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Sample records for bmprii type ii

  1. Forebrain-Specific Loss of BMPRII in Mice Reduces Anxiety and Increases Object Exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofeyah L McBrayer

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor Type II (BMPRII in learning, memory, and exploratory behavior in mice, a tissue-specific knockout of BMPRII in the post-natal hippocampus and forebrain was generated. We found that BMPRII mutant mice had normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, but showed significantly reduced swimming speeds with increased floating behavior. Further analysis using the Porsolt Swim Test to investigate behavioral despair did not reveal any differences in immobility between mutants and controls. In the Elevated Plus Maze, BMPRII mutants and Smad4 mutants showed reduced anxiety, while in exploratory tests, BMPRII mutants showed more interest in object exploration. These results suggest that loss of BMPRII in the mouse hippocampus and forebrain does not disrupt spatial learning and memory encoding, but instead impacts exploratory and anxiety-related behaviors.

  2. Endoglin-mediated suppression of prostate cancer invasion is regulated by activin and bone morphogenetic protein type II receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Breen

    Full Text Available Mortality from prostate cancer (PCa is due to the formation of metastatic disease. Understanding how that process is regulated is therefore critical. We previously demonstrated that endoglin, a type III transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily receptor, suppresses human PCa cell invasion and metastasis. Endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion was also shown by us to be dependent upon the type I TGFβ receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ALK2, and the downstream effector, Smad1. In this study we demonstrate for the first time that two type II TGFβ receptors are required for endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion: activin A receptor type IIA (ActRIIA and bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPRII. Downstream signaling through these receptors is predominantly mediated by Smad1. ActRIIA stimulates Smad1 activation in a kinase-dependent manner, and this is required for suppression of invasion. In contrast BMPRII regulates Smad1 in a biphasic manner, promoting Smad1 signaling through its kinase domain but suppressing it through its cytoplasmic tail. BMPRII's Smad1-regulatory effects are dependent upon its expression level. Further, its ability to suppress invasion is independent of either kinase function or tail domain. We demonstrate that ActRIIA and BMPRII physically interact, and that each also interacts with endoglin. The current findings demonstrate that both BMPRII and ActRIIA are necessary for endoglin-mediated suppression of human PCa cell invasion, that they have differential effects on Smad1 signaling, that they make separate contributions to regulation of invasion, and that they functionally and physically interact.

  3. BMP type II receptor deficiency confers resistance to growth inhibition by TGF-β in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: role of proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rachel J; Holmes, Alan M; Deighton, John; Long, Lu; Yang, Xudong; Barker, Lucy; Walker, Christoph; Budd, David C; Upton, Paul D; Morrell, Nicholas W

    2012-03-15

    Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type II receptor (BMPR-II) underlie most cases of heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) and a significant proportion of sporadic cases. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) not only exhibit attenuated growth suppression by BMPs, but an abnormal mitogenic response to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. We sought to define the mechanism underlying this loss of the antiproliferative effects of TGF-β1 in BMPR-II-deficient PASMCs. The effect of TGF-β1 on PASMC proliferation was characterized in three different models of BMPR-II dysfunction: 1) HPAH PASMCs, 2) Bmpr2(+/-) mouse PASMCs, and 3) control human PASMCs transfected with BMPR-II small interfering RNA. BMPR-II reduction consistently conferred insensitivity to growth inhibition by TGF-β1. This was not associated with altered canonical TGF-β1/Smad signaling but was associated with a secreted factor. Microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional responses to TGF-β1 differed between control and HPAH PASMCs, particularly regarding genes associated with interleukins and inflammation. HPAH PASMCs exhibited enhanced IL-6 and IL-8 induction by TGF-β1, an effect reversed by NF-κB inhibition. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies to IL-6 or IL-8 restored the antiproliferative effect of TGF-β1 in HPAH PASMCs. This study establishes that BMPR-II deficiency leads to failed growth suppression by TGF-β1 in PASMCs. This effect is Smad-independent but is associated with inappropriately altered NF-κB signaling and enhanced induction of IL-6 and IL-8 expression. Our study provides a rationale to test anti-interleukin therapies as an intervention to neutralize this inappropriate response and restore the antiproliferative response to TGF-β1.

  4. Type-II Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2016-01-01

    I will talk on our new theory on baryogenesis through type-II leptogenesis which is different from the well-known type-I leptogenesis. I will comment on the Jarlskog phases, $\\delta_{\\rm CKM}$ and $\\delta_{\\rm PMNS}$, in the CKM and PMNS matrices. In the type-II leptogenesis, the PMNS phase is used for Sakharov's condition on the global quantum number generation in the Universe. For this to be effective, the SU(2)$\\times$U(1) gauge symmetry must be broken during the leptogenesis epoch.

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor II regulates pulmonary artery endothelial cell barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Victoria J; Ciuclan, Loredana I; Holmes, Alan M; Rodman, David M; Walker, Christoph; Budd, David C

    2011-01-06

    Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR-II) underlie most heritable cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, less than half the individuals who harbor mutations develop the disease. Interestingly, heterozygous null BMPR-II mice fail to develop PAH unless an additional inflammatory insult is applied, suggesting that BMPR-II plays a fundamental role in dampening inflammatory signals in the pulmonary vasculature. Using static- and flow-based in vitro systems, we demonstrate that BMPR-II maintains the barrier function of the pulmonary artery endothelial monolayer suppressing leukocyte transmigration. Similar findings were also observed in vivo using a murine model with loss of endothelial BMPR-II expression. In vitro, the enhanced transmigration of leukocytes after tumor necrosis factor α or transforming growth factor β1 stimulation was CXCR2 dependent. Our data define how loss of BMPR-II in the endothelial layer of the pulmonary vasculature could lead to a heightened susceptibility to inflammation by promoting the extravasation of leukocytes into the pulmonary artery wall. We speculate that this may be a key mechanism involved in the initiation of the disease in heritable PAH that results from defects in BMPR-II expression.

  6. Neurofibromatosis Type II

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    Akram Kasiri Ghahi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 is an inherited disease which is mainly characterized by the development of multiple schwannomas and meningiomas.  Incidence of the disease is about 1 in 60,000. Affected individuals inevitably develop schwannomas, typically affecting both auditory-vestibular nerve which lead in hearing loss and deafness. The majority of patients present with hearing loss, which is usually unilateral at onset and may be accompanied or preceded by tinnitus. Vestibular schwannomas may also cause dizziness or imbalance as a first symptom. Nausea, vomiting or true vertigo are rare symptoms, except in late-stage disease. NF II is caused by a defect in the gene that normally gives rise to a product called Merlin or Schwannomin, located on chromosome 22. Diagnosis is based on clinical and neuroimaging studies. Presymptomatic genetic testing is an integral part of the management of NF2 families. Prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is possible.

  7. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  8. [Tyrosinemia type II. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatiya, A I; Bouayed, M A; Touiza, E; Daoudi, K; Bhalil, S; Elmesbahi, I; Tahri, H

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosinemia type II or Richner-Hanhart syndrome is a rare hereditary disease characterized by the association of pseudoherpetiform corneal ulcerations and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. We report the case of a 12 year-old young man presenting a superficial punctate keratitis and a corneal dystrophy in both eyes, associated with a palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. The dosage of the serum level of tyrosine is meaningfully raised to 1236 micromol/l. A dietary treatment restraining tyrosine and phenylalanine is started with favorable results after an evolution of 6 months. Tyrosinemia type II is an autosomal recessive disease, due to an enzymatic deficit in tyrosine aminotransferase. The diagnosis is based on the clinic and high level of serum and urinary tyrosine as well as of its urinary metabolites. This disease must be suspected in all cases of dentritic keratitis not reacting on the antiviral treatment, and more especially if it is associated with cutaneous lesions such as palmo-plantar keratosis.

  9. Chronic allergic inflammation causes vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in BMPR2 hypomorph and wild-type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Mushaben

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2 gene have been identified in patients with heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH; however, disease penetrance is low, suggesting additional factors play a role. Inflammation is associated with PAH and vascular remodeling, but whether allergic inflammation triggers vascular remodeling in individuals with BMPR2 mutations is unknown. Our goal was to determine if chronic allergic inflammation would induce more severe vascular remodeling and PAH in mice with reduced BMPR-II signaling. Groups of Bmpr2 hypomorph and wild-type (WT Balb/c/Byj mice were exposed to house dust mite (HDM allergen, intranasally for 7 or 20 weeks to generate a model of chronic inflammation. HDM exposure induced similar inflammatory cell counts in all groups compared to controls. Muscularization of pulmonary arterioles and arterial wall thickness were increased after 7 weeks HDM, more severe at 20 weeks, but similar in both groups. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP was measured by direct cardiac catheterization to assess PAH. RVSP was similarly increased in both HDM exposed groups after 20 weeks compared to controls, but not after 7 weeks. Airway hyperreactivity (AHR to methacholine was also assessed and interestingly, at 20 weeks, was more severe in HDM exposed Bmpr2 hypomorph mice versus WT. We conclude that chronic allergic inflammation caused PAH and while the severity was mild and similar between WT and Bmpr2 hypomorph mice, AHR was enhanced with reduced BMPR-II signaling. These data suggest that vascular remodeling and PAH resulting from chronic allergic inflammation occurs independently of BMPR-II pathway alterations.

  10. Radiosurgery for type II neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jeremy; Radatz, Matthias; Kemeny, Andras

    2008-01-01

    A summary of our radiosurgical experience treating type II neurofibromatosis (NF2) vestibular schwannomas (VSs), based on a retrospective consecutive series of 122 tumours in 92 patients, with an extended series of a further 22 patients (906 patient-years of follow-up) to investigate the risk of malignancy after radiosurgery. With current techniques, we estimate that 8 years after radiosurgery for NF2 VS, 20% of patients will have required further treatment, 50% will be well controlled, and in 30% there will have been some concern about control, but they will have been managed conservatively. Three years after treatment, approximately 40% retain their functional hearing, 40% have some deterioration, 20% becoming deaf in that ear. The risk of facial palsy was 5%. Two malignancies were recorded after radiosurgery, in one the malignant behaviour preceded treatment. This is less than the previously reported rate of spontaneously developing malignant gliomas in NF2. Whilst the clinical results are far worse than those achieved treating sporadic tumours, this applies equally to the results of surgery or observation when treating NF2 tumours. It is important therefore that these patients are given advice specific for NF2. Considering this, we believe that radiosurgery remains a valuable minimally invasive treatment option for selected NF2 patients.

  11. Neurofibromatosis type II presenting as vertical diplopia.

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    Sokwala, Ahmed; Knapp, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type II (NF II) is rare and most commonly presents with hearing loss, tinnitus and/or vestibular disturbance in the third decade of life. The authors describe a rare case presenting with NF II with vertical diplopia due to IV(th) nerve palsy. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic despite multiple extensive lesions on MRI.

  12. A note on Type II covolutional codes

    OpenAIRE

    Johannesson, Rolf; Ståhl, Per; Wittenmark, Emma

    2000-01-01

    The result of a search for the world's second type II (doubly-even and self-dual) convolutional code is reported. A rate R=4/8, 16-state, time-invariant, convolutional code with free distance dfree=8 was found to be type II. The initial part of its weight spectrum is better than that of the Golay convolutional code (GCC). Generator matrices and path weight enumerators for some other type II convolutional codes are given. By the “wrap-around” technique tail-biting versions of (32, 18, 8) T...

  13. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10641, Taiwan (China); Ida, Shigeru, E-mail: yasu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  14. Peculiar Type II Supernovae from Blue Supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiser, Io K W; Kasen, Daniel; Young, Timothy R; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V; Challis, Peter; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Nugent, Peter E; Silverman, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of Type II supernovae (SNe) are produced by red supergiants (RSGs), but SN 1987A revealed that blue supergiants (BSGs) can produce members of this class as well, albeit with some peculiar properties. This best studied event revolutionized our understanding of SNe, and linking it to the bulk of Type II events is essential. We present here optical photometry and spectroscopy gathered for SN 2000cb, which is clearly not a standard Type II SN and yet is not a SN 1987A analog. The light curve of SN 2000cb is reminiscent of that of SN 1987A in shape, with a slow rise to a late optical peak, but on substantially different time scales. Spectroscopically, SN 2000cb resembles a normal SN II but with ejecta velocities that far exceed those measured for SN 1987A or normal SNe II, above 18000 km/s for H-alpha at early times. The red colours, high velocities, late photometric peak, and our modeling of this object all point toward a scenario involving the high-energy explosion of a small-radius star, most ...

  15. WAARDENBURG SYNDROME TYPE II: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar; Sunil Kumar; Anand

    2014-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare syndrome, characterized by lateral displacement of the medial canthi combined with dystopia of the lacrimal punctum and blepharophimosis, prominent broad nasal root, hypertrichosis of the medial part of the eyebrows, white forelock, heterochromia iridis, and deaf mutism. A four months old girl with waardenburg syndrome type II, who had the characterstic features of the syndrome, is reported.

  16. Generalized geometry lectures on type II backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tsimpis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The first part of these notes is a self-contained introduction to generalized complex geometry. It is intended as a `user manual' for tools used in the study of supersymmetric backgrounds of supergravity. In the second part we review some past and recent results on the generalized complex structure of supersymmetric type II vacua in various dimensions.

  17. Measuring type II stresses using 3DXRD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis;

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for characterization of the grain resolved (type II) stress states in a polycrystalline sample based on monochromatic X-ray diffraction data. The algorithm is a robust 12-parameter-per-grain fit of the centre-of-mass grain positions, orientations and stress tensors...

  18. Biceps Tenodesis for Type II SLAP Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayrose, Gregory A; Karas, Spero G; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Tears of the superior glenoid labrum are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability, especially in overhead athletes such as pitchers, swimmers, and volleyball players. Type II SLAP lesions have been the most clinically important superior labral pathology, and the management of this lesion has been a very controversial topic. Currently, there are no high level studies in the literature to guide treatment. While the few level 3 and level 4 evidence studies that are available following arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions all report reasonable overall patient satisfaction, persistent postoperative pain is common and associated with a low return to pre-injury level of sports participation. There has been a recent school of thought that biceps tenodesis, which maintains the length-tension relationship of the long head of biceps, should be the procedure of choice for patients with isolated type II SLAP lesions. The current paper reviews the role biceps tenodesis plays in the management of type II SLAP tears.

  19. Type II Supernovae as Probes of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Poznanski, Dovi; Blondin, Stephane; Bloom, Joshua S; D'Andrea, Christopher B; Della Valle, Massimo; Dessart, Luc; Ellis, Richard S; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Goobar, Ariel; Hamuy, Mario; Hicken, Malcolm; Kasen, Daniel N; Krisciunas, Kevin L; Leonard, Douglas C; Li, Weidong; Livio, Mario; Marion, Howie; Matheson, Thomas; Neill, James D; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Nugent, Peter E; Quimby, Robert; Sako, Masao; Sullivan, Mark; Thomas, Rollin C; Turatto, Massimo; Van Dyk, Schuyler D; Wood-Vasey, W Michael

    2009-01-01

    - Constraining the cosmological parameters and understanding Dark Energy have tremendous implications for the nature of the Universe and its physical laws. - The pervasive limit of systematic uncertainties reached by cosmography based on Cepheids and Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) warrants a search for complementary approaches. - Type II SNe have been shown to offer such a path. Their distances can be well constrained by luminosity-based or geometric methods. Competing, complementary, and concerted efforts are underway, to explore and exploit those objects that are extremely well matched to next generation facilities. Spectroscopic follow-up will be enabled by space- based and 20-40 meter class telescopes. - Some systematic uncertainties of Type II SNe, such as reddening by dust and metallicity effects, are bound to be different from those of SNe Ia. Their stellar progenitors are known, promising better leverage on cosmic evolution. In addition, their rate - which closely tracks the ongoing star formation rate -...

  20. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate /sup 12/C(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 16/O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs.

  1. VLBI observations of young Type II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Torres, M A; Marcaide, J M

    2005-01-01

    We give an overview of circumstellar interaction in young Type II supernovae, as seen through the eyes of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. The resolution attained by such observations (best than 1 mas) is a powerful tool to probe the interaction that takes place after a supernova goes off. The direct imaging of a supernova permits, in principle, to estimate the deceleration of its expansion, and to obtain information on the eject and circumstellar density profiles, as well as estimates of the magnetic field intensity and relativistic particle energy density in the supernova. Unfortunately, only a handful of radio supernovae are close and bright enough as to permit their study with VLBI. We present results from our high-resolution observations of the nearby Type II radio supernovae SN1986J and SN2001gd.

  2. Exciton in type-II quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Ortega, J; Escorcia, R A [Universidad del Magdalena, A. A. 731, Santa Marta (Colombia); Mikhailov, I D, E-mail: jsierraortega@gmail.co [Universidad Industrial de Santander, A. A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We study the quantum-size effect and the influence of the external magnetic field on the exciton ground state energy in the type-II InP quantum disk, lens and pyramid deposited on a wetting layer and embedded in a GaInP matrix. We show that the charge distribution over and below quantum dot and wetting layer induced by trapped exciton strongly depends on the quantum dot morphology and the strength of the magnetic field.

  3. WAARDENBURG SYNDROME TYPE II: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Waardenburg syndrome is a rare syndrome, characterized by lateral displacement of the medial canthi combined with dystopia of the lacrimal punctum and blepharophimosis, prominent broad nasal root, hypertrichosis of the medial part of the eyebrows, white forelock, heterochromia iridis, and deaf mutism. A four months old girl with waardenburg syndrome type II, who had the characterstic features of the syndrome, is reported.

  4. NNMSM type-II and -III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane (Japan); Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Osaka University, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    We suggest two types of extension of the standard model, which are the so-called next to new minimal standard model type-II and -III. They can achieve gauge coupling unification as well as suitable dark matter abundance, small neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the universe, inflation, and dark energy. The gauge coupling unification can be realized by introducing two or three extra new fields, and they could explain charge quantization. We also show that there are regions in which the vacuum stability, coupling perturbativity, and correct dark matter abundance can be realized with current experimental data at the same time. (orig.)

  5. Headache and Decompression Sickness: Type I or Type II?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    neurological exam was normal. Recompression with 100% oxygen produced relief within fifteen minutes. Follow up revealed no recurrence . Case 2 A twenty-seven...Follow up revealed no recurrence . Both cases pose an intriguing question. Should headache always be considered Type II DCS? DCS has a wide range of...with the supporting basis for this alternative view. The background for this paper is based on orthodontic and osteopathic medicine. For years

  6. Spectral modeling of Type II SNe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessart, Luc

    2015-08-01

    The red supergiant phase represents the final stage of evolution in the life of moderate mass (8-25Msun) massive stars. Hidden from view, the core changes considerably its structure, progressing through the advanced stages of nuclear burning, and eventually becomes degenerate. Upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass, this Fe or ONeMg core collapses, leading to the formation of a proto neutron star. A type II supernova results if the shock that forms at core bounce, eventually wins over the envelope accretion and reaches the progenitor surface.The electromagnetic display of such core-collapse SNe starts with this shock breakout, and persists for months as the ejecta releases the energy deposited initially by the shock or continuously through radioactive decay. Over a timescale of weeks to months, the originally optically-thick ejecta thins out and turns nebular. SN radiation contains a wealth of information about the explosion physics (energy, explosive nucleosynthesis), the progenitor properties (structure and composition). Polarised radiation also offers signatures that can help constrain the morphology of the ejecta.In this talk, I will review the current status of type II SN spectral modelling, and emphasise that a proper solution requires a time dependent treatment of the radiative transfer problem. I will discuss the wealth of information that can be gleaned from spectra as well as light curves, from both the early times (photospheric phase) and late times (nebular phase). I will discuss the diversity of Type SNe properties and how they are related to the diversity of red supergiant stars from which they originate.SN radiation offers an alternate means of constraining the properties of red-supergiant stars. To wrap up, I will illustrate how SNe II-P can also be used as probes, for example to constrain the metallicity of their environment.

  7. Fetuin-A and type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyaa Ismail Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion We concluded that fetuin-A may play a role in the pathogenesis of type II DM, and high serum fetuin-A has a strong association with IR and glycemic control in type II diabetic patients. Future studies are recommended to establish the possibility of using fetuin-A as a predictor of insulin resistance in type II diabetic patients.

  8. Type II supernovae Early Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shussman, Tomer; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Observations of type II supernova early light, from breakout until recombination, can be used to constrain the explosion energy and progenitor properties. Currently available for this purpose are purely analytic models, which are accurate only to within an order of magnitude, and detailed numerical simulations, which are more accurate but are applied to any event separately. In this paper we derive an analytic model that is calibrated by numerical simulations. This model is much more accurate than previous analytic models, yet it is as simple to use. To derive the model we analyze simulated light curves from numerical explosion of $124$ red supergiant progenitors, calculated using the stellar evolution code MESA. We find that although the structure of the progenitors we consider varies, the resulting light curves can be described rather well based only on the explosion energy, ejecta mass and progenitor radius. Our calibrated analytic model, which is based on these three parameters, reproduces the bolometric ...

  9. Luminescence dynamics in type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices near the type-I to type-II crossover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Kalt, H.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1996-01-01

    We report on a study of the time-resolved luminescence of type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices near the type-I to type-II crossover. In spite of the slight type-II band alignment, the luminescence is dominated by the type-I transition. This is due to the inhomogeneous broadening of the type-I transiti...

  10. Waardenburg syndrome type II: phenotypic findings and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X Z; Newton, V E; Read, A P

    1995-01-02

    The Waardenburg syndrome (WS) consists of at least two distinct autosomal dominant hereditary disorders. WS Type I has been mapped to the distal part of chromosome 2q and the gene identified as PAX3. Other gene(s) are responsible for WS Type II. Mapping WS Type II requires accurate diagnosis within affected families. To establish diagnostic criteria for WS Type II, 81 individuals from 21 families with Type II WS were personally studied, and compared with 60 personally studied patients from 8 families with Type I and 253 cases of WS (Type I or II) from the literature. Sensorineural hearing loss (77%) and heterochromia iridum (47%) were the two most important diagnostic indicators for WS Type II. Both were more common in Type II than in Type I. Other clinical manifestations, such as white forelock and skin patches, were more frequent in Type I. We estimate the frequency of phenotypic traits and propose diagnostic criteria for WS Type II. In practice, a diagnosis of WS Type II can be made with confidence given a family history of congenital hearing loss and pigmentary disorders, where individuals have been accurately measured for ocular distances to exclude dystopia canthorum.

  11. Duality symmetries and the type II string effective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the duality symmetries of Type II string effective actions in nine, ten and eleven dimensions. As a by-product we give a covariant action underlying the ten-dimensional Type IIB supergravity theory. We apply duality symmetries to construct dyonic Type II string solutions in six dimensions

  12. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  13. Type II lepra reaction--an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Avas Chandra; Sen, Sumit; Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2012-06-01

    Type II lepra reaction usually present with skin lesions. We report a 23 years old male patient presented with fever for two weeks with no visible skin lesion suggestive of leprosy and with no history of either completion or concurrent anti leprosy drug treatment was eventually turned out to be a case of Hansen's presenting with type II lepra reaction.

  14. Generating controllable type-II Weyl points via periodic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Gong, Jiangbin

    2016-12-01

    Type-II Weyl semimetals are a novel gapless topological phase of matter discovered recently in 2015. Similar to normal (type-I) Weyl semimetals, type-II Weyl semimetals consist of isolated band touching points. However, unlike type-I Weyl semimetals which have a linear energy dispersion around the band touching points forming a three-dimensional (3D) Dirac cone, type-II Weyl semimetals have a tilted conelike structure around the band touching points. This leads to various novel physical properties that are different from type-I Weyl semimetals. In order to study further the properties of type-II Weyl semimetals and perhaps realize them for future applications, generating controllable type-II Weyl semimetals is desirable. In this paper, we propose a way to generate a type-II Weyl semimetal via a generalized Harper model interacting with a harmonic driving field. When the field is treated classically, we find that only type-I Weyl points emerge. However, by treating the field quantum mechanically, some of these type-I Weyl points may turn into type-II Weyl points. Moreover, by tuning the coupling strength, it is possible to control the tilt of the Weyl points and the energy difference between two Weyl points, which makes it possible to generate a pair of mixed Weyl points of type-I and type-II. We also discuss how to physically distinguish these two types of Weyl points in the framework of our model via the Landau level structures in the presence of an artificial magnetic field. The results are of general interest to quantum optics as well as ongoing studies of Floquet topological phases.

  15. Matric variate Pearson type II-Riesz distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Díaz-García

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pearson type II distribution is well known and is used in the general framework of real normed division algebras and Riesz distribution theory. Also, the so called Pearson type II-Riesz distribution, based on the Kotz–Riesz distribution, is presented in a unified way valid in the context of real, complex, quaternion and octonion random matrices. Specifically, the central nonsingular matric variate generalised Pearson type II-Riesz distribution and beta-Riesz type I distributions are derived in the addressed multiple numerical field settings.

  16. Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: an affected family saga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Mala; Chandra, Anil

    2007-09-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) type II or hereditary opalescent dentin is inherited in simple autosomal dominant mode with high penetrance and low mutation rate. It generally affects both the deciduous and permanent dentitions. DI type II corresponds to a localized form of mesodermal dysplasia, observed in histodifferentiation. Early diagnosis and treatment are therefore, fundamental, aiming at obtaining a favourable prognosis since late intervention makes treatment more complex. We present two cases of DI type II with the disease affecting three generations of a family in India, and briefly highlight the molecular basis of this disease.

  17. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  18. HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELS OF TYPE II-P SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Bersten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present progress in light curve models of type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P obtained using a newly devel- oped, one-dimensional hydrodynamic code. Using simple initial models (polytropes, we reproduced the global behavior of the observed light curves and we analyzed the sensitivity of the light curves to the variation of free parameters.

  19. Plasmonic Enhanced Type-II Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SVT Associates proposes an novel type II superlattice structure to extend the cutoff wavelength and CBIRD SL photo diode structure with unipolar barriers to suppress...

  20. Type II-P Supernovae as Standard Candles: The SDSS-II Sample Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Poznanski, Dovi; Nugent, Peter E.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the observed correlation between Hbeta and FeII velocities for Type II-P supernovae (SNe~II-P) using 28 optical spectra of 13 SNe II-P and demonstrate that it is well modeled by a linear relation with a dispersion of about 300 km/s. Using this correlation, we reanalyze the publicly available sample of SNe II-P compiled by D'Andrea et al. and find a Hubble diagram with an intrinsic scatter of 11% in distance, which is nearly as tight as that measured before their sample is added to ...

  1. Richner-Hanhart syndrome and tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, N

    1980-01-01

    A patient already published a case of Richner-Hanhart syndrome (RHS) (stabilized corneal lesions and hyperkeratotic lesions on the palms and soles) proved to be associated with tyrosinemia type II. 2 other cases (sister and brother) with only typical dermatologic features of RHS and tyrosinemia type II are described. The treatment with a low phenylalanine and tyrosine diet improves the cutaneous lesions in our 3 cases.

  2. Acoustic Type-II Weyl Nodes from Stacking Dimerized Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2016-11-01

    Lorentz-violating type-II Weyl fermions, which were missed in Weyl's prediction of nowadays classified type-I Weyl fermions in quantum field theory, have recently been proposed in condensed matter systems. The semimetals hosting type-II Weyl fermions offer a rare platform for realizing many exotic physical phenomena that are different from type-I Weyl systems. Here we construct the acoustic version of a type-II Weyl Hamiltonian by stacking one-dimensional dimerized chains of acoustic resonators. This acoustic type-II Weyl system exhibits distinct features in a finite density of states and unique transport properties of Fermi-arc-like surface states. In a certain momentum space direction, the velocity of these surface states is determined by the tilting direction of the type-II Weyl nodes rather than the chirality dictated by the Chern number. Our study also provides an approach of constructing acoustic topological phases at different dimensions with the same building blocks.

  3. Mutation and biochemical analysis in carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olpin, S E; Afifi, A; Clark, S

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency has three basic phenotypes, late-onset muscular (mild), infantile/juvenile hepatic (intermediate) and severe neonatal. We have measured fatty acid oxidation and CPT II activity and performed mutation studies in 24 symptomatic patients......, the implication being that they may significantly influence the manifestation of clinical disease and could therefore potentially be considered as a susceptibility variants. Among myopathic individuals, males comprised 88% of patients, suggesting increased susceptibility to clinical disease. A small number...

  4. Unified theory of type I and type II irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    A nonlinear unified theory of type I and II irregularities is presented that explains their principal observed characteristics. The power spectrum is predicted by using Kolmogoroff-type conservation law for the power flow in cascading eddies.

  5. Origin of wide-band IP type II bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjolainen, S.; Allawi, H.; Valtonen, E.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Different types of interplanetary (IP) type II bursts have been observed, where the more usual ones show narrow-band and patchy emissions, sometimes with harmonics, and which at intervals may disappear completely from the dynamic spectrum. The more unusual bursts are wide-band and diffuse, show no patches or breaks or harmonic emission, and often have long durations. Type II bursts are thought to be plasma emission, caused by propagating shock waves, but a synchrotron-emitting source has also been proposed as the origin for the wide-band type IIs. Aims: Our aim is to find out where the wide-band IP type II bursts originate and what is their connection to particle acceleration. Methods: We analyzed in detail 25 solar events that produced well-separated, wide-band IP type II bursts in 2001-2011. Their associations to flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and solar energetic particle events (SEPs) were investigated. Results: Of the 25 bursts, 18 were estimated to have heights corresponding to the CME leading fronts, suggesting that they were created by bow shocks ahead of the CMEs. However, seven events were found in which the burst heights were significantly lower and which showed a different type of height-time evolution. Almost all the analyzed wide-band type II bursts were associated with very high-speed CMEs, originating from different parts of the solar hemisphere. In terms of SEP associations, many of the SEP events were weak, had poor connectivity due to the eastern limb source location, or were masked by previous events. Some of the events had precursors in specific energy ranges. These properties and conditions affected the intensity-time profiles and made the injection-time-based associations with the type II bursts difficult to interpret. In several cases where the SEP injection times could be determined, the radio dynamic spectra showed other features (in addition to the wide-band type II bursts) that could be signatures of shock fronts

  6. SHAPING OF ACTION POTENTIALS BY TYPE I AND TYPE II BK CHANNELS

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, David B.; Wang, Bin; Brenner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The BK channel is a Ca2+ and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These ...

  7. Towards Optimal Diagnosis of Type II Germ Cell Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Stoop (Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the work described in this thesis is to improve the understanding of the pathobiology of testicular cancer (type II Germ Cell Tumors) to create possibilities for optimalization of diagnosis for this type of malignancy in routine pathology laboratories. The different studies pr

  8. II-Type Products of L-Fuzzy Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    W. Gahler has proposed the concept of L-fuzzy filters and discussed the product of L-fuzzy filters. This note is devoted to the discussion of another type product, we called it II-type product of L-fuzzy filters.

  9. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance.

  10. HLA class II genes: typing by DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, J L; Bidwell, E A; Bradley, B A

    1990-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the structure and function of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has ensued from studies by molecular biologist during the last decade. Virtually all of the HLA genes have now been cloned, and the nucleotide sequences of their different allelic forms have been determined. Typing for these HLA alleles is a fundamental prerequisite for tissue matching in allogeneic organ transplantation. Until very recently, typing procedures have been dominated by serological and cellular methods. The availability of cloned DNA from HLA genes has now permitted the technique of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to be applied, with remarkable success and advantage, to phenotyping of both HLA Class I and Class II determinants. For the HLA Class II genes DR and DQ, a simple two-stage RFLP analysis permits the accurate identification of all specificities defined by serology, and of many which are defined by cellular typing. At the present time, however, RFLP typing of HLA Class I genes is not as practicable or as informative as that for HLA Class II genes. The present clinical applications of HLA-DR and DQ RFLP typing are predominantly in phenotyping of living donors, including selection of HLA-matched volunteer bone marrow donors, in allograft survival studies, and in studies of HLA Class II-associated diseases. However, the time taken to perform RFLP analysis precludes its use for the typing of cadaveric kidney donors. Nucleotide sequence data for the alleles of HLA Class II genes have now permitted the development of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) typing, a second category of DNA analysis. This has been greatly facilitated by the ability to amplify specific HLA Class II DNA 'target' sequences using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The accuracy of DNA typing techniques should ensure that this methodology will eventually replace conventional HLA phenotyping.

  11. Depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Akmal; Sultan, Sayed Mohammad; Nazli, Rubina; Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mudasar Ahmad; Sher, Nabila; Aslam, Hina

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus in Peshawar at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from March to September 2010. Depression was assessed by using Beck Depressive Inventory-II (BDI-II). Out of 140 patients with type-II diabetes, 85 (61%) were women and 55 (39%) were men. Mean age was 45±7.45 years. Eighty four (60%) patients presented with severe depression. Depression was higher in females than males and widows. Depression was high in diabetic patients, especially in females and widows. It is of essence that psychiatric attention may be necessary to be incorporated in diabetes care both for prevention and treatment.

  12. Painful keratoderma and photophobia: hallmarks of tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, L G; Williams, L R; Anderson, C E; Mazur, A; Kaplan, P

    1995-02-01

    Tyrosinemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome), which is caused by a deficiency of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase, results in elevated plasma and urinary tyrosine concentrations. We describe a young boy who was seen at 6 months of age with red eyes, photophobia, and eye pain that were not suspected to be caused by tyrosinemia II until painful plantar keratoderma developed at 2 1/2 years of age. Treatment with a diet low in tyrosine and phenylalanine reversed the manifestations of the disease.

  13. Unsupervised clustering of Type II supernova light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Adam

    2016-01-01

    As new facilities come online, the astronomical community will be provided with extremely large datasets of well-sampled light curves (LCs) of transient objects. This motivates systematic studies of the light curves of supernovae (SNe) of all types, including the early rising phase. We performed unsupervised k-means clustering on a sample of 59 R-band Type II SN light curves and find that our sample can be divided into three classes: slowly-rising (II-S), fast-rise/slow-decline (II-FS), and fast-rise/fast-decline (II-FF). We also identify three outliers based on the algorithm. We find that performing clustering on the first two components of a principle component analysis gives equivalent results to the analysis using the full LC morphologies. This may indicate that Type II LCs could possibly be reduced to two parameters. We present several important caveats to the technique, and find that the division into these classes is not fully robust and is sensitive to the uncertainty on the time of first light. Moreo...

  14. Realizing type-II Weyl points in an optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Kunal; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Lorentz symmetry-violating "type-II" Weyl semimetal phase has renewed interest in the study of Weyl physics in condensed-matter systems. However, tuning the exceptional properties of this novel state has remained a challenge. Optical lattices, created using standing laser beams, provide a convenient platform to tune tunneling parameters continuously in time. In this paper, we propose a generalized two level system exhibiting type-II Weyl points that can be realized using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. The system is engineered using a three-dimensional lattice with complex π phase tunneling amplitudes. Various unique properties of the type-II Weyl semimetal such as open Fermi surface, anomalous chirality, and topological Fermi arcs can be probed using the proposed optical lattice scheme.

  15. Clinical and morphological features of Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, P B; Parsons, M A; Weatherhead, R G; Karcioglu, Z A

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of 4-month-old girl who presented with congenital cataracts revealed heterochromia iridis, fundus hypopigmentation, residual white forelock and sensory neural hearing loss--findings consistent with Waardenburg syndrome type II. Bilateral peripheral iridectomies performed at lensectomy provided tissue for evaluation. Light microscopy revealed fewer melanocytes in the blue iris than in the brown. Electron microscopic examination showed a significant (p = 0.0001) reduction in melanosome size in the blue iris, and the nerve endings contained fewer vesicles. A defect in neural crest cell migration and melanin synthesis may be responsible for the heterochromia iridis seen in Waardenburg syndrome type II.

  16. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Howell, D. Andrew; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Conley, Alex; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas

    2006-03-20

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z {approx}0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNeII-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, across-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We apply this revised method to our dataset of high-redshift SNe II-P and find that the resulting Hubble diagram has a scatter of only 0.26 magnitudes, thus demonstrating the feasibility of measuring the expansion history, with present facilities, using a method independent of that based upon supernovae of Type Ia.

  17. Trace element geochemistry of ordinary chondrite chondrules: the type I/type II chondrule dichotomy

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    We report trace element concentrations of silicate phases in chondrules from LL3 ordinary chondrites Bishunpur and Semarkona. Results are similar to previously reported data for carbonaceous chondrites, with rare earth element (REE) concentrations increasing in the sequence olivine ~ 10 K/h) than type I chondrules. Appreciable Na concentrations (3-221 ppm) are measured in olivine from both chondrule types; type II chondrules seem to have behaved as closed systems, which may require chondrule formation in the vicinity of protoplanets or planetesimals. At any rate, higher solid concentrations in type II chondrule forming regions may explain the higher oxygen fugacities they record compared to type I chondrules. Type I and type II chondrules formed in different environments and the correlation between high solid concentrations and/or oxygen fugacities with rapid cooling rates is a key constraint that chondrule formation models must account for.

  18. Type I vs type II spiral ganglion neurons exhibit differential survival and neuritogenesis during cochlear development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Housley Gary D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms that consolidate neural circuitry are a major focus of neuroscience. In the mammalian cochlea, the refinement of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN innervation to the inner hair cells (by type I SGNs and the outer hair cells (by type II SGNs is accompanied by a 25% loss of SGNs. Results We investigated the segregation of neuronal loss in the mouse cochlea using β-tubulin and peripherin antisera to immunolabel all SGNs and selectively type II SGNs, respectively, and discovered that it is the type II SGN population that is predominately lost within the first postnatal week. Developmental neuronal loss has been attributed to the decline in neurotrophin expression by the target hair cells during this period, so we next examined survival of SGN sub-populations using tissue culture of the mid apex-mid turn region of neonatal mouse cochleae. In organotypic culture for 48 hours from postnatal day 1, endogenous trophic support from the organ of Corti proved sufficient to maintain all type II SGNs; however, a large proportion of type I SGNs were lost. Culture of the spiral ganglion as an explant, with removal of the organ of Corti, led to loss of the majority of both SGN sub-types. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF added as a supplement to the media rescued a significant proportion of the SGNs, particularly the type II SGNs, which also showed increased neuritogenesis. The known decline in BDNF production by the rodent sensory epithelium after birth is therefore a likely mediator of type II neuron apoptosis. Conclusion Our study thus indicates that BDNF supply from the organ of Corti supports consolidation of type II innervation in the neonatal mouse cochlea. In contrast, type I SGNs likely rely on additional sources for trophic support.

  19. Towards Optimal Diagnosis of Type II Germ Cell Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, Hans

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the work described in this thesis is to improve the understanding of the pathobiology of testicular cancer (type II Germ Cell Tumors) to create possibilities for optimalization of diagnosis for this type of malignancy in routine pathology laboratories. The different studies presented here show valuable additional information on the microscopic diagnostics in daily practice. This enables proper and complete diagnosis of this relative rare variant of cancer ensuring the b...

  20. Enzymatic Breakdown of Type II Collagen in the Human Vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, Marielle; Pas, Hendri H.; Kuijer, Roel; van der Worp, Roelofje J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate whether enzymatic collagen breakdown is an active process in the human vitreous. METHODS. Human donor eyes were used for immunohistochemistry to detect the possible presence of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-induced type II collagen breakdown product col2-3/4C-short in th

  1. Carbon and Silicate Dust Condensation in Type II Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneault, Ethan A.-N.; Morales, B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the chemistry of formation and destruction processes of molecules in the expanding and cooling ejecta of Type II Supernovae. In this work, we use a kinetic chemistry network to explore the parameters and conditions of the ejecta which are required for the condensation of graphite and silicon carbide grains.

  2. Knowledge Is Power: Teaching Children about Type II Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild-Berner, Natalie; Balgopal, Meena

    2011-01-01

    World Diabetes Day (November 14) offers a wonderful opportunity to educate elementary children about the power they have to control their health. First lady Michelle Obama has urged Americans to educate themselves about childhood obesity, which is often associated with the onset of type II diabetes (Rabin 2010). The authors developed activities to…

  3. Type II (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes: new treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, B J

    1997-01-01

    Type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]) is a common primary and secondary diagnosis in home care patients. This article describes the pathophysiology of NIDDM, the new drugs that have been released for treatment, and the nursing implications inherent in using these new medications.

  4. Type II Shocks Characteristics: Comparison with associated CMEs and Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Pothitakis, G; Preka-Papadema, P; Moussas, X; Caroubalos, C; Alissandrakis, C E; Hillaris, A; Tsitsipis, P; Kontogeorgos, A; Bougeret, J -L; Dumas, G; 10.1063/1.2347985

    2010-01-01

    A number of metric (100-650 MHz) typeII bursts was recorded by the ARTEMIS-IV radiospectrograph in the 1998-2000 period; the sample includes both CME driven shocks and shocks originating from flare blasts. We study their characteristics in comparison with characteristics of associated CMEs and flares.

  5. A Type II Radio Burst without a Coronal Mass Ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Su, W; Ding, M D; Chen, P F; Sun, J Q

    2015-01-01

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only with a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of $\\sim$ 600 km s$^{-1}$ during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is in particular explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure (DEM) method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The ...

  6. Acute type II cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis mimicking atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saeed, A

    2012-01-31

    Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease is a common presenting cause for digital ischaemia in life long smokers. Acute severe Type II Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis is a rare yet important cause, which may present with similar clinical features and which if undiagnosed may be rapidly fatal. Following the instigation of therapy with intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide this patient made an excellent recovery.

  7. Type-II Supernovae and Neutrino Magnetic Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Nunokawa, H; Valle, José W F

    1999-01-01

    The present solar and atmospheric neutrino data together with the LSND results and the presence of hot dark matter (HDM) suggest the existence of a sterile neutrino at the eV scale. We have reanalysed the effect of resonant type-II supernova. We analyse the implications of $\

  8. Type II-P Supernovae as Standard Candles: The SDSS-II Sample Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Poznanski, Dovi; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the observed correlation between Hbeta and FeII velocities for Type II-P supernovae (SNe~II-P) using 28 optical spectra of 13 SNe II-P and demonstrate that it is well modeled by a linear relation with a dispersion of about 300 km/s. Using this correlation, we reanalyze the publicly available sample of SNe II-P compiled by D'Andrea et al. and find a Hubble diagram with an intrinsic scatter of 11% in distance, which is nearly as tight as that measured before their sample is added to the existing set. The larger scatter reported in their work is found to be systematic, and most of it can be alleviated by measuring Hbeta rather than FeII velocities, due to the low signal-to-noise ratios and early epochs at which many of the optical spectra were obtained. Their sample, while supporting the mounting evidence that SNe II-P are good cosmic rulers, is biased toward intrinsically brighter objects and is not a suitable set to improve upon SN II-P correlation parameters. This will await a dedicated survey.

  9. Comparison of candidate serologic markers for type I and type II ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Dan; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Bristow, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    To examine the value of individual and combinations of ovarian cancer associated blood biomarkers for the discrimination between plasma of patients with type I or II ovarian cancer and disease-free volunteers.......To examine the value of individual and combinations of ovarian cancer associated blood biomarkers for the discrimination between plasma of patients with type I or II ovarian cancer and disease-free volunteers....

  10. A universal characteristic of type II radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Gopalswamy, N.; MacDowall, R.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2005-12-01

    We present a study on the spectral properties of interplanetary type II radio bursts observed by the Radio and Plasma Wave (WAVES) experiment on board the Wind spacecraft. We investigated the relative bandwidth of the type II radio bursts observed by WAVES from 1997 up to 2003. We obtained three sets of events, based on the frequency domain of occurrence: 109 events in the low-frequency domain (30 KHz to 1000 kHz, detected by the RAD1 receiver), 216 events in the high-frequency domain (1-14 MHz, observed by the RAD2 receiver), and 73 events that spanned both domains (RAD1 and RAD2). Statistical results show that the average bandwidth-to-frequency ratio (BFR) was 0.28 ± 0.15, 0.26 ± 0.16, and 0.32 ± 0.15 for RAD1, RAD2, and RAD1 + RAD2, respectively. We compared our results with those obtained for ISEE-3 type II bursts and found a difference in the average BFR, which seems to be due to a selection effect. The BFR of the WAVES type II bursts is similar to that of metric type II bursts reported in published works. This suggests that the BFR is a universal characteristic, irrespective of the spectral domain. Finally, we also studied the BFR evolution with heliocentric distance using white-light observation of the associated coronal mass ejections. We found that the BFR remains roughly constant in the SOHO/LASCO field of view (i.e., from 2.1 to 32 solar radii), while the bandwidth itself decreases.

  11. A Sample of Type II-L Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Faran, T; Filippenko, A V; Chornock, R; Foley, R J; Ganeshalingam, M; Leonard, D C; Li, W; Modjaz, M; Serduke, F J D; Silverman, J M

    2014-01-01

    What are Type II-Linear supernovae (SNe II-L)? This class, which has been ill defined for decades, now receives significant attention -- both theoretically, in order to understand what happens to stars in the ~15-25Mo range, and observationally, with two independent studies suggesting that they cannot be cleanly separated photometrically from the regular hydrogen-rich SNe II-P characterised by a marked plateau in their light curve. Here, we analyze the multi-band light curves and extensive spectroscopic coverage of a sample of 35 SNe II and find that 11 of them could be SNe II-L. The spectra of these SNe are hydrogen deficient, typically have shallow Halpha absorption, may show indirect signs of helium via strong OI 7774 absorption, and have faster line velocities consistent with a thin hydrogen shell. The light curves can be mostly differentiated from those of the regular, hydrogen-rich SNe II-P by their steeper decline rates and higher luminosity, and we propose as a defining photometric characteristic the ...

  12. Genetic mapping of the dentinogenesis imperfecta type II locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, A.H.; Dixon, M.J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Scherpbier-Heddema, T. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) is an autosomal dominant disorder of dentin formation, which has previously been mapped to chromosome 4q12-21. In the current study, six novel short tandem-repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) have been isolated, five of which show significant evidence of linkage to DGI-II. To determine the order of the STRPs and define the genetic distance between them, nine loci (including polymorphisms for two known genes) were mapped through the CEPH reference pedigrees. The resulting genetic map encompasses 16.3 cM on the sex-averaged map. To combine this map with a physical map of the region, all of the STRPs were mapped through a somatic cell hybrid panel. The most likely location for the DGI-II locus within the fixed marker map is in the D4S2691-D4S2692 interval of 6.6 cM. The presence of a marker that shows no recombination with the DGI-II phenotype between the flanking markers provides an important anchor point for the creation of physical continuity across the DGI-II candidate region. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Type I and type II second harmonic generation of conically refracted beams

    CERN Document Server

    Turpin, Alex; Kalkandjiev, Todor K; Trull, Jose; Cojocaru, Crina; Mompart, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Type I and type II second harmonic generation (SHG) of a beam transformed by the conical refraction phenomenon are presented. We show that, for type I, the second harmonic intensity pattern is a light ring with a point of null intensity while, for type II, the light ring possesses two dark regions. Taking into account the different two-photon processes involved in SHG, we have derived analytical expressions for the resulting transverse intensity patterns that are in good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, we have investigated the spatial evolution of the second harmonic signals, showing that they behave as conically refracted beams.

  14. Gain spectroscopy of a type-II VECSEL chip

    CERN Document Server

    Lammers, Christian; Berger, Christian; Möller, Christoph; Fuchs, Christian; Perez, Antje Ruiz; Rahimi-Iman, Arash; Hader, Jörg; Moloney, Jerome; Stolz, Wolfgang; Koch, Stephan W; Koch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Using optical pump-white light probe spectroscopy the gain dynamics is investigated for a VECSEL chip which is based on a type-II heterostructure. The active region the chip consists of a GaAs/(GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb)/(GaIn)As/GaAs multiple quantum well. For this structure, a fully microscopic theory predicts a modal room temperature gain at a wavelength of 1170 nm, which is confirmed by experimental spectra. The results show a gain buildup on the type-II chip which is delayed relative to that of a type-I chip. This slower gain dynamics is attributed to a diminished cooling rate arising from reduced electron-hole scattering.

  15. Photometric and Spectroscopic Properties of Type II-P Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Faran, Tamar; Poznanski, Dovi; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan J.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Leonard, Douglas C.; Li, Weidong; Modjaz, Maryam; Nakar, Ehud; Serduke, Frank J. D.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    We study a sample of 23 Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), all observed with the same set of instruments. Analysis of their photometric evolution confirms that their typical plateau duration is 100 days with little scatter, showing a tendency to get shorter for more energetic SNe. The rise time from explosion to plateau does not seem to correlate with luminosity. We analyze their spectra, measuring typical ejecta velocities, and confirm that they follow a well behaved power-law decline. W...

  16. Intrafibrillar Mineral May be Absent in Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II (DI-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pople, John A.

    2001-03-29

    High-resolution synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) were performed on normal and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DI-II) teeth. Three normal and three DI-II human third molars were used in this study. The normal molars were unerupted and had intact enamel; donors were female and ranged in age from 18-21y. The DI-II specimens, which were also unerupted with intact enamel, came from a single female donor age 20y. SRCT showed that the mineral concentration was 33% lower on average in the DI-II dentin with respect to normal dentin. The SAXS spectra from normal dentin exhibited low-angle diffraction peaks at harmonics of 67.6 nm, consistent with nucleation and growth of the apatite phase within gaps in the collagen fibrils (intrafibrillar mineralization). In contrast, the low-angle peaks were almost nonexistent in the DI-II dentin. Crystallite thickness was independent of location in both DI-II and normal dentin, although the crystallites were significantly thicker in DI-II dentin (6.8 nm (s.d. = 0.5) vs 5.1 nm (s.d. = 0.6)). The shape factor of the crystallites, as determined by SAXS, showed a continuous progression in normal dentin from roughly one-dimensional (needle-like) near the pulp to two-dimensional (plate-like) near the dentin-enamel junction. The crystallites in DI-II dentin, on the other hand, remained needle-like throughout. The above observations are consistent with an absence of intrafibrillar mineral in DI-II dentin.

  17. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  18. Inhibition of Zn(II binding type IA topoisomerases by organomercury compounds and Hg(II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokun Cheng

    Full Text Available Type IA topoisomerase activities are essential for resolving DNA topological barriers via an enzyme-mediated transient single strand DNA break. Accumulation of topoisomerase DNA cleavage product can lead to cell death or genomic rearrangement. Many antibacterial and anticancer drugs act as topoisomerase poison inhibitors that form stabilized ternary complexes with the topoisomerase covalent intermediate, so it is desirable to identify such inhibitors for type IA topoisomerases. Here we report that organomercury compounds were identified during a fluorescence based screening of the NIH diversity set of small molecules for topoisomerase inhibitors that can increase the DNA cleavage product of Yersinia pestis topoisomerase I. Inhibition of relaxation activity and accumulation of DNA cleavage product were confirmed for these organomercury compounds in gel based assays of Escherichia coli topoisomerase I. Hg(II, but not As(III, could also target the cysteines that form the multiple Zn(II binding tetra-cysteine motifs found in the C-terminal domains of these bacterial topoisomerase I for relaxation activity inhibition. Mycobacterium tuberculosis topoisomerase I activity is not sensitive to Hg(II or the organomercury compounds due to the absence of the Zn(II binding cysteines. It is significant that the type IA topoisomerases with Zn(II binding domains can still cleave DNA when interfered by Hg(II or organomercury compounds. The Zn(II binding domains found in human Top3α and Top3β may be potential targets of toxic metals and organometallic complexes, with potential consequence on genomic stability and development.

  19. Canine chondrocytes seeded in type I and type II collagen implants investigated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrer, S; Breinan, H A; Ramappa, A; Shortkroff, S; Young, G; Minas, T; Sledge, C B; Yannas, I V; Spector, M

    1997-01-01

    Synthetic and natural absorbable polymers have been used as vehicles for implantation of cells into cartilage defects to promote regeneration of the articular joint surface. Implants should provide a pore structure that allows cell adhesion and growth, and not provoke inflammation or toxicity when implanted in vivo. The scaffold should be absorbable and the degradation should match the rate of tissue regeneration. To facilitate cartilage repair the chemical structure and pore architecture of the matrix should allow the seeded cells to maintain the chondrocytic phenotype, characterized by synthesis of cartilage-specific proteins. We investigated the behavior of canine chondrocytes in two spongelike matrices in vitro: a collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) copolymer produced from bovine hide consisting of type I collagen and a porous scaffold made of type II collagen by extraction of porcine cartilage. Canine chondrocytes were seeded on both types of matrices and cultured for 3 h, 7 days, and 14 days. The histology of chondrocyte-seeded implants showed a significantly higher percentage of cells with spherical morphology, consistent with chondrocytic morphology, in the type II sponge at each time point. Pericellular matrix stained for proteoglycans and for type II collagen after 14 days. Biochemical analysis of the cell seeded sponges for GAG and DNA content showed increases with time. At day 14 there was a significantly higher amount of DNA and GAG in the type II matrix. This is the first study that directly compares the behavior of chondrocytes in type I and type II collagen matrices. The type II matrix may be of value as a vehicle for chondrocyte implantation on the basis of the higher percentage of chondrocytes retaining spherical morphology and greater biosynthetic activity that was reflected in the greater increase of GAG content.

  20. Metallicity from Type II Supernovae from the (i)PTF

    CERN Document Server

    Taddia, F; Sollerman, J; Rubin, A; Leloudas, G; Gal-Yam, A; Arcavi, I; Cao, Y; Filippenko, A V; Graham, M L; Mazzali, P A; Nugent, P E; Pan, Y -C; Silverman, J M; Xu, D; Yaron, O

    2016-01-01

    Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) have recently been proposed as metallicity ($Z$) probes. The spectral models of Dessart et al. (2014) showed that the pseudo-equivalent width of Fe II $\\lambda$5018 (pEW$_{5018}$) during the plateau phase depends on the primordial $Z$, but there was a paucity of SNe IIP exhibiting pEW$_{5018}$ compatible with $Z < 0.4 {\\rm Z}_{\\odot}$. This lack might be due to some physical property of the SN II population, or to the fact that those SNe were discovered in luminous, metal-rich targeted galaxies. Here we use SN II observations from the untargeted (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF] survey, aiming to investigate the pEW$_{5018}$ distribution of this SN population and in particular to look for the presence of SNe II at lower $Z$. We perform pEW$_{5018}$ measurements on the spectra of a sample of 39 (i)PTF SNe II, selected to have well-constrained explosion epochs and light-curve properties (Rubin et al. 2015). Based on the comparison with the pEW$_{5018}$ spectral m...

