence of both the typical Italian clades 1 and 2 and supported by new patterns of aa deletions/insertions. Italian clade 1 included strains from hunting dogs and two Italian wild boars, and Italian clade 2 grouped with recent strains from dogs that were unable to hunt and domestic pigs that were related to one old reference strain (S66) and not included elsewhere. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of PRV strains are therefore necessary to improve the understanding of the distribution of the PRV clusters and their evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative immunolocalization of heat shock proteins (Hsp)-60, -70, -90 in boar, stallion, dog and cat spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, S; Galeati, G; Bernardini, C; Tamanini, C; Mari, G; Zambelli, D; Seren, E; Spinaci, M

    2008-08-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsp)-60, -70 and -90 are important testis chaperones that fulfil several functions during sperm cell maturation. In post-meiotic cells, their expression may change or may be undetectable and in some species it may be evident in mature spermatozoa. The aims of this study were to verify whether Hsp60, -70 and -90 are present in the sperm, and to compare their localization in boar, stallion, cat and dog spermatozoa by immunofluorescence. Hsp-60 immunoreactivity was detected in sperm midpiece in all the species examined. In stallion sperm, Hsp70 signal was localized in the sub-equatorial band, whereas immunoreactivity was evident on the neck of dog spermatozoa and on both neck and sub-equatorial region of cat spermatozoa. In agreement with our previous observations, a triangular fluorescent signal in the equatorial segment of fresh boar sperm was detected. Hsp90 immunoreactivity was present in different portions of sperm tail: in the midpiece of both boar and cat spermatozoa and in the neck and throughout the tail in dog and stallion spermatozoa, respectively. When capacitation and acrosome reaction were induced in boar, stallion and dog spermatozoa, no changes in both Hsp60 and -90 were recorded by either Western blot or immunofluorescence. After induction of acrosome reaction, a Hsp70 redistribution in boar spermatozoa and an increased percentage of stallion spermatozoa showing the post-acrosomal signal were observed although no changes were recorded by Western blot; in dog spermatozoa, no changes in Hsp70 were found by Western blot and immunofluorescence after capacitation and acrosome reaction.

  20. Wild boars as spore dispersal agents of ectomycorrhizal fungi: consequences for community composition at different habitat types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne-Luzon, Stav; Avidan, Yael; Weber, Gil; Migael, Hen; Bruns, Thomas; Ovadia, Ofer; Shemesh, Hagai

    2017-04-01

    The success of dispersal events depend on the organism's ability to reach and establish in a new habitat. In symbiotic organisms, establishment also depends on the presence of their symbiont partner in the new habitat. For instance, the establishment of obligate ectomycorrhizal (EM) trees outside the forest is largely limited by the presence of EM fungi in soil. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are important dispersal agents of EM fungal spores, particularly in the moderately dry Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to explore how EM fungal spores dispersed by wild boars influence the EM fungal community associated with the roots of Pinus halepensis seedlings at different habitat types. Using a greenhouse bioassay, we grew pine seedlings in two soil types: old-field and forest soils mixed with either natural or autoclaved wild boar feces. In both soils, we observed a community dominated by a few EM fungal species. Geopora (85 %) and Suillus (68 %) species dominated the forest and old-field soils, respectively. The addition of natural wild boar feces increased the abundance of Tuber species in both EM fungal communities. However, this effect was more pronounced in pots with old-field soil, leading to a more even community, equally dominated by both Tuber and Suillus species. In forest soil, Geopora maintained dominance, but decreased in abundance (67 %), due to the addition of Tuber species. Our findings indicate that wild boar feces can be an important source for EM inoculum, especially in habitats poor in EM fungi such as old-fields.

  1. Lack of polymorphism at MC1R wild-type allele and evidence of domestic allele introgression across European wild boar populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canu, Antonio; Vilaça, Sibelle T.; Iacolina, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Domestication promotes the emergence of novel phenotypic and behavioural traits in domesticated animals compared to their wild ancestors. We analysed variation at the melanocortin receptor I (MC1R) and nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1 (NR6A1) genes in European wild boar populations......, two loci which have been under strong artificial selection during domestication. These loci influence coat colour and number of vertebrae, respectively. A total of 145 wild boars were sampled throughout Europe, to evaluate frequency and spatial distribution of domestic alleles and patterns...... of hybridization between wild and domestic forms. Most of the wild boars (94%) were homozygous for the European wild-type (E+) MC1R allele. We did not observe any synonymous substitution in the European E+ allele, confirming its monomorphism even in areas known to be hotspots of wild boar genetic diversity...

  2. Epizootic and epidemiological situation of Trichinella sp. infection in Poland in 2006–2015 in view of wild boar population dynamics

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    Flis Marian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective was to evaluate the epizootic and epidemiological situation of Trichinella sp. infection in Poland between 2006 and 2015 against the dynamics of the wild boar population and its primary reservoir host.

  3. Requirement for an intact cytoskeleton for volume regulation in boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunkina, A M; Hebel, M; Waberski, D; Weitze, K F; Töpfer-Petersen, E

    2004-01-01

    Osmotically induced cell swelling triggers a chain of events leading to a net loss of major cell ions and water, resulting in cell volume recovery, a process known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In many cell types, there is an evidence that the cytoskeleton may play a role in the initial sensing and transduction of the signal of volume change. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an intact microfilament and microtubule network is required for volume response and RVD in boar sperm before and after capacitation treatment and whether addition of cytochalasin D and colchicine to the capacitation medium would affect volumetric behaviour. Capacitation is a series of cellular and molecular alterations that enable the spermatozoon to fertilize an oocyte. Cell volume measurements of washed sperm suspensions were performed electronically in Hepes-buffered saline solutions of 300 and 180 mosmol/kg. After exposure to hypoosmotic conditions, boar sperm showed initial swelling (up to 150% of initial volume within 5 min), which was subsequently partially reversed (to about 120-130% after 20 min). Treatment with cytochalasin D led to reduced initial swelling (1 micromol/l) and loss of RVD in washed sperm (1-10 micromol/l) and at the beginning of incubation under capacitating conditions (5 micromol/l). Short treatment with 500 micromol/l colchicine affected the volume regulatory ability in sperm under capacitating conditions but not in washed sperm. No significant differences in cell volume response were observed after subsequent addition of cytochalasin D and colchicine to the suspensions of sperm incubated for 3 h under capacitating conditions. However, the incubation under capacitating conditions in the presence of cytochalasin D led to improved volume regulation at the end of the incubation period (23%). The microfilament network appears to be important for volume regulation in washed boar spermatozoa while intact microtubules do not seem to be necessary for

  4. Beneficial effects of relaxin on motility characteristics of stored boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feugang, Jean M; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Juan C; Dillard, Darby S; Crenshaw, Mark A; Willard, Scott T; Ryan, Peter L

    2015-03-31

    Relaxin is detected in seminal plasma of many species and its association with sperm motility may be beneficial in some aspects of assisted reproduction. Here, we immunolocalized relaxin receptors and investigated the effects of exogenous relaxin on motility characteristics, viability, and cAMP content of boar spermatozoa after storage. Commercial doses of boar semen were obtained on the collection day (Day 0) and kept in shipping containers at room temperature for up to 4 days (Day 4). On Day 0, spermatozoa were fixed for immunofluorescence detection of relaxin receptors RXFP1 and RXFP2 (Experiment 1). Semen aliquots were taken from the same dose at Day 0, Day 1, and Day 2 (Experiment 2a), and Day 2 and Day 4 (Experiment 2b) for analyses. Alive spermatozoa were purified and incubated (1 h-37°C) with 0, 50, or 100 ng relaxin/ml (Experiment 2a) and 0, 100, or 500 ng relaxin/ml (Experiment 2b). Afterward, aliquots of each treatment group were subjected to motility (Experiments 2), viability (Experiment 3) analyses, and cAMP quantification (Experiment 4). Data (3-4 independent replicates) were statistically analyzed (ANOVA followed by pairwise comparisons) and p values less or equal to 0.05 was set for significant difference. Both RXFP1 and RXFP2 receptors were immunolocalized on the entire spermatozoon. Relaxin concentration of 100 ng/ml significantly improved the proportions of motile, progressive, and rapid spermatozoa up to Day 2. Only 500 ng relaxin/ml provided beneficial effects on Day 4. The viability of spermatozoa was not affected by relaxin (100 ng/ml) during storage, but the extent of mitochondria membrane damages was significantly decreased. Furthermore, relaxin did not affect the cAMP contents of spermatozoa during storage, in our conditions. Relaxin could be a valuable motility booster of stored- or aged-spermatozoa for assisted reproduction techniques. However, the related-intracellular signaling cascades of relaxin in boar spermatozoa remain

  5. Parasite to patient: A quantitative risk model for Trichinella spp. in pork and wild boar meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke; Havelaar, Arie; Takumi, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-16

    Consumption of raw or inadequately cooked pork meat may result in trichinellosis, a human disease due to nematodes of the genus Trichinella. In many countries worldwide, individual control of pig carcasses at meat inspection is mandatory but incurs high costs in relation to absence of positive carcasses from pigs reared under controlled housing. EU regulation 2015/1375 implements an alternative risk-based approach, in view of absence of positive findings in pigs under controlled housing conditions. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius guidelines for the control of Trichinella spp. in meat of suidae have been published (CAC, 2015) and used in conjunction with the OIE terrestrial Animal health code, to provide guidance to governments and industry on risk based control measures to prevent human exposure to Trichinella spp. and to facilitate international pork trade. To further support such a risk-based approach, we model the risk of human trichinellosis due to consumption of meat from infected pigs, raised under non-controlled housing and wild boar, using Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) methods. Our model quantifies the distribution of Trichinella muscle larve (ML) in swine, test sensitivity at carcass control, partitioning of edible pork parts, Trichinella ML distribution in edible muscle types, heat inactivation by cooking and portion sizes. The resulting exposure estimate is combined with a dose response model for Trichinella species to estimate the incidence of human illness after consumption of infected meat. Paramater estimation is based on experimental and observational datasets. In Poland, which served as example, we estimated an average incidence of 0.90 (95%CI: 0.00-3.68) trichinellosis cases per million persons per year (Mpy) due to consumption of pork from pigs that were reared under non-controlled housing, and 1.97 (95%CI: 0.82-4.00) cases per Mpy due to consumption of wild boar. The total estimated incidence of human trichinellosis attributed to

  6. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainity Batista Linhares

    Full Text Available Enzootic pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1 to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2 to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3 to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3% but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  7. Genomic selection in a pig population including information from slaughtered full sibs of boars within a sib-testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorè, A B; Buttazzoni, L; Gallo, M; Russo, V; Fontanesi, L

    2015-05-01

    Genomic selection is becoming a common practise in dairy cattle, but only few works have studied its introduction in pig selection programs. Results described for this species are highly dependent on the considered traits and the specific population structure. This paper aims to simulate the impact of genomic selection in a pig population with a training cohort of performance-tested and slaughtered full sibs. This population is selected for performance, carcass and meat quality traits by full-sib testing of boars. Data were simulated using a forward-in-time simulation process that modeled around 60K single nucleotide polymorphisms and several quantitative trait loci distributed across the 18 porcine autosomes. Data were edited to obtain, for each cycle, 200 sires mated with 800 dams to produce 800 litters of 4 piglets each, two males and two females (needed for the sib test), for a total of 3200 newborns. At each cycle, a subset of 200 litters were sib tested, and 60 boars and 160 sows were selected to replace the same number of culled male and female parents. Simulated selection of boars based on performance test data of their full sibs (one castrated brother and two sisters per boar in 200 litters) lasted for 15 cycles. Genotyping and phenotyping of the three tested sibs (training population) and genotyping of the candidate boars (prediction population) were assumed. Breeding values were calculated for traits with two heritability levels (h 2=0.40, carcass traits, and h 2=0.10, meat quality parameters) on simulated pedigrees, phenotypes and genotypes. Genomic breeding values, estimated by various models (GBLUP from raw phenotype or using breeding values and single-step models), were compared with the classical BLUP Animal Model predictions in terms of predictive ability. Results obtained for traits with moderate heritability (h 2=0.40), similar to the heritability of traits commonly measured within a sib-testing program, did not show any benefit from the

  8. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus in pigs, wild boars, roe deer, red deer and moose in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spancerniene, Ugne; Grigas, Juozas; Buitkuviene, Jurate; Zymantiene, Judita; Juozaitiene, Vida; Stankeviciute, Milda; Razukevicius, Dainius; Zienius, Dainius; Stankevicius, Arunas

    2018-02-23

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the major causes of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of HEV genotype 3 has been associated with domestic pigs and wild boar. Controversial data are available on the circulation of the virus in animals that are used for human consumption, and to date, no gold standard has yet been defined for the diagnosis of HEV-associated hepatitis. To investigate the current HEV infection status in Lithuanian pigs and wild ungulates, the presence of viral RNA was analyzed by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) in randomly selected samples, and the viral RNA was subsequently genotyped. In total, 32.98 and 22.55% of the domestic pig samples were HEV-positive using RT-nPCR targeting the ORF1 and ORF2 fragments, respectively. Among ungulates, 25.94% of the wild boar samples, 22.58% of the roe deer samples, 6.67% of the red deer samples and 7.69% of the moose samples were positive for HEV RNA using primers targeting the ORF1 fragment. Using primers targeting the ORF2 fragment of the HEV genome, viral RNA was only detected in 17.03% of the wild boar samples and 12.90% of the roe deer samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 348-nucleotide-long region of the HEV ORF2 showed that all obtained sequences detected in Lithuanian domestic pigs and wildlife belonged to genotype 3. In this study, the sequences identified from pigs, wild boars and roe deer clustered within the 3i subtype reference sequences from the GenBank database. The sequences obtained from pig farms located in two different counties of Lithuania were of the HEV 3f subtype. The wild boar sequences clustered within subtypes 3i and 3h, clearly indicating that wild boars can harbor additional subtypes of HEV. For the first time, the ORF2 nucleotide sequences obtained from roe deer proved that HEV subtype 3i can be found in a novel host. The results of the viral prevalence and phylogenetic analyses clearly demonstrated

  9. Immunoreactivity to cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the enteric nervous system of the pig and wild boar stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharko-Siembida, A; Arciszewski, M B

    2014-02-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a recently discovered peptide inducing strong anxiogenic-like effect. CART distribution and its role(s) at periphery are not well understood. Immunohistochemisty was utilized to investigate the distribution patterns of CART in the stomach of the pig and wild boar. Double immunohistochemisty was applied to elucidate whether CART-immunoreactive (IR) neuronal elements coexpress galanin, substance P (SP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). In the pig stomach, different proportions of CART-IR myenteric neurons were found in the antrum (42.3 ± 3.5%), corpus (18.0 ± 1.9%) and pylorus (33.2 ± 3.0%). CART-IR myeneric neurons were also found in the antrum, corpus and pylorus of the wild boar stomach (41.7 ± 3.2, 36.0 ± 2.2 and 35.8 ± 3.5%; respectively). In both species, none of gastric submucous neurons were CART-IR; however, CART-IR nerve fibres encircled submucous perikarya. In all portions of the pig and wild boar stomach, CART-IR nerve fibres were frequently found in the smooth muscle layer as well as in the lamina muscularis mucosae. In all regions of the pig and wild boar stomach, the expression of galanin and SP was found in CART-IR myenteric neurons and smooth muscle-supplying nerve fibres. CART/NPY coexpression was not found in the porcine stomach; however, in different regions of the wild boar stomach, subpopulations of CART-IR/NPY-IR myenteric neurons were noted. In conclusion, in this study, the existence and distribution patterns of CART in discrete regions of the pig and wild boar stomach were described in details. Colocalization studies revealed that in both animal species, a functional cooperation of CART with several neuropeptides is likely. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Assessing rates and patterns of hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canu, Antonio; Iacolina, Laura; Apollonio, Marco

    genetic marker systems and the potentiality of newly developed markers across a range of European wild boar populations. Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA alleles are by large shared between wild and domestic stocks, and the most reliable indicator of introgression is commonly considered the presence....... However, despite the availability of multiple molecular markers, with different inheritance systems and undergoing different selective pressures, the analysis on the extent and impact of introgressive hybridization in Europe remains challenging. Here we show the outcome of the application of different...... gene flow. Unlike previously used Ychromosome markers, which seem to suffer low variation, new polymorphic Y-linked microsatellites represent a promising tool to disclose the paternal contribution to gene flow, but should be tested on a larger sample of domestic and wild Sus scrofa to identify actual...

  11. A NEW MODEL OF BOAR SEMEN EVALUATION AND THE IMPACT OF CRYOGENIC FACTOR ON SPERMATIC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ZĂHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sperm evaluation is mostly used to predict fertility and freezability. Theaim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of investigating the effects of thecryogenic agent on boar spermatozoa, by identifying a set of laboratory tests for arapid and efficient evaluation of semen quality. Usual sperm analysis such as spermconcentration, motility and spermatozoa morphology are not able to show subtleabnormalities, which are having a basic role in the fertilizing ability. Moreover, itseems that other sperm characteristics, involved in the fertilizing ability, can interferewith the freezing-thawing processes, being not evaluated or maybe not known.Morphological (microscopic analysis of stained spermatozoa, functional (motilityanalysis and hypo-osmotic swelling test and chromatin integrity (Acridine OrangeTest and Comet Assay analysis were performed aiming to show the differences inspermatozoon integrity and functionality, caused by the cryogenic factor

  12. SNP data in the detection of hybridization levels between wild boar and domestic pig in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    Introgression of domestic genes into wild populations is considered to be a threat to biodiversity leading to loss of local adaptation and spread of human selected gene variants. Additionally, the contact between wild and domestic stocks can result in the transmission of infectious diseases. Thus......, a better understanding of hybridization patterns in Europe might have important implications for conservation and management of both wild populations and local breeds, as well as for the contingency of infectious diseases. Here we present the results for the analysis of 235 wild boars (WB; from 22 areas......) and 149 domestic pigs (DP; 49 from 5 commercial lines and 100 from 9 local breeds) with the Porcine SNP60 Beadchip. Principal component analysis shows a clear separation between domestic and wild populations. The network analysis concordantly identifies two main clusters (corresponding to WB and DP) but...

  13. A NEW MODEL OF BOAR SEMEN EVALUATION AND THE IMPACT OF CRYOGENIC FACTOR ON SPERMATIC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. RUSU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sperm evaluation is mostly used to predict fertility and freezability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of investigating the effects of the cryogenic agent on boar spermatozoa, by identifying a set of laboratory tests for a rapid and efficient evaluation of semen quality. Usual sperm analysis such as sperm concentration, motility and spermatozoa morphology are not able to show subtle abnormalities, which are having a basic role in the fertilizing ability. Moreover, it seems that other sperm characteristics, involved in the fertilizing ability, can interfere with the freezing-thawing processes, being not evaluated or maybe not known. Morphological (microscopic analysis of stained spermatozoa, functional (motility analysis and hypo-osmotic swelling test and chromatin integrity (Acridine Orange Test and Comet Assay analysis were performed aiming to show the differences in spermatozoon integrity and functionality, caused by the cryogenic factor.

  14. Hybridization among wild boars, local breeds and commercial breeds - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    Sus scrofa is one of the most widespread mammal species and it is heavily managed throughout its range in both its domestic and wild form. The wild boar is one of the most relevant game species in Europe but it is also considered a pest as it can produce economically important crop damages....... Hybridization with the domestic pig is known to occur in Europe, however the degree and extent of the phenomenon is not fully understood yet. Introgression is considered to be a treat to biodiversity and could lead to loss of local adaptation or introgression in the wild population of human selected genes...... gradients in variability levels among the analysed wild and domestic populations. This preliminary results will be further investigated to address the possible presence of hybrid zone(s) in Europe and the possible implications for conservation and management of both wild populations and local pig breeds...

  15. Changes in exposed membrane proteins during in vitro capacitation of boar sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.

    1990-01-01

    Exposed plasma membrane proteins were labeled with 125 I before and after incubation of boar sperm under capacitating conditions. Labeled protein profiles were compared to the ability of the sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster ova. Quantitatively, the labeled sperm membrane proteins were primarily low Mr prior to capacitation. The majority of the labeled seminal plasma protein was also low Mr. After capacitation, two new proteins (64,000 Mr and 78,000 Mr) were labeled. Sperm did not exhibit these exposed membrane proteins when incubated under noncapacitating conditions. Appearance of these proteins was not correlated to the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm. Although the 64,000 Mr protein was not consistently observed, the relative labeling of the 78,000 Mr protein was highly correlated with the ability of sperm to fuse with zona-free hamster ova. The 78,000 Mr protein may be a sperm protein involved in fusion with the egg plasma membrane

  16. Resveratrol and Epigallocatechin-3-gallate addition to thawed boar sperm improves in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadani, B; Bucci, D; Spinaci, M; Tamanini, C; Galeati, G

    2017-03-01

    Thawing is one of the most delicate process after semen cryopreservation as spermatozoa pass from a dormant metabolic stage to a sudden awakening in cellular metabolism. The rapid oxygen utilization leads to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species that can damage sperm cells, thus causing a significant decrease of fertilizing potential of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Resveratrol (Res) is a natural grape-derived phytoalexin and Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea (Camellia sinensis); both molecules are known to possess high levels of antioxidant activity. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of different concentrations of Res (0.5, 1 or 2 mM; Experiment 1) or EGCG (25, 50 or 100 μM; Experiment 2) supplementation to thawing boar semen extender on sperm quality parameters (viability and acrosome integrity) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Semen after thawing and dilution with three volumes of Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), was immediately divided in control group without antioxidants addition (CTR) and either Res or EGCG groups. Sperm viability and acrosome integrity were evaluated in CTR, Res or EGCG groups after 1 h of incubation at 37 °C. The addition of different doses of Res or EGCG to thawing extender for 1 h did not induce any effect on boar sperm viability and acrosome integrity. However, both Res and EGCG treated samples exhibited a significantly higher penetration rate compared with CTR when used for IVF. In particular the treatment with all the EGCG concentrations increased the penetration rate (P fertilization efficiency as compared to control (EGCG 25 μM: 40.3 ± 8.2 vs 26.8 ± 9.5, P fertilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  18. Cooperation improves the access of wild boars (Sus scrofa) to food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, S; Morimando, F; Capriotti, S; Ahmed, A; Genov, P

    2015-12-01

    Wild boar is a highly polycotous ungulate species, characterized by a complex and dynamical social organization based on the maintenance of long-term bonds between mother and daughters. The roots of this social organization have to be researched at the individual level, considering adaptations that improve fitness in hostile environments. We used information collected by camera-traps at artificial feeding sites, in two contrasting environments in Bulgaria (mountain habitat) and Italy (sub-Mediterranean habitat). We recorded 417 and 885 distinct groups on 7 and 11 foraging sites in Bulgaria and Italy, respectively. We computed (controlling for time range, study area and supplementary feeding site) an index of effective foraging time of the different social groups. We observed a positive and significant effect of the number of conspecifics of the same social group on the effective foraging time. The impact of the other social classes on effective foraging time is also positive, and males, yearlings, and juveniles benefited more from the presence of other social classes, while females were less affected. The access of the different social groups to foraging sites is not random. Males and yearlings play producers (i.e., search for food) and are prone to attend foraging sites before adult females and subadults, so attaining a larger foraging efficiency with respect to a situation where other groups are already present on the feeding site. Wild boars exhibit a more complex social organisation than previously believed, where cooperation prevails largely on competition. A rough division of labour is also present: yearlings, males, and juveniles use to play producers and assume a significant amount of risk determined by the presence of predators or hunters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidoreductive capability of boar sperm mitochondria in fresh semen and during their preservation in BTS extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaczarzewicz, Dariusz; Piasecka, Małgorzata; Udała, Jan; Błaszczyk, Barbara; Laszczyńska, Maria; Kram, Andrzej

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of dilution and liquid-preservation of boar sperm on oxidoreductive capability of their mitochondria. The semen was diluted with BTS extender produced from water purified by destillation or by reverse osmosis. The spermatozoa were stored over a four-day period at 16-18 degrees C. The function of sperm mitochondria was assessed using the screening cytochemical test for NADH-dependent oxidoreductases (diaphorase/NADH, related to flavoprotein). Morphological assessment of cytochemical reaction was carried out using a light microscope. The intensity of the reaction was evaluated by means of a computer image analysing system (Quantimet 600S), measuring the integrated optical density (IOD) and mean optical density (MOD) of the reaction product (formazans) occurring in the sperm midpieces. In the non-diluted semen, intensive cytochemical reaction throughout the length of the sperm midpiece was observed. Furthermore, spermatozoa with the intensive reaction displayed the high optical density values. After dilution the semen with two variants of experimental extender, and as the conservation time expired, the cytochemical reaction was less intensive. Moreover, the absence of formazan deposits in various parts of the sperm midpiece was also noted. These morphological features corresponded to low values of optical density. These findings suggest that the dilution of semen and the time of sperm preservation may be critical factors that handicap energy metabolism of sperm mitochondria. The type of water used in preparing BTS extender does not have any significant effect on the oxidoreductive capability of sperm boar mitochondria.

  20. First case of Trichinella nativa infection in wild boar in Central Europe-molecular characterization of the parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska-Zając, Ewa; Różycki, Mirosław; Chmurzyńska, Ewa; Antolak, Ewelina; Próchniak, Marek; Grądziel-Krukowska, Katarzyna; Karamon, Jacek; Sroka, Jacek; Zdybel, Jolanta; Cencek, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    The examination of wild boars gained in Poland shows for the first time occurrence of Trichinella nativa, freeze-resistant species of Trichinella in this host from the central Europe region. This finding is not only one of several cases of T. nativa invasion in wild boars all over the world but also one of the very few cases of T. nativa detected so far beyond the known boundary of occurrence of this species. The molecular characterization of discovered larvae based on analysis of partial genes: 5s rDNA-ISR and CO1 confirm the findings. Moreover, the analyzed DNA sequences of both genes present new haplotypes of T. nativa in comparison to that described previously.

  1. Genetic variability among the wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa), crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers (STRs)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Paula Viana Correa da; Lui, Jeffrey Frederico; Band, Guilherme de Oliveira; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Grossi, Selma de Fátima; Sollero, Bruna Pena; Nunes, Cleujosí da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the genetic variability among the wild boars, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers. Five genetic groups were studied. The fragments of three microsatellites developed for Sus scrofa domestica - IGF1, ACTG2 and TNFB - were amplified through PCR technique to evaluate the expected intra populacion variability (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosity, and endogamy coefficient (F IS ) within each population and inter population variability F IS , t...

  2. Is there a relationship between the chromatin status and DNA fragmentation of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2007-07-15

    In this study a radioisotope method, which is based on the quantitative measurements of tritiated-labeled actinomycin D ((3)H-AMD) incorporation into the sperm nuclei ((3)H-AMD incorporation assay), was used to assess the chromatin status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. This study also tested the hypothesis that frozen-thawed spermatozoa with altered chromatin were susceptible to DNA fragmentation measured with the neutral comet assay (NCA). Boar semen was diluted in lactose-hen egg yolk-glycerol extender (L-HEY) or lactose ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein fractions-glycerol extender (L-LPFo), packaged into aluminum tubes or plastic straws and frozen in a controlled programmable freezer. In Experiment 1, the chromatin status and DNA fragmentation were measured in fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from the same ejaculates. There was a significant increase in sperm chromatin destabilization and DNA fragmentation in frozen-thawed semen as compared with fresh semen. The proportions of spermatozoa labeled with (3)H-AMD were concurrent with elevated levels of sperm DNA fragmentation in K-3 extender, without cryoprotective substances, compared with L-HEY or L-LPFo extender. Regression analysis revealed that the results of the (3)H-AMD incorporation assay and NCA for frozen-thawed spermatozoa were correlated. Boars differed significantly in terms of post-thaw sperm DNA damage. In Experiment 2, the susceptibility of sperm chromatin to decondensation was assessed using a low concentration of heparin. Treatment of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with heparin revealed enhanced (3)H-AMD binding, suggesting nuclear chromatin decondensation. The deterioration in post-thaw sperm viability, such as motility, mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity, was concurrent with increased chromatin instability and DNA fragmentation. This is the first report to show that freezing-thawing procedure facilitated destabilization in the chromatin structure of boar spermatozoa, resulting in

  3. Serologic, molecular, and pathologic survey of pseudorabies virus infection in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verin, Ranieri; Varuzza, Paolo; Mazzei, Maurizio; Poli, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    To investigate pseudorabies-virus (PrV) -antibody and viral-DNA prevalence, we collected blood, nasal and genital swabs, and tonsillar and lymph-node tissue samples from 139 wild boars (Sus scrofa; 39 piglets, 30 juveniles, and 70 adults), during the hunting season of 2010-2011 in Tuscany, Central Italy. We performed immunohistochemistry with anti-PrV monoclonal antibodies on selected tissue samples. Forty-three of 139 (30.9%) boars were PrV-antibody positive and a 1,954-base-pair PrV-specific product was amplified from nine nasal (6.5%) and 26 genital (18.7%) swabs. Sequence analysis of PrV-positive PCR products revealed identity scores of 99-100% with Suid herpesvirus 1 strain Becker (JF797219) and confirmed the identification of PrV DNA in tested swabs. There was significantly higher antibody prevalence in adults than in juveniles and in piglets than in juveniles. The prevalence of viral DNA was significantly higher in genital swabs than in nasal specimens. The percentage of positive nasal swabs did not differ among age classes. Piglets had a higher percentage of PCR-positive genital swabs than juvenile and adult subjects (30.8% vs. 13.3% and 14.3%, respectively). Results confirmed that PrV infection is widespread in the wild boar population in the study area. The presence of anti-PrV antibodies and of the PrV virus in piglets could be related to vertical transmission of the virus. This hypothesis was also supported by a higher presence of viral genome in genital swabs than in nasal swabs. This field study supports the importance of vertical transmission of PrV, and the high prevalence of virus in genital swabs supports venereal transmission in adult feral boars.

  4. Effect of addition of coconut water (Cocos nucifera) to the freezing media on post-thaw viability of boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini-Luzardo, María; Centurión-Castro, Fernando; Alfaro-Gamboa, Militza; Aké-López, Ricardo; Herrera-Camacho, José

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this experiment were to evaluate the addition of coconut water in natura to the freezing media, compare the effect of deionized water vs filtered water of coconut over the post-thaw seminal characteristics, and evaluate the effect of the deionized water and in natura coconut water on the seminal characteristics of boar sperm at different post-thaw times. Thirty-four ejaculates were used divided in three aliquots which received one of the following treatments (T): T1, LEY (bidistilled water, lactose, and egg yolk) and LEYGO (LEY + glycerol and Orvus ET paste); T2, LEY(A) (coconut deionized water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(A); and T3, LEY(B) (in natura coconut water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(B). Samples of boar semen were frozen according to the Westendorf method, thawed at 38°C, and evaluated at three incubation times (0, 30, and 60 min). Seminal characteristics assessed were motility (Mot), acrosomal integrity (AInt), membrane integrity (MInt), and mitochondrial activity (MAct). T1 showed a higher percentage of viable sperm than T3 (Mot 36.5 vs 5.4 %, AInt 61.8 vs 41.2 %, MInt 50.4 vs 41.3 %, and MAct 56.9 vs 50.5 %). T2 kept a higher percentage of viable sperm at all incubation times. In natura coconut water showed a detrimental effect over the viability of the frozen-thawed boar semen. Deionized coconut water improved the boar semen viability post-thaw, outperforming results of in natura coconut water.