  1. Exploring Type I and Type II Errors Using Rhizopus Sporangia Diameter Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A.; Burns, Gerard; Freud, Brian; Fenning, Stacy; Hoffman, Rosemary; Sabapathi, Durai

    2000-01-01

    Presents exercises in which students can explore Type I and Type II errors using sporangia diameter measurements as a means of differentiating between two species. Examines the influence of sample size and significance level on the outcome of the analysis. (SAH)

  2. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Ara, Ignacio;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...... vastus lateralis across all groups. No significant differences between groups were observed in ceramide content in either of the two substudies. In human skeletal muscle, ceramide content was higher in type I than in type II fibers in patients with type 2 diabetes and in obese subjects, but overall...

  3. On the Covariant Quantization of Type II Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Guttenberg, S; Kreuzer, M; Guttenberg, Sebastian; Knapp, Johanna; Kreuzer, Maximilian

    2004-01-01

    In a series of papers Grassi, Policastro, Porrati and van Nieuwenhuizen have introduced a new method to covariantly quantize the GS-superstring by constructing a resolution of the pure spinor constraint of Berkovits' approach. Their latest version is based on a gauged WZNW model and a definition of physical states in terms of relative cohomology groups. We first put the off-shell formulation of the type II version of their ideas into a chirally split form and directly construct the free action of the gauged WZNW model, thus circumventing some complications of the super group manifold approach to type II. Then we discuss the BRST charges that define the relative cohomology and the N=2 superconformal algebra. A surprising result is that nilpotency of the BRST charge requires the introduction of another quartet of ghosts.

  4. Two different molecular conformations found in chitosan type II salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertworasirikul, Amornrat; Tsue, Shin-ichiro; Noguchi, Keiichi; Okuyama, Kenji; Ogawa, Kozo

    2003-05-23

    The type II structure of chitosan acidic salts prepared from crab tendon in solid state was studied using an X-ray fiber diffraction technique together with the linked-atom least-squares (LALS) technique. The cylindrical Patterson method was applied to confirm the molecular conformation of the chitosan. It was shown that there are two different helical conformations for type II salts. One is the relaxed twofold helix having a tetrasaccharide as an asymmetric unit as found in chitosan.HCl salt, which was previously reported as a conformation of chitosan.HCOOH salt. The other is the fourfold helix having a disaccharide as an asymmetric unit newly found in chitosan.HI salt.

  5. UBVRIz Light Curves of 51 Type II Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Galbany, Lluís; Phillips, Mark M; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Maza, José; de Jaeger, Thomas; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Krisciunas, Kevin; Morrell, Nidia I; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Krzeminski, Wojtek; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wischnjewski, Marina; McCarthy, Patrick; Anderson, Joseph P; Gutiérrez, Claudia P; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Folatelli, Gastón; Anguita, Claudio; Galaz, Gaspar; Green, Elisabeth M; Impey, Chris; Kim, Yong-Cheol; Kirhakos, Sofia; Malkan, Mathew A; Mulchaey, John S; Phillips, Andrew C; Pizzella, Alessandro; Prosser, Charles F; Schmidt, Brian P; Schommer, Robert A; Sherry, William; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wells, Lisa A; Williger, Gerard M

    2015-01-01

    We present a compilation of UBV RIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986 to 2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calan/Tololo Supernova Program (C&T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being thus shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.

  6. UBVRIz LIGHT CURVES OF 51 TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbany, Lluis; Hamuy, Mario; Jaeger, Thomas de; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Claudia P. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 60, La Serena (Chile); Suntzeff, Nicholas B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Maza, José; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Krisciunas, Kevin [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Krzeminski, Wojtek [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); McCarthy, Patrick [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Anderson, Joseph P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark); Folatelli, Gastón, E-mail: lgalbany@das.uchile.cl [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (IALP, CONICET) (Argentina); and others

    2016-02-15

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986–2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C and T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.

  7. Multicolor Oservations of the Type II Cepheid Prototype W Virginis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Henden, A. A.; Crawford, T.; James, R.; Bonnardeau, M.; Wells, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the AAVSO's six-month photometric campaign on the bright, pulsating variable star W Virginis, class prototype of the Type II Cepheid variables. This campaign was organized in support of separate spectroscopic observations (Wallerstein et al., in preparation), but these photometric data also stand alone as a valuable, recent, multicolor light curve of this object. Observations were obtained by several amateur and professional observers using a variety of equipment; data are primarily in the V filter, but include two complete pulsation cycles in the BVRcIc filters. We present lightand color-curves of this star, and compare our results to previous observational and theoretical results on W Vir and the Type II Cepheids.

  8. Subclinical onychomycosis in patients with type II diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Elbendary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal organisms could be present in the nail without any clinical manifestations. As onychomycosis in diabetics has more serious complications, early detection of such infection could be helpful to prevent them. We aim in this study to assess the possibility of detecting subclinical onychomycosis in type II diabetic patients and addressing possible associated neuropathy. A cross sectional, observational study included patients with type II diabetes with normal big toe nail. All were subjected to nail clipping of the big toe nail, followed by staining with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic-Acid-Schiff (PAS stains and examined microscopically. A total of 106 patients were included, fungal infection was identified in eight specimens, all were uncontrolled diabetes, and six had neuropathy. Using the nail clipping and microscopic examination with PAS stain to detect such subclinical infection could be an applicable screening test for diabetic patients, for early detection and management of onychomycosis.

  9. Instability in the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Isaías G. de, E-mail: isaias@ufrrj.br

    2015-07-17

    Under the view of the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau theory we have investigated the penetration of the magnetic field in the type II superconductors. We show that the single vortices, situated along the borderline, between the normal region channel and the superconducting region, can escape to regions still empty of vortices. We show that the origin of this process is the repulsive nature of vortex–vortex interaction, in addition to the non-homogeneous distribution of the vortices along the normal region channel. Using London theory we explain the extra gain of kinetic energy by the vortices situated along this borderline. - Highlights: • TDGL is used to study the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors. • Instability process is found during the magnetic field penetration. • Vortices along the front of the normal region escape to superconducting region. • We explain the extra-gain of kinetic energy by vortices along the borderline.

  10. Tyrosinemia type II: a challenge for ophthalmologists and dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoldi, D; Orsoni, J B; Allegra, F

    1997-01-01

    Tyrosinemia type II was suspected in a 13-month-old child with recurrent photophobia, tearing, and hyperkeratotic lesions on the palms and soles. Laboratory tests revealed high tyrosine levels in blood and urine. All the symptoms promptly improved after the institution of a low tyrosine diet. We emphasize the importance of an early diagnosis in order to avoid the risk of mental retardation in these patients.

  11. Gaia16alo is a Type II SN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, M.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Mattila, S.; Harrison, D.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Blagorodnova, N.

    2016-05-01

    Gaia16alo (aka PS16cct) was observed using the robotic Liverpool Telescope + SPRAT (R~350; 400-800 nm) on the night of 2016 May 6. The spectrum was compared to a set of templates using SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), and we find a best match to a range of Type II SNe at z=0.03.

  12. ACCELERATION OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Michael L., E-mail: mgoodman@wvhtf.org [Advanced Technologies Group, West Virginia High Technology Consortium Foundation, 1000 Galliher Drive, Fairmont, WV 26554 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths {<=}50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are {approx}150-460 km s{sup -1}, horizontally localized within {approx}2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are {approx}20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached {approx}100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as {approx}100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be {approx}0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of {approx}10{sup 6} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  13. Evaluation of Oral Health in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rathy Ravindran; M.G. Deepa; A.K. Sruthi; Cherian Kuruvila; Priya, S.; S.Sunil; Joseph Edward; G Roopesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral cav ity re flects the general health status of a person and diagnosing and treating oral manifestations of systemic disease pose a greater challenge. Even though there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and diabetes mellitus, oral health awareness is lacking among diabetic patients and health professionals. The present study was undertaken to determine the oral health status in type II diabetic patients and also...

  14. Superspace with manifest T-duality from type II superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsuda, Machiko; Siegel, Warren

    2014-01-01

    A superspace formulation of type II superstring background with manifest T-duality symmetry is presented. This manifestly T-dual formulation is constructed in a space spanned by two sets of nondegenerate super-Poincare algebra. Supertorsion constraints are obtained from consistency of the kappa-symmetric Virasoro constraints. All superconnections and vielbein fields are solved in terms of a prepotential which is one of the vielbein components. AdS5xS5 background is explained in this formulation.

  15. Perinatal lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Imene Dahmane; Hamida, Emira Ben; Rebeh, Rania Ben; Chaouachi, Sihem; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II which is a perinatal lethal form. First trimester ultrasound didn't identified abnormalities. Second trimester ultrasound showed incurved limbs, narrow chest, with hypomineralization and multiple fractures of ribs and long bones. Parents refused pregnancy termination; they felt that the diagnosis was late. At birth, the newborn presented immediate respiratory distress. Postnatal examination and bone radiography confirmed the diagnosis of OI type IIA. Death occurred on day 25 of life related to respiratory failure.

  16. Obstetric ultrasonographic findings of Chiari type II: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptekin Tosun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiari malformations divided into 3 groups. Chiari type I malformation is caudal protrusion of cerebellar tonsils. Type II malformation is the most common and associate with meningomyelocele. Type III is a high cervical men-ingoencephalocele and uncommon.Spina bifida, has classified into open and closed forms as skin covered spine lesions. Cranial signs are not ac-companiment on closed type. Open type usually diag-nosed on prenatal period. Typical findings are ventricu-lomegaly, lemon sign (bifrontal indentation, banana sign (Chiari II malformation, obliteration of cisterna magna and small BPD and body measurements according to gestation age. Occipital horns are higher than 10 mm in ventriculomegaly. Choroid plexus are small and looking like tear. Limon sign defines biconcave frontal bones as looking like a lemon. Banana sign and obliteration of cis-terna magna resulted cause of hypoplasia of posterior fossa. Compression of cerebellum causing abnormal lo-calization, although cerebellar tonsils and vermis herni-ated to foramen magnum. Hemispheres are wrapping brain stem and looking like ‘‘C’’ (banana sign. Spinal longitudinal sonogram reveals open spine and skin de-fect, although dilatation on spine canal and increased in-terpedincular distance.

  17. Increased incidence of neonatal respiratory distress in infants with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Charlotte; Burton, Barbara K

    2014-02-01

    Records were reviewed on all patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) seen at a single institution from 1999 to 2013 to identify those with a history of neonatal intensive care. Eleven of 34 patients were in a neonatal intensive care unit and all had respiratory distress with 8 diagnoses of respiratory distress syndrome and 3 of transient tachypnea of the newborn. None of the infants were premature; four were delivered by cesarean section. These findings suggest that respiratory distress is more commonly observed in neonates with MPS II than in the general population. This may reflect airway disease already present in this disorder at the time of birth.

  18. Long-rising Type II supernovae from PTF and CCCP

    CERN Document Server

    Taddia, F; Fremling, C; Migotto, K; Gal-Yam, A; Armen, S; Duggan, G; Ergon, M; Filippenko, A V; Fransson, C; Hosseinzadeh, G; Kasliwal, M M; Laher, R R; Leloudas, G; Leonard, D C; Lunnan, R; Masci, F J; Moon, D -S; Silverman, J M; Wozniak, P R

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) 1987A was a peculiar H-rich event with a long-rising (LR) light curve (LC), stemming from a compact blue supergiant star (BSG). Only a few similar events have been presented in the literature. We present new data for a sample of 6 LR Type II SNe (SNe II), 3 of which were discovered and observed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and 3 observed by the Caltech Core-Collapse Project (CCCP). Our aim is to enlarge the family of LR SNe II, characterizing their properties. Spectra, LCs, and host-galaxies (HG) of these SNe are presented. Comparisons with known SN 1987A-like events are shown, with emphasis on the absolute magnitudes, colors, expansion velocities, and HG metallicities. Bolometric properties are derived from the multiband LC. By modeling the early-time LCs with scaling relations derived from the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC) models of MESA progenitor stars, we estimate the progenitor radii of these SNe and other progenitor parameters. We present PTF12kso, a LR SN II with the largest...

  19. Selection of Type I and Type II Methanotrophic Proteobacteria in a Fluidized Bed Reactor under Non-Sterile Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Selection of Type I and Type II methanotrophic proteobacteria in a fluidized bed reactor under...laboratory- scale fluidized bed reactor was initially inoculated with a Type II Methylocystis-like dominated culture. At elevated levels of dissolved...personal copy Selection of Type I and Type II methanotrophic proteobacteria in a fluidized bed reactor under non-sterile conditions Andrew R. Pfluger a, Wei

  20. Outcome of Gartland type II and type III supracondylar fractures treated by Blount′s technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gheldere Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to some orthopedic surgeons, almost all supracondylar humerus fractures should be treated operatively by reduction and pinning. While according to others, closed reduction and immobolization should be used for Gartland type II and some type III fractures. However, the limit of this technique remains unclear. We present 74 patients with displaced extension-type supracondylar fractures treated by closed reduction and immobilization with a collar sling fixed to a cast around the wrist. The purpose of the study is to give a more precise limitation of this technique. Materials and Methods : Retrospective data acquisition of 74 patients with a Gartland type II or type III fractures treated by closed reduction and immobilization (Blount′s technique between January 2004 and December 2007 was done. The mean age was 6.3 years (range, 2-11. The mean time of follow-up was 6.5 months (range, 3-25. All open injuries and complex elbow fracture dislocations or T-condylar fractures were excluded from the study. All patients were evaluated with standardized anteroposterior and true lateral x-rays of the elbow, and Flynn criteria were used for functional assessment. Results : Gartland type II fractures had 94% good or excellent final results. Gartland type III fractures had 73% good or excellent final result. The Gartland type III outcome depended on the displacement. The fractures remained stable in 88% for the posterior displacement, and 58% for the posteromedial displacement. These displacements were mild. However, for the posterolaterally displaced fractures, only 36% were stable; 36% had a mild displacement and 27% had a major displacement. Conclusion : Pure posterior displacement is more stable than posteromedial displacement which is more stable than posterolaterally displaced fractures. This study suggests that Gartland type II and pure posterior or posteromedial displaced Gartland type III fractures can be treated by closed

  1. Photometric and Spectroscopic Properties of Type II-P Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Faran, Tamar; Filippenko, Alexei V; Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan J; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Leonard, Douglas C; Li, Weidong; Modjaz, Maryam; Nakar, Ehud; Serduke, Frank J D; Silverman, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    We study a sample of 23 Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), all observed with the same set of instruments. Analysis of their photometric evolution confirms that their typical plateau duration is 100 days with little scatter, showing a tendency to get shorter for more energetic SNe. The rise time from explosion to plateau does not seem to correlate with luminosity. We analyze their spectra, measuring typical ejecta velocities, and confirm that they follow a well behaved power-law decline. We find indications of high-velocity material in the spectra of six of our SNe. We test different dust extinction correction methods by asking the following - does the uniformity of the sample increase after the application of a given method? A reasonably behaved underlying distribution should become tighter after correction. No method we tested made a significant improvement.

  2. Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: ultrastructure of teeth in sagittal sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Aneta; Loster, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The morphological abnormalities of the teeth of patients affected by dentinogenesis imperfecta type 2 (DI-II) may underlie the difficulties with the clinical restoration of such teeth. We therefore performed a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of four permanent first mandibular molars of four DI-II patients with periapical pathosis. The teeth were prepared for SEM evaluation by standard methods. In the crown, the enamel presented a highly irregular surface with a number of cracks and crevices. In some places, only granular remains of the enamel were found, while in other parts of the crown, the enamel was absent. SEM examination revealed the structural changes responsible for the lower enamel's hardness and resistance to attrition, and for tooth wear, while the structural changes in the dentin may explain the failure of some adhesive restorative materials. This SEM study thus revealed structural defects which underlie the problems of attrition and restoration loss found in patients with this genetic dental condition.

  3. Vacuum stability and naturalness in type-II seesaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki [Shimane University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Matsue (Japan); Okada, Nobuchika [University of Alabama, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Yamaguchi, Yuya [Shimane University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Matsue (Japan); Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    We study the vacuum stability and perturbativity conditions in the minimal type-II seesaw model. These conditions give characteristic constraints to the model parameters. In the model, there is a SU(2){sub L} triplet scalar field, which could cause a large Higgs mass correction. From the naturalness point of view, heavy Higgs masses should be lower than 350 GeV, which may be testable by the LHC Run-II results. Due to the effects of the triplet scalar field, the branching ratios of the Higgs decay (h → γγ, Zγ) deviate from the standard model, and a large parameter region is excluded by the recent ATLAS and CMS combined analysis of h → γγ. Our result of the signal strength for h → γγ is R{sub γγ}

  4. Vacuum stability and naturalness in type-II seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Naoyuki; Okada, Nobuchika; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2016-01-01

    We study the vacuum stability and perturbativity conditions in the minimal type-II seesaw model. These conditions give characteristic constraints to model parameters. In the model, there is a $SU(2)_L$ triplet scalar field, which could cause a large Higgs mass correction. From the naturalness point of view, heavy Higgs masses should be lower than $350\\,{\\rm GeV}$, which can be testable by the LHC Run-II results. Due to effects of the triplet scalar field, branching ratios of the Higgs decay ($h\\to \\gamma \\gamma, Z\\gamma$) deviate from the standard model, and large parameter region is excluded by the recent ATLAS and CMS combined analysis of $h\\to \\gamma \\gamma$. Our result of the signal strength for $h\\to \\gamma \\gamma$ is $R_{\\gamma \\gamma} \\lesssim 1.1$, but its deviation is too small to observe at the LHC experiment.

  5. Bauhinia variegata (Caesalpiniaceae) leaf extract: An effective treatment option in type I and type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Garud, Mayuresh S

    2016-10-01

    Among various metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disorder. Present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bauhinia variegata leaves (AE) in animal models of type I and type II diabetes. Type I diabetes was induced by streptozotocin at the dose of 55mg/kg (i.p.) in male Sprague Dawley rats while type II diabetes was induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin at the dose of 35mg/kg (i.p.). Diabetic animals were treated with AE at the dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg. Glipizide (5mg/kg) was used as standard treatment drug. Treatment was given for 28days. Parameters evaluated were body weight, plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, creatinine and bun urea nitrogen. In type II diabetes, high density lipoprotein levels in plasma and plasma insulin level were also evaluated. Histopathological study of pancreases were carried out in type I study. AE showed significant decrease in plasma glucose significantly. AE was also found to decrease cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level in both types of diabetes. AE did not show any significant effect on plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase. AE was found to increase the albumin and total protein levels. Histopathological study showed that AE decreases the necrotic changes in the pancreatic tissue. Aqueous extract of B. variegata leaves was found effective in treatment of both type I and type II diabetes.

  6. Closed tachyon solitons in type II string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Inaki [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Montero, Miguel [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT-UAM/CSIC, C/Nicolas Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Uranga, Angel M. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT-UAM/CSIC, C/Nicolas Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Type II theories can be described as the endpoint of closed string tachyon condensation in certain orbifolds of supercritical type 0 theories. In this paper, we study solitons of this closed string tachyon and analyze the nature of the resulting defects in critical type II theories. The solitons are classified by the real K-theory groups KO of bundles associated to pairs of supercritical dimensions. For real codimension 4 and 8, corresponding to KO(S{sup 4}) = Z and KO(S{sup 8}) = Z, the defects correspond to a gravitational instanton and a fundamental string, respectively. We apply these ideas to reinterpret the worldsheet GLSM, regarded as a supercritical theory on the ambient toric space with closed tachyon condensation onto the CY hypersurface, and use it to describe charged solitons under discrete isometries. We also suggest the possible applications of supercritical strings to the physical interpretation of the matrix factorization description of F-theory on singular spaces. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Modeling fluid dynamics on type II quantum computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, James; Weeks, David; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2006-03-01

    A quantum algorithm is presented for modeling the time evolution of density and flow fields governed by classical equations, such as the diffusion equation, the nonlinear Burgers equation, and the damped wave equation. The algorithm is intended to run on a type-II quantum computer, a parallel quantum computer consisting of a lattice of small type I quantum computers undergoing unitary evolution and interacting via information interchanges represented by an orthogonal matrices. Information is effectively transferred between adjacent quantum computers over classical communications channels because of controlled state demolition following local quantum mechanical qubit-qubit interactions within each quantum computer. The type-II quantum algorithm presented in this paper describes a methodology for generating quantum logic operations as a generalization of classical operations associated with finite-point group symmetries. The quantum mechanical evolution of multiple qubits within each node is described. Presented is a proof that the parallel quantum system obeys a finite-difference quantum Boltzman equation at the mesoscopic scale, leading in turn to various classical linear and nonlinear effective field theories at the macroscopic scale depending on the details of the local qubit-qubit interactions.

  8. On the nature of rapidly fading Type II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Takashi J; Ergon, Mattias; Blinnikov, Sergei I

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that Type II supernovae with rapidly fading light curves (a.k.a. Type IIL supernovae) are explosions of progenitors with low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes which are of the order of 1 Msun. We investigate light-curve properties of supernovae from such progenitors. We confirm that such progenitors lead to rapidly fading Type II supernovae. We find that the luminosity of supernovae from such progenitors with the canonical explosion energy of 1e51 erg and 56Ni mass of 0.05 Msun can increase temporarily shortly before all the hydrogen in the envelope recombines. As a result, a bump appears in their light curves. The bump appears because the heating from the nuclear decay of 56Ni can keep the bottom of hydrogen-rich layers in the ejecta ionized, and thus the photosphere can stay there for a while. We find that the light-curve bump becomes less significant when we make explosion energy larger (>~ 2e51 erg), 56Ni mass smaller (<~ 0.01 Msun), 56Ni mixed in the ejecta, or the progenitor radius l...

  9. Type II reaction without erythema nodosum leprosum masquerading as lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rahul; Dogra, Sunil; Kaur, Inderjeet; Yadav, Savita; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Budania, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Lepromatous leprosy is a multisystem disease that can involve many organ systems, with lymph nodes a common extra-cutaneous site to be affected. Rarely, multibacillary leprosy can be confused with other diseases like lymphomas and connective tissue diseases. Herein we report a patient of lepromatous leprosy with Type II lepra reaction involving lymph nodes who presented with generalised lymphadenopathy, acquired ichthyosis and constitutional symptoms but no cutaneous lesions to suggest erythema nodosum leprosum, and who was initially misdiagnosed as a case of Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  10. Progress in MBE grown type-II superlattice photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the status of GaSb/InAs type-II superlattice diodes grown and fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed for infrared absorption in the 8-12(mu)m range. Recent devices have produced detectivities as high as 8x10 to the tenth power Jones with a differential resistance-area product greater than 6 Ohmcm(sup 2) at 80K with a long wavelength cutoff of approximately 12(mu)m. The measured quantum efficiency of these front-side illuminated devices is close to 30% in the 10-11(mu)m range without antireflection coatings.

  11. Biologic Activity of Type I and Type II Fusobacterium nucleatum Isolates from Clinically Characterized Sites,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-26

    journal of choice is the Journal of Periodontology . 1 ncl JACK W. VINCENT as COL, DC Microbiology Branch SGRD-UDZ (19 Jul 84) TO COL Jack W. Vincent...Activitity of Type I and Type II Manuscript for Publication Fusobacterium nucleatum Isolates From Clinically Chatacterized Sites. 6. PERFORMING ONG...120) were obtained from subgingival plaque samples taken from 27 clinically characterized sites utilizing a selec- tive culture medium. All isolates

  12. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  13. Effect of Collagen Type I or Type II on Chondrogenesis by Cultured Human Articular Chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Saris, D.B.F.; Vonk, L.A.; Rijen, van M.H.P.; Akrum, V.; Langeveld, D.; Boxtel, van A.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Current cartilage repair procedures using autologous chondrocytes rely on a variety of carriers for implantation. Collagen types I and II are frequently used and valuable properties of both were shown earlier in vitro, although a preference for either was not demonstrated. Recently, ho

  14. Collagen Type II Enhances Chondrogenesis in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Affecting Cell Shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, ZuFu; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, ChunLing; Bank, Ruud A.; Helder, Marco N.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors c

  15. Collagen type II enhances chondrogenesis in adipose tissue-derived stem cells by affecting cell shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Huang, C.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors c

  16. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Drug Master Files Under the Generic Drug User Fee... Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA), holders of certain drug master files, namely, Type II active...

  17. Type II and Type III Radio Bursts and their Correlation with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, L M

    2015-01-01

    Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010-2013, we present an analysis of the 123 decametric-hectometric (DH) type II solar radio bursts during this period, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with solar energetic proton (SEP) properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We present a useful catalog of the type II burst, type III burst, Langmuir wave, and proton flux properties for these 123 events, which we employ to develop a statistical relationship between the radio properties and peak proton flux that can be used to forecast SEP events. We find that all SEP events with a peak > 10 MeV flux above 15 pfu are associated with a type II burst and virtually all SEP events, 92%, are also associated with a type III radio burst. Based on a principal component analysis, the radio burst properties that are most highly correlated with the occurrence of gradual SEP events and account for the most variance in the ra...

  18. Creatine kinase activity in patients with diabetes mellitus type I and type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrić-Causević, Adlija; Malenica, Maja; Dujić, Tanja

    2006-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus can be looked upon as an array of diseases, all of which exhibit common symptoms. While pathogenesis of IDDM (insulin dependant diabetes mellitus) is well understood, the same is not true for diabetes mellitus type II. In the latter case, relative contribution of the two factors (insulin resistance or decreased insulin secretion) varies individually, being highly increased in peripheral tissues and strictly dependant on insulin for glucose uptake. Moreover, in patients with diabetes mellitus type II, disbalance at the level of regulation of glucose metabolism as well as lipid metabolism has been noted in skeletal muscles. It is normal to assume that in this type of diabetes, these changes are reflected at the level of total activity of enzyme creatine kinase. This experimental work was performed on a group of 80 regular patients of Sarajevo General Hospital. Forty of those patients were classified as patients with diabetes type I and forty as patients with diabetes type II. Each group of patients was carefully chosen and constituted of equal number of males and females. The same was applied for adequate controls. Concentration of glucose was determined for each patient with GOD method, while activity of creatine kinase was determined with CK-NAC activated kit. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with SPSS software for Windows. Obtained results point out highly expressed differences in enzyme activity between two populations examined. Changes in enzyme activity are more expressed in patients with diabetes type II. Positive correlation between concentration of glucose and serum activity of the enzyme is seen in both categories of diabetic patients which is not the case for the patients in control group. At the same time, correlation between age and type of diabetes does exist . This is not followed at the level of enzyme activity or concentration of glucose.

  19. Exotic dual of type II double field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Bergshoeff

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We perform an exotic dualization of the Ramond–Ramond fields in type II double field theory, in which they are encoded in a Majorana–Weyl spinor of O(D,D. Starting from a first-order master action, the dual theory in terms of a tensor–spinor of O(D,D is determined. This tensor–spinor is subject to an exotic version of the (self-duality constraint needed for a democratic formulation. We show that in components, reducing O(D,D to GL(D, one obtains the expected exotically dual theory in terms of mixed Young tableaux fields. To this end, we generalize exotic dualizations to self-dual fields, such as the 4-form in type IIB string theory.

  20. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Type II Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ram Borgaonkar

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old female was diagnosed with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in 1976 and Addison’s disease in 1979. At that time, her antimitochondrial antibody (AMA level was elevated at 1:32. She subsequently developed premature ovarian failure and type I diabetes mellitus. In 1996, she became jaundiced with a cholestatic enzyme pattern. AMA was positive at a titre of 1:256. A liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC. She underwent a liver transplantation in January 1998. This is the first report of PBC in association with type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. The association of PBC with other organ-specific autoimmune diseases supports an immune-mediated pathogenesis and may have implications in further studies of PBC.

  1. Exotic dual of type II double field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Riccioni, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    We perform an exotic dualization of the Ramond-Ramond fields in type II double field theory, in which they are encoded in a Majorana-Weyl spinor of O (D , D). Starting from a first-order master action, the dual theory in terms of a tensor-spinor of O (D , D) is determined. This tensor-spinor is subject to an exotic version of the (self-)duality constraint needed for a democratic formulation. We show that in components, reducing O (D , D) to GL (D), one obtains the expected exotically dual theory in terms of mixed Young tableaux fields. To this end, we generalize exotic dualizations to self-dual fields, such as the 4-form in type IIB string theory.

  2. Corneal lesion as the initial manifestation of tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Pin; Lin, Pei-Yu; Lee, Ni-Chung; Niu, Dau-Ming; Lee, Shui-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2006-06-01

    Tyrosinemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase and subsequently increasing level of serum tyrosine. We report the case of a 2-year-old girl who was referred due to bilateral corneal lesions. Slit-lamp examination showed small granular white deposits arranged in a dendritic pattern in the superficial central cornea of both eyes. Physical examination revealed painful, non-pruritic, hyperkeratotic plaques on the soles, palms and fingertips. Mental evaluation demonstrated developmental delay for her age. Blood examination revealed serum tyrosine level to be 1868 microM (normal range, 30-110 microM), which decreased to 838 microM with 2-month diet on tyrosine and phenylalanine restriction. The corneal and skin lesions resolved completely. However, the corneal deposits recurred a month later as her mother failed to strictly control the diet because the little girl was losing weight and activity. With specific formula and adjusted diet regimen, the corneal lesions decreased again. Corneal pseudodendritic deposits may be the initial manifestation in patients with tyrosinemia type II. Early diagnosis and intervention with diet control are crucial for preventing permanent visual and developmental deficits. Corneal deposits can be one of the parameters in monitoring the efficacy of diet control.

  3. Type-II superlattice photodiodes: an alternative for VLWIR detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail J.; Houston, Shanee; Szmulowicz, Frank; Mahalingam, Krishnamur; Haugan, Heather; Wei, Yajun; Gin, Aaron; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2003-09-01

    In the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) band, λ>14 microns, the detector materials are currently limited to extrinsic semiconductors. These extrinsic materials can be either heavily doped bulk semiconductor, like silicon or germanium, or a doped quantum well heterostructure. An alternative choice that provides the opportunity for higher temperature operation for VLWIR sensing is an intrinsic material based on a type-II InAs/Ga(In)Sb superlattice. There are many possible designs for these superlattices which will produce the same narrow band gap by adjusting individual layer thicknesses, indium content or substrate orientation. The infrared properties of various compositions and designs of these type-II superlattices have been studied. In the past few years, excellent results have been obtained on photoconductive and photodiode samples designed for infrared detection beyond 15 microns. An overview of the status of this material system will be presented. In addition, the latest experimental results for superlattice photodiodes with cut-off wavelengths as long as 30 microns will be covered.

  4. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SUDARSHANA KRIYA IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudarshana kriya is a Sanskrit term meaning ―proper vision, purified action by controlling the breath. Kri means to act with awareness. It normalizes breathing by concentrating on it systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 subjects with type II diabetes 20 males, 20 females with age group of 40-60 were chosen. They underwent sudarshana kriya training for 6 days organized in Bangalore. A written consent was taken from subjects. They participated in 6 day Sudarshana kriya training held at Bangalore by a trained teacher. This 6 day training includes Sudarshana kriya and meditation. Our Study is designed to study the glycemic control and antilipemic effect of Sudarshana kriya in TypeII Diabetes Mellitus. RESULTS: Sudarshana kriya appears to be specialized pranayamic breathing capable of inducing series of beneficial changes besides causing significant fall of sugar levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and a raise in HDL cholesterol (p<0.001 CONCLUSION: Sudarshan Kriya can be used along with oral hypoglycemic agents as a holistic adjunct approach for a better glycemic and lipid profile control. Regular practice of Sudarshana Kriya reduces symptoms of mental depression for treating stress and anxiety in post- traumatic stress disorder. Sudarshana Kriya leaves one more alert aware, attentive and focused

  5. Type II intermediate-luminosity optical transients (ILOTs)

    CERN Document Server

    Kashi, Amit

    2016-01-01

    We propose that in a small fraction of intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs) powered by a strongly interacting binary system, the ejected mass in the equatorial plane can block the central source from our line of sight. We can therefore observe only radiation that is reprocessed by polar outflow, much as in type~II active galactic nuclei (AGN). An ejection of $M_{\\rm ej,e}=10^{-4} ~\\rm{M_\\odot} ~ (1 ~\\rm{M_\\odot})$ at 30 degrees from the equatorial plane and at a velocity of $v_{\\rm e} = 100 ~\\rm{km~s^{-1}}$ will block the central source in the NIR for about 5 years (500 years). During that period of time the object might disappear in the visible band, and be detected only in the IR band due to polar dust. We raise the possibility that the recently observed disappearance of a red giant in the visible, designated N6946-BH1, is a type~II ILOT rather than a failed supernova. For this case we estimate that the ejected mass in the polar direction was $M_{\\rm ej,p}\\approx 10^{-3} ~\\rm{M_\\odot}$. Our sc...

  6. Gravitational Field Shielding by Scalar Field and Type II Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gravitational field shielding by scalar field and type II superconductors are theoret- ically investigated. In accord with the well-developed five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein theory with a scalar field, which unifies the Einsteinian general relativity and Maxwellian electromagnetic theory, the scalar field cannot only polarize the space as shown previously, but also flatten the space as indicated recently. The polariza- tion of space decreases the electromagnetic field by increasing the equivalent vacuum permittivity constant, while the flattening of space decreases the gravitational field by decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. In other words, the scalar field can be also employed to shield the gravitational field. A strong scalar field significantly shield the gravitational field by largely decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. According to the theory of gravitational field shielding by scalar field, the weight loss experimentally detected for a sample near a rotating ceramic disk at very low tempera- ture can be explained as the shielding of the Earth gravitational field by the Ginzburg- Landau scalar field, which is produced by the type II superconductors. The significant shielding of gravitational field by scalar field produced by superconductors may lead to a new spaceflight technology in future.

  7. Novel dentin phosphoprotein frameshift mutations in dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K-E; Kang, H-Y; Lee, S-K; Yoo, S-H; Lee, J-C; Hwang, Y-H; Nam, K H; Kim, J-S; Park, J-C; Kim, J-W

    2011-04-01

    The dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene encodes the most abundant non-collagenous protein in tooth dentin and DSPP protein is cleaved into several segments including the highly phosphorylated dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). Mutations in the DSPP gene have been solely related to non-syndromic form of hereditary dentin defects. We recruited three Korean families with dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) type II and sequenced the exons and exon-intron boundaries of the DSPP gene based on the candidate gene approach. Direct sequencing of PCR products and allele-specific cloning of the highly repetitive exon 5 revealed novel single base pair (bp) deletional mutations (c.2688delT and c.3560delG) introducing hydrophobic amino acids in the hydrophilic repeat domain of the DPP coding region. All affected members of the three families showed exceptionally rapid pulp chambers obliteration, even before tooth eruption. Individuals with the c.3560delG mutation showed only mild, yellowish tooth discoloration, in contrast to the affected individuals from two families with c.2688delT mutation. We believe that these results will help us to understand the molecular pathogenesis of DGI type II as well as the normal process of dentin biomineralization.

  8. Inert Dark Matter in Type-II Seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chuan-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) as a dark matter (DM) candidate is further inspired by recent AMS-02 data, which confirm the excess of positron fraction observed earlier by PAMELA and Fermi-LAT experiments. Additionally, the excess of positron+electron flux is still significant in the measurement of Fermi-LAT. For solving the problem of massive neutrinos and observed excess of cosmic-ray by DM annihilation, we study the model with an inert Higgs doublet (IHD) in the framework of type-II seesaw mechanism by imposing a $Z_2$ symmetry on the IHD, where the lightest particle of IHD is the DM candidate while the neutrino masses origin from the Higgs triplet in type-II seesaw model. We calculate the cosmic-ray production in our model by using three kinds of neutrino mass spectra, classified as normal ordering, inverted ordering and quasi-degeneracy. We find that if leptonic triplet decays are dominant, the observed excess of positron/electron flux could be explained well in normal ordered neutrino mass s...

  9. Type-ii binary superlattices for infrared detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razeghi, M.; Mohseni, H. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston (United States); Brown, G. J. [WPAFB, Colombus (United States)

    2001-12-01

    III-V quantum wells and superlattices based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb, and related compounds have attracted many attentions due to their unique band alignments and physical properties. Recently, novel electronic and optoelectronic heterostructures have been proposed from this material system for hundred gigahertz logic circuits, terahertz transistors. RTDs, infrared lasers, and infrared detectors. In this paper we will describe the ongoing research at the Center for Quantum Devices to develop the theory, modeling, growth, characterization, and device fabrication techniques for this material system. We have demonstarted the first uncooled infrared detectors from type-II superlattices. The measured detectivity is more than 1 x 10{sup 8} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W at 10.6 {mu}m at room temperature which is higher than the commercially available uncooled photon detectors at similar wavelength. In paralle, we have demonstraed the first high-performance p-i-n type-II photodiode in the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) range operating at T=80K. The devices with cutoff wavelength of 16 mm showed a responsivity of 3.5 A/W at 80 K leading to a detectivity of {approx}1.51x10{sup 10} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W. Similar devices with cutoff wavelengths up to 25 {mu}m was demonstrated at 80 K. To enhance this technology further, we plan to move from quantum wells to quantum wire and quantum dots.

  10. Fitting the Two-Higgs-Doublet model of type II

    CERN Document Server

    Eberhardt, Otto

    2014-01-01

    We present the current status of the Two-Higgs-Doublet model of type II. Taking into account all available relevant information, we exclude at $95$% CL sizeable deviations of the so-called alignment limit, in which all couplings of the light CP-even Higgs boson $h$ are Standard-Model-like. While we can set a lower limit of $240$ GeV on the mass of the pseudoscalar Higgs boson at $95$% CL, the mass of the heavy CP-even Higgs boson $H$ can be even lighter than $200$ GeV. The strong constraints on the model parameters also set limits on the triple Higgs couplings: the $hhh$ coupling in the Two-Higgs-Doublet model of type II cannot be larger than in the Standard Model, while the $hhH$ coupling can maximally be $2.5$ times the size of the Standard Model $hhh$ coupling, assuming an $H$ mass below $1$ TeV. The selection of benchmark scenarios which maximize specific effects within the allowed regions for further collider studies is illustrated for the $H$ branching fraction to fermions and gauge bosons. As an exampl...

  11. Characterization of hearing loss in aged type II diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Presbycusis - age-related hearing loss - is the number one communicative disorder and a significant chronic medical condition of the aged. Little is known about how type II diabetes, another prevalent age-related medical condition, and presbycusis interact. The present investigation aimed to comprehensively characterize the nature of hearing impairment in aged type II diabetics. Hearing tests measuring both peripheral (cochlea) and central (brainstem and cortex) auditory processing were utilized. The majority of differences between the hearing abilities of the aged diabetics and their age-matched controls were found in measures of inner ear function. For example, large differences were found in pure-tone audiograms, wideband noise and speech reception thresholds, and otoacoustic emissions. The greatest deficits tended to be at low frequencies. In addition, there was a strong tendency for diabetes to affect the right ear more than the left. One possible interpretation is that as one develops presbycusis, the right ear advantage is lost, and this decline is accelerated by diabetes. In contrast, auditory processing tests that measure both peripheral and central processing showed fewer declines between the elderly diabetics and the control group. Consequences of elevated blood sugar levels as possible underlying physiological mechanisms for the hearing loss are discussed.

  12. Isolation and molecular characterization of type I and type II feline coronavirus in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Alazawy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV are two important coronaviruses of domestic cat worldwide. Although FCoV is prevalent among cats; the fastidious nature of type I FCoV to grow on cell culture has limited further studies on tissue tropism and pathogenesis of FCoV. While several studies reported serological evidence for FCoV in Malaysia, neither the circulating FCoV isolated nor its biotypes determined. This study for the first time, describes the isolation and biotypes determination of type I and type II FCoV from naturally infected cats in Malaysia. Findings Of the total number of cats sampled, 95% (40/42 were RT-PCR positive for FCoV. Inoculation of clinical samples into Crandell feline kidney cells (CrFK, and Feline catus whole fetus-4 cells (Fcwf-4, show cytopathic effect (CPE characterized by syncytial cells formation and later cell detachment. Differentiation of FCoV biotypes using RT-PCR assay revealed that, 97.5% and 2.5% of local isolates were type I and type II FCoV, respectively. These isolates had high sequence homology and phylogenetic similarity with several FCoV isolates from Europe, South East Asia and USA. Conclusions This study reported the successful isolation of local type I and type II FCoV evident with formation of cytopathic effects in two types of cell cultures namely the CrFK and Fcwf-4 , where the later cells being more permissive. However, the RT-PCR assay is more sensitive in detecting the antigen in suspected samples as compared to virus isolation in cell culture. The present study indicated that type I FCoV is more prevalent among cats in Malaysia.

  13. Critical role of the endogenous interferon ligand-receptors in type I and type II interferons response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfar, Ahmed; Cook, Jeffry R; Cohen Solal, Karine A; Reuhl, Kenneth; Kotenko, Sergei V; Langer, Jerome A; Laskin, Debra L

    2014-07-01

    Separate ligand-receptor paradigms are commonly used for each type of interferon (IFN). However, accumulating evidence suggests that type I and type II IFNs may not be restricted to independent pathways. Using different cell types deficient in IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNGR1, IFNGR2 and IFN-γ, we evaluated the contribution of each element of the IFN system to the activity of type I and type II IFNs. We show that deficiency in IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 is associated with impairment of type II IFN activity. This impairment, presumably resulting from the disruption of the ligand-receptor complex, is obtained in all cell types tested. However, deficiency of IFNGR1, IFNGR2 or IFN-γ was associated with an impairment of type I IFN activity in spleen cells only, correlating with the constitutive expression of type II IFN (IFN-γ) observed on those cells. Therefore, in vitro the constitutive expression of both the receptors and the ligands of type I or type II IFN is critical for the enhancement of the IFN activity. Any IFN deficiency can totally or partially impair IFN activity, suggesting the importance of type I and type II IFN interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that type I and type II IFNs may regulate biological activities through distinct as well as common IFN receptor complexes.

  14. XIAP acts as a switch between type I and type II FAS-induced apoptosis signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Jost, Philipp J; Grabow, Stephanie; Gray, Daniel; McKenzie, Mark D.; Nachbur, Ueli; Huang, David C. S.; Bouillet, Philippe; Thomas, Helen E.; Borner, Christoph; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Kaufmann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    FAS (APO-1/CD95) and its physiological ligand, FASL, regulate apoptotic death of unwanted or dangerous cells in many tissues, functioning as a guardian against autoimmunity and cancer development1-4. Distinct cell types differ in the mechanisms by which the ‘death receptor’ FAS triggers their apoptosis1-4. In type I cells, such as lymphocytes, activation of ‘effector caspases’ by FAS-induced activation of caspase-8 suffices for cell killing whereas in type II cells, including hepatocytes and ...

  15. Discovery and Observations of the Unusually Bright Type-Defying II-P/II-L Supernova ASASSN-13co

    CERN Document Server

    Holoien, T W -S; Pejcha, O; Stanek, K Z; Kochanek, C S; Shappee, B J; Grupe, D; Morrell, N; Thorstensen, J R; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Davis, A B; Pojmanski, G; Szczygiel, D M

    2014-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of ASASSN-13co, an unusually luminous Type II supernova and the first core-collapse supernova discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN). First detection of the supernova was on UT 2013 August 29 and the data presented span roughly 3.5 months after discovery. We use the recently developed model from Pejcha & Prieto (2014) to model the multi-band light curves of ASASSN-13co and derive the bolometric luminosity curve. We compare ASASSN-13co to other Type II supernovae to show that it was a unique event that was not only unusually bright for a Type II supernova but also exhibited an atypical light curve shape that does not cleanly match that of either a standard Type II-L or Type II-P supernova.

  16. II-Q restriction endonucleases--new class of type II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyarev, S K; Rechkunova, N I; Kolyhalov, A A; Dedkov, V S; Zhilkin, P A

    1990-10-11

    Unique restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil have been isolated from Bacillus pumilas and Bacillus sphaericus, respectively. The recognition sequences and cleavage points of these enzymes have been determinated as 5'-CC1TNAGC-3'/3'-GGANT1CG-5' for Bpu 10l and 5'-C1TCGTG-3'/3'-GAGCA1C-5' for Bsil. Restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil represent a new class of enzymes which recognize non-palindromic nucleotide sequences and hydrolize DNA within the recognition sequence. Bpu 10l and Bsil recognition sequences may be regarded as quasipalindromic and the enzymes may be designated as type II-Q restriction endonucleases.

  17. Addition of bone morphogenetic protein type 2 to ascorbate and β-glycerophosphate supplementation did not enhance osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Cristiane Cabral Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (BMP-2 is a potent local factor, which promotes bone formation and has been used as an osteogenic supplement for mesenchymal stem cells. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of a recombinant BMP-2 as well as the endogenous BMP-4 and BMP-7 in the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs in medium supplemented with ascorbate and β-glycerophosphate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human ASCs were treated with osteogenic medium in the presence (ASCs+OM+BMP-2 or absence (ASCs+OM of BMP-2. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined and the extracellular matrix mineralization was evaluated by Von Kossa staining and calcium quantification. The expressions of BMP-4, BMP-7, Smad1, Smad4, and phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 were analyzed by western blotting. Relative mRNA expressions of Smad1, BMP receptor type II (BMPR-II, osteonectin, and osteocalcin were evaluated by qPCR. Results: ASCs+OM demonstrated the highest expression of BMP-4 and BMP-7 at days 21 and 7, respectively, the highest levels of BMPR-II mRNA expression at day 28, and the highest levels of Smad1 mRNA at days 14 and 28. ASCs+OM+BMP-2 demonstrated the highest levels of Smad1 mRNA expression at days 1, 7, and 21, the highest expression of Smad1 at day 7, the highest expression of Smad4 at day 14, the highest ALP activity at days 14 and 21, and expression of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 at day 7. ASCs+OM and ASCs+OM+BMP2 showed similar ALP activity at days 7 and 28, similar osteonectin and osteocalcin mRNA expression at all time periods, and similar calcium depositions at all time periods. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that human ASCs expressed endogenous BMP-4 and BMP-7. Moreover, the supplementation of ASCs with BMP-2 did not increase the level of osteogenic markers in the initial (ALP activity, intermediate (osteonectin and osteocalcin, or final (calcium deposition phases, suggesting that the exogenous addition of BMP-2 did not improve

  18. Hydrodynamical models of Type II-Plateau Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Bersten, Melina C; Hamuy, Mario

    2011-01-01

    We present bolometric light curves of Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) obtained using a newly developed, one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code with flux-limited radiation diffusion. Using our code we calculate the bolometric light curve and photospheric velocities of SN1999em obtaining a remarkably good agreement with observations despite the simplifications used in our calculation. The physical parameters used in our calculation are E=1.25 foe, M= 19 M_\\odot, R= 800 R_\\odot and M_{Ni}=0.056 M_\\odot. We find that an extensive mixing of 56Ni is needed in order to reproduce a plateau as flat as that shown by the observations. We also study the possibility to fit the observations with lower values of the initial mass consistently with upper limits that have been inferred from pre-supernova imaging of SN1999em in connection with stellar evolution models. We cannot find a set of physical parameters that reproduce well the observations for models with pre-supernova mass of \\leq 12 M_\\odot, although mode...

  19. The importance of type II error and falsifiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Before intergovernmental consensus under the Rio Declaration in 1992, ignorance of type I errors had been disfavored in science. However, the Precautionary Principle (PP) counsels the avoidance of type II errors, rather than of type I errors. We need a new academic code for the PP. The risk of extinction has usually been evaluated based on conservative estimates of the present population size. I define the weight of evidence as the extinction risk of Japanese vascular plants based on unbiased estimates. Catch quotas in the fisheries are usually decided by precautionary approach. I calculate the long-term yield and risk of stock collapse under a simple stock dynamics model. The weight of evidence depends on the frequency of grids with size unknown. In a few plant species, rankings based on conservative estimates have differed from rankings based on unbiased estimates. In fishery management, a catch quota based on a precautionary approach proved neither sufficient nor necessary to avoid stock collapse. The precautionary approach is one of the reasons that prevent us from maximizing a sustainable yield. We need to clarify the end-point of risks, and check whether it is necessary to adopt a PP. We can obtain the weight of evidence that is measured under unbiased estimates, while the risk based on a PP is measured under conservative estimates.

  20. Discrete Self-Similarity in Type-II Strong Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Oren, Yonatan; 10.1063/1.3139307

    2009-01-01

    We present new solutions to the strong explosion problem in a non-power law density profile. The unperturbed self-similar solutions discovered by Waxman & Shvarts describe strong Newtonian shocks propagating into a cold gas with a density profile falling off as $r^{-\\omega}$, where $\\omega>3$ (Type-II solutions). The perturbations we consider are spherically symmetric and log-periodic with respect to the radius. While the unperturbed solutions are continuously self-similar, the log-periodicity of the density perturbations leads to a discrete self-similarity of the perturbations, i.e. the solution repeats itself up to a scaling at discrete time intervals. We discuss these solutions and verify them against numerical integrations of the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. Finally we show that this method can be generalized to treat any small, spherically symmetric density perturbation by employing Fourier decomposition.

  1. Calabi-Yau compactification of type II string theories

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sibasish

    2016-01-01

    Superstring theories are the most promising theories for unified description of all fundamental interactions including gravity. However, these theories are formulated consistently only in 10 spacetime dimensions. Therefore, to connect to the observable world, it is required to compactify 6 out of those 10 dimensions in a suitable fashion. In this thesis, we mainly consider compactifications of type II string theories on Calabi-Yau threefolds. As a consequence, the resulting four dimensional theories preserve $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetry. In these cases the metrics on the moduli spaces of the matter multiplets, vector and hypermultiplets, completely determine the low energy theories. Whereas the former are very well understood by now, the complete description of hypermultiplets is more complicated. In fact, hypermultiplets receive both perturbative and non-perturbative corrections. The thesis mainly pertains to the understanding of the non-perturbative corrections. Our findings for the hypermultiplets rely on...

  2. Successful Pregnancy Outcome In Maternal Crigler Najjar Syndrome Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakuntala PN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimated incidence of Crigler-Najjar syndrome(CNS is 1 case per 1,000,000 births(1 million. The overall prevalence of CN syndrome is unknown, with only several hundred people reported to have this disease. It is interestingly very rare to encounter a pregnant adult women with congenital jaundice. Pregnancy in CN type II patients is a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge because of the high risk of bilirubin encephalopathy with serious neurological damage as life-threatening complications for the fetus. To date 8 pregnancy outcome have been reported from 5 women and we report the6 woman with a successful 9 th pregnancy outcome. We have discussed detail history, presentation and management during pregnancy and care of the new born.

  3. Type II congenital cystic pulmonary malformation in an esophageal lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Blanca E; Furuya, María Elena Yuriko; Martínez-Muñiz, Irma; Vargas, Mario H; Flores-Salgado, Rosalinda

    2013-01-01

    A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g) from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung.

  4. D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Cvetic, Mirjam; /Pennsylvania U.; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

  5. D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo

    2009-01-01

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

  6. Ecology of type II secretion in marine gammaproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Flavia F; Egan, Suhelen; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2008-05-01

    Compelling findings on the direct association of the type II secretion (T2S) system with different ecological functions in marine bacteria have challenged the traditional view of the T2S pathway, the function of which has been mostly studied in pathogenic bacteria. The availability of a number of whole-genome sequence data sets enabled the analysis of the genetic composition of the T2S system across a number of Vibrios and Alteromonads. The widespread Gammaproteobacteria, in particular the Alteromonadales and the Vibrionales group, are recognized to play significant roles in the cycling of nutrients in coastal and pelagic marine ecosystems and are also found associated with marine eukaryotes. The combined analysis of the role and the genetic composition of the T2S system in Gammaproteobacteria provides important evidence for the significance of the T2S pathway in the ecology of environmental bacteria.

  7. Unusual approach for the treatment of a type II endoleak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampi Dopazo, J J; Gastaldo, F; Lanciego Pérez, C

    2016-01-01

    This case presentation is about an 88 years-old male patient with previous endovascular aortic aneurysm repairment history and aortic endoleak type II (EL2). The direct lumbar artery catheterization was considered an alternative to solve EL2, associated with aortic endovascular prosthesis and due to an incomplete sealing or exclusion of the aneurysmal sac or a vascular segment demonstrated by imaging studies, when other treatment alternative failed (transarterial embolization) to control the aneurysm growing. Performing translumbar approach was decided by puncturing the artery lumbar (L4) left, previously the lumbar arteries (L4) were evaluated in the abdominal CT arterial phase to guide a puncture/access under flouroscopy control. Diagnostic angiogram clearly demonstrated the median sacral and right lumbar arteries inflow into the aneurysm sac. Transcatheter embolization with fibered platinum microcoils was performed of the median sacral artery and lumbar left and right arteries (L4), showing satisfactory endoleak devascularization.