  5. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (P<0.05) amount of lipid peroxidation and increased (P<0.05) both glutathione peroxidase concentrations and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, administration of cWGRE induced increases (P<0.05) in body weight, testosterone concentrations, and spermatid populations. The results of the present study support our hypothesis that cWGRE has positive effects on male reproductive functions via suppression of ROS production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Questionnaire-Based Assessment of Wild Boar/Domestic Pig Interactions and Implications for Disease Risk Management in Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Jori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boars and domestic pigs belong to the same species (Sus scrofa. When sympatric populations of wild boars, feral pigs, and domestic pigs share the same environment, interactions between domestic and wild suids (IDWS are suspected to facilitate the spread and maintenance of several pig pathogens which can impact on public health and pig production. However, information on the nature and factors facilitating those IDWS are rarely described in the literature. In order to understand the occurrence, nature, and the factors facilitating IDWS, a total of 85 semi-structured interviews were implemented face to face among 25 strict farmers, 20 strict hunters, and 40 hunting farmers in the main traditional pig-farming regions of Corsica, where IDWS are suspected to be common and widespread. Different forms of IDWS were described: those linked with sexual attraction of wild boars by domestic sows (including sexual interactions and fights between wild and domestic boars were most frequently reported (by 61 and 44% of the respondents, respectively in the autumn months and early winter. Foraging around common food or water was equally frequent (reported by 60% of the respondents but spread all along the year except in winter. Spatially, IDWS were more frequent in higher altitude pastures were pig herds remain unattended during summer and autumn months with limited human presence. Abandonment of carcasses and carcass offal in the forest were equally frequent and efficient form of IDWS reported by 70% of the respondents. Certain traditional practices already implemented by hunters and farmers had the potential to mitigate IDWS in the local context. This study provided quantitative evidence of the nature of different IDWS in the context of extensive commercial outdoor pig farming in Corsica and identified their spatial and temporal trends. The identification of those trends is useful to target suitable times and locations to develop further ecological

  7. Spatio-temporal analysis of the progression of Aujeszky's disease virus infection in wild boar of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Nicolai; Borgwardt, Joachim; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Aujeszky's disease (AD, pseudorabies) is a notifiable disease caused by Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), also named pseudorabies virus (PrV). The study aimed at determining the occurrence and spatio-temporal trend of specific antibodies to AD virus (ADV) among wild boar of Saxony-Anhalt, a landlocked federal state situated in the western part of eastern Germany. To this end, a total of 7,209 blood samples were collected and tested from 2000 to 2011. An average seroprevalence of 6.8% was found for the entire observation period, whilst seroprevalence increased significantly between time periods January 2000-March 2009 (n = 3,605; prevalence = 4.5%) and March 2009-December 2011 (n = 3,604; prevalence = 9.1%). Spatial analysis revealed an extremely heterogenous distribution of seropositive samples with cluster formation [relative risk (RR) up to 41, P = 0.001] in the east. A comparison of spatial clusters between the aforementioned time intervals showed an expansion of the disease in the north to north-westerly direction. A test for spatial shift involving the entire territory of Saxony-Anhalt detected a spread of ADV infection in the latter direction (P = 0.079) at the average speed of 3.3 km/year. Detailed study of the distribution and spread of the disease among wild boar, including assessment of the speed of spatial spread, has not been done in the region before. Saxony-Anhalt has been officially recognised as being free of AD in domestic pigs since 1996. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalences in the wild boar population of Saxony-Anhalt and other federal states in the east of Germany, no spill-over to domestic pigs have been reported. The currently implemented monitoring will be continued in conjunction with surveillance of classical swine fever (CSF) to further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population of Saxony-Anhalt.

  8. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size.

  9. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in the wild boar (Sus scrofa: a comparison of methods applicable to hunter-harvested animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To obtain robust epidemiological information regarding tuberculosis (TB in wildlife species, appropriate diagnostic methods need to be used. Wild boar (Sus scrofa recently emerged as a major maintenance host for TB in some European countries. Nevertheless, no data is available to evaluate TB post-mortem diagnostic methods in hunter-harvested wild boar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six different diagnostic methods for TB were evaluated in parallel in 167 hunter-harvested wild boar. Compared to bacteriological culture, estimates of sensitivity of histopathology was 77.8%, gross pathology 72.2%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 66.7%, detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in tissue contact smears 55.6% and in histopathology slides 16.7% (estimated specificity was 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.4% and 100%, respectively. Combining gross pathology with stained smears in parallel increased estimated sensitivity to 94.4% (94.4% specificity. Four probable bacteriological culture false-negative animals were identified by Discriminant Function Analysis. Recalculating the parameters considering these animals as infected generated estimated values for sensitivity of bacteriology and histopathology of 81.8%, gross pathology 72.7%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 63.6%, detection of AFB in tissue contact smears 54.5% and in histopathology slides 13.6% (estimated specificity was 100% for gross pathology, PCR, bacteriology and detection of AFB in histopathology slides, 96.7% for histopathology and 94.4% for stained smears. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that surveys for TB in wild boar based exclusively on gross pathology considerably underestimate prevalence, while combination of tests in parallel much improves sensitivity and negative predictive values. This finding should thus be considered when planning future surveys and game meat inspection schemes. Although bacteriological culture is the reference test for TB diagnosis, it can generate false

  10. A 38-year study on Trichinella spp. in wild boar (Sus scrofa) of Latvia shows a stable incidence with an increased parasite biomass in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjušina, Muza; Deksne, Gunita; Marucci, Gianluca; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Jahundoviča, Inese; Daukšte, Anžela; Zdankovska, Aleksandra; Bērziņa, Zanda; Esīte, Zanda; Bella, Antonino; Galati, Fabio; Krūmiņa, Angelika; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-03-01

    Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat of different animal species. The most common source of infection for humans is meat from pigs and wild boar (Sus scrofa). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the incidence of Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar hunted in Latvia over a 38 year interval (1976 to 2013). A total 120,609 wild boars were individually tested for Trichinella spp. by trichinoscopy and, in case of negativity, by artificial digestion of 25 g muscles, in the 1976-2005 period, and by artificial digestion of 25-50 g muscles in the 2006-2013 period. Trichinella spp. larvae were identified at the species level by multiplex PCR. In the study period, the overall prevalence of infected wild boar was 2.5%. Trichinella britovi was the predominant (90%) species. The incidence of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar exhibited two different trends. From 1976 to 1987, the incidence of infected/hunted wild boar increased from 0.23% to 2.56%, then it decreased to 0.19 in 1994. Thereafter, the incidence fluctuated between 0.05% and 0.37%. A statistically significant (P Latvia increased by 4.9 times and the hunting bag by 9.7 times, with a stable incidence of Trichinella spp. in the population. It follows that the biomass of Trichinella spp. larvae and of T. britovi, in particular, increased. The incidence trends of Trichinella spp. in wild boar could be related to the role played by the snow in reducing the thermal shock and muscle putrefaction which increases the survival of the larvae in muscle tissues of carrion in the 1976-1993 period; and, in the 1997-2013 period, to the increased biomass of Trichinella spp. due to the increased carnivore populations, which are the main reservoirs of these parasites.

  11. African swine fever virus transmission cycles in Central Europe: Evaluation of wild boar-soft tick contacts through detection of antibodies against Ornithodoros erraticus saliva antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, Jana; Mur, Lina; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo; Oleaga, Ana; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2016-01-04

    African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most complex viral diseases affecting both domestic and wild pigs. It is caused by ASF virus (ASFV), the only DNA virus which can be efficiently transmitted by an arthropod vector, soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. These ticks can be part of ASFV-transmission cycles, and in Europe, O. erraticus was shown to be responsible for long-term maintenance of ASFV in Spain and Portugal. In 2014, the disease has been reintroduced into the European Union, affecting domestic pigs and, importantly, also the Eurasian wild boar population. In a first attempt to assess the risk of a tick-wild boar transmission cycle in Central Europe that would further complicate eradication of the disease, over 700 pre-existing serum samples from wild boar hunted in four representative German Federal States were investigated for the presence of antibodies directed against salivary antigen of Ornithodoros erraticus ticks using an indirect ELISA format. Out of these samples, 16 reacted with moderate to high optical densities that could be indicative of tick bites in sampled wild boar. However, these samples did not show a spatial clustering (they were collected from distant geographical regions) and were of bad quality (hemolysis/impurities). Furthermore, all positive samples came from areas with suboptimal climate for soft ticks. For this reason, false positive reactions are likely. In conclusion, the study did not provide stringent evidence for soft tick-wild boar contact in the investigated German Federal States and thus, a relevant involvement in the epidemiology of ASF in German wild boar is unlikely. This fact would facilitate the eradication of ASF in the area, although other complex relations (wild boar biology and interactions with domestic pigs) need to be considered.

  12. COOLING CURVES OF THE BOAR SEMEN DILUTED IN ACP®103 EXTENDER ADDED OF POWDERED EGG YOLK IN FIXED CONCENTRATION

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    Tatyane Bandeira Barros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of boar semen at lower temperatures might contribute to the further expansion of artificial insemination in this species. Egg yolk cryoprotectant properties have already been extensively tested on sperm cryopreservation of several species. This study aimed to test different temperature curves for the conservation of boar semen diluted with coconut milk powdered (ACP®-103 add 7% egg yolk and to verify which one better maintains sperm viability. For this, 36 ejaculates were diluted and stored at 17, 10 and 5 °C. Daily analysis of vigor and motility were performed, and on days D0, D2, and D4 semen was evaluated regarding vitality, morphology, and osmotic resistance. For the statistical analysis we performed the tests of Kruska-Wallis with Dunns post-test (nonparametric data and ANOVA and Tukey test (parametric data. The storage temperature of 10 °C was the best one   to maintain spermatic motility at appropriate levels to be used in an artificial insemination program. Analyses of viability, morphology, and hypoosmotic test did not show statistical difference among the treatments. In conclusion, the best temperature curve was 10 °C with diluted semen previously kept at 17 °C to maintain the viability of sperm cells in pigs for a longer period. Keywords: boar semen; coconut water powder; conservation; egg yolk.

  13. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

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    Artūras Šiukščius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  14. In vitro effects of nonylphenol on motility, mitochondrial, acrosomal and chromatin integrity of ram and boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, C; Varisli, O; Agca, C; Evans, T; Agca, Y

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nonylphenol (NP) on viability of ram and boar sperm in vitro. Ram or boar spermatozoa were exposed to 1, 10, 100, 250 and 500 μg NP ml(-1) for 1, 2, 3 or 4 h. Computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) system was used to evaluate sperm motility characteristics. Flow cytometry was used to determine mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and chromatin integrity, while epifluorescent microscopy was used to determine sperm acrosomal status. Exposure of both species spermatozoa to 250 and 500 μg NP ml(-1) was detrimental to progressive motility (P spermatozoa with high MMP declined drastically after exposures to ≥250 μg ml(-1) NP (P spermatozoa and 10 μg ml(-1) NP for ram spermatozoa. These data show adverse effects of NP on ram and boar spermatozoa and thus its potential harmful effects on male reproduction as NP is found in fruits, vegetables, human milk, fish and livestock products. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Post-Natal Persistent Infection With Classical Swine Fever Virus in Wild Boar: A Strategy for Viral Maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, O; Colom-Cadena, A; Muñoz-González, S; Pérez-Simó, M; Bohórquez, J A; Rosell, R; Marco, I; Domingo, M; Lavín, S; Ganges, L

    2017-04-01

    In this study, fifteen wild boar piglets were intranasally inoculated classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Catalonia 01. At 5 days post-inoculation, seven other animals within 48 h of birth were put in contact with them. Viral replication and innate and specific immune responses were evaluated. Of the inoculated animals, 46.67% remained post-natally persistently infected and were apparently healthy with neither humoral nor cellular immunological responses specific to CSFV and with high viral loads in their blood, organs and body secretions. Moreover, the present data extend the time period to 48 h after birth when a moderately virulent CSFV strain could lead to post-natal persistent infection given the generation of persistently infected wild boars in the contact group (33.33%). The innate immune response to the virus, as measured by type I IFN-α in serum, was mostly not impaired in the persistently infected wild boars. Interestingly, a decrease and lack of IFN-γ-producing cells against CSFV and PHA was observed. In endemic countries where wild swine species are increasing and low and moderate virulence CSFV strains are prevalent, the possible generation of this form of disease cannot be ruled out. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in european wild boar

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    Gortázar Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB remains a significant problem in some parts of Spain largely because of contacts between cattle and wildlife reservoirs in extensive grazing systems. European Wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of the species involved in the transmission of the disease to other species. Fast and simple detection methods would be critical for assessing infection prevalence, study the mechanisms of pathogen transmission and monitoring the effects of TB control measures. Results An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in wild boar serum was developed and validated on 185 sera from TB positive and negative wild boar. Based on antigen inoculation of captive animals as well as tuberculosis compatible lesions, culture results and molecular analysis of hunted individuals, animals were allocated into two groups: tuberculosis positive group and tuberculosis negative group. After optimization of the positive to negative ratio using different combinations of serum dilutions and conjugate concentrations, the test yielded a sensitivity of 72.60% and a specificity of 96.43% for the best cut-off. Conclusion Although some negative group animals showed an ELISA positive reaction (

  17. Genetic correlations between male reproductive traits and growth traits in growth performance tested Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breed boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiu-Luan; Lai, Yung-Yu; Wu, Ming-Che; Sasaki, Osamu

    2017-09-01

    Male-related traits at 180-225 days of age for 6464 grow-finish performance tested boars were measured from 2000 to 2016. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations among average daily gain, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, teat counts, mounting libido, leg locomotion, penile length, sperm motility, sperm concentration and total sperm counts were estimated by VCE software using a multiple traits animal model in each breed. Growth-tested boars had heritability estimates of male reproductive traits in 0.34-0.56 of teat counts, 0.12-0.20 of libido, 0.08-0.12 of locomotion, 0.17-0.58 of penile length, 0.04-0.21 of sperm motility and concentration, 0.17-0.30 of total sperm counts. Total sperm counts were genetically positively correlated with penile length in all breeds. Boars with higher total sperm counts had genetically better libido and locomotion. Genetic correlation between feed efficiency and sperm motility and feed efficiency and sperm concentration were positive in Duroc and negative in Landrace and Yorkshire. Sperm motility and concentration were genetically negatively correlated with average daily gain in Yorkshire. Male reproductive traits of imported breeds could be improved with care in the change of growth traits, especially in Yorkshire. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Effect of active immunization against GnRH on testosterone concentration, libido and sperm quality in mature AI boars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of the Improvac on testosterone concentration in blood serum, sexual behavior and sperm quality in matured AI boars. A total of nine Danish Landrace AI boars were included in the analysis. Methods The trial period lasted for 15 weeks and was divided into four periods: Control period: three weeks before vaccination; Period I – four weeks after first vaccination; Period II – four weeks after second vaccination, Period III – four weeks after third vaccination. Blood and sperm samples were collected at weekly intervals. Freshly collected sperm samples were analyzed. Results Testosterone concentration correlated with libido (r = 0.531; p < 0.001), volume of ejaculate (r = 0.324; p < 0.001) and the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa (r = 0.207; p < 0.05). Testosterone concentration rised significantly (p < 0.05) in 5–6 week of trial, e. i. after the first dose of Improvac and after this peak the level of testosterone further progressively decreased (p < 0.05). Conclusions Results from this study indicate that active immunization of sexually matured boars against GnRH has negative impact on testosterone concentration, sexual behavior, volume of ejaculate and total number of normal spermatozoa in ejaculate. PMID:22640725

  19. Attitudes of Serbian food technology students towards surgical and immunocastration of boars and their sensitivity to androstenone and skatole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasevic, I.; Đekić, I.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Aluwé, M.; Čandek-Potokar, M.; Bonneau, M.; Weiler, U.

    2017-09-01

    Various European Union pork chain actors and stakeholders agreed in 2010 on a road map to voluntarily abandon piglet castration by 1 January 2018. Because currently in Serbia, male piglets are surgically castrated and consumers are not used to the boar taint odour and flavour, the introduction of boar meat may modify the acceptability of pork. The objective of the study was to investigate the attitudes, awareness and opinions of future Serbian food technologist towards surgical castration of boars and its alternatives, and to test their sensitivity to androstenone and skatole. We found that they were concerned about the animal welfare issues and that they were willing to pay a little more for meat from animals treated with dignity. This was more so if they were females and less so if they had had a rural upbringing. They strongly believed that surgical castration is painful for the animals, but at the same time agreed that meat from castrated pigs is of better quality. Their ambiguous attitudes regarding efficacy and quality of alternatives to surgical castration clearly indicated the knowledge gap that must be filled by appropriate modifications of the curriculum. Students demonstrated average sensitivity to both androstenone and skatole. Females exhibited higher intensities of difference in both cases.

  20. Immunization against recombinant GnRH-I alters ultrastructure of gonadotropin cell in an experimental boar model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fugui; Su, Shiping; Liu, Ya; Zhang, Yunhai; Pu, Yong; Zhao, Xijie; Li, Yunsheng; Cao, Hongguo; Wang, Juhua; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Xiaorong

    2013-07-15

    Gonadotropin cell is the main responsible for the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and immunocastration reduces the concentrations of serum FSH and LH. A few studies have reported the histological structure of gonadotropin cells obtained from immunocastration animals at the light microscopy level. However, the ultrastructure of gonadotropin cells remains largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare ultrastructure of gonadotropin cell in gonadally intact boars and immunologically castrated male animals. In this study, serum and adenohypophysis tissue were collected from nine gonadally intact boars and nine male pigs treated with recombinant gonadotropin releasing hormone I (GnRH-I). Anti-GnRH-I antibodies in serum and the ultrastructure of gonadotropin cell in adenohypophysis were determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay and electron microscopy, respectively. The results demonstrated that active immunization against recombinant GnRH-I increased serum GnRH-I antibody levels (Pimmunized animals. We conclude that immunization against recombinant GnRH-I induces severe atrophy of granules in gonadotropin cell of boars, possibly reflecting GnRH-I regulation of gonadotropin cell.

  1. Lipolysis and aroma generation as mechanisms involved in masking boar taint in sodium reduced fermented sausages inoculated with Debaryomyces hansenii yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Sara; Belloch, Carmela; López-Díez, José J; Flores, Mónica

    2017-09-23

    The use of boar back fat for processing of fermented sausages may cause the presence of abnormal odours. In dry-cured products, ripening time is essential to develop the sensory characteristics. Yeast has been proposed as an alternative to mask boar taint odour through its metabolic activity but it is necessary to elucidate which mechanisms are involved. The aim is to study the effect of Debaryomyces hansenii inoculation on the lipolysis process and generation of aroma compounds in fermented sausages manufactured with boar back fat at two different ripening times. D. hansenii inoculated sausages had a higher degree of lipolysis as demonstrated by higher content of free fatty acids, ester compounds and branched aldehydes which contribute the fruity odour. The increase in lipolysis produced by D. hansenii inoculation was not followed by an increase in oxidation during processing possibly due to the metabolic activity of yeast. The effect of back fat type was scarcely appreciated whereas ripening time had a stronger effect on sausage. Boar sausages were characterised by a lower polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and lesser lipolysis than gilt sausages. Yeast inoculation with D. hansenii and long ripening time were appropriate strategies to limit the perception of boar taint in dry fermented sausages. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Sensory evaluation of boar-taint-containing minced meat, dry-cured ham and dry fermented sausage by a trained expert panel and consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, Kaat; Wauters, Jella; Vercruysse, Vicky; Aluwé, Marijke; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2017-10-15

    One of the main issues related to entire male pigs is the occurrence of boar taint, an off-odour, which compromises meat consumability. In this study, odour thresholds (indole: 24-65µgkg -1 , skatole: 44-89µgkg -1 , androstenone: 121-342µgkg -1 ) for the boar taint compounds were estimated in minced meat, dry fermented sausage and dry-cured ham. Afterwards, sensory evaluation of these products containing 10% tainted meat (minced meat and dry fermented sausage) or moderate boar taint compound levels (dry-cured ham) occurred. The beneficial effect of diluting tainted meat was demonstrated, as no significant difference in consumability was observed between gilts and 10% tainted meat by experts as well as consumers. Also dry-curing proved a promising technique for masking boar taint and preventing consumer dissatisfaction. The obtained results demonstrate the applicability of the estimated thresholds in meat as a tool for identifying masking and reducing strategies on the perception of boar taint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey of gastrointestinal parasites in wild boar (Sus scrofa, wild goat (Capra aegagrus and red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Aynaloo protected area, East Azerbaijan province

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    Roghayeh Norouzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are a threat to the wildlife by endangering the health of wild animals and serving as a source of transmission of infectious agents to livestock and humans. Despite the distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa, wild goat (Capra aegagrus and red deer (Cervus elaphus throughout the world, information on their parasitic infections is limited. Knowledge of the parasitic fauna of animals in protected areas may be used in protection of endangered species. The present study aimed to investigate the status of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in wild boar, wild goat and red deer in the Aynaloo protected area, Northwest of Kaleybar city, East Azerbaijan province. For this purpose, in spring 2015, 30 fecal samples of wild boar, 30 fecal samples of wild goat and 30 fecal samples of red deer were collected. The samples were processed using direct smear and Clayton lane floatation technique. Five species of helminths were detected from wild boar fecal samples consisting of Trichuris suis, Strongyloides suis, Physocephalus sexalatus, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus apri. Among them,  one species (Strongyloides suis was reported for the first time in Iran. Protozoa were not detected in the fecal samples of the wild boar. Wild goats were infected with Oesophagostomum columbianum, Muellerius capillaris and Eimeria spp. Respiratory larva and Eimeria spp. were detected from red deer samples.

  4. Identifying a hunter responsible for killing a hunting dog by individual-specific genetic profiling of wild boar DNA transferred to the canine during the accidental shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleimer, Anna; Frantz, Alain C; Lang, Johannes; Reinert, Phillipe; Heddergott, Mike

    2016-12-01

    While genetic profiling can be a powerful tool to solve wildlife crime, comparably few examples of individual identification in wildlife forensics are available in the literature. Here, we report a case of an accidental shooting of a hunting dog during a wild boar drive hunt. The market value of trained hunting dogs can reach several thousand euro. No one admitted to killing the dog. Wild boar hairs were found in the dog's wound, suggesting that the bullet first hit a wild boar and then the dog. Since it was known who harvested each boar, we aimed to use individual-specific genetic profiles to link these hairs to a bagged animal and to identify the culprit. We genotyped 19 harvested boar and the unknown hair sample using 13 STRs. In the case of the hair sample, we performed multiple genotyping to ensure the reliability of the genetic profile. We showed that we genotyped sufficient loci to distinguish between separate individuals with certainty. While the three most informative loci were enough to differentiate the 19 reference individuals, we did find a perfect match at all 13 STRs between the hair DNA and one tissue sample. Since our methods were reliable and reproducible, we passed the relevant information on to forestry officials who will use the information we have provided to attempt to find an amicable solution.

  5. Wild inside: Urban wild boar select natural, not anthropogenic food resources.

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    Milena Stillfried

    Full Text Available Most wildlife species are urban avoiders, but some became urban utilizers and dwellers successfully living in cities. Often, they are assumed to be attracted into urban areas by easily accessible and highly energetic anthropogenic food sources. We macroscopically analysed stomachs of 247 wild boar (Sus scrofa, hereafter WB from urban areas of Berlin and from the surrounding rural areas. From the stomach contents we determined as predictors of food quality modulus of fineness (MOF,, percentage of acid insoluble ash (AIA and macronutrients such as amount of energy and percentage of protein, fat, fibre and starch. We run linear mixed models to test: (1 differences in the proportion of landscape variables, (2 differences of nutrients consumed in urban vs. rural WB and (3 the impact of landscape variables on gathered nutrients. We found only few cases of anthropogenic food in the qualitative macroscopic analysis. We categorized the WB into five stomach content categories but found no significant difference in the frequency of those categories between urban and rural WB. The amount of energy was higher in stomachs of urban WB than in rural WB. The analysis of landscape variables revealed that the energy of urban WB increased with increasing percentage of sealing, while an increased human density resulted in poor food quality for urban and rural WB. Although the percentage of protein decreased in areas with a high percentage of coniferous forests, the food quality increased. High percentage of grassland decreased the percentage of consumed fat and starch and increased the percentage of fibre, while a high percentage of agricultural areas increased the percentage of consumed starch. Anthropogenic food such as garbage might serve as fallback food when access to natural resources is limited. We infer that urban WB forage abundant, natural resources in urban areas. Urban WB might use anthropogenic resources (e.g. garbage if those are easier to exploit and

  6. Study on the in vitro effect of zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol on boar sperm-zona pellucida interaction by hemizona assay application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, I A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Vainas, E; Boscos, C M; Kyriakis, S C; Alexopoulos, C

    2007-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (zen) impairs fertility in farm animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of zearalenone and its major metabolite (alpha-zearalenol) on boar semen binding capacity, under in vitro conditions. Extended boar semen was exposed to three different concentrations of zen and alpha-zen (40, 60 and 80 microg ml(-1) of semen) for 1 h. Afterwards, the semen was washed and incubated with homologous oocyte hemizona for 4 h. A significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the number of tightly attached spermatozoa on the hemizona was obtained at concentrations of 60 microg ml(-1) and 80 microg ml(-1) of zen and alpha-zen. In conclusion, zen and alpha-zen affected the sperm-zona interaction by reducing the ability of boar spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Novel Y-chromosome short tandem repeats in Sus scrofa and their variation in European wild boar and domestic pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Brajkovic, Vladimir; Canu, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    repeats (STRs) in Sus scrofa using the available genome sequence. We selected four polymorphic loci (5–10 alleles per locus), falling in one duplicated and two single-copy regions. A total of 32 haplotypes were found by screening 211 individuals from eight wild boar populations across Europe and five...... domestic pig populations. European wild boar were characterized by significantly higher levels of haplotype diversity compared to European domestic pigs (HD = 0.904 ± 0.011 and HD = 0.491 ± 0.077 respectively). Relationships among STR haplotypes were investigated by combining them with single nucleotide...... polymorphisms at two linked genes (AMELY and UTY) in a network analysis. A differentiation between wild and domestic populations was observed (FST = 0.229), with commercial breeds sharing no Y haplotype with the sampled wild boar. Similarly, a certain degree of geographic differentiation was observed across...

  8. Serological investigation of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicator animals for circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Peter; Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment.

  9. Genotype-Independent Transmission of Transgenic Fluorophore Protein by Boar Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Taylor, Ulrike; Herrmann, Doris; Struckmann, Christina; Klein, Sabine; Barg-Kues, Brigitte; Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Ehling, Christine; Rath, Detlef; Ivics, Zoltán; Niemann, Heiner; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we generated transposon-transgenic boars (Sus scrofa), which carry three monomeric copies of a fluorophore marker gene. Amazingly, a ubiquitous fluorophore expression in somatic, as well as in germ cells was found. Here, we characterized the prominent fluorophore load in mature spermatozoa of these animals. Sperm samples were analyzed for general fertility parameters, sorted according to X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm fractions, assessed for potential detrimental effects of the reporter, and used for inseminations into estrous sows. Independent of their genotype, all spermatozoa were uniformly fluorescent with a subcellular compartmentalization of the fluorophore protein in postacrosomal sheath, mid piece and tail. Transmission of the fluorophore protein to fertilized oocytes was shown by confocal microscopic analysis of zygotes. The monomeric copies of the transgene segregated during meiosis, rendering a certain fraction of the spermatozoa non-transgenic (about 10% based on analysis of 74 F1 offspring). The genotype-independent transmission of the fluorophore protein by spermatozoa to oocytes represents a non-genetic contribution to the mammalian embryo. PMID:22110672

  10. Effect of seminal plasma and sperm of boars valued by freezability on seminal cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Henao Uribe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sperm and seminal plasma (SP on the freezability of porcine semen. Semen of eight commercial males from two farms in the central-western region of Colombia (four boars in each farm was frozen and tested to select two males with high freezability (MHF and two with low freezability (MLF, according to the percentage of functionally competent sperm (FCS. Immediately after the collection was completed, the SP and sperm from the males selected were separated by centrifugation to combine the two types of plasma with the two types of sperm, incubate them for three hours and then freeze them. The variables evaluated were: sperm morphology, structural and functional integrity of plasmatic membrane, progressive and total motility, DNA fragmentation, acrosome integrity, capacitated sperm and FCS. The combination of sperm and plasma of MHF recorded the highest value (P<0.01 of acrosome integrity (24.3 ± 0.082 vs 6.076 ± 0.16 when compared to MLF plasma and cells. Membrane structural integrity was higher (P<0.01 with MHF (53.56 ± 0.0395 than with MLF plasma (47.49 ± 0.0419. The differences in porcine semen freezability depend on interactions between seminal plasma and sperm.

  11. Validation of the FACSCount AF system for determination of sperm concentration in boar semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.; Christensen, P.; Stryhn, H.

    2002-01-01

    Biosciences) was compared with microscopic counting using a Burker-Turk haemocytometer. In addition, sperm concentration was determined using the Corning 254 spectrophotometer which is used routinely by Danish artificial insemination stations for boars. The results show that the agreement between flow...... cytometry and microscopic counting is very high. The slope for the regression line was 1.12 (SE = 0.03) with an estimated intercept with the Y-axis of 22 x 10(6) sperm/ml (SE = 10 x 10(6) sperm/ml) and an estimated error of the model of 10 x 10(6) sperm/ml. For the spectrophotometer, the slope...... of the regression line was 1.09 (SE = 0.07) with an estimated intercept of 137 x 10(6) sperm/ml (SE = 25 x 10(6) sperm/ml). The average error made by the spectrophotometer was 55 x 10(6) sperm/ml. In addition, the results obtained using flow cytometry was highly repeatable ( CV = 2.7%) in comparison...

  12. Effects of alpha-lipoic acids on sperm membrane integrity during liquid storage of boar semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Parlapan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies have shown that sperm membrane from swine shows high sensitivity to cryopreservation process, causing a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species, that cause lipid peroxidation in sperm membranes. The aim of the present study was to minimize the oxidative attack by adding different concentration of alpha-lipoic acid into the sperm liquid storage at 17ºC for 7 days. Freshly ejaculated boar semen was diluted with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS and supplemented with 5 levels of alpha-lipoic  acid (0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mmol/ml. The membrane integrity was evaluated at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 of liquid preservation, using flow cytometer FACSCanto II (BD Biociencias systems. The experiment indicate that supplementation of alpha-lipoic  acid to the semen liquid storage extender improve sperm membrane

  13. Cryopreservation of Piau-Breed Wild Boar Sperm: Assessment of Cooling Curves and Centrifugation Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, H H; Pinho, R O; Lima, Dma; Siqueira, J B; Santos, McR; Costa, E V; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, Sef; Guimarães, J D

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of different cooling curves and centrifugation regimes used in cryopreservation protocols on the post-thaw viability of Piau-breed wild boar (Sus scrofa) sperm using in vitro assessment tests. Two centrifugations (800 g for 10 min and 2400 g for 3 min) and two cooling curves (conventional cooling using nitrogen vapour - freezing 1 and automated cooling using a programmed freezing machine - freezing 2) were tested. Therefore, the treatments were divided into M3 - centrifugation at 2400 g for 3 min and freezing 2; M10 - centrifugation at 800 g for 10 min and freezing 2; R3 - centrifugation at 2400 g for 3 min and freezing 1; and R10 - centrifugation at 800 g for 10 min and freezing 1. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between treatments occurred post-thawing regarding the total sperm motility means recorded. The mean values of the different treatments were not different from each other regarding the supravital staining (SV), hypo-osmotic test (HO), sperm-egg binding assay or sperm morphology. This study showed that both the cooling curve and the centrifugation regime affected the quality of post-thaw sperm, and centrifugation for shorter times and cooling curves using automated cooling are the most suitable for minimizing sperm injury. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: Wild boar as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, M.; Besnard, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Servanty, S.; Baubet, E.; Brandt, S.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Evolution?? 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution..