  8. Rescue of Isolated GH Deficiency Type II (IGHD II) via Pharmacologic Modulation of GH-1 Splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2016-10-01

    Isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) type II, the autosomal dominant form of GHD, is mainly caused by mutations that affect splicing of GH-1. When misspliced RNA is translated, it produces a toxic 17.5-kDa GH isoform that reduces the accumulation and secretion of wild-type-human GH (wt-hGH). Usually, isolated GHD type II patients are treated with daily injections of recombinant human GH in order to maintain normal growth. However, this type of replacement therapy does not prevent toxic effects of the 17.5-kDa GH isoform on the pituitary gland, which can eventually lead to other hormonal deficiencies. Here, we tested the possibility to restore the constitutive splicing pattern of GH-1 by using butyrate, a drug that mainly acts as histone deacetylase inhibitor. To this aim, wt-hGH and/or different hGH-splice site mutants (GH-IVS3+2, GH-IVS3+6, and GH-ISE+28) were transfected in rat pituitary cells expressing human GHRH receptor (GHRHR) (GC-GHRHR). Upon butyrate treatment, GC-GHRHR cells coexpressing wt-hGH and each of the mutants displayed increased GH transcript level, intracellular GH content, and GH secretion when compared with the corresponding untreated condition. The effect of butyrate was most likely mediated by the alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2. Overexpression of alternative ASF/SF2 in the same experimental setting, indeed, promoted the amount of full-length transcripts thus increasing synthesis and secretion of the 22-kDa GH isoform. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that modulation of GH-1 splicing pattern to increase the 22-kDa GH isoform levels can be clinically beneficial and hence a crucial challenge in GHD research.

  9. Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo, Ningguang; Liu, Zhiqi; Lee, Jung-Eun; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong, Ke

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an alpha-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G(1111) and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G(1111) in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G(1111), a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G(1111) had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level.

  10. XIAP acts as a switch between type I and type II FAS-induced apoptosis signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Philipp J.; Grabow, Stephanie; Gray, Daniel; McKenzie, Mark D.; Nachbur, Ueli; Huang, David C.S.; Bouillet, Philippe; Thomas, Helen E.; Borner, Christoph; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Kaufmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    FAS (APO-1/CD95) and its physiological ligand, FASL, regulate apoptotic death of unwanted or dangerous cells in many tissues, functioning as a guardian against autoimmunity and cancer development1-4. Distinct cell types differ in the mechanisms by which the ‘death receptor’ FAS triggers their apoptosis1-4. In type I cells, such as lymphocytes, activation of ‘effector caspases’ by FAS-induced activation of caspase-8 suffices for cell killing whereas in type II cells, including hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells, amplification of the caspase cascade through caspase-8 mediated activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BID5 is essential6-8. Here we show, that loss of X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)9,10 function by gene-targeting or treatment with a second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC11, also called DIABLO12: direct IAP binding protein with low pI) mimetic drug rendered hepatocytes independent of BID for FAS-induced apoptosis signalling. These results show that XIAP is the critical discriminator between type I versus type II apoptosis signalling and suggest that IAP inhibitors should be used with caution in cancer patients with underlying liver conditions. PMID:19626005

  11. XIAP discriminates between type I and type II FAS-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Philipp J; Grabow, Stephanie; Gray, Daniel; McKenzie, Mark D; Nachbur, Ueli; Huang, David C S; Bouillet, Philippe; Thomas, Helen E; Borner, Christoph; Silke, John; Strasser, Andreas; Kaufmann, Thomas

    2009-08-20

    FAS (also called APO-1 and CD95) and its physiological ligand, FASL, regulate apoptosis of unwanted or dangerous cells, functioning as a guardian against autoimmunity and cancer development. Distinct cell types differ in the mechanisms by which the 'death receptor' FAS triggers their apoptosis. In type I cells, such as lymphocytes, activation of 'effector caspases' by FAS-induced activation of caspase-8 suffices for cell killing, whereas in type II cells, including hepatocytes and pancreatic beta-cells, caspase cascade amplification through caspase-8-mediated activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BID (BH3 interacting domain death agonist) is essential. Here we show that loss of XIAP (X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) function by gene targeting or treatment with a second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC, also called DIABLO; direct IAP-binding protein with low pI) mimetic drug in mice rendered hepatocytes and beta-cells independent of BID for FAS-induced apoptosis. These results show that XIAP is the critical discriminator between type I and type II apoptosis signalling and suggest that IAP inhibitors should be used with caution in cancer patients with underlying liver conditions.

  12. Adjuvant arthritis pretreatment with type II collagen and Mycobacterium butyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, A; Cassany, S; Castellote, C; Castell, M

    1992-11-01

    A treatment previous to adjuvant arthritis induction has been performed with type II collagen (CII) or Mycobacterium butyricum (Mb), which is the inducer of the pathology. Pretreatment was administered in two different ways: a) subcutaneously or intradermally 14 days before arthritis induction, and b) intravenously 3 days before induction. In order to relate the change in inflammation to the corresponding antigen immune response, serum antibodies and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) against CII or Mb were studied. Pretreatment with s.c. CII 14 days before induction produced slight protection against arthritis and significantly delayed its onset; systemic inflammation showed good positive correlation with anti-CII antibodies. The CII administered i.v. 3 days before arthritic challenge did not significantly modify the inflammatory process. The use of i.d. subarthritogenic doses of Mb 14 days before induction protected a high percentage of the animals from the posterior arthritic challenge; this protection was accompanied by high anti-Mb antibody titers and DTH reaction. When Mb was given i.v. 3 days before induction, a partial protection of inflammation was observed; arthritis was milder and its onset was delayed. These changes were accompanied by reduced humoral and cellular response to Mb.

  13. Relative potencies of Type I and Type II pyrethroids for inhibition of spontaneous firing in neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroids insecticides commonly used in pest control disrupt the normal function of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We have previously demonstrated that permethrin (a Type I pyrethroid) and deltamethrin (a Type II pyrethroid) inhibit sodium channel-dependent spontaneous netw...

  14. Dust origin in late-type dwarf galaxies: ISM growth vs. type II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovska, Svitlana

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the roles of different dust sources in dust production as a function of metallicity in late-type dwarf galaxies, with the goal of understanding the relation between dust content and metallicity. The dust content ol late-type dwarf galaxies with episodic star formation is studied with a multicomponent model of dust evolution, which includes dust input from AGB stars, type II SNe and dust growth by accretion of atoms in the ISM. Dust growth in the ISM becomes an important dust source in dwarf galaxies, on the timescale of 0.1 - a few Gyrs. It increases the dust-to-gas ratio (DGR) during post-burst evolution, unlike type II SNe, which eject grains to the ISM only during starbursts. Before the dust growth in the ISM overtakes the dust production, AGB stars can be major sources of dust in metal-poor dwarf galaxies. Our models reproduce the relation between the DGR and oxygen abundance, derived from observations of a large sample of dwarf galaxies. The steep decrease in the DGR at low O values is exp...

  15. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-10-03

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  16. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Felicia B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating. Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III, which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  17. High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice...

  18. Insulin gene polymorphisms in type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease and the polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahner Stefanie

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms within the insulin gene can influence insulin expression in the pancreas and especially in the thymus, where self-antigens are processed, shaping the T cell repertoire into selftolerance, a process that protects from β-cell autoimmunity. Methods We investigated the role of the -2221Msp(C/T and -23HphI(A/T polymorphisms within the insulin gene in patients with a monoglandular autoimmune endocrine disease [patients with isolated type 1 diabetes (T1D, n = 317, Addison's disease (AD, n = 107 or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT, n = 61], those with a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II (combination of T1D and/or AD with HT or GD, n = 62 as well as in healthy controls (HC, n = 275. Results T1D patients carried significantly more often the homozygous genotype "CC" -2221Msp(C/T and "AA" -23HphI(A/T polymorphisms than the HC (78.5% vs. 66.2%, p = 0.0027 and 75.4% vs. 52.4%, p = 3.7 × 10-8, respectively. The distribution of insulin gene polymorphisms did not show significant differences between patients with AD, HT, or APS-II and HC. Conclusion We demonstrate that the allele "C" of the -2221Msp(C/T and "A" -23HphI(A/T insulin gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility to T1D but not to isolated AD, HT or as a part of the APS-II.

  19. Novel behavior of magnetic flux lines in type II superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Gregory Allan

    In this thesis we present several studies in the properties of magnetic flux lines in type II superconductors. We have carried out a model calculation of the flux noise produced by vortex avalanches in a Type-II superconductor, using a simple kinetic model proposed by Bassler and Paczuski. Over a broad range of frequencies, we find that the flux noise SFw has a power-law dependence on frequency, SFw ˜ w-s , with s ˜ 1.4 in reasonable agreement with experiment. In addition, for small lattices, the calculated SFw has a high-frequency knee, which is seen in some experiments, and which is due to the finite lattice size. We have analyzed the Lawrence-Doniach free energy in a tilted magnetic field within the lowest Landau level (LLL) approximation for the case of a highly anisotropic high temperature superconductor. The free energy maps onto that of a strictly c-axis field, but with a reduced interlayer coupling. We use this result to calculate the tilt modulus C44 of a vortex lattice and vortex liquid. The vortex contribution to C44 can be expressed in terms of the squared c-axis Josephson plasmon frequency w2pl . We find that the transverse component of the field has very little effect on the position of the melting curve. We present a simple numerical model for the IV characteristics of a highly anisotropic high temperature superconductor in different geometries. An array of grains coupled together by Josephson junctions is used, with a triangular structure in the planes normal to an applied magnetic field and a square structure otherwise. Overdamped junctions are used to describe the CuO2 planes, while underdamped junctions are used to describe the interplanar coupling. Each grain has a capacitive shunt to ground. We measure the depinning current strength, decoupling current strength, and the critical coupling value in the "flux-transformer geometry." We also examine voltage branches in the I--V hysteresis curve for c-axis transport. Finally, we have used a simple

  20. Biomarker generation from Type II-S kerogens in claystone and limestone during hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M.P.; Carson, F.C.; Lewan, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A claystone and a limestone containing immature Type II-S kerogen were thermally matured in the presence and absence of water, to study the influence of water and clay minerals on the generation of biomarkers. In contrast to hydrous pyrolysis, anhydrous pyrolysis of the claystone did not generate bi

  1. Bolometric Light Curves of Peculiar Type II-P Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jeremy A.; Baron, E.

    2017-04-01

    We examine the bolometric light curves of five Type II-P supernovae (SNe 1998A, 2000cb, 2006V, 2006au, and 2009E), which are thought to originate from blue supergiant progenitors like that of SN 1987A, using a new python package named SuperBoL. With this code, we calculate SNe light curves using three different common techniques common from the literature: the quasi-bolometric method, which integrates the observed photometry, the direct integration method, which additionally corrects for unobserved flux in the UV and IR, and the bolometric correction method, which uses correlations between observed colors and V-band bolometric corrections. We present here the light curves calculated by SuperBoL, along with previously published light curves, as well as peak luminosities and 56Ni yields. We find that the direct integration and bolometric correction light curves largely agree with previously published light curves, but with what we believe to be more robust error calculations, with 0.2≲ δ {L}{bol}/{L}{bol}≲ 0.5. Peak luminosities and 56Ni masses are similarly comparable to previous work. SN 2000cb remains an unusual member of this sub-group, owing to the faster rise and flatter plateau than the other supernovae in the sample. Initial comparisons with the NLTE atmosphere code PHOENIX show that the direct integration technique reproduces the luminosity of a model supernova spectrum to ∼5% when given synthetic photometry of the spectrum as input. Our code is publicly available. The ability to produce bolometric light curves from observed sets of broadband light curves should be helpful in the interpretation of other types of supernovae, particularly those that are not well characterized, such as extremely luminous supernovae and faint fast objects.

  2. Bolometric Lightcurves of Peculiar Type II-P Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jeremy A.; Baron, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the bolometric lightcurves of five Type II-P supernovae (SNe 1998A, 2000cb, 2006V, 2006au and 2009E) which are thought to originate from blue supergiant progenitors using a new python package named SuperBoL. With this code, we calculate SNe lightcurves using three different techniques common in the literature: the quasi-bolometric method, which integrates the observed photometry, the direct integration method, which additionally corrects for unobserved flux in the UV and IR, and the bolometric correction method, which uses correlations between observed colors and V-band bolometric corrections. We present here the lightcurves calculated by SuperBoL along with previously published lightcurves, as well as peak luminosities and 56Ni yields. We find that the direct integration and bolometric correction lightcurves largely agree with previously published lightcurves, but with what we believe to be more robust error calculations, with 0.2 ≤ δL/L ≤ 0.5. Peak luminosities and 56Ni masses are similarly comparable to previous work. SN 2000cb remains an unusual member of this sub-group, owing to the faster rise and flatter plateau than the other supernovae in the sample. Initial comparisons with the NLTE atmosphere code PHOENIX show that the direct integration technique reproduces the luminosity of a model supernova spectrum to ˜5% when given synthetic photometry of the spectrum as input. Our code is publicly available. The ability to produce bolometric lightcurves from observed sets of broad-band light curves should be helpful in the interpretation of other types of supernovae, particularly those that are not well characterized, such as extremely luminous supernovae and faint fast objects.

  3. Hetero-engineering infrared detectors with type-II superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Z.-B.; DeCuir, E. A.; Gautam, N.; Krishna, S.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Pattison, J. W.; Dhar, N.; Welser, R. E.; Sood, A. K.

    2013-09-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (T2-SLs) are of great interest as they provide a lot of band engineering flexibility. A wide variety of unipolar barrier structures have been investigated with this material system. In this report, we will present our recent work on the development of low noise long-wave infrared (LWIR) InAs/GaSb T2-SLs photodetectors. By adopting a so-called pBiBn design, the dark current of LWIR photodetectors is greatly suppressed. The LWIR pBiBn device has demonstrated a dark current density as low as 1.42×10-5 A/cm2 at -60 mV, and R0A of 5365 Ωcm2 at 76 K. A peak detectivity at 7.8 μm of 7.7×1011 cmHz1/2W-1 is obtained at 76 K. Further effort to reduce the operating bias is also reported. By refining the energy-band alignment, a 2-μm-thick LWIR pBiBn device has demonstrated a single pass (no AR coating) quantum efficiency of 20% at 10 μm under zero-bias at 77 K. We have recently extended our efforts to further reduce the dark current by using an interband cascade (IC) photodetector structure. Some further details about the device operation and results will be discussed.

  4. The Rise-Time of Type II Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, Santiago; Molina, J; Galbany, L; Bufano, F; Anderson, J P; Gutierrez, C; Forster, F; Pignata, G; Bersten, M; Howell, D A; Sullivan, M; Carlberg, R; de Jaeger, T; Hamuy, M; Baklanov, P V; Blinnikov, S I

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the early-time light-curves of a large sample of 223 type II supernovae (SNe) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Having a cadence of a few days and sufficient non-detections prior to explosion, we constrain rise-times, i.e. the durations from estimated first to maximum light, as a function of effective wavelength. At restframe g-band (4722A), we find a distribution of fast rise-times with median of (7.5+/-0.3) days. Comparing these durations with analytical shock models of Rabinak and Waxman (2013); Nakar and Sari (2010) and hydrodynamical models of Tominaga et al. (2009), which are mostly sensitive to progenitor radius at these epochs, we find a median characteristic radius of less than 400 solar radii. The inferred radii are on average much smaller than the radii obtained for observed red supergiants (RSG). Investigating the post-maximum slopes as a function of effective wavelength in the light of theoretical models, we find that massive hydrogen envelopes are ...

  5. The universal cut function and type II metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozameh, Carlos [FaMaF, University of Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina); Newman, E T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Santiago-Santiago, J G [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas de la Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, 72001, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas de la Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, 72001, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2007-04-21

    In analogy with classical electromagnetic theory, where one determines the total charge and both electric and magnetic multipole moments of a source from certain surface integrals of the asymptotic (or far) fields, it has been known for many years-from the work of Hermann Bondi-that the energy and momentum of gravitational sources could be determined by similar integrals of the asymptotic Weyl tensor. Recently, we observed that there were certain overlooked structures, defined at future null infinity, that allowed one to determine (or define) further properties of both electromagnetic and gravitating sources. These structures, families of complex 'slices' or 'cuts' of Penrose's I{sup +}, are referred to as universal cut functions. In particular, one can define from these structures a (complex) centre of mass (and centre of charge) and its equations of motion-with rather surprising consequences. It appears as if these asymptotic structures contain, in their imaginary part, a well-defined total spin-angular momentum of the source. We apply these ideas to the type II algebraically special metrics, both twisting and twist free.

  6. Type II Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation in an Esophageal Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Martínez-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung.

  7. Smooth ocular pursuit in Chiari type II malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Michael S; Sharpe, James A; Lillakas, Linda; Steinbach, Martin J; Dennis, Maureen

    2007-04-01

    Chiari type II malformation (CII) is a congenital anomaly of the cerebellum and brainstem, both important structures for processing smooth ocular pursuit. CII is associated with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus. We investigated the effects of CII on smooth pursuit (SP) eye movements, and determined the effects of spinal lesion level, number of shunt revisions, nystagmus, and brain dysmorphology on SP. SP was recorded using an infrared eye tracker in 21 participants with CII (11 males, 10 females; age range 8-19y, mean 14y 3mo [SD 3y 2mo]). Thirty-eight healthy children (21 males, 17 females) constituted the comparison group. Participants followed a visual target moving sinusoidally at +/- 10 degrees amplitude, horizontally and vertically at 0.25 or 0.5Hz. SP gains, the ratio of eye to target velocities, were abnormal in the CII group with nystagmus (n= 8). The number of shunt revisions (range 0-10), brain dysmorphology, or spinal lesion level (n= 15 for lower and n= 6 for upper spinal lesion level) did not correlate with SP gains. SP is impaired in children with CII and nystagmus. Abnormal pursuit might be related to the CII dysgenesis or to effects of hydrocephalus. The lack of effect of shunt revisions and abnormal tracking in participants with nystagmus provide evidence that it is related primarily to the cerebellar and brainstem malformation.

  8. Nucleosynthesis in the accretion disks of Type II collapsars

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, the core collapse of massive stars first leads to the formation of a proto-neutron star and a mild supernova explosion is driven. However, this supernova ejecta lack momentum and falls back onto the neutron star which gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole. In order to study the hydrodynamics and nucleosynthesis of such an accretion disk formed from the fallback material of the supernova ejecta, we use the well established hydrodynamic models. In such a disk neutrino cooling becomes important in the inner disk where the temperature and density are higher. Higher the accretion rate (dot{M}), higher is the density and temperature in the disks. In this work we deal with accretion disks with relatively low accretion rates: 0.001 M_sun s^{-1} \\lesssim dot{M} \\lesssim 0.01 M_sun s^{-1} and hence these disks are predominantly advection dominated. We use He-rich and Si-rich abu...

  9. Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: approach for dental treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Mantuaneli Scarel-Caminaga

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI is a hereditary dentin development disorder that affects both primary and permanent dentitions. The DI characteristics are discolored and translucent teeth ranging from gray to brownish-blue or amber. The enamel may split readily from the dentin when subjected to occlusal stress. Radiographically there are evident of cervical constrictions, short root and pulp chambers, and the root canals are smaller than normal or completely obliterated. The dental treatment choice can be decided on a case-by case‑basis, considering the degree of dental tissue loss, and child age and cooperation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case report was to describe the early dental treatment performed in a child affected by DI type II. CASE REPORT: The treatment involved basic preventive procedures. Primary molars were worn to such an extent that the remained tooth structure was covered with composite resin to protect the exposed dentin. Resin-based sealant was applied in all first permanent molars. Posterior cross bite was treated with the expansion of the upper arch. CONCLUSION: The early treatment restored the patient´s vertical dimension resulting in acceptable esthetics and function for the permanent teeth to complete their eruption.

  10. ``N'' structure for type-II superlattice photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Omer; Muti, Abdullah; Kutluer, Kutlu; Tansel, Tunay; Turan, Rasit; Ergun, Yuksel; Aydinli, Atilla

    2012-08-01

    In the quest to raise the operating temperature and improve the detectivity of type II superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors, we introduce a design approach that we call the "N structure." N structure aims to improve absorption by manipulating electron and hole wavefunctions that are spatially separated in T2SLs, increasing the absorption while decreasing the dark current. In order to engineer the wavefunctions, we introduce a thin AlSb layer between InAs and GaSb layers in the growth direction which also acts as a unipolar electron barrier. Unlike the symmetrical insertion of AlSb into GaSb layers, N design aims to exploit the shifting of the electron and hole wavefunctions under reverse bias. With cutoff wavelength of 4.3 μm at 77 K, temperature dependent dark current and detectivity measurements show that the dark current density is 3.6 × 10-9 A/cm2, under zero bias. Photodetector reaches background limited infrared photodetection (BLIP) condition at 125 K with the BLIP detectivity (D*BLIP) of 2.6 × 1010 Jones under 300 K background and -0.3 V bias voltage.

  11. Optical and Infrared Analysis of Type II SN 2006BC

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, Joseph S; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Andrews, J E; Clem, J; Barlow, M J; Ercolano, B; Fabbri, J; Otsuka, M; Wesson, R; Meixner, M

    2012-01-01

    We present nebular phase optical imaging and spectroscopy and near/mid-IR imaging of the Type II SN 2006bc. Observations reveal the central wavelength of the symmetric H$\\alpha$ line profile to be red-shifted with respect to the host galaxy H$\\alpha$ emission by day 325. Such an phenomenon has been argued to result from an asymmetric explosion in the iron-peak elements resulting in a larger mass of $^{56}$Ni and higher excitation of hydrogen on the far side of the SN explosion. We also observe a gradual blue-shifting of this H$\\alpha$ peak which is indicative of dust formation in the ejecta. Although showing a normal peak brightness, V $\\sim$ -17.2, for a core-collapse SN, 2006bc fades by $\\sim$6 mag during the first 400 days suggesting either a relatively low $^{56}$Ni yield, an increase in extinction due to new dust, or both. A short duration flattening of the light curve is observed from day 416 to day 541 suggesting an optical light echo. Based on the narrow time window of this echo, we discuss implicatio...

  12. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehrenbach Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2 cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and host defence. AE2 cells proliferate, differentiate into AE1 cells, and remove apoptotic AE2 cells by phagocytosis, thus contributing to epithelial repair. AE2 cells may act as immunoregulatory cells. AE2 cells interact with resident and mobile cells, either directly by membrane contact or indirectly via cytokines/growth factors and their receptors, thus representing an integrative unit within the alveolus. Although most data support the concept, the controversy about the character of hyperplastic AE2 cells, reported to synthesise profibrotic factors, proscribes drawing a definite conclusion today.

  13. Identification of type II and III DDR2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, André; Nguyen, Hoang D; Phan, Trang; Simard, Jeffrey R; Grütter, Christian; Engel, Julian; Rauh, Daniel

    2014-05-22

    Discoidin domain-containing receptors (DDRs) exhibit a unique mechanism of action among the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) because their catalytic activity is induced by extracellular collagen binding. Moreover, they are essential components in the assimilation of extracellular signals. Recently, DDRs were reported to be significantly linked to tumor progression in breast cancer by facilitating the processes of invasion, migration, and metastasis. Here, we report the successful development of a fluorescence-based, direct binding assay for the detection of type II and III DFG-out binders for DDR2. Using sequence alignments and homology modeling, we designed a DDR2 construct appropriate for fluorescent labeling. Successful assay development was validated by sensitive detection of a reference DFG-out binder. Subsequent downscaling led to convenient application to high-throughput screening formats. Screening of a representative compound library identified high-affinity DDR2 ligands validated by orthogonal activity-based assays, and a subset of identified compounds was further investigated with respect to DDR1 inhibition.

  14. On the cosmic ray spectrum from type II Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Cardillo, Martina; Blasi, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges for the largely accepted idea that Galactic CRs are accelerated in SNR shocks is the maximum energy at which particles can be accelerated. The resonant streaming instability, long invoked for magnetic field amplification at shocks, can not provide sufficiently high fields and efficient enough scattering so as to ensure particle acceleration up to the knee. Here we discuss the non-resonant version of this instability which, with its faster growth and larger value of the amplified field, increases the achievable maximum energy. Because of their higher explosion rate, we focus on type II SNe expanding in their red supergiant wind and we find that the transition between Ejecta Dominated (ED) and Sedov-Taylor (ST) phases takes place at very early times. In this environment, the accelerated particle spectrum shows no high energy exponential cut-off but a spectral break at the maximum energy (EM). Moreover, the maximum energy of protons can easily reach PeV energies. With this mo...

  15. Bolometric Lightcurves of Peculiar Type II-P Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Lusk, Jeremy A

    2016-01-01

    We examine the bolometric lightcurves of five Type II-P supernovae (SNe 1998A, 2000cb, 2006V, 2006au and 2009E) which are thought to originate from blue supergiant progenitors using a new python package named SuperBoL. With this code, we calculate SNe lightcurves using three different techniques common in the literature: the quasi-bolometric method, which integrates the observed photometry, the direct integration method, which additionally corrects for unobserved flux in the UV and IR, and the bolometric correction method, which uses correlations between observed colors and V-band bolometric corrections. We present here the lightcurves calculated by SuperBoL along with previously published lightcurves, as well as peak luminosities and Ni-56 yields. We find that the direct integration and bolometric correction lightcurves largely agree with previously published lightcurves, but with what we believe to be more robust error calculations, with $0.2 \\leq \\delta L_{bol}/L_{bol} \\leq 0.5$. Peak luminosities and Ni-5...

  16. Radiation-hydrodynamical modelling of underluminous type II plateau Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Pumo, M L; Spiro, S; Pastorello, A; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Manicò, G; Turatto, M

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of improving our knowledge about the nature of the progenitors of low-luminosity Type II plateau supernovae (LL SNe IIP), we made radiation-hydrodynamical models of the well-sampled LL SNe IIP 2003Z, 2008bk and 2009md. For these three SNe we infer explosion energies of $0.16$-$0.18$ foe, radii at explosion of $1.8$-$3.5 \\times 10^{13}$ cm, and ejected masses of $10$-$11.3$\\Msun. The estimated progenitor mass on the main sequence is in the range $\\sim 13.2$-$15.1$\\Msun\\, for SN 2003Z and $\\sim 11.4$-$12.9$\\Msun\\, for SNe 2008bk and 2009md, in agreement with estimates from observations of the progenitors. These results together with those for other LL SNe IIP modelled in the same way, enable us also to conduct a comparative study on this SN sub-group. The results suggest that: a) the progenitors of faint SNe IIP are slightly less massive and have less energetic explosions than those of intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP, b) both faint and intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP originate from low-energy explo...

  17. Type-II Seesaw and Multilepton Signatures at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Manimala; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We investigate multilepton signatures, arising from the decays of doubly charged and singly charged Higgs bosons in the Type-II Seesaw model. Depending on the vacuum expectation value of the triplet $v_{\\Delta}$, the doubly and singly charged Higgs bosons can decay into a large variety of multi-lepton final states. We explore all possible decay modes corresponding to different regimes of $v_{\\Delta}$, that generate distinguishing four and five leptonic signatures. We focus on the 13 TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and further extend the study to a very high energy proton-proton collider (VLHC) with a center-of-mass energy of 100 TeV. We find that a doubly charged Higgs boson of masses around 375 GeV can be discovered at immediate LHC runs. A heavier mass of 630 GeV can instead be discovered at the high-luminosity run of the LHC or at the VLHC with 30 $\\rm{fb}^{-1}$.

  18. Dental implants as Treatment Option in Patients With Osteopenic Syndrome and Type II Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    M.V. Kozlova; A.M. Mkrtumjan; A.M. Panin; D.R. Tovmasjan

    2009-01-01

    One of the important problems in modern dentistry is the study of jaw bone changes associated with type II diabetes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of osteopenic syndrome on osseointegration when using dental implants in patients with type II diabetes. 40 patients with type II diabetes have been evaluated and assigned to two different groups based on the duration of the disease. Including criteria in patients with compensated diabetes were fasting glucose test results <...

  19. Generalized H-codes and type II codes over GF(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xin-qi; WEN Xiang-ming; ZHENG Wei

    2008-01-01

    The type II codes have been studied widely in applications since their appearance. With analysis of the algebraic structure of finite field of order 4 (i.e., GF(4)), some necessary and sufficient conditions that a generalized H-code (i.e., GH-code) is a type II code over GF(4) are given in this article, and an efficient and simple method to generate type II codes from GH-codes over GF(4) is shown. The conclusions further extend the coding theory of type II.

  20. Generalized Bi-Quasivariational Inequalities for Quasi-Pseudomonotone Type II Operators on Noncompact Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. R. Chowdhury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove some existence results of solutions for a new class of generalized bi-quasivariational inequalities (GBQVI for quasi-pseudomonotone type II and strongly quasi-pseudomonotone type II operators defined on noncompact sets in locally convex Hausdorff topological vector spaces. To obtain these results on GBQVI for quasi-pseudomonotone type II and strongly quasi-pseudomonotone type II operators, we use Chowdhury and Tan's generalized version (1996 of Ky Fan's minimax inequality (1972 as the main tool.

  1. Transverse Motions of Chromospheric Type II Spicules Observed by the New Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Yurchyshyn, V; Abramenko, V

    2012-01-01

    Using high resolution off-band \\ha\\ data from the New Solar Telescope and Morlet wavelet analysis technique, we analyzed transverse motions of type II spicules observed near the North Pole of the Sun. Our new findings are that i) some of the observed type II spicules display kink or an inverse "Y" features, suggesting that their origin may be due to magnetic reconnection, and ii) type II spicules tend to display coherent transverse motions/oscillations. Also, the wavelet analysis detected significant presence of high frequency oscillations in type II spicules, ranging from 30 to 180 s with the the average period of 90 s. We conclude that at least some of type II spicules and their coherent transverse motions may be caused by reconnection between large scale fields rooted in the intergranular lanes and and small-scale emerging dipoles, a process that is know to generate high frequency kink mode MHD waves propagating along the magnetic field lines.

  2. Radiation-hydrodynamical modelling of underluminous Type II plateau supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumo, M. L.; Zampieri, L.; Spiro, S.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Manicò, G.; Turatto, M.

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of improving our knowledge about the nature of the progenitors of low-luminosity Type II plateau supernovae (LL SNe IIP), we made radiation-hydrodynamical models of the well-sampled LL SNe IIP 2003Z, 2008bk and 2009md. For these three SNe, we infer explosion energies of 0.16-0.18 foe, radii at explosion of 1.8-3.5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of 10-11.3 M⊙. The estimated progenitor mass on the main sequence is in the range ˜13.2-15.1 M⊙ for SN 2003Z and ˜11.4-12.9 M⊙ for SNe 2008bk and 2009md, in agreement with estimates from observations of the progenitors. These results together with those for other LL SNe IIP modelled in the same way enable us also to conduct a comparative study on this SN sub-group. The results suggest that (a) the progenitors of faint SNe IIP are slightly less massive and have less energetic explosions than those of intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP; (b) both faint and intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP originate from low-energy explosions of red (or yellow) supergiant stars of low to intermediate mass; (c) some faint objects may also be explained as electron-capture SNe from massive super-asymptotic giant branch stars; and (d) LL SNe IIP form the underluminous tail of the SNe IIP family, where the main parameter `guiding' the distribution seems to be the ratio of the total explosion energy to the ejected mass. Further hydrodynamical studies should be performed and compared to a more extended sample of LL SNe IIP before drawing any conclusion on the relevance of fall-back to this class of events.

  3. Evaluation of Oral Health in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathy Ravindran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral cav ity re flects the general health status of a person and diagnosing and treating oral manifestations of systemic disease pose a greater challenge. Even though there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and diabetes mellitus, oral health awareness is lacking among diabetic patients and health professionals. The present study was undertaken to determine the oral health status in type II diabetic patients and also to compare the oral changes in controlled diabetes and u ncontrolled diabetes. Materials and methods: Study population consists of 60 diabetic patients w hich is divided into 30 controlled and 30 uncontrolled diabetics; 60 healthy subjects. Each of these diabetic groups were again subdivided according to their duration as patients having a disease duration below 10 years 15 and patients having a disease duration above 10 years. 15 Various oral manifestations were examined and also CPI score and loss of attachment were recorded. Statistical analysis was done. Results: The most frequent oral signs and symptoms obser ved in both controlled and uncontrolled diabetic patients was perio­ dontitis followed by hyposalivation, taste dysfunction, halitosis, fissured tongue, burning mouth, angular cheilitis, ulcer and lichen planus. These oral manifestation showed an increase in distribution in diabetic patients when compared to nondia betic. Community periodo ntal index (CPI scores for assess ing periodontal status showed higher scores in diabetics than nondiabetics and also in uncontrolled diabetes than controlled diabetes. For periodontal s tatus assessment based on disease duration, patient with higher disease duration showed higher CPI scores than those with a lesser disease duration. Assess ment of loss of attachment in our study showed higher values in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusion: From our present study, it was clear that oral manifestations in uncontrolled

  4. Radix-3 Algorithm for Realization of Type-II Discrete Sine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Murty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, radix-3 algorithm for computation of type-II discrete sine transform (DST-II of length N = 3 ( = 1,2, … . is presented. The DST-II of length N can be realized from three DST-II sequences, each of length N/3. A block diagram of for computation of the radix-3 DST-II algorithm is given. Signal flow graph for DST-II of length = 3 2 is shown to clarify the proposed algorithm.

  5. Shaping of action potentials by type I and type II large-conductance Ca²+-activated K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, D B; Wang, B; Brenner, R

    2011-09-29

    The BK channel is a Ca(2+) and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These data were then used to study how BK channels alone (type I) and with the accessory β4 subunit (type II) modulate action potential properties in biophysical neuron models. Overall, the models support the hypothesis that it is the slower kinetics provided by the β4 subunit that endows the BK channel with type II properties, which leads to broadening of action potentials and, secondarily, to greater recruitment of SK channels reducing neuronal excitability. Two regions of parameter space distinguished type II and type I effects; one where the range of BK-activating Ca(2+) was high (>20 μM) and the other where BK-activating Ca(2+) was low (∼0.4-1.2 μM). The latter required an elevated BK channel density, possibly beyond a likely physiological range. BK-mediated sharpening of the spike waveform associated with the lack of the β4 subunit was sensitive to the properties of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels due to electrogenic effects on spike duration. We also found that depending on Ca(2+) dynamics, type II BK channels may have the ability to contribute to the medium AHP, a property not generally ascribed to BK channels, influencing the frequency-current relationship. Finally, we show how the broadening of action potentials conferred by type II BK channels can also indirectly increase the recruitment of SK-type channels decreasing the excitability of the neuron.

  6. Shock: A possible presenting manifestation of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Banzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome Type II (APS II, also known as polyglandular autoimmune syndrome Type II or Schmidt syndrome, is constellations of multiple endocrine gland insufficiencies. It is a rare, but most common of the immunoendocrinopathy syndrome. It is characterized by the obligatory occurrence of autoimmune Addison′s disease in combination with thyroid autoimmune diseases and/or Type I diabetes, hypogonadism, hypophysitis, myasthenia gravis, vitiligo, alopecia, pernicious anemia, and celiac disease. Here, we report a case of 38-year-old female patient presented with shock, further diagnosed to have APS II.

  7. The Cloninger Type I/Type II Typology: Configurations and Personality Profiles in Socially Stable Alcohol Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wennberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to derive alcohol use typologies or subtypes of alcohol dependence and this study aimed at validating the type I/type II typology in a treatment sample of socially stable alcohol dependent males and females. A second aim was to compare the two types with respect to their temperament profiles. Data was part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study, the Gothenburg Alcohol Research Project, and included 269 alcohol dependent males and females recruited from three treatment centers. The results showed that type II alcoholism occurred as a more homogenous type than type I alcoholism, and type I alcoholism seemed too heterogeneous to be summarized into one single type. When adapting a strict classification, less than a third of the study population could be classified in accordance with the typology, suggesting that the typology is not applicable, at least in socially stable individuals with alcohol dependence. The results also showed that type II alcoholics showed higher levels of novelty seeking than did the individuals that were classified as type I alcoholics. Quite surprisingly, the individuals classified as type II alcoholics also showed higher levels of harm avoidance than did the individuals that were classified as type I alcoholics.

  8. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  9. HYPERURICAEMIA AS A PREDICTOR OF COMPLICATION IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : Increased uric acid level in case of Type II Diabetes Mellitus patient is associated with increased risk of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD compared to those Type II Diabetes Mellitus who have normal uric acid level. METHOD : Total 100 patients of Type II Diabetes Mellitus (known case of Type II Diabetes Mellitus under treatment and also newly diagnosed cases. were selected. 50 patients admitted or attending OPD selected as controls who were non - diabetic , diagnosed by screenin g with Fasting Blood Sugar, Random Blood Sugar and without any symptoms of Hyperglycaemia. RESULTS : In overall diabetics with CAD, serum uric acid level is >7.0 mg /dL in 14/49 patients compared to without CAD having serum uric acid levels <7.0 mg /dl in all 5 1 patients. The results were significant with p <0.001. Mean Serum Uric Acid Levels of all cases of Type II Diabetes Mellitus was higher than controls, with value of 5.14+ 1.25 mg /dl, which was statistically significant with p<0.0001. CONCLUSION : Serum Uric Acid level in both group that is in those who were known case of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and also newly diagnosed cases of Type II Diabetes Mellitus is higher than control group. Also increased serum uric acid level is also responsible for the complicati on of Type II Diabetes Mellitus like Coronary Artery Disease.

  10. Isolated corneal pseudodendrites as the initial manifestation of tyrosinemia type II in monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymionis, George D; Kankariya, Vardhaman P; Kontadakis, Georgios A; Ziakas, Nikolas G

    2012-05-08

    Fifteen-month-old twins presented with photophobia and bilateral corneal pseudodendrites, and tyrosinemia type II was suspected. Plasma tyrosine levels were elevated. After therapy with tyrosine-restricted diet, corneal lesions resolved. Bilateral pseudodendritic keratitis may be the initial or only manifestation of tyrosinemia type II.

  11. Corneal endothelial morphology and central thickness in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storr-Paulsen, Allan; Singh, Amardeep; Jeppesen, Helene;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in type II diabetic and non-diabetic patients and to relate potential differences to the glycaemic status. METHODS: A prospective clinical study including 107 patients with type II diabetes and 128 non-diabetic patients. Samp...

  12. KRAS and MAPK1 Gene Amplification in Type II Ovarian Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Ishikawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the clinical significance of KRAS and MAPK1 amplification and assessed whether these amplified genes were potential therapeutic targets in type II ovarian carcinoma. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and retrospectively collected clinical data, KRAS and MAPK1 amplifications were identified in 9 (13.2% and 5 (7.4% of 68 type II ovarian carcinoma tissue samples, respectively. Interestingly, co-amplification of KRAS and MAPK1 seemed to be absent in the type II ovarian carcinomas tested, except one case. Active phospho-ERK1/2 was identified in 26 (38.2% out of 68 type II ovarian carcinomas and did not correlate with KRAS or MAPK1 amplification. There was no significant relationship between KRAS amplification and overall or progression-free survival in patients with type II ovarian carcinoma. However, patients with MAPK1 amplification had significantly poorer progression-free survival than patients without MAPK1 amplification. Moreover, type II ovarian carcinoma cells with concomitant KRAS amplification and mutation exhibited dramatic growth reduction following treatment with the MEK inhibitor PD0325901. These findings indicate that KRAS/MAPK1 amplification is critical for the growth of a subset of type II ovarian carcinomas. Additionally, RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway-targeted therapy may benefit selected patients with type II ovarian carcinoma harboring KRAS/MAPK1 amplifications.

  13. 46 CFR 171.073 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II... Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision. (a) A main transverse watertight bulkhead may not be stepped unless additional watertight bulkheads are located as shown in Figure...

  14. Novel Risk Factors for Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dehghan (Abbas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the huge advances made in the understanding of type II diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD), these diseases still constitute a major health problem. Since the 1950s, epidemiologists focused on chronic disorders, including type II diabetes and CHD. Major aims of their researc

  15. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Robinson, P.C.; Mason, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Restoration of the alveolar epithelium after injury is thought to be dependent on the proliferation of alveolar type II cells. To understand the factors that may be involved in promoting type II cell proliferation in vivo, we determined the effect of potential mitogens and culture substrata on DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. Type II cells cultured in basal medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) exhibited essentially no DNA synthesis. Factors that stimulated /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation included cholera toxin, epidermal growth factor, and rat serum. The greatest degree of stimulation was achieved by plating type II cells on an extracellular matrix prepared from bovine corneal endothelial cells and then by culturing the pneumocytes in medium containing rat serum, cholera toxin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor. Under conditions of stimulation of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation there was an increased DNA content per culture dish but no increase in cell number. The ability of various culture conditions to promote DNA synthesis in type II cells was verified by autoradiography. Type II cells were identified by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, which were visualized by tannic acid staining before autoradiography. These results demonstrate the importance of soluble factors and culture substratum in stimulating DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture.

  16. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 {mu}m).

  17. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, G.D.; Broderius, S.J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth, MN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed.

  18. Angiotensin-II mediates ACE2 Internalization and Degradation through an Angiotensin-II type I receptor-dependent mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Deshotels, Matthew R.; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric; Filipeanu, Catalin M.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2) is a pivotal component of the renin-angiotensin system, promoting the conversion of Angiotensin (Ang)-II to Ang-(1-7). We previously reported that decreased ACE2 expression and activity contribute to the development of Ang-II-mediated hypertension in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in ACE2 down-regulation during neurogenic hypertension. In ACE2-transfected Neuro-2A cells, Ang-II treatment resulted in a significan...

  19. Kinematics of ICMEs/shocks: blast wave reconstruction using type II emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Corona-Romero, P; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E; de-la-Luz, V; Mejia-Ambriz, J C

    2015-01-01

    We present a physical methodology to reconstruct the trajectory of interplanetary shocks using type II radio emission data. This technique calculates the shock trajectory assuming that the disturbance propagates as a blast wave in the interplanetary medium. We applied this Blast Wave Reconstruction (BWR) technique to analyze eight fast Earth-directed ICMEs/shocks associated with type II emissions. The technique deduces a shock trajectory that reproduces the type II frequency drifts, and calculates shock onset speed, shock transit time and shock speed at 1~AU. There were good agreements comparing the BWR results with the type II spectra, with data from coronagraph images, {\\it in situ} measurements, and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. Perturbations on the type II data affect the accuracy of the BWR technique. This methodology could be applied to track interplanetary shocks causing TII emissions in real-time, to predict the shock arrival time and shock speed at 1~AU.

  20. Splicing site mutations in dentin sialophosphoprotein causing dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holappa, Heidi; Nieminen, Pekka; Tolva, Liisa; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa; Alaluusua, Satu

    2006-10-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) type II (OMIM # 125490) is an inherited disorder affecting dentin. Defective dentin formation results in discolored teeth that are prone to attrition and fracture. To date, several mutations have been described in the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene, causing DGI types II and III and dentin dysplasia type II. DSPP encodes two proteins: dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). Here, we describe a mutational analysis of DSPP in seven Finnish families with DGI type II. We report two mutations and five single nucleotide polymorphisms. In one family we found a mutation that has been described earlier in families with different ethnicity, while in six families we found a novel g.1194C>A (IVS2-3) transversion. Bioinformatic analysis of known DSPP mutations suggests that DGI type II is usually caused by aberration of normal splicing.

  1. Notch maintains Drosophila type II neuroblasts by suppressing expression of the Fez transcription factor Earmuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaosu; Xie, Yonggang; Zhu, Sijun

    2016-07-15

    Notch signaling is crucial for maintaining neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and heterogeneity; however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In Drosophila, loss of Notch prematurely terminates the self-renewal of larval type II neuroblasts (NBs, the Drosophila NSCs) and transforms type II NBs into type I NBs. Here, we demonstrate that Notch maintains type II NBs by suppressing the activation of earmuff (erm) by Pointed P1 (PntP1). We show that loss of Notch or components of its canonical pathway leads to PntP1-dependent ectopic Erm expression in type II NBs. Knockdown of Erm significantly rescues the loss-of-Notch phenotypes, and misexpression of Erm phenocopies the loss of Notch. Ectopically expressed Erm promotes the transformation of type II NBs into type I NBs by inhibiting PntP1 function and expression in type II NBs. Our work not only elucidates a key mechanism of Notch-mediated maintenance of type II NB self-renewal and identity, but also reveals a novel function of Erm.

  2. A population study of type II bursts in the Rapid Burster

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, T; D'Angelo, C R; Galloway, D K

    2015-01-01

    Type II bursts are thought to arise from instabilities in the accretion flow onto a neutron star in an X-ray binary. Despite having been known for almost 40 years, no model can yet satisfactorily account for all their properties. To shed light on the nature of this phenomenon and provide a reference for future theoretical work, we study the entire sample of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data of type II bursts from the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335). We find that type II bursts are Eddington-limited in flux, that a larger amount of energy goes in the bursts than in the persistent emission, that type II bursts can be as short as 0.130 s, and that the distribution of recurrence times drops abruptly below 15-18 s. We highlight the complicated feedback between type II bursts and the NS surface thermonuclear explosions known as type I bursts, and between type II bursts and the persistent emission. We review a number of models for type II bursts. While no model can reproduce all the observed burst properties and explain...

  3. [Type-I and -II estradiol binding sites in the endometrium during blastocyst implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, A; Calzada, L; Hicks, J J; Velázquez, A

    1989-04-01

    The properties of type I and occupied and unoccupied type II cytosolic estrogen binding sites in the rat endometrium were analyzed on day five of pregnancy; the samples studied correspond to blastocyst receptive endometrium (implantation sites), nonreceptive endometrium and ovariectomized uterine horn endometrium, from the same pregnancy rats. The occupied binding site type II was analyzed by exchange assays. Dissociation constant obtained from experiments carried out at 4 or 25 degrees C are similar for each one of the binding site at the three different endometrium samples; the binding capacity (femtomoles/mg protein) from the sites type I and type II and the ratio between occupied (by endogenous estradiol) and unoccupied site type II, seems to be characteristic for each one of the three analyzed endometrium.

  4. Proteolysis of synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25 in alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, U J; Malek, S K; Liu, L; Li, H L

    1999-10-01

    Synaptobrevin-2, syntaxin-1, and SNAP-25 were identified in rat alveolar epithelial type II cells by Western blot analysis. Synaptobrevin-2 was localized in the lamellar bodies, and syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 were found in 0.4% Nonidet P40-soluble and -insoluble fractions, respectively, of the type II cells. When the isolated type II cells were stimulated for secretion with calcium ionophore A23187 or with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, these proteins were found to have been proteolyzed. Preincubation of cells with calpain inhibitor II (N-acetylleucylleucylmethionine), however, prevented the proteolysis. Treatment of the cell lysate with exogenous calpain resulted in a time-dependent decrease of these proteins. The data suggest that synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25 are subject to proteolytic modification by activated calpain in intact type II cells stimulated for secretion.

  5. Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm From Late Type II Endoleak Treated by Transarterial Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, Senthil, E-mail: sgunasekaran@lumc.edu [Loyola University Medical Center Chicago (United States); Funaki, Brian, E-mail: bfunaki@radiology.bsd.uchicago.edu; Lorenz, Jonathan, E-mail: jlorenz@radiology.bsd.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago Medical Center (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Endoleak is the most common complication after endovascular aneurysm repair. The most common type of endoleak, a type II endoleak, typically follows a benign course and is only treated when associated with increasing aneurysm size. In this case report, we describe a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm due to a late, type II endoleak occurring 10 years after endovascular aneurysm repair that was successfully treated by transarterial embolization.

  6. A novel DSPP mutation is associated with type II dentinogenesis Imperfecta in a chinese family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chengqi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary defects of tooth dentin are classified into two main groups: dentin dysplasia (DD (types I and II and dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI (types I, II, and III. Type II DGI is one of the most common tooth defects with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. One disease-causing gene, the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP gene, has been reported for type II DGI. Methods In this study, we characterized a four-generation Chinese family with type II DGI that consists of 18 living family members, including 8 affected individuals. Linkage analysis with polymorphic markers D4S1534 and D4S414 that span the DSPP gene showed that the family is linked to DSPP. All five exons and exon-intron boundaries of DSPP were sequenced in members of type II DGI family. Results Direct DNA sequence analysis identified a novel mutation (c.49C→T, p.Pro17Ser in exon 1 of the DSPP gene. The mutation spot, the Pro17 residue, is the second amino acid of the mature DSP protein, and highly conserved during evolution. The mutation was identified in all affected individuals, but not in normal family members and 100 controls. Conclusion These results suggest that mutation p.Pro17Ser causes type II DGI in the Chinese family. This study identifies a novel mutation in the DSPP gene, and expands the spectrum of mutations that cause DGI.

  7. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Geriatric Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Sun, Jie [Department of Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Ma, Lin, E-mail: cjr.malin@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  8. The Relation Between Large-Scale Coronal Propagating Fronts and Type II Radio Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, Nariaki V; Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale, wave-like disturbances in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and type II radio bursts are often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Both phenomena may signify shock waves driven by CMEs. Taking EUV full-disk images at an unprecedented cadence, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed the so-called EIT waves or large-scale coronal propagating fronts (LCPFs) from their early evolution, which coincides with the period when most metric type II bursts occur. This article discusses the relation of LCPFs as captured by AIA with metric type II bursts. We show examples of type II bursts without a clear LCPF and fast LCPFs without a type II burst. Part of the disconnect between the two phenomena may be due to the difficulty in identifying them objectively. Furthermore, it is possible that the individual LCPFs and type II bursts may reflect different physical processes and external factors. In particular, the type II bursts that start at low frequencies an...

  9. THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE UV AND OPTICAL Fe ii EMISSION LINES IN TYPE 1 AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacević-Dojcinović, Jelena; Popović, Luka Č., E-mail: jkovacevic@aob.bg.ac.rs, E-mail: lpopovic@aob.bg.ac.rs [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate the spectral properties of the UV (λλ2650–3050 Å) and optical (λλ4000–5500 Å) Fe ii emission features in a sample of 293 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore different correlations between their emission line properties, as well as the correlations with other emission lines from the spectral range. We find several interesting correlations and outline the most interesting results as follows. (i) There is a kinematical connection between the UV and optical Fe ii lines, indicating that the UV and optical Fe ii lines originate from the outer part of the broad line region, the so-called intermediate line region. (ii) The unexplained anticorrelations of the optical Fe ii equivalent width (EW Fe ii{sub opt}) versus EW [O iii] 5007 Å and EW Fe ii{sub opt} versus FWHM Hβ have not been detected for the UV Fe ii lines. (iii) The significant averaged redshift in the UV Fe ii lines, which is not present in optical Fe ii, indicates an inflow in the UV Fe ii emitting clouds, and probably their asymmetric distribution. (iv) Also, we confirm the anticorrelation between the intensity ratio of the optical and UV Fe ii lines and the FWHM of Hβ, and we find the anticorrelations of this ratio with the widths of Mg ii 2800 Å, optical Fe ii, and UV Fe ii. This indicates a very important role for the column density and microturbulence in the emitting gas. We discuss the starburst activity in high-density regions of young AGNs as a possible explanation of the detected optical Fe ii correlations and intensity line ratios of the UV and optical Fe ii lines.

  10. Type II1 factors satisfying the spatial isomorphism conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Jan; Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.;

    2012-01-01

    Det vises at hvis et par af von Neumann algebraer er tilstrækkeligt tæt på hinanden i Hausdorff-metrikken, og den ene er en II1 faktor, som er et krydset produkt af en abelsk von Neumann algebra med en gruuppvirkning af en gruppe men triviel begrænset kohomologi, så er de to algebraer unitært...

  11. Mutational hot spot in the DSPP gene causing dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Wook; Hu, Jan C-C; Lee, Jae-Il; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Young-Jae; Jang, Ki-Taeg; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Chong-Chul; Hahn, Se-Hyun; Simmer, James P

    2005-02-01

    The current system for the classification of hereditary defects of tooth dentin is based upon clinical and radiographic findings and consists of two types of dentin dysplasia (DD) and three types of dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI). However, whether DGI type III should be considered a distinct phenotype or a variation of DGI type II is debatable. In the 30 years since the classification system was first proposed, significant advances have been made regarding the genetic etiologies of inherited dentin defects. DGI type II is recognized as an autosomal dominant disorder with almost complete penetrance and a low frequency of de novo mutations. We have identified a mutation (c.52G-->T, p.V18F) at the first nucleotide of exon 3 of the DSPP (dentin sialophosphoprotein) gene in a Korean family (de novo) and a Caucasian family. This mutation has previously been reported as causing DGI type II in a Chinese family. These findings suggest that this mutation site represents a mutational "hot spot" in the DSPP gene. The clinical and radiographic features of these two families include the classic phenotypes associated with both DGI type II and type III. Finding that a single mutation causes both phenotypic patterns strongly supports the conclusion that DGI type II and DGI type III are not separate diseases but rather the phenotypic variation of a single disease. We propose a modification of the current classification system such that the designation "hereditary opalescent dentin" or "DGI type II" should be used to describe both the DGI type II and type III phenotypes.

  12. Direct Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Stimulation Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mice with PPARγ Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohshima, Kousei; Mogi, Masaki; Jing, Fei;

    2012-01-01

    The role of angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor stimulation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is still unclear. Therefore we examined the possibility that direct AT(2) receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21) might contribute to possible insulin-sensitizing/anti-diabetic effects in ty...... 2 diabetes (T2DM) with PPARγ activation, mainly focusing on adipose tissue.......The role of angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor stimulation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is still unclear. Therefore we examined the possibility that direct AT(2) receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21) might contribute to possible insulin-sensitizing/anti-diabetic effects in type...

  13. The possible detection of high redshift Type II QSOs in deep fields

    OpenAIRE

    Meiksin, Avery

    2005-01-01

    The colours of high redshift Type II QSOs are synthesized from observations of moderate redshift systems. It is shown that Type II QSOs are comparable to starbursts in their success at matching the colours of z_850-dropouts and i_775-drops in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and more naturally account for the bluest objects detected. Type II QSOs may also account for some of the i_775-drops detected in the GOODS fields. It is shown that by combining imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope an...

  14. Drusen-like beneath retinal deposits in type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hage Amaro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to do a review of Drusen-like beneath retinal deposits in type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis. Drusenlike beneath retinal deposits in type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis appear to develop at an early age, often second decade of life different of drusen from age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Long term follow-up of the cases in this disease shows in the most of them, no progression of the of drusen-like beneath retinal deposits in type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonefritis, the most of subjects retain good visual acuity and no specific treatment is indicated.