  15. Factors that Influence Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Red Deer and Wild Boar in an Epidemiological Risk Area for Tuberculosis of Game Species in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, S; Manteigas, A; Ribeiro, R; Otte, J; Fonseca, A Pina; Caetano, P; Abernethy, D; Boinas, F

    2017-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a worldwide zoonotic disease of domestic and wild animals. Eradication has proved elusive in those countries with intensive national programmes but with ongoing transmission between wildlife and cattle. In Portugal, a high-risk area for bTB was defined and specific measures implemented to assess and minimize the risk from wildlife. Data from the 2011 to 2014 hunting seasons for red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were analysed with bovine demographic and bTB information to assess factors that determined the occurrence and distribution of bTB in both species. The likelihood of bTB-like lesions in wild boar was positively associated with density of red deer, wild boar and cattle, while for red deer, only their density and age were significant factors. The likelihood of Mycobacterium bovis isolation in wild boar was associated with density of cattle and red deer and also with the anatomical location of lesions, while for red deer, none of the variables tested were statistically significant. Our results suggest that, in the study area, the role of red deer and wild boar may be different from the one previously suggested by other authors for the Iberian Peninsula, as red deer may be the driving force behind M. bovis transmission to wild boar. These findings may assist the official services and game managing bodies for the management of hunting zones, what could also impact the success of the bTB eradication programme. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Survey of [i]Toxoplasma gondii [/i]antibodies in meat juice of wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i] in several districts of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Račka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The aims of the study were: 1 to detect antibodies against T[i]oxoplasma gondii[/i] from wild boar meat; 1 establish seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the wild boar population; 3 establish risk factors concerned in higher possible seroprevalence; 4 to estimate the usefulness of meat juice for detection of [i]T. gondii[/i] antibodies in wild boar. Material and methods. Diaphragm meat juice samples from 656 wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i] were collected during the hunting seasons between September 2008 – October 2010 from 9 districts of the Czech Republic. The samples were stratified per age category into 2 groups: piglets (n = 279 and yearlings together with adults (n = 377. The in-house ELISA test was used for the detection of antibodies against [i]T. gondii [/i]from the meat juice samples. Results. Antibodies against [i]T. gondii [/i]were detected by in-house ELISA in 260 of 656 wild boars (40% with 26% prevalence in piglets (72/279 and 50% prevalence in yearlings and adults (188/377. The district total seroprevalences ranged between 32% – 59%, with a significantly higher prevalence in the district of Havlíčkův Brod (59%. Statistically significant differences (p-value < 0.05 were found between 2 age categories, and between 9 districts, with a significant variability in the district of Havlíčkův Brod. Seroprevalence correlated positively with farm density, but without any statistical significance. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars can carry an important risk of toxoplasma infection. Post mortem detection of antibodies in meat juice samples using ELISA is a useful alternative to blood serum examination. In addition, a diaphragm sample has been well-proven as a matrix sample for the contemporaneous diagnostics of trichinellosis and toxoplasmosis.

  17. Differences in seminal plasma and spermatozoa antioxidative systems and seminal plasma lipid and protein levels among boar breeds and hybrid genetic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žura Žaja, Ivona; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Vilić, Marinko; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of breed and hybrid genetic traits of boars on lipid and protein concentrations and antioxidative system variables in seminal plasma (SP) and spermatozoa and their correlations with semen quality variables. Semen samples from 27 boars: Swedish Landraces (SL), German Landraces (GL), Large Whites (LW), Pietrains (P) and Pig Improvement Company hybrids (PIC-hybrid), aged from 1.5 to 3 years old, were collected. SP was spectrophotometrically analyzed to determine total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), total protein (TP), albumin, and zinc concentrations. The antioxidative system in SP and spermatozoa was established spectrophotometrically by determining total antioxidative status (TAS), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) parameters, as well as copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in spermatozoa. The hybrid boars had higher (Pspermatozoa of: TAS and CuZnSOD than SL; TSOD and GSH-Px than SL and P; and MnSOD than SL and LW. Differences in SP and spermatozoa antioxidative system variables and the significant differences in SP protein and lipid variables exist among boars of different breeds and hybrid. Novel data and observed differences in semen variables among boar breeds and hybrids and their correlations with semen quality parameters in this study could contribute to better assessment of boar semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of game (wild boar and roe deer) in the spread of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Bohumir; Daniel, Milan; Benes, Cestmir; Maly, Marek

    2014-11-01

    In the Czech Republic, the incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been increasing over the last two decades. At the same time, populations of game have also shown an upward trend. In this country, the ungulate game is the main host group of hosts for Ixodes ricinus female ticks. This study examined the potential contribution of two most widespread game species (roe deer [Capreolus capreolus] and wild boar [Sus scrofa]) to the high incidence of TBE in the Czech Republic, using the annual numbers of culls as a proxy for the game population. This was an ecological study, with annual figures for geographical areas-municipalities with extended competence (MEC)-used as units of analysis. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 6213 TBE cases were reported, and 1062,308 roe deer and 989,222 wild boars were culled; the culls of roe deer did not demonstrate a clear temporal trend, but wild boar culls almost doubled (from 77,269 to 143,378 per year). Statistical analyses revealed a positive association between TBE incidence rate and the relative number of culled wild boars. In multivariate analyses, a change in the numbers of culled wild boars between the 25th and 75th percentile was associated with TBE incidence rate ratio of 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.41, p=0.003). By contrast, the association of TBE with culled roe deer was not statistically significant (p=0.481). The results suggest that the size of the wild boar population may have contributed to the current high levels and the rising trend in incidence of TBE, whereas the regulated population of roe deer does not seem to be implicated in recent geographical or temporal variations in TBE in the Czech Republic.

  19. Effect of ACTH and CRH on Plasma Levels of Cortisol and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite in Cycling Gilts and Castrated Boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindahl H

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of synthetic ACTH (1–24, tetracosactid and porcine CRH on the plasma levels of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in cycling gilts (n = 3 and castrated boars (n = 3. The experiments were designed as crossover studies for each gender separately. Each animal received, during three consecutive days; 1 ACTH (Synacthen® Depot at a dose of 10 μg/kg body weight in 5 ml physiological saline, 2 porcine CRH at a dose 0.6 μg/kg body weight in 5 ml physiological saline or 3 physiological saline (5 ml. The test substances were administered via an indwelling jugular cannula in randomized order according to a Latin square. The administration of ACTH to cycling gilts resulted in concomitant elevations of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite with peak levels reached at 70.0 ± 10.0 and 33.3 ± 6.7 min, respectively. Similarly, the administration of ACTH to castrated boars resulted in concomitant elevation of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite with peak levels reached at 60.0 ± 0.0 and 20.0 ± 0.0 min, respectively. Cortisol peaked at 20 min after administration of CRH in both cycling gilts and castrated boars with maximum levels of 149.3 ± 16.5 nmol/1 and 138.3 ± 10.1 nmol/1, respectively. It can be concluded that administration of synthetic ACTH (tetracosactid to pigs caused a concomitant elevation of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite levels in both cycling gilts as well as castrated boars. The administration of CRH to pigs resulted in an elevation of cortisol levels in both cycling gilts and castrated boars. Conversely, PGF2α metabolite levels were not influenced by the administration of CRH either in cycling gilts or in castrated boars.

  20. Effect of ACTH and CRH on Plasma Levels of Cortisol and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite in Cycling Gilts and Castrated Boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of synthetic ACTH (1–24, tetracosactid and porcine CRH on the plasma levels of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in cycling gilts (n = 3 and castrated boars (n = 3. The experiments were designed as crossover studies for each gender separately. Each animal received, during three consecutive days; 1 ACTH (Synacthen® Depot at a dose of 10 μg/kg body weight in 5 ml physiological saline, 2 porcine CRH at a dose 0.6 μg/kg body weight in 5 ml physiological saline or 3 physiological saline (5 ml. The test substances were administered via an indwelling jugular cannula in randomized order according to a Latin square. The administration of ACTH to cycling gilts resulted in concomitant elevations of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite with peak levels reached at 70.0 ± 10.0 and 33.3 ± 6.7 min, respectively. Similarly, the administration of ACTH to castrated boars resulted in concomitant elevation of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite with peak levels reached at 60.0 ± 0.0 and 20.0 ± 0.0 min, respectively. Cortisol peaked at 20 min after administration of CRH in both cycling gilts and castrated boars with maximum levels of 149.3 ± 16.5 nmol/1 and 138.3 ± 10.1 nmol/1, respectively. It can be concluded that administration of synthetic ACTH (tetracosactid to pigs caused a concomitant elevation of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite levels in both cycling gilts as well as castrated boars. The administration of CRH to pigs resulted in an elevation of cortisol levels in both cycling gilts and castrated boars. Conversely, PGF2α metabolite levels were not influenced by the administration of CRH either in cycling gilts or in castrated boars.

  1. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) of semen frozen in medium-straws from good and sub-standard freezer AI-boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Marta; Ekwall, Hans; Roca, Jordi; Vazquez, Juan Maria; Martinez, Emilio; Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto

    2007-02-01

    A major limiting factor for commercial cryopreservation of boar semen for artificial insemination (AI) is the large individual variation to cooling, where the degree of cell dehydration during ice (re)shaping seems to play a major role. This study investigated, in the frozen state, the degree of dehydration and ice crystal distribution in boar semen doses whose spermatozoa displayed different viability after thawing. Cross-sectioned medium-straws (0.5 mL, n=10) from a total of 10 stud boars classified as "good"(n=5) or sub-standard (e.g., "bad" freezers, n=5) by conventional analyses (computer assisted motility and sperm viability) were examined by Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) to determine whether differences between groups could be already distinguishable prior to thawing. The degree of hydration was monitored in relation to the areas of ice crystal formed extracellularly (lakes), the areas of frozen, concentrated extender (veins) where spermatozoa were located and the degree of compartmentalization (number of lakes) present. Irrespectively of the region studied, the gradient of main dehydration (as lakes) observed along the cross-section area of the straws was very irregular. Most spermatozoa were enclosed in the freezing extender matrix and no obvious signs of external membrane damage were observed. None of the Cryo-SEM variables significantly correlated with post-thaw sperm parameters (p>0.05). However, we identified significant differences (p<0.0001) among boars for all ultrastructure variables studied, including the size of the veins, where differences in solute concentration is expected. We concluded that despite the large variability in ice crystal formation during the conventional freezing process among boars, this is unrelated to inter-boar post-thaw sperm differences.

  2. Genetic parameters for androstenone and skatole as indicators of boar taint and their relationship to production and litter size traits in Danish Landrace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Velander, I. H.; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odor, which affects the smell and taste of cooked pork, resulting mainly from the accumulation of skatole and androstenone in the back fat of intact males. The aim of the study was to estimate genetic parameters for skatole and androstenone and their genetic relationship...... to production and litter size traits. Concentrations of skatole and androstenone in the back fat were available for approximately 6,000 and 1,000 Landrace boars, respectively. The concentrations were log-transformed to align phenotypic measures to a normal distribution. Heritability estimates for Log...

  3. Expression of α-gustducin and α-transducin, G proteins coupled with taste receptors, in boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinaci, M; Bucci, D; Mazzoni, M; Giaretta, E; Bernardini, C; Vallorani, C; Tamanini, C; Clavenzani, P; Galeati, G

    2014-07-01

    During the transit in the female genital tract, spermatozoa are exposed to an environment that varies in composition from the vagina to the oviduct. Because G proteins, α-gustducin and α-transducin, are accepted as markers of chemosensitive cells, this study was aimed at assessing whether these proteins are expressed in boar germ cells. Ejaculated sperm extracts were analyzed by Western blot, and indirect immunofluorescence was performed on testis sections, smears of epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa, sperm cells after in vitro induction of capacitation and acrosome reaction (IVAR), and in sperm cells bound to zona pellucida during IVF. Based on immunoblot results, both G proteins are present in boar sperm. In the testicular tissue sections, α-gustducin and α-transducin positivity was recorded in the germinal cells near the tubular lumen, whereas no positive signal was evident in spermatogonia located in the outer region of the seminiferous tubules. α-Gustducin expression in epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa was mainly detectable in both the acrosome and the principal piece of the tail, whereas α-transducin was confined to the acrosome and the midpiece. No changes after in vitro induction of capacitation and IVAR were observed, except for the disappearance of acrosomal positivity in reacted spermatozoa. In sperm bound to zona pellucida, the G protein signal was congruent with that observed in IVAR cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of α-transducin in mammalian sperm and the first description of α-gustducin in boar sperm. Further studies are needed to clarify the possible role of these G proteins in sperm physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of refractometry as a new management tool in AI boar centers for quality assurance of extender preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grossfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to see if refractometry can be used as a new quality control tool for boar semen extenders. For this the refractive index and osmolality of BTS extender concentrations (EC) were recorded in 10%-steps from 50% to 150% and 200% of the correct amount. Twelve boar ejaculates were evaluated for semen quality. The refractive index for the correctly prepared extender was 4.6±0.0°Bx, corresponded to 316±16mOsmkg(-1), and correlated highly with osmolality (r=0.99; P<0.001). Total sperm motility with 100% EC differed significantly from ≤70% EC (P<0.001) and 200% EC (P<0.001) on day 1 (d1) and d4, respectively. The percentage of motile spermatozoa in a thermoresistance test on d2 showed a significant drop using ≤70% EC (P=0.047) and ≥140% EC (P=0.004). Secondary apical ridge defects were significantly higher using 50% EC (P<0.001) and ≥150% EC (P=0.032) compared to 100% EC, respectively. An increased number of coiled tails were observed using ≤60% EC (P<0.001). Percentages of spermatozoa with intact membranes on d2 resulted in a significant decrease using 50% EC (P<0.001) and ≥150% EC (P=0.005), respectively. The mean percentage of PI negative spermatozoa with active mitochondria on d2 showed a significant difference using ≤60% EC (P=0.016) and ≥140% EC (P<0.001) compared to 100% EC, respectively. Boar sperm quality is affected by inexact extender preparation. The refractive-index is an indicator of osmolality and may be used to verify semen extender preparation. The sensitivity is sufficient to detect deviations from correct extender preparation before negative effects on sperm quality occur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New insights into the molecular epidemiology of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina Dragoi; Ionita, Mariana; Ciupescu, Laurentiu; Buzatu, Cristian Vasile; Tanasuica, Rodica; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu

    2015-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. In Romania, it is recognized as one of the most serious zoonotic diseases. A cross-sectional study, covering all regions of Romania, was conducted in 2014 to investigate and update the prevalence of Trichinella infection among domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears. Additional, molecular identification of Trichinella species circulating among these animals was performed in order to establish the biogeography of Trichinella species within the seven geographical regions of Romania. For this, a total of 113,383 pigs raised in non-controlled housing conditions (backyards), 5596 hunted wild boars and 147 hunted bears were subjected to Trichinella analysis. The highest prevalence of Trichinella infections was found in bears (12.93%), followed by wild boars (1.66%) and domestic pigs (0.20%). Of 294 Trichinella isolates that tested positive by multiplex PCR, 219 (74.49%) were identified as Trichinella spiralis, 66 (22.45%) as Trichinella britovi, and 9 isolates (3.06%) as mixed infections of T. spiralis and T. britovi. T. spiralis was more prevalent in domestic pigs (165/228; 72.37%) than in game (63/228; 27.63%), while T. britovi showed a higher prevalence in game (50/75; 66.66%) than in domestic pigs (25/75; 33.33%). Moreover, the present study revealed a significant host- and area- related distribution of Trichinella species within the seven regions of Romania. Therefore, these findings are of epidemiological relevance, updating data on the prevalence and distribution of Trichinella species circulating among domestic and wild animals in South-Eastern Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a bioindicator of organochlorine compound contamination in terrestrial ecosystems of West Pomerania Province, NW Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Marciniak, Andrzej; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Drozd, Radosław; Ligocki, Marek; Prokulewicz, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the presence and determine the residue levels of DDT, lindane, endrin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the liver of wild boars from the area of West Pomerania, NW Poland; to determine the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) as a biomarker of biological response and to assess the toxicological risk for consumers of the wild boar offal. The presence of pesticide residues and PCBs was found in all examined liver samples. The highest concentration was observed for endrin, and then, the descending order was PCBs >DDTs >lindane >dl-PCBs. The mean hepatic concentrations of endrin, PCBs, DDTs and lindane were 117.28, 78.59, 67.95 and 7.24 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Among the dioxin-like PCB congeners, 118 and 156 were dominant in liver samples. The mean toxic equivalent (TEQ) level calculated for dl-PCBs was 2.10 ± 1.11 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ/g. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) negative correlation between the concentration of lindane, DDTs and PCBs (as a sum of indicator congeners) in the liver and in the activity of GST. However, GST activities showed no significant correlation with any of the dl-PCBs. In five boar liver samples, the levels of certain organochlorine compounds exceeded the maximum residue levels (MRLs). In one sample, the MRLs were exceeded simultaneously for PCBs, endrin and DDTs and in another one-for endrin and DDTs. In the remaining three samples, only PCB levels were exceeded.

  7. Hunting of roe deer and wild boar in Germany: Is non-lead ammunition suitable for hunting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Annett; Gremse, Carl; Selhorst, Thomas; Bandick, Niels; Müller-Graf, Christine; Greiner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Non-lead hunting ammunition is an alternative to bullets that contain lead. The use of lead ammunition can result in severe contamination of game meat, thus posing a health risk to consumers. With any kind of ammunition for hunting, the terminal effectiveness of bullets is an animal welfare issue. Doubts about the effectiveness of non-lead bullets for a humane kill of game animals in hunting have been discussed. The length of the escape distance after the shot has been used previously as an indicator for bullet performance. The object of this study was to determine how the bullet material (lead or non-lead) influences the observed escape distances. 1,234 records of the shooting of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 825 records of the shooting of wild boar (Sus scrofa) were evaluated. As the bullet material cannot be regarded as the sole cause of variability of escape distances, interactions of other potential influencing variables like shot placement, shooting distance, were analyzed using conditional regression trees and two-part hurdle models. The length of the escape distance is not influenced by the use of lead or non-lead ammunition with either roe deer or wild boar. With roe deer, the length of the escape distance is influenced significantly by the shot placement and the type of hunting. Increasing shooting distances increased the length of the escape distance. With wild boar, shot placement and the age of the animals were found to be a significant influencing factor on the length of the escape distance. The length of the escape distance can be used as an indicator for adequate bullet effectiveness for humane killings of game animals in hunting.Non-lead bullets already exist which have an equally reliable killing effect as lead bullets.

  8. Effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance of urban residents toward hornets and wild boars in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Tetsuro; Sugimoto, Koun; Numata, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Urban biodiversity conservation often aims to promote the quality of life for urban residents by providing ecosystem services as well as habitats for diverse wildlife. However, biodiversity inevitably brings some disadvantages, including problems and nuisances caused by wildlife. Although some studies have reported that enhancement of nature interaction among urban children promotes their affective attitude toward of favorable animals, its effect on tolerance toward problem-causing wildlife is unknown. In this study, we assessed the tolerance of 1,030 urban residents in Japan toward hornets and wild boar, and analyzed the effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance using a structural equation model. The model used sociodemographic factors and childhood nature experience as explanatory variables, affective attitude toward these animals as a mediator, and tolerance as a response variable. The public tolerance toward hornets and boars was low; over 60% of the respondents would request the removal of hornets and wild boar from nearby green spaces by government services, even when the animals had not caused any damage. Tolerance was lower in females and elderly respondents. Childhood experience with nature had a greater influence on tolerance than did sociodemographic factors in the scenario where animals have not caused any problems; however, its effect was only indirect via promoting positive affective attitude toward wildlife when the animals have caused problems. Our results suggest that increasing people's direct experience with nature is important to raise public tolerance, but its effect is limited to cases where wildlife does not cause any problems. To obtain wider support for conservation in urban areas, conservationists, working together with municipal officials, educators and the media, should provide relevant information on the ecological functions performed by problem-causing wildlife and strategies for avoiding the problems that wildlife can

  9. Fertility results of artificial inseminations performed with liquid boar semen stored in X-cell vs BTS extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, T; Gaustad, A H; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Hofmo, P O

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present field study was to compare the fertility results for boar semen diluted in X-cell stored up to 4-5 days before artificial insemination (AI) with semen diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) used for AI following 2-3 days of storage (where the first day being the collection day). A total number of 2601 double inseminations in Norwegian herds were included in this two-trial study. All the boars used in the study were mature cross-bred Norwegian Landrace x Duroc (LD), which were routinely used for AI in Norway. The inseminated gilts and sows were Norwegian Landrace x Yorkshire (LY). The AI doses contained 2.5 billion spermatozoa, and consisted of a mixture of semen from three, occasionally four, boars (i.e. heterospermic semen). Fertility was measured in terms of the likelihood of farrowing and subsequent litter size. The fertility of the semen in both of the extenders was satisfactory and no significant differences were found either in semen stored 4-5 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS or in semen stored 2-3 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS. The storage capability findings for the long-term extender X-cell could significantly simplify the practical issues of semen production and the distribution of AI doses containing 2.5 billion spermatozoa. However, in pig production systems where all semen is used within 2-3 days, the short-term extender BTS is as good as the more expensive extender X-cell.

  10. A new laboratory model using bull and boar spermatozoa and fluorescent beads to assess a membrane's occlusive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szellö, M; Janett, F; Ewald, C; Music, M; Sener, B; Attin, T; Schmidlin, P R

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the potential of bull and boar spermatozoa and fluorescent beads to be used as a surrogate cell model to determine the cell occlusive potential in vitro using membranes of standardized porosities. A two-chamber model system consisting of upper and lower chambers, which could be separated by membranes, was constructed. Isopore polycarbonate membranes with different standardized pore diameters were used to assess the mobile cellular penetration behavior of spermatozoa or the more passive non-cellular permeability of fluorescent particles (beads) of different diameter and color. In a first experiment, spermatozoa were placed in the lower chamber, whereas semen extender only was placed in the upper chamber. After 10 min of incubation at 37 °C, the sperm number was assessed in the latter. In a second experiment, a bead solution was drawn through resorbable collagen membranes from the upper into the lower chamber by vacuum using a syringe and bead number and size was analyzed by flow cytometry. All experiments were carried out in triplicates. A non-porous polyester membrane was used as negative control to assess the overall tightness of the setup. Boar and bull spermatozoa had average cell body lengths and widths of 9 × 5 μm and were unable to pass through pores ≤2 μm, whereas they were detectable at pore sizes ≥3 μm. Their number increased with increasing pore diameters, i.e., from minimal concentrations of 0.1 × 10 6 /ml for boar and 0.5 × 10 6 /ml for bull spermatozoa at 3 μm to maximal concentrations of 2.1 × 10 6 /ml for boar and 13.1 × 10 6 /ml for bull spermatozoa at 8 μm. The fluorescent beads followed the expected pattern of permeability reliably correlating bead and pore diameter. Within the limitations of this laboratory study and the xenogeneic cell surrogate material, the model allows to easily assess cell and particle penetration through porous structures like

  11. Influence of housing and season on pubertal development, boar taint compounds and skin lesions of male pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Prunier, Armelle; Brillouët, Armelle; Merlot, Elodie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Tallet, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Rearing entire pigs may lead to meat quality and welfare problems in relation to pubertal development. A better knowledge of the sources of variation of pubertal development, behaviour and boar taint is needed before generalizing entire male pigs. From 84 days of age, entire male pigs were reared in groups of 10 either in a conventional (C, 1 m²/animal, slatted floor) or an enriched (E, 2.5 m²/animal, straw bedding, outdoor run) housing during spring or autumn and fed ad libitum (n=10/housing...

  12. Differential expression and co-expression gene networks reveal candidate biomarkers of boar taint in non-castrated pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Skinkyté-Juskiené, Ruta; Do, Duy N.

    2017-01-01

    Boar taint (BT) is an offensive odour or taste observed in pork from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs. Surgical castration is effective in avoiding BT, but animal welfare issues have created an incentive for alternatives such as genomic selection. In order to find candidate biomarkers, gene...... expression profiles were analysed from tissues of non-castrated pigs grouped by their genetic merit of BT. Differential expression analysis revealed substantial changes with log-transformed fold changes of liver and testis from -3.39 to 2.96 and -7.51 to 3.53, respectively. Co-expression network analysis...

  13. Transient from crystallization to fractal growth observed in both boar bile and SnI sub 2 vapour

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Ji Zhong; Xie An Jian

    2003-01-01

    A visual transient of the growth mechanism from crystallization to fractal growth was observed clearly in a drop of boar bile. The growing crystals were replaced by treelike fractal structures during solidification of the sample. It is fascinating to compare the transient with the result observed in SnI sub 2 vapour. They were completely identical, and revealed that under certain conditions a linear growth could be transferred spontaneously into nonlinear growth. It may be possible to consider the transient as a 'bridge' between linear and nonlinear growth, and to develop a quantitative expression of transient dynamics.

  14. Heavy metals in wild boar (Sus scrofa and related lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zaccaroni

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are toxic elements naturally present in the environment which can be bioconcentrated by plants and animals and incorporated into food cycles. Thus the use of wildlife species as monitors is a useful tool to assess environmental pollution. Because of its ethological characteristics, wild boar is highly probable to be exposed to pollution, mainly by heavy metals. These pollutants, when present at high enough concentrations, can induce histological lesion in various tissues. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the levels of five metals (cadmium, copper, iron, lead and zinc in wild boar, Sus scrofa, originating from an Apennine area of Emilia Romagna, Northern Italy, and to evaluate any possible correlation with histological lesions eventually observed. Samples of several organs (liver, heart, kidney, diaphragm, abductor muscle, masseter, eye, testis, brain, lung and spleen were collected from hunted animals during winter 2001. Levels of metals were determined on freeze dried tissues employing microwave wet digestion. Toxicological analysis were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and data expressed on a dry weight basis. Histopatological analyses were performed on fixed samples of the same tissue. Highest mean values were found in kidney for cadmium and copper (7 ± 1 ppm and 30 ± 2.6 ppm respectively and in liver for copper (21.16 ± 3.28 ppm, lead (2139 ± 680.6 ppb, iron (415.92 ± 24.41 ppm and zinc (94.76 ± 6.11 ppm. In all other tissues, mean concentrations of each metal were at low levels, and were comparable one another. A statistical difference was found for iron (p<0.05, copper (p<0.05 and cadmium (p<0.01 in kidney, in testis (p<0.01 for zinc and in liver for copper (p<0.05 and cadmium (p<0.01 as function of age cohorts. When sex was considered, a statistical difference was found for iron in eye, for copper in heart and for cadmium in heart and kidney. Histopatological analysis allowed

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF GENOMIC INFORMATION IN SELECTION OF BOARS ON SKATOLE AND ANDROSTENONE CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Lukić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic predictors offer an opportunity to overcome the limitations of classical selection against boar taint, and this study evaluated different approaches to obtain such predictors. Samples from 941 pigs were included in a design which was dominated by 421 sib pairs, each pair having an animal with a high and a low skatole concentration (>0.3 ¿ug/g. All samples were measured for skatole and androstenone and genotyped using the lllumina SNP 60K porcine lllumina beadchip. The accuracy of predicting phenotypes was assessed by cross-validation using six different genomic evaluation methods, GBLUP and five Bayesian methods. The range of accuracies obtained by different prediction methods was narrow for androstenone, between 0.29 (Bayes Lasso and 0.31 (Bayes B, and wide for skatole, between 0.21 (GBLUP and 0.26 (Bayes SSVS. Relative accuracies corrected for h2, were 0.54-0.56 and 0.750.94 for androstenone and skatole, respectively. The whole genome evaluation methods gave greater accuracy than using QTL alone (one SNP for androstenone and one SNP for skatole. Also, the dominance genetic variation was ignored in national evaluations, so we estimated the dominance genetic variance for androstenone and skatole using SNP information. For androstenone, GBLUP with dominance effects included captured substantial ratio of the dominance genetic variances (13% in total variation. For skatole, more dominance genetic variance was captured by regional chromosomal heritability approach, particularly on chromosome 9, where the proportion of chromosomal dominance genetic variance in total dominance variance was 96%. The results demonstrate that GBLUP for androstenone is the simplest genomic technology to implement and one of the most accurate methods while more specialised models may be preferable for skatole. Dominance genetic effects included could provide additional source of genetic variation for both traits, therefore, it is worthwhile considering in genomic

  16. Quality and fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage in extender supplemented with different antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Magdalena; Trzcińska, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of antibiotics on quality parameters and fertilizing capacity of boar sperm during liquid preservation. In the first experiment, semen was diluted in an extender containing 200 μg/mL of gentamicin as a control and diluted in a modified extenders: Ext I (contained 200 μg/mL florfenicol), Ext II (contained 200 μg/mL polymyxin B), Ext III (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol) and Ext IV (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL polymyxin B). The semen was stored for ten days. Sperm quality was evaluated based on the motility (CASA; TM: total motility; PM: progressive motility), membrane integrity (YO-PRO-1/PI assay), mitochondrial activity (JC-1) and DNA integrity (TUNEL). The highest PM% (62.5 ± 9.6) was observed in Ext III at Day 6 of storage. The highest sperm viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential was noticed at the end of the storage period in Ext III. Long-term storage did not induce DNA fragmentation in the extenders analyzed. In the second experiment, semen diluted in the control extender and in the extender providing the highest quality spermatozoa on Day 10 (Ext III) was used for artificial insemination (AI) of synchronized gilts. Our studies showed that the highest reproductive performance of inseminated gilts (pregnant gilts: 97.0%, litter size: 11.4 ± 1.2) occurred with Ext III semen dilution. The combination of 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol in the extender maintained sperm motility, membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity and enhanced the higher reproduction success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability. Copyright © 2010

  18. Consumer Attitude Toward the Issue of Selling Beef Mixed with Boar Meat (Sus sucrofa and the Intention to Purchase of Meat Consumers in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Guntoro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research was aimed to explain the relationship between cognitive, affective and conative combined into the attitude components with the intention to purchase against the issue of mixed beef and boar meatselling in Yogyakarta. The sample of location was at Beringharjo market in which the issues of selling beef and boar meat was established. The research used survey method with interview and questionnaire whose validity and reliability had been proven. The sample of respondents was 80 buyers selected by purposive sampling method. The data were statistically tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square and Phi analyses. The results showed that most of the attitude components i.e. cognitive, affective and conative were classified in favorable category implying that the respondents were responsive and active to look for the information regarding the issue. There was dependent relationship between attitude of the respondents toward the mixed beef and boar meat selling and the intention to purchase it with weak relationship (Phi coefficient of 0.354. It was concluded that consumers’ attitude on the issue of circulation of beefmix with boar meat was to behave more consciously about the truth of the issue and to be worried about the mixed meat. Key Words: consumer’s attitude, purchasing intention, meat consumer Animal Production 13(3:173-179 (2011

  19. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of human activities on the activity patterns of Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, van N.; Ohashi, H.; Koike, S.; Kaji, K.