  15. Oligomeric state regulated trafficking of human platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase type-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monillas, Elizabeth S; Caplan, Jeffrey L; Thévenin, Anastasia F; Bahnson, Brian J

    2015-05-01

    The intracellular enzyme platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase type-II (PAFAH-II) hydrolyzes platelet-activating factor and oxidatively fragmented phospholipids. PAFAH-II in its resting state is mainly cytoplasmic, and it responds to oxidative stress by becoming increasingly bound to endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes. Numerous studies have indicated that this enzyme is essential for protecting cells from oxidative stress induced apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanism of the oxidative stress response by PAFAH-II has not been fully resolved. Here, changes to the oligomeric state of human PAFAH-II were investigated as a potential regulatory mechanism toward enzyme trafficking. Native PAGE analysis in vitro and photon counting histogram within live cells showed that PAFAH-II is both monomeric and dimeric. A Gly-2-Ala site-directed mutation of PAFAH-II demonstrated that the N-terminal myristoyl group is required for homodimerization. Additionally, the distribution of oligomeric PAFAH-II is distinct within the cell; homodimers of PAFAH-II were localized to the cytoplasm while monomers were associated to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. We propose that the oligomeric state of PAFAH-II drives functional protein trafficking. PAFAH-II localization to the membrane is critical for substrate acquisition and effective oxidative stress protection. It is hypothesized that the balance between monomer and dimer serves as a regulatory mechanism of a PAFAH-II oxidative stress response.

  16. Recognition of lysophosphatidylcholine by type II NKT cells and protection from an inflammatory liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, Igor; Girardi, Enrico; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Lipids presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1d, are recognized by natural killer T (NKT) cells, which can be broadly categorized into two subsets. The well-characterized type I NKT cells, express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and can recognize both α- and β-linked glycolipids, whereas type II NKT cells are less well studied, express a relatively diverse TCR repertoire, and recognize β-linked lipids. Recent structural studies have shown a distinct mode of recognition of a self-glycolipid sulfatide bound to CD1d by a type II NKT TCR. To further characterize antigen recognition by these cells we have used the structural data and screened other small molecules able to bind to CD1d and activate type II NKT cells. Using plate-bound CD1d and APC-based antigen presentation assay we found that phospholipids such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) can stimulate the sulfatide-reactive type II NKT hybridoma Hy19.3 in a CD1d-dependent manner. Using plasmon resonance studies we found that this type II NKT TCR binds with CD1d-bound LPC with micromolar affinities similar to that for sulfatide. Furthermore LPC-mediated activation of type II NKT cells leads to anergy induction in type I NKT cells and affords protection from ConA-induced hepatitis. These data indicate that, in addition to self-glycolipids, self-lysophospholipids are also recognized by type II NKT cells. Since lysophospholipids are involved during inflammation our findings have implications for not only understanding activation of type II NKT cells in physiological settings but also for the development of immune intervention in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25261475

  17. Cloning and sequence analysis of putative type II fatty acid synthase genes from Arachis hypogaea L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meng-Jun Li; Ai-Qin Li; Han Xia; Chuan-Zhi Zhao; Chang-Sheng Li; Shu-Bo Wan; Yu-Ping Bi; Xing-Jun Wang

    2009-06-01

    The cultivated peanut is a valuable source of dietary oil and ranks fifth among the world oil crops. Plant fatty acid biosynthesis is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) in plastids and mitochondria. By constructing a full-length cDNA library derived from immature peanut seeds and homology-based cloning, candidate genes of acyl carrier protein (ACP), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase, -ketoacyl-ACP synthase (I, II, III), -ketoacyl-ACP reductase, -hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrase and enoyl-ACP reductase were isolated. Sequence alignments revealed that primary structures of type II FAS enzymes were highly conserved in higher plants and the catalytic residues were strictly conserved in Escherichia coli and higher plants. Homologue numbers of each type II FAS gene expressing in developing peanut seeds varied from 1 in KASII, KASIII and HD to 5 in ENR. The number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was quite different in each gene. Peanut type II FAS genes were predicted to target plastids except ACP2 and ACP3. The results suggested that peanut may contain two type II FAS systems in plastids and mitochondria. The type II FAS enzymes in higher plants may have similar functions as those in E. coli.

  18. Cloning and sequence analysis of putative type II fatty acid synthase genes from Arachis hypogaea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Jun; Li, Ai-Qin; Xia, Han; Zhao, Chuan-Zhi; Li, Chang-Sheng; Wan, Shu-Bo; Bi, Yu-Ping; Wang, Xing-Jun

    2009-06-01

    The cultivated peanut is a valuable source of dietary oil and ranks fifth among the world oil crops. Plant fatty acid biosynthesis is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) in plastids and mitochondria. By constructing a full-length cDNA library derived from immature peanut seeds and homology-based cloning, candidate genes of acyl carrier protein (ACP), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase, beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (I, II, III), beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrase and enoyl-ACP reductase were isolated. Sequence alignments revealed that primary structures of type II FAS enzymes were highly conserved in higher plants and the catalytic residues were strictly conserved in Escherichia coli and higher plants. Homologue numbers of each type II FAS gene expressing in developing peanut seeds varied from 1 in KASII, KASIII and HD to 5 in ENR. The number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was quite different in each gene. Peanut type II FAS genes were predicted to target plastids except ACP2 and ACP3. The results suggested that peanut may contain two type II FAS systems in plastids and mitochondria. The type II FAS enzymes in higher plants may have similar functions as those in E. coli.

  19. Type II collagen is transiently expressed during avian cardiac valve morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, R E; Daniels, K J; Jensen, K L; Solursh, M

    1994-08-01

    We present new evidence of the temporal and spatial expression of type II collagen in the embryonic chick heart during the very early stages of its development. In particular, we emphasize the distribution of its mRNA and protein during valve formation. Type II collagen as well as several other fibrillar collagens (types I, III, and V) are present in stage 18 endocardial cushion mesenchymal cells. At stage 23, alpha 1 (II) collagen transcripts and the cognate polypeptide colocalize in the atrioventricular valves. As development proceeds, the relative abundance of alpha 1 (II) collagen transcripts decreases during the stages studied (stages 22 to 45; day 3.5 to day 19) as assayed by RNA blotting of extracts of whole hearts. Type II collagen protein was immunologically undetectable in stage 38 (day 12) hearts, although collagens I, III, and V persisted and localize in the valve regions, in the endothelial lining of the heart, and in the epicardium. In keeping with other observations of type II collagen expression in non-chondrogenic regions of a variety of vertebrate embryos, the avian heart also exhibits transient type II collagen expression.

  20. Type II thioesterase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotowska, Magdalena; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Butler, Andrew R.; Cundliffe, Eric; Takano, Eriko; Kuczek, Katarzyna

    2002-01-01

    Type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) are complexes of large, multimodular enzymes that catalyse biosynthesis of polyketide compounds via repetitive reaction sequences, during which each step is catalysed by a separate enzymic domain. Many type I PKSs, and also non-ribosomal peptide synthetase clusters

  1. Identification of the putative specific pathogenic genes of Porphyromonas gingivalis with type II fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Xu, Yi; Meng, Shu; Wu, Yafei; Huang, Haiyun; Su, Ruiying; Zhao, Lei

    2012-06-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, the key etiologic agent of periodontitis, can be classified into six types (I to V and Ib) based on the fimA genes that encode FimA (a subunit of fimbriae). Accumulated evidence indicates that P. gingivalis expressing Type II fimbriae (Pg-II) is the most frequent isolate from severe periodontitis cases and is more virulent than other types of P. gingivalis. However, during the Pg-II infection process, which specific virulence factors play the key role is still unclear. In this study, we examined the capabilities of three Pg-II strains to invade and modulate the inflammatory cytokine expression of human gingival epithelial cells (GECs) compared to two Pg-I strains. P. gingivalis oligo microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles of Pg-II strains that invade GECs with Pg-I strains. The differential gene expression of Pg-II was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that all of the Pg-II strains could induce interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 secretion significantly when compared to Pg-I strains. Thirty-seven genes that were specifically expressed during the pathogenic process of Pg-II were identified by a microarray assay. These findings provide a new insight at the molecular level to explain the specific pathogenic mechanism of Pg-II strains.

  2. Type II-P Supernovae from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey and the Standardized Candle Method

    CERN Document Server

    D'Andrea, Chris B; Dilday, Benjamin; Frieman, Joshua A; Holtzman, Jon; Kessler, Richard; Konishi, Kohki; Schneider, Donald P; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J C; Yasuda, Naoki; Cinabro, David; Jha, Saurabh; Nichol, Robert C; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W; Basset, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J; Goobar, Ariel; Miquel, Ramon; Nordin, Jakob; Östman, Linda; Prieto, Jose Luis; Quimby, Robert; Riess, Adam G; Stritzinger, Maximilian

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe - 0.027 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. (2009). We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 mus...

  3. Fundamental properties of Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies investigated via Monte Carlo simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapińska, A.D.; Uttley, P.; Kaiser, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radio galaxies and quasars are among the largest and most powerful single objects known and are believed to have had a significant impact on the evolving Universe and its large-scale structure. We explore the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the population of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) obje

  4. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II: European recommendations for the diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of a rare disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Scarpa (Maurizio); Z. Almássy (Zsuzsanna); M. Beck (Michael); O.A. Bodamer (Olaf); I.A. Bruce (Iain); L. de Meirleir (Linda); N. Guffon (Nathalie); E. Guillen-Navarro (Encarna); P. Hensman (Pauline); S. Jones (Simon); W. Kamin (Wolfgang); C. Kampmann (Christoph); C. Lampe (Christina); C.A. Lavery (Christine); E. Leão Teles (Elisa); B. Link (Bianca); A.M. Lund (Allan); G. Malm (Gunilla); S. Pitz (Susanne); M. Rothera (Michael); C. Stewart (Catherine); A. Tylki-Szymaska (Anna); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans); R. Walker (Robert); J. Zeman (Jiri); J.E. Wraith (James)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a rare, life-limiting, X-linked recessive disease characterised by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. Consequent accumulation of glycosaminoglycans leads to pathological changes in multiple body systems. Age at onset, signs

  5. Characterisation of type I and type II nNOS-expressing interneurons in the barrel cortex of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin ePerrenoud

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the neocortex, neuronal Nitric Oxide-Synthase (nNOS is essentially expressed in two sets of GABAergic neurons: type I neurons displaying a high expression and type II neurons displaying a weaker expression. Using immunocytochemistry on mice expressing GFP under the control of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 67k (GAD67 promoter we studied the distribution of type I and type II neurons in the barrel cortex and their expression of parvalbumin (PV, somatostatin (SOM and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP. We found that type I neurons accumulated in deeper layers and expressed SOM (91.5% while type II neurons concentrated in layer II/III and VI and expressed PV (17.7%, SOM (18.7% and VIP (10.2%. We then characterised 42 nNOS transcribing neurons ex vivo, using whole-cell recordings coupled to singe-cell RT-PCR and biocytin labelling. Unsupervised cluster analysis of this sample disclosed four classes. One cluster (n=7 corresponded to large, deep layer neurons, displaying a high expression of SOM (85.7% and were thus very likely to correspond to type I neurons. The three other clusters were neurogliaform-like interneurons (n=19, deep layer neurons transcribing PV or SOM (n=9 and neurons transcribing VIP (n=7, matching the features of type II cells. Finally, we performed nNOS immunohistochemistry on two mouse lines in which GFP/YFP labelling revealed the expression of two specific developmental genes (Lhx6 and 5-HT3A. We found that type I neurons expressed Lhx6 but never 5-HT3A, indicating that they originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE. Type II neurons expressed Lhx6 (63% and 5-HT3A (34.4% supporting that they derive either from the MGE or from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE and the entopeduncular preoptic area (AEP/PO. Together, our results support the view that type I neurons form a particular class of SOM-expressing neurons while type II neurons are heterogeneous and comprise at least three classes.

  6. Type-II Dirac fermions in the PtSe2 class of transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaqing; Zhou, Shuyun; Duan, Wenhui

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a new "type-II" Weyl fermion, which exhibits exotic phenomena, such as an angle-dependent chiral anomaly, was discovered in a new phase of matter where electron and hole pockets contact at isolated Weyl points [Nature (London) 527, 495 (2015), 10.1038/nature15768]. This raises an interesting question about whether its counterpart, i.e., a type-II Dirac fermion, exists in real materials. Here, we predict the existence of symmetry-protected type-II Dirac fermions in a class of transition metal dichalcogenide materials. Our first-principles calculations on PtSe2 reveal its bulk type-II Dirac fermions which are characterized by strongly tilted Dirac cones, novel surface states, and exotic doping-driven Lifshitz transition. Our results show that the existence of type-II Dirac fermions in PtSe2-type materials is closely related to its structural P 3 ¯m 1 symmetry, which provides useful guidance for the experimental realization of type-II Dirac fermions and intriguing physical properties distinct from those of the standard Dirac fermions known before.

  7. Organization of the human keratin type II gene cluster at 12q13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S.J.; LeBlanc-Straceski, J.; Krauter, K. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    Keratin proteins constitute intermediate filaments and are the major differentiation products of mammalian epithelial cells. The epithelial keratins are classified into two groups, type I and type II, and one member of each group is expressed in a given epithelial cell differentiation stage. Mutations in type I and type II keratin genes have now been implicated in three different human genetic disorders, epidermolysis bullosa simplex, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, and epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma. Members of the type I keratins are mapped to human chromosome 17, and the type II keratin genes are mapped to chromosome 12. To understand the organization of the type II keratin genes on chromosome 12, we isolated several yeast artificial chromosomes carrying these keratin genes and examined them in detail. We show that eight already known type II keratin genes are located in a cluster at 12q13, and their relative organization reflects their evolutionary relationship. We also determined that a type I keratin gene, KRT8, is located next to its partner, KRT18, in this cluster. Careful examination of the cluster also revealed that there may be a number of additional keratin genes at this locus that have not been described previously. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. High-Detectivity Type-II Superlattice Detectors for 6-14 um Infrared Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SVT Associates proposes an novel type II superlattice structure to extend the cutoff wavelength and CBIRD SL photo diode structure with unipolar barriers to suppress...

  9. Long-term use of metformin and colorectal cancer risk in type II diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardel, Majken; Jensen, S. M.; Pottegård, Anton;

    2014-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies indicate that metformin prevents colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological studies, however, have been equivocal. We undertook this study to assess whether metformin prevents CRC in individuals with type II diabetes. We performed a nested case-control study restricted...... to Danish citizens with type II diabetes. Data were collected from four Danish nationwide registries. Cases were type II diabetics with a primary CRC between 2000 and 2009, and controls were sampled among subjects with type II diabetes. Longterm exposure to metformin was defined by the redeeming...... of prescriptions for a cumulative dose of 2000 g within 5 years prior to the index date. To control for potential confounders, we used unconditional logistic regression. We generated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the association between metformin and CRC and performed subanalyses for selected subgroups...

  10. High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS)...

  11. Molecular Design of D-Tr-A Type II Organic Sensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李士锋; 杨希川; 瞿定峰; 王维瀚; 王瑜; 孙立成

    2012-01-01

    Four new type II organic dyes with D-n-A structure (donor-n-conjugated-acceptor) and two typical type II sen- sitizers based on catechol as reference dyes are synthesized and applied in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The four dyes can be adsorbed on TiO2 through hydroxyl group directly. Electron injection can occur not only through the anchoring group (hydroxyl group) but also through the electron-withdrawing group (-CN) located close to the semiconductor surface. Experimental results show that the type II sensitizers with a D-π-A system obviously out- perform the typical type II sensitizers providing much higher conversion efficiency due to the strong electronic push-pull effect. Among these dyes, LS223 gives the best solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.6%, with Jsc = 7.3 mAocm 2, Voc=0.69 V, FF=0.71, the maximum IPCE value reaches 74.9%.

  12. Relationship of shock-associated kilometric radio emission with metric type II bursts and energetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, S.W.; Cliver, E.W.; Cane, H.V.

    1986-01-01

    Shock-associated (SA) events are a class of kilometric-wavelength solar radio bursts first observed with the ISEE-3 Radio Astronomy Experiment. These fast-drift events are typically associated with metric type II bursts and hypothesized that the SA events were due to electrons accelerated by coronal shocks. Compare SA events from 1978 to 1982 with metric type II bursts and solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Most metric type II bursts are not obviously associated with SA events at 1980 kHz. Metric type II bursts associated with magnetically well connected flares and SA emission are well correlated with SEP events; those without SA emission are poorly correlated with SEP events. The largest SEP events from flares at any longitude are well correlated with SAs. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the escaping electrons giving rise to SA emission are accelerated in coronal shocks.

  13. Large Format LW Type-II SLS FPAs for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposes to develop high performance (low dark current, high quantum efficiency, and low NEdT) infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained...

  14. Reproducible isolation of type II pneumocytes from fetal and adult rat lung using nycodenz density gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, R M; Ullsperger, S; Resau, J H

    1992-01-01

    Isolating fresh, relatively pure type II pneumocytes from the lung, particularly of fetal origin, is a difficult process. Separation by buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used successfully to isolate adult type II cells. There is concern, however, that Percoll, a gradient medium that is commonly used for type II cell isolation, may be toxic to cells. We evaluated a new gradient medium, Nycodenz, that is (1) a true solution, (2) transparent, (3) not metabolized by cells, and (4) nontoxic to cells. Type II pneumocytes were isolated from 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult rat lung by elastase digestion and separated on preformed isotonic Nycodenz gradients (2 mL each of 27.6, 20.7, 13.8, and 4.6 (w/v) solutions). Type II pneumocytes were recovered from the density range 1.057-1.061 and identified by binding of FITC-conjugated and gold-complexed Maclura pomifera lectin. Cells derived from 19-day fetal lung contained abundant glycogen and reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are markers of the fetal type II cell. Adult type II cells reacted with antibodies to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. Type II cell purity was 79.7 +/- 2.4%, 83.8 +/- 2.8%, and 82.6 +/- 1.8% (means +/- SEM) for 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult lung preparations, respectively. Cell viability was greater than 95%. The final cell yield for adult preparations was 17.8 +/- 2.7 x 10(6)/rat (means +/- SEM). To determine if the freshly isolated type II pneumocytes were functionally active, the incorporation of [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine was measured. The percent saturation of phosphatidylcholine was high for both populations of freshly isolated cells. However, adult type II pneumocytes incorporated [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine more rapidly than 21-day gestation fetal cells (5.97 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h vs. 0.32 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h, P less than .005). We have demonstrated that, using the Nycodenz isolation method, it is

  15. Positions of type II fundamental and harmonic sources in the 30-100 MHZ range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Gergely, T. E.; Kundu, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    An excellent example of a type III-V burst followed by a type II burst with fundamental and harmonic bands was observed on June 18, 1979 at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The observations are described in detail and their implications are discussed with regard to the problem of directionality with respect to the magnetic field lines of the collisionless MHD shock wave generated at the start of the flash phase. It is found that the positions of type III and type II (F) bursts at a number of frequencies are essentially the same, which implies that the shock responsible for the type II radiation follows the path of the type III exciter, that is, the shock propagates along the open field lines.

  16. Richner-Hanhart syndrome (tyrosinemia type II). Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Hemidan, A I; al-Hazzaa, S A

    1995-03-01

    Richner-Hanhart syndrome (Tyrosinemia Type II) is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism characterized by ocular changes, painful palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, and mental retardation. Serum tyrosine increases due to tyrosine aminotransferase deficiency resulting in the deposition of tyrosine crystals in the cornea and in corneal inflammation. Patients are often misdiagnosed as having herpes simplex keratitis. We report on a child who presented with bilateral keratitis secondary to Tyrosinemia Type II diagnosed as herpes simplex keratitis.

  17. Impact of diabetes type II and chronic inflammation on pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zechner, Dietmar; Radecke, Tobias; Amme, Jonas; Bürtin, Florian; Albert, Ann-Christin; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Background We explored if known risk factors for pancreatic cancer such as type II diabetes and chronic inflammation, influence the pathophysiology of an established primary tumor in the pancreas and if administration of metformin has an impact on tumor growth. Methods Pancreatic carcinomas were assessed in a syngeneic orthotopic pancreas adenocarcinoma model after injection of 6606PDA cells in the pancreas head of either B6.V-Lepob/ob mice exhibiting a type II diabetes-like syndrome or normo...

  18. Black hole and Hawking radiation by type-II Weyl fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Volovik, G E

    2016-01-01

    The type-II Weyl and type-II Dirac fermions may emerge behind the event horizon of black holes. Correspondingly the black hole can be simulated by creation of the region with overtilted Weyl or Dirac cones. The filling of the electronic states inside the "black hole" is accompanied by Hawking radiation. The Hawking temperature in the Weyl semimetals can reach the room temperature, if the black hole region is sufficiently small, and thus the effective gravity at the horizon is large.

  19. Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Khandelwal, Bidita; Sherpa, Namgyal T.

    2015-01-01

    Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are ...

  20. Black hole and hawking radiation by type-II Weyl fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volovik, G. E.

    2016-11-01

    The type-II Weyl and type-II Dirac fermions may emerge behind the event horizon of black holes. Correspondingly, the black hole can be simulated by creation of the region with overtilted Weyl or Dirac cones. The filling of the electronic states inside the "black hole" is accompanied by Hawking radiation. The Hawking temperature in the Weyl semimetals can reach the room temperature, if the black hole region is sufficiently small, and thus the effective gravity at the horizon is large.

  1. L-alanine supplementation in late infantile glycogen storage disease type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodamer, Olaf A; Haas, Dorothea; Hermans, Monique M; Reuser, Arnold J; Hoffmann, Georg F

    2002-08-01

    We report a male with late infantile glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe's disease) who presented at 12 months of age with muscular hypotonia and developmental delay. Oral supplementation with L-alanine has been administered for 5 years. Progression of skeletal myopathy was slow, and cardiomyopathy resolved almost completely. L-alanine may be a valuable supplement for infants with glycogen storage disease type II.

  2. Throughput of Type II HARQ-OFDM/TDM Using MMSE-FDE in a Multipath Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Gacanin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In type II hybrid ARQ (HARQ schemes, the uncoded information bits are transmitted first, while the error correction parity bits are sent upon request. Consequently, frequency diversity cannot be exploited during the first transmission. In this paper, we present the use of OFDM/TDM with MMSE-FDE and type II HARQ to increase throughput of OFDM due to frequency diversity gain.

  3. Management of type II superior labrum anterior posterior lesions: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinning Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Superior labrum anterior and posterior lesions were first described in 1985 by Andrews et al. and later classified into four types by Synder et al. The most prevalent is type II which is fraying of the superior glenoid labrum with detachment of the biceps anchor. Superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP lesions can also be associated with other shoulder pathology. Both MRI and MRA can be utilized in making the diagnosis with the coronal images being the most sensitive. The mechanism of injury can be either repetitive stress or acute trauma with the superior labrum most vulnerable to injury during the late cocking phase of throwing. A combination of the modified dynamic labral shear and O’Brien test can be used clinically in making the diagnosis of SLAP lesion. However, the most sensitive and specific test used to diagnosis specifically a type II SLAP lesion is the Biceps Load Test II. The management of type II SLAP lesions is controversial and dependent on patient characteristics. In the young high demanding overhead athlete, repair of the type II lesion is recommended to prevent glenohumeral instability. In middle-aged patients (age 25-45, repair of the type II SLAP lesion with concomitant treatment of other shoulder pathology resulted in better functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. Furthermore, patients who had a distinct traumatic event resulting in the type II SLAP tear did better functionally than patients who did not have the traumatic event when the lesion was repaired. In the older patient population (age over 45 years, minimum intervention (debridement, biceps tenodesis/tenotomy to the type II SLAP lesion results in excellent patient satisfaction and outcomes.

  4. Statistical Study of Shocks and CMEs Associated With Interplanetary Type II Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Gopalswamy, N.; MacDowall, R.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2005-05-01

    We present a study of some spectral properties associated with interplanetary Type II radio emission. Type II radio bursts are signatures of violent eruptions from the Sun that result in shock waves propagating through the corona and the interplanetary medium. We investigated the relative bandwidth of all the type II bursts observed by the Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (WAVES) on board the Wind spacecraft from 1997 up to 2003. We obtained three sets of events, based on the frequency domain of occurrence: 109 events in the low frequency domain (30 KHz to 1000 kHz detected by the RAD1 receiver), 216 events in the high frequency domain (1-14 MHz, observed by the RAD2 receiver), and 73 events that spanned both domains (RAD1 and RAD2). We present statistical results for the bandwidth-to-frequency ratio (BFR) in the three subsets as well as a comparision of our results with the Type II solar radio bursts observed by ISEE-3 radio experiment, which is similar to WAVES/RAD1. We analyzed the bandwidth and BFR evolution with the heliocentric distance as well as an analysis of drift rate magnitude of type II radio bursts and its starting frequency. We also present some properties of shocks and coronal mass ejections associated with interplanetary type II bursts. This work is partially supported by NSF/SHINE (ATM 0204588)

  5. Metabolic response in type I and type II muscle fibers during a 30-s cycle sprint in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbjörnsson-Liljedahl, M; Sundberg, C J; Norman, B; Jansson, E

    1999-10-01

    The acute metabolic response to sprint exercise was studied in 20 male and 19 female students. We hypothesized that the reduction of muscle glycogen content during sprint exercise would be smaller in women than in men and that a possible gender difference in glycogen reduction would be higher in type II than in type I fibers. The exercise-induced increase in blood lactate concentration was 22% smaller in women than in men. A considerable reduction of ATP (50%), phosphocreatine (83%), and glycogen (35%) was found in type II muscle fibers, and it did not differ between the genders. A smaller reduction of ATP (17%) and phosphocreatine (78%) was found in type I fibers, and it did not differ between the genders. However, the exercise-induced reduction in glycogen content in type I fibers was 50% smaller in women than in men. The hypothesis was indeed partly confirmed: the exercise-induced glycogen reduction was attenuated in women compared with men, but the gender difference was in type I rather than in type II fibers. Fiber-type-specific and gender-related differences in the metabolic response to sprint exercise might have implications for the design of training programs for men and women.

  6. Immunohistochemical findings type I and type II collagen in prenatal mouse mandibular condylar cartilage compared with the tibial anlage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, M; Suda, N; Tengan, T; Suzuki, S; Kuroda, T

    1998-07-01

    In growing animals the mandibular condylar cartilage serves not only as an articular but also as a growth cartilage, yet, condylar cartilage has some characteristic features that are not found in growth cartilage. For example, some reports suggest that type I collagen, which is not seen in the growth plate cartilage of long bones, is present in the extracellular matrix of condylar cartilage postnatally. Here, the condylar and limb bud cartilage of fetal mice was examined. The distribution of type I and type II collagen in condylar cartilage was already different from that in the limb bud at the first appearance of the cartilage. Type I collagen was demonstrated in the extracellular matrix of the condylar cartilage that first appeared on day 15 of gestation. However, the reaction for type II collagen was much weaker than that for type I collagen. On day 18 of gestation, type I collagen was still found throughout the cell layers but became gradually weaker with depth. Type II collagen was limited exclusively to the deeper layers at this stage. These findings are different from those in the limb bud cartilage, indicating a characteristic feature of the cells in the condylar cartilage present from the prenatal period.

  7. Integral field spectroscopy of supernova explosion sites: constraining mass and metallicity of the progenitors -- II. Type II-P and II-L supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Aldering, Greg; Arimoto, Nobuo; Maeda, Keiichi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Pereira, Rui; Usuda, Tomonori; Hashiba, Yasuhito

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen explosion sites of type II-P and II-L supernovae in nearby galaxies have been observed using integral field spectroscopy, enabling both spatial and spectral study of the explosion sites. We used the properties of the parent stellar population of the coeval supernova progenitor star to derive its metallicity and initial mass (c.f. Paper I). The spectrum of the parent stellar population yields the estimates of metallicity via strong-line method, and age via comparison with simple stellar population (SSP) models. These metallicity and age parameters are adopted for the progenitor star. Age, or lifetime of the star, was used to derive initial (ZAMS) mass of the star by comparing with stellar evolution models. With this technique, we were able to determine metallicity and initial mass of the SN progenitors in our sample. Our result indicates that some type-II supernova progenitors may have been stars with mass comparable to SN Ib/c progenitors.

  8. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  9. Differential effect of cholesterol on type I and II feline coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Satomi, Yui; Oyama, Yuu; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease of domestic and wild felidae that is caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). FCoV has been classified into types I and II. Since type I FCoV infection is dominant in the field, it is necessary to develop antiviral agents and vaccines against type I FCoV infection. However, few studies have been conducted on type I FCoV. Here, we compare the effects of cholesterol on types I and II FCoV infections. When cells were treated methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and inoculated with type I FCoV, the infection rate decreased significantly, and the addition of exogenous cholesterol to MβCD-treated cells resulted in the recovery of the infectivity of type I FCoV. Furthermore, exogenous cholesterol increased the infectivity of type I FCoV. In contrast, the addition of MβCD and exogenous cholesterol had little effect on the efficiency of type II FCoV infection. These results strongly suggest that the dependence of infection by types I and II FCoV on cholesterol differs.

  10. Water-soluble undenatured type II collagen ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Shinozaki, Junichi; Nakane, Takahisa; Masuda, Kazuo; Bagchi, Manashi

    2013-11-01

    Earlier studies have reported the efficacy of type II collagen (C II) in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a few studies have investigated the ability of the antigenic collagen to induce oral tolerance, which is defined as active nonresponse to an orally administered antigen. We hypothesized that water-soluble undenatured C II had a similar effect as C II in RA. The present study was designed to examine the oral administration of a novel, water-soluble, undenatured C II (commercially known as NEXT-II) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. In addition, the underlying mechanism of NEXT-II was also identified. After a booster dose (collagen-Freund's complete adjuvant), mice were assigned to control CIA group, or NEXT-II treatment group, to which saline and NEXT-II were administered, respectively. The arthritis index in the NEXT-II group was significantly lower compared with the CIA group. Serum IL-6 levels in the NEXT-II group were significantly lower compared with the CIA group, while serum IL-2 level was higher. Furthermore, oral administration of NEXT-II enhanced the proportion of CD4+CD25+T (Treg) cells, and gene expressions of stimulated dendritic cells induced markers for regulatory T cells such as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and CD25. These results demonstrated that orally administered water-soluble undenatured C II (NEXT-II) is highly efficacious in the suppression of CIA by inducing CD4+CD25+ Treg cells.

  11. Self-consistent calculations of optical properties of type I and type II quantum heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvayev, Vladimir A.

    In this Thesis the self-consistent computational methods are applied to the study of the optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures with one- and two-dimensional quantum confinements. At first, the self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations is applied to the cylindrical core-shell structure with type II band alignment without direct Coulomb interaction between carriers. The electron and hole states and confining potential are obtained from a numerical solution of this system. The photoluminescence kinetics is theoretically analyzed, with the nanostructure size dispersion taken into account. The results are applied to the radiative recombination in the system of ZnTe/ZnSe stacked quantum dots. A good agreement with both continuous wave and time-resolved experimental observations is found. It is shown that size distribution results in the photoluminescence decay that has essentially non-exponential behavior even at the tail of the decay where the carrier lifetime is almost the same due to slowly changing overlap of the electron and hole wavefunctions. Also, a model situation applicable to colloidal core-shell nanowires is investigated and discussed. With respect to the excitons in type I quantum wells, a new computationally efficient and flexible approach of calculating the characteristics of excitons, based on a self-consistent variational treatment of the electron-hole Coulomb interaction, is developed. In this approach, a system of self-consistent equations describing the motion of an electron-hole pair is derived. The motion in the growth direction of the quantum well is separated from the in-plane motion, but each of them occurs in modified potentials found self-consistently. This approach is applied to a shallow quantum well with the delta-potential profile, for which analytical expressions for the exciton binding energy and the ground state eigenfunctions are obtained, and to the quantum well with the square potential profile with several

  12. Impaired up-regulation of type II corticosteroid receptors in hippocampus of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, J C; Fleenor, D G; Kerr, D S; Landfield, P W

    1989-01-30

    Several recent investigations have reported a decline of rat hippocampal corticosteroid-binding receptors (CSRs) with aging. This decline has been proposed to be an initial cause (through disinhibition) of the elevated adrenal steroid secretion that apparently occurs with aging; however, it could instead be an effect of corticoid elevation (through down-regulation). In order to assess the effects of age on CSR biosynthetic capacity in the absence of down-regulatory influences of endogenous corticoids, as well as to study aging changes in CSR plasticity, we examined the up-regulation of hippocampal CSR that follows adrenalectomy (ADX). The rat hippocampus contains at least two types of CSR binding and differential analysis of types I and II CSR was accomplished by selective displacement of [3H]corticosterone with RU-28362, a specific type II agonist. In young (3 months old) Fischer-344 rat hippocampus, up-regulation of type II binding above 2-day ADX baseline was present by 3-7 days and increased still further by 8-10 days post-ADX; type I CSR density did not change significantly between 1 and 10 days post-ADX. However, in aged (24-26 months old) rats, type II CSR up-regulation did not occur over the 10 day post-ADX period. Thus, the age-related impairment of type II up-regulation may reflect an intrinsic deficit in CSR biosynthesis or lability that is independent of the acute endogenous adrenal steroid environment.

  13. Linkage of the gene that encodes the alpha 1 chain of type V collagen (COL5A1) to type II Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, J; Irven, C; Hardwick, L J; Butcher, S; Walsh, S; Wordsworth, P; Sykes, B

    1995-09-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of heritable disorders of connective tissue with skin, ligaments and blood vessels being the main sites affected. The commonest variant (EDS II) exhibits an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and is characterized by joint hypermobility, cigarette paper scars, lax skin and excessive bruising. As yet no gene has been linked to EDS II, nor has linkage been established to a specific region of the genome. However, several candidate genes encoding proteins of the extracellular matrix have been excluded. Using an intragenic simple sequence repeat polymorphism, we report linkage of the COL5A1 gene, which encodes the alpha 1(V) chain of type V collagen, to EDS II. A maximum LOD score (Zmax) for linkage of 8.3 at theta = 0.00 was generated for a single large pedigree.

  14. On-disk counterparts of type II spicules in the Ca II 854.2 nm and Halpha lines

    CERN Document Server

    van der Voort, L Rouppe; De Pontieu, B; Carlsson, M; Vissers, G

    2009-01-01

    Recently a second type of spicules was discovered at the solar limb with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Japanese Hinode spacecraft. These previously unrecognized type II spicules are thin chromospheric jets that are shorter-lived (10-60 s) and that show much higher apparent upward velocities (of order 50-100 km/s) than the classical spicules. Since they have been implicated in providing hot plasma to coronal loops, their formation, evolution and properties are important ingredients for a better understanding of the mass and energy balance of the low solar atmosphere. Here we report on the discovery of the disk counterparts of type II spicules using spectral imaging data in the Ca II 854.2 nm and Halpha lines with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) at the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) in La Palma. We find rapid blueward excursions in the line profiles of both chromospheric lines that correspond to thin, jet-like features that show apparent velocities of order 50 km/s. These blueward ex...

  15. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Objective: Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg. Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ′analysis of variance′ test followed by post hoc Tukey′s test, with significant level of P < 0.05.Results and Discussion: Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property.

  16. Concurrent Occurrence of Type II and Type III Endoleak of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Stent Graft: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Su; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Yong Jae; Goo, Dong Erk; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Endoleak is an important complication following stent grafts for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Here we describe ultrasonography findings in an 86-year-old man including doppler ultrasonography and CT scan in an unusual and interesting case of the concurrent occurrence of a type II endoleak that originated from the left accessory renal artery and a type III endoleak due to shaft fracture of the stent

  17. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Hardik; Patel, Sejal; Patel, Ghanshyam; Paranjape, Archana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Objective: Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg) treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ‘analysis of variance’ test followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with significant level of P < 0.05. Results and Discussion: Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property. PMID:24948860

  18. NERVE CONDUC TION PROFILE IN TYPE II DIABETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1.To study the types of neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus 2. To find out the commonest nerves involved using nerve conduction studies . MATERIALS: About 50 cases satisfying the inclusion criteria admitted in Chettinad health city and research institute during the period of Oc tober 2013 to October 2015 were taken up for the study . METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA: Our study was conducted with an informed consent obtained from these patients. A proper consent shall be obtained from these patients. They were interviewed for a detailed history and clinical examination. After ruling out other causes of peripheral neuropathy these patients were subjected to nerve conduction studies. The patients were explained about the procedure. Fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, random bloo d sugar and glycosylated were estimated for these patients. The results were analyzed with the help of appropriate statistical methods. RESULTS: 1 The incidence of neuropathy was found to be 90% 2 Tingling sensation was the most commonest complaint noted in 62% of patients 3 Polyuria and Polydipsia was noted in 34% of patients 4 Ankle jerk was absent in 48% of patients 5 Vibration sense was r educed in 44% of patients 6 Commonest pattern of neuropathy noted was distal symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy 7 The most commonest nerve involved was peroneal nerves . CONCLUSION: 1. The most common pattern of neuropathy noted in our study was distal s ymmetrical sensory and motor polyneuropathy . 2. Involvement of peroneal nerve is more common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  19. The speed of propagation for KPP type problems. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berestycki, Henri; Franc, Ois Hamel; Nadirashvili, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to nonlinear propagation phenomena in general unbounded domains of {R}^N , for reaction-diffusion equations with Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov (KPP) type nonlinearities. This article is the second in a series of two and it is the follow-up of the paper The speed of propagation for KPP type problems. I - Periodic framework, by the authors, which dealt which the case of periodic domains. This paper is concerned with general domains, and we give various definitions of the spreading speeds at large times for solutions with compactly supported initial data. We study the relationships between these new notions and analyze their dependence on the geometry of the domain and on the initial condition. Some a priori bounds are proved for large classes of domains. The case of exterior domains is also discussed in detail. Lastly, some domains which are very thin at infinity and for which the spreading speeds are infinite are exhibited; the construction is based on some new heat kernel estimates in such domains.

  20. Type IIB flux vacua from G-theory II

    CERN Document Server

    Candelas, Philip; Damian, Cesar; Larfors, Magdalena; Morales, Jose Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We find analytic solutions of type IIB supergravity on geometries that locally take the form $\\text{Mink}\\times M_4\\times \\mathbb{C}$ with $M_4$ a generalised complex manifold. The solutions involve the metric, the dilaton, NSNS and RR flux potentials (oriented along the $M_4$) parametrised by functions varying only over $\\mathbb{C}$. Under this assumption, the supersymmetry equations are solved using the formalism of pure spinors in terms of a finite number of holomorphic functions. Alternatively, the solutions can be viewed as vacua of maximally supersymmetric supergravity in six dimensions with a set of scalar fields varying holomorphically over $\\mathbb{C}$. For a class of solutions characterised by up to five holomorphic functions, we outline how the local solutions can be completed to four-dimensional flux vacua of type IIB theory. A detailed study of this global completion for solutions with two holomorphic functions has been carried out in the companion paper [1]. The fluxes of the global solutions ar...

  1. Unifying Type II Supernova Light Curves with Dense Circumstellar Material

    CERN Document Server

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Valenti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A longstanding problem in the study of supernovae (SNe) has been the relationship between the Type IIP and Type IIL subclasses. Whether they come from distinct progenitors or they are from similar stars with some property that smoothly transitions from one class to another has been the subject of much debate. Here we show using one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic SN models that the multi-band light curves of SNe IIL are well fit by ordinary red supergiants surrounded by dense circumstellar material (CSM). The inferred extent of this material, coupled with a typical wind velocity of ~10-100 km/s, suggests enhanced activity by these stars during the last ~months to ~years of their lives, which may be connected with advanced stages of nuclear burning. Furthermore, we find that even for more plateau-like SNe that dense CSM provides a better fit to the first ~20 days of their light curves, indicating that the presence of such material may be more widespread than previously appreciated. Here we choose to model t...

  2. Creation of a putative third metal binding site in type II dihydroorotases significantly enhances enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Hua; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Dihydroorotase (DHOase) is the third enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis pathway of pyrimidine nucleotides. DHOase is divided into two types (I and II). Type II DHOase generally contains a binuclear metal center in its active site. Recently, the crystal structure of DHOase domain in human CAD protein (huDHOase) has revealed three metal ions in the protein's active site. However, whether type II DHOase can have the critical third metal ion, as observed in huDHOase, remains unknown. In the present study, the putative third metal binding site in type II enzymes, such as the prokaryotic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 DHOase (StDHOase) and the eukaryotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae DHOase (ScDHOase), was created and identified. StDHOase T198E and ScDHOase T208E mutants had higher activities compared with their wild-type enzymes. The need for a higher DHOase stability and activity may drive creation of the third metal ion binding site in huDHOase, which can be achieved by mutating a highly conserved position T in type II dihydroorotases to E, similar to that in huDHOase.

  3. Intrathoracic drainage of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer with a type II paraoesophageal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonneveld Bas JGL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an incidence of less than 5%, type II paraesophageal hernias are one of the less common types of hiatal hernias. We report a case of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer which, due to a type II hiatus hernia, drained into the mediastinum. Case presentation A 61-year old Caucasian man presented with acute abdominal pain. On a conventional x-ray of the chest a large mediastinal air-fluid collection and free intra-abdominal air was seen. Additional computed tomography revealed a large intra-thoracic air-fluid collection with a type II paraesophageal hernia. An emergency upper midline laparotomy was performed and a perforated pre-pyloric gastric ulcer was treated with an omental patch repair. The patient fully recovered after 10 days and continues to do well. Conclusion Type II paraesophageal hernia is an uncommon diagnosis. The main risk is gastric volvulus and possible gastric torsion. Intrathoracic perforation of gastric ulcers due to a type II hiatus hernia is extremely rare and can be a diagnostic and treatment challenge.

  4. The threshold temperature where type-I and type-II interchange in mesoscopic superconductors at the Bogomolnyi limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Isaías G.

    2017-04-01

    In this work we discuss the H - T phase diagram for mesoscopic squared superconducting samples at the Bogomolnyi limit, where the Ginzburg-Landau constant κ = 1 /√{ 2}. We calculate Hp (T), the vortex penetration field, and Hu (T) the upper critical field. Through the study of the temperature dependence on the Hp, it is possible to distinguish the region where the magnetic field penetrates into the sample, like a type-I or a type-II superconductor. It permits to determine the threshold temperature T⋆ (L , H) where the phase transition from type-I to type-II occurs for some different sizes L of the mesoscopic superconducting samples. The calculation of the upper critical field Hu (T), for these samples, shows that, these two curves, Hp (T) and Hu (T), overlap at the threshold temperature mentioned above. The magnetization of the system was calculated for all sizes studied in this work, and for temperatures above and below T⋆ (L , H). This study confirms the existence of the threshold temperature, T⋆ (L , H), where type-I and type-II interchange in mesoscopic superconductors at the Bogomolnyi limit.

  5. An alternative construction for the Type-II defect matrix for sshG

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, A R; Retore, A L; Spano, N I; Zimerman, A H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we construct a Type-II defect (super) matrix for the supersymmetric sinh-Gordon model as a product of two Type-I defect (super) matrices. We also show that the resulting defect matrix corresponds to a fused defect.

  6. Isolated and combined Type II SLAP repairs in a military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enad, Jerome G; Kurtz, Christopher A

    2007-11-01

    The study compares the clinical results of isolated arthroscopic repair of Type II SLAP tears with those of combined treatment for Type II SLAP and other associated shoulder conditions. The population was composed of 36 aged-matched active duty males with a mean age of 31.6 years (range 22-41 years); mean follow-up was 29.1 months (range 24-42 months). Eighteen subjects in Group I had isolated Type II SLAP tears. Eighteen subjects in Group II had Type II SLAP tear and concomitant ipsilateral shoulder conditions, including subacromial impingement in six patients, acromioclavicular arthrosis in three patients, subacromial impingement and acromioclavicular arthrosis in four patients, spinoglenoid cyst in four patients, and intra-articular loose bodies in one patient. Arthroscopic SLAP repair was performed with biodegradable suture anchors. Subacromial decompression and spinoglenoid cyst decompression were performed arthroscopically. Distal claviculectomy was performed in open fashion. Loose bodies were removed arthroscopically. At minimum 2-year follow-up, the mean UCLA score for Group I (30.2 +/- 3.0 points) was not significantly different from Group II (30.8 +/- 2.0 points) (P = 0.48). The mean post-operative ASES score for Group I (84.1 +/- 13.4 points) was significantly lower than for Group II (91.8 +/- 5.4 points) (P SLAP had comparable results with a cohort of Type II SLAP repairs treated in combination with other shoulder conditions, with the combined treatment group having significantly better results in two of three parameters measured. Return to duty rates were identical. Therefore, concurrent treatment of other associated extra-articular shoulder conditions improves the overall success of SLAP repair and the presence of these other conditions should be recognized and treated along with the SLAP tears in order to maximize clinical results.

  7. Having a promising efficacy on type II diabetes, it's definitely a green tea time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hen; Hu, Guohua; Gu, Dayong; Ni, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of green tea have been confirmed in various diseases, such as different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease. The effective components of green tea mainly include tea polysaccharides and tea polyphenols, such as catechin, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Increasing in vivo and in vitro evidences have explored the potential molecular mechanisms of green tea as well as the specific biological actions. Moreover, clinical trials have also explored the potential value of green tea components in treating metabolic syndromes, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study explores the effects of the two major green tea components on the improvement of type II diabetes. It is concluded that regular consumption of green tea is beneficial for the improvement of high-fat dietary-induced obesity and type II diabetes.

  8. Signature of type-II Weyl semimetal phase in MoTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Liu, Z. K.; Sun, Y.; Yang, H. F.; Rajamathi, C. R.; Qi, Y. P.; Yang, L. X.; Chen, C.; Peng, H.; Hwang, C.-C.; Sun, S. Z.; Mo, S.-K.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Felser, C.; Yan, B. H.; Chen, Y. L.

    2017-01-01

    Topological Weyl semimetal (TWS), a new state of quantum matter, has sparked enormous research interest recently. Possessing unique Weyl fermions in the bulk and Fermi arcs on the surface, TWSs offer a rare platform for realizing many exotic physical phenomena. TWSs can be classified into type-I that respect Lorentz symmetry and type-II that do not. Here, we directly visualize the electronic structure of MoTe2, a recently proposed type-II TWS. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we unravel the unique surface Fermi arcs, in good agreement with our ab initio calculations that have nontrivial topological nature. Our work not only leads to new understandings of the unusual properties discovered in this family of compounds, but also allows for the further exploration of exotic properties and practical applications of type-II TWSs, as well as the interplay between superconductivity (MoTe2 was discovered to be superconducting recently) and their topological order.

  9. GREEN DIPLOMACY-A NEW TYPE OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We mention our attempt in a broader context reserved to a generous theme, of a great complexity and of a strict actuality that aims the planet’s health, of human and of other forms of living and nonliving forms of life. Particularly insisting on legal international coordinates of environmental protection and conservation, through which are being accomplished the valences of human’s right to a prosperous, healthy and ecologically balanced environment. This right occupies a central place among human rights, one of those essential gifts of nature to which no one should be detrimental to. It is considered to be a law of human solidarity consecrated by international and internal regulations, which involves in its content: the right to live in an unpolluted environment, which is not degraded by activities that can affect the environment, health, human welfare, sustainable development of society; the right to the highest medical care, unaffected by environmental degradation; right to a healthy working environment; right to benefit of durable usage of nature and its resources, the right to adequate water resources and food. This valences exercise of this right in the context of each state’s internal affairs, but especially in the life of international community, involves a new type of international cooperation suggestively called green diplomacy. It is a special form of the classical diplomacy, adapted to the specific and universality of environmental problems, particularly in the second half of the second century onwards. A diplomacy that seeks to harmonize the interests of a state and other’s interests along with the interests of every human being on the Planet, concerning the conservation and development of natural conditions of life. The major objective of this modern type of diplomacy is highlighted to empower the human beings, the micro and macro human community towards protecting, conserving and sustainable development of the Earth

  10. Type Ia supernova rate studies from the SDSS-II Supernova Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The author presents new measurements of the type Ia SN rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II Supernova Survey was carried out during the Fall months (Sept.-Nov.) of 2005-2007 and discovered ~ 500 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia with densely sampled (once every ~ 4 days), multi-color light curves. Additionally, the SDSS-II Supernova Survey has discovered several hundred SNe Ia candidates with well-measured light curves, but without spectroscopic confirmation of type. This total, achieved in 9 months of observing, represents ~ 15-20% of the total SNe Ia discovered worldwide since 1885. The author describes some technical details of the SN Survey observations and SN search algorithms that contributed to the extremely high-yield of discovered SNe and that are important as context for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey SN Ia rate measurements.

  11. Diabetes mellitus Type II and cognitive capacity in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Christina; Toro, Pablo; Schönknecht, Peter; Sattler, Christine; Schröder, Johannes

    2016-06-30

    While diabetes mellitus (DM) Type II has repeatedly been linked to Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), longitudinal research is scarce and disease duration has not always been taken into account. In a birth cohort born between 1930 and 1932 we investigated the influence of DM Type II and disease duration on neuropsychological functioning (memory/learning, attention, verbal fluency, visuospatial thinking and abstract thinking) across 14 years. Subjects who developed MCI or AD performed significantly poorer on all neuropsychological tests applied. While significant main effects DM Type II did not arise, its presence led to a significant deterioration of performance in the digit symbol test and visuospatial thinking over time. Additionally, in visuospatial thinking this change was more pronounced for individuals suffering from MCI/AD. We found that, as a concomitant disease DM Type II does not affect memory functioning, which is typically compromised in MCI and early AD. Rather, it may lead to deficits in cognitive flexibility and visuospatial thinking. DM Type II can be considered a frequent comorbid condition which can aggravate the course of MCI and AD. In this respect it may serve as a model for other comorbid conditions in AD.

  12. OUTCOME OF GARTLAND TYPEII SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURES OF HUMERUS TREATED BY CONSERVATIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Mitra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current literatures recommend operative method (closed reduction and pinning for type II supracondylar fractures of humerus. But some surgeons still prefer conservative method for type II supracondylar fractures of humerus. We pr esent results of 14 cases of type II supracondylar fractures treated with CR and AE POP immobilization . The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of conservative treatment in management of type II supracondylar fracture of humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen children treated by conservative methods (CR & AE POP between January 2013 and December 2014 is included in this study. The mean age group is 6.8 years (3 years - 11 years. The patient follow up is done for a minimum of 10 - 12 weeks. Treatment outcome is based on final clinical and radiological assessments and grading of results was done using Flynn’s criteria. RESULTS: Gartland type II fracture gives 82% excellent results and 28 % good results as per Flynn’s criteria. Of the 14 patien ts only two cases required re manipulation. Surgical intervention was not needed for any of the patients. No patients in this study developed compartment syndrome / cubitus varus deformity. CONCLUSION: Satisfactory results can be obtained with conservative treatment (closed reduction and above elbow POP if proper selection of the patient and careful clinical and radiological follow up is done

  13. Structural basis of gate-DNA breakage and resealing by type II topoisomerases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Laponogov

    Full Text Available Type II DNA topoisomerases are ubiquitous enzymes with essential functions in DNA replication, recombination and transcription. They change DNA topology by forming a transient covalent cleavage complex with a gate-DNA duplex that allows transport of a second duplex though the gate. Despite its biological importance and targeting by anticancer and antibacterial drugs, cleavage complex formation and reversal is not understood for any type II enzyme. To address the mechanism, we have used X-ray crystallography to study sequential states in the formation and reversal of a DNA cleavage complex by topoisomerase IV from Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacterial type II enzyme involved in chromosome segregation. A high resolution structure of the complex captured by a novel antibacterial dione reveals two drug molecules intercalated at a cleaved B-form DNA gate and anchored by drug-specific protein contacts. Dione release generated drug-free cleaved and resealed DNA complexes in which the DNA gate instead adopts an unusual A/B-form helical conformation with a Mg(2+ ion repositioned to coordinate each scissile phosphodiester group and promote reversible cleavage by active-site tyrosines. These structures, the first for putative reaction intermediates of a type II topoisomerase, suggest how a type II enzyme reseals DNA during its normal reaction cycle and illuminate aspects of drug arrest important for the development of new topoisomerase-targeting therapeutics.

  14. A Study of the Type II-P Supernova 2003gd in M74

    CERN Document Server

    Hendry, M A; Maund, J R; Pastorello, A; Zampieri, L; Benetti, S; Turatto, M; Cappellaro, E; Meikle, W P S; Kotak, R; Irwin, M J; Jonker, P G; Vermaas, L; Peletier, R F; Van Woerden, H; Exter, K M; Pollacco, D L; Leon, S; Verley, S; Benn, C R; Pignata, G

    2005-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic data of the type II-P supernova 2003gd, which was discovered in M74 close to the end of its plateau phase. SN 2003gd is the first type II supernova to have a directly confirmed red supergiant progenitor. We compare SN 2003gd with SN 1999em, a similar type II-P supernova, and estimate an explosion date of 18th March 2003. We determine a reddening towards the supernova of E(B-V) = 0.14+/-0.06, using three different methods. We also calculate three new distances to M74 of 9.6+/-2.8 Mpc, 7.7+/-1.7 Mpc and 9.6+/-2.2 Mpc. The former was estimated using the Standardised Candle Method (SCM), for type II supernovae, and the latter two using the Brightest Supergiants Method (BSM). When combined with existing kinematic and BSM distance estimates, we derive a mean value of 9.3+/-1.8 Mpc. SN 2003gd was found to have a lower tail luminosity compared to other ``normal'' type II-P SNe bringing into question the nature of this supernova. We present a discussion concluding that this is ...