    2015-01-01

    Human ageing and population decline in Japan are causing agricultural field abandonment and providing new habitats for Japanese sika deer and wild boar. These species have expanded their distribution and increased in abundance across Japan and are causing increased agricultural damage. Effective

  1. Effects of exposure of epididymal boar spermatozoa to seminal plasma on the binding of zona pellucida proteins during in vitro capacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, W.; Colenbrander, B.; Engel, B.; Woelders, H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether seminal plasma plays a role in the increase during in vitro capacitation of the number of boar spermatozoa with enhanced binding of zona pellucida proteins. Ejaculated spermatozoa and spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymides of

  2. A transgenic boar model to elucidate the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 and its receptor in regulating testes and sperm function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boar subfertility represents a major limitation to swine production, reducing conception rate and litter size. Critical to reproductive function, the classical form of GnRH (GnRH1) promotes secretion of the gonadotropins; however, the second mammalian isoform (GnRH2) is a poor stimulator of gonadotr...

  3. Surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in susceptible wildlife and domestic ungulates in Southeast of Bulgaria following a FMD case in wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Stefanov, Dimitar; Kamenov, Pencho; Miteva, Alexandra; Khomenko, Sergei; Sumption, Keith; Meyer-Gerbaulet, Hinrich; Depner, Klaus

    2013-09-27

    Following a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) case of serotype O in wild boar in Southeast of Bulgaria, notified in January 2011 and eleven FMD outbreaks in livestock, a control and eradication plan according to the EU legislation was implemented. Based on the epidemiological considerations a "Cordon Sanitaire" along the border to Turkey, consisting of a defined infected area (1240 km(2)) and two areas of risk (2160 km(2)) was established. Within these areas a total of 812 wild boar, 68 roe deer, 7 red deer and 2 mouflons, hunted between February 2011 and January 2012, were tested for the presence of FMD. No FMD virus could be detected. Seropositive animals were found in wild boar (6.9%) and roe deer (4.4%), most of them spatially clustered around the FMD outbreaks in livestock, limited within a radius of 20 km. The outbreaks in domestic ungulates were controlled in the framework of EU legislation, including stamping out, standstill and no use of vaccination. All villages within the Cordon Sanitaire were examined for the presence of FMD according to the control and eradication plan. Neither clinical signs nor seroconversion was detected and the region could regain its status of FMD freedom without vaccination. The relatively low seroprevalence and clustered spatial distribution of seropositive wild boar and roe deer suggest that the FMD infection in wildlife was mainly a short living event, which failed to develop into a large scale epidemic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental Evaluation of Faecal Escherichia coli and Hepatitis E Virus as Biological Indicators of Contacts Between Domestic Pigs and Eurasian Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, S; Geue, L; Hinsching, A; Jenckel, M; Schlosser, J; Eiden, M; Pietschmann, J; Menge, C; Beer, M; Groschup, M; Jori, F; Etter, E; Blome, S

    2017-04-01

    Domestic pigs and Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) share several important viral and bacterial pathogens. Therefore, direct and indirect contacts between domestic pigs and wild boar present a risk of pathogen spillover and can lead to long-term perpetuation of infection. Biological indicators could be a powerful tool to understand and characterize contacts between wild boar and domestic pigs. Here, faecal Escherichia coli and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) were explored as potential biological indicators under experimental conditions. The data gained in our pilot study suggest that faecal E. coli can be used as biological indicator of contact between wild boar and domestic pig. For HEV, faecal transmission was also confirmed. However, molecular studies on full-genome basis did not reveal markers that would allow tracing of transmission direction. Based on these promising results, future field studies will especially target the practicability of E. coli microbiome molecular typing as surrogate of contacts at the wildlife-livestock interface. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Active immunization with recombinant GnRH fusion protein in boars reduces both testicular development and mRNA expression levels of GnRH receptor in pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fugui; Li, Haidong; Liu, Ya; Zhang, Yunhai; Tao, Yong; Li, Yunsheng; Cao, Hongguo; Wang, Suolu; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaorong

    2010-06-01

    Immunization using recombinant maltose binding protein-gonadotropin releasing hormone (MBP-GnRH6) altered both testicular development and transcription of the pituitary GnRH receptor (GnRHR) gene in boars. Scrotal measurement and blood samples were taken at 4-week interval after immunization at 9 weeks of age. The concentrations of testosterone and anti-GnRH antibodies in serum were determined by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The results showed that active immunization with MBP-GnRH6 increased the serum concentration of anti-GnRH antibodies (Pimmunized animals as compared with MBP immunized boars. MBP-GnRH6 immunized pigs exhibited mounting behavior 4 weeks later than MBP immunized boars. No mature spermatozoa were observed from MBP-GnRH6 immunized animals. By real-time quantitative PCR analysis, the amount of GnRHR mRNA in the pituitary tissue was found to be significantly lower in MBP-GnRH6 immunized animals than in controls (P<0.05). These data demonstrate that recombinant MBP-GnRH6 was effective in immunological castration in boars. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez-González

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation.

  7. Efficient Boar Semen Production and Genetic Contribution: The Impact of Low-Dose Artificial Insemination on Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuijse, M L W J; Gaustad, A H; Bolarin Guillén, A; Knol, E F

    2015-07-01

    Diluting semen from high fertile breeding boars, and by that inseminating many sows, is the core business for artificial insemination (AI) companies worldwide. Knowledge about fertility results is the reason by which an AI company can lower the concentration of a dose. Efficient use of AI boars with high genetic merit by decreasing the number of sperm cells per insemination dose is important to maximize dissemination of the genetic progress made in the breeding nucleus. However, a potential decrease in fertility performance in the field should be weighed against the added value of improved genetics and, in general, is not tolerated in commercial production. This overview provides some important aspects that influence the impact of low-dose AI on fertility: (i) the importance of monitoring field fertility, (ii) the need for accurate and precise semen assessment, (iii) the parameters that are taken into account, (iv) the application of information from genetic and genomic selection and (v) the optimization when using different AI techniques. Efficient semen production, processing and insemination in combination with increasing use of genetic and genomic applications result in maximum impact of genetic trend. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. In vivo fertilizing capacity of deep frozen boar semen packaged in plastic bags and maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; Hofmo, P O; Grevle, I S; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez

    1991-05-01

    Pooled ejaculates from six fertile boars were frozen under controlled conditions in Teflon FEP-film plastic bags (5 ml) and maxi-straws (2.5 ml) using 3% glycerol as cryoprotectant. The percentages of both post-thaw motility and normal apical ridges were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) for the bags (54.5 and 75%) than for the maxi-straws (40.1 and 59.4%) respectively. For evaluation of the in vivo fertilizing capacity of the frozen-thawed spermatozoa, 26 gilts were inseminated once 24 h after the first observation of standing reflex in their second oestrus, with 5 ml of semen (containing 5 billion spermatozoa) reconstituted in 80 ml of BTS from either bags or maxi-straws. Ova were recovered from the oviducts/uteri 2-4 days following insemination and examined for cleavage and sperm binding to the zona pellucida (ZP). Significantly higher rates (P less than 0.02) of fertilized ova were found in the bag-inseminated (75%) than in maxi-straw inseminated gilts (63%); and similarly their ova had significantly more spermatozoa in the ZP, irrespective of whether they were fertilized or nonfertilized. This study confirmed that the plastic bags are suitable and may be used for packaging single insemination doses of deep frozen boar semen for routine A.I. work.

  9. Effects of Glutamate and Aspartate on Serum Antioxidative Enzyme, Sex Hormones, and Genital Inflammation in Boars Challenged with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengjia Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress is associated with infertility. This study was conducted to determine the effects of glutamate and aspartate on serum antioxidative enzymes, sex hormones, and genital inflammation in boars suffering from oxidative stress. Methods. Boars were randomly divided into 4 groups: the nonchallenged control (CON and H2O2-challenged control (BD groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 2% alanine; the other two groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2% glutamate (GLU or 2% aspartate (ASP. The BD, GLU, and ASP groups were injected with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on day 15. The CON group was injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution on the same day. Results. Dietary aspartate decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA level in serum (P<0.05 compared with the BD group. Additionally, aspartate maintained serum luteinizing hormone (LH at a relatively stable level. Moreover, glutamate and aspartate increased transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels in the epididymis and testis (P<0.05 compared with the BD group. Conclusion. Both glutamate and aspartate promoted genital mRNA expressions of anti-inflammatory factors after oxidative stress. Aspartate more effectively decreased serum MDA and prevented fluctuations in serum sex hormones after H2O2 challenge than did glutamate.

  10. EPINEPHRINE CONCENTRATION IN WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA L. SERUM AFTER REPEATED ELISA TESTED FREEZE-THAWING CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neška Vukšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples for determining of epinephrine concentration and biochemical parameters in the blood serum of wild boars were taken from 42 healthy wild boars, both sexes, during the hunting season. All animals in good condition, body weight 20 to 95 kg, were divided into two groups up to 50 kg (group A and up to 95 kg (Group B. Epinephrine concentration was determined by ELISA twice: one week after taking samples and a month after repeated freezing at -80°C. It was higher in relation to the reference value of domestic pigs and human (109.45 pg/ml in A and 119.54 pg/ml in B group. Repeated freezing and re-analysis after a month were resulted in lower concentrations of epinephrine (12% in young and 11.17% in adult animal, but without statistical significance (P>0.05. Biochemical analysis results’ show increased glucose and triglycerides concentrations compared to the reference values, while other indicators were observed within or slightly increased referring to the normal range. The correlation between glucose and epinephrine was not determined.

  11. Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Codony, Francesc; Estrada, Efrén; Lleonart, Miquel; Balasch, Sam; Peña, Alejandro; Bonet, Sergi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2016-03-02

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposing liquid-stored boar semen to different red light LED regimens on sperm quality and reproductive performance. Of all of the tested photo-stimulation procedures, the best pattern consisted of 10 min light, 10 min rest and 10 min of further light (10-10-10 pattern). This pattern induced an intense and transient increase in the majority of motility parameters, without modifying sperm viability and acrosome integrity. While incubating non-photo-stimulated sperm at 37 °C for 90 min decreased all sperm quality parameters, this reduction was prevented when the previously-described light procedure was applied. This effect was concomitant with an increase in the percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential. When sperm were subjected to 'in vitro' capacitation, photo-stimulation also increased the percentage of sperm with capacitation-like changes in membrane structure. On the other hand, treating commercial semen doses intended for artificial insemination with the 10-10-10 photo-stimulation pattern significantly increased farrowing rates and the number of both total and live-born piglets for parturition. Therefore, our results indicate that a precise photo-stimulation procedure is able to increase the fertilising ability of boar sperm via a mechanism that could be related to mitochondrial function.

  12. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Boar Semen Quality After Long-term Refrigeration at 17°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Smp; Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (10 trans, 12 cis) (CLA) on refrigerated boar sperm quality parameters up to 14 days at 17°C was assessed. Semen was extended in Androhep and divided into four treatments supplemented with CLA (25, 50, 100 and 200 μm) and control group, then kept for 2 h at 22°C. Afterwards an aliquot of each treatment was removed, and mitochondrial activity, viability, lipid membrane peroxidation (LPO) and stability of the sperm plasma membrane were assessed by flow cytometry. The remaining extended semen was maintained at 17°C until 336 h, repeating the same analysis every 48 h. Regarding percentage of live spermatozoa, no statistical differences were observed among treatments up to 96 h. After this time, viability decreased significantly (p refrigerated boar spermatozoa. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Differences in the expression of microRNAs and their predicted gene targets between cauda epididymal and ejaculated boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu; Dai, Ding-Hui; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zeng, Chang-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa gradually mature and acquire fertility during the transition from the testis to the caput and cauda epididymis, after which they are stored at the tail of the epididymis and the ampulla of vas deferens. During ejaculation, mixing of spermatozoa with the secretions of accessory sex glands leads to their dilution and changes in their function. Although remarkable progress has been made toward the understanding of changes in spermatozoa biochemistry and function before and after ejaculation, it is unknown whether microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in regulating the function of spermatozoa during the transition between the cauda epididymis and ejaculation. In this study, 48 miRNAs were selected for analysis on the basis of their potential involvement in spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and quality parameters markers. The differential expression levels of these 48 miRNAs between the caudal epididymis and fresh ejaculates of boar spermatozoa were determined. We found that 15 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (eight downregulated and seven upregulated) between boar cauda epididymal and fresh spermatozoa. Five miRNAs hypothesized to be involved in sperm apoptosis were further tested to demonstrate their influence over the expression of their target mRNAs using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Together, our findings suggest that these differentially expressed miRNAs are associated with the functional regulation of spermatozoa between cauda epididymis and ejaculation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of comet assay to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following liquid preservation at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Strzezek

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay, under neutral conditions, allows the assessment of DNA integrity influenced by sperm ageing, which is manifested in DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we attempted to use a modified neutral comet assay test (single-cell gel electrophoresis, to our knowledge for the first time, to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage for 96 h at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. In this comet assay protocol we used 2% beta-mercaptoethanol prior to the lysis procedure, to aid in removing nuclear proteins. Ejaculates from 3 boars (designated A, C and G were diluted with a standard semen extender, Kortowo-3 (K-3, which was supplemented with lipoprotein fractions extracted from hen egg yolk (LPFh or ostrich egg yolk (LPFo. Irrespective of the extender type, the percentage of comet-detected spermatozoa with damaged DNA increased gradually during prolonged storage at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. Spermatozoa stored in K-3 extender exhibited elevated levels of DNA damage at both storage temperatures. Significant differences in DNA damage among the boars were more pronounced during storage in LPF-based extenders at 5 degrees C: spermatozoa of boars A and G were less susceptible to DNA damage. The percent of tail DNA in comets was lower in LPF-based extenders, and there were individual variations among the boars. We observed that changes in DNA integrity were dependent on the extender type and storage temperature. A higher level of DNA instability was observed in K-3 extended semen compared with K-3/LPFh or K-3/LPFo extended semen during storage at 5 degrees C. No significant difference in the level of DNA damage between K-3/LPFh and K-3/LPFo was observed. It seems that a long-term storage can affect genomic integrity of boar spermatozoa. The modified neutral comet assay can be used to detect low levels of DNA damage in boar spermatozoa during liquid preservation. Therefore, screening for sperm DNA damage may be used as an additional

  15. Dilution of boar ejaculates with BTS containing HEPES in place of bicarbonate immediately after ejaculation can reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by treatment with calcium and calcium ionophore A23187, which is potentially associated with boar subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Takasu, Masaki; Taguchi, Kazuo; Katoh, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated whether substitution of HEPES for bicarbonate in BTS (BTS-H) used to dilute boar ejaculates immediately after ejaculation could reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187. When an ejaculate was split, diluted 5-fold with regular BTS (BTS-B) and BTS-H and stored at 17 C for 12 h or 60 h, the extender or storage time had no significant influence on sperm motility or viability measured by the eosin-nigrosin method. When spermatozoa diluted serially with BTS-B and stored (36 h) were stimulated with Ca2+ (3 mM) and A23187 (0.3 microM), the proportion of spermatozoa that underwent the acrosome reaction (% acrosome reactions) significantly increased as the magnifications of dilution increased (bicarbonate content almost unchanged by dilution). By contrast, the % acrosome reactions in spermatozoa similarly diluted and stored with BTS-H decreased with the increasing magnifications of dilution (bicarbonate decreased). Sperm motility immediately after the end of incubation without A23178 tended to be lower for BTS-H than BTS-B, and the ejaculates for BTS-H had a tendency to have a lower total protein in seminal plasma than those for BTS-B. These results implied that the samples for BTS-H could be used as a model for ejaculates possibly collected during summer and showing subfertility. When an ejaculate was split, diluted serially with BTS-B and BTS-H and stored, viability measured by staining with propidium iodide was extremely similar between the 2 extenders and among the different dilution magnifications, regardless of whether spermatozoa were washed (stored for 36-66 h) or not (stored for 66-72 h). These results suggest that boar ejaculate can be stored with BTS-H at least according to the results for sperm motility and viability and that hypersensitivity of spermatozoa to Ca2+ and A23187 potentially associated with boar subfertility could be lessened by diluting ejaculates with BTS-H.

  16. Treating boar sperm with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins or cyclodextrins prior to cryopreservation: effects on post-thaw in vitro sperm quality of sperm cryopreserved in different freezing extenders.

    OpenAIRE

    BLANCH TORRES, EVA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Cryopreserved boar sperm is not used extensively for artificial insemination due to poor fertility rates of the sperm after freezing and thawing. The sperm membrane is damaged when cooled from body temperature to 5 ºC (cold shock), as well as during the freeze-thaw process. Increasing the cholesterol content of boar sperm membranes could increase their post-thaw survival, similarly to other species that are cold shock sensitive. Cholesterol can be easily added to sperm membranes using ch...

  17. Genetic variability among the wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers (STRs

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    Paula Viana Correa da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the genetic variability among the wild boars, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers. Five genetic groups were studied. The fragments of three microsatellites developed for Sus scrofa domestica - IGF1, ACTG2 and TNFB - were amplified through PCR technique to evaluate the expected intra populacion variability (He and observed (Ho heterozygosity, and endogamy coefficient (F IS within each population and inter population variability F IS , testing relationship among five genetic groups to establish the genetic distance among them. The high level of observed heterozygosity values varied between 0.537 and 0.7871. Generally, F IS was low, suggesting that the endogamy did not exist between the tested animals.

  18. A statistical GIS-based analysis of Wild boar (Sus scrofa traffic collisions in a Mediterranean area

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    Andrea Amici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available vThis study was aimed at analysing the most relevant environmental variables involved in vehicle–wild boar road collisions in a Mediterranean area, starting from a territorial information system implemented in a GIS environment. Landscape structure indices and local qualitative and quantitative variables were correlated to identify the most frequent predisposing factors of collisions. Statistical tests of the considered parameters indicated a higher frequency of collisions in the evening hours of late summer and autumn (P<0.05 compared with daytime and night-time, localized nearness to attraction points (feeding or resting sites; P<0.001 and closeness to no-hunting areas (P<0.001. In addition, local road parameters (shape of road, visibility at road sides, etc. considerably increased the risk of collisions.

  19. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy discloses differences in dehydration of frozen boar semen stored in large containers.

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    Ekwall, H

    2009-02-01

    In general, freezing in flat plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bags (FlatPacks) at 50 degrees C/min gives better post-thaw viability, in terms of sperm motility and membrane integrity, than does freezing in plastic maxi-straws, probably owing to differences in cryobiology. To test the hypothesis that this better survival post-thaw relates to the degree of sperm dehydration during freezing, the present study investigated the structure of boar semen in a frozen state using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) to compare two different packages (FlatPacks and maxi-straws) for single artificial insemination (AI) doses, and three different freezing rates. The semen was split-sample frozen in maxi-straws or FlatPacks (both holding 5 ml) using 3% glycerol as cryoprotectant. Three freezing rates were applied from -5 degrees C to -100 degrees C, namely 2 degrees C/min, 50 degrees C/min and 1200 degrees C/min, the lattermost by plunging the samples into liquid nitrogen (LN(2)). The samples were thereafter fractured into LN(2) and larger areas of extra-cellular, unbound frozen water ('ice lakes') were measured to determine the degree of dehydration of the spermatozoa. These areas decreased in size with an increase in cooling rate, the differences in size being more dramatic for maxi-straws than for FlatPacks. Size of ice lakes was also influenced by location within package in relation to cooling rate, the central values being always smaller in maxi-straws than in Flatpacks (p < 0.05 at 2 degrees C/min and 50 degrees C/min) but not at 1200 degrees C/min, which suggested the FlatPack allows for more homogenous freezing of boar semen.

  20. Influence of housing and season on pubertal development, boar taint compounds and skin lesions of male pigs.

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    Prunier, A; Brillouët, A; Merlot, E; Meunier-Salaün, M C; Tallet, C

    2013-12-01

    Rearing entire pigs may lead to meat quality and welfare problems in relation to pubertal development. A better knowledge of the sources of variation of pubertal development, behaviour and boar taint is needed before generalizing entire male pigs. From 84 days of age, entire male pigs were reared in groups of 10 either in a conventional (C, 1 m²/animal, slatted floor) or an enriched (E, 2.5 m²/animal, straw bedding, outdoor run) housing during spring or autumn and fed ad libitum (n=10/housing/season). Mounting behaviour was observed for 3 h during the third (M3), fourth (M4) and fifth (M5) months of age. The total number of skin lesions was counted on both sides of the pigs 1 day before the behavioural recordings. The time spent in the outdoor run was also recorded during 3 days per month. The animals were slaughtered at 161±1 days of age (122±9 kg live weight). Blood samples were collected at 89 (M3), 119 (M4) and 152 (M5) days of age and at slaughter for the testosterone and oestradiol measurements. The testes were collected at slaughter, freed from the surrounding tissues and weighed. The fat samples were collected for the androstenone and skatole concentration measurement. Plasma testosterone and oestradiol-17β (oestradiol), fat androstenone and skatole and weight of the testes did not differ between the housing systems. Plasma testosterone (8.3 v. 3.9 nmol/l, Phormones, behaviour and boar taint.

  1. Egg yolk and glycerol requirements for freezing boar spermatozoa treated with methyl β-cyclodextrin or cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Eva; Tomás, Cristina; Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Martínez, Emilio A; Vázquez, Juan M; Mocé, Eva

    2014-04-24

    Egg yolk (EY) and glycerol are common constituents of extenders used for sperm cryopreservation. It has been demonstrated that using cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) improves sperm cryosurvival in several species. However, standard freezing extenders might not be the most appropriate for CLC-treated sperm. This study evaluated the EY and glycerol requirements for freezing CLC-treated boar spermatozoa. Semen samples from 34 ejaculates coming from 4 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into three aliquots: one was used untreated (control), and the other two were treated with 1 mg of CLC or methyl-β-cyclodextrin/120 × 10(6) sperm for 15 min at 22 C prior to cryopreservation. Our results indicated that reducing the concentration of EY was detrimental for sperm viability after thawing (31.57 ± 2 vs. 19.89% ± 2 for 20 and 10% EY, respectively; P <0.05), even in semen treated with CLC. On the other hand, it was observed that the traditional concentration of glycerol (3%) was not the appropriate for freezing CLC-treated sperm (61.10 ± 3 vs. 47.87% ± 3 viable sperm for control and CLC-treated sperm, respectively; P <0.05). Thus, CLC-treated sperm showed a higher tolerance to high glycerol concentrations (5%) in terms of sperm viability (59.19% ± 3) than non-treated sperm (45.58% ± 3; P<0.05). Therefore, it could be necessary to modify the freezing extenders for CLC-treated sperm. Nevertheless, additional studies will be needed to evaluate alternative cryoprotectants and to determine the effect of high glycerol concentrations on sperm functionality.

  2. Pneumonia enzoótica em javalis (Sus scrofa Enzootic pneumonia in wild boars (Sus scrofa

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    Roselene Ecco

    2009-06-01

    presented reduced growth rate, anorexia, lethargy, cough and dyspnea, especially after they were moved. High body temperature (40ºC in average was verified in some animals. Auscultation revealed moderate pulmonary crepitation and stertors. Pulmonary gross lesions were typical of lobular bronchopneumonia. Lung lesions were characterized by ventral-cranial consolidation in the majority of the cases. The color of affected pulmonary areas varied from diffuse dark red to mosaic pattern (dark red lobule intercalate by grayish lobule or diffusely grayish. The majority of the lungs had mucopurulent exsudate in the bronchial lumen that also drained from the parenchyma cut surface. Upon microscopy, the changes were characterized by purulent and histiocytic bronchopneumonia with necrotic foci. In some animals, there was BALT hyperplasia associated with perivascular and peribronchial plasma cells and lymphocytes infiltration in most of these cases. Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Immunohistochemistry evaluation demonstrated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on the luminal surface of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, and the DNA of bacteria was detected by PCR. This is the first report of bronchopneumonia in wild boars associated with M. hyopneumoniae infection.

  3. The survey of porcine teschoviruses, sapeloviruses and enteroviruses B infecting domestic pigs and wild boars in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodělalová, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatio-temporal analysis of the progression of Aujeszky’s disease virus infection in wild boar of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

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    Nicolai Denzin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aujeszky’s disease (AD, pseudorabies is a notifiable disease caused by Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1, also named pseudorabies virus (PrV. The study aimed at determining the occurrence and spatio-temporal trend of specific antibodies to AD virus (ADV among wild boar of Saxony-Anhalt, a landlocked federal state situated in the western part of eastern Germany. To this end, a total of 7,209 blood samples were collected and tested from 2000 to 2011. An average seroprevalence of 6.8% was found for the entire observation period, whilst seroprevalence increased significantly between time periods January 2000-March 2009 (n = 3,605; prevalence = 4.5% and March 2009-December 2011 (n = 3,604; prevalence = 9.1%. Spatial analysis revealed an extremely heterogenous distribution of seropositive samples with cluster formation [relative risk (RR up to 41, P = 0.001] in the east. A comparison of spatial clusters between the aforementioned time intervals showed an expansion of the disease in the north to north-westerly direction. A test for spatial shift involving the entire territory of Saxony-Anhalt detected a spread of ADV infection in the latter direction (P = 0.079 at the average speed of 3.3 km/year. Detailed study of the distribution and spread of the disease among wild boar, including assessment of the speed of spatial spread, has not been done in the region before. Saxony-Anhalt has been officially recognised as being free of AD in domestic pigs since 1996. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalences in the wild boar population of Saxony-Anhalt and other federal states in the east of Germany, no spill-over to domestic pigs have been reported. The currently implemented monitoring will be continued in conjunction with surveillance of classical swine fever (CSF to further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population of Saxony-Anhalt.

  5. Consumer response to the possible use of a vaccine method to control boar taint v. physical piglet castration with anaesthesia: a quantitative study in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W

    2011-05-01

    In most European countries, male piglets being reared for meat are physically castrated without anaesthesia in order to avoid boar taint and to safeguard sensory meat quality. This method is increasingly criticised for its violation of piglet welfare. Alternative methods are being researched and castration with anaesthesia or analgesia and vaccination (immunisation) against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (using Improvac®, Pfizer GmbH) have been proposed as possible solutions. In addition to efficacy, the successful introduction and adoption of the vaccine method by stakeholders in pig supply chains are expected to depend on a favourable reception by consumers. This large-scale quantitative cross-country study (n = 4031) involving representative samples of consumers in France, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium does not support the reserved attitude of stakeholders who fear potential low market acceptance. The vaccine method was actually preferred by the majority of consumers surveyed (69.6% of the participants) and it was perceived as equally effective in terms of avoiding boar taint; 43.8% of the consumers reported an intention to seek out pork from pigs where the vaccine had been used to control boar taint, whereas 33.7% reported an intention to avoid pork from pigs physically castrated with anaesthesia. Consumers' favourable dispositions to the vaccine method were independent of dominant ethical, health or price orientations when purchasing pork.

  6. The bioaccumulation of lead in the organs of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), red deer (Cervus elaphus L.), and wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Udała, Jan; Pilarczyk, Renata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of lead (Pb) in the livers and kidneys of free-living animals from Poland, with regard to the differences in tissue Pb content between the species. The research material consisted of liver and kidney samples collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) that had been hunted in 16 voivodeships of Poland. The concentration of lead had been measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The results show that differences in lead concentration in the organs depended on the geographic location. In roe deer and red deer, the highest mean lead concentrations in the livers and kidneys, observed in the central region of Poland, were twice as high as the lowest concentration of Pb in these animals from the northeastern region of the country. In wild boar, the highest mean concentration of Pb was noted in the livers of animals from the central region of Poland and in the kidneys of animals from the northwestern region, while the lowest lead concentrations in both organs were typical for wild boar from the southeast part of the country. Our results show that areas located in the center and in the north of Poland carry most of the burden of lead bioaccumulation.

  7. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Rhodococcus equi in wild boars (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Cisek, Agata Anna; Chrobak-Chmiel, Dorota; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Welz, Mirosław; Kita, Jerzy

    2015-05-22

    Rhodococcus equi is now considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Sources and routes of human infection remain unclear but foodborne transmission seems to be the most probable way. Strains of pig or bovine type are most often isolated from human cases and moreover R. equi is present in submaxillary lymph nodes of apparently healthy pigs and wild boars intended for human consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of R. equi in submaxillary lymph nodes in wild boars, roe deer and red deer. Samples were collected from 936 animals and 27 R. equi strains were isolated, from 5.1 % of wild boars (23/452), 0.7 % of red deer (2/272) and 0.9 % of roe deer (2/212). Genetic diversity of all 27 isolates was studied using VspI-PFGE method, resulting in the detection of 25 PFGE patterns and four PFGE clusters. PFGE patterns of the isolates were compared with virulence plasmid types and no concordance was observed. R. equi was present in wild animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of R. equi infection for humans. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of R. equi prevalence in tissues of roe deer and red deer. However, risk associated with wild ruminant consumption seems marginal. Investigation of R. equi transmission between animals and humans based exclusively on types of virulence plasmids seems to be insufficient to identify sources of R. equi infection for people.

  8. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of African swine fever cases in Russian wild boar does not reveal an endemic situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M; Siemen, H; Blome, S; Thulke, H-H

    2014-11-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal viral disease of domestic pigs and wild boar. ASF was introduced into the southern Russian Federation in 2007 and is now reported to be spreading in populations of wild and domestic suids. An endemic situation in the local wild boar population would significantly complicate management of the disease in the livestock population. To date no sound method exists for identifying the characteristic pattern of an endemic situation, which describes infection persisting from generation to generation in the same population. To support urgent management decisions at the wildlife-livestock interface, a new algorithm was constructed to test the hypothesis of an endemic disease situation in wildlife on the basis of case reports. The approach described here uses spatial and temporal associations between observed diagnostic data to discriminate between endemic and non-endemic patterns of case occurrence. The algorithm was validated with data from an epidemiological simulation model and applied to ASF case data from southern Russia. Based on the algorithm and the diagnostic data available, the null hypothesis of an endemic situation of ASF in wild boar of the region was rejected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of fibre type and kefir, wine lemon, and pineapple marinades on texture and sensory properties of wild boar and deer longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żochowska-Kujawska, J; Lachowicz, K; Sobczak, M

    2012-12-01

    Fibre type percentage and changes in textural parameters, sensory properties as well as mean fibre cross sectional area (CSA), fibre shape, endomysium and perimysium thickness of wild boar and deer longissimus (L) muscle subjected to ageing with kefir, dry red wine, lemon and pineapple juice marinades for 4 days were studied. Among the non-marinated and non-aged samples of muscles it was found that wild boar meat with its higher percentage of red fibres, higher CSA, thicker connective tissue as compared with deer meat, was harder, more springy and stringy. Muscles ageing, regardless of methods, resulted in a decrease in both the CSA and thickness of the connective tissue, and improve in fibre shape. As a consequence ageing caused a reduction in hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and stringiness as well as in augmentation of tenderness, juiciness and general attractiveness of the muscles studied. As demonstrated by obtained data, regardless of ageing methods, deer L muscle contained more white fibres compared to wild boar muscle, were more susceptible to tenderization. The highest structural and textural changes, but the worst general attractiveness was found in muscles marinated with pineapple juice addition. Insignificantly lower changes in both quality traits were found in muscles aged with kefir marinade which at the same time were characterized by the high tenderness, the highest juiciness and general attractiveness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The European Distribution of Sus Scrofa. Model Outputs from the Project Described within the Poster – Where are All the Boars? An Attempt to Gain a Continental Perspective

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    Neil Stewart Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar is a host of a number of arthropod-vectored diseases and its numbers are on the rise in mainland Europe. The species potentially impacts ecosystems, humans and farming practices and so its distribution is of interest to policy makers in a number of fields beyond that of the primarily epidemiological goal of this study. Three statistical model outputs describing the distribution and abundance of the species Sus scrofa (Wild boar are included in this data package. The extent of this dataset covers continental Europe. These data were presented as a poster [1] at the conference Genes, Ecosystems and Risk of Infection (GERI 2015. The first of the three models provide a European map presenting the probability of presence of Sus scrofa, which can be used to describe the likely geographical distribution of the species. The second and third models provide indices to help describe the likely abundance across the continent. The two indices include “the proportion of suitable habitat where presence is estimated” and a simple classification of boar abundance across Europe using quantiles of existing abundance data and proxies.