  15. [Functional analysis of transforming growth factor-beta type II dominant negative receptor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, M

    1996-06-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional homodimeric protein with an apparent molecular weight of 25 KDa. TGF-beta transduces signals by forming heteromeric complexes of their type-I (T beta R-I) and type-II (T beta R-II) serin/threonine kinase receptors. TGF-beta binds first to T beta R-II receptor, and then the ligand in this complex is recognized by T beta R-I, resulting in formation of a heteromeric receptor complex composed of T beta R-I and T beta R-II. Once received, T beta R-I becomes phosphorylated in the GS domain by the associated constitutively active T beta R-II and transmits the downstream signal. It has been reported that formation of the heteromeric complex is indispensible at least in epithelial cells for growth inhibition and extracellular matrix production induced by TGF-beta. In this study, the functional role of T beta R-II for the TGF-beta-induced signals in osteoblastic cells was investigated by using a dominant negative type of T beta R-II mutant receptors (T beta RIIDNR). ROS 17/2.8 and MG 63 cells were found to express T beta R-I, T beta R-II, and T beta R-III, and their cell growth was inhibited by TGF-beta, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity was stimulated. Cells that were stably transfected with the T beta RIIDNR plasmid showed decreased response to TGF-beta during growth and alkaline phosphatase activity. These results indicate that the intracellular serine/threonine kinase domain of T beta R-II is essential for signal transduction of the TGF-beta-induced alkaline phosphatase activity as well as growth inhibition.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RISK FACTORS OF TYPE-II DIABETES IN RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. Kiranmai; Sukhes; Rama Krishna; Preethi; Aruna

    2014-01-01

    : A study of effect of various risk factors on Type–II diabetes in Urban and rural population. Generally Indians seems to have great tendency to develop diabetes mellitus. In addition to this, unhealthy food habits, lack of physical activity, diabetic family history, age, obesity, smoking & alcoholism are the other causes for diabetes mellitus. AIM: To analyze the impact of different risk factors on TypeII diabetes in urban and rural population. METHODS: Total 160 subjects ...

  17. Classification of the N = 2, Z sub 2 x Z sub 2 -symmetric type II orbifolds and their type II asymmetric duals

    CERN Document Server

    Gregori, A; Rizos, J

    1999-01-01

    Using free world-sheet fermions, we construct and classify all the N = 2, Z sub 2 x Z sub 2 four-dimensional orbifolds of the type IIA/B strings for which the orbifold projections act symmetrically on the left- and right-movers. We study the deformations of these models out of the fermionic point, deriving the partition functions at a generic point in the moduli of the internal tours T sup 6 = T sup 2 x T sup 2 x T sup 2. We investigate some of their perturbative and non-perturbative dualities and construct new dual pairs of type IIA/type II asymmetric orbifolds, which are related non-perturbatively and allow us to gain insight into some of the non-perturbative properties of the type IIA/B strings in four dimensions. In particular, we consider some of the (non)-perturbative gravitational corrections.

  18. Asphericity, Interaction, and Dust in the Type II-P/II-L Supernova 2013ej in Messier 74

    CERN Document Server

    Mauerhan, Jon C; Johansson, Joel; Hu, Maokai; Fox, Ori D; Wang, Lifan; Graham, Melissa L; Filippenko, Alexei V; Shivvers, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    SN 2013ej is a well-studied core-collapse supernova (SN) that stemmed from a directly identified red supergiant (RSG) progenitor in galaxy M74. The source exhibits signs of substantial geometric asphericity, X-rays from persistent interaction with circumstellar material (CSM), thermal emission from warm dust, and a light curve that appears intermediate between supernovae of Types II-P and II-L. The proximity of this source motivates a close inspection of these physical characteristics and their potential interconnection. We present multi-epoch spectropolarimetry of SN 2013ej during the first 107 days, and deep optical spectroscopy and ultraviolet through infrared photometry past ~800 days. SN 2013ej exhibits the strongest and most persistent continuum and line polarization ever observed for a SN of its class during the recombination phase. Modeling indicates that the data are consistent with an oblate ellipsoidal photosphere, viewed nearly edge-on, and probably augmented by optical scattering from circumstell...

  19. A Type II Supernova Hubble Diagram from the CSP-I, SDSS-II, and SNLS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Carlberg, R. G.; Sullivan, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Folatelli, G.; Pritchet, C.; Basa, S.

    2017-02-01

    The coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will restrict spectroscopic follow-up in the vast majority of cases, and hence new methods based solely on photometric data must be developed. Here, we construct a complete Hubble diagram of Type II supernovae (SNe II) combining data from three different samples: the Carnegie Supernova Project-I, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II SN, and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Applying the Photometric Color Method (PCM) to 73 SNe II with a redshift range of 0.01–0.5 and with no spectral information, we derive an intrinsic dispersion of 0.35 mag. A comparison with the Standard Candle Method (SCM) using 61 SNe II is also performed and an intrinsic dispersion in the Hubble diagram of 0.27 mag, i.e., 13% in distance uncertainties, is derived. Due to the lack of good statistics at higher redshifts for both methods, only weak constraints on the cosmological parameters are obtained. However, assuming a flat universe and using the PCM, we derive the universe’s matter density: {{{Ω }}}m={0.32}-0.21+0.30 providing a new independent evidence for dark energy at the level of two sigma. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes, with the du Pont and Swope telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program N-2005A-Q-11, GN-2005B-Q-7, GN-2006A-Q-7, GS-2005A-Q-11, GS-2005B-Q-6, and GS-2008B-Q-56). Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programmes 076.A-0156,078.D-0048, 080.A-0516, and 082.A-0526).

  20. Excitonic structure and pumping power dependent emission blue-shift of type-II quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenovský, Petr; Steindl, Petr; Geffroy, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    In this work we study theoretically and experimentally the multi-particle structure of the so-called type-II quantum dots with spatially separated electrons and holes. Our calculations based on customarily developed full configuration interaction ap- proach reveal that exciton complexes containing holes interacting with two or more electrons exhibit fairly large antibinding energies. This effect is found to be the hallmark of the type-II confinement. In addition, an approximate self-consistent solution of the multi-exciton problem allows us to explain two pronounced phenomena: the blue-shift of the emission with pumping and the large inhomogeneous spectral broadening, both of those eluding explanation so far. The results are confirmed by detailed intensity and polarization resolved photoluminescence measurements on a number of type-II samples. PMID:28358120

  1. Period-Luminosity Relations for Type II Cepheids and their Application

    CERN Document Server

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Menzies, John W

    2009-01-01

    JHKs magnitudes corrected to mean intensity are estimated for LMC type II Cepheids in the OGLE-III survey. Period-luminosity (PL) relations are derived in JHKs as well as in a reddening-free VI parameter. Within the uncertainties the BL Her stars (P 20 d (RV Tau stars) show that a high proportion have TiO bands; only one has been found showing C_2. The LMC RV Tau stars, as a group, are not co-linear with the shorter-period type II Cepheids in the infrared PL relations in marked contrast to such stars in globular clusters. Other differences between LMC, globular cluster and Galactic field type II Cepheids are noted in period distribution and infrared colours.

  2. Adipokines: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Vascular Dysfunction in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El husseny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM, insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity.

  3. Proteomic peptide scan of porphyromonas gingivalis fima type ii for searching potential b-cell epitopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUCCHESE, A.; GUIDA, A.; CAPONE, G.; DONNARUMMA, G.; LAINO, L.; PETRUZZI, M.; SERPICO, R.; SILVESTRE, F.; GARGARI, M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose To identify potential antigenic targets for Porphyromonas gingivalis vaccine development. Materials and methods In the present study, we analyzed the Porphyromonas gingivalis, fimA type II primary amino acid sequence and characterized the similarity to the human proteome at the pentapeptide level. Results We found that exact peptide-peptide profiling of the fimbrial antigen versus the human proteome shows that only 19 out of 344 fimA type II pentapeptides are uniquely owned by the bacterial protein. Conclusions The concept that protein immunogenicity is allocated in rare peptide sequences and the search the Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA type II sequence for peptides unique to the bacterial protein and absent in the human host, might be used in new therapeutical approaches as a significant adjunct to current periodontal therapies. PMID:28042435

  4. Peripheral papillary tumor of type-II pneumocytes: a rare neoplasm of undetermined malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, E; Braidotti, P; Del Curto, B; Falleni, M; Coggi, G; Santa Cruz, G; Carai, A; Versace, R; Pietra, G G

    2000-03-01

    Peripheral papillary adenomas of the lung are uncommon neoplasms (only ten cases have been described so far in the English literature) composed predominantly of type-II pneumocytes and generally considered benign. We describe here two additional cases of this lung tumor. In both cases histological examination revealed an encapsulated papillary neoplasm with invasion of the capsule and, in one case, invasion of the adjacent alveoli and visceral pleura too. The proliferative index (Ki67) was less than 2% and the epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratins, surfactant apoproteins (SP), and nuclear thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF- 1). Ultrastructurally, the epithelial cells showed the characteristic surface microvilli and cytoplasmic lamellar inclusions of type-II cells. Review of the literature has revealed two other cases of peripheral papillary adenoma of type-II pneumocytes with infiltrative features. Thus, we propose replacing the term peripheral papillary adenoma with peripheral papillary tumor of undetermined malignant potential.

  5. Experience of direct percutaneous sac injection in type II endoleak using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoong-Seok; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2015-04-01

    Cone beam CT, usually used in dental area, could easily obtain 3-dimensional images using cone beam shaped ionized radiation. Cone beam CT is very useful for direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) which needs very precise measurement to avoid puncture of inferior vena cava or vessel around sac or stent graft. Here we describe two cases of DPSI using cone beam CT. In case 1, a 79-year-old male had widening of preexisted type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, transarterial embolization failed due to tortuous collateral branches of lumbar arteries. In case 2, a 72-year-old female had symptomatic sac enlargement by type II endoleak after EVAR. However, there was no route to approach the lumbar arteries. Therefore, we performed DPSI assisted by cone beam CT in cases 1, 2. Six-month CT follow-up revealed no sign of sac enlargement by type II endoleak.

  6. Between types I and II: Intertype flux exotic states in thin superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Camacho, W. Y.; da Silva, R. M.; Vagov, A.; Shanenko, A. A.; Aguiar, J. Albino

    2016-08-01

    The Bogomolnyi point separates superconductivity types I and II while itself hiding infinitely degenerate magnetic flux configurations, including very exotic states (referred to here as flux "monsters"). When the degeneracy is removed, the Bogomolnyi point unfolds into a finite, intertype domain in the phase diagram between types I and II. One can expect that in this case the flux monsters can escape their "prison" at the Bogomolnyi point, occupying the intertype domain and shaping its internal structure. Our calculations reveal that such exotic flux distributions are indeed stable in the intertype regime of thin superconductors made of a type-I material, where the Bogomolnyi degeneracy is removed by stray magnetic fields. They can be classified into three typical patterns that are qualitatively different from those in types I and II: superconducting islands separated by vortex chains; stripes/worms/labyrinths patterns; and mixtures of giant vortices and vortex clusters. Our findings shed light on the problem of the interchange between types I and II, raising important questions on the completeness of the textbook classification of the superconductivity types.

  7. Full genome analysis of a novel type II feline coronavirus NTU156.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Nan; Chang, Ruey-Yi; Su, Bi-Ling; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Infections by type II feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) have been shown to be significantly correlated with fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Despite nearly six decades having passed since its first emergence, different studies have shown that type II FCoV represents only a small portion of the total FCoV seropositivity in cats; hence, there is very limited knowledge of the evolution of type II FCoV. To elucidate the correlation between viral emergence and FIP, a local isolate (NTU156) that was derived from a FIP cat was analyzed along with other worldwide strains. Containing an in-frame deletion of 442 nucleotides in open reading frame 3c, the complete genome size of NTU156 (28,897 nucleotides) appears to be the smallest among the known type II feline coronaviruses. Bootscan analysis revealed that NTU156 evolved from two crossover events between type I FCoV and canine coronavirus, with recombination sites located in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and M genes. With an exchange of nearly one-third of the genome with other members of alphacoronaviruses, the new emerging virus could gain new antigenicity, posing a threat to cats that either have been infected with a type I virus before or never have been infected with FCoV.

  8. Chiral anomaly and longitudinal magnetotransport in type-II Weyl semimetals

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Girish; Tewari, Sumanta

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of parallel electric and magnetic fields, the violation of separate number conservation laws for the three dimensional left and right handed Weyl fermions is known as the chiral anomaly. The recent discovery of Weyl and Dirac semimetals has paved the way for experimentally testing the effects of chiral anomaly via longitudinal magneto-transport measurements. More recently, a type-II Weyl semimetal (WSM) phase has been proposed, where the nodal points possess a finite density of states due to the touching between electron- and hole- pockets. It has been suggested that the main difference between the two types of WSMs (type-I and type-II) is that in the latter, chiral anomaly and the associated longitudinal magneto-resistance are strongly anisotropic, vanishing when the applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of tilt of Weyl fermion cones in a type-II WSM. We analyze chiral anomaly in a type-II WSM in quasiclassical Boltzmann framework, and find that the chiral anomaly induced p...

  9. Investigating the Conditions of the Formation of a Type II Radio Burst on 2014 January 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Ning, Z. J.; Ji, H. S.

    2016-10-01

    It is believed that type II radio bursts are generated by shock waves. In order to understand the generation conditions of type II radio bursts, we analyze the physical parameters of a shock front. The type II radio burst we selected was observed by the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) and Learmonth radio station and was associated with a limb coronal mass ejection (CME) occurring on 2014 January 8 observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The evolution of the CME in the inner corona presents a double-layered structure that propagates outward. We fit the outer layer (OL) of the structure with a partial circle and divide it into seven directions from ‑45° to 45° with an angular separation of 15°. We measure the OL speed along the seven directions and find that the speed in the direction of ‑15° with respect to the central direction is the fastest. We use the differential emission measure method to calculate the physical parameters at the OL at the moment when the type II radio burst was initiated, including the temperature (T), emission measure (EM), temperature ratio ({T}d/{T}{{u}}), compression ratio (X), and Alfvén Mach number (M A). We compare the quantities X and M A to those obtained from band-splitting in the radio spectrum, and find that this type II radio burst is generated at a small region of the OL that is located at the sector in the 45° direction. The results suggest that the generation of type II radio bursts (shocks) requires larger values of X and M A rather than simply a higher speed of the disturbance.

  10. Traveling wavefronts in nonlocal diffusive predator-prey system with Holling type II functional response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the existence of traveling wavefronts for a nonlocal diffusive predator-prey system with functional response of Holling type II. We first establish the existence principle for the system with a general functional response by using a fixed point theorem and upper-lower solution technique. We apply this result to a predator-prey model with Holling type II functional response. We deduce the existence of traveling wavefronts that connect the zero equilibrium and the positive equilibrium.

  11. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P < 0·001). Median total attack duration was 5·0 h and 9·0 h for patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II, respectively.

  12. Ground-based and spaceborn observations of the type II burst with developed fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorovskyy, V.; Melnik, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Brazhenko, A.; Rucker, H.; Stanislavskyy, A.; Panchenko, M.

    2012-09-01

    The combination of two huge ground-based radio telescopes (UTR-2 and URAN-2) operated in decameter wavelengths with three spatially separated spacecrafts (SOHO, STEREO-A and STEREO-B) equipped with white light coronagraphs, UV telescopes and decameter-hectometer band radio telescopes created a unique opportunity to investigate the high energy solar transients, such as CMEs and their manifestations in radio bands - type II bursts. In this paper we made detailed analysis of the powerful and complex event occurred on 7 June 2011 consisted of Halo-CME and type II burst with rich fine structure.

  13. Diagnostic Value of Adenosine Deaminase and Its Isoforms in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Bagher Larijani; Ramin Heshmat; Mina Ebrahimi-Rad; Shohreh Khatami; Shirin Valadbeigi; Reza Saghiri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. In the present study, we have investigated the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) as a diagnostic marker in type 2 (or II) diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design and Methods. The deaminase activity of ADA1 and ADA2 was determined in serum from 33 patients with type 2 (or II) diabetes mellitus and 35 healthy controls. We also determined the proportion of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results. Our results showed significant differences between total serum ADA (tADA) and ADA2 ac...

  14. Bulk superconductivity in Type II superconductors near the second critical field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Helffer, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    We consider superconductors of Type II near the transition from the ‘bulk superconducting’ to the ‘surface superconducting’ state. We prove a new L∞ estimate on the order parameter in the bulk, i.e. away from the boundary. This solves an open problem posed by Aftalion and Serfaty [AS].......We consider superconductors of Type II near the transition from the ‘bulk superconducting’ to the ‘surface superconducting’ state. We prove a new L∞ estimate on the order parameter in the bulk, i.e. away from the boundary. This solves an open problem posed by Aftalion and Serfaty [AS]....

  15. Relation Between Type II Bursts and CMEs Inferred from STEREO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Thompson, W.; Davila, J.; Kaiser, M. L.; Yashiro, S.; Maekelae, P.; Michalek, G.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Hoawrd, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    The inner coronagraph (COR1) of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission has made it possible to observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs) a in the spatial domain overlapping with that of the metric type II radio bursts. The type II bursts were associated with generally weak flares (mostly B and C class soft X-ray flares), but the CMEs were quite energetic. Using CME data for a set of type II bursts during the declining phase of solar cycle 23, we determine the CME height when the type II bursts start, thus giving an estimate of the heliocentric distance at which CME-driven shocks form. This distance has been determined to be approximately 1.5Rs (solar radii), which coincides with the distance at which the Alfv?n speed profile has a minimum value. We also use type II radio observations from STEREO/WAVES and Wind/WAVES observations to show that CMEs with moderate speed drive either weak shocks or no shock at all when they attain a height where the Alfv?n speed peaks (?3Rs ? 4Rs). Thus the shocks seem to be most efficient in accelerating electrons in the heliocentric distance range of 1.5Rs to 4Rs. By combining the radial variation of the CME speed in the inner corona (CME speed increase) and interplanetary medium (speed decrease) we were able to correctly account for the deviations from the universal drift-rate spectrum of type II bursts, thus confirming the close physical connection between type II bursts and CMEs. The average height (approximately 1.5 Rs) of STEREO CMEs at the time of type II bursts is smaller than that (2.2 Rs) obtained for SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) CMEs. We suggest that this may indicate, at least partly, the density reduction in the corona between the maximum and declining phases, so a given plasma level occurs closer to the Sun in the latter phase. In two cases, there was a diffuse shock-like feature ahead of the main body of the CME, indicating a standoff distance of 1Rs - 2Rs by the time the CME left the LASCO

  16. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome type II: report of a case with additional radiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, T E; Siegel, M J; Lee, B C; Dowton, S B

    1993-01-01

    A phenotypically female infant with 46-XY chromosomes was found to have Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, type II a rare congenital malformation syndrome with many features of the more common classic Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. The patient's skeletal survey revealed characteristic and previously undescribed skeletal anomalies which are reported. In addition a lipoma of the pituitary gland was found on magnetic resonance imaging. This lesion is particularly interesting given the hypothesized steroid abnormality in Smith-Lemli-Opitz, type II syndrome, the sexual ambiguity of males with this syndrome and the similarity of this syndrome to the Pallister-Hall syndrome which characteristically has a hamartoblastoma of the hypothalamus.

  17. Adenosine-A1 receptor agonist induced hyperalgesic priming type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2016-03-01

    We have recently shown that repeated exposure of the peripheral terminal of the primary afferent nociceptor to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala, N-Me-Phe, Gly-ol]-enkephalin acetate salt) induces a model of transition to chronic pain that we have termed type II hyperalgesic priming. Similar to type I hyperalgesic priming, there is a markedly prolonged response to subsequent administration of proalgesic cytokines, prototypically prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, type II hyperalgesic priming differs from type I in being rapidly induced, protein kinase A (PKA), rather than PKCε dependent, not reversed by a protein translation inhibitor, occurring in female as well as in male rats, and isolectin B4-negative neuron dependent. We report that, as with the repeated injection of a MOR agonist, the repeated administration of an agonist at the A1-adenosine receptor, also a Gi-protein coupled receptor, N-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), also produces priming similar to DAMGO-induced type II hyperalgesic priming. In this study, we demonstrate that priming induced by repeated exposure to this A1-adenosine receptor agonist shares the same mechanisms, as MOR-agonist induced priming. However, the prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia induced by repeated administration of CPA depends on G-protein αi subunit activation, differently from DAMGO-induced type II priming, in which it depends on the β/γ subunit. These data implicate a novel form of Gi-protein signaling pathway in the type II hyperalgesic priming induced by repeated administration of an agonist at A1-adenosine receptor to the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor.

  18. Investigation of resonant Raman scattering in type II GaAs/AlAs superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, H

    2001-01-01

    GAMMA-related Type I outgoing RR spectra within several theoretical models. Thereby, the mechanisms of the Type II RR scattering, the origins of the RR lineshape and the polarisation dependence, are fully explained, clarifying the spectral features observed in the GaAs zone-centre optic phonon region. The Type II resonance also allows the observation of zone boundary (X-point) phonons from intervalley (IV) scattering. A model of the IV electron-phonon interaction involving X conduction band electrons and zone boundary phonons in Type II SLs is presented. With the predicted SL selection rules for IV scattering, the simultaneous observation of both the zone-boundary longitudinal acoustic and optic phonons can be understood and the spectral features quantitatively explained. As a consequence of the band alignment in GaAs/AIAs superlattices (SLs) and the indirect nature of bulk AIAs, quantum confinement can be used to engineer a Type II system. This produces an electron population in the AIAs longitudinal (X sub ...

  19. Dentin phosphoprotein gene locus is not associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, M.; Zeichner-David, M.; Davis, A.; Slavkin, H. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)); Murray, J. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)); Crall, M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) is an autosomal dominant inherited dental disease which affects dentin production and mineralization. Genetic linkage studies have been performed on several multigeneration informative kindreds. These studies determined linkage between DGI types II and III and group-specific component (vitamin D-binding protein). This gene locus has been localized to the long arm of human chromosome 4 in the region 4q11-q21. Although this disease has been mapped to chromosome 4, the defective gene product is yet to be determined. Biochemical studies have suggested abnormal levels of dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) associated with DGI type II. This highly acidic protein is the major noncollagenous component of dentin, being solely expressed by the ectomesenchymal derived odontoblast cells of the tooth. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether DPP is associated with DGI types II and III, by using molecular biology techniques. The results indicated that DPP is not localized to any region of human chromosome 4, thus suggesting that the DPP gene is not directly associated with DGI type II or DGI type III. The data do not exclude the possibility that other proteins associated with DPP posttranslational modifications might be responsible for this genetic disease.

  20. A novel splicing mutation alters DSPP transcription and leads to dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI type II is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by a serious disorders in teeth. Mutations of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP gene were revealed to be the causation of DGI type II (DGI-II. In this study, we identified a novel mutation (NG_011595.1:g.8662T>C, c.135+2T>C lying in the splice donor site of intron 3 of DSPP gene in a Chinese Han DGI-II pedigree. It was found in all affected subjects but not in unaffected ones or other unrelated healthy controls. The function of the mutant DSPP gene, which was predicted online and subsequently confirmed by in vitro splicing analysis, was the loss of splicing of intron 3, leading to the extended length of DSPP mRNA. For the first time, the functional non-splicing of intron was revealed in a novel DSPP mutation and was considered as the causation of DGI-II. It was also indicated that splicing was of key importance to the function of DSPP and this splice donor site might be a sensitive mutation hot spot. Our findings combined with other reports would facilitate the genetic diagnosis of DGI-II, shed light on its gene therapy and help to finally conquer human diseases.

  1. A novel splicing mutation alters DSPP transcription and leads to dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jiucun; Ma, Yanyun; Du, Wenqi; Zhao, Siyang; Zhang, Zuowei; Zhang, Xiaojiao; Liu, Yue; Xiao, Huasheng; Wang, Hongyan; Jin, Li; Liu, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) type II is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by a serious disorders in teeth. Mutations of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene were revealed to be the causation of DGI type II (DGI-II). In this study, we identified a novel mutation (NG_011595.1:g.8662T>C, c.135+2T>C) lying in the splice donor site of intron 3 of DSPP gene in a Chinese Han DGI-II pedigree. It was found in all affected subjects but not in unaffected ones or other unrelated healthy controls. The function of the mutant DSPP gene, which was predicted online and subsequently confirmed by in vitro splicing analysis, was the loss of splicing of intron 3, leading to the extended length of DSPP mRNA. For the first time, the functional non-splicing of intron was revealed in a novel DSPP mutation and was considered as the causation of DGI-II. It was also indicated that splicing was of key importance to the function of DSPP and this splice donor site might be a sensitive mutation hot spot. Our findings combined with other reports would facilitate the genetic diagnosis of DGI-II, shed light on its gene therapy and help to finally conquer human diseases.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBVRIz light curves of 51 Type II supernovae (Galbany+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Phillips, M. M.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Maza, J.; de Jaeger, T.; Moraga, T.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Krisciunas, K.; Morrell, N. I.; Thomas-Osip, J.; Krzeminski, W.; Gonzalez, L.; Antezana, R.; Wishnjewski, M.; McCarthy, P.; Anderson, J. P.; Gutierrez, C. P.; Stritzinger, M.; Folatelli, G.; Anguita, C.; Galaz, G.; Green, E. M.; Impey, C.; Kim, Y.-C.; Kirhakos, S.; Malkan, M. A.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Phillips, A. C.; Pizzella, A.; Prosser, C. F.; Schmidt, B. P.; Schommer, R. A.; Sherry, W.; Strolger, L.-G.; Wells, L. A.; Williger, G. M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a sample of multi-band, visual-wavelength light curves of 51 type II supernovae (SNe II) observed from 1986 to 2003 in the course of four different surveys: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calan Tololo Supernova Program (C&T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernovae Survey (CATS). Near-infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of this set of SNe II will be published in two companion papers. A list of the SNe II used in this study is presented in Table1. The first object in our list is SN 1986L and it is the only SN observed with photoelectric techniques (by M.M.P and S.K., using the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 0.9m equipped with a photometer and B and V filters). The remaining SNe were observed using a variety of telescopes equipped with CCD detectors and UBV(RI)KCz filters (see Table5). The magnitudes for the photometric sequences of the 51 SNe II are listed in Table4. In every case, these sequences were derived from observations of Landolt standards (see Appendix D in Hamuy et al. 2001ApJ...558..615H for the definition of the z band and Stritzinger et al. 2002AJ....124.2100S for the description of the z-band standards). Table5 lists the resulting UBVRIz magnitudes for the 51 SNe. (3 data files).

  3. Induction of tolerance against the arthritogenic antigen with type-II collagen peptide-linked soluble MHC class II molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon-Kyung; Jung, Sundo; Park, Se-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), self-reactive T cells can recognize peptide antigens derived from type-II collagen (CII). Activation of T cells is an important mediator of autoimmune diseases. Thus, T cells have become a focal point of study to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of recombinant MHC class II molecules in the regulation of antigen-specific T cells by using a self peptide derived from CII (CII260-274; IAGFKGEQGPKGEPG) linked to mouseI-Aq in a murine CIA model. We found that recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules could be recognized by CII-specific T cells and inhibit the same T cells in vitro. Furthermore, the development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by in vivo injection of recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules. Thus, treatment with recombinant soluble MHC class II molecules in complex with an immunodominant self-peptide might offer a potential therapeutic for chronic inflammation in autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 331-336 PMID:26779996

  4. A patient with pseudohypoaldosteronism type II complicated by congenital hypopituitarism carrying a KLHL3 mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Marie; Furuichi, Munehiro; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Chiga, Motoko; Uchida, Shinichi; Sato, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II) is a renal tubular disease that causes hyperkalemia, hypertension, and metabolic acidosis. Mutations in four genes (WNK4, WNK1, KLHL3, and CUL3) are known to cause PHA II. We report a patient with PHA II carrying a KLHL3 mutation, who also had congenital hypopituitarism. The patient, a 3-yr-old boy, experienced loss of consciousness at age 10 mo. He exhibited growth failure, hypertension, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis. We diagnosed him as having PHA II because he had low plasma renin activity with normal plasma aldosterone level and a low transtubular potassium gradient. Further investigations revealed defective secretion of GH and gonadotropins and anterior pituitary gland hypoplasia. Genetic analyses revealed a previously known heterozygous KLHL3 mutation (p.Leu387Pro), but no mutation was detected in 27 genes associated with congenital hypopituitarism. He was treated with sodium restriction and recombinant human GH, which normalized growth velocity. This is the first report of a molecularly confirmed patient with PHA II complicated by congenital hypopituitarism. We speculate that both GH deficiency and metabolic acidosis contributed to growth failure. Endocrinological investigations will help to individualize the treatment of patients with PHA II presenting with growth failure. PMID:27780982

  5. Phenotype characterization and DSPP mutational analysis of three Brazilian dentinogenesis imperfecta type II families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, A C; Santos, L J S; Paula, L M; Dong, J; MacDougall, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform phenotype analysis and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) mutational analysis on 3 Brazilian families diagnosed with dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) attending the Dental Anomalies Clinic in Brasilia, Brazil. Physical and oral examinations, as well as radiographic and histopathological analyses, were performed on 28 affected and unaffected individuals. Clinical, radiographic and histopathological analyses confirmed the diagnosis of DGI-II in 19 individuals. Pulp stones were observed in ground sections of several teeth in 2 families, suggesting that obliteration of pulp chambers and root canals results from the growth of these nodular structures. Mutational DSPP gene analysis of representative affected family members revealed 7 various non-disease-causing alterations in exons 1-4 within the dentin sialoprotein domain. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the progression of pulpal obliteration in the DGI-II patients studied as well as the molecular basis of their disease.

  6. Ultracold fermions in real or fictitious magnetic fields: BCS-BEC evolution and type-I-type-II transition

    OpenAIRE

    Iskin, Menderes

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 83, 045602 (2011) Ultracold fermions in real or fictitious magnetic fields: BCS-BEC evolution and type-I–type-II transition M. Iskin1 and C. A. R. S´a de Melo2 1Department of Physics, Koc¸ University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, TR-34450 Sariyer, Istanbul, Turkey 2School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA (Received 11 March 2010; published 26 April 2011) We study ultracold neutral fermion superfluids in the presence of fictit...

  7. The long-term functional outcome of type II odontoid fractures managed non-operatively.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Butler, J S

    2010-10-01

    Odontoid fractures currently account for 9-15% of all adult cervical spine fractures, with type II fractures accounting for the majority of these injuries. Despite recent advances in internal fixation techniques, the management of type II fractures still remains controversial with advocates still supporting non-rigid immobilization as the definitive treatment of these injuries. At the NSIU, over an 11-year period between 1 July 1996 and 30 June 2006, 66 patients (n = 66) were treated by external immobilization for type II odontoid fractures. The medical records, radiographs and CT scans of all patients identified were reviewed. Clinical follow-up evaluation was performed using the Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaire (CSOQ). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term functional outcome of patients suffering isolated type II odontoid fractures managed non-operatively and to correlate patient age and device type with clinical and functional outcome. Of the 66 patients, there were 42 males and 24 females (M:F = 1.75:1) managed non-operatively for type II odontoid fractures. The mean follow-up time was 66 months. Advancing age was highly correlated with poorer long-term functional outcomes when assessing neck pain (r = 0.19, P = 0.1219), shoulder and arm pain (r = 0.41, P = 0.0007), physical symptoms (r = 0.25, P = 0.472), functional disability (r = 0.24, P = 0.0476) and psychological distress (r = 0.41, P = 0.0007). Patients >65 years displayed a higher rate of pseudoarthrosis (21.43 vs. 1.92%) and established non-union (7.14 vs. 0%) than patients <65 years. The non-operative management of type II odontoid fractures is an effective and satisfactory method of treating type II odontoid fractures, particularly those of a stable nature. However, patients of advancing age have been demonstrated to have significantly poorer functional outcomes in the long term. This may be linked to higher rates of non-union.

  8. Novel π-type vortex in a nanoscale extreme type-II superconductor: Induced by quantum-size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wenhui; Chen, Yajiang

    2016-11-01

    By numerically solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we report a novel π-type vortex state whose order parameter near the core undergoes an extraordinary π-phase change for a quantum-confined extreme type-II s-wave superconductor. Its supercurrent behaves as the cube of the radial coordinate near the core, and its local density of states spectrum exhibits a significant negative-shifted zero-bias peak. Such π-type vortex state is induced by quantum-size effect, and can survive thermal smearing at temperatures up to a critical value Tτ. The Anderson's approximation indicates that the π-type vortex may remain stable under sufficiently week magnetic field in the case less deep in the type-II limit. Moreover, we find that its appearance is governed by the sample size and kFξ0 with kF the Fermi wave number and ξ0 the zero-temperature coherence length. Similar effects may be expected in quantum-confined ultracold superfluid Fermi gasses, or even high-Tc superconductors with proper kFξ0 value.

  9. Bright but slow - Type II supernovae from OGLE-IV & magnitude limited surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Poznanski, Dovi; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz; Blagorodnova, Nadejda

    2015-01-01

    We study a sample of 11 Type II supernovae (SNe) discovered by the OGLE-IV survey. All objects have well sampled I-band light curves, and at least one spectrum. We find that 3 or 4 of the 11 SNe have a declining light curve, making them SNe II-L, while the rest have plateaus that can be as short as 70d, unlike the 100d typically found in nearby galaxies. These SNe are also brighter than found in the local Universe, and show that magnitude limited surveys find SNe that are different than found in nearby galaxies. We discuss this sample in the context of understanding Type II SNe as a class and their suggested use as standard candles.

  10. Novel type-II material system for laser applications in the near-infrared regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C., E-mail: christian.berger@physik.uni-marburg.de; Möller, C.; Hens, P.; Fuchs, C.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W. [Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Ruiz Perez, A. [NAsP_I_I_I_/_V GmbH, Am Knechtacker 19, 35041 Marburg (Germany); Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V. [Nonlinear Control Strategies Inc, 3542 N. Geronimo Ave., Tucson, AZ 85705 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The design and experimental realization of a type-II “W”-multiple quantum well heterostructure for emission in the λ > 1.2 μm range is presented. The experimental photoluminescence spectra for different excitation intensities are analyzed using microscopic quantum theory. On the basis of the good theory–experiment agreement, the gain properties of the system are computed using the semiconductor Bloch equations. Gain values comparable to those of type-I systems are obtained.

  11. Toward a Kinetic Model of Silicon Carbide Condensation in Type II Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneault, Ethan A. N.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most interesting types of dust grain extracted from terrestrial meteorites is the silicon carbide X-grain (SiC-X). These grains bear distinct isotopic signatures which classify them as supernova condensates, but their formation within the ejecta has not been well-studied. Using a kinetic chemistry network, we investigate possible pathways that lead to the formation of silicon carbide grains in the cooling outflows of type II supernovae.

  12. Type II Collagen and Gelatin from Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) Cartilage: Isolation, Purification, Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Elango Jeevithan; Bin Bao; Yongshi Bu; Yu Zhou; Qingbo Zhao; Wenhui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Type II acid soluble collagen (CIIA), pepsin soluble collagen (CIIP) and type II gelatin (GII) were isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) cartilage and examined for their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. GII had a higher hydroxyproline content (173 mg/g) than the collagens and cartilage. CIIA, CIIP and GII were composed of two identical α1 and β chains and were characterized as type II. Amino acid analysis of CIIA, CIIP and GII indicated imino acid contents of...

  13. PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bostak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of type II diabetes mellitus and carries with it the threat of blindness. Accurate information regarding the incidence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors is important in the prevention of its development and of the visual impairment caused by this complication. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed patients with type II diabetes mellitus. We have also evaluated the association of diabetic retinopathy with clinical and biochemical variables. In a cross-sectional study, 152 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus were referred from two outpatient clinics in Tehran for ophthalmologic exam to detect retinopathy. Indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed and data regarding risk factors were extracted from routine medical records. Chi square and Mann Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. The overall prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 13.8 %( 21 cases: three cases with microaneurysm only, 10 with mild, 5 with moderate and 2 with severe non proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Only one patient had advanced proliferative retinopathy. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was positively associated with age, duration of disease, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure. Diabetic retinopathy is common in newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus patients. Ophthalmologic consultation is essential at the time of diagnosis for all patients.

  14. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor signalling regulates microRNA differentially in cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pia Lindgren; Christensen, Gitte Lund; Schneider, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1) R) is a key regulator of blood pressure and cardiac contractility and is profoundly involved in development of cardiac disease. Since several microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in cardiac disease, we asked whether miRNAs might...

  15. Crosslinked type II collagen matrices: preparation, characterization, and potential for cartilage engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, J.S.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Kamp, J.; Buma, P.; Susante, J.L.C. van; Berg, W.B. van den; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2002-01-01

    The limited intrinsic repair capacity of articular cartilage has stimulated continuing efforts to develop tissue engineered analogues. Matrices composed of type II collagen and chondroitin sulfate (CS), the major constituents of hyaline cartilage, may create an appropriate environment for the genera

  16. Transarterial Embolization of Type II Endoleaks after EVAR: The Role of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Wille, Rene, E-mail: rene.mueller-wille@ukr.de; Wohlgemuth, Walter A., E-mail: walter.wohlgemuth@ukr.de; Heiss, Peter, E-mail: peter.heiss@ukr.de; Wiggermann, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.wiggermann@ukr.de; Guentner, Oliver, E-mail: oliverguentner@yahoo.de; Schreyer, Andreas G., E-mail: andreas.schreyer@ukr.de; Hoffstetter, Patrick, E-mail: p.hoffstetter@asklepios.com; Stroszczynski, Christian, E-mail: christian.stros@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Zorger, Niels, E-mail: niels.zorger@barmherzige-regensburg.de [Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brueder Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial endoleak embolization using the liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx). Methods: Over a 7-year period eleven patients (6 women, 5 men; mean age 68 years, range 37-83 years) underwent transarterial embolization of a type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair using the liquid embolic agent Onyx. Two patients (18 %) had a simple type II endoleak with only one artery in communication with the aneurysm sac, whereas 9 patients (82 %) had a complex type II endoleak with multiple communicating vessels. We retrospectively analyzed the technical and clinical success of transarterial type II endoleak embolization with Onyx. Complete embolization of the nidus was defined as technical success. Embolization was considered clinically successful when volume of the aneurysm sac was stable or decreased on follow-up CT scans. Result: Mean follow-up time was 26.0 (range 6-50) months. Clinical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients (73 %). Transarterial nidus embolization with Onyx was technically successful in 6 of 11 patients (55 %). In three cases the nidus was embolized without direct catheterization from a more distal access through the network of collateral vessels. Conclusion: Onyx is a favorable embolic agent for transarterial endoleak embolization. To achieve the best clinical results, complete occlusion of the nidus is mandatory.

  17. Trypsin-mediated enzymatic degradation of type II collagen in the human vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, Marielle; Kuijer, Roel; Pas, Hendri Harm; van der Worp, Roelofje Jacoba; Hooymans, Johanna Martina Maria; Los, Leonoor Inge

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Aging of the vitreous body can result in sight-threatening pathology. One aspect of vitreous aging is liquefaction, which results from the vanishing of collagen fibrils. We investigated the possibility that trypsins are involved in vitreous type II collagen degradation. Methods: Immunohisto

  18. [Interconnection of the angiopathy and neuropathy development mechanism at patients with type II pancreatic diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykov, B B; Zinov'eva, O E

    2012-01-01

    In the article we summarized literature data, covered genesis of angiopathy and neuropathy at patients with type II diabetes. In the genesis of disease different metabolic, immune, hypoxic, genetic and others factors, caused affection of arteries, microcirculation and the peripheral nervous system, play an important role. Increasing changes of the great and minute vessels are interconnected with diabetic neuropathy

  19. Diagnostics on the source properties of type II radio burst with spectral bumps

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, S W; Kong, X L; Li, G; Song, H Q; Feng, X S; Guo, F

    2013-01-01

    In recent studies (Feng et al., 2012; Kong et al., 2012), we proposed that source properties of type II radio bursts can be inferred through a causal relationship between the special shape of the type II dynamic spectrum (e.g., bump or break) and simultaneous extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white light imaging observations (e.g., CME-shock crossing streamer structures). As a further extension of these studies, in this paper we examine the CME event dated on December 31 2007 associated with a multiple type II radio burst. We identify the presence of two spectral bump features on the observed dynamic spectrum. By combining observational analyses of the radio spectral observations and the EUV-white light imaging data, we conclude that the two spectral bumps are resulted from CME-shock propagating across dense streamers on the southern and northern sides of the CME, respectively. It is inferred that the corresponding two type II emissions originate separately from the two CME-shock flanks where the shock geometries are...

  20. Characterizing the V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Joseph P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Hamuy, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diversity of V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae. Analyzing a sample of 116 supernovae, several magnitude measurements are defined, together with decline rates at different epochs, and time durations of different phases. It is found that magnitude...

  1. The Type II supernovae 2006V and 2006au: two SN 1987A-like events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Sollerman, J.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Supernova 1987A revealed that a blue supergiant (BSG) star can end its life as a core-collapse supernova (SN). SN 1987A and other similar objects exhibit properties that distinguish them from ordinary Type II Plateau (IIP) SNe, whose progenitors are believed to be red supergiants (RSGs)....

  2. A Precision Photometric Comparison between SDSS-II and CSP Type Ia Supernova Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosher, J.; Sako, M.; Corlies, L.;

    2012-01-01

    Consistency between Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) and SDSS-II Supernova Survey ugri measurements has been evaluated by comparing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and CSP photometry for nine spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernova observed contemporaneously by both programs. The CSP data...

  3. Identification and characterization of the human type II collagen gene (COL2A1).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.S.E. Cheah (Kathryn); N.G. Stoker; J.R. Griffin; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); E. Solomon

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe gene contained in the human cosmid clone CosHcol1, previously designated an alpha 1(I) collagen-like gene, has now been identified. CosHcol1 hybridizes strongly to a single 5.9-kilobase mRNA species present only in tissue in which type II collagen is expressed. DNA sequence analysis

  4. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist Losartan binds and activates bradykinin B2 receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Olsen, Kristine Boisen; Erikstrup, Niels;

    2011-01-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (ARB) Losartan has cardioprotective effects during ischemia-reperfusion injury and inhibits reperfusion arrhythmias -effects that go beyond the benefits of lowering blood pressure. The renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems are intricately...

  5. Reference frameworks for the health management of measles, breast cancer and diabetes (type II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Helmut; Schröder, Peter; Davies, John K; Escamilla, Ixhel; Hall, Caroline; Hickey, Kieran; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Mechtler, Reli; Yared, Wendy Tse; Volf, Jaroslav; Weihrauch, Birgit

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents reference frameworks which order effective and feasible policies and interventions for the health management of measles, breast cancer and diabetes (type II). These reference frameworks can be used to rapidly appraise regional health policy documents and existing health management systems. Furthermore, the reference frameworks can serve health policy makers for the planning of health management measures.

  6. Bulk superconductivity in Type II superconductors near the second critical field

    CERN Document Server

    Fournais, S

    2008-01-01

    We consider superconductors of Type II near the transition from the 'bulk superconducting' to the 'surface superconducting' state. We prove a new $L^{\\infty}$ estimate on the order parameter in the bulk, i.e. away from the boundary. This solves an open problem posed by Aftalion and Serfaty.

  7. T-Duality in Type II String Theory via Noncommutative Geometry and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, V.

    This brief survey on how nocommutative and nonassociative geometry appears naturally in the study of T-duality in type II string theory, is essentially a transcript of my talks given at the 21st Nishinomiya-Yukawa Memorial Symposium on Theoretical Physics: Noncommutative Geometry and Quantum Spacetime in Physics, Japan, 11--15 November 2006.

  8. Information Technology, Type II Classroom Integration, and the Limited Infrastructure in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D.; Johnson D. Lamont

    2006-01-01

    In this second special issue on Type II applications of information technology in education, the focus is on classroom integration. This editorial explores some possible explanations for the fact that information technology in schools has not fulfilled its considerable potential. One reason may be that individualized instruction is not part of the…

  9. Cartilage collagen type II seromarker patterns in axial spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Heidi Lausten; Gudmann, Natasja Staehr; Christensen, Anne Friesgaard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possible association between type II collagen turnover seromarkers and disease profile in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Outpatients with axial SpA (n = 110) or PsA (n = 101) underwent clinical examination including...

  10. Type II and IV radio bursts in the active period October-November 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussis, V; Kontogeorgos, A; Moussas, X; Preka-Papadema, P; Hillaris, A; Caroubalos, C; Alissandrakis, C E; Bougeret, J -L; Dumas, G; 10.1063/1.2347978

    2010-01-01

    In this report we present the Type II and IV radio bursts observed and analyzed by the radio spectrograph ARTEMIS IV1, in the 650-20MHz frequency range, during the active period October-November 2003. These bursts exhibit very rich fine structures such fibers, pulsations and zebra patterns which is associated with certain characteristics of the associated solar flares and CMEs.

  11. Arachidonate metabolism increases as rat alveolar type II cells differentiate in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipchik, R.J.; Chauncey, J.B.; Paine, R.; Simon, R.H.; Peters-Golden, M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Rat type II alveolar epithelial cells are known to undergo morphological and functional changes when maintained in culture for several days. Having previously demonstrated that these cells can deacylate free arachidonic acid (AA) and metabolize it to products of the cyclooxygenase pathway, the present study was undertaken to determine whether in vitro differentiation was accompanied by alterations in the availability and metabolism of AA. We assessed the constitutive and ionophore A23187-induced deacylation and metabolism of endogenous AA, as well as the metabolism of exogenously supplied AA, in primary cultures of rat type II cells at days 2, 4, and 7 after isolation. Levels of free endogenous AA were increased at day 4, whereas eicosanoid synthesis, predominantly prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin, increased markedly only at day 7. A similar time course of augmentation of prostanoid release was seen in response to exogenous AA. Type II cells cultured on fibronectin, intended to hasten cell flattening and spreading, demonstrated accelerated increases in available free AA in response to A23187; cells cultured on basement membrane derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse sarcoma, known to maintain the type II phenotype, exhibited diminished levels of available free AA. From these findings, we conclude that alterations in arachidonate metabolism are linked to alterations in cellular phenotype. The potentiation of eicosanoid synthesis accompanying in vitro differentiation suggests a possible role for the alveolar epithelium in the modulation of inflammation and fibrosis in the distal lung.

  12. Impaired recycling of surfactant-like liposomes in type II pneumocytes from injured lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, B.; Garn, H; Hochscheid, R

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Different stages of lung injury were induced by exposing rats to 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 3, 20, and 28 days. Type II cells were isolated from these lungs and recycling of 3H-DPPC labelled surfactant-like liposomes was studied in vitro.

  13. Intracellular PHB conversion in a type II methanotroph studied by 13 C NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecherskaya, M.; Dijkema, C.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Poly-g-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) formation under aerobic conditions via incorporation of [13C-2]acetate as a cosubstrate and its intracellular degradation under anaerobic conditions in a Type II methanotroph was studied by 13C NMR. During PHB synthesis in the presence of labelled acetate, low levels of

  14. Squeezing and entanglement in doubly resonant, type II, second-harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchhave, Preben

    2003-01-01

    We investigate, theoretically, the generation of bright and vacuum-squeezed light as well as entanglement in intracavity, type II, phase-matched second-harmonic generation. The cavity in which the crystal is embedded is resonant at the fundamental frequency but not at the second-harmonic frequenc...

  15. Kähler forms and cosmological solutions in type II supergravities

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Alberca, N

    2000-01-01

    We consider cosmological solutions to type II supergravity theories where thespacetime is split into a FRW universe and a K\\"ahler space, which may be takento be Calabi-Yau. The various 2-forms present in the theories are taken to beproportional to the K\\"ahler form associated to the K\\"ahler space.

  16. Contrast enhancement of fingerprint images using intuitionistic type II fuzzy set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarasan Ezhilmaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel contrast image enhancement of fingerprint images using intuitionistic type II fuzzy set theory is recommended in this work. The method of Hamacher T co-norm(S norm which generates a new membership function with the help of upper and lower membership function of type II fuzzy set. The finger print identification is one of the very few techniques employed in forensic science to aid criminal investigations in daily life, providing access control in financial security;-, visa related services, as well as others. Mostly fingerprint images are poorly illuminated and hardly visible, so it is necessary to enhance the input images. The enhancement is useful for authentication and matching. The fingerprint enhancement is vital for identifying and authenticating people by matching their fingerprints with the stored one in the database. The proposed enhancement of the intuitionistic type II fuzzy set theory results showed that it is more effective, especially, very useful for forensic science operations. The experimental results were compared with non-fuzzy, fuzzy, intuitionistic fuzzy and type II fuzzy methods in which the proposed method offered better results with good quality, less noise and low blur features.

  17. Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Katore; M M Sancheti; S P Hatkar

    2014-10-01

    In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the context of general relativity are explored. To obtain deterministic solution of the Einstein’s field equations, various techniques are adopted. The features of the obtained solution are discussed.

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient vale of the brain in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Abd El-Gaber, Nahed [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mansoura (Egypt); Abdalla, Ahmed; Fathy, Abeer [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric, Mansoura (Egypt); Azab, Ahmed [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Mansoura (Egypt); Rahman, Ashraf Abdel [Radiology Unit of Pediatric Hospital, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the brain for diagnosis of patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III. Prospective study was conducted upon 13 patients (nine boys and four girls aged 8 months-14 years: mean 6.1 years) with Gaucher's disease type II and III and for age-matched control group (n = 13). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using a single-shot echo-planar imaging with a diffusion-weighted factor b of 0, 500, and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} was done for all patients and volunteers. The ADC value was calculated in ten regions of the brain parenchyma and correlated with genotyping. There was significantly lower ADC value of the cortical frontal (P = 0.003), cortical temporal (P = 0.04), frontal subcortical white matter (P = 0.02), corticospinal tract (P = 0.001), cerebellum (P = 0.001), medulla (P = 0.002), and midbrain (P = 0.02) between patients and volunteers. There was significant difference in the ADC value of the frontal and temporal gray matter (P = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively) between patients with heterozygous and homozygous gene mutation. We concluded that ADC value is a new promising quantitative imaging parameter that can be used for the detection of brain abnormalities in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III and has a correlation with genotyping. (orig.)

  19. Activation of Type II Cells into Regenerative Stem Cell Antigen-1+ Cells during Alveolar Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varsha Suresh; Zhang, Wei; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.

    2015-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium is composed of two cell types: type I cells comprise 95% of the gas exchange surface area, whereas type II cells secrete surfactant, while retaining the ability to convert into type I cells to induce alveolar repair. Using lineage-tracing analyses in the mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury, we identified a population of stem cell antigen (Sca)-1–expressing type II cells with progenitor cell properties that mediate alveolar repair. These cells were shown to be distinct from previously reported Sca-1–expressing bronchioalveolar stem cells. Microarray and Wnt reporter studies showed that surfactant protein (Sp)-C+Sca-1+ cells expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes, and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented the regenerative function of Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells in vitro. Thus, P. aeruginosa–mediated lung injury induces the generation of a Sca-1+ subset of type II cells. The progenitor phenotype of the Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells that mediates alveolar epithelial repair might involve Wnt signaling. PMID:25474582

  20. An unobscured type II quasar candidate: SDSS J012032.19-005501.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Yuan, W.; Komossa, S. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhou, H. Y.; Liu, W. J. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Sciences and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ai, Y. L. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Boisvert, J. H., E-mail: liye@nao.cas.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We report the finding of an unobscured type II active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidate, SDSS J012032.19-005501.9, at a relatively high redshift of 0.601, which shows a number of unusual properties. It varies significantly on timescales of years, typical of type I AGNs, and marginally on timescales of weeks. The color–magnitude relation and the structure function are also consistent with that of type I AGNs, which implies that its variability likely originates from the black hole accretion system. However, no broad emission line (BEL) is detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, and the upper limit of the equivalent width of the Hβ BEL is much less than that of type I AGNs. These properties suggest that SDSS J012032.19-005501.9 may be an unobscured quasar without intrinsically broad emission lines, namely, an unobscured type II AGN or “true” type II AGN. Furthermore, its continuum luminosity is at least one order of magnitude fainter than the average value over the past century from the [O iii] emission line. This indicates that SDSS J012032.19-005501.9 may be switching off. Additional possible scenarios to explain this intriguing source are also discussed. Future deep observations at multiwavelengths are needed to reveal the nature of this peculiar and intriguing AGN.

  1. An Unobscured type II quasar candidate: SDSS J012032.19-005501.9

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Y; Zhou, H Y; Komossa, S; Ai, Y L; Liu, W J; Boisvert, J H

    2014-01-01

    We report the finding of an unobscured type II Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) candidate, SDSS J012032.19-005501.9 at a relatively high redshift of 0.601,which shows a number of unusual properties. It varies significantly on timescales of years as typical type I AGNs and marginally on timescales of weeks. The color-magnitude relation and the structure function are also consistent with that of type I AGNs, which imply that its variability likely originates from the black hole accretion system .However, no broad emission line is detected in the SDSS spectrum, and the upper limit of the equivalent width of the H$\\rm \\beta$ broad emission line is much less than that of type I AGNs. These properties suggest that SDSS J012032.19-005501.9 may be an unobscured quasar without broad emission lines intrinsically, namely an unobscured type II AGN or "true" type II AGN. Furthermore, its continuum luminosity is at least one order of magnitude fainter than the average value of thepast century expected from the [OIII] emission ...

  2. Type II Seesaw Origin of Non-zero $\\theta_{13}, \\delta_{CP} $ and Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Debasish

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the possible origin of non-zero reactor mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ and Dirac CP phase $\\delta_{CP}$ in the leptonic sector from a combination of type I and type II seesaw mechanisms. Type I seesaw contribution to neutrino mass matrix is of tri-bimaximal (TBM) type which gives rise to vanishing $\\theta_{13}$ leaving the Dirac CP phase undetermined. If the Dirac neutrino mass matrix is assumed to take the diagonal charged lepton type structure, such a TBM type neutrino mass matrix originating from type I seesaw corresponds to real values of Dirac Yukawa couplings in the terms $Y_{ij} \\bar{L_i} H N_j$. This makes the process of right handed heavy neutrino decay into a light neutrino and Higgs $(N \\rightarrow \

  3. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley P Pettit

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46-70 years were taken on a 1.5 hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics.

  4. Human type II pneumocyte chemotactic responses to CXCR3 activation are mediated by splice variant A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rong; Lee, Clement M; Gonzales, Linda W; Yang, Yi; Aksoy, Mark O; Wang, Ping; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae; Hurford, Matthew T; Kelsen, Steven G

    2008-06-01

    Chemokine receptors control several fundamental cellular processes in both hematopoietic and structural cells, including directed cell movement, i.e., chemotaxis, cell differentiation, and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that CXCR3, the chemokine receptor expressed by Th1/Tc1 inflammatory cells present in the lung, is also expressed by human airway epithelial cells. In airway epithelial cells, activation of CXCR3 induces airway epithelial cell movement and proliferation, processes that underlie lung repair. The present study examined the expression and function of CXCR3 in human alveolar type II pneumocytes, whose destruction causes emphysema. CXCR3 was present in human fetal and adult type II pneumocytes as assessed by immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. CXCR3-A and -B splice variant mRNA was present constitutively in cultured type II cells, but levels of CXCR3-B greatly exceeded CXCR3-A mRNA. In cultured type II cells, I-TAC, IP-10, and Mig induced chemotaxis. Overexpression of CXCR3-A in the A549 pneumocyte cell line produced robust chemotactic responses to I-TAC and IP-10. In contrast, I-TAC did not induce chemotactic responses in CXCR3-B and mock-transfected cells. Finally, I-TAC increased cytosolic Ca(2+) and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B kinases only in CXCR3-A-transfected cells. These data indicate that the CXCR3 receptor is expressed by human type II pneumocytes, and the CXCR3-A splice variant mediates chemotactic responses possibly through Ca(2+) activation of both mitogen-activated protein kinase and PI 3-kinase signaling pathways. Expression of CXCR3 in alveolar epithelial cells may be important in pneumocyte repair from injury.

  5. Hypoadiponectinemia in obese subjects with type II diabetes: A close association with central obesity indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is an adipocyte secreted protein with important biological functions Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes This study aimed to evaluate serum adiponectin level in obese subjects with type II diabetes and its correlation with metabolic parameters Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 40 obese subjects with type II diabetes and 40 non-diabetic obese control subjects Fasting lipid profile was measured by the enzymatic methods The NycoCard HbA1c protocol was used to measure HbAlc The Serum adiponectin, insulin and glucose levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay and glucose oxidase methods respectively Results: Type II diabetes was associated with hypoadiponectinemia, in both men and women Serum adiponectin level in non-diabetic subjects (6.44 ± 2.47 μg/ml was significantly higher than diabetics (4.55 ± 1.88 μg/ml Furthermore, serum adiponectin concentration in females was significantly higher than males in non-diabetics (7.18 ± 2.68 vs 5.61 ± 0.57 and diabetic groups (5.18 ± 2.08 vs 3.99 ± 1.5 There was a negative and significant correlation between serum adiponectin level with waist (r = -0.451, p = 0.003, waist to hip ratio (r = -0.404, p = 0.01 and BMI (r = - 0.322, p = 0.042 and a positive correlation with HDL (r = 0.337, p = 0.034 in non-diabetic group In diabetic group, there was only found a negative correlation between adiponectin and waist size (r = -0.317, p = 0.046 Conclusions: Obesity and type II diabetes are associated with low serum adiponectin concentration

  6. The MicroRNA 29 Family Promotes Type II Cell Differentiation in Developing Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Benlhabib, Houda; Mendelson, Carole R

    2016-08-15

    Lung alveolar type II cells uniquely synthesize surfactant, a developmentally regulated lipoprotein that is essential for breathing. Expression of the gene (SFTPA) encoding the major surfactant protein, SP-A, in midgestation human fetal lung (HFL) is dramatically induced by cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP induction of SP-A expression is repressed by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and by hypoxia. In this study, we found that expression of the microRNA 29 (miR-29) family was significantly upregulated in epithelial cells isolated from mouse fetal lung during late gestation and in epithelial cells isolated from HFL explants during type II cell differentiation in culture. miR-29 expression in cultured HFL epithelial cells was increased by cAMP and inhibited by hypoxia, whereas the miR-29 target, TGF-β2, was coordinately decreased. Knockdown of the miR-29 family in cultured HFL type II cells blocked cAMP-induced SP-A expression and accumulation of surfactant-containing lamellar bodies, suggesting their physiological relevance. This occurred through derepression of TGF-β signaling. Notably, cAMP increased binding of endogenous thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1/Nkx2.1) to the miR-29ab1 promoter in HFL type II cells, and TTF-1 increased miR-29ab1 promoter-driven luciferase activity in cotransfection assays. Together, these findings identify miR-29 family members as TTF-1-driven mediators of SP-A expression and type II cell differentiation through repression of TGF-β signaling.

  7. Establishment and evaluation of a stable cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    Full Text Available Macrophages and dendritic cells are recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. Recent research has confirmed that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs also play important roles against mycobacterium infections. Thus, establishing a stable cattle AEC line for future endogenous immune research on bacterial invasion is necessary. In the present study, we first purified and immortalized type II AECs (AEC II cells by transfecting them with a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse trancriptase gene. We then tested whether or not the immortalized cells retained the basic physiological properties of primary AECs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Finally, we tested the secretion capacity of immortalized AEC II cells upon stimulation by bacterial invasion. The cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line (HTERT-AEC II that we established retained lung epithelial cell characteristics: the cells were positive for surfactants A and B, and they secreted tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in response to bacterial invasion. Thus, the cell line we established is a potential tool for research on the relationship between AECs and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  8. Rational drug design and synthesis of molecules targeting the angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellici, Tahsin F; Tzakos, Andreas G; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2015-03-02

    The angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 and type 2 receptors (AT1R and AT2R) orchestrate an array of biological processes that regulate human health. Aberrant function of these receptors triggers pathophysiological responses that can ultimately lead to death. Therefore, it is important to design and synthesize compounds that affect beneficially these two receptors. Cardiovascular disease, which is attributed to the overactivation of the vasoactive peptide hormone Αng II, can now be treated with commercial AT1R antagonists. Herein, recent achievements in rational drug design and synthesis of molecules acting on the two AT receptors are reviewed. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) and molecular modeling on the two receptors aim to assist the search for new active compounds. As AT1R and AT2R are GPCRs and drug action is localized in the transmembrane region the role of membrane bilayers is exploited. The future perspectives in this field are outlined. Tremendous progress in the field is expected if the two receptors are crystallized, as this will assist the structure based screening of the chemical space and lead to new potent therapeutic agents in cardiovascular and other diseases.

  9. Molecular analysis of iduronate -2- sulfatase gene in Tunisian patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chkioua Latifa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome is X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the defective activity of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS. Hunter disease can vary from mild to severe, depending on the level of enzyme deficiency. We report the IDS mutation and polymorphisms causing the Hunter syndrome in patients from one family in Tunisia Patients and methods A preliminary diagnosis was made by qualitative detection of urinary glycosaminoglycans of the suspected MPS II probands. The IDS mutation and polymorphisms were determined on these probands and their family members by amplifying and sequencing each of the exons and intron-exon junctions of IDS gene. Results The studied probands were homoallelic for p.R88P mutation. In addition, three known polymorphisms/sequence variants: IVS3-16 (c.419-16 delT, T214M (c.641C > T, T146T (c.438 C > T, IVS5-87(c.709-87G > A and one previously unknown: IVS7+38(c.1006+38T > C were identified in the MPS II patients. These are the first Tunisian MPS II patients to be genotyped. Conclusion The identification of these mutation and polymorphisms and their genotype-phenotype correlation should facilitate prenatal diagnosis and counseling for MPS II in Tunisia, where a very high rate of consanguinity exists.

  10. A novel DSPP mutation causes dentinogenesis imperfecta type II in a large Mongolian family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yujie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that the clinical phenotypes of dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II may be caused by mutations in dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP. However, no previous studies have documented the clinical phenotype and genetic basis of DGI-II in a Mongolian family from China. Methods We identified a large five-generation Mongolian family from China with DGI-II, comprising 64 living family members of whom 22 were affected. Linkage analysis of five polymorphic markers flanking DSPP gene was used to genotype the families and to construct the haplotypes of these families. All five DSPP exons including the intron-exon boundaries were PCR-amplified and sequenced in 48 members of this large family. Results All affected individuals showed discoloration and severe attrition of their teeth, with obliterated pulp chambers and without progressive high frequency hearing loss or skeletal abnormalities. No recombination was found at five polymorphic markers flanking DSPP in the family. Direct DNA sequencing identified a novel A→G transition mutation adjacent to the donor splicing site within intron 3 in all affected individuals but not in the unaffected family members and 50 unrelated Mongolian individuals. Conclusion This study identified a novel mutation (IVS3+3A→G in DSPP, which caused DGI-II in a large Mongolian family. This expands the spectrum of mutations leading to DGI-II.

  11. Accurate segmentation of leukocyte in blood cell images using Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2014-06-01

    In this paper automatic leukocyte segmentation in pathological blood cell images is proposed using intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory. This is done to count different types of leukocytes for disease detection. Also, the segmentation should be accurate so that the shape of the leukocytes is preserved. So, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval Type II fuzzy set that consider either more number of uncertainties or a different type of uncertainty as compared to fuzzy set theory are used in this work. As the images are considered fuzzy due to imprecise gray levels, advanced fuzzy set theories may be expected to give better result. A modified Cauchy distribution is used to find the membership function. In intuitionistic fuzzy method, non-membership values are obtained using Yager's intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Optimal threshold is obtained by minimizing intuitionistic fuzzy divergence. In interval type II fuzzy set, a new membership function is generated that takes into account the two levels in Type II fuzzy set using probabilistic T co norm. Optimal threshold is selected by minimizing a proposed Type II fuzzy divergence. Though fuzzy techniques were applied earlier but these methods failed to threshold multiple leukocytes in images. Experimental results show that both interval Type II fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy methods perform better than the existing non-fuzzy/fuzzy methods but interval Type II fuzzy thresholding method performs little bit better than intuitionistic fuzzy method. Segmented leukocytes in the proposed interval Type II fuzzy method are observed to be distinct and clear.

  12. Interval Type-II Fuzzy Rule-Based STATCOM for Voltage Regulation in the Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The static synchronous compensator (STATCOM has recently received much attention owing to its ability to stabilize power systems and mitigate voltage variations. This paper investigates a novel interval type-II fuzzy rule-based PID (proportional-integral-derivative controller for the STATCOM to mitigate bus voltage variations caused by large changes in load and the intermittent generation of photovoltaic (PV arrays. The proposed interval type-II fuzzy rule base utilizes the output of the PID controller to tune the signal applied to the STATCOM. The rules involve upper and lower membership functions that ensure the stable responses of the controlled system. The proposed method is implemented using the NEPLAN software package and MATLAB/Simulink with co-simulation. A six-bus system is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Comparative studies show that the proposed method is superior to traditional PID and type-I fuzzy rule-based methods.

  13. Ultrafast dynamics of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komolibus, K.; Piwonski, T.; Gradkowski, K. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Process Analysis, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Reyner, C. J.; Liang, B.; Huffaker, D. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering and California NanoSystems Institute, University of California - Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Huyet, G. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Process Analysis, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Houlihan, J. [School of Science, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford (Ireland)

    2015-01-19

    In this paper, room temperature two-colour pump-probe spectroscopy is employed to study ultrafast carrier dynamics in type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots. Our results demonstrate a strong dependency of carrier capture/escape processes on applied reverse bias voltage, probing wavelength and number of injected carriers. The extracted timescales as a function of both forward and reverse bias may provide important information for the design of efficient solar cells and quantum dot memories based on this material. The first few picoseconds of the dynamics reveal a complex behaviour with an interesting feature, which does not appear in devices based on type-I materials, and hence is linked to the unique carrier capture/escape processes possible in type-II structures.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RISK FACTORS OF TYPE-II DIABETES IN RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION

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    Ch. Kiranmai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : A study of effect of various risk factors on Type–II diabetes in Urban and rural population. Generally Indians seems to have great tendency to develop diabetes mellitus. In addition to this, unhealthy food habits, lack of physical activity, diabetic family history, age, obesity, smoking & alcoholism are the other causes for diabetes mellitus. AIM: To analyze the impact of different risk factors on TypeII diabetes in urban and rural population. METHODS: Total 160 subjects of urban and rural population were included in this study and their detailed histories were taken by the questionnaire. In this study we compared the blood glucose levels, unhealthy food habits, lack of physical activity, age, obesity, smoking & alcoholism in urban and rural population. RESULT: The study showed that the blood glucose levels, unhealthy food habits, lack of physical activity, diabetic family history, age, obesity, smoking & alcoholism were found higher in urban than in rural population. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the fond of TypeII diabetes is very less in rural population when compared to urban population. This is because of, the rural population had more physical activity, intake of moderate calorie food, less diabetic family history and less obese. So, these factors help to overcome the increased effect of age, smoking and alcoholism on TypeII diabetes in rural population.

  15. The importance of 56Ni in shaping the light curves of type II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Nakar, Ehud; Katz, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    What intrinsic properties shape the light curves of Type II supernovae (SNe)? To address this question we derive observational measures that are robust (i.e., insensitive to detailed radiative transfer) and constrain the contribution from 56Ni, as well as a combination of the ejecta mass, progenitor radius, and explosion energy. By applying our methods to a sample of type II SNe from the literature we find that 56Ni contribution is often significant. It is typically the source of about 20% of the radiated energy during the photospheric phase, and in extreme cases it even dominates. We find that the 56Ni relative contribution is anti-correlated with the luminosity decline rate, while it is not significantly correlated with other properties of the light curve. When added to other clues, this in turn suggests that the flat plateaus often observed in type II SNe are not a generic feature of the cooling envelope emission, and that without 56Ni many of the SNe that are classified as II-P would have shown a decline ...

  16. The Difference in Self-Esteem between Type I Diabetics and Type II Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Linda Kay

    Diabetes Mellitus is a disease which can affect an individual both physically and emotionally. Type I diabetics, representing about 10% of the diabetic population, can be characterized as having little or no insulin supply in their pancreas. Usually under the age of 30, they are required to take one or more insulin injections daily and must follow…

  17. Bright but slow - Type II supernovae from OGLE-IV - Implications for magnitude limited surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Poznanski, Dovi; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz; Blagorodnova, Nadejda

    2015-01-01

    We study a sample of 11 Type II supernovae (SNe) discovered by the OGLE-IV survey. All objects have well sampled I-band light curves, and at least one spectrum. We find that 2 or 3 of the 11 SNe have a declining light curve, and spectra consistent with other SNe II-L, while the rest have plateaus that can be as short as 70d, unlike the 100d typically found in nearby galaxies. The OGLE SNe are also brighter, and show that magnitude limited surveys find SNe that are different than usually found...

  18. Fast Algorithm for Computing the Discrete Hartley Transform of Type-II

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    Mounir Taha Hamood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generalized discrete Hartley transforms (GDHTs have proved to be an efficient alternative to the generalized discrete Fourier transforms (GDFTs for real-valued data applications. In this paper, the development of direct computation of radix-2 decimation-in-time (DIT algorithm for the fast calculation of the GDHT of type-II (DHT-II is presented. The mathematical analysis and the implementation of the developed algorithm are derived, showing that this algorithm possesses a regular structure and can be implemented in-place for efficient memory utilization.The performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed and the computational complexity is calculated for different transform lengths. A comparison between this algorithm and existing DHT-II algorithms shows that it can be considered as a good compromise between the structural and computational complexities.

  19. Biochemical markers of type II collagen breakdown and synthesis are positioned at specific sites in human osteoarthritic knee cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne-Christine Bay; Levin Andersen, Thomas; Charni-Ben Tabassi, N;

    2007-01-01

    as for type IIA N propeptide (PIIANP), a biochemical marker reflecting synthesis of type IIA collagen. RESULTS: Helix-II and CTX-II were detected in areas where collagen damage was reported previously, most frequently around chondrocytes, but also frequently in regions not previously investigated......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether type II collagen turnover markers used for osteoarthritis (OA) activity evaluation in body fluids can be detected at the level of specific histological features of OA cartilage tissue, as well as how they relate with each other at this level. METHODS: Adjacent...... sections were obtained from full-depth cartilage biopsies from 32 OA knees. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Helix-II and CTX-II, which are type II collagen fragments originating from the triple helix and the telopeptide region, respectively, and believed to reflect distinct breakdown events, as well...

  20. Perturbations to $\\mu-\\tau$ Symmetry, Leptogenesis and Lepton Flavour Violation with Type II Seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Manikanta; Das, Mrinal Kumar; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2014-01-01

    We study the possibility of generating non-zero reactor mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by perturbing the $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetric neutrino mass matrix. The leading order $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetric neutrino mass matrix originates from type I seesaw mechanism whereas the perturbations to $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetry originate from type II seesaw term. We consider four different realizations of $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetry: Bimaximal Mixing(BM), Tri-bimaximal Mixing (TBM), Hexagonal Mixing (HM) and Golden Ratio Mixing (GRM) all giving rise to $\\theta_{13} = 0, \\theta_{23} = \\frac{\\pi}{4}$ but different non-zero values of solar mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$. We assume a minimal $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetry breaking type II seesaw mass matrix as a perturbation and calculate the neutrino oscillation parameters as a function of type II seesaw strength. We then consider the origin of non-trivial leptonic CP phase in the charged lepton sector and calculate the lepton asymmetry arising from the lightest right handed neutrino decay by incorporating the presence o...

  1. The joint toxicity of type I, II, and nonester pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Jerome J; Peterson, Robert K D

    2012-02-01

    Evidence suggests that there are separate binding domains for type I and II pyrethroid insecticides on the voltage gated sodium channel of the nerve cell axon, but there are no studies that have examined the mixture toxicity of nonester pyrethroids and type I and II pyrethroids. Therefore, we examined the effect of nonester pyrethroid (etofenprox), type I (permethrin), and type II (cypermethrin) pyrethroid insecticides alone and in all combinations to Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. The combination of permethrin + etofenprox and permethrin + cypermethrin demonstrated antagonistic toxicity, while the combination of cypermethrin + etofenprox demonstrated synergistic toxicity. The mixture ofpermethrin + cypermethrin + etofenprox demonstrated additive toxicity. The toxicity of permethrin + cypermethrin was significantly lower than the toxicity of cypermethrin alone, but the combination was not significantly different from permethrin alone. The toxicity of permethrin + cypermethrin + etofenprox was significantly greater than the toxicity of both permethrin and etofenprox alone, but it was significantly lower than cypermethrin alone. The mixture of permethrin and etofenprox was significantly less toxic than permethrin. The explanation for the decreased toxicity observed is most likely because of the competitive binding at the voltage-gated sodium channel, which is supported by physiological and biochemical studies of pyrethroids. Our results demonstrate that the assumption that the mixture toxicity of pyrethroids would be additive is not adequate for modeling the mixture toxicity of pyrethroids to insects.

  2. Inhibition Kinetics and Emodin Cocrystal Structure of a Type II Polyketide Ketoreductase†,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Tyler Paz; Tan, Yuhong; Wong, Justin; Luo, Rui; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan

    2008-01-01

    Type II polyketides are a class of natural products that include pharmaceutically important aromatic compounds such as the antibiotic tetracycline and antitumor compound doxorubicin. The type II polyketide synthase (PKS) is a complex consisting of 5–10 standalone domains homologous to fatty acid synthase (FAS). Polyketide ketoreductase (KR) provides regio- and stereochemical diversity during the reduction. How the type II polyketide KR specifically reduces only the C9 carbonyl group is not well understood. The cocrystal structures of actinorhodin polyketide ketoreductase (actKR) bound with NADPH or NADP+ and the inhibitor emodin were solved with the wild type and P94L mutant of actKR, revealing the first observation of a bent p-quinone in an enzyme active site. Molecular dynamics simulation help explain the origin of the bent geometry. Extensive screening for in vitro substrates shows that unlike FAS KR, the actKR prefers bicyclic substrates. Inhibition kinetics indicate that actKR follows an ordered Bi Bi mechanism. Together with docking simulations that identified a potential phosphopantetheine binding groove, the structural and functional studies reveal that the C9 specificity is a result of active site geometry and substrate ring constraints. The results lay the foundation for the design of novel aromatic polyketide natural products with different reduction patterns. PMID:18205400

  3. Inhibition kinetics and emodin cocrystal structure of a type II polyketide ketoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Tyler Paz; Tan, Yu-Hong; Wong, Justin; Luo, Ray; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan

    2008-02-19

    Type II polyketides are a class of natural products that include pharmaceutically important aromatic compounds such as the antibiotic tetracycline and antitumor compound doxorubicin. The type II polyketide synthase (PKS) is a complex consisting of 5-10 standalone domains homologous to fatty acid synthase (FAS). Polyketide ketoreductase (KR) provides regio- and stereochemical diversity during the reduction. How the type II polyketide KR specifically reduces only the C9 carbonyl group is not well understood. The cocrystal structures of actinorhodin polyketide ketoreductase (actKR) bound with NADPH or NADP+ and the inhibitor emodin were solved with the wild type and P94L mutant of actKR, revealing the first observation of a bent p-quinone in an enzyme active site. Molecular dynamics simulation help explain the origin of the bent geometry. Extensive screening for in vitro substrates shows that unlike FAS KR, the actKR prefers bicyclic substrates. Inhibition kinetics indicate that actKR follows an ordered Bi Bi mechanism. Together with docking simulations that identified a potential phosphopantetheine binding groove, the structural and functional studies reveal that the C9 specificity is a result of active site geometry and substrate ring constraints. The results lay the foundation for the design of novel aromatic polyketide natural products with different reduction patterns.

  4. Experimental observation of topological Fermi arcs in type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke; Wan, Guoliang; Deng, Peng; Zhang, Kenan; Ding, Shijie; Wang, Eryin; Yan, Mingzhe; Huang, Huaqing; Zhang, Hongyun; Xu, Zhilin; Denlinger, Jonathan; Fedorov, Alexei; Yang, Haitao; Duan, Wenhui; Yao, Hong; Wu, Yang; Fan, Shoushan; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Xi; Zhou, Shuyun

    2016-12-01

    Weyl semimetal is a new quantum state of matter hosting the condensed matter physics counterpart of the relativistic Weyl fermions originally introduced in high-energy physics. The Weyl semimetal phase realized in the TaAs class of materials features multiple Fermi arcs arising from topological surface states and exhibits novel quantum phenomena, such as a chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and possibly emergent supersymmetry. Recently it was proposed theoretically that a new type (type-II) of Weyl fermion that arises due to the breaking of Lorentz invariance, which does not have a counterpart in high-energy physics, can emerge as topologically protected touching between electron and hole pockets. Here, we report direct experimental evidence of topological Fermi arcs in the predicted type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2 (refs ,,). The topological surface states are confirmed by directly observing the surface states using bulk- and surface-sensitive angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and the quasi-particle interference pattern between the putative topological Fermi arcs in scanning tunnelling microscopy. By establishing MoTe2 as an experimental realization of a type-II Weyl semimetal, our work opens up opportunities for probing the physical properties of this exciting new state.

  5. Type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Insabato

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Silent Corticotroph Adenoma (SCA is a pituitary adenoma variant characterized by the immunoreactivity for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and related peptides, without the clinical signs of Cushing's disease. SCA has been postulated to either secrete structurally abnormal ACTH that is inactive but detectable by immunohistochemistry or radioimmunoassay, or to secrete ACTH intermittently or at low levels continuously. Excess of ACTH has been associated to type II muscle atrophy. We describe a case of type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog. The dog showed moderate to severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness with normal levels of muscle-associated enzymes. In the limb muscle biopsies, type II fibers were uniformly smaller than type I fibers. In temporalis muscles, there were few atrophic fibers, and several irregular areas of loss of enzymatic activity observed in NADH, SDH and COX stains. The tumour showed a trabecular growth pattern and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for ACTH. The muscle atrophy was considered to be related to an excess of inactive ACTH. Studying spontaneous occurring rare diseases in animals could help to understand the mechanism of similar diseases in human has well.

  6. Interleukin-1 stimulates the expression of type I and type II interleukin-1 receptors in the rat insulinoma cell line Rinm5F; sequencing a rat type II interleukin-1 receptor cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristulf, J; Gatti, S; Malinowsky, D; Bjork, L; Sundgren, A K; Bartfai, T

    1994-01-01

    The insulin secreting rat Rinm5F cells are often used to study the cytotoxic actions of interleukin-1 (IL-1) on pancreatic beta-cells. We demonstrate here that Rinm5F insulinoma cells express both type I and type II interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) mRNAs and gene products. IL-1R agonists, recombinant murine IL-1 alpha (rmIL-1 alpha, 10 ng/ml) and recombinant rat IL-1 beta (rrIL-1 beta, 100 pg/ml or 10 ng/ml) induce the upregulation of mRNA expression for both types of IL-1 receptors (IL-1Rs). This effect of rrIL-1 beta is antagonised by preincubation with recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein (rhIL-1ra, 5 micrograms/ml). Furthermore, this rrIL-1 beta induced upregulation of IL-1R mRNAs is blocked by actinomycin D (7.5 micrograms/ml), whereas cycloheximide (20 micrograms/ml) has no effect. The phorbol ester PMA (20 nM) upregulates the expression of mRNAs both IL-1 receptors, whereas glucose (50 mM) upregulates the expression of the type I IL-1R mRNA only. Pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin (100 ng/ml) partially blocks the rrIL-1 beta induced expression of mRNA for the type I and, to a lesser extent, the type II IL-1R. Incubation of the cells with rrIL-1 beta also induces a time-dependent expression of c-fos, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNAs. Binding studies with 125I-recombinant human IL-1 beta (125I-rhIL-1 beta) indicate that IL-1R gene products, with the ligand binding characteristics of the type I IL-1R, are constitutively present on Rinm5F cells. Treatment with rrIL-1 beta (6h) increases the number of 125I-rhIL-1 beta binding sites on Rinm5F cells. We have also demonstrated that the number of type II IL-1R binding sites increases after induction with rrIL-1 beta (6h), by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody (ALVA 42) raised against the human type II IL-1R. Furthermore, we have sequenced the type II IL-1R cDNA in the rat insulinoma Rinm5F cells. The comparison of the amino acid

  7. Antioxidant status in type ii diabetes mellitus patients with or without microvascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Nada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems are important factors affecting the metabolism of lipoproteins in diabetes mellitus. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the lipid and antioxidant parameters in type II diabetes mellitus patients, and also to determine the effect of diabetic complications on these parameters. Method. Lipid status, Oxidized LDL cholesterol, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 levels in plasma of 50 type II diabetic patients were measured with commercially available kits. Results. The results showed only statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides (3.12±3.9 mmol/l in diabetics compared with the controls. Ox-LDL cholesterol (84.7±16.9 mmol/l and SOD activities (913.4±120.3 U/gHb in type 2 diabetes mellitus were higher than those of the controls, but there was no statistical significance. On the other hand, in patients with diabetes mellitus and complications, LDL cholesterol, PAI-1, SOD and GSH-Px activities were higher but not significantly than those without complications. Triglycerides and Ox-LDL cholesterol were lower in the group of diabetic patients with complications in comparison to the group without complications. Conclusion. These results indicate that antioxidant status may be affected in type II diabetic patients and that the rise in some enzyme activities could be a compensatory mechanism to prevent tissue damage. Our results suggest that the rise in PAI-1 in type II diabetics with complications may be a good marker of vascular endothelial dysfunction.

  8. Characterizing the V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Joseph P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Hamuy, Mario; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Antezana, Roberto; De Jaeger, Thomas; Förster, Francisco; González, Luis [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Contreras, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Olivares E, Felipe [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Phillips, Mark M.; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Hsiao, Eric [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Schulze, Steve [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Bolt, Luis [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Folatelli, Gastón [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Freedman, Wendy L. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Krzemiński, Wojtek, E-mail: janderso@eso.org [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of the diversity of V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae. Analyzing a sample of 116 supernovae, several magnitude measurements are defined, together with decline rates at different epochs, and time durations of different phases. It is found that magnitudes measured at maximum light correlate more strongly with decline rates than those measured at other epochs: brighter supernovae at maximum generally have faster declining light-curves at all epochs. We find a relation between the decline rate during the 'plateau' phase and peak magnitudes, which has a dispersion of 0.56 mag, offering the prospect of using type II supernovae as purely photometric distance indicators. Our analysis suggests that the type II population spans a continuum from low-luminosity events which have flat light-curves during the 'plateau' stage, through to the brightest events which decline much faster. A large range in optically thick phase durations is observed, implying a range in progenitor envelope masses at the epoch of explosion. During the radioactive tails, we find many supernovae with faster declining light-curves than expected from full trapping of radioactive emission, implying low mass ejecta. It is suggested that the main driver of light-curve diversity is the extent of hydrogen envelopes retained before explosion. Finally, a new classification scheme is introduced where hydrogen-rich events are typed as simply 'SN II' with an 's {sub 2}' value giving the decline rate during the 'plateau' phase, indicating its morphological type.

  9. Characterizing the V-band Light-curves of Hydrogen-rich Type II Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Hamuy, Mario; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Olivares E., Felipe; Phillips, Mark M.; Schulze, Steve; Antezana, Roberto; Bolt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Contreras, Carlos; de Jaeger, Thomas; Folatelli, Gastón; Förster, Francisco; Freedman, Wendy L.; González, Luis; Hsiao, Eric; Krzemiński, Wojtek; Krisciunas, Kevin; Maza, José; McCarthy, Patrick; Morrell, Nidia I.; Persson, Sven E.; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of the diversity of V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae. Analyzing a sample of 116 supernovae, several magnitude measurements are defined, together with decline rates at different epochs, and time durations of different phases. It is found that magnitudes measured at maximum light correlate more strongly with decline rates than those measured at other epochs: brighter supernovae at maximum generally have faster declining light-curves at all epochs. We find a relation between the decline rate during the "plateau" phase and peak magnitudes, which has a dispersion of 0.56 mag, offering the prospect of using type II supernovae as purely photometric distance indicators. Our analysis suggests that the type II population spans a continuum from low-luminosity events which have flat light-curves during the "plateau" stage, through to the brightest events which decline much faster. A large range in optically thick phase durations is observed, implying a range in progenitor envelope masses at the epoch of explosion. During the radioactive tails, we find many supernovae with faster declining light-curves than expected from full trapping of radioactive emission, implying low mass ejecta. It is suggested that the main driver of light-curve diversity is the extent of hydrogen envelopes retained before explosion. Finally, a new classification scheme is introduced where hydrogen-rich events are typed as simply "SN II" with an "s 2" value giving the decline rate during the "plateau" phase, indicating its morphological type. Based on observations obtained with the du-Pont and Swope telescopes at LCO, and the Steward Observatory's CTIO60, SO90 and CTIO36 telescopes.

  10. Control of Drosophila Type I and Type II central brain neuroblast proliferation by bantam microRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Ruifen; Cohen, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    proliferation of transit-amplifying intermediate neural progenitor cells in type II neuroblast lineages. The stem cell factors brat and prospero are identified as bantam targets acting on different aspects of these processes. Thus, bantam appears to act in multiple regulatory steps in the maintenance......Post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell self-renewal by microRNAs is emerging as an important mechanism controlling tissue homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence that bantam microRNA controls neuroblast number and proliferation in the Drosophila central brain. Bantam also supports...

  11. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graña

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.

  12. ON THE GAUSS MAP OF RULED SURFACES OF TYPE II IN 3-DIMENSIONAL PSEUDO-GALILEAN SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Osman Öğrenmis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ruled surfaces of type II in a three-dimensional Pseudo-Galilean space are given. By studying its Gauss map and Laplacian operator, we obtain a classification of ruled surfaces of type II in a three-dimensional Pseudo-Galilean space.

  13. Mirror therapy in patients with causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome type II) following peripheral nerve injury: Two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Selles (Ruud); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To describe the use of mirror therapy in 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II following traumatic nerve injury. Design: Two case reports. Subjects: Two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II. Methods: Two patients received mirror therapy with th

  14. The multifaceted Type II-L supernova 2014G from pre-maximum to nebular phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreran, G.; Jerkstrand, A.; Benetti, S.; Smartt, S. J.; Ochner, P.; Tomasella, L.; Howell, D. A.; Morales-Garoffolo, A.; Harutyunyan, A.; Kankare, E.; Arcavi, I.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kangas, T.; Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Turatto, M.; Valenti, S.; Wiggins, P.; Yuan, F.

    2016-10-01

    We present multiband ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry, along with visual-wavelength spectroscopy, of supernova (SN) 2014G in the nearby galaxy NGC 3448 (25 Mpc). The early-phase spectra show strong emission lines of the high ionization species He II/N IV/C IV during the first 2-3 d after explosion, traces of a metal-rich circumstellar material (CSM) probably due to pre-explosion mass-loss events. These disappear by day 9 and the spectral evolution then continues matching that of normal Type II SNe. The post-maximum light curve declines at a rate typical of Type II-L class. The extensive photometric coverage tracks the drop from the photospheric stage and constrains the radioactive tail, with a steeper decline rate than that expected from the 56Co decay if γ-rays are fully trapped by the ejecta. We report the appearance of an unusual feature on the blue side of H α after 100 d, which evolves to appear as a flat spectral feature linking H α and the [O I] doublet. This may be due to interaction of the ejecta with a strongly asymmetric, and possibly bipolar CSM. Finally, we report two deep spectra at ˜190 and 340 d after explosion, the latter being arguably one of the latest spectra for a Type II-L SN. By modelling the spectral region around the [Ca II], we find a supersolar Ni/Fe production. The strength of the [O I] λλ6300,6363 doublet, compared with synthetic nebular spectra, suggests a progenitor with a zero-age main-sequence mass between 15 and 19 M⊙.

  15. Type II-Plateau supernovae as metallicity probes of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dessart, L; Hamuy, M; Hillier, D J; Lanz, T; Anderson, J P; Folatelli, G; Freedman, W L; Ley, F; Morrell, N; Persson, S E; Phillips, M M; Stritzinger, M; Suntzeff, N B

    2014-01-01

    We explore a method for metallicity determinations based on quantitative spectroscopy of type II-Plateau (II-P) supernovae (SNe). For consistency, we first evolve a set of 15Msun main sequence stars at 0.1, 0.4, 1, and 2 x the solar metallicity. At the onset of core collapse, we trigger a piston-driven explosion and model the resulting ejecta and radiation. Our theoretical models of such red-supergiant-star explosions at different metallicity show that synthetic spectra of SNe II-P possess optical signatures during the recombination phase that are sensitive to metallicity variations. This sensitivity can be quantified and the metallicity inferred from the strength of metal-line absorptions. Furthermore, these signatures are not limited to O, but also include Na, Ca, Sc, Ti, or Fe. When compared to a sample of SNe II-P from the Carnegie SN Project and previous SN followup programs, we find that most events lie at a metallicity between 0.4 and 2 x solar, with a marked scarcity of SN II-P events at SMC metallici...

  16. The Diversity of Type II Supernova vs. The Similarity in Their Progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, S; Stritzinger, M D; Graham, M L; Hosseinzadeh, G; Arcavi, I; Bildsten, L; Jerkstrand, A; McCully, C; Pastorello, A; Piro, A L; Sand, D; Smartt, S J; Terreran, G; Baltay, C; Benetti, S; Brown, P; Filippenko, A V; Fraser, M; Rabinowitz, D; Sullivan, M; Yuan, F

    2016-01-01

    High-quality collections of Type II supernova (SN) light curves are scarce because they evolve for hundreds of days, making follow-up observations time consuming and often extending over multiple observing seasons. In light of these difficulties, the diversity of SNe II is not fully understood. Here we present ultraviolet and optical photometry of 12 SNe II monitored by the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) during 2013-2014, and compare them with previously studied SNe having well-sampled light curves. We explore SN II diversity by searching for correlations between the slope of the linear light-curve decay after maximum light (historically used to divide SNe II into IIL and IIP) and other measured physical properties. While SNe IIL are found to be on average more luminous than SNe IIP, SNe IIL do not appear to synthesize more 56Ni than SNe IIP. Finally, optical nebular spectra obtained for several SNe in our sample are found to be consistent with models of red supergiant progenitors in...

  17. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-P Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Nugent, P; Carlberg, R G; Conley, A; Ellis, R; Fabbro, S; Fouchez, D; Gal-Yam, A; Howell, D A; Leonard, D C; Neill, J D; Pain, R; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Sullivan, M; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, Raymond G.; Conley, Alex; Ellis, Richard; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Neill, James D.; Nugent, Peter; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J.; Regnault, Nicolas; Sullivan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift up to z~0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy & Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNe II-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, a cross-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We app...

  18. Improved Standardization of Type II-P Supernovae: Application to an Expanded Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Poznanski, Dovi; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Li, Weidong; Bloom, Joshua S; Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan J; Nugent, Peter E; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Cenko, S Bradley; Gates, Elinor L; Leonard, Douglas C; Miller, Adam A; Modjaz, Maryam; Serduke, Frank J D; Smith, Nathan; Swift, Brandon J; Wong, Diane S

    2008-01-01

    In the epoch of precise and accurate cosmology, cross-confirmation using a variety of cosmographic methods is paramount to circumvent systematic uncertainties. Owing to progenitor histories and explosion physics differing from those of Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) are unlikely to be affected by evolution in the same way. Based on a new analysis of 17 SNe II-P, and on an improved methodology, we find that SNe II-P are good standardizable candles, almost comparable to SNe Ia. We derive a tight Hubble diagram with dispersion of 10% in distance, using the simple correlation between luminosity and photospheric velocity introduced by Hamuy & Pinto 2002. We show that the descendent method of Nugent et al. 2006 can be further simplified and that the correction for dust extinction has low statistical impact. We find that our SN sample favors, on average, a very steep dust law with total to selective extinction R_V<2. Such an extinction law has been recently inferred for many SNe I...

  19. The Progenitor of the Type II-Plateau Supernova 2003gd in Messier 74

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dyk, S D; Filippenko, A V

    2003-01-01

    HST WFPC2 archival F606W and F300W images obtained within one year prior to the explosion of the nearby Type II supernova (SN) 2003gd in Messier 74 (NGC 628) have been analyzed to isolate the progenitor star. The SN site was located using precise astrometry applied to the HST images. Two plausible candidates are identified within 0.6" of the SN position in the F606W image. Neither candidate was detected in the F300W image. SN 2003gd appears to be of Type II-plateau (II-P), with age ~87 d on June 17 UT and with low reddening [E(B-V) = 0.13 mag]. The most likely of the two progenitor candidates has M_V_0 ~ -3.5 mag (for an extinction-corrected distance modulus of 29.3 mag) and, based on additional color information derived from a high-quality, archival ground-based I-band image, we estimate that this star was a red supergiant with initial mass M_ZAMS ~ 8 -- 9 Msun. This mass estimate is somewhat lower than, but relatively consistent with, recent limits placed on the progenitor masses of other SNe II-P, using HS...

  20. 450 d of Type II SN 2013ej in optical and near-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Jerkstrand, A.; Valenti, S.; Sollerman, J.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Pastorello, A.; Schulze, S.; Chen, T.-W.; Childress, M. J.; Fraser, M.; Fremling, C.; Kotak, R.; Ruiter, A. J.; Schmidt, B. P.; Smartt, S. J.; Taddia, F.; Terreran, G.; Tucker, B. E.; Barbarino, C.; Benetti, S.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Gal-Yam, A.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Lee, M. Y.; Li, K. L.; Maguire, K.; Margheim, S.; Mehner, A.; Ochner, P.; Sullivan, M.; Tomasella, L.; Young, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    We present optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2013ej, in galaxy M74, from 1 to 450 d after the explosion. SN 2013ej is a hydrogen-rich supernova, classified as a Type IIL due to its relatively fast decline following the initial peak. It has a relatively high peak luminosity (absolute magnitude MV = -17.6) but a small 56Ni production of ˜0.023 M⊙. Its photospheric evolution is similar to other Type II SNe, with shallow absorption in the Hα profile typical for a Type IIL. During transition to the radioactive decay tail at ˜100 d, we find the SN to grow bluer in B - V colour, in contrast to some other Type II supernovae. At late times, the bolometric light curve declined faster than expected from 56Co decay and we observed unusually broad and asymmetric nebular emission lines. Based on comparison of nebular emission lines most sensitive to the progenitor core mass, we find our observations are best matched to synthesized spectral models with a MZAMS = 12-15 M⊙ progenitor. The derived mass range is similar to but not higher than the mass estimated for Type IIP progenitors. This is against the idea that Type IIL are from more massive stars. Observations are consistent with the SN having a progenitor with a relatively low-mass envelope.

  1. Uncommon Mixed Type I and II Choledochal Cyst: An Indonesian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransisca J. Siahaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bile duct cyst is an uncommon disease worldwide; however, its incidence is remarkably high in Asian population, primarily in children. Nevertheless, the mixed type choledochal cysts are extremely rare especially in adults. A case report of a 20-year-old female with a history of upper abdominal pain that was diagnosed with cholecystitis with stone and who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy is discussed. Choledochal malformation was found intraoperatively. Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP and USG after first surgery revealed extrahepatic fusiform dilatation of the CBD; therefore, provisional diagnosis of type I choledochal cyst was made. Complete resection of the cyst was performed, and a mixed type I and II choledochal cyst was found intraoperatively. Bile duct reconstruction was carried out with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The mixed type I and II choledochal cysts are rare in adults, and this is the third adult case that has been reported. The mixed type can be missed on radiology imaging, and diagnosing the anomaly is only possible after a combination of imaging and intraoperative findings. Mixed type choledochal cyst classification should not be added to the existing classification since it does not affect the current operative techniques.

  2. Uncommon Mixed Type I and II Choledochal Cyst: An Indonesian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaya, Fransisca J; Lalisang, Toar J M; Jeo, Wifanto S; Simanjuntak, Arnold B H; Philippi, Benny

    2013-01-01

    Bile duct cyst is an uncommon disease worldwide; however, its incidence is remarkably high in Asian population, primarily in children. Nevertheless, the mixed type choledochal cysts are extremely rare especially in adults. A case report of a 20-year-old female with a history of upper abdominal pain that was diagnosed with cholecystitis with stone and who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy is discussed. Choledochal malformation was found intraoperatively. Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) and USG after first surgery revealed extrahepatic fusiform dilatation of the CBD; therefore, provisional diagnosis of type I choledochal cyst was made. Complete resection of the cyst was performed, and a mixed type I and II choledochal cyst was found intraoperatively. Bile duct reconstruction was carried out with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The mixed type I and II choledochal cysts are rare in adults, and this is the third adult case that has been reported. The mixed type can be missed on radiology imaging, and diagnosing the anomaly is only possible after a combination of imaging and intraoperative findings. Mixed type choledochal cyst classification should not be added to the existing classification since it does not affect the current operative techniques.

  3. EDNRB mutations cause Waardenburg syndrome type II in the heterozygous state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Sarah; Bondurand, Nadege; Faubert, Emmanuelle; Poisson, Sylvain; Lecerf, Laure; Nitschke, Patrick; Deggouj, Naima; Loundon, Natalie; Jonard, Laurence; David, Albert; Sznajer, Yves; Blanchet, Patricia; Marlin, Sandrine; Pingault, Veronique

    2017-02-24

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation anomalies. The clinical definition of four WS types is based on additional features due to defects in structures mostly arising from the neural crest, with type I and type II being the most frequent. While type I is tightly associated to PAX3 mutations, WS type II (WS2) remains partly enigmatic with mutations in known genes (MITF, SOX10) accounting for only 30% of the cases. We performed exome sequencing in a WS2 index case and identified a heterozygous missense variation in EDNRB. Interestingly, homozygous (and very rare heterozygous) EDNRB mutations are already described in type IV WS (that is, in association with Hirschsprung disease) and heterozygous mutations in isolated Hirschsprung disease. Screening of a WS2 cohort led to the identification of an overall of 6 heterozygous EDNRB variations. Clinical phenotypes, pedigrees and molecular segregation investigations unraveled a dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. In parallel, cellular and functional studies showed that each of the mutations impairs the subcellular localization of the receptor or induces a defective downstream signaling pathway. Based on our results, we now estimate EDNRB mutations to be responsible for 5-6% of WS2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Dichloroacetate Decreases Cell Health and Activates Oxidative Stress Defense Pathways in Rat Alveolar Type II Pneumocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Valauri-Orton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichloroacetate (DCA is a water purification byproduct that is known to be hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic and to induce peripheral neuropathy and damage macrophages. This study characterizes the effects of the haloacetate on lung cells by exposing rat alveolar type II (L2 cells to 0–24 mM DCA for 6–24 hours. Increasing DCA concentration and the combination of increasing DCA concentration plus longer exposures decrease measures of cellular health. Length of exposure has no effect on oxidative stress biomarkers, glutathione, SOD, or CAT. Increasing DCA concentration alone does not affect total glutathione or its redox ratio but does increase activity in the SOD/CAT oxidative stress defense pathway. These data suggest that alveolar type II cells rely on SOD and CAT more than glutathione to combat DCA-induced stress.

  5. Newton's 2nd Law, Radiation Reaction & Type II Einstein-Maxwell Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Ezra T

    2011-01-01

    Considering perturbations off the Reissner-Nordstrom metric while keeping the perturbations in the class of type II Einstein-Maxwell metrics, we do a spherical harmonic expansion of all the variables up to the quadrupole term. This leads to a rather surprising results. Referring to the source of the metric as a type II particle (analogous to referring to a Schwarzschild-Reissner-Nordstrom or Kerr-Newman particle), we see immediately that the Bondi momentum of the particle take the classical form of mass times velocity plus an electromagnetic radiation reaction term while the Bondi mass loss equation become the classical gravitational and electromagnetic (electric and magnetic) dipole and quadrupole radiation. The Bondi momentum loss equation turns into Newtons second law of motion containing the Abraham, Lorentz, Dirac radiation reaction force plus a momentum recoil (rocket) force while the reality condition on the Bondi mass aspect yields the conservation of angular momentum.

  6. Theory of highly efficient multiexciton generation in type-II nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshet, Hagai; Baer, Roi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Rabani, Eran

    2016-10-01

    Multiexciton generation, by which more than a single electron-hole pair is generated on optical excitation, is a promising paradigm for pushing the efficiency of solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit of 31%. Utilizing this paradigm, however, requires the onset energy of multiexciton generation to be close to twice the band gap energy and the efficiency to increase rapidly above this onset. This challenge remains unattainable even using confined nanocrystals, nanorods or nanowires. Here, we show how both goals can be achieved in a nanorod heterostructure with type-II band offsets. Using pseudopotential atomistic calculation on a model type-II semiconductor heterostructure we predict the optimal conditions for controlling multiexciton generation efficiencies at twice the band gap energy. For a finite band offset, this requires a sharp interface along with a reduction of the exciton cooling and may enable a route for breaking the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  7. Visualizing the morphology of vortex lattice domains in a bulk type-II superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, T; Mühlbauer, S; Schulz, M; Betz, B; Kaestner, A; Pipich, V; Böni, P; Grünzweig, C

    2015-01-01

    Alike materials in the solid state, the phase diagram of type-II superconductors exhibit crystalline, amorphous, liquid and spatially inhomogeneous phases. The multitude of different phases of vortex matter has thence proven to act as almost ideal model system for the study of both the underlying properties of superconductivity but also of general phenomena such as domain nucleation and morphology. Here we show how neutron grating interferometry yields detailed information on the vortex lattice and its domain structure in the intermediate mixed state of a type-II niobium superconductor. In particular, we identify the nucleation regions, how the intermediate mixed state expands, and where it finally evolves into the Shubnikov phase. Moreover, we complement the results obtained from neutron grating interferometry by small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the spatially resolved morphology found in the intermediate mixed state, and very small-angle neutron scattering that confirm the domain structure of the vortex lattice.

  8. Electrodynamic response of the type-II Weyl semimetal YbMnBi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinotti, M.; Pal, A.; Ren, W. J.; Petrovic, C.; Degiorgi, L.

    2016-12-01

    Weyl fermions play a major role in quantum field theory but have been quite elusive as fundamental particles. Materials based on quasi-two-dimensional bismuth layers were recently designed and provide an arena for studying the interplay between anisotropic Dirac fermions, magnetism, and structural changes, allowing the formation of Weyl fermions in condensed matter. Here, we perform an optical investigation of YbMnBi2, a representative type-II Weyl semimetal, and contrast its excitation spectrum with the optical response of the more conventional semimetal EuMnBi2. Our comparative study allows us to disentangle the optical fingerprints of type-II Weyl fermions, but also challenges the present theoretical understanding of their electrodynamic response.

  9. Type II collagen C2C epitope in human synovial fluid and serum after knee injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumahashi, N; Swärd, P; Larsson, S;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Investigate in a cross-sectional study time-dependent changes of synovial fluid type II collagen epitope C2C concentrations after knee injury and correlate to other joint injury biomarkers. METHODS: Synovial fluid samples were aspirated between 0 days and 7 years after injury (n = 235......). Serum was collected from 71 of the knee injured patients. Synovial fluid from 8 knee-healthy subjects was used as reference. C2C was quantified by immunoassay and structural injury was determined from magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the injured knee acquired 1-38 days after injury (n = 98...... = 0.403, P type II collagen (r = 0.444, P = 0.003), ARGS-aggrecan (r = 0.337, P

  10. Type II dens evaginatus of maxillary central incisor: An alternative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Alrejaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens evaginatus is the developmental anomaly of tooth that exhibits protrusion of a tubercle from occlusal surfaces of premolar, and lingual surfaces of maxillary central incisor and lateral incisors. Dens evaginatus is common in Caucasian population. Saudi Arabia is also well evidenced of such cases. These tubercles have an enamel layer covering dentin core containing a thin extension of pulp. These cusp-like protrusions are susceptible to pulp exposure from wear or fracture because of malocclusion. Type II dens evaginatus involves normal pulp with immature root apex. Materials to enhance the pulpal recession or pulpotomy procedures indicated in such cases require long time and efforts to ensure pulpal recession or root maturity, respectively. Also prolonged treatment has risk of fracture of the cusp and reinfection and requires patient commitment for the follow-up procedures. Present case describes the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA in type II dens evaginatus of maxillary central incisor.

  11. Magnetic Breakdown and Klein Tunneling in a Type-II Weyl Semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. E.; Diez, M.; Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The band structure of a type-II Weyl semimetal has pairs of electron and hole pockets that coexist over a range of energies and touch at a topologically protected conical point. We identify signatures of this Weyl point in the magnetic quantum oscillations of the density of states, observable in thermodynamic properties. Tunneling between the electron and hole pockets in a magnetic field is the momentum space counterpart of Klein tunneling at a p -n junction in real space. This magnetic breakdown happens at a characteristic field strength that vanishes when the Fermi level approaches the Weyl point. The topological distinction between connected and disconnected pairs of type-II Weyl cones can be distinguished by the qualitatively different dependence of the quantum oscillations on the direction of the magnetic field.

  12. Bayesian Estimation and Prediction for Flexible Weibull Model under Type-II Censoring Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed the Bayesian estimation procedure for flexible Weibull distribution under Type-II censoring scheme assuming Jeffrey's scale invariant (noninformative and Gamma (informative priors for the model parameters. The interval estimation for the model parameters has been performed through normal approximation, bootstrap, and highest posterior density (HPD procedures. Further, we have also derived the predictive posteriors and the corresponding predictive survival functions for the future observations based on Type-II censored data from the flexible Weibull distribution. Since the predictive posteriors are not in the closed form, we proposed to use the Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC methods to approximate the posteriors of interest. The performance of the Bayes estimators has also been compared with the classical estimators of the model parameters through the Monte Carlo simulation study. A real data set representing the time between failures of secondary reactor pumps has been analysed for illustration purpose.

  13. Automating Access Control Logics in Simple Type Theory with LEO-II (Techreport)

    CERN Document Server

    Benzmueller, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Garg and Abadi recently proved that prominent access control logics can be translated in a sound and complete way into modal logic S4. We have previously outlined how normal multimodal logics, including monomodal logics K and S4, can be embedded in simple type theory (which is also known as higher-order logic) and we have demonstrated that the higher-order theorem prover LEO-II can automate reasoning in and about them. In this paper we combine these results and describe a sound and complete embedding of different access control logics in simple type theory. Employing this framework we show that the off the shelf theorem prover LEO-II can be applied to automate reasoning in prominent access control logics.

  14. Effects of Oral Administration of Type II Collagen on Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentham, David E.; Dynesius-Trentham, Roselynn A.; Orav, E. John; Combitchi, Daniel; Lorenzo, Carlos; Sewell, Kathryn Lea; Hafler, David A.; Weiner, Howard L.

    1993-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory synovial disease thought to involve T cells reacting to an antigen within the joint. Type II collagen is the major protein in articular cartilage and is a potential autoantigen in this disease. Oral tolerization to autoantigens suppresses animal models of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, including two models of rheumatoid arthritis. In this randomized, double-blind trial involving 60 patients with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis, a decrease in the number of swollen joints and tender joints occurred in subjects fed chicken type II collagen for 3 months but not in those that received a placebo. Four patients in the collagen group had complete remission of the disease. No side effects were evident. These data demonstrate clinical efficacy of an oral tolerization approach for rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Optimal Multi-type DGs Placement in Primary Distribution System by NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Buayai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes a multiobjective optimal placement of multi-type DG for enhancement of primary distribution system performance. A Pareto-based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII is proposed to determine locations and sizes of specified number of Distributed Generator units (DG within the primary distribution system. Three objective functions are considered as the indexes of the system performance: average Load Voltage Deviation (LVD minimization of the system real power loss and minimization of the annualized investment costs of DG. A fuzzy decision making analysis is used to obtain the final trade off optimal solution. The proposed methodology is tested on modified IEEE 33-bus radial system. Test results indicate that NSGA-II is a viable planning tool for practical DG placement and useful contribution of DG in improving the steady state system performance of the distribution system by the optimal allocation, setting and sizing multi-type DG.