  11. Course and transmission characteristics of oral low-dose infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar with a Caucasian African swine fever virus isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, Jana; Guinat, Claire; Beer, Martin; Pronin, Valery; Tauscher, Kerstin; Petrov, Anja; Keil, Günther; Blome, Sandra

    2015-07-01

    In 2007, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Transcaucasian countries and Russia. Since then, it has spread alarmingly and reached the European Union. ASFV strains are highly virulent and lead to almost 100% mortality under experimental conditions. However, the possibility of dose-dependent disease courses has been discussed. For this reason, a study was undertaken to assess the risk of chronic disease and the establishment of carriers upon low-dose oronasal infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar. It was demonstrated that very low doses of ASFV are sufficient to infect especially weak or runted animals by the oronasal route. Some of these animals did not show clinical signs indicative of ASF, and they developed almost no fever. However, no changes were observed in individual animal regarding the onset, course and outcome of infection as assessed by diagnostic tests. After amplification of ASFV by these animals, pen- and stablemates became infected and developed acute lethal disease with similar characteristics in all animals. Thus, we found no indication of prolonged or chronic individual courses upon low-dose infection in either species. The scattered onset of clinical signs and pathogen detection within and among groups confirms moderate contagiosity that is strongly linked with blood contact. In conclusion, the prolonged course at the "herd level" together with the exceptionally low dose that proved to be sufficient to infect a runted wild boar could be important for disease dynamics in wild-boar populations and in backyard settings.

  12. Quantitative trait loci mapping for fatty acid composition traits in perirenal and back fat using a Japanese wild boar x Large White intercross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, M; Hayashi, T; Tani, F; Niki, A; Mori, N; Fujishima-Kanaya, N; Komatsu, M; Aikawa, K; Awata, T; Mikawa, S

    2006-08-01

    Here, we analysed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fatty acid composition, one of the factors affecting fat quality, in a Japanese wild boar x Large White cross. We found 25 significant effects for 17 traits at 13 positions at the 5% genome-wise level, of which 16 effects for 12 traits at 10 positions were significant at the 1% level. QTL for saturated fatty acids (SFA) in back fat were mapped to swine (Sus scrofa) chromosomes (SSC) 1p, 9 and 15. QTL for unsaturated fatty acids in back fat were mapped to SSC1p, 1q, 4, 5, 9, 15 and 17. Using a regression model that fits back fat thickness as a covariate, two of the QTL for linoleic acid content on SSC4 and SSC17 were not significant, but one QTL for total SFA composition was detected on SSC5 with correction for back fat thickness. Wild boar alleles at six of seven QTL tended to increase SFAs and to decrease unsaturated fatty acids. QTL for fatty acid composition in perirenal fat were mapped on SSC2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 14, 16 and X. QTL for melting point (in back fat samples) were mapped on SSC1, 2 and 15. Wild boar alleles in QTL on SSC1 and SSC15 were associated with elevated melting points whereas those on SSC2 were associated with lower melting point measurements.

  13. Evidence of the importance of host habitat use in predicting the dilution effect of wild boar for deer exposure to Anaplasma spp.

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    Agustín Estrada-Peña

    Full Text Available Foci of tick-borne pathogens occur at fine spatial scales, and depend upon a complex arrangement of factors involving climate, host abundance and landscape composition. It has been proposed that the presence of hosts that support tick feeding but not pathogen multiplication may dilute the transmission of the pathogen. However, models need to consider the spatial component to adequately explain how hosts, ticks and pathogens are distributed into the landscape. In this study, a novel, lattice-derived, behavior-based, spatially-explicit model was developed to test how changes in the assumed perception of different landscape elements affect the outcome of the connectivity between patches and therefore the dilution effect. The objective of this study was to explain changes in the exposure rate (ER of red deer to Anaplasma spp. under different configurations of suitable habitat and landscape fragmentation in the presence of variable densities of the potentially diluting host, wild boar. The model showed that the increase in habitat fragmentation had a deep impact on Habitat Sharing Ratio (HSR, a parameter describing the amount of habitat shared by red deer and wild boar, weighted by the probability of the animals to remain together in the same patch (according to movement rules, the density of ticks and the density of animals at a given vegetation patch, and decreased the dilution effect of wild boar on deer Anaplasma ER. The model was validated with data collected on deer, wild boar and tick densities, climate, landscape composition, host vegetation preferences and deer seropositivity to Anaplasma spp. (as a measure of ER in 10 study sites in Spain. However, although conditions were appropriate for a dilution effect, empirical results did not show a decrease in deer ER in sites with high wild boar densities. The model showed that the HSR was the most effective parameter to explain the absence of the dilution effect. These results suggest that host

  14. The effects of gender, age and region on macro- and micronutrient contents and fatty acid profiles in the muscles of roe deer and wild boar in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberger, D; Nuernberg, G; Nuernberg, K; Hagemann, E

    2013-05-01

    Samples of M. longissimus were collected from a total of 203 feral roe deer (n=118) and wild boar (n=85) in two regions of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Germany). The muscle lipid saturated fatty acid proportions of roe deer and wild boar ranged between 33 and 49g/100g total fatty acids and 31 and 35g/100g total fatty acids, respectively. The total n-3 PUFA proportions in roe deer muscle varied between 8.0 and 14g/100g fatty acids, and in wild boar muscle between 2.6 and 6.0g/100g fatty acids. The major vitamin E homologue, α-tocopherol, was determined to be between 5.8 and 13.1mg/kg in roe deer muscles. Lower levels between 1.2 and 4.7mg/kg were measured in wild boar muscles. The iron and zinc concentrations in roe deer and wild boar muscle ranged from 26.3 to 33.9mg/kg and from 17.0 to 21.7mg/kg, and from 13.6 to 39.3mg/kg and 18.1 to 31.9mg/kg, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of genetic introgression from domesticated pigs into the Ryukyu wild boar population on Iriomote Island in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K; Yoshikawa, S; Konishi, S; Ueno, Y; Watanabe, S; Mizoguchi, Y

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated genetic introgression from domesticated pigs into the Ryukyu wild boar (RWB) population on Iriomote Island based on their genetic structure and diversity. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region (596 bp) polymorphisms and 23 microsatellite markers. RWBs (n = 130) were collected from 18 locations on Iriomote Island and compared with 66 reference samples of European and Asian domestic pigs. We identified six distinct haplotypes, involving 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (including one insertion) in the RWB population. The phylogenetic tree had two branches: the RWB group and domestic lineage. Fourteen of 130 RWBs (10.8%) belonged to the European domestic lineage, including 11 RWBs from the Panari Islands, northwest of Iriomote Main Island (IMI). The heterozygosity values, total number of alleles, number of effective alleles and polymorphism information content of the RWB groups were lower than those of the European domestic groups. The RWB population on IMI had a lower heterozygous deficiency index (FIS = 0.059) than did the other populations, which indicates that this population was more inbred. There was a large genetic distance (FST = 0.560) between RWBs on IMI and the Meishan populations. Structure analysis using the 23 microsatellite markers revealed that 16 RWBs had an admixture pattern between RWB and domesticated pig breeds. These results suggest that gene flow may have occurred from domestic pigs to RWBs and demonstrate that there was low genetic variation in the IMI population. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Roles of Intracellular Cyclic AMP Signal Transduction in the Capacitation and Subsequent Hyperactivation of Mouse and Boar Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARAYAMA, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    It is not until accomplishment of a variety of molecular changes during the transit through the female reproductive tract that mammalian spermatozoa are capable of exhibiting highly activated motility with asymmetric whiplash beating of the flagella (hyperactivation) and undergoing acrosomal exocytosis in the head (acrosome reaction). These molecular changes of the spermatozoa are collectively termed capacitation and promoted by bicarbonate, calcium and cholesterol acceptors. Such capacitation-promoting factors can stimulate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction in the spermatozoa. Meanwhile, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction are essential to sperm fertilization with oocytes and are apparently triggered by a sufficient increase of intracellular Ca2+ in the sperm flagellum and head, respectively. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between cAMP signal transduction and calcium signaling cascades in the spermatozoa for the purpose of understanding the molecular basis of capacitation. In this review, I cover updated insights regarding intracellular cAMP signal transduction, the acrosome reaction and flagellar motility in mammalian spermatozoa and then account for possible roles of intracellular cAMP signal transduction in the capacitation and subsequent hyperactivation of mouse and boar spermatozoa. PMID:24162806

  17. A novel bromodeoxyuridine-resistant wild boar lung cell line facilitates generation of African swine fever virus recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Günther M; Giesow, Katrin; Portugal, Raquel

    2014-09-01

    Manipulation of African swine fever virus (ASFV) genomes, in particular those from field strains, is still a challenge. We have shown recently that generation of a green-fluorescent-protein-expressing, thymidine-kinase-negative (TK-) mutant of the low-pathogenic African swine fever virus field strain NHV was supported by a TK- Vero cell line. Since NHV, like other ASFV field strains, does not replicate well in Vero cells, a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)- resistant cell line derived from wild boar lung (WSL) cells, named WSL-Bu, was selected. WSL cells were used because they are suitable for productive replication of NHV and other ASFV field strains. Here, we show that WSL-Bu cells enable positive selection of both TK- and TK+ ASFV recombinants, which allows for novel strategies for construction of ASFV mutants. We further demonstrate for a low-pathogenic ASFV strain that TK expression is required for infectious replication in macrophages infected at low multiplicity and that vaccinia TK fully complements ASFV TK in this respect.

  18. A genome-wide association study to detect QTL for commercially important traits in Swiss Large White boars.

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    Doreen Becker

    Full Text Available The improvement of meat quality and production traits has high priority in the pork industry. Many of these traits show a low to moderate heritability and are difficult and expensive to measure. Their improvement by targeted breeding programs is challenging and requires knowledge of the genetic and molecular background. For this study we genotyped 192 artificial insemination boars of a commercial line derived from the Swiss Large White breed using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip with 62,163 evenly spaced SNPs across the pig genome. We obtained 26 estimated breeding values (EBVs for various traits including exterior, meat quality, reproduction, and production. The subsequent genome-wide association analysis allowed us to identify four QTL with suggestive significance for three of these traits (p-values ranging from 4.99×10⁻⁶ to 2.73×10⁻⁵. Single QTL for the EBVs pH one hour post mortem (pH1 and carcass length were on pig chromosome (SSC 14 and SSC 2, respectively. Two QTL for the EBV rear view hind legs were on SSC 10 and SSC 16.

  19. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

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    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts

  20. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun, E-mail: parkck@kangwon.ac.kr

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period.

  1. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) of boar semen frozen in medium-straws and MiniFlatPacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwall, Hans; Hernández, Marta; Saravia, Fernando; Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto

    2007-06-01

    In this study we demonstrate, in the frozen state, the architecture of frozen boar spermatozoa collected from the sperm-rich fraction of ejaculates (n=13) from four fertile boars packed and split-frozen in medium-straws (MS) and MiniFlatPacks (MFP), cross-sectioned in the frozen state and evaluated by image analysis on images obtained by use of cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). The tested hypothesis was that the degree of in situ dehydration and levels of homogeneity of boar semen either frozen in MSs or MFPs packages differ between them, with MFPs allowing for a more uniform dehydration of the spermatozoa and a higher cryosurvival, monitored by computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) as proportion of linearly motile spermatozoa, compared to semen packaged and processed in MSs. The organization and relative surface of biological material (veins; e.g., frozen extender, bound water, solutes and spermatozoa) as well as free water (lakes) was measured as the degree of dehydration of the samples. The apparent organization of lakes and veins differed between packages, with the MFPs depicting larger lakes than the MSs. The sizes of the lakes in the latter appeared, moreover, highly asymmetrical depending on their position of the section. The relative surface of these lakes per section, respectively veins differed between packages (P<0.05), indicating a larger amount of free-water (lakes; 81.73+/-2.07% vs. 77.91+/-1.57%) in the MFPs and, consequently, thinner veins than in MSs. In conclusion, MFPs seem to allow for a more homogenous dehydration of the spermatozoa/frozen extender compared to MSs, which might account for their somewhat better sperm quality post-thaw.

  2. Genome-wide association analysis reveals genetic loci and candidate genes for feeding behavior and eating efficiency in Duroc boars.

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    Rongrong Ding

    Full Text Available Efficient use of feed resources is a challenge in the pork industry because the largest variability in expenditure is attributed to the cost of fodder. Efficiency of feeding is directly related to feeding behavior. In order to identify genomic regions controlling feeding behavior and eating efficiency traits, 338 Duroc boars were used in this study. The Illumina Porcine SNP60K BeadChip was used for genotyping. Data pertaining to individual daily feed intake (DFI, total daily time spent in feeder (TPD, number of daily visits to feeder (NVD, average duration of each visit (TPV, mean feed intake per visit (FPV, mean feed intake rate (FR, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were collected for these pigs. Despite the limited sample size, the genome-wide association study was acceptable to detect candidate regions association with feeding behavior and eating efficiency traits in pigs. We detected three genome-wide (P < 1.40E-06 and 11 suggestive (P < 2.79E-05 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-trait associations. Six SNPs were located in genomic regions where quantitative trait loci (QTLs have previously been reported for feeding behavior and eating efficiency traits in pigs. Five candidate genes (SERPINA3, MYC, LEF1, PITX2, and MAP3K14 with biochemical and physiological roles that were relevant to feeding behavior and eating efficiency were discovered proximal to significant or suggestive markers. Gene ontology analysis indicated that most of the candidate genes were involved in the development of the hypothalamus (GO:0021854, P < 0.0398. Our results provide new insights into the genetic basis of feeding behavior and eating efficiency in pigs. Furthermore, some significant SNPs identified in this study could be incorporated into artificial selection programs for Duroc-related pigs to select for increased feeding efficiency.

  3. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors reduce membrane fluidity of capacitated boar sperm by impairing their activation by bicarbonate.

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    Barbara Barboni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammalian spermatozoa acquire their full fertilizing ability (so called capacitation within the female genital tract, where they are progressively exposed to inverse gradients of inhibiting and stimulating molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present research, the effect on this process of anandamide, an endocannabinoid that can either activate or inhibit cannabinoid receptors depending on its concentration, and bicarbonate, an oviductal activatory molecule, was assessed, in order to study the role exerted by the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R in the process of lipid membrane remodeling crucial to complete capacitation. To this aim, boar sperm were incubated in vitro under capacitating conditions (stimulated by bicarbonate in the presence or in the absence of methanandamide (Met-AEA, a non-hydrolysable analogue of anandamide. The CB1R involvement was studied by using the specific inhibitor (SR141716 or mimicking its activation by adding a permeable cAMP analogue (8Br-cAMP. By an immunocytochemistry approach it was shown that the Met-AEA inhibits the bicarbonate-dependent translocation of CB1R from the post-equatorial to equatorial region of sperm head. In addition it was found that Met-AEA is able to prevent the bicarbonate-induced increase in membrane disorder and the cholesterol extraction, both preliminary to capacitation, acting through a CB1R-cAMP mediated pathway, as indicated by MC540 and filipin staining, EPR spectroscopy and biochemical analysis on whole membranes (CB1R activity and on membrane enriched fraction (C/P content and anisotropy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these data demonstrate that the endocannabinoid system strongly inhibits the process of sperm capacitation, acting as membrane stabilizing agent, thus increasing the basic knowledge on capacitation-related signaling and potentially opening new perspectives in diagnostics and therapeutics of male infertility.

  4. Direct contact between boar spermatozoa and porcine oviductal epithelial cell (OEC) cultures is needed for optimal sperm survival in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, M; Lloyd, R E; Badia, E; Briz, M; Bonet, S; Holt, W V

    2009-07-01

    Oviductal epithelial cell (OEC) co-culture prolongs sperm viability and motility in vitro in a number of species including humans and horses. This study has sought to determine the effects of homologous OEC co-culture on boar sperm function. To determine whether the effects on spermatozoa were specifically caused by co-culture with or by OEC secretions, or by both factors together, a number of co-culture and cell-conditioned medium (CM) experiments were conducted. Firstly, Percoll-washed spermatozoa were co-cultured with OECs and pig kidney epithelial (LLC-PK1) cells, and in medium without cells. Secondly, Percoll-washed spermatozoa were incubated with CM derived from both OECs and LLC-PK1 cells and in unconditioned medium. A number of sperm function parameters were assessed after 5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min, and 24h of co-culturing or incubation with CM. Of all the sperm function parameters investigated, the percentage (%) viability data yielded the most interesting results. OECs (mean+/-S.E.M.; 31.2+/-1.10) were better than LLC-PK1 cells (24.3+/-0.93) at prolonging the viability of unbound spermatozoa after 24h of co-culturing (Psperm function parameters, e.g., capacitation and motility, were also influenced by OEC co-culturing and incubation with CM, although to a lesser degree. In conclusion, porcine homologous OEC co-culture and CM incubation specifically affect sperm function. However, we propose that it is OEC co-culturing, rather than OEC-CM, that has the greater influence.

  5. A comparative chromosome analysis of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornnarong Siripiyasing

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is the first comparative chromosome analysis report of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and its relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique. Blood samples of the Thai wild boar were taken from two males and two females kept in Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo. After standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37 oC for 72 hr. in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and airdried. Conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of Thai wild boar was 2n (diploid = 38, and the fundamental numbers (NF were 62 in the male and female. The type of autosomes were 12 metacentric, 14 submetacentric, 4 acrocentric and 6 telocentric chromosomes, with X and Y chromosomes being metacentric chromosomes. We found that chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, X and Y had the same Gbanding and high-resolution technique patterns as those of domestic pig chromosomes. Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 15 are similar to those of domestic pig chromosomes. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the Thai wild boar and the domestic pig.

  6. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: IV. Simulation studies on consumer dissatisfaction with entire male pork and the effect of sorting carcasses on the slaughter line, main conclusions and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneau, M.; Walstra, P.; Claudi-Magnussen, C.

    2000-01-01

    An international study has been conducted in order to determine the respective contributions of androstenone and skatole to boar taint and their possible variations according to production systems and consumer populations. The presentation of the study and the main results concerning skatole and

  7. Effects of long-term in vitro exposure of ejaculated boar sperm to zearalenone and α-zearalenol in sperm liquid storage medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambuu, Rentsenkhand; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Namula, Zhao; Nii, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Uno, Seiich; Kokushi, Emiko; Tshering, Chenga; dos Santos, Regiane Rodrigues; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Otoi, Takeshige

    2013-01-01

    The effects of in vitro exposure of porcine spermatozoa to zearalenone (ZEN) and α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) were studied by evaluating several parameters of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) system. For this purpose, boar spermatozoa cultured with semen storage medium containing 0 (control), 10 and 1000 µg/L of ZEN and α-ZOL for 1 week at 5°C were used for IVF of in vitro matured oocytes. Overall, there were no significant differences in the rates of total penetration, monospermic fertilization, and polyspermic fertilization of oocytes inseminated with spermatozoa from the different groups. Similarly, ZEN and α-ZOL at 10 and 1000 µg/L did not have detrimental effects on the cleavage and development to blastocysts of oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Although the motility, viability, and plasma membrane integrity of spermatozoa significantly decreased after 3 weeks of storage compared to non-stored spermatozoa (P < 0.05), ZEN and α-ZOL at the evaluated concentrations did not exert detrimental effects on the above parameters, even after 3 weeks of storage. These results indicate that prolonged exposure of boar spermatozoa to ZEN and α-ZOL up to 1000 µg/L under reduced metabolic conditions does not affect their in vitro function. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Pigs and wild boar in Corsica harbor Echinococcus canadensis G6/7 at levels of concern for public health and local economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Richomme, Céline; Hormaz, Vanessa; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Boué, Franck

    2014-05-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic zoonosis widespread in the Mediterranean area. The parasite is commonly maintained in a domestic cycle involving dogs and livestock species. As no new data have been made available for the last 15 years concerning the French Mediterranean island of Corsica, a cross-sectional survey at the slaughterhouse was conducted in 2009-2010 to describe the current presence of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in intermediate hosts. Only pig infections with the G6/7 genotype of Echinococcus canadensis were observed. No infection was detected in other breeding species but this should be interpreted with caution because 75% of the cows inspected during the survey were calves, and all sheep and goats were younger than two months old. In parallel four wild boars harvested during the 2010-2011 hunting season were also infected by the same genotype. These data constitute the first report of E. canadensis in France and the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus sensu lato in a wild species in France. The current prevalence observed in pigs (5.9%, n=2527) highlights the fact that CE is still of economic concern on Corsica, an island where certain regional products are produced using pig's liver ("Figatelli"). This prevalence, and the similar one observed in wild boars (4.0%, n=101), is a consequence of certain breeding practices and hunting practices which enable circulation of the parasite in the environment in close contact with humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Supplemental effect of different levels of taurine in Modena on boar semen quality during liquid preservation at 17°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Fang, Qian; Liu, Qi; Du, Ren-Rang; Yang, Gong-She; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Peroxidation damage induces sublethal injury to boar sperm during the storage process. Taurine has already been demonstrated to protect cells effectively from oxidant-induced injury. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of taurine (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mmol/L) in Modena diluent on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Ejaculates from sexually mature Duroc pigs were collected, pooled and preserved in the Modena containing different concentrations of taurine. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde content (MDA) were examined every 24 h. Modena diluent containing taurine suppressed the reduction in sperm qualities during the process of liquid preservation compared with those of the control group. After 5 days of liquid preservation, the addition of taurine at 5 mmol/L had the optimal effect on survival time as well as maintenance of motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, T-AOC activity and MDA content. These results may suggest the possibility that the proper addition of taurine to the semen extender improves the swine production system using artificial insemination by the suppressing of sperm damage and subsequent dysfunction during liquid preservation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in hunters from a district in Central Germany, 2013: a cross-sectional study providing evidence for the benefit of protective gloves during disembowelling of wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielke, A; Ibrahim, V; Czogiel, I; Faber, M; Schrader, C; Dremsek, P; Ulrich, R G; Johne, R

    2015-10-22

    In Germany, 17% of the general human population have antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) (recomLine HEV-IgG/IgM immunoassay [Mikrogen GmbH]). Wild boars represent an animal reservoir for HEV genotype 3, which is the common genotype in Germany. We estimated the seroprevalence among hunters with contact to wild boars to identify factors that may be associated with past or present HEV infection. In 2013, the local veterinarian authority in a district in Central Germany attended meetings of hunters who provided blood specimens and completed a questionnaire collecting information on age, sex, hunting-related activities and consumption of wild boar meat. Specimens of wild boars were taken during drive hunts in this district during the season 2012/2013. All specimens were tested for HEV RNA and anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for the hunters. Of 126 hunters (median age 55; 94% male) 21% tested positive for anti-HEV IgG antibodies (95% confidence interval [CI] 13-28%) (recomWell HEV IgG assay [Mikrogen GmbH]). Anti-HEV prevalence was highest in the age group of the 70-79-year-olds (67%; 95% CI 39-95%). Wild boars showed an average anti-HEV prevalence of 41%. HEV RNA was detected in 4/22 (18%) liver specimens and in 1/22 (4.5%) muscle specimens. Most wild boars were tested positive for HEV RNA (3/10; 30%) and HEV-specific antibodies (7/15; 47%) in the southwestern part of the district. Hunters preferring this hunting ground had a lower anti-HEV prevalence when gloves were frequently used during disembowelling of wild boars compared to hunters using gloves never or infrequently (age-adjusted PR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.86). Hunters may benefit from wearing gloves when in contact with blood or body fluids of HEV animal reservoirs. Anti-HEV prevalence among the hunters of this study did not significantly differ from that of the general population suggesting that other factors play a major role in the

  11. In Romania, exposure to Toxoplasma gondii occurs twice as often in swine raised for familial consumption as in hunted wild boar, but occurs rarely, if ever, among fattening pigs raised in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Györke, Adriana; Blaga, Radu; Mircean, Viorica; Rosenthal, Benjamin Martin; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    A wide range of swine husbandry practices prevail in Romania: pork for human consumption is derived from hunting wild boar, from household rearing of small numbers of backyard pigs, and from indoor, industrial production of swine raised in confinement indoors. Romania thus represents an instructive place for evaluating the influence of animal management on the exposure risk of the zoonotic parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The fact that many Romanians eat uncooked or undercooked pork, especially when raised for household consumption, elevates the public health imperative to understand these risks. The aim of the study, therefore, was to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in pigs and wild boars from Romania. During 2008-2010, we collected 3,595 serum samples from pigs (fattening pigs, sows, backyard pigs) and 150 serum samples from wild boars. The sera were assayed by immunofluorescence antibody test (cutoff, 1:32) for antibodies against T. gondii. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 23.1 % (829/3,595) in pigs and 16 % (24/150) in wild boars. The seroprevalence was significantly higher (p pigs (30.5 %; 783/2,564) than in sows (12.4 %; 46/371) or fattening pigs (none of the sera was positive). The management system (indoor pigs versus backyard pigs) represented the most important factor in the epidemiology of T. gondii infection. The proximity of backyard pigs to the definitive host of this parasite (cats), as well as their access to contaminated meat products, elevated their exposure risk well above that of pigs raised in confinement, and even above that of wild boars inhabiting sylvatic environments.

  12. Steroid hormones, boar taint compounds, and reproductive organs in pigs according to the delay between immunocastration and slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubale, V; Batorek, N; Skrlep, M; Prunier, A; Bonneau, M; Fazarinc, G; Candek-Potokar, M

    2013-01-01

    The producer of vaccine against GnRH recommends that immunocastrated pigs are to be slaughtered within 4 to 6 weeks after the second vaccination (V2). The objective of the study was to examine the effect of shorter or longer delay on steroid hormones, boar taint compounds, and morphologic and histologic traits of reproductive organs. Forty male pigs (individually housed and fed a commercial diet) were assigned within litter to four treatment groups, 10 pigs were left entire (EM27) and the others were vaccinated against GnRH (Improvac, Pfizer Animal Health) at the age of 12 and 19 weeks. Pigs were slaughtered at 21 (IC21), 24 (IC24), and 27 (IC27 and EM27) weeks of age. Two EM27 pigs died during the experiment, one IC21 pig was excluded because of illness, one IC27 pig was a nonresponder, and two pigs (IC24 and IC27) were hermaphrodites. To assess the effect on steroid hormones, blood was taken at 12, 15, 19, 21, and 24 weeks of age. Subcutaneous fat and reproductive organs were sampled after slaughter for determination of androstenone, skatole, morphologic, and histologic measurements. Immmunocastration interrupted the rise of estrogen and caused a substantial fall of testosterone in IC21, IC24, and IC27 pigs. As a result, androstenone and skatole levels were successfully reduced regardless of the time elapsed from V2. The weight of the reproductive organs was also drastically reduced, the shrinkage being proportional to the length of the interval between V2 and slaughter and was the most evident for vesicular glands, followed by bulbourethral glands, and testes. Corresponding changes were observed also on a histologic level with a progressive decrease in the size and number of Leydig cells, a diminishing immunoreactivity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ-5-4 isomerase, and luteinizing hormone receptor, along with a shrinkage of tubuli seminiferi, atrophy of seminiferous epithelium, and a loss of germ cells, indicating a disruption in testicular

  13. Expression, immunolocalization and processing of fertilins ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 in the boar (sus domesticus) spermatozoa during epididymal maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Fertilin alpha (ADAM-1) and beta (ADAM-2) are integral membrane proteins of the ADAM family that form a fertilin complex involved in key steps of the sperm-oocyte membrane interaction. In the present work, we analyzed the presence of ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs, the spermatozoa proteins' processing and their sub-cellular localization in epididymal samples from adult boars. ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs were highly produced in the testis, but also in the vas efferens and the epididymis. On immunoblots of sperm extracts, ADAM-1 subunit appeared as a main reactive band of ~50-55 kDa corresponding to occurrence of different isoforms throughout the epididymal duct, especially in the corpus region where isoforms ranged from acidic to basic pI. In contrast, ADAM-2 was detected as several bands of ~90 kDa, ~75 kDa, ~50-55 kDa and ~40 kDa. The intensity of high molecular mass bands decreased progressively in the distal corpus where lower bands were also transiently observed, and only the ~40 kDa was observed in the cauda. The presence of bands of different molecular weights likely results from a proteolytic processing occurring mainly in the testis for ADAM-1, and also throughout the caput epididymis for ADAM-2. Immunolocalization showed that fertilin migrates from the acrosomal region to the acrosomal ridge during the sperm transit from the distal corpus to the proximal cauda. This migration is accompanied by an important change in the extractability of a part of ADAM-1 from the sperm membrane. This suggests that the fertilin surface migration may be triggered by the biochemical changes induced by the epididymal post-translational processing of both ADAM1 and ADAM-2. Different patterns of fertilin immunolocalization then define several populations of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis. Characterization of such fertilin complex maturation patterns is an important step to develop fertility markers based on epididymal maturation of surface membrane proteins in domestic mammals. PMID

  14. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of 137 Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone – 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone – 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of 137 Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The 137 Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg – animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3–10.6 kBq/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of 137 Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of 90 Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that 90 Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of 90 Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained 90 Sr – 30.0–110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0–30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone

  15. Effect of freezing and thawing rates on the post-thaw viability of boar spermatozoa frozen in FlatPacks and Maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, B M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-11-01

    The effects of different freezing and thawing rates on the post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of boar spermatozoa, processed as split samples in Maxi-straws or flat PET-plastic packages (FlatPack) were studied. A programmable freezing device was used to obtain freezing rates of either 20, 50 or 80 degrees C/min. Thawing of the samples was performed in a bath of circulating water; for 40s at 50 degrees C or 27s at 70 degrees C for Maxi-straws and 23s at 35 degrees C, 13s at 50 degrees C or 8s at 70 degrees C for the FlatPacks. Sperm motility was assessed both visually and with a computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) apparatus, while plasma membrane integrity was assessed using the fluorescent probes Calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1. Temperature changes during freezing and thawing were monitored in both forms of packaging. Values for motile spermatozoa, sperm velocity and lateral head displacement variables were significantly (pstraws, with superior results at higher thawing rates. Freezing at 50 degrees C/min yielded better motility than 20 or 80 degrees C/min, although the effect was rather small. Neither freezing rate nor thawing rate had any effect on membrane integrity (p>0.05). A significant boar effect was seen for several parameters. The most striking difference in temperature courses between containers was a 4-5-fold lowering of the thawing rate, between -20 and 0 degrees C, in the center of the Maxi-straw, compared with the FlatPack. This is apparently due to the insulating effect of the thawed water in the periphery of the Maxi-straw. The improvement in sperm motility seen when using the FlatPack appears to be related to the rapid thawing throughout the sample, which decreases the risk of cell damage due to recrystallization during thawing. Since sperm motility patterns have been reported to be correlated with fertility both in vitro and in vivo it is speculated that the use of the FlatPack might improve the results when using frozen

  16. Occurrence and characterization of stx and/or eae-positive Escherichia coli isolated from wildlife, including a typical EPEC strain from a wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carla Andrea; Mora, Azucena; Díaz, Dafne; Blanco, Miguel; González-Barrio, David; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Simón, Carmen; Blanco, Jorge; Torres, Carmen

    2017-08-01

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains are food-borne pathogens associated with acute diarrhea. Haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is often a complication of STEC infection. In order to examine the occurrence, serotypes, virulence and antimicrobial-resistance profiles of STEC and EPEC in wildlife, 326 faecal E. coli strains from 304 clinically healthy animals were analyzed. For this approach stx 1 , stx 2 and eae genes, as well as accessory virulence determinants (ehx, hlyA, saa, tia, bfp, subAB) were PCR-screened and sequenced. Serotyping was performed employing all available O (O1-O185) and H (H1-H56) antisera. Genetic diversity was analyzed by XbaI-PFGE and phylotyping. Thirteen STEC (4.3%) and 10 EPEC (3.3%) were identified among 12 deer, 3 mouflon, 6 wild boars and 2 birds. Nine STEC showed seropathotypes B (O145:[H28]) and C (O22:H8, O128:[H2]) associated with HUS, and D (O110:H28, O146:H21, O146:[H28], ONT:H8) associated with human diarrhea. Although most isolates harbored stx 2b and stx 1c variants, stx 2a and stx 1a (related with severe disease) were also detected. Additionally, the eae gene was present in one stx 2a -positive O145:[H28] STEC from a deer and 11 STEC harbored subAB genes (mainly the subAB 2 variant). EPEC isolates showed 7 different intimin variants (β1, β2, γ1, ε1, ζ1, ι1-A, κ). Interestingly, the O49:[H10] eae-κ EPEC isolated from a wild boar was bfpA-positive showing a combination of serotype/virulence profile previously detected among human clinical tEPEC. Based on present results, wild ruminants, wild boars and to a lesser extent birds would be carriers of potentially pathogenic STEC and EPEC strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transferable integrons of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the gut of a wild boar in the buffer zone of a national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of integron-bearing Gram-negative bacteria in the gut of a wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) shot in the buffer zone of a national park. Five Gram-negative strains of Escherichia coli, Serratia odorifera, Hafnia alvei and Pseudomonas sp. were isolated. Four of these strains had class 2 integrase (intI2), and one harbored class 1 integrase (intI1). The integron-positive strains were multiresistant, i.e., resistant to at least three unrelated antibiotics. All of the integrons were transferred to E. coli J-53 (Rif(R)) in a conjugation assay. The results showed that a number of multiresistant, integron-containing bacterial strains of different genera may inhabit a single individual of a wild animal, allowing the possibility of transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes.