  16. Simulation of dc magnetic effects due to geometrically defined grain boundaries in type-II superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolome, E. [Escola Universitaria Salesiana de Sarria, Passeig Sant Joan Bosco, 74, 08017 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: ebartolome@euss.es; Granados, X.; Bozzo, B. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Navau, C. [Grup d' Electromagnetisme, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Puig, T.; Obradors, X. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2008-03-30

    A Bean model-based program ('Trazacorrientes') has been used to simulate the current distribution in the saturated remanent state of type-II superconducting bicrystal-like squared samples. The grain boundary was modeled by a set of periodically spaced holes geometrically defining the current transparency. Current simulations performed as a function of the boundary transparency, width and geometry are analyzed. Current distributions agree qualitatively with previously reported imaging measurements, while quantitative results can be obtained with an accuracy of {approx}5% due to present computing resolution limits. Thanks to 'Trazacorrientes' easy way of implementing irregular defects, meandering grain boundaries formed by straight facets of different local transparency could be simulated. The advantages and disadvantages of the program for the simulation of type-II superconductors with defects, among which GB's, are discussed.

  17. The Double-Pulley Anatomic Technique for Type II SLAP Lesion Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnes, Nata; Ciani, Mario; Carr, Brian; Carey, Paul

    2015-10-01

    The annual incidence and number of repairs of SLAP lesions in the United States are constantly increasing. Surgical repairs of type II SLAP lesions have overall good success rates. However, a low satisfaction rate and low rate of return to preinjury level of play remain a challenge with elite overhead and throwing athletes. Recent anatomic studies suggest that current surgical techniques over-tension the biceps anchor and the superior labrum. These studies suggest that restoration of the normal anatomy will improve clinical outcomes and sports performance. We present a "double-pulley" technique for arthroscopic fixation of type II SLAP lesions. In this technique the normal anatomy is respected by preserving the mobility of the articular aspect of the superior labrum while reinforcing the biceps anchor and its posterior fibers medially.

  18. Effects of collagen types II and X on the kinetics of crystallization of calcium phosphate in biomineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the components of cartilages matrix on the process of endochondral ossification and the kinetics of crystal growth of calcium phosphate have been studied in the presence of type II or X collagen. During the experiments, type I collagen was added as the seed material. FT-IR analysis shows that calcium phosphate crystallized on the surface of type I collagen was mainly hydroxyapatite. Both type II and X collagens could reduce the growth rate of calcium phosphate crystals, and the effect of type X collagen is more obvious. The reaction was in the fourth order in the presence of type II collagen. The results showed that type II or X collagen had the ability to make Ca2+ accumulate in the process of endochondral ossification, but has little effect on crystal growth and the product of biomineralization.

  19. Long-term Outcome of Implant Therapy in a Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patient

    OpenAIRE

    FUKUI, TATSUMASA; SHIBATA, Shunichi; Ogawa, Masayuki; OMORI, TOSHIKAZU; Iwasaki, Hitomi; AOSHIBA, HIDEYUKI; MATSUI, KOUSUKE; TSUKAHARA, TAKASHI; FUJIWARA, SHUU; 福井, 達真; 柴田, 俊一; 小川, 雅之; 大森, 俊和; 岩崎, ひとみ; 青芝, 秀幸

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, implant treatment has been used widely for a range of defective morphologies with a high rate of success. The difficulty of initial placement in diabetic patients were well known. This article describes our experience performing implant treatment on a type II diabetes patient 13 year earlier , and our subsequent observation of his progress. Patient: was male, aged 45 years at initial consultation and his underlying disease was diabetes mellitus. The lower left second premolar...

  20. A Type II Diabetic Model-from Insulin Resistance to Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionWith the development of the living standard of the people, the incidence rate of diabetes, especially type II diabetes, increase with years. Establishment of corresponding animal model has become one of the important tool investigating diabetes. Diabetic animal model is classified roughly into experimental and spontaneous diabetic animal model. The spontaneous one has a relatively high applied value. However, its extensive application has been restricted by some factors such as costliness and ...

  1. [Effect of melatonin on antioxidant state under type ii diabetes at rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarkov, A A; Popova, T N; Matasova, L V

    2013-01-01

    The effect of melatonin on the intensity of free radical processes and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1.) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) has been investigated in liver and blood serum of rats with diabetes mellitus type II. The development of diabetes was accompanied by the increase in biochemiluminescence parameters and the enzyme activities studied. Melatonin administration changed the parameters studied towards control values.

  2. Biomechanical Assessment of Stabilization of Simulated Type II Odontoid Fracture with Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Roy T.; Klocke, Noelle; Yandamuri, Soumya S.; Bobinski, Lukas; Duff, John M.; Bucklen, Brandon S.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Researchers created a proper type II dens fracture (DF) and quantified a novel current posterior fixation technique with spacers at C1–C2. A clinical case study supplements this biomechanical analysis. Purpose Researchers explored their hypothesis that spacers combined with posterior instrumentation (PI) reduce range of motion significantly, possibly leading to better fusion outcomes. Overview of Literature Literature shows that the atlantoaxial joint is unique in allowing segmental rotary motion, enabling head turning. With no intervertebral discs at these joints, multiple ligaments bind the axis to the skull base and to the atlas; an intact odontoid (dens) enhances stability. The most common traumatic injury at these strong ligaments is a type II odontoid fracture. Methods Each of seven specimens (C0–C3) was tested on a custom-built six-degrees-of-freedom spine simulator with constructs of intact state, type II DF, C1–C2 PI, PI with joint capsulotomy (PIJC), PI with spacers (PIS) at C1–C2, and spacers alone (SA). A bending moment of 2.0 Nm (1.5°/sec) was applied in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was performed. Results DF increased motion to 320%, 429%, and 120% versus intact (FE, LB, and AR, respectively). PI significantly reduced motion to 41%, 21%, and 8%. PIJC showed negligible changes from PI. PIS reduced motion to 16%, 14%, and 3%. SA decreased motion to 64%, 24%, and 54%. Reduced motion facilitated solid fusion in an 89-year-old female patient within 1 year. Conclusions Type II odontoid fractures can lead to acute or chronic instability. Current fixation techniques use C1–C2 PI or an anterior dens screw. Addition of spacers alongside PI led to increased biomechanical rigidity over intact motion and may offer an alternative to established surgical fixation techniques. PMID:28243364

  3. Genetic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Chinese Patients with Waardenburg Syndrome Type II

    OpenAIRE

    Shuzhi Yang; Pu Dai; Xin Liu; Dongyang Kang; Xin Zhang; Weiyan Yang; Chengyong Zhou; Shiming Yang; Huijun Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary abnormalities of the eyes, hair, and skin. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene mutations account for about 15% of WS type II (WS2) cases. To date, fewer than 40 different MITF gene mutations have been identified in human WS2 patients, and few of these were of Chinese descent. In this study, we report clinical findings and mutation identification in the ...

  4. Patient-reported outcome following nonsurgical management of type II odontoid process fractures in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Nassir, Rafiq Muhammed; Bhatt, Pragnesh; Kamel, Mahmoud H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transverse (type II) odontoid process fracture is among the most commonly encountered cervical spine fractures. Nonsurgical management through external immobilization is occasionally preferred to surgical management but is criticized for its higher rates of failure and lower patient satisfaction. Our aim is to analyze patient-reported outcomes in patients who underwent nonsurgical treatment for type II odontoid fractures. Methods: We identified patients >18-year-old who underwent external immobilization as a treatment for isolated type II odontoid fracture between 2007 and 2012. We collected demographic parameters, clinical presentation, mode of injury, imaging studies and modality and duration of treatment (soft collar, halo-vest, or both). Patients were contacted by telephone to participate in a 15-min survey addressing their recovery including their subjective rate of return to preinjury level of functioning. Results: Fifteen patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and participated in our survey. Patients were followed up for an average of 19 months after injury. Overall mean age was 61 years. Injury followed a mechanical fall or a road traffic accident in 11 and 4 cases, respectively. External immobilization was achieved by halo vest only in nine patients, soft collar only in two patients (13%), and through a sequential combination in the remaining 4 (27%). This was deployed for a mean of 7.8 months. Radiological studies at the last follow-up showed bony healing (27%), fibrous nonunion (60%), and persistent instability (13%). Patients reported gradual recovery of function throughout the 1st year after injury with levels above 70% of preinjury functioning achieved by 13% of patients at 6 months, 33% at 9 months, and 47% at 12 months. Overall satisfaction with nonsurgical management was 68%. Conclusion: In selected patients with type II odontoid fractures, external immobilization represents a good option with acceptable course of recovery. PMID

  5. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16po as a Normal Type II SN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Prieto, Jose L.

    2017-01-01

    We report an optical spectroscopic observation of ASASSN-16po (ATel #9927) on UT 2017 Dec 31.07 using the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The source has a flat to blue continuum and broad Balmer lines with FWHM 6000 km/s, consistent with a normal Type II SN. The spectrum shows narrow emission lines, but examination of the background spectrum indicates this emission is likely due to host galaxy contamination.

  6. [Implant placement with metal ceramic restorations in a patient with type II diabetes and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, S V; Markina, M S

    2013-01-01

    In out-patient dental care a history of somatic pathology is of vital importance. Unfortunately patients are not always compliant enough not understanding the impact of somatic pathology on dental treatment. The current paper presents a case of dental implant placement and splint bridge fixation in a patient with type II diabetes and asthma. The authors summarize the most useful recommendations for treatment and follow-up of such patients.

  7. The contribution of education to the control of Diabetes Mellitus, type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kalogianni

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus Type II, (non‐insulin‐dependent consists one of the greatest problems that the individual has faced, globally. The number of patients is increasing dramatically every year and pecis exted to be double the next decades. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease is mainly attributed to genetic factors. aim of pThe resent study was to evaluate whether administration of an educational program can contribute to the control of the disease. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to the relationship between education and the control of diabetes mellitus, type II. Results: The majority of research studies showed that there is a very strong correlation between education and the maintenance of plasma glucose level of patients with diabetes mellitus, type II, within normal range. An effective educative program is mainly comprised of basic knowledge of these parameters that exert a beneficial effect on the management of the disease such as : healthy nutrition habits, participation in physical exercise programs, avoidance of sedentary life, self‐monitoring of glucose, correct way to perform insulin injections, etc. The overall goal of the educative intervention is to help individuals with diabetes gain the necessary knowledge and support needed, to achieve optimal health by modifying their behaviour and adopting a more positive attitude to the disease. Conclusions: The present review confirms that educational intervention has beneficial effects on the control of Type II Diabetes Mellitus. The maintenance of plasma glucose levels into normal range indicates the effectiveness of education.

  8. Global stability and persistence in LG-Holling type II diseased predator ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwardi, Sahabuddin; Haque, Mainul; Venturino, Ezio

    2011-01-01

    A Leslie-Gower-Holling type II model is modified to introduce a contagious disease in the predator population, assuming that disease cannot propagate to the prey. All the system's equilibria are determined and the behaviour of the system near them is investigated. The main mathematical issues are global stability and bifurcations for some of the equilibria, together with sufficient conditions for persistence of the ecosystem. Counterintuitive results on the role played by intraspecific competition are highlighted.

  9. Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism in type II diabetics with nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh, V. V. S.; Reddy, A. L. K.; Sivaramakrishna, G.; Sharma, P. V. G. K.; Vardhan, R. V.; Kumar, V. Siva

    2009-01-01

    Nephropathy is an important and a frequent complication of long-term type II diabetic nephropathy. Strong evidence exists that genetic predisposition plays a major role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Recent studies have implicated association between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism and nephropathy. The deletion gene polymorphism of ACE gene has been shown to be associated with increased activity of this enzyme. This study examines th...

  10. Approximate Bayes Estimators of the Logistic Distribution Parameters Based on Progressive Type-II Censoring Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmoud Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop approximate Bayes estimators of the parameters,reliability, and hazard rate functions of the Logistic distribution by using Lindley’sapproximation, based on progressively type-II censoring samples. Noninformativeprior distributions are used for the parameters. Quadratic, linexand general Entropy loss functions are used. The statistical performances of theBayes estimates relative to quadratic, linex and general entropy loss functionsare compared to those of the maximum likelihood based on simulation study.

  11. Diagnostic features and pedodontic-orthodontic management in dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, K Ch; Paschos, E; Sagner, T; Hickel, R

    2002-09-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II, also known as hereditary opalescent dentin, is an isolated inherited condition transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait affecting the primary and permanent dentition. The combined pedodontic-orthodontic management of a 4-year-old child is described. Following orthodontic analysis to encourage a favourable growth outcome, treatment comprised restoration of the primary teeth with stainless steel crowns and composite crowns. Differential diagnosis and alternative therapies, including orthodontic considerations, are discussed.

  12. T-duality off shell in 3D Type II superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Poláček, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We give the manifestly T-dual formulation of the massless sector of the classical 3D Type II superstring in off-shell 3D N=2 superspace, including the action. It has a simple relation to the known superspace of 4D N=1 supergravity in 4D M-theory via 5D F-theory. The pre potential appears as part of the vielbein, without derivatives.

  13. Osteomyelitis and Discitis Following Translumbar Repair of a Type II Endoleak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sella, David M., E-mail: Sella.david@mayo.edu; Frey, Gregory T., E-mail: Frey.gregory@mayo.edu; Giesbrandt, Kirk, E-mail: giesbrandt.kirk@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Here we present the case of an 80-year-old man who developed a type II endoleak following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Initial attempts at treating the endoleak via a transarterial approach were unsuccessful; therefore the patient underwent percutaneous translumbar endoleak embolization. Approximately 1 month following the translumbar procedure, he developed back pain, with subsequent workup revealing osteomyelitis and discitis as a complication following repair via the translumbar approach.

  14. Plasma Angiotensin II Levels In Women With Type 2 Diabetes With Or Without Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadno, Etra

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background. Hypertension is a major risk for the development and progressivity complication of macro and microvascular of diabetes mellitus. Renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system (RAAS), insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and autonomic nervous dysfunction play an important part in the pathogenesis of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In RAAS, increased angiotensin II constricts arterioles, raises total peripheral resistance and blood volume. The rise in intravascular ...

  15. Cripto forms a complex with activin and type II activin receptors and can block activin signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter C.; Harrison, Craig A.; Vale, Wylie

    2003-01-01

    Activin, nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 are members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and signal via the activin type II (ActRII/IIB) and type I (ALK4) serine/threonine kinase receptors. Unlike activins, however, signaling by nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 requires a coreceptor from the epidermal growth factor-Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic protein family such as Cripto. Cripto has important roles during development and oncogenesis and binds nodal or related ligands and ALK4 to facilitate assembly of type I and type II receptor signaling complexes. Because Cripto mediates signaling via activin receptors and binds directly to ALK4, we tested whether transfection with Cripto would affect the ability of activin to signal and/or interact with its receptors. Here we show that Cripto can form a complex with activin and ActRII/IIB. We were unable to detect activin binding to Cripto in the absence of ActRII/IIB, indicating that unlike nodal, activin requires type II receptors to bind Cripto. If cotransfected with ActRII/IIB and ALK4, Cripto inhibited crosslinking of activin to ALK4 and the association of ALK4 with ActRII/IIB. In addition, Cripto blocked activin signaling when transfected into either HepG2 cells or 293T cells. We have also shown that under conditions in which Cripto facilitates nodal signaling, it antagonizes activin. Inhibition of activin signaling provides an additional example of a Cripto effect on the regulation of signaling by transforming growth factor-β superfamily members. Because activin is a potent inhibitor of cell growth in multiple cell types, these results provide a mechanism that may partially explain the oncogenic action of Cripto. PMID:12682303

  16. Understanding the source: The nitrogen isotope composition of Type II mantle diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Sami; Howell, Dan; Jones, Adrian; Milledge, Judith; Verchovsky, Sasha

    2010-05-01

    Diamonds can be broadly subdivided into 2 groups based on their nitrogen content; type I with > 10ppm nitrogen and type II with growth nitrogen can be incorporated into diamond as a compatible element in a closed system and therefore the N/C ratio in the source can be depleted by Rayleigh fractionation as the first diamonds to crystallise will partition nitrogen atoms into their lattice as a 1:1 substitution for carbon atoms (type I diamonds). However nitrogen may behave as an incompatible element in diamond (and be a compatible element in the metasomatic fluid), this coupled with an open system would lead to the removal of nitrogen by the metasomatic fluids, thus causing the source to progressively become depleted in nitrogen. Continued diamond crystallization in either system will produce diamonds with ever decreasing nitrogen concentrations with time, possibly to the point of them being almost nitrogen free. 2- It is conceivable that type I & II diamonds found in the same deposit and sharing a common paragenesis (eclogitic or peridotitic) may have formed from different metasomatic fluids in separate diamond forming events. The latter has been proposed for samples from the Cullinan mine (South Africa) based on their carbon isotope compositions (3). Both models can be tested using the stable isotope compositions of carbon and nitrogen with the N/C ratio of the diamonds in a given population with varying nitrogen content (from type I to type II). 1.D. G. Pearson, D. Canil, S. B. Shirey, D. H. Heinrich, K. T. Karl, in Treatise on Geochemistry. (Pergamon, Oxford, 2003), pp. 171-275. 2.C. McCammon, Science 293, 813 (August 3, 2001, 2001). 3.A. E. Moore, South African Journal of Geology 112, 23 (March 1, 2009, 2009).

  17. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients.

  18. Rank-ordered filter for edge enhancement of cellular images using interval type II fuzzy set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2015-10-01

    An edge-enhancement technique using an interval type II fuzzy set that uses rank-ordered filter to enhance the edges of cellular images is proposed. When cellular images from any laboratory are digitized, scanned, and stored, some kind of degradation occurs, and directly using a rank-ordered filter may not produce clear edges. These images contain uncertainties, present in edges or boundaries of the image. Fuzzy sets that take into account these uncertainties may be a good tool to process these images. However, a fuzzy set sometimes does not produce better results. We used an interval type II fuzzy set, which considers the uncertainty in a different way. It considers the membership function in the fuzzy set as "fuzzy," so the membership values lie within an interval range. A type II fuzzy set has upper and lower membership levels, and with the two levels, a new membership function is computed using Hamacher t-conorm. A new fuzzy image is formed. A rank-ordered filter is applied to the image to obtain an edge-enhanced image. The proposed method is compared with the existing methods visually and quantitatively using entropic method. Entropy of the proposed method is higher (0.4418) than the morphology method (0.2275), crisp method (0.3599), and Sobel method (0.2669), implying that the proposed method is better.

  19. Evaluation of mono or mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria in type II sourdough system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Raci; Şimşek, Ömer; Küçükçuban, Ayca; Nas, Sebahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mono and mixed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to determine suitable LAB combinations for a type II sourdough system. In this context, previously isolated sourdough LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, which included Lactobacillus plantarum PFC22, Lactobacillus brevis PFC31, Pediococcus acidilactici PFC38, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PFC80, were used as mono or mixed culture combinations in a fermentation system to produce type II sourdough, and subsequently in bread dough production. Compared to the monoculture fermentation of dough, the use of mixed cultures shortened the adaptation period by half. In addition, the use of mixed cultures ensured higher microbial viability, and enhanced the fruity flavor during bread dough production. It was determined that the combination of L. plantarum PFC22 + P. acidilactici PFC38 + L. sanfranciscensis PFC80 is a promising culture mixture that can be used in the production of type II sourdough systems, and that may also contribute to an increase in metabolic activity during bread production process.

  20. Diabetic silkworms for evaluation of therapeutically effective drugs against type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Hayashi, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shinya; Sugita, Takuya; Sumiya, Eriko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-29

    We previously reported that sugar levels in the silkworm hemolymph, i.e., blood, increase immediately (within 1 h) after intake of a high-glucose diet, and that the administration of human insulin decreases elevated hemolymph sugar levels in silkworms. In this hyperglycemic silkworm model, however, administration of pioglitazone or metformin, drugs used clinically for the treatment of type II diabetes, have no effect. Therefore, here we established a silkworm model of type II diabetes for the evaluation of anti-diabetic drugs such as pioglitazone and metformin. Silkworms fed a high-glucose diet over a long time-period (18 h) exhibited a hyperlipidemic phenotype. In these hyperlipidemic silkworms, phosphorylation of JNK, a stress-responsive protein kinase, was enhanced in the fat body, an organ that functionally resembles the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. Fat bodies isolated from hyperlipidemic silkworms exhibited decreased sensitivity to human insulin. The hyperlipidemic silkworms have impaired glucose tolerance, characterized by high fasting hemolymph sugar levels and higher hemolymph sugar levels in a glucose tolerance test. Administration of pioglitazone or metformin improved the glucose tolerance of the hyperlipidemic silkworms. These findings suggest that the hyperlipidemic silkworms are useful for evaluating the hypoglycemic activities of candidate drugs against type II diabetes.

  1. Type II supernova energetics and comparison of light curves to shock-cooling models

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Adam; De Cia, Annalisa; Horesh, Assaf; Khazov, Danny; Ofek, Eran O; Kulkarni, S R; Arcavi, Iair; Manulis, Ilan; Yaron, Ofer; Vreeswijk, Paul; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Perley, Daniel A; Cao, Yi; Cenko, S Bradley; Rebbapragada, Umaa D; Woźniak, P R; Filippenko, Alexei V; Clubb, K I; Nugent, Peter E; Pan, Y -C; Badenes, C; Howell, D Andrew; Valenti, Stefano; Sand, David; Sollerman, J; Johansson, Joel; Leonard, Douglas C; Horst, J Chuck; Armen, Stephen F; Fedrow, Joseph M; Quimby, Robert M; Mazzali, Paulo; Pian, Elena; Sternberg, Assaf; Matheson, Thomas; Sullivan, M; Maguire, K; Lazarevic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    During the first few days after explosion, Type II supernovae (SNe) are dominated by relatively simple physics. Theoretical predictions regarding early-time SN light curves in the ultraviolet (UV) and optical bands are thus quite robust. We present, for the first time, a sample of $57$ $R$-band Type II SN light curves that are well monitored during their rise, having $>5$ detections during the first 10 days after discovery, and a well-constrained time of explosion to within $1-3$ days. We show that the energy per unit mass ($E/M$) can be deduced to roughly a factor of five by comparing early-time optical data to the model of Rabinak & Waxman (2011), while the progenitor radius cannot be determined based on $R$-band data alone. We find that Type II SN explosion energies span a range of $E/M=(0.2-20)\\times 10^{51} \\; \\rm{erg/(10 M}_\\odot$), and have a mean energy per unit mass of $\\left\\langle E/M \\right\\rangle = 0.85\\times 10^{51} \\; \\rm{erg/(10 M}_\\odot$), corrected for Malmquist bias. Assuming a small sp...

  2. Neutrinos from type-II supernovae and the neutrino-driven supernova mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, H.T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Supernova 1987A has confirmed fundamental aspects of our theoretical view of type-II supernovae: Type-II supernovae are a consequence of the collapse of the iron core of a massive evolved star and lead to the formation of a neutron star or black hole. This picture is most strongly supported by the detection of electron antineutrinos in the IMB and Kamiokande II experiments in connection with SN 1987A. However, the mechanism causing the supernova explosion is not yet satisfactorily understood. In this paper the properties of the neutrino emission from supernovae and protoneutron stars will be reviewed; analytical estimates will be derived and results of numerical simulations will be shown. It will be demonstrated that the spectral distributions of the emitted neutrinos show clear and systematic discrepancies compared with thermal (black body-type) emission. This must be taken into account when neutrino observations from supernovae are to be interpreted, or when implications of the neutrino emission on nucleosynthesis processes in mantle and envelope of the progenitor star are to be investigated. Furthermore, the influence of neutrinos on the supernova dynamics will be discussed, in particular their crucial role in causing the explosion by Wilson`s neutrino-driven delayed mechanism. Possible implications of convection inside the newly born neutron star and between surface and the supernova shock will be addressed and results of multi-dimensional simulations will be presented. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  3. Characterizing the V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Joseph P; Hamuy, Mario; Gutiérrez, Claudia P; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; E., Felipe Olivares; Phillips, Mark M; Schulze, Steve; Antezana, Roberto; Bolt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Contreras, Carlos; de Jaeger, Thomas; Folatelli, Gastón; Förster, Francisco; Freedman, Wendy L; González, Luis; Hsiao, Eric; Krzemiński, Wojtek; Krisciunas, Kevin; Maza, José; McCarthy, Patrick; Morrell, Nidia I; Persson, Sven E; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Thomas-Osip, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diversity of V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae. Analyzing a sample of 116 supernovae, several magnitude measurements are defined, together with decline rates at different epochs, and time durations of different phases. It is found that magnitudes measured at maximum light correlate more strongly with decline rates than those measured at other epochs: brighter supernovae at maximum generally have faster declining light-curves at all epochs. We find a relation between the decline rate during the 'plateau' phase and peak magnitudes, which has a dispersion of 0.56 magnitudes, offering the prospect of using type II supernovae as purely photometric distance indicators. Our analysis suggests that the type II population spans a continuum from low-luminosity events which have flat light-curves during the 'plateau' stage, through to the brightest events which decline much faster. A large range in optically thick phase durations is observed, implying a range in progeni...

  4. Amylin Uncovered: A Review on the Polypeptide Responsible for Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pillay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylin is primarily responsible for classifying type II diabetes as an amyloid (protein misfolding disease as it has great potential to aggregate into toxic nanoparticles, thereby resulting in loss of pancreatic -cells. Although type II diabetes is on the increase each year, possibly due to bad eating habits of modern society, research on the culprit for this disease is still in its early days. In addition, unlike the culprit for Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid -peptide, amylin has failed to receive attention worthy of being featured in an abundance of review articles. Thus, the aim of this paper is to shine the spotlight on amylin in an attempt to put it onto the top of researchers’ to-do list since the secondary complications of type II diabetes have far-reaching and severe consequences on public health both in developing and fully developed countries alike. This paper will cover characteristics of the amylin aggregates, mechanisms of toxicity, and a particular focus on inhibitors of toxicity and techniques used to assess these inhibitors.

  5. Fine and Superfine Structure of the Decameter-Hectometer Type II Burst on 7 June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorovskyy, V. V.; Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Panchenko, M.; Poedts, S.; Mykhaylov, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of a type II burst with a herringbone structure observed both with ground-based radio telescopes (UTR-2 and URAN-2) and space-borne spectrometers (STEREO-A and B) are discussed. The burst was recorded on 7 June 2011 in the frequency band 3 - 33 MHz. It was characterized by extremely rich fine structure. Statistical analysis of more than 300 herringbone sub-bursts constituting the burst was performed separately for the positively (reverse) and negatively (forward) drifting sub-bursts. The sense and the degree of circular polarization of the herringbone sub-bursts were measured in a wide frequency band (16 - 32 MHz). A second-order fine frequency structure of the herringbone sub-bursts was observed and studied for the first time. Using STEREO/COR1 and SOHO/LASCO-C2 images, we determined the direction and radial speed of the coronal mass ejection responsible for the studied type II burst. The possible location of the type II burst source on the flank of the shock was found.

  6. Constraining the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field Strength using Split-band Type II Radio Burst Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, P.; Ramesh, R.; Hariharan, K.; Kathiravan, C.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-11-01

    We report on low-frequency radio (85-35 MHz) spectral observations of four different type II radio bursts, which exhibited fundamental-harmonic emission and split-band structure. Each of the bursts was found to be closely associated with a whitelight coronal mass ejection (CME) close to the Sun. We estimated the coronal magnetic field strength from the split-band characteristics of the bursts, by assuming a model for the coronal electron density distribution. The choice of the model was constrained, based on the following criteria: (1) when the radio burst is observed simultaneously in the upper and lower bands of the fundamental component, the location of the plasma level corresponding to the frequency of the burst in the lower band should be consistent with the deprojected location of the leading edge (LE) of the associated CME; (2) the drift speed of the type II bursts derived from such a model should agree closely with the deprojected speed of the LE of the corresponding CMEs. With the above conditions, we find that: (1) the estimated field strengths are unique to each type II burst, and (2) the radial variation of the field strength in the different events indicate a pattern. It is steepest for the case where the heliocentric distance range over which the associated burst is observed is closest to the Sun, and vice versa.

  7. SN 1999ga: a low-luminosity linear type II supernova?

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorello, A; Martin, R; Smartt, S J; Altavilla, G; Benetti, S; Botticella, M T; Cappellaro, E; Mattila, S; Maund, J R; Ryder, S D; Salvo, M; Taubenberger, S; Turatto, M

    2009-01-01

    Type II-linear supernovae are thought to arise from progenitors that have lost most of their H envelope by the time of the explosion, and they are poorly understood because they are only occasionally discovered. It is possible that they are intrinsically rare, but selection effects due to their rapid luminosity evolution may also play an important role in limiting the number of detections. In this context, the discovery of a subluminous type II-linear event is even more interesting. We investigate the physical properties and characterise the explosion site of the type II SN 1999ga, which exploded in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2442. Spectroscopic and photometric observations of SN 1999ga allow us to constrain the energetics of the explosion and to estimate the mass of the ejected material, shedding light on the nature of the progenitor star in the final stages of its life. The study of the environment in the vicinity of the explosion site provides information on a possible relation between these unusual supe...

  8. Gate-tunable negative longitudinal magnetoresistance in the predicted type-II Weyl semimetal WTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaojia; Liu, Erfu; Liu, Huimei; Pan, Yiming; Zhang, Longqiang; Zeng, Junwen; Fu, Yajun; Wang, Miao; Xu, Kang; Huang, Zhong; Wang, Zhenlin; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Xing, Dingyu; Wang, Baigeng; Wan, Xiangang; Miao, Feng

    2016-10-01

    The progress in exploiting new electronic materials has been a major driving force in solid-state physics. As a new state of matter, a Weyl semimetal (WSM), in particular a type-II WSM, hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles and may harbour novel electrical transport properties. Nevertheless, such a type-II WSM material has not been experimentally observed. In this work, by performing systematic magneto-transport studies on thin films of a predicted material candidate WTe2, we observe notable negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, which can be attributed to the chiral anomaly in WSM. This phenomenon also exhibits strong planar orientation dependence with the absence along the tungsten chains, consistent with the distinctive feature of a type-II WSM. By applying a gate voltage, we demonstrate that the Fermi energy can be in-situ tuned through the Weyl points via the electric field effect. Our results may open opportunities for implementing new electronic applications, such as field-effect chiral devices.

  9. Dental implants as Treatment Option in Patients With Osteopenic Syndrome and Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kozlova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems in modern dentistry is the study of jaw bone changes associated with type II diabetes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of osteopenic syndrome on osseointegration when using dental implants in patients with type II diabetes. 40 patients with type II diabetes have been evaluated and assigned to two different groups based on the duration of the disease. Including criteria in patients with compensated diabetes were fasting glucose test results <6 mM/l and glycohemoglobin concentration ≤6%. All patients have been evaluated by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry on Discovery W densitometer by HOLOGIC. Laboratory blood markers have been used to assess the rate of metabolic processes. 43 implants have been fixed in both groups and maxillary sinus lifting has been applied in 4 cases. No immediate or late post -operative complications have been registered. In cases of disease duration over 5 years and presence of osteopenia the period of surgical wound healing has been prolongated.

  10. N=2 type II- heterotic duality and higher derivative f-terms

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Narain, Kumar S; Taylor, T R

    1995-01-01

    We test the recently conjectured duality between N=2 supersymmetric type II and heterotic string models by analysing a class of higher dimensional interactions in the respective low-energy Lagrangians. These are F-terms of the form F_g W^{2g} where W is the gravitational superfield. On the type II side these terms are generated at the g-loop level and in fact are given by topological partition functions of the twisted Calabi-Yau sigma model. We show that on the heterotic side these terms arise at the one-loop level. We study in detail a rank 3 example and show that the corresponding couplings F_g satisfy the same holomorphic anomaly equations as in the type II case. Moreover we study the leading singularities of F_g's on the heterotic side, near the enhanced symmetry point and show that they are universal poles of order 2g{-}2 with coefficients that are given by the Euler number of the moduli space of genus-g Riemann surfaces. This confirms a recent conjecture that the physics near conifold singularity is gov...

  11. Is Bariatric Surgery an Effective Treatment for Type II Diabetic Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allon N; Wolfe, Bruce

    2016-03-07

    Type II diabetic kidney disease is devastating to patients and society alike. This review will evaluate bariatric surgery as a treatment for diabetic kidney disease primarily through its ability to induce and maintain regression of type II diabetes. The review begins by outlining the global challenge of diabetic kidney disease, its link to obesity, and the comparative benefits of bariatric surgery on weight and type II diabetes. It then surveys comprehensively the relevant literature, which reports that although bariatric surgery is associated with reductions in albuminuria, its effect on harder clinical end points like progression of diabetic kidney disease is not known. The review also includes a critical assessment of the risks and costs of bariatric surgery and concludes by acknowledging the major knowledge gaps in the field and providing research strategies to overcome them. Until these knowledge gaps are filled, clinicians will be forced to rely on their own subjective judgment in determining the benefit-risk ratio of bariatric surgery for patients with diabetic kidney disease.

  12. Risk Factors Accompanied with Nephropathy in Patients with Type II Diabetes; Test of the Biopsychosocial Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rahimian Boogar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The study of biopsychosocial factors influencing nephropathy as a most serious complication of type II diabetes is important. This study aimed to investigate risk factors accompanied with nephropathy in patients with type II diabetes based on the biopsychosocial model. Materials & Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 295 patients with type II diabetes were selected by convenience sampling in Tehran Shariati hospital outpatient clinics. The data were collected by demographical information questionnaire along with disease characteristics and depression anxiety stress scales (dass, quality of life scale (who- qol- bref, diabetes self-management scale (dsms, and diabetes knowledge scale (dks, then analyzed by chi-square, independent t-test and logistic regression with pasw software. Results: Hypertension (OR=3.841 & P0.05.Conclusion: It is important to pay attention to hypertension, glycated hemoglobin, body mass index, diabetes self-management, depression, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge for therapeutic intervention programming and diabetes complications control protocols for diabetic patients.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:44-53

  13. Clinical effect of two operation methods in treatment of Sanders II type calcaneus fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Liu; Jun Hua; Yong-Ming Sun; Lu-Min Cao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the differences between percutaneous reduction hollow screw internal fixation and open reduction plate internal fixation in the treatment of Sanders II type calcaneal fracture.Method:68 patients with Sanders II type calcaneal fracture from January, 2012 to February, 2013 were divided into poking group and open reduction group, 34 cases in each group. They were treated with poking reduction and internal fixation, as well as open reduction and internal fixation, and then followed up for one year successfully. The operation time, hospitalization time, wound healing time and the amount of bleeding were compared. The Maryland foot score system was employed to assess the function recovery of two groups and the related complications were recorded.Result:The operation time, hospitalization time, incision healing time and the amount of bleeding in operation of poking group were significantly less than the open reduction group; The excellent rate of functional recovery of poking group and open reduction group were 79.41% and 82.35%. The difference between two groups had no statistical significance; the complication rate of poking group and open reduction group were 2.94% and 17.65%. The difference between two groups had statistical significance.Conclusion:Poking reduction combined with internal fixation for the treatment of Sanders II type calcaneal fracture can not only reduce the wound and intraoperative bleeding, shorten operation and hospitalization time, but also prevent the occurrence of complications.

  14. Investigating the Conditions of the Formation of a Type II Radio Burst on 2014 January 8

    CERN Document Server

    Su, W; Ding, M D; Chen, P F; Ning, Z J; Ji, H S

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that type II radio bursts are generated by shock waves. In order to understand the generation conditions of type II radio bursts, in this paper, we analyze the physical parameters of a shock front. The type II radio burst we selected was observed by Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) and Learmonth radio station and was associated with a limb CME occurring on 2014 January 8 observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The evolution of the CME in the inner corona presents a double-layered structure that propagates outward. We fit the outer layer of the structure with a partial circle and divide it into 7 directions from -45$^\\circ$ to 45$^\\circ$ with an angular separation of 15$^\\circ$. We measure the outer layer speed along the 7 directions, and find that the speed in the direction of -15$^\\circ$ with respect to the central direction is the fastest. We use the differential emission measure (DEM) method to calculate the physical parameters a...

  15. Type II bursts, shock waves, and coronal transients - The event of 1980 June 29, 0233 UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, D. E.; Dulk, G. A.; House, L.; Illing, R.; Sawyer, C.; Wagner, W. J.; Mclean, D. J.; Hildner, E.

    1984-01-01

    The metric Type-II solar burst event of June 29, 1980, is characterized on the basis of spatially resolved radioheliograph observations obtained at Culgoora, Australia, and visible-light observations obtained with the coronograph/polarimeter of the SMM satellite. The data are presented in images, diagrams, and graphs and discussed in detail. The Type-II emission is found to arise in the dense moving material behind the transient loops, which have sky-plane width 0.5 solar radius and line-of-sight depth 0.1-0.4 solar radius. A faint arc observed moving ahead of the transient loops at about 900 km/sec and not associated with the Type-II burst is attributed to a shock front, and the compression ratio and Alfven Mach number of the enhanced-density region are estimated as n2/n1 = 1.3-3 and M(A) = 1.2-3. The ambient material at 3 solar radii is determined to have Alfven speed 250-625 km/sec and magnetic-field strength 50-120 mG. The total mass of the event is calculated as 700 Tg; the total magnetic energy of the loops is (1.5-15) x 10 to the 29th ergs.

  16. Iron K$\\alpha$ emission in type-I and type-II Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, Claudio; Paltani, Stephane; Ichikawa, Kohei; Gandhi, Poshak; Awaki, Hisamitsu

    2014-01-01

    The narrow Fe K$\\alpha$ line is one of the main signatures of the reprocessing of X-ray radiation from the material surrounding supermassive black holes, and it has been found to be omnipresent in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGN). In this work we study the characteristics of the narrow Fe K$\\alpha$ line in different types of AGN. Using the results of a large Suzaku study we find that Seyfert 2s have on average lower Fe K$\\alpha$ luminosities than Seyfert 1s for the same 10-50 keV continuum luminosity. Simulating dummy Sy1s and Sy2s populations using physical torus models of X-ray reflected emission, we find that this difference can be explained by means of different average inclination angles with respect to the torus, as predicted by the unified model. Alternative explanations include differences in the intensities of Compton humps or in the photon index distributions. We show that the ratio between the flux of the broad and narrow Fe K$\\alpha$ line in the 6.35-6.45 keV range depends on the ...

  17. Myosin types and fiber types in cardiac muscle. II. Atrial myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorza, L; Sartore, S; Schiaffino, S

    1982-12-01

    Antibodies were produced against myosins isolated from the left atrial myocardium (anti-bAm) and the left ventricular myocardium (anti-bVm) of the bovine heart. Cross-reactive antibodies were removed by cross-absorption. Absorbed anti-bAm and anti-bVm were specific for the myosin heavy chains when tested by enzyme immunoassay combined with SDS gel electrophoresis. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to determine the reactivity of atrial muscle fibers to the two antibodies. Three populations of atrial muscle fibers were distinguished in the bovine heart: (a) fibers reactive with anti-bAm and unreactive with anti-bVm, like most fibers in the left atrium; (b) fibers reactive with both antibodies, especially numerous in the right atrium; (c) fibers reactive with anti-bVm and unreactive with anti-bAm, present only in the interatrial septum and in specific regions of the right atrium, such as the crista terminalis. These findings can be accounted for by postulating the existence of two distinct types of atrial myosin heavy chains, one of which is antigenically related to ventricular myosin. The tendency for fibers labeled by anti-bVm to occur frequently in bundles and their preferential distribution in the crista terminalis, namely along one of the main conduction pathways between the sinus node and the atrioventricular node, and in the interatrial septum, where different internodal tracts are known to converge, suggests that these fibers may be specialized for faster conduction.

  18. Hyperbranched Polymers by Type II Photoinitiated Self-Condensing Vinyl Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Cansu; Ciftci, Mustafa; Yagci, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Type II photoinitiated self-condensing vinyl polymerization for the preparation of hyperbranched polymers is explored using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and methyl methacrylate as hydrogen donating inimers and comonomer, respectively, in the presence of benzophenone and camphorquinone under UV and visible light. Upon irradiation at the corresponding wavelength, the excited photoinitiator abstracts hydrogen from HEMA or DMAEMA leading to the formation of initiating radicals. Depending on the concentration of inimers, type of the photoinitiator, and irradiation time, hyperbranched polymers with different branching densities and cross-linked polymers are formed.

  19. Novel type-II material system for laser applications in the near-infrared regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The design and experimental realization of a type-II “W”-multiple quantum well heterostructure for emission in the λ > 1.2 μm range is presented. The experimental photoluminescence spectra for different excitation intensities are analyzed using microscopic quantum theory. On the basis of the good theory–experiment agreement, the gain properties of the system are computed using the semiconductor Bloch equations. Gain values comparable to those of type-I systems are obtained.

  20. The Latest Version of the Standardized Candle Method for Type II Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Hamuy, M

    2003-01-01

    I use the largest available sample of Type II plateau supernovae to examine the previously reported luminosity-velocity relation. This study confirms such relation which permits one to standardize the luminosities of these objects from a spectroscopic measurement of their envelope velocities, and use them as extragalactic distance indicators. The "standard candle method" (SCM) yields a Hubble diagram with a dispersion of 0.3 mag, which implies that the SCM produces distances with a precision of 15%. Using two nearby supernovae with Cepheid distances I find Ho=81+/-10 km/s/Mpc, which compares with Ho=74 derived from Type Ia supernovae.

  1. The Relevance of Patent Foramen Ovale to Type II DCS: An Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11062 TITLE: The Relevance of Patent Foramen Ovale to Type 11 DCS: An...Relevance of Patent Foramen Ovale to Type II DCS: An Overview of the Literature Joan Saary, MD, MSc and Gary Gray, MD, PhD Division of Occupational...ON Toronto, ON Canada, M5B 1W8 Canada M3M 3B9 joan.saary(autoronto.ca 2ary.2ray(aidciem.dnd.ca The significance of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the

  2. Radium concentration and radon exhalation measurements using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, A.; Naqvi, A. H.; Srivastava, D. S.

    1995-12-01

    The “Track-Etch” technique using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors has been employed for measuring the radium content and radon exhalation rates of different types of building materials. Among the eight materials studied it was found that fine aggregates (Badarpur) show the greatest radon exhalation, whereas portland cement produces minimum values of radon exhalation. Experimentally-measured values of the “effective radium content” (in Bq kg-1) their “mass exhalation” rates (in Bq kg-1d-1) and “surface exhalation” rates (in Bq m-2d-1 ) are reported.

  3. Asphericity, Interaction, and Dust in the Type II-P/II-L Supernova 2013EJ in Messier 74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerhan, Jon C.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Johansson, Joel; Hu, Maokai; Fox, Ori D.; Wang, Lifan; Graham, Melissa L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Shivvers, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    SN 2013ej is a well-studied core-collapse supernova (SN) that stemmed from a directly identified red supergiant (RSG) progenitor in galaxy M74. The source exhibits signs of substantial geometric asphericity, X-rays from persistent interaction with circumstellar material (CSM), thermal emission from warm dust, and a light curve that appears intermediate between supernovae of Types II-P and II-L. The proximity of this source motivates a close inspection of these physical characteristics and their potential interconnection. We present multiepoch spectropolarimetry of SN 2013ej during the first 107 days and deep optical spectroscopy and ultraviolet through infrared photometry past ∼800 days. SN 2013ej exhibits the strongest and most persistent continuum and line polarization ever observed for a SN of its class during the recombination phase. Modeling indicates that the data are consistent with an oblate ellipsoidal photosphere, viewed nearly edge-on and probably augmented by optical scattering from circumstellar dust. We suggest that interaction with an equatorial distribution of CSM, perhaps the result of binary evolution, is responsible for generating the photospheric asphericity. Relatedly, our late-time optical imaging and spectroscopy show that asymmetric CSM interaction is ongoing, and the morphology of broad Hα emission from shock-excited ejecta provides additional evidence that the geometry of the interaction region is ellipsoidal. Alternatively, a prolate ellipsoidal geometry from an intrinsically bipolar explosion is also a plausible interpretation of the data but would probably require a ballistic jet of radioactive material capable of penetrating the hydrogen envelope early in the recombination phase. Finally, our latest space-based optical imaging confirms that the late interaction-powered light curve dropped below the stellar progenitor level, confirming the RSG star’s association with the explosion.

  4. Cleistanthus collinus induces type I distal renal tubular acidosis and type II respiratory failure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneksh Delinda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose : A water decoction of the poisonous shrub Cleistanthus collinus is used for suicidal purposes. The mortality rate is 28%. The clinical profile includes distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA and respiratory failure. The mechanism of toxicity is unclear. Objectives : To demonstrate features of C. collinus toxicity in a rat model and to identify its mechanism(s of action. Materials and Methods : Rats were anesthetized and the carotid artery was cannulated. Electrocardiogram and respiratory movements were recorded. Either aqueous extract of C. collinus or control solution was administered intraperitoneally. Serial measurements of blood gases, electrolytes and urinary pH were made. Isolated brush border and basolateral membranes from rat kidney were incubated with C. collinus extract and reduction in ATPase activity was assessed. Venous blood samples from human volunteers and rats were incubated with an acetone extract of C. collinus and plasma potassium was estimated as an assay for sodium-potassium pump activity. Results : The mortality was 100% in tests and 17% in controls. Terminal event in test animals was respiratory arrest. Controls had metabolic acidosis, respiratory compensation , acidic urine and hyperkalemia. Test animals showed respiratory acidosis, alkaline urine and low blood potassium as compared to controls. C. collinus extract inhibited ATPase activity in rat kidney. Plasma K + did not increase in human blood incubated with C. collinus extract. Conclusions and Implications : Active principles of C. collinus inhibit proton pumps in the renal brush border, resulting in type I DRTA in rats. There is no inhibition of sodium-potassium pump activity. Test animals develop respiratory acidosis, and the immediate cause of death is respiratory arrest.

  5. The type II collagen fragments Helix-II and CTX-II reveal different enzymatic pathways of human cartilage collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charni-Ben Tabassi, N; Desmarais, S; Jensen, Anne-Christine Bay

    2008-01-01

    sections were then incubated for up to 84h in the presence or absence of E-64 and GM6001, inhibitors of cysteine proteases and MMPs, respectively. RESULTS: In vitro, Cats K, L and S generated large amount of Helix-II, but not CTX-II. Cat B generated CTX-II fragment, but destroyed Helix-II immunoreactivity...

  6. Targeting GH-1 splicing as a novel pharmacological strategy for growth hormone deficiency type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2017-01-15

    Isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD II) is a rare genetic splicing disorder characterized by reduced growth hormone (GH) secretion and short stature. It is mainly caused by autosomal dominant-negative mutations within the growth hormone gene (GH-1) which results in missplicing at the mRNA level and the subsequent loss of exon 3, producing the 17.5-kDa GH isoform: a mutant and inactive GH protein that reduces the stability and the secretion of the 22-kDa GH isoform, the main biologically active GH form. At present, patients suffering from IGHD II are treated with daily injections of recombinant human GH (rhGH) in order to reach normal height. However, this type of replacement therapy, although effective in terms of growth, does not prevent the toxic effects of the 17.5-kDa mutant on the pituitary gland, which may eventually lead to other hormonal deficiencies. As the severity of the disease inversely correlates with the 17.5-kDa/22-kDa ratio, increasing the inclusion of exon 3 is expected to ameliorate disease symptoms. This review focuses on the recent advances in experimental and therapeutic strategies applicable to treat IGHD II in clinical and preclinical contexts. Several avenues for alternative IGHD II therapy will be discussed including the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs that specifically target the exon 3-deleted transcripts as well as the application of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) to enhance full-length GH-1 transcription, correct GH-1 exon 3 splicing and manipulate GH pathway.

  7. Nuclear angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors are functionally linked to nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwathmey, Tanya M; Shaltout, Hossam A; Pendergrass, Karl D; Pirro, Nancy T; Figueroa, Jorge P; Rose, James C; Diz, Debra I; Chappell, Mark C

    2009-06-01

    Expression of nuclear angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptors in rat kidney provides further support for the concept of an intracellular renin-angiotensin system. Thus we examined the cellular distribution of renal ANG II receptors in sheep to determine the existence and functional roles of intracellular ANG receptors in higher order species. Receptor binding was performed using the nonselective ANG II antagonist (125)I-[Sar(1),Thr(8)]-ANG II ((125)I-sarthran) with the AT(1) antagonist losartan (LOS) or the AT(2) antagonist PD123319 (PD) in isolated nuclei (NUC) and plasma membrane (PM) fractions obtained by differential centrifugation or density gradient separation. In both fetal and adult sheep kidney, PD competed for the majority of cortical NUC (> or =70%) and PM (> or =80%) sites while LOS competition predominated in medullary NUC (> or =75%) and PM (> or =70%). Immunodetection with an AT(2) antibody revealed a single approximately 42-kDa band in both NUC and PM extracts, suggesting a mature molecular form of the NUC receptor. Autoradiography for receptor subtypes localized AT(2) in the tubulointerstitium, AT(1) in the medulla and vasa recta, and both AT(1) and AT(2) in glomeruli. Loading of NUC with the fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) detector DAF showed increased NO production with ANG II (1 nM), which was abolished by PD and N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, but not LOS. Our studies demonstrate ANG II receptor subtypes are differentially expressed in ovine kidney, while nuclear AT(2) receptors are functionally linked to NO production. These findings provide further evidence of a functional intracellular renin-angiotensin system within the kidney, which may represent a therapeutic target for the regulation of blood pressure.

  8. The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L; Stein, Paul L; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP.

  9. Discriminating neutrino mass models using Type-II see-saw formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Nimal Singh; Mahadev Patagiri; Mrinal Kumar Das

    2006-02-01

    An attempt has been made to discriminate theoretically the three possible patterns of neutrino mass models,viz., degenerate, inverted hierarchical and normal hierachical models, within the framework of Type-II see-saw formula. From detailed numerical analysis we are able to arrive at a conclusion that the inverted hierarchical model with the same CP phase (referred to as Type [IIA]), appears to be most favourable to survive in nature (and hence most stable), with the normal hierarchical model (Type [III]) and inverted hierarchical model with opposite CP phase (Type [IIB]), follow next. The degenerate models (Types [IA,IB,IC]) are found to be most unstable. The neutrino mass matrices which are obtained using the usual canonical see-saw formula (Type I), and which also give almost good predictions of neutrino masses and mixings consistent with the latest neutrino oscillation data, are re-examined in the presence of the left-handed Higgs triplet within the framework of non-canonical see-saw formula (Type II). We then estimate a parameter (the so-called discriminator) which may represent the minimum degree of suppression of the extra term arising from the presence of left-handed Higgs triplet, so as to restore the good predictions on neutrino masses and mixings already acquired in Type-I see-saw model. The neutrino mass model is said to be favourable and hence stable when its canonical see-saw term dominates over the non-canonical (perturbative) term, and this condition is used here as a criterion for discriminating neutrino mass models.

  10. Monomeric, porous type II collagen scaffolds promote chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddon, M.; Burrows, M.; Ferreira, S. A.; Dazzi, F.; Apperley, J. F.; Bradshaw, A.; Brand, D. D.; Czernuszka, J.; Gentleman, E.

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of pain and disability and is often associated with the degeneration of articular cartilage. Lesions to the articular surface, which are thought to progress to OA, have the potential to be repaired using tissue engineering strategies; however, it remains challenging to instruct cell differentiation within a scaffold to produce tissue with appropriate structural, chemical and mechanical properties. We aimed to address this by driving progenitor cells to adopt a chondrogenic phenotype through the tailoring of scaffold composition and physical properties. Monomeric type-I and type-II collagen scaffolds, which avoid potential immunogenicity associated with fibrillar collagens, were fabricated with and without chondroitin sulfate (CS) and their ability to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells was assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that cells produced abundant collagen type-II on type-II scaffolds and collagen type-I on type-I scaffolds. Gene expression analyses indicated that the addition of CS – which was released from scaffolds quickly – significantly upregulated expression of type II collagen, compared to type-I and pure type-II scaffolds. We conclude that collagen type-II and CS can be used to promote a more chondrogenic phenotype in the absence of growth factors, potentially providing an eventual therapy to prevent OA.

  11. Monomeric, porous type II collagen scaffolds promote chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddon, M; Burrows, M; Ferreira, S A; Dazzi, F; Apperley, J F; Bradshaw, A; Brand, D D; Czernuszka, J; Gentleman, E

    2017-03-03

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of pain and disability and is often associated with the degeneration of articular cartilage. Lesions to the articular surface, which are thought to progress to OA, have the potential to be repaired using tissue engineering strategies; however, it remains challenging to instruct cell differentiation within a scaffold to produce tissue with appropriate structural, chemical and mechanical properties. We aimed to address this by driving progenitor cells to adopt a chondrogenic phenotype through the tailoring of scaffold composition and physical properties. Monomeric type-I and type-II collagen scaffolds, which avoid potential immunogenicity associated with fibrillar collagens, were fabricated with and without chondroitin sulfate (CS) and their ability to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells was assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that cells produced abundant collagen type-II on type-II scaffolds and collagen type-I on type-I scaffolds. Gene expression analyses indicated that the addition of CS - which was released from scaffolds quickly - significantly upregulated expression of type II collagen, compared to type-I and pure type-II scaffolds. We conclude that collagen type-II and CS can be used to promote a more chondrogenic phenotype in the absence of growth factors, potentially providing an eventual therapy to prevent OA.