  18. Evaluation of the proliferative activity of immunocompetent cells in the jejunal and iliac lymph nodes of prepubertal female wild boars diagnosed with mixed mycotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielonka Łukasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the proliferative activity of immunocompetent cells in the jejunal and iliac lymph nodes of prepubertal female wild boars exposed to deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in naturally contaminated feed. The evaluation was performed with the use of the MTT assay and 2 mitogens: lipopolysaccharide (LPS and concanavalin A. Intensified proliferative processes in T and B lymphocytes were revealed. The mitogenic activity of LPS was more expressed in the lymphocytes of both iliac and jejunal lymph nodes in comparison with the control group. Proliferative activity was higher in iliac lymph nodes than in jejunal lymph nodes. A reverse trend was observed in the percentage of live cells, which was higher in jejunal lymph nodes during the evaluation of lymphocyte proliferation.

  19. Levels of Metals in Kidney, Liver, and Muscle Tissue and their Influence on the Fitness for the Consumption of Wild Boar from Western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparík, Jozef; Binkowski, Łukasz J; Jahnátek, Andrej; Šmehýl, Peter; Dobiaš, Milan; Lukáč, Norbert; Błaszczyk, Martyna; Semla, Magdalena; Massanyi, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Due to environmental pollution, wild animals are exposed to various pollutants. Some game animals, such as wild boars are used by people for food, but their meat is not evaluated regarding pollution transfer, since they are unavailable on the official market. The aim of this paper is to present the concentrations of chosen metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in the kidneys, liver, and muscles of wild boars (n = 40) hunted in eastern Slovakia, as derivatives of physiological distribution and anthropogenic pollution. We found that sex was not a statistically significant factor for metal concentrations. Tissue differences were observed for all the metals studied except for Co. Cd, Cu, and Hg showed the highest median concentrations in kidney tissue with the lowest in muscle tissue (2.73, 3.78, and 0.061 μg/g w.w., respectively). The highest Zn median concentration was noted in the liver tissue with the lowest in muscle tissue. Co and Cu concentrations varied according to the age groups. Correlations between metal concentrations in muscle and kidney tissue were not especially strong; such relationships were not found in liver tissue. Among all the potential relationships of the given metal concentrations between tissues, the only significant relationship, albeit weak, was noted for Pb in muscle and liver tissue. The concentrations found seem not to be extremely high, but according to EU maximum permitted residue levels for Cd and Pb concentrations in meat, none of the samples studied was fully fit for human consumption. TWI and risk was also excessive for both metals.

  20. New insights on the management of wildlife diseases using multi-state recapture models: the case of classical swine fever in wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sophie; Toigo, Carole; Hars, Jean; Pol, Françoise; Hamann, Jean-Luc; Depner, Klaus; Le Potier, Marie-Frederique

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of host-parasite systems in wildlife is of increasing interest in relation to the risk of emerging diseases in livestock and humans. In this respect, many efforts have been dedicated to controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in the European Wild Boar. But CSF eradication has not always been achieved even though vaccination has been implemented at a large-scale. Piglets have been assumed to be the main cause of CSF persistence in the wild since they appeared to be more often infected and less often immune than older animals. However, this assumption emerged from laboratory trials or cross-sectional surveys based on the hunting bags. In the present paper we conducted a capture-mark-recapture study in free-ranging wild boar piglets that experienced both CSF infection and vaccination under natural conditions. We used multi-state capture recapture models to estimate the immunization and infection rates, and their variations according to the periods with or without vaccination. According to the model prediction, 80% of the infected piglets did not survive more than two weeks, while the other 20% quickly recovered. The probability of becoming immune did not increase significantly during the summer vaccination sessions, and the proportion of immune piglets was not higher after the autumn vaccination. Given the high lethality of CSF in piglets highlighted in our study, we consider unlikely that piglets could maintain the chain of CSF virus transmission. Our study also revealed the low efficacy of vaccination in piglets in summer and autumn, possibly due to the low palatability of baits to that age class, but also to the competition between baits and alternative food sources. Based on this new information, we discuss the prospects for the improvement of CSF control and the interest of the capture-recapture approach for improving the understanding of wildlife diseases.

  1. Intracellular calcium movements of boar spermatozoa during 'in vitro' capacitation and subsequent acrosome exocytosis follow a multiple-storage place, extracellular calcium-dependent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, M; Fernández-Novell, J M; Ramió-Lluch, L; Estrada, E; Rocha, L G; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T; Concha, I I; Ramírez, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J E

    2015-07-01

    This work analysed intracellular calcium stores of boar spermatozoa subjected to 'in vitro' capacitation (IVC) and subsequent progesterone-induced acrosome exocytosis (IVAE). Intracellular calcium was analysed through two calcium markers with different physico-chemical properties, Fluo-3 and Rhod-5N. Indicative parameters of IVC and IVAE were also evaluated. Fluo-3 was located at both the midpiece and the whole head. Rhod-5N was present at the sperm head. This distribution did not change in any of the assayed conditions. Induction of IVC was concomitant with an increase in both head and midpiece Ca(2+) signals. Additionally, while IVC induction was concurrent with a significant (p spermatozoa in the absence of calcium showed a loss of both Ca(2+) labellings concomitantly with the sperm's inability to achieve IVC. The absence of extracellular calcium also induced a severe decrease in the percentage of spermatozoa exhibiting high mitochondrial membrane potential (hMMP). The IVAE was accompanied by a fast increase in both Ca(2+) signalling in control spermatozoa. These peaks were either not detected or much lessened in the absence of calcium. Remarkably, Fluo-3 marking at the midpiece increased after progesterone addition to sperm cells incubated in a medium without Ca(2+) . The simultaneous addition of progesterone with the calcium chelant EGTA inhibited IVAE, and this was accompanied by a significant (p spermatozoa present different calcium deposits with a dynamic equilibrium among them and with the extracellular environment. Additionally, the modulation role of the intracellular calcium in spermatozoa function seems to rely on its precise localization in boar spermatozoa. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  2. Conception Rate and Litter Size in Multiparous Sows after Intrauterine Insemination Using Frozen-Thawed Boar Semen in a Commercial Swine Herd in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANAPIWAT, Panida; OLANRATMANEE, Em-On; KAEOKET, Kampon; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment sows were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (2 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 20 ml) at 24 and 36 hr after induction of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. All inseminations were carried out by using an intra-uterine insemination technique. The time of ovulation was determined by using transrectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography. The conception rate, farrowing rate, total number of piglets born/litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive/litter (BA) were evaluated. The sows inseminated with extended fresh semen yield a higher TB (10.8 versus 9.0 piglets/l, P=0.015) and tended to have a higher conception rate (88.9% versus 75.8%, P=0.150) than sows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen can be practiced with convinced fertility under field conditions by fixed-time intrauterine insemination with 2 × 109 sperm/ dose of 20 ml at 24 and 36 hr after the onset of estrus. PMID:24954517

  3. The impact of olive leaves, mosses and the burrowing of wild boars on soil erosion in olive orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Brevik, Eric C.; Pulido, Manuel; Maestre, Fermando T.; Taguas, Tani; Novara, Agata; Keesstra, Saskia; Cammeraat, Erik; Parras-Alcantara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    The main factor controlling soil erosion is vegetation cover (Cerdà and Doerr, 2005; Van Eck et al., 2016; van Hall et al., 2017). However, due to the removal of the vegetation in agricultural fields and the increase in soil erosion rates other factors arise as keys to control soil erosion rates and mechanisms (Ochoa-Cueva et al., 2016; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). Soil erosion rates in olive plantations are high due to the lack of vegetation cover as a consequence of intensive tillage and herbicides abuse (Taguas et al., 2015; Parras-Alcantara et al., 2016; Zema et al., 2016). This is also found in vineyards and other orchards around the world (Prosdocimi et al., 2016; Rodrígo Comino et al., 2016), and the reason to look for sustainable management techniques such as geotextiles, mulches or catch crops that will stop the accelerated soil erosion (Giménez Morera et al., 2010; Mwango et al., 2016; Nawaz et al., 2016a; 2016b; Nishigaki et al., 2016). All these management techniques are difficult to apply and have high costs. Natural solutions such as weeds to provide cover are very efficient and have no cost (Cerdà et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016) and they can be adapted to the management of the farmers. In olive orchards under herbicide treatment there is a natural growth of mosses and the development of a litter layer composed of olive leaves. There is also burrowing by wild boars that "ploughs" the soil. This research evaluates the impact of the three items above on soil erosion. The measurements were carried out using simulated rainfall experiments over an area of 0.25 m2 at a rainfall rate of 55 mm h-1 during one hour (Cerdà, 1996; Prosdocimi et al., 2017) on 15 plots of mosses, 15 wild boar burrowed surfaces and 15 leaf covered surfaces during the winter of 2015. The soil erosion rates were 34 times greater in the wild boar burrowed soils, meanwhile the litter and mosses covered soils showed similar erosional responses and the soil erosion rates were

  4. The Increase in Phosphorylation Levels of Serine Residues of Protein HSP70 during Holding Time at 17°C Is Concomitant with a Higher Cryotolerance of Boar Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Estrada, Efrén; Rivera del Álamo, Maria-Montserat; Bonet, Sergi; Rigau, Teresa; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan-Enric

    2014-01-01

    Boar-sperm cryopreservation is not usually performed immediately after semen collection, but rather a holding time (HT) of 4 h–30 h at 17°C is spent before starting this procedure. Taking this into account, the aim of this study was to go further in-depth into the mechanisms underlying the improving effects of HT at 17°C on boar-sperm cryotolerance by evaluating the effects of two different HTs (3 h and 24 h) on overall boar-sperm function and survival before and after cryopreservation. Given that phospho/dephosphorylation mechanisms are of utmost importance in the overall regulation of sperm function, the phosphorylation levels of serine residues (pSer) in 30 different sperm proteins after a 3 h- or 24 h-HT period were also assessed. We found that a HT of 24 h contributed to a higher sperm resistance to freeze-thawing procedures, whereas mini-array protein analyses showed that a HT of 24 h induced a significant (Pspermatozoa modulate its function during HT, at least partially, by changes in pSer levels of proteins like HSP70, and this is related to a higher cryotolerance. PMID:24603527

  5. Aujeszky’s Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, François; Rossi, Sophie; Jori, Ferran; Maestrini, Oscar; Richomme, Céline; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian; Jouve, Johan; Pavio, Nicole; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2018-01-01

    Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild–domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Second, we performed an analysis at a more restricted geographical scale, to assess the matching of ADV or HEV prevalence between sympatric wild boar and outdoor pig farms most exposed to interactions with wildlife. Logistic models were adjusted to the observed data. A high seroprevalence of HEV (>80%) and ADV (40%) in pigs, with no significant difference according to the region, confirms that both pathogens are enzootic in Corsica. Vaccination against ADV had a strong protective effect, even when performed voluntarily by farmers. Farm biosafety had an additional effect on pigs’ exposure, suggesting that contact between wild boars and pigs were involved in disease transmission. A strong correlation in HEV seroprevalence was observed between pigs and wild boars that were in close contact, and significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in pigs when they had little contact with wild boars due to spatial segregation. These results suggest a regular HEV circulation between sympatric wild boar and domestic pigs. The high HEV seroprevalence observed in domestic pigs (>80%) suggests a spillover of the virus from domestic to wild populations through environmental contamination, but this hypothesis has to be confirmed. Conversely, even though avoiding sows’ release on pasture during estrus showed some protecting effect in the free ranging pig farms regarding ADV, ADV

  6. Aujeszky’s Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Charrier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild–domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Second, we performed an analysis at a more restricted geographical scale, to assess the matching of ADV or HEV prevalence between sympatric wild boar and outdoor pig farms most exposed to interactions with wildlife. Logistic models were adjusted to the observed data. A high seroprevalence of HEV (>80% and ADV (40% in pigs, with no significant difference according to the region, confirms that both pathogens are enzootic in Corsica. Vaccination against ADV had a strong protective effect, even when performed voluntarily by farmers. Farm biosafety had an additional effect on pigs’ exposure, suggesting that contact between wild boars and pigs were involved in disease transmission. A strong correlation in HEV seroprevalence was observed between pigs and wild boars that were in close contact, and significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in pigs when they had little contact with wild boars due to spatial segregation. These results suggest a regular HEV circulation between sympatric wild boar and domestic pigs. The high HEV seroprevalence observed in domestic pigs (>80% suggests a spillover of the virus from domestic to wild populations through environmental contamination, but this hypothesis has to be confirmed. Conversely, even though avoiding sows’ release on pasture during estrus showed some protecting effect in the free ranging pig farms regarding ADV

  7. The use of skimmed dried milk as an alternative diluent for the cooling step during the boar sêmen freezing procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyane Bandeira Barros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the critical points in the cryopreservation process is the use of a proper diluent while lowering the temperature following the resuspension and thawing processes. Here, we tested an alternative diluent for the process of freezing boar semen. We used skimmed dried milk (SDM during the cooling and post-thawed resuspension steps. To do so, we collected semen from 15 Dalland boars using the glovedhand technique, and incubated each ejaculate sample at 30 °C. We then removed two semen aliquots from a pre-dilution. We diluted one of the aliquots in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS - control, and the remaining sample was diluted in SDM. Both aliquots were subsequently held at 30º C for 45 min (1st period of stabilization. At the end of this period, we analysed vigor and motility to determine sperm metabolic activity. We then held the diluted semen at 25° C for 30 min (2nd period of stabilization and at 17° C for 2 h (3rd period stabilization. We centrifuged the semen at 800 × g and 1600 × g at 5º C for 15 min, discarded the supernatant, and resuspended the sperm pellet in 2 mL of the cooling diluent at 5° C for 1h. We again diluted the samples in 2 mL of the freezing diluent, poured them into straws, and cooled and plunged them into liquid N2. The sêmen samples were thawed in a 39º C water bath, and were resuspended in their respective diluents at the same temperature. We determined the following sperm features: vigor, motility, vitality, acrosomal integrity and membrane functionality. During the first phase of temperature cooling (30º C, semen diluted in SDM exhibited a higher vigor (3.4 ± 0.6 and motility (78.6 ± 13.0 than those diluted BTS (vigor: 3.1 ± 0.7; motility: 69.4±14.3. However, after the thawing procedure, the inverse was observed in that: BTS samples exhibited a higher vigor (2.1 ± 0.6 and motility (35.5 ± 21.0 than SDM samples (vigor: 1.7 ± 0.9; motility: 22.8 ± 18.1. Regarding membrane functionality and

  8. Viable and morphologically normal boar spermatozoa alter the expression of heat-shock protein genes in oviductal epithelial cells during co-culture in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Holt, William V; Bonet, Sergi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Lloyd, Rhiannon E

    2014-09-01

    The principal aim of this study was to determine if boar spermatozoa influence the expression of four selected chaperone and heat-shock protein (HSP) genes-namely clusterin (CLU), HSP90AA1, HSPA5, and HSPA8-in oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) during in vitro co-culture. All corresponding proteins of these genes were previously identified in a sperm-interacting, 70-kDa soluble fraction derived from apical plasma membranes of OECs. The present study also sought to determine whether or not: (i) spermatozoa must directly bind to OEC for an effect on gene expression to be elicited and (ii) reproductive and nonreproductive epithelial cell types (LLC-PK1, pig kidney) respond equivalently, in terms of alterations in chaperone and HSP gene expression, during co-culture with sperm. Spermatozoa induced a significant upregulation (P culture when they were in direct contact with epithelial cells. Conversely, no upregulation of HSP transcription was observed when spermatozoa did not directly bind to OECs. Spermatozoa also induced a significant upregulation (P caused by direct contact between spermatozoa and OECs, rather than nonreproductive epithelial cells, suggests HSPs could play an integral role in the modulation of sperm function in the oviductal reservoir. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF SEMINAL PLASMA, VITAMIN E AND INCUBATION TIME ON POST-THAWED SPERM VIABILITY IN BOAR SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba G C Pech-Sansores

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of seminal plasma (SP, vitamin E (VE, and incubation time on sperm viability of post-thawed boar semen. Thirty six ejaculates were used and allocated to four treatments: T1, semen + BTS (Belstville Thawing Solution + 10% SP; T2, semen + BTS + 200μg/ml VE; T3, semen + BTS + 10% SP + 200μg/ml VE; T4, semen + BTS (control. Motility (MOT, intact acrosomes (IA, membrane integrity (MI and mitochondrial activity (MA were evaluated, at 0 and 30 min after thawing. A split plot design was used and the data analyzed using a mixed model analysis of variance. There was a significant effect of SP and VE on IA and MI (P0.05. There was significant effect of incubation time on MOT (21.3 and 27.9% and IA (46.0 and 36.0%, at 0 and 30 min post-thawing (P <0.05. It is concluded that the vitamin E, seminal plasma or the combination of both, affected the thawed sperm traits here studied. Incubation time increased motility and intact acrosome percentage but did not affect the membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity.

  10. Identification by affinity chromatography of boar sperm membrane-associated proteins bound to immobilized porcine zona pellucida. Mapping of the phosphorylethanolamine-binding region of spermadhesin AWN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensslin, M; Calvete, J J; Thole, H H; Sierralta, W D; Adermann, K; Sanz, L; Töpfer-Petersen, E

    1995-12-01

    We have identified boar sperm membrane components recovered by affinity chromatography on a porcine zona pellucida affinity column. The major zona pellucida-bound proteins were spermadhesins AWN and AQN-3, the heparin-binding protein pAIF, and a homolog of the mouse milk fat globule membrane protein. All these proteins are phospholipid-binding proteins peripherally associated with the plasma membrane. Our data suggest that coating proteins tightly bound to the external lipid bilayer may act as major zona pellucida-binding molecules. Using a synthetic peptide approach we show that the regions of spermadhesin AWN comprising residues 6-12 and 104-108 possess affinity for phosphorylethanolamine. These two amino acid sequences are in close proximity in the predicted structural model for AWN, and in opposite location to its carbohydrate-recognition domain. Taken together, our data provide further evidence for the possible involvement of members of the porcine spermadhesin protein family in gamete interaction and suggest a model for the ultrastructural disposition of functional domains of spermadhesin AWN bound to the sperm surface.

  11. Estabelecimento do processo espermatogênico em javalis ("Sus scrofa scrofa" criados em cativeiro Establishment of spermatogenic process in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa raised in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Diniz Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa investigar o desenvolvimento do parênquima testicular de javalis, do nascimento aos 12 meses de idade, avaliando a evolução do processo de luminação e dos tipos celulares nos túbulos seminíferos e as proporções volumétricas dos componentes do parênquima testicular associando-os à caracterização das fases de desenvolvimento testicular. Foram utilizados 39 javalis criados em cativeiro, de zero a 12 meses de idade. Após a orquiectomia unilateral fragmentos dos testículos foram incluídos em resina plástica e as lâminas foram preparadas para as análises histométricas. A atividade espermatogênica e o processo de vacuolização epitelial iniciaram a partir dos três meses de idade. A evolução celular do epitélio seminífero foi mais intensa a partir dos nove meses, quando o processo espermatogênico apresentava-se completo e os túbulos seminíferos possuíam lume amplo. Aos 12 meses de idade, a morfologia do processo espermatogênico foi semelhante ao relatado para animais sexualmente maduros e a proporção tubular no parênquima testicular enquadrou-se ao descrito para a maioria dos mamíferos. Conclui-se que os javalis podem ser classificados quanto à fase de desenvolvimento testicular como impúberes do nascimento aos dois meses; como pré-púbere entre três e oito meses; como púberes aos nove meses; como pós-púberes entre 10 e 12 meses; e aos 12 meses apresentam características de animais sexualmente maduros.This study aimed to investigate the development of testicular parenchyma of wild boars, from the birth to 12 months old, evaluating the evolution process of lumination and the cellular types in seminiferous tubules and the volumetric proportions of testicular parenchyma components, associating them to the characterization of testicular development phases. A total of 39 wild boars raised in captivity had been used, from zero to 12 months old. After unilateral orchiectomy, fragments

  12. PI3K/Akt Activated by GPR30 and Src Regulates 17β-Estradiol-Induced Cultured Immature Boar Sertoli Cells Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Rong; Zhu, Feng-Wei; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Xian-Zhong

    2016-05-24

    Sertoli cell (SC) is a key element in the process of spermatogenesis. Accumulating research show that estrogen plays an important role in regulating boar SC proliferation. However, it is unclear whether phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) is involved in this process. In the present study, the role of PI3K/Akt on the 17β-estradiol-induced piglet SC proliferation was explored. In addition, we also explained the roles of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30) and Sarcoma protein (Src) in this process. Our study demonstrated that, 17β-estradiol induced activation of PI3K in a time-dependent manner. Both G-15 (an antagonist of GPR30, 0.1 μmol/L) and PP2 (an inhibitor of Src, 2.0 μmol/L) inhibited 17β-estradiol-induced activation of PI3K, reduced SC proliferation, and decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2). We also found that 17β-estradiol induced activation of Akt in a time-dependent manner. Both LY294002 (an inhibitor of PI3K) and 10-DEBC (an inhibitor of Akt) significantly reduced 17β-estradiol-induced SC proliferation and reduced mRNA and protein expression of Skp2. In addition, LY294002 inhibited 17β-estradiol-induced activation of Akt. The results indicated that 17β-estradiol regulates SC proliferation by activating PI3K/Akt. Both GPR30 and Src are involved in 17β-estradiol-induced phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt. Activation of PI3K/Akt enhances the expression of Skp2, which promotes SC proliferation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic Characteristics of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum Pig Isolates and Wild Boar Isolates Reveal the Unique Presence of a Putative Mobile Genetic Element with tetW for Pig Farm Isolates

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    Sayaka Tsuchida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomic analysis was performed on seven strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum, a Sus-associated Bifidobacterium. Three strains from the feces of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus and four strains from the rectal feces of free-range Japanese wild boars (S. s. scrofa were compared. The phylogenetic position of these isolates suggested by genomic analyses were not concordant with that suggested by 16S rRNA sequence. There was biased distribution of genes for virulence, phage, metabolism of aromatic compounds, iron acquisition, cell division, and DNA metabolism. In particular four wild boar isolates harbored fiber-degrading enzymes, such as endoglucanase, while two of the pig isolates obtained from those grown under an intensive feeding practice with routine use of antimicrobials, particularly tetracycline harbored a tetracycline resistance gene, which was further proved functional by disk diffusion test. The tetW gene is associated with a serine recombinase of an apparently non-bifidobacterial origin. The insertion site of the tetW cassette was precisely defined by analyzing the corresponding genomic regions in the other tetracycline-susceptible isolates. The cassette may have been transferred from some other bacteria in the pig gut.

  15. Avaliação da suplementação de vitamina A nas características seminais em reprodutores suínos Assessment of vitamin A supplementation on boar semen characteristics

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    Simone Maria Massami Kitamura Martins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de vitamina A na dieta sobre as características seminais (volume, motilidade, pH, vigor e concentração espermática, número total de espermatozoides, percentual de espermatozoides vivos e anormalidades morfológicas de reprodutores suínos no período de um ano (junho de 2004 a junho de 2005. Utilizaram-se dez reprodutores híbridos com 328,5 ± 2,12 dias de idade e 191,0 ± 12,0 kg distribuídos em duas rações, uma controle, com 10.000 UI de vit. A por kg de ração por dia, e outra com 16.000 UI de vit. A, fornecidas na quantidade de 2,5 kg/dia. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com medidas repetidas no tempo. Não houve efeito significativo da suplementação de vitamina A na dieta nem de interação com o tempo nas características seminais estudadas. O tempo teve efeito significativo no pH, na concentração espermática, no número total de espermatozoides, no percentual de espermatozoides vivos, nas anormalidades morfológicas, na motilidade e no vigor espermático. Apesar da não-significância da suplementação de vitamina A, foi possível detectar diferenças numéricas no aumento da motilidade e de espermatozoides vivos, bem como na diminuição das anormalidades morfológicas, resultados que indicam ação da vitamina A.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin A feed supplementation on the following boar semen characteristics: volume, motility, vigor, seminal pH, spermatic concentration, total number of spermatozoa, percentage of living sperm cells and morphologic abnormalities. The experiment was carried out with 10 hybrid boars (328.5 ± 2.12 days of age and 191.0 ± 12.0 kg live weight. The boars were separated into two treatments and fed with two vitamin A levels: control, 10.000 UI/kg feed daily; and vitamin A, 16.000 UI. The boars received 2.5 kg feed daily. A randomized complete design was used with replication measurements in time. There was no

  16. Helmintos e protozoários em fezes de javalis (Sus scrofa scrofa criados em cativeiro Helminths and protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa feces raised in captivity

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    M.J.S. Mundim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faecal samples from 79 wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa were examined by sedimentation method, zinc sulfate flotation method, and centrifugal flotation in sugar solution for endoparasites research. The results showed that 97.5% of the samples were positive for helminths and/or protozoa as follows: strongilides (70.9%, Ascaris suum (46.9%, Trichuris suis (29.1%, Metastrongylus sp. (12.6%, Strongyloides ransomi (3.8%, Balantidium coli (38.0%, Entamoeba spp. (15.2%, Giardia spp. (1.3%, Blastocystis sp. (12.6%. The frequency of Entamoeba was higher in young animals. Coccidian oocysts were observed in 59.5% samples and five species of Eimeria and one Isospora were recovered: Eimeria scabra (31.9%, E. deblieck (31.9%, E. perminuta (23.4%, E. cerdonis (17.0%, E. scrofae (12.8% and Isospora suis (12.8%.

  17. The solubilisation of boar sperm membranes by different detergents - a microscopic, MALDI-TOF MS, 31P NMR and PAGE study on membrane lysis, extraction efficiency, lipid and protein composition

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    Müller Karin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detergents are often used to isolate proteins, lipids as well as "detergent-resistant membrane domains" (DRMs from cells. Different detergents affect different membrane structures according to their physico-chemical properties. However, the effects of different detergents on membrane lysis of boar spermatozoa and the lipid composition of DRMs prepared from the affected sperm membranes have not been investigated so far. Results Spermatozoa were treated with the selected detergents Pluronic F-127, sodium cholate, CHAPS, Tween 20, Triton X-100 and Brij 96V. Different patterns of membrane disintegration were observed by light and electron microscopy. In accordance with microscopic data, different amounts of lipids and proteins were released from the cells by the different detergents. The biochemical methods to assay the phosphorus and cholesterol contents as well as 31P NMR to determine the phospholipids were not influenced by the presence of detergents since comparable amounts of lipids were detected in the organic extracts from whole cell suspensions after exposure to each detergent. However, matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry applied to identify phospholipids was essentially disturbed by the presence of detergents which exerted particular suppression effects on signal intensities. After separation of the membrane fractions released by detergents on a sucrose gradient only Triton X-100 and sodium cholate produced sharp turbid DRM bands. Only membrane solubilisation by Triton X-100 leads to an enrichment of cholesterol, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine in a visible DRM band accompanied by a selective accumulation of proteins. Conclusion The boar sperm membranes are solubilised to a different extent by the used detergents. Particularly, the very unique DRMs isolated after Triton X-100 exposure are interesting candidates for further studies regarding the

  18. Enteritis associated with Lawsonia intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2 infection in wild boars in Southern Brazil Enterite associada com infecção por Lawsonia intracellularis e circovírus suíno tipo 2 em um rebanho de javalis no Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Zlotowski; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Mauro Riegert Borba; Cláudio Estêvão Farias Cruz; David Driemeier

    2008-01-01

    In a commercial herd of 1250 wild boars, 56 animals were affected by anorexia, diarrhea, and wasting. Enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes, thickening of ileal wall, and a white-yellowish ileal content were observed in two of the four animals necropsied. Microscopically, ileal crypts showed epithelial hyperplasia, moderate decrease in goblet cell density, lymphohistiocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria, and moderate depletion with histiocytic infiltrate in Peyer's patches. Curved rod-shap...

  19. Protein disulfide isomerase-P5, down-regulated in the final stage of boar epididymal sperm maturation, catalyzes disulfide formation to inhibit protein function in oxidative refolding of reduced denatured lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akama, Kuniko; Horikoshi, Tomoe; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Nakahata, Satoko; Akitsu, Aoi; Niwa, Nobuyoshi; Intoh, Atsushi; Kakui, Yasutaka; Sugaya, Michiko; Takei, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Noriaki; Sato, Takaya; Matsumoto, Rena; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kashiwabara, Shin-ichi; Baba, Tadashi; Nakamura, Megumi; Toda, Tosifusa

    2010-06-01

    In mammalian spermiogenesis, sperm mature during epididymal transit to get fertility. The pig sharing many physiological similarities with humans is considered a promising animal model in medicine. We examined the expression profiles of proteins from boar epididymal caput, corpus, and cauda sperm by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. Our results indicated that protein disulfide isomerase-P5 (PDI-P5) human homolog was down-regulated from the epididymal corpus to cauda sperm, in contrast to the constant expression of protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3) human homolog. To examine the functions of PDIA3 and PDI-P5, we cloned and sequenced cDNAs of pig PDIA3 and PDI-P5 protein precursors. Each recombinant pig mature PDIA3 and PDI-P5 expressed in Escherichia coli showed thiol-dependent disulfide reductase activities in insulin turbidity assay. Although PDIA3 showed chaperone activity to promote oxidative refolding of reduced denatured lysozyme, PDI-P5 exhibited anti-chaperone activity to inhibit oxidative refolding of lysozyme at an equimolar ratio. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis suggested that disulfide cross-linked and non-productively folded lysozyme was responsible for the anti-chaperone activity of PDI-P5. These results provide a molecular basis and insights into the physiological roles of PDIA3 and PDI-P5 in sperm maturation and fertilization. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efeito da inclusão de diferentes tipos de óleo na dieta de varrões sobre a qualidade do sêmen "in natura" Effect of the inclusion of different types of oil in the diet of boars on the quality of semen "in natura"

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    Silvio Luiz de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de varrões alimentados com rações suplementadas com diferentes tipos de óleos como fontes de ácidos graxos essenciais. Foram utilizados 24 suínos híbridos (AGPIC 337, machos inteiros, com peso inicial médio de 152,7 kg, em um delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (T1 = controle; T2 = 3% óleo de linhaça; T3 = 3% óleo comercial PUFA® e T4 = 3% de óleo de peixe e seis repetições, com um animal por unidade experimental. As rações foram isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas, formuladas à base de milho e farelo de soja. As variáveis analisadas foram parâmetros seminais como motilidade, vigor, volume, concentração, número total de células e anomalias espermáticas, avaliadas entre a quarta e a décima primeira semana do início do fornecimento das rações aos animais. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para motilidade, concentração e anormalidades espermáticas totais (P>0,05, exceto para alteração de cauda (PThe experiment was conducted at Animal Science Department of University of Lavras-MG, with the objective to evaluate the quality of semem in natura of boars fed with rations supplemented with different sources of oils as sources of essential fat acids. Twenty four hybrid boars (AGPIC 337 were used, with initial average weight of 152,7 kg, assigned into a randomized complete blocks design, with four treatments (T1 = control; T2 = 3% linseed oil; T3 = 3% commercial oil PUFA® and T4 = 3% of fish oil and six repetitions, being each animal as a experimental unit. The diets were isoenergetics and isoproteics, formulated with corn and soybean meal. The analyzed variables were seminal parameters as mobility, vigor, volume, concentration, total number of cells and anomalies spermatic, valued between four and eleventh week of the

  1. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: IV. Simulation studies on consumer dissatisfaction with entire male pork and the effect of sorting carcasses on the slaughter line, main conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, M; Walstra, P; Claudi-Magnussen, C; Kempster, A J; Tornberg, E; Fischer, K; Diestre, A; Siret, F; Chevillon, P; Claus, R; Dijksterhuis, G; Punter, P; Matthews, K R; Agerhem, H; Béague, M P; Oliver, M A; Gispert, M; Weiler, U; von Seth, G; Leask, H; Font I Furnols, M; Homer, D B; Cook, G L

    2000-03-01

    An international study has been conducted in order to determine the respective contributions of androstenone and skatole to boar taint and their possible variations according to production systems and consumer populations. The presentation of the study and the main results concerning skatole and androstenone levels and data from sensory evaluation or consumer surveys are reported in companion papers. The present paper summarises the main conclusions of the study and gives tentative recommendations. A simulation study was conducted, based on the skatole and androstenone levels currently observed in European populations of entire male pigs and on the results of the consumer surveys. The first part of the simulation study demonstrated that, overall, 6.5% (odour) and 3.0% (flavour) more consumers were dissatisfied with entire male than with gilt pork. The differences were, however, very variable according to countries. Consumer dissatisfaction for the odour of entire male pork was mostly associated with high skatole levels, while androstenone had little influence on it. On the other hand, androstenone and skatole had similar contributions to the level of dissatisfaction for flavour. From the present study it is not possible to determine clear cut-off levels for androstenone/skatole. The regression equations presented in [Matthews, K. R., Homer, D. B., Punter, P., Béague, M. P., Gispert, M., Siret, F., Leask, H., Fonti i Furnols, M., & Bonneau, M. (2000). An international study on the importance of androstenone, skatole for boar taint: III. Consumer survey in seven European countries. Meat Science, 54, 271-283] provide a basis for decision making. However, due to methodological limitations, the results may underestimate consumer reaction to entire male pork. The second part of the simulation study demonstrated that sorting carcasses on the basis of androstenone/skatole would reduce, but not eliminate, differences in consumer dissatisfaction between entire male and gilt

  2. El jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa: Un invasor biológico como presa reciente del puma (Puma concolor en el sur de Chile The European wild boar (Sus scrofa: A biological invader as a recent prey of the American puma (Puma concolor in southern Chile

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    OSCAR SKEWES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la dieta del puma (Puma concoloren los anos 1988 y 2004 en los faldeos de los volcanes Mocho y Choshuenco, pluviselva valdiviana, sur de Chile, a través de la identificación de ítemes-presas en sus heces y la búsqueda en terreno de carcasas de jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa.Se registra por primera vez al jabalí europeo entre los ítemes-presas del puma en Chile. El puma depredó predominantemente sobre juveniles y los porcentajes de consumo variaron entre un 17-37 % dependiendo del método empleado para analizar el contenido de presas presentes en sus heces.The diet of the American puma (Puma concolorwas studied in 1988 and 2004 in the foothills of the volcanoes Mocho and Choshuenco, Valdivian rainforest, southern Chile, through the identification of prey-items in their feces and field surveys of European wild boar (Sus scrofacarcasses. We reported for the first time the invader European wild boar as a puma's prey in Chile. The puma preys mainly on juveniles and its percentage of consumed prey ranges between 17 and 37 % according to the method employed to assess the analyses of their feces prey contents.

  3. Níveis de aminoácidos na dieta de suínos machos inteiros dos 25 aos 70KG Levels of aminoacids in diet for boars from 25 at 70KG

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    Cezar Dobler Castagna

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o abate de suínos machos inteiros é proibido, mas esta categoria apresenta vantagens econômicas quando comparada a suínos machos castrados. Trabalhos têm demonstrado que existem diferenças no requerimento nutricional entre essas categorias. O presente experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, com o objetivo de analisar a interação de níveis diferenciados de aminoácidos, onde 96 animais foram avaliados quanto ao seu desempenho frente a dietas com 100, 90, 80 e 70 % dos níveis máximos recomendados para lisina, treonina, metionina + cistina e triptofano (1,25, 0,81, 0,75 e 0,22%, respectivamente, citados na literatura científica, dos 25 aos 70kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 para consumo de ração, ganho de peso médio diário e conversão alimentar quando analisados no período integral, sendo que os níveis de 0,87% de lisina, 0,57% de treonina, 0,52% de metionina + cistina e 0,16% de triptofano foram suficientes para garantir bom desempenho, apresentando maior economia entre os níveis testados.In Brazil, the slaughter of boar is prohibited, however this category presents economic advantages when compared with the barrows. Some experiments have demonstrated that differences exist in the nutritional requirement among these categories. The present experiment was carried out at the Federal Universty of Santa Maria, where 96 animals were evaluated concerning performance when fed with diets containig 100, 90, 80 and 70% of the maximum levels recommended for lysine, threonine, methionine + cystine and tryptophan (1.25, 0.81, 0.75 and 0.22%, respectively until they reached an average weight of 70kg. No significant differences (P > 0.05 were observed for food intake, daily gain and feed conversion efficiency during the whole period, being the levels of 0.87% lysine, 0.57% threonine, 0.52% methonime + cystine and 0.16% tryptophan enough to provide good performance, and showed

  4. EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION ON SEMINAL QUALITY OF BOARS EXPOSED TO HEAT STRESS EFEITO DA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO DE MINERAIS ORGÂNICOS E INORGÂNICOS NA QUALIDADE DO SÊMEN DE SUÍNOS SUBMETIDOS A ESTRESSE TÉRMICO

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    Daiane Donin Spessatto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Seasonal high temperatures or inadequate nutrition can decrease reproductive efficiency in boars, especially through a reduction in spermatozoal number / ejaculate and percentage of normal spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic trace mineral supplementation on seminal quality in boars exposed to high environmental temperatures. The experiment was conducted in Southern Brazil, west of Parana State. Boars (2 years of age were divided into three groups to receive: inorganic (GIn, n=4 and organic (GOr, n=4 mineral supplementation and a lactation diet (GCo, n=5. Inorganic and organic diets contained a premix of inorganic and organic trace minerals, respectively, with the same quantity of each trace mineral, based on NRC (NRC, 1998 for boars. The lactation diet was based on NRC for lactating sows and contained a higher level of inorganic trace minerals, protein and metabolic energy. Maximum mean environmental temperatures were higher than the normal thermal comfort temperature for boars (26oC during the experimental period, and were associated with a reduction in semen quality. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. The semen volume of Inorganic and Organic diet groups were higher than Lactation group animals (345.7 ± 92.6 mL and 338.4 ± 67.8 mL versus 302.5 ± 81.4 mL, respectively; P=0.02. Boars in the Organic diet group had higher sperm concentration when compared to the Inorganic diet group (233.5 ± 76.7 X 106 sptz/mL versus 181.2 ± 77.3 X 106 sptz/mL, respectively; P=0.006. Percentage of normal spermatozoa, averaged higher in the Organic group than both Inorganic and Lactation groups (93.31 ± 5.20% versus 78.48 ± 12.15% and 82.59 ± 17.27%, respectively; P=0.00021. High temperatures (>34.5 oC reduced normal spermatozoa number in all groups, but with significant differences only in the Inorganic and Lactation groups (P=0.03. Organic minerals were benefic to seminal quality, reducing some of

  5. Evaluation of semen parameters of boars (Sus scrofa experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii/ Avaliação dos parâmetros seminais de cachaços (Sus scrofa experimentalmente infectados com Toxoplasma gondii

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    Alvimar José da Costa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to investigate the influence of T. gondii on semen parameters and spermatozoa morphology, eight boars were inoculated with T. gondii. Experimental groups consisted of: GI (n=3 1,5 x 104 oocysts of P strain; GII (n=3 1,0 x 106 tachyzoites of RH strain and GIII (n=2, control noninoculated. Evaluations of semen parameters (volume, motility, strength, concentration, study of spermatozoa morphology, serology (RIFI, parasitemia and hemograms were performed. For this purpose, blood and semen collection were carried out on days -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14 and weekly until 84 days post-inoculation. Non hematimetrics alterations and clinical signs were observed on animals. Parasitemia was detected in an animal inoculated with oocysts, on the 7th day post inoculation (DPI and in a two pigs of GII (tachyzoites, on the 3rd and 49th DPI. Serology results revealed the presence of antibody anti-T. gondii on the animals inoculated with oocysts or tachyzoites since 7th DPI, with tittles of 256 and 64, reaching a maximal level of 4096 on days 11 and 9 post inoculation, respectively. The GIII (control was negative through out all experimental period. The semen parametersevaluated did not present any alteration due to toxoplasmosis. Significative differences (PCom o objetivo de investigar a influência do Toxoplasma gondii nos parâmetros seminais e na morfologia espermática de suínos, oito reprodutores foram inoculados com T. gondii, sendo constituídos os seguintes grupos experimentais: GI (n=3 1,5 x 104 oocistos da cepa P, via oral; GII (n=3 1,0 x 106 taquizoítos da cepa RH, via subcutânea e GIII (n=2, controle. Foram realizadas avaliações de parâmetros espermáticos (volume, motilidade, vigor, concentração, estudo da morfologia dos espermatozóides, exames sorológicos(RIFI, parasitemia e hemogramas. Para tanto, colheitas de sangue e sêmen foram realizadas nos dia -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14 e semanalmente até 84 dias p

  6. Lipidic sources and digestible energy levels on reproductive performance of boars Fontes de lipídios e níveis de energia digestível sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de suínos machos

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    Anselmo Domingos Ferreira Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the lipid sources (coconut oil and soybean oil and digestible energy levels (3350; 3450; 3550 and 3650kcal of DE/kg of ration effect on swine reproductive performance. We use used eighty 60kg boars distributed in different treatments. There was no treatment effect on VLDL and lipase concentrations. The coconut oil provided higher HDL levels than soybean oil. The cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides levels were increased in a linear way with both lipid sources. The treatments did not cause a modification in plasma testosterone concentration. The semen volume and spermatic vigor was influenced by DE level when coconut oil was used. The spermatic concentration was increased by soybean oil. Considering the effect of the interaction between lipid source and DE level on spermatic motility, the coconut oil reduced this parameter in a quadratic way. The semen morphological alterations were normal. The increase of the coconut oil on diet raised cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides levels in the blood.Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de fontes (gordura de coco e óleo de soja e níveis de energia digestível (3350; 3450; 3550 e 3650kcal de ED/kg de ração sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de suínos, foram utilizados 80 animais, machos inteiros que recebiam, a partir dos 60kg, diferentes tratamentos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados. Não se observou efeito dos tratamentos nas concentrações de lipoproteínas de densidade muito baixa (VLDL e lipase. A gordura de coco proporcionou maiores valores de lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL do que o óleo de soja. Houve efeito dos níveis de ED sobre o colesterol total (CT, LDL e os triglicerídeos que aumentaram linearmente com a elevação do nível de ED, quando a gordura de coco foi utilizada. A concentração sanguínea de testosterona não foi alterada pelos tratamentos. O volume do sêmen e o vigor espermático foram influenciados pelo n

  7. Effect of pigpel extender on the boar semen quality stored at different temperatures / Efeito do diluente pigpel na qualidade do sêmen suíno refrigerado em diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Nunes Corrêa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to evaluate the quality of boar semen stored at different temperatures and media on PIGPEL5 extender, using egg yolk as an external membrane protector, and on PIGPEL5Plus, containing low density lipoprotein (LDL as protector. In the experiment 1, the semen doses were stored in a semen container at 5 and 17 °C and the results were compared with semen stored at 17 °C in BTS extender. In the experiment 2, the doses with the PIGPEL5 and PIGPEL5Plus extenders were stored in a commercial refrigerator and in semen container, both at 5 °C. The use of extenders with extracellular cryoprotectant (PIGPEL5 e PIGPEL5Plus showed higher (p 0.05 in the motility, membrane integrity and morphology for the substitution of egg yolk (PIGPEL5 for LDL (PIGPEL5Plus. In experiment 2, also there was no difference (p > 0.05 in motility, membrane integrity and morphology between extenders and type of container until 72 h. The conservation of semen on PIGPEL5 extender and commercial refrigerator (5 ºC allowed patterns of sperm quality according recommended for AI.Este estudo avaliou a qualidade do sêmen suíno preservado em diferentes temperaturas e meios de conservação no diluente PIGPEL5, utilizando gema de ovo como protetor externo de membrana, e no diluente PIGPEL5Plus, utilizando lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL como protetor. No experimento 1, as doses de sêmen foram conservadas em refrigerador de sêmen a 5 e 17 °C nos diluentes PIGPEL5 e PIGPEL5Plus e comparadas ao diluente BTS a 17 °C. Já no experimento 2, foi comparada a conservação do sêmen nos diluentes PIGPEL5 e PIGPEL5Plus em geladeira convencional ou em refrigerador de sêmen a 5 ºC. Observou-se que o uso de diluidores com crioprotetor extracelular (PIGPEL5 e PIGPEL5Plus apresentou maiores (p 0,05 na motilidade, integridade de membrana e morfologia para a substituição da gema de ovo (PIGPEL5 pela LDL (PIGPEL5Plus. No experimento 2, também não houve diferença na

  8. Enteritis associated with Lawsonia intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2 infection in wild boars in Southern Brazil Enterite associada com infecção por Lawsonia intracellularis e circovírus suíno tipo 2 em um rebanho de javalis no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Zlotowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a commercial herd of 1250 wild boars, 56 animals were affected by anorexia, diarrhea, and wasting. Enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes, thickening of ileal wall, and a white-yellowish ileal content were observed in two of the four animals necropsied. Microscopically, ileal crypts showed epithelial hyperplasia, moderate decrease in goblet cell density, lymphohistiocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria, and moderate depletion with histiocytic infiltrate in Peyer's patches. Curved rod-shaped organisms within the apical cytoplasm of enterocytes were observed in both Warthin-Starry and Lawsonia intracellularis-immunostained sections. PCV2 antigen was observed in ileal Peyer's patches of 3 wild pigs. Trichuris suis nematodes were found in the cecum of the four wild pigs. This report describes clinicopathological findings in cases of enteritis associated with Lawsonia intracellularis and PCV2 infection in a commercial herd of wild boars.Neste trabalho, são relatados os achados clínico-patológicos de casos de enterite associados com infecção por Lawsonia intracellularis e PCV2 em um rebanho comercial com 1250 javalis, sendo que 56 foram afetados por anorexia, diarréia e emagrecimento progressivo. Em dois dos quatro animais necropsiados, foi observado aumento de linfonodos mesentéricos, espessamento da parede do íleo e conteúdo branco-amarelado no íleo. Microscopicamente, as criptas do íleo apresentavam hiperplasia epitelial, decréscimo moderado na densidade de células caliciformes, infiltrado linfo-histiocitário na lâmina própria e depleção moderada das placas de Peyer com infiltrado histiocitário. Bastonetes curvos no ápice citoplasmático dos enterócitos foram observados em preparações coradas com Warthin-Starry e pela imunoistoquímica contra Lawsonia intracellularis. Antígeno de PCV2 foi observado nas placas de Peyer do íleo de três animais e nematódeos Trichuris suis estavam presentes no ceco dos quatro javalis

  9. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in farmed wild boars (Sus scrofa in Rio Grande do Sul Síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento suíno em javalis (Sus scrofa de criações comerciais no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This report concerns an outbreak of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in wild boars from commercial herds in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The main clinical signs were progressive wasting, respiratory distress, diarrhea, and ocular discharges. Enhanced lymph nodes and spleens, ascites, hydrothorax, and non collapsed lungs were the principal gross lesions. Varying degrees of lymphohistiocytic infiltrates in lymph nodes, spleen, and intestines were the most significant microscopic changes. Although a total of 26 animals had showed clinical and pathological findings consistent with the disease, only in 11 of them it was possible to confirm a PMWS diagnosis through the association of specific lesions in lymphoid tissues with the presence of the viral antigen detected by immunohistochemistry. These findings were similar to those reported in the swine disease.Descreve-se a ocorrência da síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento suíno em javalis de dois rebanhos comerciais no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os principais sinais observados foram definhamento progressivo, tosse, espirros, diarréia e descarga ocular. Linfonodos e baços aumentados, ascite, hidrotórax e pulmões não colapsados foram os principais achados macroscópicos. Infiltrados linfo-histiocitários de graus variáveis em linfonodos, baços e intestinos foram as lesões microscópicas mais relevantes. Embora 26 animais tenham apresentado achados clínicos e patológicos compatíveis com a enfermidade, apenas em 11 desses foi possível confirmar o diagnóstico através da associação de lesões histológicas específicas nos tecidos linfóides com a presença do antígeno viral, detectado pela técnica de imunoistoquímica. Tanto os achados clínicos como patológicos foram semelhantes aos descritos na doença suína.

  10. The use of lipidic sources and digestible energy levels on testicles parameters of 60 Kg boars Uso de diferentes fontes de lipídios e níveis de energia digestível sobre parâmetros testiculares de suínos machos a partir dos 60 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Flávia Miranda de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the lipidic sources (coconut oil and soybean oil and digestible energy levels (3350, 3450, 3550 e 3650 kcal de DE/kg of ration effect on swine reproductive performance. It was used eighty 60 kg boars distributed in different treatments. There was no treatment effect on VLDL and lipase concentrations. The coconut oil provided higher HDL levels than soybean oil. The cholesterol, LDL and triglicerides levels were increased in a linear way with both lipidic sources. The treatments did not cause a modification in testosterone seric concentration. The semen volume and spermatic vigor was influenced by DE level when coconut oil was used. The spermatic concentration was increase by soybean oil use. Considering the interaction between lipidic source x DE level for spermatic motility the coconut oil reduced this parameter in a quadratic way. The semen morphological alterations were not altered. The coconut oil at 4499 and 3492 kcal of DE level provided the higher results for STD and SET. The increase of the coconut oil on diet rise cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglicerides levels in the blood.Visando-se estudar o efeito de fontes (gordura de coco e óleo de soja e níveis de energia digestível (3350, 3450, 3550, 3650 kcal de ED/kg de ração sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de suínos, foram utilizados 80 animais, machos inteiros recebendo a partir dos 60 kg os diferentes tratamentos. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados. Não se observou efeito dos tratamentos nas concentrações de VLDL e lipase. A gordura de coco proporcionou maiores valores de HDL que o óleo de soja. Houve efeito dos níveis de ED sobre o colesterol total (CT, LDL e triglicerídeos que aumentaram linearmente com o aumento do nível de ED, quando a gordura de coco foi utilizada. A concentração sanguínea de testosterona não foi alterada pelos tratamentos. O volume do sêmen e o vigor espermático foram influenciados pelo n

  11. Biochemical and binding characteristics of boar epididymal fluid proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla; Davidová, Nina; Jonáková, Věra

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 879, č. 1 (2011), s. 100-106 ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/09/1285; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GD523/08/H064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : epididymal proteins * RP HPLC * biotin-labeled ligands Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.888, year: 2011

  12. Boar seminal plasma proteins and their binding prperties. A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2004), s. 461-475 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : seminal plasma proteins * binding properties * spermadhesins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.062, year: 2004

  13. Testicular pathology in transgenic minipig boars - in brief

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mačáková, Monika; Bohuslavová, Božena; Vochozková, Petra; Baxa, Monika; Ellederová, Zdeňka; Sedláčková, M.; Lišková, Irena; Valeková, Ivona; Vidinská, Daniela; Klíma, Jiří; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 19-19 ISSN 1210-7859 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : transgenic minipig model of Huntington´s disease * testes * spermatozoa Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  14. Comparison of three methods to evaluate wild boar diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeman, J.; Hrbek, J.; Drimaj, J.; Kudláček, T.; Kamler, J.; Plhal, R.; Heroldová, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2016), s. 221-224 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Sus scrofa * food composition * diet analysis * stomach * faeces Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  15. Reproductive tract modifications of the boar sperm surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, Bart M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/115389873

    2017-01-01

    The sperm cell has a unique, polarized and segregated surface that is modified extensively by the changing environments in both the male and the female reproductive tracts. The sperm cannot refresh its surface, as protein translation and membrane recycling by intracellular vesicular transport have

  16. Effect of estrogens on boar sperm capacitation in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, Lukáš; Dostálová, Pavla; Dorosh, Andriy; Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2010), --- ISSN 1477-7827 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GD523/08/H064; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : capacitation * acrosome reaction * monoclonal antibody * estrogen * flow cytometry Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2010

  17. Effect of estrogens on boar sperm capacitation in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, Lukáš; Dostálová, Pavla; Dorosh, Andriy; Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 33, Supplement 1 (2010), s. 93-93 ISSN 0105-6263. [6th European Congress of And rology. 29.09.2010-01.10.2010, Athens] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/08/H064; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : spermatozoa * capacitation * monoclonal antibody * estrone * 17beta-estradiol * estriol * 17alpha-ethynylestradiol Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  18. Effect of Monoclonal Antibodies to Boar Sperm on Conception Rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Conception Rates (CR) were 100%, 30% and 50% for control, Hmab and Tmab respectively. The litter sizes were 8.4±1.71, 5.0+1.0 and 5.4 ±1.14for the control, Hmab and Tmab group respectively. Immunization with both Hmab and Tmab significantly reduced CR (P<0.001), the reduction in CR was significantly lower ...

  19. The cryoprotective effects of soybean lecithin on boar spermatozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... BTS solution (glucose 0.027 M, EDTA 0.004 M, sodium citrate. 0.023 M, sodium bicarbonate 0.014 M and potassium chloride. 0.010 M in 1l distilled water filtered through a 0.22 µm- filter) (Pursel and Johnson, 1975) and Tris-citric acid-glucose extender (Ritar and. Salamon, 1982) (TCG, Tris 0.199 M, citric ...

  20. Population genetics and disease ecology of European wild boar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Welke factoren beïnvloeden de frequentie van de ziekten in wilde populaties? Het promotieonderzoek van Daniel Goedbloed beoordeelde de invloed van demografische, genetische en omgevingsfactoren op de frequentie van twee infectieziekten in Noordwest-Europese wilde zwijnen populaties.

  1. The cryoprotective effects of soybean lecithin on boar spermatozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen parameters including sperm motion characteristics (the percentage of total motile sperm and motility), plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were assessed with a computer-aided semen analysis (CASA) system, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and fluorescein isothiocyanateconjugated

  2. Mutated Huntingtin Causes Testicular Pathology in Transgenic Minipig Boars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mačáková, Monika; Bohuslavová, Božena; Vochozková, Petra; Pavlok, Antonín; Sedláčková, M.; Vidinská, Daniela; Vochyánová, Klára; Lišková, Irena; Valeková, Ivona; Baxa, Monika; Ellederová, Zdeňka; Klíma, Jiří; Juhás, Štefan; Juhásová, Jana; Kloučková, J.; Haluzík, M.; Klempíř, J.; Hansíková, H.; Spáčilová, J.; Collins, R.; Blumenthal, I.; Talkowski, M.; Gusella, J. F.; Howland, D. S.; DiFiglia, M.; Motlík, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, 3-4 (2016), s. 245-259 ISSN 1660-2854 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * pig model * mutant huntingtin Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.842, year: 2016

  3. Comparison of detection methods for antibodies to boar spermatozoa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The different methods varied in their sensitivity to determination of sperm antibody titers. The ELISA was the most sensitive of the methods. The ELISA and Protein A agglutination were the most suitable in terms of specificity and repeatability for sperm antibody detection in swine. (Tropical Veterinarian: 2003 21(1): 1-13) ...

  4. Study of acrosin inhibitor along the boar epididymis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davidová, Nina; Dorosh, Andriy; Jonáková, Věra; Postlerová, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 33, Supplement 1 (2010), s. 70-71 ISSN 0105-6263. [6th European Congress of And rology. 29.09.2010-01.10.2010, Athens] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/09/1285; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GD523/08/H064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : spermatozoa * acrosin inhibitor * proteolytic enzymes * glycosidic enzyme * glycoproteins * antibody Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  5. Uso do diluente água de coco em pó (ACP-103® na conservação prolongada do sêmen do varrão: avaliação in vitro e in vivo Use of powder coconut water as extender (ACP-103® for boar semen longer preservation: in vitro and in vivo evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Toniolli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O sêmen de oito reprodutores foi coletado e de cada ejaculado separou-se um total de 1,75x10(9sptz, com concentração de 35x10(6sptz/mL. Usou-se o Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS como controle para testar o diluente água de coco em pó (ACP. O dia de coleta foi o dia zero (D0, sendo o sêmen conservado durante cinco dias, com análises diárias no D0 e nos quatro dias seguintes (D1, D2, D3 e D4. A avaliação da qualidade espermática baseou-se nos resultados do vigor espermático, da porcentagem de células móveis, da morfologia espermática, da integridade da membrana plasmática e dos resultados de fertilidade. As avaliações do vigor espermático (4,1 e da porcentagem de espermatozoides móveis (91% ficaram acima dos parâmetros mínimos exigidos (3,0 e 70% para sua utilização em programas de inseminação artificial, pois não houve influência sobre as variáveis analisadas pelo protocolo experimental. O resultado médio da resistência osmótica foi de 71,3% de espermatozoides com cauda enrolada. Não houve diferenças entre os dois diluentes testados para a característica células com acrossoma intacto (BTS = 67,1%; ACP = 71,2%. O sêmen diluído em ACP apresentou maior número de células vivas (77,7 % com membrana plasmática íntegra (74,2% após a conservação. A escolha do diluente ACP é aconselhável para uso de rotina em laboratórios que trabalhem com conservação de sêmen suíno. Apesar dos bons resultados in vitro obtidos com o diluente ACP, o BTS apresentou os melhores resultados de fertilidade, 86,7% e 96,7%, respectivamente.The semen of eight boars was collected and a total of 1.75x10(9 spermatozoa were separated from each ejaculate, obtaining a concentration of 35x10(6sptz/mL. The Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS was used as control, being tested the powder coconut water as extender (PCW. The day of collection was considered day zero (D0, and the semen was conserved for five days, with analyses on D0 and on

  6. Fontes e Níveis de Energia Digestível em Rações para Suínos Machos Inteiros dos 60 aos 100 kg Lipidic Sources and Digestible Energy Levels in Rations for 60 to 100 kg Boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gimenez Mascarenhas

    2002-06-01

    boars, eighty animals were used. The experimental design of randomized blocks with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4 (sources x energy levels, with five replications of two animals per box, was used. Experimental diets formulated on the basis of maize, soybean meal and vitaminic and mineral supplement were feed ad libitum until the end of the experimental period when animals reached 100.40 ± 5.67 kg average weight . There was no effect of the digestible energy (DE level on the daily feed intake neither on the daily weight gain; however, these parameters were influenced by the energy source and the best results obtained with the use of the coconut oil. The feed:gain ratio was influenced in a quadratic way by the DE levels, when using the coconut oil. No effects of the soybean oil were observed on feed:gain ratio. The efficiency of the energy use for weight gain was improved in a quadratic way when using the coconut oil and linearly worsened when using the soybean oil in the diets. The digestible energy intake was not influenced by changing in the DE levels. The daily intake of lysine was not influenced by the DE levels, although it was higher when the coconut oil was used as lipidic source. Diets with coconut oil as lipidic source showed the best results of weight gain. The best value of feed:gain ratio of the animals that received diets with coconut oil was estimated in level of 3583 kcal.

  7. Suppression of adjuvant arthritis in rats by boar seminal immunosuppressive fraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselský, Leopold; Železná, Blanka; Dostál, Jaromír; Stančíková, M.; Svik, K.; Rokyta, R.; Jurčovičová, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2001), s. 153-158 ISSN 0392-856X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/98/0827; GA ČR GA305/98/1064; GA MZd NC4534 Keywords : IgM and IgG subclasses * anti-inflamatory effect * seminal immunosuppresor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.614, year: 2001

  8. Expression quantitative trait loci reveals genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias Brygger; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    . Gene expression profiles were obtained by RNA-Seq and genotype data was obtained by Illumina 60K Porcine SNP-chip. Following quality control and filtering, 10,545 and 12,731 genes from liver and testis were included in eQTL analysis by the Matrix eQTL software together with 20,827 SNP variants. A total...