  12. Structure of the minor pseudopilin XcpW from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type II secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, Laura P.; Douzi, Badreddine; Durand, Eric; Dyer, David H.; Voulhouxd, Romé; Forest, Katrina T. (CNRS-UMR); (CNRS-CRMD); (UW)

    2012-01-13

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes the type II secretion machinery to transport virulence factors through the outer membrane into the extracellular space. Five proteins in the type II secretion system share sequence homology with pilin subunits of type IV pili and are called the pseudopilins. The major pseudopilin X{sub cp}T{sub G} assembles into an intraperiplasmic pilus and is thought to act in a piston-like manner to push substrates through an outer membrane secretin. The other four minor pseudopilins, X{sub cp}U{sub H}, X{sub cp}V{sub I}, X{sub cp}W{sub J} and X{sub cp}X{sub K}, play less well defined roles in pseudopilus formation. It was recently discovered that these four minor pseudopilins form a quaternary complex that is presumed to initiate the formation of the pseudopilus and to localize to its tip. Here, the structure of X{sub cp}W{sub J} was refined to 1.85 {angstrom} resolution. The structure revealed the type IVa pilin fold with an embellished variable antiparallel {beta}-sheet as also found in the X{sub cp}W{sub J} homologue enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli G{sub sp}J{sub W} and the X{sub cp}U{sub H} homologue Vibrio cholerae E{sub ps}U{sub H}. It is proposed that the exposed surface of this sheet may cradle the long N-terminal 1 helix of another pseudopilin. The final 31 amino acids of the X{sub cp}W{sub J} structure are instrinsically disordered. Deletion of this unstructured region of X{sub cp}W{sub J} did not prevent type II secretion in vivo.

  13. Yoga Practice for the Management of Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: A systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Aljasir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of practicing yoga for the management of type II Diabetes was assessed in this systematic review through searching related electronic databases and the grey literature to the end of May 2007 using Ovid. All randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs comparing yoga practice with other type of intervention or with regular practice or both, were included regardless of language or type of publication. Each study was assessed for quality by two independent reviewers. Mean difference was used for summarizing the effect of each study outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Pooling of the studies did not take place due to the wide clinical variation between the studies. Publication bias was assessed by statistical methods. Five trials with 363 participants met the inclusion criteria with medium to high risk of bias and different intervention characteristics. The studies’ results show improvement in outcomes among patients with diabetes type II. These improvements were mainly among short term or immediate diabetes outcomes and not all were statistically significant. The results were inconclusive and not significant for the long-term outcomes. No adverse effects were reported in any of the included studies. Short-term benefits for patients with diabetes may be achieved from practicing yoga. Further research is needed in this area. Factors like quality of the trials and other methodological issues should be improved by large randomized control trials with allocation concealment to assess the effectiveness of yoga on diabetes type II. A definitive recommendation for physicians to encourage their patients to practice yoga cannot be reached at present.

  14. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II: Innovations in diagnostics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Nebojša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT Management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT and treatment options have significantly changed recently. Heparin may induce two types of thrombocytopenia. Type I, occurring earlier with a much higher rate of incidence (5-30%, is characterized by mild thrombocytopenia without significant clinical manifestations. Type II is less frequent (0.5-2%, life threatening immune type, develops following a period of minimum 5-7 days upon introduction of heparin therapy (patients earlier treated with heparin are excluded. Type II heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with severely reduced platelet count may be clinically manifested by thrombosis in 20-50% cases within the period of 30 days. HIT is suspected in persons resistant to heparin with relatively reduced platelet count, though HIT is described in person with normal platelet counts, as well. None of available assays used for HIT detection is completely reliable Sensitivity of a highly specific platelet aggregation assay is only 36% sensitivity and specificity of 14C-serotonin release assays amounts to 95% while ELISA using a heparin/platelet factor-4 target has a sensitivity of 85%. Thus, it is sometimes necessary to combine functional and antigen assays. Furthermore, new classes of antigen assays, like antibody detection tests of complexes between heparin and neutrophil-activating peptide-2 as well as those between heparin and interleukin-8, have been used. Current therapy options Current therapy options exclude formerly applied low-molecular-weight heparins due to the existing cross-reactivity of 80–100%. Danaparoid sodium exhibits in vitro cross-reactivity of 10–61%, clinically manifested in less than 5% of patients. Two drugs are drugs of choice in HIT type II treatment: lepirudin, especially in patients without renal failure and argatroban, particularly in patients with renal failure. The following procedures and agents are also efficient: asmapheresis

  15. Robust Type-II Weyl Semimetal Phase in Transition Metal Diphosphides X P2 (X =Mo , W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autès, G.; Gresch, D.; Troyer, M.; Soluyanov, A. A.; Yazyev, O. V.

    2016-08-01

    The recently discovered type-II Weyl points appear at the boundary between electron and hole pockets. Type-II Weyl semimetals that host such points are predicted to exhibit a new type of chiral anomaly and possess thermodynamic properties very different from their type-I counterparts. In this Letter, we describe the prediction of a type-II Weyl semimetal phase in the transition metal diphosphides MoP2 and WP2 . These materials are characterized by relatively simple band structures with four pairs of type-II Weyl points. Neighboring Weyl points have the same chirality, which makes the predicted topological phase robust with respect to small perturbations of the crystalline lattice. In addition, this peculiar arrangement of the Weyl points results in long topological Fermi arcs, thus making them readily accessible in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

  16. Enhancement of Adipocyte Browning by Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Kana; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Kanno, Harumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Higaki, Akinori; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Min, Li-Juan; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named ‘beige’ or ‘brite’ adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R). However, the functional roles of angiotensin II receptor subtypes in WAT browning have not been defined. Therefore, we examined whether deletion of angiotensin II receptor subtypes (AT1aR and AT2R) may affect white-to-beige fat conversion in vivo. AT1a receptor knockout (AT1aKO) mice exhibited increased appearance of multilocular lipid droplets and upregulation of thermogenic gene expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) compared to wild-type (WT) mice. AT2 receptor-deleted mice did not show miniaturization of lipid droplets or alteration of thermogenic gene expression levels in iWAT. An in vitro experiment using adipose tissue-derived stem cells showed that deletion of the AT1a receptor resulted in suppression of adipocyte differentiation, with reduction in expression of thermogenic genes. These results indicate that deletion of the AT1a receptor might have some effects on the process of browning of WAT and that blockade of the AT1 receptor could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27992452

  17. Vacuolar ATPase regulates surfactant secretion in rat alveolar type II cells by modulating lamellar body calcium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendranath Reddy Chintagari

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase is the enzyme responsible for pumping H(+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1, an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca(2+ release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca(2+ mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion.

  18. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  19. Native type II collagen-induced arthritis in the rat. I. Incidence and humoral response to collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Clague, R B; Shaw, M J; Holt, P J

    1980-01-01

    An acute inflammatory arthritis has been induced in 76% of rats injected intradermally with native bovine type II collagen emulsified in Freund's complete (CFA) or incomplete (ICFA) adjuvant. The arthritis became chronic in 14 out of 31 rats, and ear and tail lesions were noted in some rats. No arthritis was induced by native type I collagen, denatured type II collagen, rabbit IgG, or buffer alone injected intradermally with adjuvant. Using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for serum antibodies ...

  20. Determination of Mercury (II Ion on Aryl Amide-Type Podand-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Güney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new voltammetric sensor based on an aryl amide type podand, 1,8-bis(o-amidophenoxy-3,6-dioxaoctane, (AAP modified glassy carbon electrode, was described for the determination of trace level of mercury (II ion by cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV. A well-defined anodic peak corresponding to the oxidation of mercury on proposed electrode was obtained at 0.2 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The effect of experimental parameters on differential voltammetric peak currents was investigated in acetate buffer solution of pH 7.0 containing 1 × 10−1 mol L−1 NaCl. Mercury (II ion was preconcentrated at the modified electrode by forming complex with AAP under proper conditions and then reduced on the surface of the electrode. Interferences of Cu2+, Pb2+, Fe3+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ ions were also studied at two different concentration ratios with respect to mercury (II ions. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of mercury (II ions in seawater sample.

  1. Photospheric Magnitude Diagrams for Type II Supernovae: A Promising Tool to Compute Distances

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Ósmar; Hamuy, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We develop an empirical color-based standardization for Type II supernovae (SNe II), equivalent to the classical surface brightness method given in Wesselink (1969). We calibrate it with SNe II with host galaxy distance measured with Cepheids, and well-constrained shock breakout epoch and extinction due to the host galaxy. We estimate the reddening with an analysis of the B-V versus V-I color-color curves, similar to that of Natali et al. (1994). With four SNe II meeting the above requirements, we build a photospheric magnitude versus color diagram (similar to an HR diagram) with a dispersion of 0.29 mag. We also show that when using time since shock breakout instead of color as independent variable, the same standardization gives a dispersion of 0.09 mag. Moreover, we show that the above time-based standardization corresponds to the generalization of the standardized candle method of Hamuy & Pinto (2002) for various epochs throughout the photospheric phase. To test the new tool, we construct Hubble diagr...

  2. MAJEWSKI OSTEODYSPLASTIC PRIMORDIAL DWARFISM TYPE II: CLINICAL FINDINGS AND DENTAL MANAGEMENT OF A CHILD PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Terlemez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II is an unusual autosomal recessive inherited form of primordial dwarfism, which is characterized by a small head diameter at birth, but which also progresses to severe microcephaly, progressive bony dysplasia, and characteristic facies and personality. This report presents a case of a five-year-old girl with MOPD II syndrome. The patient was referred to our clinic with the complaint of severe tooth pain at the left mandibular primary molar teeth. Clinical examination revealed that most of the primary teeth had been decayed and all primary teeth were hypoplastic. Patient’s history revealed delayed development in the primary dentition and radiographic examination showed rootless primary molar teeth and short-rooted incisors. The treatment was not possible due to the lack of root of the left mandibular primary molars; so the teeth were extracted. Thorough and timely dental evaluation is crucial for the prevention of dental problems and the maintenance of oral health in patients with MOPD II syndrome is of utmost importance.

  3. Endogenous type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase exists as a dimer in membranes and can Be functionally distinguished from the type I isoforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Vaandrager (Arie); M.J. Edixhoven (Marcel); A.G. Bot (Alice); M.A. Kroos (Marian); T. Jarchau; S. Lohmann; H.G. Genieser; H.R. de Jonge (Hugo)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn mammalian tissues two types of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) have been identified. In contrast to the dimeric cGK I, cGK II purified from pig intestine was shown previously to behave as a monomer. However, recombinant rat cGK II was found to have hy

  4. Mood instability in bipolar disorder type I versus type II-continuous daily electronic self-monitoring of illness activity using smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Ritz, Christian; Frost, Mads

    2015-01-01

    I and II using daily data. The objectives were to investigate differences in daily illness activity between bipolar disorder type I and II. METHODS: A smartphone-based system for self-monitoring was developed. A total of 33 patients treated in a mood clinic used the system for daily self...

  5. Platelet aggregation responses and virus isolation from platelets in calves experimentally infected with type I or type II bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, P H; Bell, T G; Grooms, D L; Kaiser, L; Maes, R K; Baker, J C

    2001-10-01

    Altered platelet function has been reported in calves experimentally infected with type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The purpose of the present study was to further evaluate the ability of BVDV isolates to alter platelet function and to examine for the presence of a virus-platelet interaction during BVDV infection. Colostrum-deprived Holstein calves were obtained immediately after birth, housed in isolation, and assigned to 1 of 4 groups (1 control and 3 treatment groups). Control calves (n = 4) were sham inoculated, while calves in the infected groups (n = 4 for each group) were inoculated by intranasal instillation with 10(7) TCID50 of either BVDV 890 (type II), BVDV 7937 (type II), or BVDV TGAN (type I). Whole blood was collected prior to inoculation (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after inoculation for platelet function testing by optical aggregometry by using adenosine diphosphate and platelet activating factor. The maximum percentage aggregation and the slope of the aggregation curve decreased over time in BVDV-infected calves; however, statistically significant differences (Freidman repeated measures ANOVA on ranks, P infected with the type II BVDV isolates. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was not isolated from control calves, but was isolated from all calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates from days 4 through 12 after inoculation. In calves infected with type I BVDV, virus was isolated from 1 of 4 calves on days 4 and 12 after inoculation and from all calves on days 6 and 8 after inoculation. Altered platelet function was observed in calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates, but was not observed in calves infected with type I BVDV. Altered platelet function may be important as a difference in virulence between type I and type II BVDV infection.

  6. 450 Days of Type II SN 2013ej in Optical and Near-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Fang; Valenti, S; Sollerman, J; Seitenzahl, I R; Pastorello, A; Schulze, S; Chen, T -W; Childress, M J; Fraser, M; Fremling, C; Kotak, R; Ruiter, A J; Schmidt, B P; Smartt, S J; Taddia, F; Terreran, G; Tucker, B E; Barbarino, C; Benetti, S; Elias-Rosa, N; Gal-Yam, A; Howell, D A; Inserra, C; Kankare, E; Lee, M Y; Li, K L; Maguire, K; Margheim, S; Mehner, A; Ochner, P; Sullivan, M; Tomasella, L; Young, D R

    2016-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2013ej, in galaxy M74, from 1 to 450 days after the explosion. SN 2013ej is a hydrogen-rich supernova, classified as a Type IIL due to its relatively fast decline following the initial peak. It has a relatively high peak luminosity (absolute magnitude M$_\\rm{V}$ = -17.6) but a small $^{56}$Ni production of ~0.023 M$_\\odot$. Its photospheric evolution is similar to other Type II SNe, with shallow absorption in the H{\\alpha} profile typical for a Type IIL. During transition to the radioactive decay tail at ~100 days, we find the SN to grow bluer in B - V colour, in contrast to some other Type II supernovae. At late times, the bolometric light curve declined faster than expected from $^{56}$Co decay and we observed unusually broad and asymmetric nebular emission lines. Based on comparison of nebular emission lines most sensitive to the progenitor core mass, we find our observations are best matched to synthesized spectral model...

  7. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose and surcose in types I and II diabetic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantle, J.P.; Laine, D.C.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-12-19

    To learn more about the metabolic effects of dietary fructose and sucrose, 12 type 1 and 12 type II diabetic subjects were fed three isocaloric (or isoenergic) diets for eight days each according to a randomized, crossover design. The three diets provided, respectively, 21% of the energy as fructose, 23% of the energy as sucrose, and almost all carbohydrate energy as starch. The fructose diet resulted in significantly lower one- and two-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels, overall mean plasma glucose levels, and urinary glucose excretion in both type I and type II subjects than did the starch diet. There were no significant differences between the sucrose and starch diets in any of the measures of glycemic control in either subject group. The fructose and sucrose diets did not significantly increase serum triglyceride values when compared with the starch diet, but both increased postprandial serum lactate levels. The authors conclude that short-term replacement of other carbohydrate sources in the diabetic diet with fructose will improve glycemic control, whereas replacement with sucrose will not aggravate glycemic control.

  8. Mutations in LCA5 are an uncommon cause of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Sylvie; Hanein, Sylvain; Perrault, Isabelle; Delphin, Nathalie; Aboussair, Nisrine; Leowski, Corinne; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Roche, Olivier; Munnich, Arnold; Kaplan, Josseline; Rozet, Jean-Michel

    2007-12-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the earliest and most severe form of inherited retinal dystrophy responsible for blindness or severe visual impairment at birth or within the first months of life. Up to date, ten LCA genes have been identified. Three of them account for ca. 43% of families and are responsible for a congenital severe stationary cone-rod dystrophy (Type I, 60% of LCA) while the seven remaining genes account for 32% of patients and are responsible for a progressive yet severe rod-cone dystrophy (Type II, 40% of LCA ). Recently, mutations in LCA5, encoding the ciliary protein lebercilin, were reported to be a rare cause of leber congenital amaurosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the involvement of this novel gene and to look for genotype-phenotype correlations. Here we report the identification of three novel LCA5 mutations (3/3 homozygous) in three families confirming the modest implication of this gene in our series (3/179; 1.7%). Besides, we suggest that the phenotype of these patients affected with a particularly severe form of LCA type II may represent a continuum with LCA type I.

  9. The Intrauterine Device in Women with Diabetes Mellitus Type I and II: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstuck, Norman D; Steyn, Petrus S

    2013-12-11

    Background. Women with diabetes mellitus type I and type II need effective contraception for personal and medical reasons. Long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are among the most efficient and cost-effective methods. Study Design. We searched the Popline, PubMed, and clinicaltrials.gov databases from 1961 to March 2013 for studies on the efficacy of the IUD in diabetic women and the possible changes it may produce in laboratory parameters. Studies of at least 30 subjects with DM1 or DM2 who were studied for 6 to 12 months depending on the method of analysis were eligible. Results. The search produced seven articles which gave event rate efficacy evaluable results and three which evaluated the effect of the IUD on laboratory parameters. One of the earlier efficacy studies showed an abnormally high pregnancy rate which sparked a controversy which is discussed in the Introduction section. The remaining 6 studies produced acceptable pregnancy rates. The three laboratory studies showed that the copper and levonorgestrel releasing IUD/IUS do not affect the diabetic state in any way. Conclusions. The copper bearing and levonorgestrel releasing IUDs are safe and effective in women with diabetes type I and diabetes type II although the evidence in the latter is limited.

  10. Qubit and Fermionic Fock Spaces from Type II Superstring Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Belhaj, A; Benslimane, Z; Sedra, M B; Segui, A

    2016-01-01

    Using Hodge diagram combinatorial data, we study qubit and fermionic Fock spaces from the point of view of type II superstring black holes based on complex compactifications. Concretely, we establish a one-to-one correspondence between qubits, fermionic spaces and extremal black holes in maximally supersymmetric supergravity obtained from type II superstring on complex toroidal and Calabi-Yau compactifications. We interpret the differential forms of the n-dimensional complex toroidal compactification as states of n-qubits encoding information on extremal black hole charges. We show that there are 2^n copies of n-qubit systems which can be split as 2^n=2^{n-1}+2^{n-1}. More precisely, 2^{n-1} copies are associated with even D-brane charges in type IIA superstring and the other 2^{n-1} ones correspond to odd D-brane charges in IIB superstring. This correspondence is generalized to a class of Calabi-Yau manifolds. In connection with black hole charges in type IIA superstring, an n-qubit system has been obtained ...

  11. Keeping the wolves at bay: antitoxins of prokaryotic type II toxin-antitoxin systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ting eChan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In their initial stages of discovery, prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA systems were confined to bacterial plasmids where they function to mediate the maintenance and stability of usually low- to medium-copy number plasmids through the post-segregational killing of any plasmid-free daughter cells that developed. Their eventual discovery as nearly ubiquitous and repetitive elements in bacterial chromosomes led to a wealth of knowledge and scientific debate as to their diversity and functionality in the prokaryotic lifestyle. Currently categorized into six different types designated types I – VI, type II TA systems are the best characterized. These generally comprised of two genes encoding a proteic toxin and its corresponding proteic antitoxin, respectively. Under normal growth conditions, the stable toxin is prevented from exerting its lethal effect through tight binding with the less stable antitoxin partner, forming a non-lethal TA protein complex. Besides binding with its cognate toxin, the antitoxin also plays a role in regulating the expression of the type II TA operon by binding to the operator site, thereby repressing transcription from the TA promoter. In most cases, full repression is observed in the presence of the TA complex as binding of the toxin enhances the DNA binding capability of the antitoxin. TA systems have been implicated in a gamut of prokaryotic cellular functions such as being mediators of programmed cell death as well as persistence or dormancy, biofilm formation, as defensive weapons against bacteriophage infections and as virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. It is thus apparent that these antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay. In this review, we will cover the diversity and characteristics of various type II TA

  12. Probing Shock Breakout with Serendipitous GALEX Detections of Two SNLS Type II-P Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Gezari, Suvi; Basa, Stephane; Martin, D Chris; Neill, James D; Woosley, S E; Hillier, D John; Astier, Pierre; Balam, Dave; Balland, Christophe; Bazin, Gurvan; Carlberg, Ray; Conley, Alex; Forster, Karl; Fouchez, Dominique; Friedman, Peter G; Guy, Julien; Hardin, Delphine; Hook, Isobel; Howell, D Andrew; Du, Jeremy Le; Lidman, Chris; Mazure, Alain; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris; Regnault, Nicolas; Schiminovich, David; Sullivan, Mark; Wyder, Ted K

    2008-01-01

    We report the serendipitous detection by GALEX of fast ( 1 mag) UV emission from two Type II Plateau (II-P) supernovae (SNe) at z=0.185 and 0.324 discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). Optical photometry and VLT spectroscopy 2 weeks after the GALEX detections link the onset of UV emission to the time of shock breakout. Using radiation hydrodymanics and non-LTE radiative transfer simulations, and starting from a standard red supergiant (RSG; Type II-P SN progenitor) star evolved self-consistently from the main sequence to iron core collapse, we model the shock breakout phase and the 55 hours that follow. Although our one-temperature treatment prevents us from modeling the radiative precursor, the small RSG atmospheric scale height suggests a < 2000 s duration. A duration of many hours would require an extended low-density envelope, incompatible with our RSG envelope structure. In our model, the breakout signature is a luminous (M_FUV ~ -20) thermal < 1 hr-long soft X-ray burst (lambda_peak ~ 9...

  13. TEST & EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE HEDGEHOG-II PACKAGING SYSTEMS DOT-7A TYPE A CONTAINER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, D.L.

    2003-12-29

    This report documents the US. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A compliance test and evaluation results for the Hedgehog-II packaging systems. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations provide primary and secondary containment. The approved packaging configurations described within this report are designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be in solid or liquid form. Liquids transported in the approved 1 L glass bottle assembly shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 1.6. Liquids transported in all other approved configurations shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 2.0. The solid contents, including packaging, are limited in weight to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations described in this report may be transported by air, and have been evaluated as meeting the applicable International Air Transport Association/International Civil Aviation Organization (IATA/ICAO) Dangerous Goods Regulations in addition to the DOT requirements.

  14. SN 2004A: Another Type II-P Supernova with a Red Supergiant Progenitor

    CERN Document Server

    Hendry, M A; Cenko, S B; Crockett, R M; Fox, D W; Gal-Yam, A; Kudritzki, R P; Maund, J R; Moon, D S; Smartt, S J

    2006-01-01

    We present a monitoring study of SN 2004A and probable discovery of a progenitor star in pre-explosion HST images. The photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of SN 2004A show that it was a normal Type II-P which was discovered in NGC 6207 about two weeks after explosion. We compare SN 2004A to the similar Type II-P SN 1999em and estimate an explosion epoch of 2004 January 6. We also calculate three new distances to NGC 6207 of 21.0 +/-4.3, 21.4 +/-3.5 and 25.1 +/-1.7Mpc. The former was calculated using the Standard Candle Method (SCM) for SNe II-P, and the latter two from the Brightest Supergiants Method (BSM). We combine these three distances with existing kinematic distances, to derive a mean value of 20.3 +/-3.4Mpc. Using this distance we estimate that the ejected nickel mass in the explosion is 0.046(+0.031,-0.017) Msolar. The progenitor of SN 2004A is identified in pre-explosion WFPC2 F814W images with a magnitude of mF814W = 24.3 +/-0.3, but is below the detection limit of the F606W images. We show th...

  15. A dozen type II-P supernovae seen with the eyes of Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Szalai, T

    2012-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe), especially those of type II-plateau (II-P), are thought to be important contributors to cosmic dust production. The most obvious indicator of the presence of newly-formed and/or pre-existing dust is the time-dependent mid-infrared (MIR) excess coming from the environment of SNe. Our goal was to collect publicly available, previously unpublished measurements on type II-P (or peculiar IIP) SNe from the Spitzer database. The temporal changes of the observed fluxes may be indicative of the underlying supernova, while spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to the fluxes in different IRAC channels may reveal the physical parameters of the mid-IR radiation, presumably due to warm dust. IRS spectra were extracted and calibrated with SPICE, while photometric SEDs were assembled using IRAF and MOPEX. Calculated SEDs from observed fluxes were fit with simple dust models to get basic information on the dust presumed as the source of MIR radiation. We found twelve SNe satisfying the ...

  16. Interaction of lubricin with type II collagen surfaces: adsorption, friction, and normal forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Debby P; Guilak, Farshid; Jay, Gregory D; Zauscher, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    One of the major constituents of the synovial fluid that is thought to be responsible for chondroprotection and boundary lubrication is the glycoprotein lubricin (PRG4); however, the molecular mechanisms by which lubricin carries out its critical functions still remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that the interaction of lubricin with type II collagen, the main component of the cartilage extracellular matrix, results in enhanced tribological and wear properties. In this study, we examined: (i) the molecular details by which lubricin interacts with type II collagen and how binding is related to boundary lubrication and adhesive interactions; and (ii) whether collagen structure can affect lubricin adsorption and its chondroprotective properties. We found that lubricin adsorbs strongly onto denatured, amorphous, and fibrillar collagen surfaces. Furthermore, we found large repulsive interactions between the collagen surfaces in presence of lubricin, which increased with increasing lubricin concentration. Lubricin attenuated the large friction and also the long-range adhesion between fibrillar collagen surfaces. Interestingly, lubricin adsorbed onto and mediated the frictional response between the denatured and native amorphous collagen surfaces equally and showed no preference on the supramolecular architecture of collagen. However, the coefficient of friction was lowest on fibrillar collagen in the presence of lubricin. We speculate that an important role of lubricin in mediating interactions at the cartilage surface is to attach to the cartilage surface and provide a protective coating that maintains the contacting surfaces in a sterically repulsive state.

  17. A Detailed Comparison Between The Observed and Synthesized Properties of a Simulated Type ii Spicule

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Leenaarts, Jorrit; Pereira, Tiago M D; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Stern, Julie V; Tian, Hui; McIntosh, Scott W; van der Voort, Luc Rouppe

    2013-01-01

    We performed a 3D radiative MHD simulation of the solar atmosphere. This simulation shows a jet-like feature that shows similarities to the type II spicules observed for the first time with Hinode. Rapid Blueshifted Events (RBEs) on the solar disk are associated with these spicules. Observational results suggest they may contribute significantly in supplying the corona with hot plasma. We perform a detailed comparison of the properties of the simulated jet with those of type II spicules (observed with Hinode) and RBEs (with ground-based instruments). We analyze variety of synthetic emission and absorption lines from the simulations including chromospheric Ca II and Ha to TR and coronal temperatures (10E4 to several 10E6K). We compare their synthetic intensities, line profiles, Doppler shifts, line widths and asymmetries with observations from Hinode/SOT and EIS, SOHO/SUMER, SST and SDO/AIA. Many properties of the synthetic observables resemble the observations, and we describe in detail the physical processes...

  18. Helicobacter Pylori in periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Sambashivaiah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This randomized controlled study evaluated the association of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori with chronic periodontitis patients with and without type II Diabetes Mellitus. H. pylori is considered to be a pathogen responsible for gastritis, peptic ulcers and a risk factor for gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of H. pylori with chronic periodontitis patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus before and after treatment. The prevalence of H. pylori in periodontal pockets was determined by rapid urease test in a 36 patients, which were grouped as Group 1 (Healthy subjects, Group II (chronic periodontitis patients and Group III (Chronic periodontitis patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus, 12 in each group before treatment by collecting plaque samples. After treatment, 12 plaque samples were collected and prevalence H. pylori was detected. Group II and Group III had a significantly higher rate of positive results for H. pylori compared to healthy subjects before treatment. After treatment, H. pylori were not detected in Group II and in Group III Only one of 12 chronic periodontitis patients with Type II diabetes mellitus had H. pylori in the periodontal pocket. The prevalence of H. pylori did not differ significantly between the chronic periodontitis patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus. Meticulous scaling and root planning will reduce the prevalence of H. pylori in periodontal pockets.

  19. An angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation switch patch revealed through evolutionary trace analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Yao, Rong; Ma, Jian-Nong;

    2010-01-01

    in the cytoplasmic parts of TM2, TM3, and TM6 to form an activation switch that is common to all family A 7TM receptors. We tested this hypothesis in the rat Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1a (AT1a) receptor. The receptor has important roles in the cardiovascular system, but has also frequently been applied as a model...... for 7TM receptor activation and signaling. Six mutations: F66A, L67R, L70R, L119R, D125A, and I245F were targeted to the putative switch and assayed for changes in activation state by their ligand binding, signaling, and trafficking properties. All but one receptor mutant (that was not expressed well...

  20. An Angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation switch patch revealed through Evolutionary Trace analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Yao, Rong; Ma, Jian-Nong

    2010-01-01

    in the cytoplasmic parts of TM2, TM3, and TM6 to form an activation switch that is common to all family A 7TM receptors. We tested this hypothesis in the rat Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1a (AT1a) receptor. The receptor has important roles in the cardiovascular system, but has also frequently been applied as a model......) displayed phenotypes associated with changed activation state, such as increased agonist affinity or basal activity, promiscuous activation, or constitutive internalization highlighting the importance of testing different signaling pathways. We conclude that this evolutionary important patch mediates...... to be completely resolved. Evolutionary Trace (ET) analysis is a computational method, which identifies clusters of functionally important residues by integrating information on evolutionary important residue variations with receptor structure. Combined with known mutational data, ET predicted a patch of residues...

  1. Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Jin; Reed, Lori A.; Davies, Monique V.; Girgenrath, Stefan; Goad, Mary E. P.; Tomkinson, Kathy N.; Wright, Jill F.; Barker, Christopher; Ehrmantraut, Gregory; Holmstrom, James; Trowell, Betty; Gertz, Barry; Jiang, Man-Shiow; Sebald, Suzanne M.; Matzuk, Martin; Li, En; Liang, Li-fang; Quattlebaum, Edwin; Stotish, Ronald L.; Wolfman, Neil M.

    2005-01-01

    Myostatin is a secreted protein that normally functions as a negative regulator of muscle growth. Agents capable of blocking the myostatin signaling pathway could have important applications for treating human muscle degenerative diseases as well as for enhancing livestock production. Here we describe a potent myostatin inhibitor, a soluble form of the activin type IIB receptor (ACVR2B), which can cause dramatic increases in muscle mass (up to 60% in 2 weeks) when injected into wild-type mice. Furthermore, we show that the effect of the soluble receptor is attenuated but not eliminated in Mstn-/- mice, suggesting that at least one other ligand in addition to myostatin normally functions to limit muscle growth. Finally, we provide genetic evidence that these ligands signal through both activin type II receptors, ACVR2 and ACVR2B, to regulate muscle growth in vivo. PMID:16330774

  2. [Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II A: early neurological and skeletal findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmer, C; Díaz Zambrano, S; Santos Díaz, M A; González Huerta, L M; Cuevas Covarrubias, S A; Bravo Oro, A

    2014-04-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are genetic disorders characterized by the loss of sensation including pain, tactile and temperature. Its clinical and molecular features vary widely; the symptoms may begin from birth or be noticed in the first or second decade, with different types of complications of trauma to the extremities such as ulcers, mutilations and acral amputations. They are classified into six groups from I to VI, determined by the abnormality in eleven genes leading to phenotypic variations in the age of onset and the presence or absence of dysautonomia signs. With the exception of type I, all are autosomal recessive. The type II of these neuropathies is characterized by insensitivity to pain, heat and proprioception. We describe three members of a Mexican family with WNK1 gene mutation that caused hereditary neuropathy IIA.

  3. Efficacy of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and mortality early after myocardial infarction is increased in transgenic rats with cardiac angiotensin II type 1 overexpression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, RA; van Geel, PP; Pinto, YM; Suurmeijer, AJH; Crijns, HJGM; van Gilst, WH; van Veldhuisen, DJ

    2002-01-01

    Angiotensin II induces ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced arrhythmias and blockade of the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) may therefore be beneficial in preventing arrhythmias and decreasing mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). Because the AT1R is upregulated after myocardial ischemia,

  4. Glutathione Reductase Targeted to Type II Cells Does Not Protect Mice from Hyperoxic Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyob, Kathryn M.; Rogers, Lynette K.; Welty, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure of the lung epithelium to reactive oxygen species without adequate antioxidant defenses leads to airway inflammation, and may contribute to lung injury. Glutathione peroxidase catalyzes the reduction of peroxides by oxidation of glutathione (GSH) to glutathione disulfide (GSSG), which can in turn be reduced by glutathione reductase (GR). Increased levels of GSSG have been shown to correlate negatively with outcome after oxidant exposure, and increased GR activity has been protective against hyperoxia in lung epithelial cells in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that increased GR expression targeted to type II alveolar epithelial cells would improve outcome in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Human GR with a mitochondrial targeting sequence was targeted to mouse type II cells using the SPC promoter. Two transgenic lines were identified, with Line 2 having higher lung GR activities than Line 1. Both transgenic lines had lower lung GSSG levels and higher GSH/GSSG ratios than wild-type. Six-week-old wild-type and transgenic mice were exposed to greater than 95% O2 or room air (RA) for 84 hours. After exposure, Line 2 mice had higher right lung/body weight ratios and lavage protein concentrations than wild-type mice, and both lines 1 and 2 had lower GSSG levels than wild-type mice. These findings suggest that GSSG accumulation in the lung may not play a significant role in the development of hyperoxic lung injury, or that compensatory responses to unregulated GR expression render animals more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury. PMID:18566333

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization-flow cytometry-cell sorting-based method for separation and enrichment of type I and type II methanotroph populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Zabinsky, Rebecca; Bowerman, Sarah; Baker, David R; Lidstrom, Mary E; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2006-06-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization-flow cytometry (FISH/FC)-based method was optimized using artificial mixtures of pure cultures of methanotrophic bacteria. Traditional oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNAs of type I (MG84/705 probe) and type II (MA450 probe) methanotrophs were labeled with fluorescein or Alexa fluor and used for FISH, followed by fluorescence-activated FC analysis and cell sorting (FACS). The method resulted in efficient separation of target cells (type I or type II methanotrophs) from the artificial mixtures. The method was then applied for detection and enrichment of type I and type II methanotroph populations from a natural sample, Lake Washington sediment. Cells were extracted from the sediment, fixed, and subjected to FISH/FC/FACS. The resulting subpopulations were analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR surveys of 16S rRNA, pmoA (encoding a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase), and fae (encoding formaldehyde-activating enzyme) genes. The functional gene analysis indicated specific separation of the type I and type II methanotroph populations. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that type I methanotrophs comprised 59% of the subpopulation separated using the type I-specific probe and that type II methanotrophs comprised 47.5% of the subpopulation separated using the type II-specific probe. Our data indicate that the FISH/FC/FACS protocol described can provide significant enrichment of microbial populations of interest from complex natural communities and that these can be used for genetic tests. We further tested the possibility of direct whole-genome amplification (WGA) from limited numbers of sorted cells, using artificial mixtures of microbes whose genome sequences are known. We demonstrated that efficient WGA can be achieved using 10(4) or more cells separated by 16S rRNA-specific FISH/FC/FACS, while fewer cells resulted in less specific WGA.

  6. Six missense mutations associated with type I and type II protein C deficiency and implications obtained from molecular modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y Z; Sakata, T; Matsusue, T; Umeyama, H; Kato, H; Miyata, T

    1994-10-01

    The molecular basis of protein C deficiency was studied in three type I and three type II heterozygotes. Three probands showed thrombotic complications. All the exons and intron/exon junctions of the protein C gene were studied using a strategy combining by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, and DNA sequencing of the PCR-amplified fragments. Six missense mutations were identified, including three novel ones. One was located in exon II, in which the initiating translation codon (ATG) encoding for Met at position -42 was replaced by ACG encoding for Thr. The other five were located in exon IX, and included TAC(Tyr399)-->CAC(His), CCG(Pro327)-->CTG(Leu), GAC(Asp359)-->AAC(Asn) in two cases, and GGG(Gly350)-->AGG(Arg). Four of the six missense mutations occurred in CG dinucleotide. Sequence analysis of the other exons excluded additional mutations. By restriction enzyme analysis, co-segregation of the mutation with protein C deficiency was observed in four families. The other two mutations at amino acid positions -42 and 350 were also considered to be associated with protein C deficiency due to the absence of these mutations in 50 normal individuals. A structural model of the protease domain of mutant activated protein C was constructed by the chimeric modelling method, and the resultant model suggested conformational changes due to each missense mutation identified in protein C deficiency. The present data also provide some evidence regarding the genetic heterogeneity of protein C deficiency.

  7. Interactions of Francisella tularensis with Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells and the Murine Respiratory Epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Faron

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is classified as a Tier 1 select agent by the CDC due to its low infectious dose and the possibility that the organism can be used as a bioweapon. The low dose of infection suggests that Francisella is unusually efficient at evading host defenses. Although ~50 cfu are necessary to cause human respiratory infection, the early interactions of virulent Francisella with the lung environment are not well understood. To provide additional insights into these interactions during early Francisella infection of mice, we performed TEM analysis on mouse lungs infected with F. tularensis strains Schu S4, LVS and the O-antigen mutant Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn. For all three strains, the majority of the bacteria that we could detect were observed within alveolar type II epithelial cells at 16 hours post infection. Although there were no detectable differences in the amount of bacteria within an infected cell between the three strains, there was a significant increase in the amount of cellular debris observed in the air spaces of the lungs in the Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant compared to either the Schu S4 or LVS strain. We also studied the interactions of Francisella strains with human AT-II cells in vitro by characterizing the ability of these three strains to invade and replicate within these cells. Gentamicin assay and confocal microscopy both confirmed that F. tularensis Schu S4 replicated robustly within these cells while F. tularensis LVS displayed significantly lower levels of growth over 24 hours, although the strain was able to enter these cells at about the same level as Schu S4 (1 organism per cell, as determined by confocal imaging. The Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant that we have previously described as attenuated for growth in macrophages and mouse virulence displayed interesting properties as well. This mutant induced significant airway inflammation (cell debris and had an attenuated growth phenotype in the human AT-II cells. These

  8. Restriction enzyme body doubles and PCR cloning: on the general use of type IIs restriction enzymes for cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Eszter; Huszár, Krisztina; Bencsura, Petra; Kulcsár, Péter István; Vodicska, Barbara; Nyeste, Antal; Welker, Zsombor; Tóth, Szilvia; Welker, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    The procedure described here allows the cloning of PCR fragments containing a recognition site of the restriction endonuclease (Type IIP) used for cloning in the sequence of the insert. A Type IIS endonuclease--a Body Double of the Type IIP enzyme--is used to generate the same protruding palindrome. Thus, the insert can be cloned to the Type IIP site of the vector without digesting the PCR product with the same Type IIP enzyme. We achieve this by incorporating the recognition site of a Type IIS restriction enzyme that cleaves the DNA outside of its recognition site in the PCR primer in such a way that the cutting positions straddle the desired overhang sequence. Digestion of the PCR product by the Body Double generates the required overhang. Hitherto the use of Type IIS restriction enzymes in cloning reactions has only been used for special applications, the approach presented here makes Type IIS enzymes as useful as Type IIP enzymes for general cloning purposes. To assist in finding Body Double enzymes, we summarised the available Type IIS enzymes which are potentially useful for Body Double cloning and created an online program (http://group.szbk.u-szeged.hu/welkergr/body_double/index.html) for the selection of suitable Body Double enzymes and the design of the appropriate primers.

  9. A comparative study of Type II-P and II-L supernova rise times as exemplified by the case of LSQ13cuw

    CERN Document Server

    Gall, E E E; Kotak, R; Jerkstrand, A; Leibundgut, B; Rabinowitz, D; Sollerman, J; Sullivan, M; Smartt, S J; Anderson, J P; Benetti, S; Baltay, C; Feindt, U; Fraser, M; González-Gaitán, S; Inserra, C; Maguire, K; McKinnon, R; Valenti, S; Young, D

    2015-01-01

    We report on our findings based on the analysis of observations of the Type II-L supernova LSQ13cuw within the framework of currently-accepted physical predictions of core-collapse supernova explosions. LSQ13cuw was discovered within a day of explosion, which is hitherto unprecedented for Type II-L supernovae. This motivated a comparative study of Type II-P and II-L supernovae with relatively well-constrained explosion epochs and rise times to maximium (optical) light. From our sample of 19 such events, we find evidence of a positive correlation between the duration of the rise and the peak brightness. On average, SNe II-L tend to have brighter peak magnitudes and longer rise times than SNe II-P. However, this difference is clearest only at the extreme ends of the rise-time versus peak brightness relation. Using two different analytical models, we performed a parameter study to investigate the physical parameters that control the rise-time behaviour. In general, the models qualitatively reproduce aspects of t...

  10. Type I/II cytokines, JAKs, and new strategies for treating autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniella M; Bonelli, Michael; Gadina, Massimo; O'Shea, John J

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are major drivers of autoimmunity, and biologic agents targeting cytokines have revolutionized the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Despite the effectiveness of these drugs, they do not induce complete remission in all patients, prompting the development of alternative strategies - including targeting of intracellular signal transduction pathways downstream of cytokines. Many cytokines that bind type I and type II cytokine receptors are critical regulators of immune-mediated diseases and employ the Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway to exert their effect. Pharmacological inhibition of JAKs blocks the actions of type I/II cytokines, and within the past 3 years therapeutic JAK inhibitors, or Jakinibs, have become available to rheumatologists. Jakinibs have proven effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Adverse effects of these agents are largely related to their mode of action and include infections and hyperlipidemia. Jakinibs are currently being investigated for a number of new indications, and second-generation selective Jakinibs are being developed and tested. Targeting STATs could be a future avenue for the treatment of rheumatologic diseases, although substantial challenges remain. Nonetheless, the ability to therapeutically target intracellular signalling pathways has already created a new paradigm for the treatment of rheumatologic disease.

  11. Condensation of dust in the ejecta of type II-P supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Sarangi, Arkaprabha

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We study the production of dust in Type II-P supernova by coupling the gas-phase chemistry to the dust nucleation and condensation phases. We consider two supernova progenitor masses with homogeneous and clumpy ejecta to assess the chemical type and quantity of dust that forms. Grain size distributions are derived as a function of post-explosion time. Methods: The chemistry of the gas phase and the simultaneous formation of dust clusters are described by a chemical network. The formation of key species (CO, SiO) and dust clusters of silicates, alumina, silica, metal carbides and sulphides, pure metals, and amorphous carbon is considered. The master equations describing the chemistry of the nucleation phase are coupled to a dust condensation formalism based on Brownian coagulation. Results: Type II-P supernovae produce dust grains of various chemical compositions and size distributions as a function of time. The grain size distributions gain in complexity with time, are slewed towards large grains, and d...

  12. Cosmology with Photometrically-Classified Type Ia Supernovae from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Heather; Nichol, Robert C; Sako, Masao; Smith, Mathew; Lampeitl, Hubert; Olmstead, Matthew D; Bassett, Bruce; Biswas, Rahul; Brown, Peter; Cinabro, David; Dawson, Kyle S; Dilday, Ben; Foley, Ryan J; Frieman, Joshua A; Garnavich, Peter; Hlozek, Renee; Jha, Saurabh W; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kunz, Martin; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Richmond, Michael; Riess, Adam; Schneider, Donald P; Sollerman, Jesper; Taylor, Matt; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2012-01-01

    We present the cosmological analysis of 752 photometrically-classified Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained from the full Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey, supplemented with host-galaxy spectroscopy from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Our photometric-classification method is based on the SN typing technique of Sako et al. (2011), aided by host galaxy redshifts (0.05typing efficiency of 70.8%, with only 3.9% contamination from core-collapse (non-Ia) SNe. We demonstrate that this level of contamination has no effect on our cosmological constraints. We quantify and correct for our selection effects (e.g., Malmquist bias) using simulations. When fitting to a flat LambdaCDM cosmological model, we find that our photometric sample alone gives omega_m=0.24+0.07-0.05 (statistical errors only). If we relax the constraint on flatness, then our sample provides competitive joint stati...

  13. Inflammatory Signaling by NOD-RIPK2 Is Inhibited by Clinically Relevant Type II Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Peter; Ruan, Qui; Schwerd, Tobias; Hrdinka, Matous; Maki, Jenny L; Saleh, Danish; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya; Brennan, Paul E; Cuny, Gregory D; Uhlig, Holm H; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Degterev, Alexei; Bullock, Alex N

    2015-09-17

    RIPK2 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial sensors NOD1 and NOD2, and is an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We observed that cellular RIPK2 can be potently inhibited by type II inhibitors that displace the kinase activation segment, whereas ATP-competitive type I inhibition was only poorly effective. The most potent RIPK2 inhibitors were the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs ponatinib and regorafenib. Their mechanism of action was independent of NOD2 interaction and involved loss of downstream kinase activation as evidenced by lack of RIPK2 autophosphorylation. Notably, these molecules also blocked RIPK2 ubiquitination and, consequently, inflammatory nuclear factor κB signaling. In monocytes, the inhibitors selectively blocked NOD-dependent tumor necrosis factor production without affecting lipopolysaccharide-dependent pathways. We also determined the first crystal structure of RIPK2 bound to ponatinib, and identified an allosteric site for inhibitor development. These results highlight the potential for type II inhibitors to treat indications of RIPK2 activation as well as inflammation-associated cancers.

  14. The effect of various forms of exercise in patients with obesity and type II mellitus diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as excess weight for a given height, taking the concept of body mass index. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body can not effectively use the insulin it produces, which regulates blood glucose levels. Several epidemiological investigations are being made in almost all countries in order to evaluate obesity especially in young ages. In obesity and obesity with type II diabetes in the general population exercise will show to be at least 60 minutes duration and 50% of maximum heart rate for adults to exercise 1-3 times per a week at least, lasting 30-60 minutes and low heart rate in children and decrease of adipose tissue after various forms of exercise lasting 40 to 80 minutes per a day and lasting 4-8 months. The protocols that had a positive effect had been tension in 50-70% maximum heart rate. Patients were tested with obesity and diabetes type II, were observed that through the exercise had decreased body weight and had positive effects on glycemic control, lipoproteins and lipids. The type of exercise with the best results were aerobic, with tension 40-60% of maximum heart rate and 60-80% of VO2max, while the frequency of exercise was 3 times per a week for 6-14 months.

  15. Brain MRI findings in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis types I and II and mild clinical presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheus, M.Gisele; Castillo, Mauricio; Smith, J. Keith [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 27599-7510, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Armao, Diane [Department of Pathology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Towle, Diane; Muenzer, Joseph [Department of Genetics and Metabolism, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to determine the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in a selected group of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I and II who had only mild clinical manifestations. We retrospectively assessed MRI brain studies in 18 patients with MPS (type I: 6 and type II: 12). We evaluated abnormal signal intensity in the white matter, widening of the cortical sulci, size of the supratentorial ventricles, dilatation of the perivascular spaces (PVS) and enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces. We observed a broad spectrum of findings, and despite severely abnormal MRI studies, no patients had mental retardation. We also observed that dilated PVS, previously believed to be caused by macroscopic deposition of the mucopolysaccharides, had an appearance similar to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in all MRI sequences performed, even in FLAIR and trace diffusion weighted images. Based on our results, we believe that with the exception of white matter abnormalities and brain atrophy, all other findings may be related to abnormal resorption of CSF, and there is no relationship between the imaging and clinical manifestations of the disease. (orig.)

  16. [Hyperinsulinemia--the common denominator in type II diabetes mellitus,obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málková, J; Andĕl, M; Stolba, P; Kimlová, I

    1994-01-17

    During the last twenty years we witnessed a remarkable increase in knowledge of the mechanism as regards insulin action, the central hormone of metabolic regulations. Interest in cellular and molecular mechanisms of action was conditioned by a high prevalence of insulin resistance and the fact that insulin resistance holds a key position in the pathogenesis of many diseases, in particular atherosclerosis, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus type II, ovarian hyperandrogenism and others. The syndrome of hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance is the basic component of the so-called X syndrome defined in 1988 by Reaven. It is encountered in subjects with a normal glucose tolerance but a predisposition for diabetes type II. If this disposition, probably genetic by nature, is potentiated by the central type of obesity and a sedentary lifestyle it can influence the development of hypertension and dyslipidemia. The sum of these factors promotes acceleration of atherosclerosis and frequently its premature manifestations: myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases which hold the first place as regards causes of death on a world wide scale. It is important to identify but also to treat this complex not only metabolic risk factors for macrovascular diseases. It is a paradox that some drugs used as antihypertensives can cause deterioration of insulin resistance, subsequently influence in an adverse manner dyslipidemia and thus increase the metabolic risk of cardiovascular diseases. In the submitted paper the authors tried to summarize hitherto expressed views on the syndrome of hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance, using as a basic the results of their own work.

  17. Social support in type II diabetes care: a case of too little, too late

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadasivan S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Amudha Kadirvelu, Sivalal Sadasivan, Shu Hui NgSchool of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Sunway Campus, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: Coping with type II diabetic patients is increasingly posing large financial burdens, sorely felt especially by growing economies. Self-management has been found to be an effective approach towards maintaining good control in diabetics. However, although efforts at implementing self-management have had initial success, there has been a lack of sustainability. This review examines the different components impinging on self-care among type II diabetic patients. These include the critical role of social support, the need for support from health care providers, the value of support from family and friends, the influence of sex and cultural factors in self-care behavior, the benefits of peer support, and the role of literacy in diabetes self-care. Despite the mounting evidence for the effectiveness of social support in diabetes care, and the various stakeholders including this in their clinical guidelines, there has only been a lukewarm response from policy-makers towards ensuring its implementation. Hence, more effort is required from health care providers in moving away from just understanding the effects of new drugs and subsequently putting their patients on these drugs, and going back to the basics of communicating with the patients, understanding their woes, and helping to motivate/empower their patients. This paper analyzes the various components of social support, their influence on diabetes self-care, and how health care providers can help in this process.Keywords: type II diabetes mellitus, social support, self-management/self-care

  18. Nonsurgical treatment of Mason type II radial head fractures in athletes. A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUZZINI, M.; VADALÀ, A.; AGRÒ, A.; DI SANZO, V.; PIRONI, D.; REDLER, A.; SERLORENZI, P.; PROIETTI, L.; CIVITENGA, C.; MAZZA, D.; LANZETTI, R.M.; FERRETTI, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The best treatment for moderately displaced radial head fractures (Mason type II) still remains controversial. In cases of isolated fractures, there is no evidence that a fragment displacement of ≥ 2 mm gives poor results in conservatively treated fractures. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 52 patients (31M, 21F) affected by an isolated Mason type II fracture, treated with a long arm cast for two weeks between 2008 and 2013. All patients had practiced sports before being injured. They were all either bicyclists, or baseball, boxers, basketball, rugby, tennis or football players. The mean follow-up was 36 months. Elbow and forearm range of motion were measured. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the Broberg and Morrey rating system and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (DASH score) were analyzed. Follow-up radiographs were examined for evidence of consolidation, late displacement, early arthritis and non-unions. Results Flexion was slightly impaired in the injured limb when compared to the uninjured limb (137°± 6° versus 139°±5°) as were extension (–3°±6° versus 1°±4°, p elbow complaints; 9 patients experienced occasional pain, 2 a mild instability of the elbow, and 4 a mild loss of grip strength. The DASH score was excellent in 48 patients (92.31%). In only 6 cases (11.53%) degenerative changes were greater in formerly injured elbows than in uninjured elbows. All patients returned to their previous sports activities. Conclusions Isolated Mason type II fractures can have a good or excellent mid-term functional outcome even when treated conservatively. PMID:28098055

  19. A new diagnostic assay for glycogen storage disease type II in mixed leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumiya, Toshika; Keulemans, Joke L M; Kroos, Marian A; Van der Beek, Nadine M E; Boer, Marijke A; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Van Diggelen, Otto P; Reuser, Arnold J J

    2006-05-01

    We have established a new method for the enzymatic diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency) using mixed leukocytes. The method employs glycogen and 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (4MU-alphaGlc) as substrates for measuring the lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (acid alphaGlu) activity, and incorporates acarbose to eliminate the interference of unrelated alpha-glucosidases (predominantly maltase-glucoamylase). It is shown that 3.0 micromol/L acarbose completely inhibits the maltase-glucoamylase activity at pH 4.0, but the lysosomal acid alphaGlu activity by less than 5%. With this method, we determined the acid alphaGlu activity in mixed leukocytes from 25 patients with glycogen storage disease type II (2 infantile and 23 late-onset cases), one GAA2/GAA2 homozygote and 30 healthy subjects. In the assay with glycogen as substrate, the addition of acarbose created a clear separation between the patient and the control ranges. In the assay with 4MU-alphaGlc as substrate, the two ranges were fully separated but remained very close despite the use of acarbose. The separation of the patient and normal ranges was improved considerably by taking the ratio of acarbose-inhibited over uninhibited activity. A GAA2/GAA2 homozygote was correctly diagnosed with 4MU-alphaGlc but misdiagnosed as patient when glycogen was used as substrate. We conclude that the inclusion of 3.0 micromol/L acarbose in the assays with glycogen and 4MU-alphaGlc substrates at pH 4.0 allows for the specific measurement of lysosomal acid alphaGlu activity in mixed leukocytes, thus enabling a reliable diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type II in this specimen.

  20. A novel splice acceptor mutation in the DSPP gene causing dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Nam, S H; Jang, K T; Lee, S H; Kim, C C; Hahn, S H; Hu, J C C; Simmer, J P

    2004-08-01

    The dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene (4q21.3) encodes two major noncollagenous dentin matrix proteins: dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). Defects in the human gene encoding DSPP cause inherited dentin defects, and these defects can be associated with bilateral progressive high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Clinically, five different patterns of inherited dentin defects are distinguished and are classified as dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) types I, II, and III, and dentin dysplasia types I and II. The genetic basis for this clinical heterogeneity is unknown. Among the 11 members recruited from the studied kindred, five were affected with autosomal dominant DGI type II. The mutation (g.1188C-->G, IVS2-3C-->G) lay in the third from the last nucleotide of intron 2 and changed its sequence from CAG to GAG. The mutation was correlated with the affection status and was absent in 104 unaffected individuals (208 alleles) with the same ethnic and geological background. The proband was in the primary dentition stage and presented with multiple pulp exposures. The occlusal surface of his dental enamel was generally abraded, and the dentin was heavily worn and uniformly shaded brown. The dental pulp chambers appeared originally to be within normal limits without any sign of obliteration, but over time (by age 4), the pulp chambers became partially or completely obliterated. The oldest affected member (age 59) showed mild hearing loss at high-frequency (8 kHz). Permanent dentition was severely affected in the adults, who had advanced dental attrition, premature loss of teeth, and extensive dental reconstruction.