  9. Boar seminal immunosuppressor immunolocalization on lymphocytes populating mouse genital tract tissues after its infusion in uterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jaromír; Železná, Blanka; Jonáková, Věra; Veselský, Leopold

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 3 (1998), s. 72 ISSN 0031-5362. [International Meeting "Mechanisms in Local Immunity" /4./. 16.08.1998-19.08.1998, Opatia] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/98/0827; GA MZd NC4534 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. Reduction of androstenone perception in pan-fried boar meat by different masking strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Macarena; Linares, María Belén; Gil, Marta; López, María Belén; Garrido, María Dolores

    2017-10-05

    Consumers highly sensitive to androstenone María (AND) will probably reject meat from entire male pigs, which tends to have high levels of this hormone. To avoid this, the effect of different masking strategies (sprinkling with mixed spices or fennel, marinating and breading with garlic-parsley or curry) on the sensory parameters of pork loin chops obtained from entire animals with high levels of AND (1.0-2.9 mg kg -1 AND in fat) and castrated animals (<0.4 mg kg -1 AND in fat), both with low levels of skatole (<0.1 mg kg -1 skatole in fat) was investigated. The garlic-parsley breadcrumbs led to the highest reduction in the perception of AND compared with the other masking strategies used, and preserved the juiciness of the product. There was a negative correlation between AND and fat content. AND odor and flavor can be reduced in meat from entire male pigs by using suitable strategies, the best strategy being the garlic-parsley breadcrumbs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Motility and fertilizing capacity of boar semen stored in raffia palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    Aspects of the preparation of formulated palm wine. M.Sc. Dissertation. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Norman C (1964). The coconut milk extender. Vo Congresso Interna zionale per 1a Reproduzione Animals ela Fecanazione artificiale, settembre, pp. 269-275. Okafor N (1978). Microbiology and biochemistry of oil palm ...

  12. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... The model for all evaluated traits included litter size, birth weight and litter size x birth weight interaction as a fixed effects and order parity of sows in which the litters were standardized as random effect. The significance of difference. (P) between means was determined using Duncan's multiple range test.

  13. Isolation of non-heprin-binding and heparin-binding proteins of boar prostate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková, Pavla; Liberda, J.; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 770, - (2002), s. 137-143 ISSN 1570-0232. [International Symposium /2./ - Separation in the BioSciences. Praha, 17.09.2001-20.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA ČR GV524/96/K162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : isolation * prostatic proteins * heparin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.913, year: 2002

  14. Valosine vontaining protein is a substrate of c-AMP-activated boar sperm tyrosine kinase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Geussová, Gizela; Kalab, P.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2002, č. 63 (2002), s. 366-375 ISSN 1040-452X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/02/1373; GA ČR GA303/00/1651; GA MZd NJ5851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : gamete biology * spermatozoa, capacitation * phosphorylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.322, year: 2002

  15. Sex-Sorted Boar Sperm - An Update on Related Production Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, D; Tiedemann, D; Gamrad, L; Johnson, L A; Klein, S; Kues, W; Mancini, R; Rehbock, C; Taylor, U; Barcikowski, S

    2015-07-01

    As in other mammals, sex sorting of pig sperm is based on quantitative flow cytometry. A major disadvantage of the technique is the relatively low efficiency to produce enough sorted sperm for artificial insemination. However, several approaches are on the way to make sexed pig sperm available for commercial application. In this context, for example, the growing field of nanotechnology may significantly contribute to these developments, as it provides highly efficient bio-nanoprobes, for example, based on plasmonic nanoparticles. Independent of the method, further development requires enormous investments and set-up of logistics to get the technology into the practical pig market. Only global players will be able to establish the necessary research projects, but in the end, a significant shift of sex ratios will be available for pig producers as it is already the case for the dairy industry. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The use of HOS test to evaluate membrane functionality of boar sperm capacitated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechniak, D; Kedzierski, A; Stanislawski, D

    2002-12-01

    The functional and structural integrity of sperm membrane are crucial for the viability of spermatozoa. The commonly used staining test (eosin + nigrosin) for assessing sperm membrane measures only its structural integrity. The hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS) originally developed for human sperm (Jeyendran et al. 1984) has been also applied to several species of domestic animals (bull, pig, horse, dog). The test enables to evaluate the functional status of the sperm membrane. The principle of HOS is based on water transport across the sperm tail membrane under hypoosmotic conditions. It has previously been used to assess the semen quality (Revell and Mrode 1994), to analyse fertilizing capacity (Rota et al. 2000; Perez-Llano et al. 2001) and also to detect viable, immotile cells for ICSI (Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection) in human (Zeyneloglu et al. 2000). There are two procedures commonly used for sperm capacitation in the pig-sperm washing and incubation before insemination (Nagai 1994). Capacitation involves several changes like removing molecules coating the sperm head membrane, changes in membrane fluidity and intracellular ion concentration (Green and Watson 2001). Thus the membrane integrity as well as functionality may be affected as shown by Harrison (1996). The aim of the present study was to analyse changes in sperm membrane integrity after in vitro capacitation by use of the HOS test.

  17. Gene co-expression networks and profiles reveal potential biomarkers of boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Skinkyté-Juskiené, R.; Do, Duy Ngoc

    potential BT biomarkers for optimized breeding. Male pigs (n=48) with low, medium and high genetic merit of BT were selected and tissues from liver and testis were subjected to transcriptomic profiling by RNA-Seq. The reads were mapped to the Sus scrofa reference genome (Ensembl, ver. 79) which resulted...

  18. Effect of cooling to different sub-zero temperatures on boar sperm cryosurvival

    OpenAIRE

    Angelica Garcia-Olivares; Cesar Garzon-Perez; Oscar Gutierrez-Perez; Alfredo Medrano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare different cooling temperatures before ice formation on pig sperm quality, before and after cryopreservation. Methods: Semen diluted in BF5 was cooled from 23 °C to 5 °C (1% glycerol, 200 × 106 cells/mL). Sperm were packaged in plastic straws, and maintained at +5 °C per 16 h. 1. Freezing point of diluted spermatozoa was determined by exposing straws to nitrogen vapors. 2. Straws (at +5 °C) were further cooled to −3 °C, −5 °C, and −7 °C, and rewarmed. 3. Straws (at +5 ...

  19. Effect of cooling to different sub-zero temperatures on boar sperm cryosurvival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Garcia-Olivares

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Cooling of pig sperm to −7 °C (no freezing damaged sperm function and structure; in contrast, cooling to either −3 °C or −5 °C did not change pig sperm survival after freeze-thawing.

  20. Profiling of relaxin and its receptor proteins in boar reproductive tissues and spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Relaxin levels in seminal plasma have been associated with positive effects on sperm motility and quality, and thus having potential roles in male fertility. However, the origin of seminal relaxin, within the male reproductive tract, and the moment of its release in the vicinity of sperm...

  1. Assessment of reproductive tissues of gilts born from magnetic nanoparticles-treated boar spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semen ejaculates contain a heterogeneous population of spermatozoa that may interfere with male fertility. Indeed, poor quality semen generally translates into low fertility rates that are attributed to higher proportions of damaged or abnormal spermatozoa in the ejaculates. It is likely that their ...

  2. Effects of breed, spermatozoa concentration, and storage on progressive motility of extended boar semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The classic technology of artificial insemination (AI) often requires insemination doses to be kept for more than 24 h, with a requirement that the degree of progressive motility at the moment of insemination not be below 65%. The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of breed, sperm con...

  3. Transcription profile of boar spermatozoa as revealed by RNA-sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) overcomes the limitations of the current hybridization-based techniques to detect the actual pool of RNA transcripts in spermatozoa. The application of this technology in livestock can speed the discovery of potential predictors of male fertility. As a first ...

  4. In vitro phagocytosis of boar spermatozoa by neutrophils from peripheral blood of sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijs, A.; Harkema, W.; Engel, B.; Woelders, H.

    2000-01-01

    A considerable number of spermatozoa are used in each sow in routine artificial insemination. However, within a few hours after insemination, many spermatozoa are phagocytosed by polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Some aspects of sperm transport in the female genital tract in the sow have been thoroughly

  5. Beneficial effects of relaxin on motility characteristics of stored boar spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Relaxin is detected in seminal plasma of many species and its association with sperm motility may be beneficial in some aspects of assisted reproduction. Here, we immunolocalized relaxin receptors and investigated the effects of exogenous relaxin on motility characteristics, viability, a...

  6. Communication requested: Boar semen transport through the uterus and possible consequences for insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, D; Knorr, C; Taylor, U

    2016-01-01

    Recent insemination techniques bypass the interactions between sperm and the uterine wall because the semen is deposited deep into the tip of uterine horn or directly into the oviduct. Such techniques allow high dilution of the ejaculates. After normal mating, semen entering the uterus communicates with the uterine milieu. Intact sperm of high mitochondrial membrane potential bind to uterine epithelial cells, whereas most of the unbound sperm in the uterine lumen have damaged membranes. Lectins are the most likely factors to mediate these sperm-uterine interactions. The lectin wheat germ agglutinin is known to induce the strongest binding of sperm, whereas binding is impaired when sialic acid receptors are blocked by wheat germ agglutinin. This suggests that sialic acid is involved in porcine sperm-endometrium interactions, and it is hypothesized that the use of a semen extender supplemented with sialidase would allow insemination with reduced sperm numbers. A lack of contact of sperm and seminal plasma with the uterine wall, as a result of deep insemination, may adversely affect (1) events during ovulation, (2) induction of immunologic tolerance against paternal antigens, (3) preparation of the endometrium for implantation and placentation, and (4) immunologic support required for the fetus during pregnancy. Seminal plasma is known to signal post-insemination changes in the uterine endometrium involving the redistribution of leukocytes. This may involve migration of leukocytes from the uterine wall to the ovary, as seminal plasma particularly increases the appearance of the major histocompatibility complex class II-positive cells. Uterine epithelial cells respond to sperm binding by the production of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines may include synchronizing substances, transferred through a counter-current pathway to the ipsilateral ovary, thereby accelerating the final maturation of preovulatory follicles and advancing time of ovulation. In several species, an ovulation-inducing factor exists in seminal plasma, first identified as ß-nerve growth factor in camelid semen, indicating another pathway that influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In summary, low-dose inseminations may not necessarily require semen deposition deep into the uterine horn, as binding inhibitors can circumvent the binding of sperm to the uterine wall. However, subsequent immune-relevant events that control ovulation and prepare the uterine milieu for the developing embryo should be taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphometry of boar sperm head and flagellum in semen backflow after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, Francisco Alberto; Hernández-Caravaca, Iván; Yánez-Quintana, Wellington; Matás, Carmen; Soriano-Úbeda, Cristina; Izquierdo-Rico, María José

    2015-09-01

    Once deposited in the female reproductive system, sperm begin their competition and undergo a selection to reach the site of fertilization. Little is known about the special characteristics of sperm that reach the oviduct and are able to fertilize, with even less information on the role of sperm dimension and shape in transport and fertilization. Here, we examine whether sperm morphometry could be involved in their journey within the uterus. For this purpose, sperm head dimension (length, width, area, and perimeter) and shape (shape factor, ellipticity, elongation, and regularity), and flagellum length were analyzed in the backflow at different times after insemination (0-15, 16-30, and 31-60 minutes). Sperm morphometry in the backflow was also analyzed taking into account the site of semen deposition (cervical vs. intrauterine). Finally, flagellum length was measured at the uterotubal junction. Sperm analyzed in the backflow were small (head and flagellum) with different head shapes compared with sperm observed in the dose before insemination. The site of deposition influenced head morphometry and tail size both being smaller in the backflow after cervical insemination compared with intrauterine insemination. Mean tail length of sperm collected in the backflow was smaller than that in the insemination dose and at the uterotubal junction. Overall, our results suggest that sperm size may be involved in sperm transport either because of environment or through sperm selection and competence on their way to encounter the female gamete. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sperm-surface ATP in boar spermatozoa is required for fertilization: relevance to sperm proteasomal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young-Joo; Park, Chang-Sik; Kim, Eui-Sook; Song, Eun-Sook; Jeong, Ji-Hyeon; Sutovsky, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular ATP has been implicated in a number of cellular events, including mammalian sperm function. The complement of ATP-dependent sperm proteins includes six subunits of the 26S proteasome, a multi-subunit protease specific to ubiquitinated substrate-proteins. Proteolysis of ubiquitinated proteins by the 26S proteasome is necessary for the success of mammalian fertilization, including but not limited to acrosomal exocytosis (AE) and sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) penetration. The 26S proteasome is uniquely present on the sperm acrosomal surface during mammalian, ascidian, and invertebrate fertilization. The proteasome is a multi-subunit protease complex of approximately 2 MDa composed of the 19S regulatory complex and a 20S proteolytic core. Integrity of the 19S complex is maintained by six 19S ATPase subunits (PSMC1 through PSMC6). Consequently, we hypothesized that fertilization will be blocked by the depletion of sperm-surface associated ATP (ssATP). Depletion of ssATP by the Solanum tuberosum apyrase, a 49 kDa, non-cell permeant enzyme, significantly reduced the ATP content measured by an adapted luminescence-ATP assay from which all permeabilizing agents were excluded. Addition of active apyrase to porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium caused a concentration dependent reduction in the overall fertilization rate. No such outcomes were observed in control groups using heat-inactivated apyrase. Apyrase treatment altered the band pattern of 19S ATPase subunits PSMC1 (Rpt2) and PSMC4 (Rpt3) in Western blotting, suggesting that it had an effect on the integrity of the sperm proteasomal 19S complex. Apyrase only altered the proteasomal core activities slightly, since these activities are not directly dependent on external ATP. In contrast, sperm treatment with MG132, a specific inhibitor of the proteasomal core chymotrypsin-like activity, inhibited the target proteolytic activity, but also induced a compensatory elevation in proteasomal peptidyl-glutamyl peptide hydrolase activity. Altogether, the present data provide an important missing piece of evidence in support of the ssATP-dependent, proteasomal-proteolytic model of sperm-ZP interactions.

  9. Serologic survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřicová, Zina; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2009), s. 479-482 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/96/1059 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Sus scrofa * serosurvey * Czech Republic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.607, year: 2009

  10. Serologic survey of wild boars for mosquito-borne viruses in South Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina; Janková, J.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2008), s. 266-271 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : antibodies * West Nile virus * Tahyna virus * Batai virus * Sindbis virus * swine Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2008 http://old.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/53-5-266.pdf

  11. Boar effects and their relations to fertility and litter size in sows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Libido was defined as the time from intromission to ejaculation being recorded as the reaction time (RT) in minutes. Serving capacity (SC) was measured by number of mounts, combats, head- kicks, anogenital sniffs during a 30 min test period. Semen was collected by the use of an artificial vagina following the SC test, and ...

  12. The effect of hemi-orchidectomy on reproductive traits of boars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mounting frequency, RT, EJACS, total sperm, sperm motility and normal acrosome morphology were correlated with testis weight, TDSP, seminiferous tubular diameter, tubular length, tubular mass and total Leydig cell mass. Results suggest that hemi-orchidectomy induces compensatory testicular hypertrophy, leading to ...

  13. Heparin-binding and non-heparin-binding proteins of boar prostate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková, Pavla; Liberda, J.; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2001), s. 81-82 ISSN 8755-8920. [International Congress of Reproductive Immunology /8./. 02.07.2001-06.07.2001, Opatija] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA ČR GV524/96/K162; GA AV ČR IAA1050901; GA MŠk OC 518.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. Increased Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Disease Prevalence in Domestic Hybrids Among Free-Living Wild Boar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, D.J.; Hooft, van W.F.; Lutz, W.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Wieren, van S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife immune genes are subject to natural selection exerted by pathogens. In contrast, domestic immune genes are largely protected from pathogen selection by veterinary care. Introgression of domestic alleles into the wild could lead to increased disease susceptibility, but observations are

  15. Bronzino and a bronze boar. Hans Christian Andersen and Stendhal in nineteenth-century Florence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerck, A.R. de

    2015-01-01

    Bronzino e il porcellino: Hans Christian Andersen e Stendhal nella Firenze del XIX secolo La storia dell’arte dell’Ottocento non sembra aver avuto particolarmente a cuore gli artisti italiani delle generazioni successive ai grandi maestri rinascimentali, quali Raffaello e Michelangelo. Così, ad

  16. Oviductal epithelial cells selected boar sperm according to their functional characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Úbeda, Rebeca; García-Vázquez, Francisco A; Gadea, Joaquín; Matás, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) with the spermatozoa has beneficial effects on the sperm functions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro fertilizing capacity of incubating spermatozoa previously selected by density gradient in OEC and determinate some sperm characteristics that could explain the results obtained. In this study, we assessed in vitro fertilization (IVF), tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphatidylserine translocation, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and chromatin decondensation. Three experimental sperm groups, previously selected by Percoll gradient, were established according to the origin of the sperm used for IVF: (i) W30 group: spermatozoa were incubated with oocytes in the absence of OEC; (ii) NB group: after sperm incubation in OEC, the unbound spermatozoa were incubated with oocytes, in the absence of OEC; and (iii) B group: after sperm incubation with OEC, the bound spermatozoa were incubated with oocytes in the OEC plates. The results showed that sperm from the NB group led to a lower IVF yield, accompanied by low penetration rates (NB: 19.6%, B: 94.9%, and W30: 62.9%; P sperm selection, even within an already highly selected population of spermatozoa, and can capture the best functional spermatozoa for fertilization. PMID:27232850

  17. Parasite to patient : A quantitative risk model for Trichinella spp. in pork and wild boar meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke; Havelaar, Arie; Takumi, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of raw or inadequately cooked pork meat may result in trichinellosis, a human disease due to nematodes of the genus Trichinella. In many countries worldwide, individual control of pig carcasses at meat inspection is mandatory but incurs high costs in relation to absence of positive

  18. Single layer centrifugation-selected boar spermatozoa are capable of fertilization in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Good quality spermatozoa are important to achieve fertilization, viable embryos and offspring. Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) through a colloid (Androcoll-P) selects good quality spermatozoa. However, it has not been established previously whether porcine spermatozoa selected by this method maintain their fertility. Methods The semen was prepared either by SLC or by standard centrifugation (control) and used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) at oocyte:spermatozoa ratios of 1:50; 1:100 and 1:300 (or 4 x 103, 8 x 103 and 24 x 103 spermatozoa/ml) to evaluate their subsequent ability to generate blastocysts. In addition, sperm motility was assessed by computer assisted sperm motility analysis. Results Total and progressive motility were significantly higher in sperm samples prepared by SLC compared to uncentrifuged samples. Sperm binding ability, polyspermy, cleavage and blastocyst rates were affected by the oocyte:sperm ratio, but not by sperm treatment. Conclusion The use of SLC does not adversely affect the in vitro fertilizing and embryo-generating ability of the selected spermatozoa compared to their unselected counterparts, but further modifications in the IVF conditions would be needed to improve the monospermy in IVF systems. Since SLC did not appear to have a negative effect on sperm fertilizing ability, and may in fact select for spermatozoa with a greater potential for fertilization, an in vivo trial to determine the usefulness of this sperm preparation technique prior to artificial insemination is warranted. PMID:23497680

  19. No effect of the plant growth regulator, chlormequat, on boar fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M.T.; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Leffers, H.

    2009-01-01

    Chlormequat is a commonly used plant growth regulator in agriculture. Defined level; of chlormequat residue are allowed in food and an acceptable daily intake is defined for humans. However, there are results in the literature suggesting that a daily intake below the acceptable level for human...... in the pregnant gilts (P=0.36). Serum chlormequat concentration was 0.9 mu g/kg in the 0.025 mg CCC/kg BIN per day group and 1.8 mu g/kg in the 0.05 mg CCC/kg BW per day group, but was below the detection limit in control animals. In conclusion, the plant growth regulator chlormequat could not be, proven...

  20. Boar seminal immunosuppressive fraction attenuates the leptin concentration and restores the thymus mass during pregnancy in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselský, Leopold; Holáň, Vladimír; Dostál, Jaromír; Železná, Blanka

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 5 (2004), s. 581-585 ISSN 1470-1626 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/01/0615; GA MZd NI6883 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : pregnancy * leptin level * seminal immunosuppressor Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.181, year: 2004

  1. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Hansen, Mathias B.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2018-01-01

    expression profiles were obtained by RNA-Seq, and genotype data were obtained by an Illumina 60K Porcine SNP chip. Following quality control and filtering, 10,545 and 12,731 genes from liver and testis were included in the eQTL analysis, together with 20,827 SNP variants. A total of 205 and 109 single...

  2. Characterization of sperm surface protein patterns of ejaculated and capacitated boar sperm, with the detection of ZP binding candidates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zigo, Michal; Jonáková, Věra; Šulc, Miroslav; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, oct (2013), s. 322-328 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/12/1834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Sperm surface protein * Zona pellucida-binding receptors * PKDREJ protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2013

  3. Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrufa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita Risch; Sven Wirthner; Matt Busse; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO2 emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how...

  4. Inhibition of the antibody responses to rat blood transfusion antigens in mice by boar seminal immunosuppressive fraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselský, Leopold; Jonáková, Věra; Dostál, Jaromír; Holáň, Vladimír; Voburka, Zdeněk; Drahorád, Josef; Maňásková, Pavla; Železná, Blanka

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2000), s. 325-335 ISSN 8755-8920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/98/0827; GA ČR GV524/96/K162; GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA MZd NC4534 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.932, year: 2000

  5. Electrophoretic and zymographic characterization of proteins isolated by various extraction methods from ejaculated and capacitated boar sperms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zigo, Michal; Jonáková, Věra; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 11 (2011), s. 1309-1318 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/09/1285; GA MZd(CZ) NS10009; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Extraction methods * Sperm proteins * Substrate zymography Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.303, year: 2011

  6. Mitochondrial functions in spermatozoa of minipig boars carrying transgene with the N-terminal part of human mutated huntingtin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spáčilová, J.; Rodinová, M.; Kratochvílová, H.; Ondrušková, N.; Mačáková, Monika; Bohuslavová, Božena; Ellederová, Zdeňka; Zeman, J.; Motlík, Jan; Hansíková, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 24-24 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * large animal model * spermatozoa Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. Using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry to determine reactive oxygen species formation and membrane lipid peroxidation in viable boar spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry analyses were developed for determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and membrane lipid peroxidation in live spermatozoa loaded with, respectively, hydroethidine (HE) or the lipophilic probe 4,4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1,3-butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-d...

  8. Genetic parameters for different measures of feed efficiency and related traits in boars of three pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Jensen, Just

    2013-01-01

    ) to 0.67 (LL) for BF, and from 0.13 (DD) to 0.19 (YY) for body conformation. Feeding behavior traits including DFI, number of visits to feeder per day (NVD), total time spent eating per day (TPD), feed intake rate (FR), feed intake per visit (FPV), and time spent eating per visit (TPV) were moderately...

  9. Serological survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for tularaemia and brucellosis in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Treml, F.; Juřicová, Zina; Huňady, M.; Halouzka, Jiří; Janík, V.; Bill, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, 2-3 (2002), s. 60-66 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/1122; GA AV ČR IBS6093007; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : Sus scrofa * serosurvey * zoonoses Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.204, year: 2002 http://www.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/47-3-60.pdf

  10. Cross-reactivity of antibodies against boar spermadhesins with heparin-binding proteins from human seminal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, Marek; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 8 (2000), s. 561 ISSN 0009-2770. [Biochemický sjezd /17./. 07.09.2000-10.09.2000, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GV524/96/K162; GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA MŠk VS96141 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 12/1998 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  11. An assessment of the applicability of photo trapping to estimate wild boar population density in a forest environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plhal, R.; Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav; Adamec, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2011), s. 237-246 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Sus scrofa * snow-track counting * photo-traps * feeding site Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011

  12. Cryopreservation of boar sperm comparing different cryoprotectants associated in media based on powdered coconut water, lactose and trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C G; Cunha, E R; Blume, G R; Malaquias, J V; Báo, S N; Martins, C F

    2015-04-01

    In swine spermatozoa, the damage caused by cryopreservation is more severe than other species, provoking reduced potential for fertilization. Adjustments in the freezing extender composition may be an important alternative to increase its efficiency. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency of different cryoprotectant solutions during cryopreservation of swine semen with a controlled cooling curve. Three cryoprotectant solutions (5% dimethylformamide, 3% glycerol and the combination of these two cryoprotectants) were used in association with three base media (powdered coconut water, lactose and trehalose), constituting nine different treatments. The semen was frozen using a controlled-rate freezer (TK-3000). After thawing, semen was evaluated for total sperm motility, vigor, morphology, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity. Cryopreservation with the controlled curve using an automated system showed satisfactory results, guaranteeing practicality and repeatability for the process of freezing swine sperm. With this curve, the solutions of lactose, trehalose and powdered coconut water associated with glycerol, as well as the solution of coconut water containing dimethylformamide, presented higher quality of sperm compared to the other solutions. Powdered coconut water associated with dimethylformamide appears as a new solution for swine sperm cryopreservation. The freezing controlled curve used in this study allowed standardization of the cryopreservation technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and diversity of Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Janiszewski, P.; Forejtek, P.; Rajský, D.; Kotková, Michaela; Ravaszová, P.; McEvoy, J.; Kváč, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2014), s. 761-767 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : molecular epidemiology * pig farms * humans Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  14. The challenge of detecting classical swine fever virus circulation in wild boar (Sus scrofa): Simulation of sampling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Jana; Schulz, Katja; Blome, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    with a justifiable effort. The simulation of increased sample sizes per sampling interval showed only a slightly better performance but would be unrealistic in practice, especially outside the main hunting season. Further studies on other approaches such as targeted or risk-based sampling for virus detection...... investigations play a major role in the early detection of new introductions and in regions immunized with a conventional vaccine. The required financial resources and personnel for reliable testing are often large, and sufficient sample sizes to detect low virus prevalences are difficult to obtain. We conducted...

  15. Differential expression and co-expression gene networks reveal candidate biomarkers of boar taint in non-castrated pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Skinkyté-Juskiené, Ruta; Do, Duy N.

    2017-01-01

    metabolism (GSTO1, GSR, FMO3) of skatole and androstenone in liver to steroidgenesis (HSD17B7, HSD17B8, CYP27A1), regulation of steroidgenesis (STARD10, CYB5R3) and GnRH signalling (MAPK3, MAP2K2, MAP3K2) in testis. Overrepresented pathways included "Ribosome", "Protein export" and "Oxidative phosphorylation...

  16. Examination of virus shedding in semen from vaccinated and from previously infected boars after experimental challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas L.; Nielsen, Jens; Have, Per

    1997-01-01

    to the Danish pig industry. The use of a vaccination-program may be a way to avoid or reduce the problem, This study evaluates the use of two vaccines: One live, attenuated vaccine and one inactivated vaccine, A pronounced reduction in viremia and shedding of virus in semen was demonstrated by use of the live...... vaccine compared to the non-vaccinated control animals. In contrast, no changes in onset, level and duration of viremia and shedding of virus in semen were observed using the inactivated vaccine, Neither viremia nor seminal shedding of virus was detected in previously PRRSV-infected, PRRSV...

  17. Incubation of boar spermatozoa in viscous media by addition of methylcellulose improves sperm quality and penetration rates during in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Abreu, David; García-Martínez, Soledad; Fernández-Espín, Vanesa; Romar, Raquel; Gadea, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    This work was designed to study whether viscous media can improve the in vitro sperm functionality in pigs by using methylcellulose as a thickener. Viscosity of porcine oviductal fluid (POF) was compared with culture medium (Tyrode's) supplemented with methylcellulose (MET 0, 0.5 and 1% w/v). Spermatozoa were incubated in the different media (0, 1 and 2 h) and sperm motion parameters, lipid membrane disorder, plasma membrane integrity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation were assessed. Fertilization results were assessed i) preincubating spermatozoa in the viscous media followed by gamete coculture in a non-viscous medium; and ii) gamete coculture in the viscous media. Viscosity of POF from early luteal phase was higher than late follicular phase. Medium without methylcellulose presented constant viscosity with increased shear rate, while viscosity of the POF and media with methylcellulose was reduced by increased shear rates. Methylcellulose improved sperm linearity, straightness and the proportion of fast-linear spermatozoa. Moreover, methylcellulose increased the rate of viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome and low lipid disorder, reducing the ROS generation. Preincubation in viscous media increased the penetration rate and the mean number of spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida (both with 0.5 and 1% MET) and reduced monospermy with 1% MET. On the other hand fertilization in the viscous media reduced penetration rate and increased monospermy. The efficiency of the IVF system was not improved with the use of viscous media. The results show the relevance of increasing viscosity thus making the in vitro media more comparable to physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutrophil recruitment and phagocytosis of boar spermatozoa after artificial insemination of sows, and the effects of inseminate volume, sperm dose and specific additives in the extender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijs, A.; Engel, B.; Woelders, H.

    2003-01-01

    In this study the recruitment of leucocytes and phagocytosis of spermatozoa after artificial insemination of multiparous sows was investigated. In Expt 1, groups of sows received either no inseminate (n = 6) or inseminates with various concentrations of spermatozoa and seminal plasma or different

  19. A comparison of slice characteristics and sensory characteristics of bacon from immunologically castrated barrows with bacon from physically castrated barrows, boars, and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K L; Kyle, J M; Bohrer, B M; Schroeder, A L; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Boler, D D

    2014-12-01

    The objectives were to compare slice characteristics and sensory attributes of bacon from immunologically castrated (IC) barrows with bacon from other sexes using a trained sensory panel. Bacon was obtained for sensory evaluation from 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, trimmed and squared bellies (n=180) of IC barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine hydrochloride (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males (IM), and gilts were used. Data were analyzed as a general linear mixed model and pen (n=48) served as the experimental unit. Treatment (sex or diet) was a fixed effect in all 3 experiments. In Exp. 2, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed 0 or 30% or a withdrawal distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) program when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose (25 wk of age) were used. In Exp. 3, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed the same experimental diets as in experiment 2 but slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose (27 wk of age) were used. Data from Exp. 2 and 3 were analyzed as a 2×3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design and pen was the experimental unit. Bellies from all 3 experiments were processed using the same protocols. In Exp. 1, IM had the greatest (Pbacon aroma and flavor among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for bacon aroma or flavor. There were no differences in bacon aroma or off-flavor between IC and PC barrows slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose regardless of DDGS feeding program. Bacon from PC barrows was saltier (Pbacon from IC barrows when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose. There were no differences in bacon aroma, off-aroma, bacon flavor, or saltiness between IC and PC barrows slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose regardless of DDGS feeding program. Total slice area of bacon slices from IC barrows slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose were less (Pbacon even when feeding differing DDGS feeding programs or when slaughtered at 5 or 7 wk after the second dose.

  20. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: levels of androstenone and skatole by country and season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, P.; Claudi-Magnussen, C.; Chevillon, P.; Seth, von G.; Diestre, A.; Matthews, K.R.; Homer, D.B.; Bonneau, M.

    1999-01-01

    Fat samples from 43,13 entire males taken from six European countries were measured for androstenone and skatole using rapid ELISA and colourimetric methods, respectively. The samples were collected during summer (replicate 1) and during the following winter period (replicate 2). A sub-population of